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Sample records for affect large numbers

  1. Estimating Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-01-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…

  2. Numbers Defy the Law of Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ruma; Lann, Avital Lavie

    2015-01-01

    As the number of independent tosses of a fair coin grows, the rates of heads and tails tend to equality. This is misinterpreted by many students as being true also for the absolute numbers of the two outcomes, which, conversely, depart unboundedly from each other in the process. Eradicating that misconception, as by coin-tossing experiments,…

  3. Insights into Our Understandings of Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastberg, Signe E.; Walker, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    This article explores prospective teachers' understandings of one million to gain insights into the development of adult understanding of large numbers. Themes in the prospective teachers' work included number associated with a quantity of objects, number as an abstraction, and additive and multiplicative approaches. The authors suggest that the…

  4. Reading the World through Very Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Brian; Mukhopadhyay, Swapna

    2010-01-01

    One original, and continuing, source of interest in large numbers is observation of the natural world, such as trying to count the stars on a clear night or contemplation of the number of grains of sand on the seashore. Indeed, a search of the internet quickly reveals many discussions of the relative numbers of stars and grains of sand. Big…

  5. Small and large number discrimination in guppies.

    PubMed

    Piffer, Laura; Agrillo, Christian; Hyde, Daniel C

    2012-03-01

    Non-verbal numerical behavior in human infants, human adults, and non-human primates appears to be rooted in two distinct mechanisms: a precise system for tracking and comparing small numbers of items simultaneously (up to 3 or 4 items) and an approximate system for estimating numerical magnitude of a group of objects. The most striking evidence that these two mechanisms are distinct comes from the apparent inability of young human infants and non-human primates to compare quantites across the small (<3 or 4)/large (>4) number boundary. We ask whether this distinction is present in lower animal species more distantly related to humans, guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We found that, like human infants and non-human primates, fish succeed at comparisons between large numbers only (5 vs. 10), succeed at comparisons between small numbers only (3 vs. 4), but systematically fail at comparisons that closely span the small/large boundary (3 vs. 5). Furthermore, increasing the distance between the small and large number resulted in successful discriminations (3 vs. 6, 3 vs. 7, and 3 vs. 9). This pattern of successes and failures is similar to those observed in human infants and non-human primates to suggest that the two systems are present and functionally distinct across a wide variety of animal species. PMID:21909934

  6. Tutoring Large Numbers: An Unmet Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentell, Helen; O'Rourke, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Open and distance learning (ODL) is increasingly being regarded as a viable policy option for developing countries with limited educational resources for buildings, books and trained teachers, seeking to increase accessibility for large numbers of learners in education and training opportunities. Advocates of ODL as an appropriate solution to…

  7. Thermocapillary bubble migration for large Marangoni Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.

    1987-01-01

    The thermocapillary motion of spherical bubbles present in an unbounded liquid with a linear temperature distribution, when the Reynolds number and the Marangoni number are large is analyzed. Previous calculations of the terminal velocity performed for this parametric range did not take into complete consideration the thermal boundary layer present near the surface of the bubble. A scaling analysis is presented for this problem. The thermal boundary layer is analyzed by an integral method. The resulting terminal velocity is lower than the one previously calculated, though it is of the same order of magnitude.

  8. Large numbers hypothesis. I - Classical formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    A self-consistent formulation of physics at the classical level embodying Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH) is developed based on units covariance. A scalar 'field' phi(x) is introduced and some fundamental results are derived from the resultant equations. Some unusual properties of phi are noted such as the fact that phi cannot be the correspondence limit of a normal quantum scalar field.

  9. Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.

  10. Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Preisler, Haiganoush K.; Howard, Stephen; Burgan, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project, and satellite and surface observations of fuel conditions in the form of the Fire Potential Index, to estimate two aspects of fire danger: 1) the probability that a 1 acre ignition will result in a 100+ acre fire, and 2) the probabilities of having at least 1, 2, 3, or 4 large fires within a Predictive Services Area in the forthcoming week. These statistical processes are the main thrust of the paper and are used to produce two daily national forecasts that are available from the U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation and Science Center and via the Wildland Fire Assessment System. A validation study of our forecasts for the 2013 fire season demonstrated good agreement between observed and forecasted values.

  11. Modified large number theory with constant G

    SciTech Connect

    Recami, E.

    1983-03-01

    The inspiring ''numerology'' uncovered by Dirac, Eddington, Weyl, et al. can be explained and derived when it is slightly modified so to connect the ''gravitational world'' (cosmos) with the ''strong world'' (hadron), rather than with the electromagnetic one. The aim of this note is to show the following. In the present approach to the ''Large Number Theory,'' cosmos and hadrons are considered to be (finite) similar systems, so that the ratio R-bar/r-bar of the cosmos typical length R-bar to the hadron typical length r-bar is constant in time (for instance, if both cosmos and hadrons undergo an expansion/contraction cycle: according to the ''cyclical big-bang'' hypothesis: then R-bar and r-bar can be chosen to be the maximum radii, or the average radii). As a consequence, then gravitational constant G results to be independent of time. The present note is based on work done in collaboration with P.Caldirola, G. D. Maccarrone, and M. Pavsic.

  12. Large Rossby number flows in Cozumel Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, J.; Candela, J.; Sheinbaum, J.; Badan, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Caribbean Current flows to the west impinging the Yucatan coast south of Cozumel Island, then, most of its flow turns north, surrounds the island and continues towards the Yucatan Straits. About 4 Sv in the mean pass between the Yucatan coast and the Cozumel Island; through the Cozumel Channel, where subinertial currents exhibit large ageostrophic fluctuations [Chavez et. al. (2003)]. This channel is about 18 km wide, 50 km long, 400 m deep, and 70 km southwest of the Yucatan Straits. The curvature and latitude of the Caribbean Current on its approach to the Yucatan coast vary significantly. Observations with two upward-looking ADCPs, 8.6 km from each other, closely aligned with the mean current at the channel's axis and entrance, allow robust estimations of the current speed (U), direction and curvature (|R|-1). A signed Rossby number (Uf-1R-1), where f is the Coriolis parameter, is readily available as a function of time. The positive/negative curvature is defined by the cyclonic/anticyclonic turn. The currents observations along with pressure measurements at both sides of the channel produce evidence that favor the bend of the current as the cause of the ageostrophic fluctuations. Another possible cause for the ageostrophic fluctuations is the passage of eddies within the channel. We test the gradient wind balance between the currents and pressure observations. A very low frequency component on the seasonal time scale and high frequency fluctuations (superinercial) do not adjust to this balance, only the intermediate frequency variations show a clear equilibrium of centripetal (i.e. due to curvature) plus Coriolis accelerations against the pressure gradient perpendicular to the velocity. The conjecture is that the ageostrophic fluctuations occur when the bend and approach of the Caribbean Current is just south of Cozumel Island, thus influencing all its entrance. When the current impinges the coast further south, the flow, with a longer path to transit

  13. The Intuitiveness of the Law of Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper two studies are reported in which two contrasting claims concerning the intuitiveness of the law of large numbers are investigated. While Sedlmeier and Gigerenzer ("J Behav Decis Mak" 10:33-51, 1997) claim that people have an intuition that conforms to the law of large numbers, but that they can only employ this intuition…

  14. Do large hiatal hernias affect esophageal peristalsis?

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Sabine; Kahrilas, Peter J; Kia, Leila; Luger, Daniel; Soper, Nathaniel; Pandolfino, John E

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aim Large hiatal hernias can be associated with a shortened or tortuous esophagus. We hypothesized that these anatomic changes may alter esophageal pressure topography (EPT) measurements made during high-resolution manometry (HRM). Our aim was to compare EPT measures of esophageal motility in patients with large hiatal hernias to those of patients without hernia. Methods Among 2000 consecutive clinical EPT, we identified 90 patients with large (>5 cm) hiatal hernias on endoscopy and at least 7 evaluable swallows on EPT. Within the same database a control group without hernia was selected. EPT was analyzed for lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, Distal Contractile Integral (DCI), contraction amplitude, Contractile Front Velocity (CFV) and Distal Latency time (DL). Esophageal length was measured on EPT from the distal border of upper esophageal sphincter to the proximal border of the LES. EPT diagnosis was based on the Chicago Classification. Results The manometry catheter was coiled in the hernia and did not traverse the crural diaphragm in 44 patients (49%) with large hernia. Patients with large hernias had lower average LES pressures, lower DCI, slower CFV and shorter DL than patients without hernia. They also exhibited a shorter mean esophageal length. However, the distribution of peristaltic abnormalities was not different in patients with and without large hernia. Conclusions Patients with large hernias had an alteration of EPT measurements as a consequence of the associated shortened esophagus. However, the distribution of peristaltic disorders was unaffected by the presence of hernia. PMID:22508779

  15. Thermocapillary Bubble Migration: Thermal Boundary Layers for Large Marangoni Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Subramanian, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    The migration of an isolated gas bubble in an immiscible liquid possessing a temperature gradient is analyzed in the absence of gravity. The driving force for the bubble motion is the shear stress at the interface which is a consequence of the temperature dependence of the surface tension. The analysis is performed under conditions for which the Marangoni number is large, i.e. energy is transferred predominantly by convection. Velocity fields in the limit of both small and large Reynolds numbers are used. The thermal problem is treated by standard boundary layer theory. The outer temperature field is obtained in the vicinity of the bubble. A similarity solution is obtained for the inner temperature field. For both small and large Reynolds numbers, the asymptotic values of the scaled migration velocity of the bubble in the limit of large Marangoni numbers are calculated. The results show that the migration velocity has the same scaling for both low and large Reynolds numbers, but with a different coefficient. Higher order thermal boundary layers are analyzed for the large Reynolds number flow field and the higher order corrections to the migration velocity are obtained. Results are also presented for the momentum boundary layer and the thermal wake behind the bubble, for large Reynolds number conditions.

  16. All numbers are not equal: an electrophysiological investigation of small and large number representations.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Daniel C; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2009-06-01

    Behavioral and brain imaging research indicates that human infants, humans adults, and many nonhuman animals represent large nonsymbolic numbers approximately, discriminating between sets with a ratio limit on accuracy. Some behavioral evidence, especially with human infants, suggests that these representations differ from representations of small numbers of objects. To investigate neural signatures of this distinction, event-related potentials were recorded as adult humans passively viewed the sequential presentation of dot arrays in an adaptation paradigm. In two studies, subjects viewed successive arrays of a single number of dots interspersed with test arrays presenting the same or a different number; numerical range (small numerical quantities 1-3 vs. large numerical quantities 8-24) and ratio difference varied across blocks as continuous variables were controlled. An early-evoked component (N1), observed over widespread posterior scalp locations, was modulated by absolute number with small, but not large, number arrays. In contrast, a later component (P2p), observed over the same scalp locations, was modulated by the ratio difference between arrays for large, but not small, numbers. Despite many years of experience with symbolic systems that apply equally to all numbers, adults spontaneously process small and large numbers differently. They appear to treat small-number arrays as individual objects to be tracked through space and time, and large-number arrays as cardinal values to be compared and manipulated. PMID:18752403

  17. Towards large-Chern-number topological phases by periodic quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Tian-Shi; Gong, Jiangbin; An, Jun-Hong

    2016-05-01

    Topological phases with large Chern numbers have important implications. They were previously predicted to exist by considering fabricated long-range interactions or multilayered materials. Stimulated by recent wide interests in Floquet topological phases, here we propose a scheme to engineer large-Chern-number phases with ease by periodic quenching. Using a two-band system as an example, we theoretically show how a variety of topological phases with widely tunable Chern numbers can be generated by periodic quenching between two simple Hamiltonians that otherwise give low Chern numbers. The obtained large Chern numbers are explained through the emergence of multiple Dirac cones in the Floquet spectra. The transition lines between different topological phases in the two-band model are also explicitly found, thus establishing a class of easily solvable but very rich systems useful for further understandings and applications of topological phases in periodically driven systems.

  18. Explicit and probabilistic constructions of distance graphs with small clique numbers and large chromatic numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupavskii, A. B.

    2014-02-01

    We study distance graphs with exponentially large chromatic numbers and without k-cliques, that is, complete subgraphs of size k. Explicit constructions of such graphs use vectors in the integer lattice. For a large class of graphs we find a sharp threshold for containing a k-clique. This enables us to improve the lower bounds for the maximum of the chromatic numbers of such graphs. We give a new probabilistic approach to the construction of distance graphs without k-cliques, and this yields better lower bounds for the maximum of the chromatic numbers for large k.

  19. Experimental Observation of Large Chern Numbers in Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Skirlo, Scott A; Lu, Ling; Igarashi, Yuichi; Yan, Qinghui; Joannopoulos, John; Soljačić, Marin

    2015-12-18

    Despite great interest in the quantum anomalous Hall phase and its analogs, all experimental studies in electronic and bosonic systems have been limited to a Chern number of one. Here, we perform microwave transmission measurements in the bulk and at the edge of ferrimagnetic photonic crystals. Band gaps with large Chern numbers of 2, 3, and 4 are present in the experimental results, which show excellent agreement with theory. We measure the mode profiles and Fourier transform them to produce dispersion relations of the edge modes, whose number and direction match our Chern number calculations. PMID:26722920

  20. Large eddy breakup devices as low Reynolds number airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, John B.

    1986-01-01

    Turbulent drag reduction downstream of large-eddy breakup (LEBU) devices is analyzed from the viewpoint of low-Reynolds number airfoil aerodynamics. It is argued that the variability of results between different research labs is primarily due to low Reynolds number 'phenomena' associated with unsteady separation/transition of the LEBU device boundary layer. LEBU drag reduction is shown to be an extremely sensitive function of device microgeometry at the low Reynolds numbers of all current investigations, and by analogy with conventional low-Reynolds number airfoil testing, the conclusion is drawn that the full potential for LEBU drag reduction must be explored at chord Reynolds numbers of 300,000 and above.

  1. Can lepton number violating interactions affect the LSND results?

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, yuval

    1998-10-06

    If the atmospheric and the solar neutrino problem are both explained by neutrino oscillations, and if there are only three light neutrinos, then all mass-squared differences between the neutrinos are known. In such a case, existing terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments cannot be significantly affected by neutrino oscillations, but, in principle there could be an anomaly in the neutrino flux due to new neutrino interactions. We discuss how a non-standard muon decay mu{sup +} --> e{sup +}anti-nu{sub e}nu{sub l} would modify the neutrino production processes of these experiments. Since SU(2){sub L} violation is small for New Physics above the weak scale one can use related flavor-violating charged lepton processes to constrain these decays in a model independent way. We show that the upper bounds on mu -->3e, muonium-antimuonium conversion and tau --> mu e e rule out any observable effect for the present experiments due to mu{sup +} --> e{sup +} n u{sub e}nu{sub l} for l = e, mu, tau respectively. Applying similar arguments to flavor-changing semi-leptonic reactions we exclude the possibility that the ''oscillation signals'' observed at LSND are due to flavor-changing interactions that conserve total lepton number.

  2. The factorization of large composite numbers on the MPP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckurdy, Kathy J.; Wunderlich, Marvin C.

    1987-01-01

    The continued fraction method for factoring large integers (CFRAC) was an ideal algorithm to be implemented on a massively parallel computer such as the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). After much effort, the first 60 digit number was factored on the MPP using about 6 1/2 hours of array time. Although this result added about 10 digits to the size number that could be factored using CFRAC on a serial machine, it was already badly beaten by the implementation of Davis and Holdridge on the CRAY-1 using the quadratic sieve, an algorithm which is clearly superior to CFRAC for large numbers. An algorithm is illustrated which is ideally suited to the single instruction multiple data (SIMD) massively parallel architecture and some of the modifications which were needed in order to make the parallel implementation effective and efficient are described.

  3. Complex networks with large numbers of labelable attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Lisheng; Huang, Xiaodong; Qian, Yu; Hu, Gang; Liao, Xuhong

    2011-09-01

    Information storage in many functional subsystems of the brain is regarded by theoretical neuroscientists to be related to attractors of neural networks. The number of attractors is large and each attractor can be temporarily represented or suppressed easily by corresponding external stimulus. In this letter, we discover that complex networks consisting of excitable nodes have similar fascinating properties of coexistence of large numbers of oscillatory attractors, most of which can be labeled with a few nodes. According to a simple labeling rule, different attractors can be identified and the number of labelable attractors can be predicted from the analysis of network topology. With the cues of the labeling association, these attractors can be conveniently retrieved or suppressed on purpose.

  4. Multimode one-way waveguides of large Chern numbers.

    PubMed

    Skirlo, Scott A; Lu, Ling; Soljačić, Marin

    2014-09-12

    Current experimental realizations of the quantum anomalous Hall phase in both electronic and photonic systems have been limited to a Chern number of one. In photonics, this corresponds to a single-mode one-way edge waveguide. Here, we predict quantum anomalous Hall phases in photonic crystals with large Chern numbers of 2, 3, and 4. These new topological phases were found by simultaneously gapping multiple Dirac and quadratic points. We demonstrate a continuously tunable power splitter as a possible application of multimode one-way waveguides. All our findings are readily realizable at microwave frequencies. PMID:25259982

  5. All Numbers Are Not Equal: An Electrophysiological Investigation of Small and Large Number Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Daniel C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral and brain imaging research indicates that human infants, humans adults, and many nonhuman animals represent large nonsymbolic numbers approximately, discriminating between sets with a ratio limit on accuracy. Some behavioral evidence, especially with human infants, suggests that these representations differ from representations of small…

  6. Nonlinear instability of elementary stratified flows at large Richardson number.

    PubMed

    Majda, Andrew J.; Shefter, Michael G.

    2000-03-01

    Elementary stably stratified flows with linear instability at all large Richardson numbers have been introduced recently by the authors [J. Fluid Mech. 376, 319-350 (1998)]. These elementary stratified flows have spatially constant but time varying gradients for velocity and density. Here the nonlinear stability of such flows in two space dimensions is studied through a combination of numerical simulations and theory. The elementary flows that are linearly unstable at large Richardson numbers are purely vortical flows; here it is established that from random initial data, linearized instability spontaneously generates local shears on buoyancy time scales near a specific angle of inclination that nonlinearly saturates into localized regions of strong mixing with density overturning resembling Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. It is also established here that the phase of these unstable waves does not satisfy the dispersion relation of linear gravity waves. The vortical flows are one family of stably stratified flows with uniform shear layers at the other extreme and elementary stably stratified flows with a mixture of vorticity and strain exhibiting behavior between these two extremes. The concept of effective shear is introduced for these general elementary flows; for each large Richardson number there is a critical effective shear with strong nonlinear instability, density overturning, and mixing for elementary flows with effective shear below this critical value. The analysis is facilitated by rewriting the equations for nonlinear perturbations in vorticity-stream form in a mean Lagrangian reference frame. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779359

  7. Lepton number violation in theories with a large number of standard model copies

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan; Paes, Heinrich

    2011-03-01

    We examine lepton number violation (LNV) in theories with a saturated black hole bound on a large number of species. Such theories have been advocated recently as a possible solution to the hierarchy problem and an explanation of the smallness of neutrino masses. On the other hand, the violation of the lepton number can be a potential phenomenological problem of this N-copy extension of the standard model as due to the low quantum gravity scale black holes may induce TeV scale LNV operators generating unacceptably large rates of LNV processes. We show, however, that this issue can be avoided by introducing a spontaneously broken U{sub 1(B-L)}. Then, due to the existence of a specific compensation mechanism between contributions of different Majorana neutrino states, LNV processes in the standard model copy become extremely suppressed with rates far beyond experimental reach.

  8. Dirac cosmology. [large dimensionless numbers relation to universe age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Lodenquai, J.

    1977-01-01

    The large numbers hypothesis (LNH) linking the magnitude of large dimensionless ratios in physics (on the order of 10 to the 40th power) to cosmic time is examined. The LNH is checked against evidence on 3K background radiation of the universe and the (log N, log S)-relation for radio galaxies. Earlier criticisms of LNH by Gamow and Teller are examined, and alternative hypotheses put forth by Dicke and Carter (1974) are discussed. The discussion covers: continuous (additive or multiplicative) creation of matter, the Einstein metric and the atomic metric, and general cosmological and local astronomical implications of LNH. LNH is also viewed in relation to solar evolution and pulsar physics.

  9. Improving CASINO performance for models with large number of electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, L; Alfe, D; Hood, R Q; Tanqueray, D

    2009-05-13

    Quantum Monte Carlo calculations have at their core algorithms based on statistical ensembles of multidimensional random walkers which are straightforward to use on parallel computers. Nevertheless some computations have reached the limit of the memory resources for models with more than 1000 electrons because of the need to store a large amount of electronic orbitals related data. Besides that, for systems with large number of electrons, it is interesting to study if the evolution of one configuration of random walkers can be done faster in parallel. We present a comparative study of two ways to solve these problems: (1) distributed orbital data done with MPI or Unix inter-process communication tools, (2) second level parallelism for configuration computation.

  10. From the Law of Large Numbers to Large Deviation Theory in Statistical Physics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, Fabio; Cencini, Massimo; Puglisi, Andrea; Vergni, Davide; Vulpiani, Angelo

    This contribution aims at introducing the topics of this book. We start with a brief historical excursion on the developments from the law of large numbers to the central limit theorem and large deviations theory. The same topics are then presented using the language of probability theory. Finally, some applications of large deviations theory in physics are briefly discussed through examples taken from statistical mechanics, dynamical and disordered systems.

  11. Automatic trajectory measurement of large numbers of crowded objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Ye; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2013-06-01

    Complex motion patterns of natural systems, such as fish schools, bird flocks, and cell groups, have attracted great attention from scientists for years. Trajectory measurement of individuals is vital for quantitative and high-throughput study of their collective behaviors. However, such data are rare mainly due to the challenges of detection and tracking of large numbers of objects with similar visual features and frequent occlusions. We present an automatic and effective framework to measure trajectories of large numbers of crowded oval-shaped objects, such as fish and cells. We first use a novel dual ellipse locator to detect the coarse position of each individual and then propose a variance minimization active contour method to obtain the optimal segmentation results. For tracking, cost matrix of assignment between consecutive frames is trainable via a random forest classifier with many spatial, texture, and shape features. The optimal trajectories are found for the whole image sequence by solving two linear assignment problems. We evaluate the proposed method on many challenging data sets.

  12. Electrohydrodynamic deformation of drops and bubbles at large Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitzer, Ory

    2015-11-01

    In Taylor's theory of electrohydrodynamic drop deformation by a uniform electric field, inertia is neglected at the outset, resulting in fluid velocities that scale with E2, E being the applied-field magnitude. When considering strong fields and low viscosity fluids, the Reynolds number predicted by this scaling may actually become large, suggesting the need for a complementary large-Reynolds-number analysis. Balancing viscous and electrical stresses reveals that the velocity scales with E 4 / 3. Considering a gas bubble, the external flow is essentially confined to two boundary layers propagating from the poles to the equator, where they collide to form a radial jet. Remarkably, at leading order in the Capillary number the unique scaling allows through application of integral mass and momentum balances to obtain a closed-form expression for the O (E2) bubble deformation. Owing to a concentrated pressure load at the vicinity of the collision region, the deformed profile features an equatorial dimple which is non-smooth on the bubble scale. The dynamical importance of internal circulation in the case of a liquid drop leads to an essentially different deformation mechanism. This is because the external boundary layer velocity attenuates at a short distance from the interface, while the internal boundary-layer matches with a Prandtl-Batchelor (PB) rotational core. The dynamic pressure associated with the internal circulation dominates the interfacial stress profile, leading to an O (E 8 / 3) deformation. The leading-order deformation can be readily determined, up to the PB constant, without solving the circulating boundary-layer problem. To encourage attempts to verify this new scaling, we shall suggest a favourable experimental setup in which inertia is dominant, while finite-deformation, surface-charge advection, and gravity effects are negligible.

  13. Saturation of the Magnetorotational Instability at Large Elssaser Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julien, Keith; Jamroz, Benjamin; Knobloch, Edgar

    2009-11-01

    The MRI is believed to play an important role in accretion disk physics in extracting angular momentum from the disk and allowing accretion to take place. The instability is investigated within the shearing box approximation under conditions of fundamental importance to astrophysical accretion disk theory. The shear is taken to be the dominant source of energy, but the instability itself requires the presence of a weaker vertical magnetic field. Dissipative effects are suffiently weak that the Elsasser number is large. Thus dissipative forces do not play a role in the leading order linear instability mechanism. However, they are sufficiently large to permit a nonlinear feedback mechanism whereby the turbulent stresses generated by the MRI act on and modify the local background shear in the angular velocity profile. To date this response has been omitted in shearing box simulations and is captured by a reduced pde model derived from the global MHD fluid equations using multiscale asymptotic perturbation theory. Results from simulations of the model indicate a linear phase of exponential growth followed by a nonlinear adjustment to algebraic growth and decay in the fluctuating quantities. Remarkably, the velocity and magnetic field correlations associated with these growth and decay laws conspire to achieve saturation of angular momentum transport.

  14. Saturation of the magnetorotational instability at large Elsasser number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamroz, B.; Julien, K.; Knobloch, E.

    2008-09-01

    The magnetorotational instability is investigated within the shearing box approximation in the large Elsasser number regime. In this regime, which is of fundamental importance to astrophysical accretion disk theory, shear is the dominant source of energy, but the instability itself requires the presence of a weaker vertical magnetic field. Dissipative effects are weaker still but not negligible. The regime explored retains the condition that (viscous and ohmic) dissipative forces do not play a role in the leading order linear instability mechanism. However, they are sufficiently large to permit a nonlinear feedback mechanism whereby the turbulent stresses generated by the MRI act on and modify the local background shear in the angular velocity profile. To date this response has been omitted in shearing box simulations and is captured by a reduced pde model derived here from the global MHD fluid equations using multiscale asymptotic perturbation theory. Results from numerical simulations of the reduced pde model indicate a linear phase of exponential growth followed by a nonlinear adjustment to algebraic growth and decay in the fluctuating quantities. Remarkably, the velocity and magnetic field correlations associated with these algebraic growth and decay laws conspire to achieve saturation of the angular momentum transport. The inclusion of subdominant ohmic dissipation arrests the algebraic growth of the fluctuations on a longer, dissipative time scale.

  15. Gravity Wave Driven Instabilities at Large Richardson Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Gelinas, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    The formalism that addresses rigorously the instability of waves on a basic state modulated by a primary wave is Floquet theory. However, the commonly used criteria for shear and convective instabilities were developed for steady horizontally uniform background flows. The prototypical shear instability is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The flow is stable if the local Richardson number Ri =N2/{\\vert{∂ /∂ z}\\vert}2 > 1/4 everywhere, where N is the Brunt-Väisälä frequency and u is the horizontal wind. The prototypical convective instability is the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Ignoring wind effects and dissipation, the flow is unstable if N2 < 0 (i.e., Ri <0) somewhere. These instability structures drift with the wind. In Floquet theory the linear system of equations is transformed so that the basic wave is stationary and the vertical coordinate points along the wavenumber vector of the basic wave. A Floquet system supports instabilities when conventional Richardson number criteria indicate that the system is stable. Indeed, finite amplitude waves are unstable no matter how large the Richardson number might be. An essential instability mechanism in Floquet systems is a resonant interaction between a forced primary oscillation and a free oscillation of the time-averaged system. These are parametric instabilities. They can have a significant influence on shaping the spectrum by transferring energy from one scale to another. Hecht et al. [2005] in a study of small scale instability structures during the Maui MALT campaign noted that there were occurrences of ripple (instability) structure when the conventional criteria indicated stable conditions. We have followed up this work with a detailed survey of the occurrence of ripple structure over Maui during periods that were stable and unstable according to conventional criteria. Values of Ri were calculated from meteor radar and lidar data. We have found frequent occurrence of ripple structure when Ri > 1/4 and

  16. First Contact with Astronomy for a Large Number of Pupils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    The Spanish Royal Society of Physics (RSEF) co-operates with several European institutions to promote Physics and Astronomy in schools through the project ""Fisica en Acción"". This project started in 2000 integrated with the project ""Physics on Stage"" created by CERN ESA and ESO. ""Fisica en Accion"" is a Spanish competition bringing together a group of teachers in a common endeavour: * showing ""physics demonstrations"" to general audiences * engaging pedagogical presentations to introduce science into the classroom. The national final event of this competition takes place annually in a science museum during one weekend (entrance is free). The Science Fair is especially well received by visitors who can ask the demonstrators-teachers questions. Younger visitors enjoy experimenting for themselves. After the first year the RSEF introduced special prizes to encourage schools to participate in astronomical categories. The ""Centro de Astrobiologia de Madrid"" gave a cash prize and a visit to their headquarters to the winners. The ""Instituto Astrofísico de Canarias"" offered a prize of a trip to its observatories. In summary the astronomical elements of ""Fisica en Acción"" stimulate the teachers and students' interest in international activities and has been the first contact with Astronomy for a large number of pupils.

  17. A modified large number theory with constant G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recami, Erasmo

    1983-03-01

    The inspiring “numerology” uncovered by Dirac, Eddington, Weyl, et al. can be explained and derived when it is slightly modified so to connect the “gravitational world” (cosmos) with the “strong world” (hadron), rather than with the electromagnetic one. The aim of this note is to show the following. In the present approach to the “Large Number Theory,” cosmos and hadrons are considered to be (finite) similar systems, so that the ratio{{bar R} / {{bar R} {bar r}} of the cosmos typical lengthbar R to the hadron typical lengthbar r is constant in time (for instance, if both cosmos and hadrons undergo an expansion/contraction cycle—according to the “cyclical bigbang” hypothesis—thenbar R andbar r can be chosen to be the maximum radii, or the average radii). As a consequence, then gravitational constant G results to be independent of time. The present note is based on work done in collaboration with P. Caldirola, G. D. Maccarrone, and M. Pavšič.

  18. Steady bimodal convection in a cylinder at large Prandtl numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buell, Jeffrey C.; Catton, Ivan

    1987-01-01

    Steady bimodal convection of an infinite Prandtl-number Boussinesq fluid in a cylinder is considered. An asymptotic analysis similar to the one used by Buell and Catton (1986) for axisymmetric convection yields a solvability condition that determines the radial wavenumber. The analysis is valid for convection far away from the origin, the lateral boundary, and any pattern dislocations. The azimuthal wave number is treated as a parameter, although in real systems it is dependent on the initial and boundary conditions. Results are presented for Rayleigh numbers between 14,000 and 60,000, and for azimuthal wave numbers between 5 and 7. It is shown that for increasing Rayleigh numbers, the selected radial wave number and the heat transfer tend to become independent of the azimuthal wave number. No quantitative experimental data are available, but one qualitative comparison is good.

  19. Generation of large prime numbers from a sequence of previous prime numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samir, Brahim Belhaouari; Rezk, Youssef A. Y.

    2012-09-01

    A prime number is co-prime with all the primes as well. This paper utilizes this fact by generating larger prime numbers based on a set of smaller prime numbers. The prime numbers are ordered and each two consecutive primes are coupled to generate their co-prime number formula extending this process larger prime sequence is established. Will the process help us produce larger prime numbers faster and more efficiently? This paper investigates the described process.

  20. 27% Probable: Estimating Whether or Not Large Numbers Are Prime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosse, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    This brief investigation exemplifies such considerations by relating concepts from number theory, set theory, probability, logic, and calculus. Satisfying the call for students to acquire skills in estimation, the following technique allows one to "immediately estimate" whether or not a number is prime. (MM)

  1. Genetic studies of bipolar affective disorder in large families.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, D H; Visscher, P M; Muir, W J

    2001-06-01

    Background Genetic factors are known to be important in the aetiology of bipolar disorder. Aims To review linkage studies in extended families multiply affected with bipolar disorder. Method Selective review of linkage studies of bipolar disorder emphasising the gains and drawbacks of studying large multiply-affected families and comparing the statistical methods used for data analysis. Results Linkage of bipolar disorder to several chromosome regions including 4p, 4q, 10p, 12q, 16p, 18q, 21q and Xq has first been reported in extended families. In other families chromosomal rearrangements associated with affective illnesses provide signposts to the location of disease-related genes. Statistical analyses using variance component methods can be applied to extended families, require no prior knowledge of the disease inheritance, and can test multilocus models. Conclusion Studying single large pedigrees combined with variance component analysis is an efficient and effective strategy likely to lead to further insights into the genetic basis of bipolar disorders. PMID:11388952

  2. A MODEL OF NONBELIEF IN THE LAW OF LARGE NUMBERS

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Daniel J.; Rabin, Matthew; Raymond, Collin

    2015-01-01

    People believe that, even in very large samples, proportions of binary signals might depart significantly from the population mean. We model this “non-belief in the Law of Large Numbers” by assuming that a person believes that proportions in any given sample might be determined by a rate different than the true rate. In prediction, a non-believer expects the distribution of signals will have fat tails. In inference, a non-believer remains uncertain and influenced by priors even after observing an arbitrarily large sample. We explore implications for beliefs and behavior in a variety of economic settings. PMID:27087795

  3. Large atom number Bose-Einstein condensate machines

    SciTech Connect

    Streed, Erik W.; Chikkatur, Ananth P.; Gustavson, Todd L.; Boyd, Micah; Torii, Yoshio; Schneble, Dominik; Campbell, Gretchen K.; Pritchard, David E.; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2006-02-15

    We describe experimental setups for producing large Bose-Einstein condensates of {sup 23}Na and {sup 87}Rb. In both, a high-flux thermal atomic beam is decelerated by a Zeeman slower and is then captured and cooled in a magneto-optical trap. The atoms are then transferred into a cloverleaf-style Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic trap and cooled to quantum degeneracy with radio-frequency-induced forced evaporation. Typical condensates contain 20x10{sup 6} atoms. We discuss the similarities and differences between the techniques used for producing large {sup 87}Rb and {sup 23}Na condensates in the context of nearly identical setups.

  4. Confinement at large-N. [N = number of colors

    SciTech Connect

    Klinkhamer, F.R.

    1985-06-01

    Recent numerical results indicate that QCD in the limit of an infinite number (N) of colors also has confinement and moreover that it looks rather similar to normal QCD with N = 3 colors. This imposes severe restrictions on what the mechanism of confinement can be.

  5. Viscous instabilities in the q-vortex at large swirl numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, David; Jacquin, Laurent

    2002-11-01

    This comunication deals with the temporal stability of the q-vortex trailing line vortex model. We describe a family of viscous instabilities existing in a range of parameters which is usually assumed to be stable, namely large swirl parameters (q>1.5) and large Reynolds numbers. These instabilities affect negative azimuthal wavenumbers (m < 0) and take the form of centre-modes (i.e. with a structure concentrated along the vortex centerline). They are related to a family of viscous modes described by Stewartson, Ng & Brown (1988) in swirling Poiseuille flow, and are the temporal counterparts of weakly amplified spatial modes recently computed by Olendraru & Sellier (2002). These instabilities are studied numerically using an original and highly accurate Chebyshev collocation method, which allows a mapping of the unstable regions up to Rey 10^6 and q 7. Our results indicate that in the limit of very large Reynolds numbers, trailing vortices are affected by this kind of instabilities whatever the value of the swirl number.

  6. Genetic copy number variants in sib pairs both affected with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is a complex disorder with involvement of multiple genes. Methods In this study, genome-wide screening for DNA copy-number variations (CNVs) was conducted for ten pairs, a total of 20 cases, of affected siblings using oligonucleotide array-based CGH. Results We found negative symptoms were significantly more severe (p < 0.05) in the subgroup that harbored more genetic imbalance (n ≧ 13, n = number of CNV-disrupted genes) as compared with the subgroup with fewer CNVs (n ≦ 6), indicating that the degree of genetic imbalance may influence the severity of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Four central nervous system (CNS) related genes including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, delta (CEBPD, 8q11.21), retinoid × receptor, alpha (RXRA, 9q34.2), LIM homeobox protein 5 (LHX5, 12q24.13) and serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11, 19p13.3) are recurrently (incidence ≧ 16.7%) disrupted by CNVs. Two genes, PVR (poliovirus receptor) and BU678720, are concordantly deleted in one and two, respectively, pairs of co-affected siblings. However, we did not find a significant association of this BU678720 deletion and schizophrenia in a large case-control sample. Conclusions We conclude that the high genetic loading of CNVs may be the underlying cause of negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and the CNS-related genes revealed by this study warrant further investigation. PMID:20064257

  7. Planing-surface Tests at Large Froude Numbers - Airfoil Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambraus, A

    1938-01-01

    The take-off capacity of a flying boat depends upon the design of the hull bottom ahead as well as aft of the step. Systematic tests - largely made by industry itself - had proved the benefit accruing from a well designed hull bottom long before theoretical insight into the flow phenomena involved had been obtained. The theoretical framing of the problem was beset with serious difficulties and, though restricted to the processes within range of the planing bottom ahead of the step, the solutions do not yet afford a comprehensive survey.

  8. Bose-Einstein Condensates with Large Number of Vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Tin-Lun

    2001-08-06

    We show that as the number of vortices in a three dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate increases, the system reaches a ''quantum Hall'' regime where the density profile is a Gaussian in the xy plane and an inverted parabolic profile along z . The angular momentum of the system increases as the vortex lattice shrinks. However, Coriolis force prevents the unit cell of the vortex lattice from shrinking beyond a minimum size. Although the recent MIT experiment is not exactly in the quantum Hall regime, it is close enough for the present results to be used as a guide. The quantum Hall regime can be easily reached by moderate changes of the current experimental parameters.

  9. Large-scale mapping of mutations affecting zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Robert; Rauch, Gerd-Jörg; Geiger-Rudolph, Silke; Albrecht, Andrea; van Bebber, Frauke; Berger, Andrea; Busch-Nentwich, Elisabeth; Dahm, Ralf; Dekens, Marcus PS; Dooley, Christopher; Elli, Alexandra F; Gehring, Ines; Geiger, Horst; Geisler, Maria; Glaser, Stefanie; Holley, Scott; Huber, Matthias; Kerr, Andy; Kirn, Anette; Knirsch, Martina; Konantz, Martina; Küchler, Axel M; Maderspacher, Florian; Neuhauss, Stephan C; Nicolson, Teresa; Ober, Elke A; Praeg, Elke; Ray, Russell; Rentzsch, Brit; Rick, Jens M; Rief, Eva; Schauerte, Heike E; Schepp, Carsten P; Schönberger, Ulrike; Schonthaler, Helia B; Seiler, Christoph; Sidi, Samuel; Söllner, Christian; Wehner, Anja; Weiler, Christian; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2007-01-01

    Background Large-scale mutagenesis screens in the zebrafish employing the mutagen ENU have isolated several hundred mutant loci that represent putative developmental control genes. In order to realize the potential of such screens, systematic genetic mapping of the mutations is necessary. Here we report on a large-scale effort to map the mutations generated in mutagenesis screening at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology by genome scanning with microsatellite markers. Results We have selected a set of microsatellite markers and developed methods and scoring criteria suitable for efficient, high-throughput genome scanning. We have used these methods to successfully obtain a rough map position for 319 mutant loci from the Tübingen I mutagenesis screen and subsequent screening of the mutant collection. For 277 of these the corresponding gene is not yet identified. Mapping was successful for 80 % of the tested loci. By comparing 21 mutation and gene positions of cloned mutations we have validated the correctness of our linkage group assignments and estimated the standard error of our map positions to be approximately 6 cM. Conclusion By obtaining rough map positions for over 300 zebrafish loci with developmental phenotypes, we have generated a dataset that will be useful not only for cloning of the affected genes, but also to suggest allelism of mutations with similar phenotypes that will be identified in future screens. Furthermore this work validates the usefulness of our methodology for rapid, systematic and inexpensive microsatellite mapping of zebrafish mutations. PMID:17212827

  10. Factors affecting the performance of large-aperture microphone arrays.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Harvey F; Patterson, William R; Sachar, Joshua

    2002-05-01

    Large arrays of microphones have been proposed and studied as a possible means of acquiring data in offices, conference rooms, and auditoria without requiring close-talking microphones. When such an array essentially surrounds all possible sources, it is said to have a large aperture. Large-aperture arrays have attractive properties of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise enhancement. This paper presents a careful comparison of theoretical and measured performance for an array of 256 microphones using simple delay-and-sum beamforming. This is the largest currently functional, all digital-signal-processing array that we know of. The array is wall-mounted in the moderately adverse environment of a general-purpose laboratory (8 m x 8 m x 3 m). The room has a T60 reverberation time of 550 ms. Reverberation effects in this room severely impact the array's performance. However, the width of the main lobe remains comparable to that of a simplified prediction. Broadband spatial resolution shows a single central peak with 10 dB gain about 0.4 m in diameter at the -3 dB level. Away from that peak, the response is approximately flat over most of the room. Optimal weighting for signal-to-noise enhancement degrades the spatial resolution minimally. Experimentally, we verify that signal-to-noise gain is less than proportional to the square root of the number of microphones probably due to the partial correlation of the noise between channels, to variation of signal intensity with polar angle about the source, and to imperfect correlation of the signal over the array caused by reverberations. We show measurements of the relative importance of each effect in our environment. PMID:12051434

  11. Factors affecting the performance of large-aperture microphone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Harvey F.; Patterson, William R.; Sachar, Joshua

    2002-05-01

    Large arrays of microphones have been proposed and studied as a possible means of acquiring data in offices, conference rooms, and auditoria without requiring close-talking microphones. When such an array essentially surrounds all possible sources, it is said to have a large aperture. Large-aperture arrays have attractive properties of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise enhancement. This paper presents a careful comparison of theoretical and measured performance for an array of 256 microphones using simple delay-and-sum beamforming. This is the largest currently functional, all digital-signal-processing array that we know of. The array is wall-mounted in the moderately adverse environment of a general-purpose laboratory (8 m×8 m×3 m). The room has a T60 reverberation time of 550 ms. Reverberation effects in this room severely impact the array's performance. However, the width of the main lobe remains comparable to that of a simplified prediction. Broadband spatial resolution shows a single central peak with 10 dB gain about 0.4 m in diameter at the -3 dB level. Away from that peak, the response is approximately flat over most of the room. Optimal weighting for signal-to-noise enhancement degrades the spatial resolution minimally. Experimentally, we verify that signal-to-noise gain is less than proportional to the square root of the number of microphones probably due to the partial correlation of the noise between channels, to variation of signal intensity with polar angle about the source, and to imperfect correlation of the signal over the array caused by reverberations. We show measurements of the relative importance of each effect in our environment.

  12. Meeting the Special Needs of Drug-Affected Children. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda S.

    Issues pertinent to prenatal drug-affected students are discussed in this ERIC Digest. The rising number of drug-exposed children approaching school age presents a challenge to school personnel in meeting their special needs. Topics covered are: (1) seriousness of the problem; (2) problems unique to drug-affected children; (3) creation of a…

  13. Effects of Imposed Large-scale Flow During Convection at Large Rayleigh Numbers: Plume Dynamics and Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnermann, H. M.; Jellinek, M. A.; Richards, M. A.; Manga, M.

    2001-12-01

    layer thickness and heat flux have a square root and inverse-square root dependence, respectively, on the Peclet number. The thermal boundary layer thickens and heat flux from the hot boundary decreases in the downstream direction. In the case of a laterally uniform imposed flow, the thermal boundary layer will eventually grow to a critical thickness at sufficiently large downstream distances. Thus, it is possible for most of the boundary layer to be stable, with only part of the boundary layer capable to generate plume instabilities. In the case of non-uniform imposed flow (i.e. horizontal flow with a cold downwelling and downstream upwelling) the thermal boundary-layer thickness increases rapidly in the vicinity of the upwelling, thereby causing preferential formation and growth of plumes in the vicinity of the upwelling region. When applied to the Earth, our results provide a basis for quantitative assessment of how plume formation and heat flux across the CMB can be affected by plate-scale mantle flow.

  14. Cotyledon damage affects seed number through final plant size in the annual grassland species Medicago lupulina

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiting; Zhao, Chuan; Lamb, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The effects of cotyledon damage on seedling growth and survival are relatively well established, but little is known about the effects on aspects of plant fitness such as seed number and size. Here the direct and indirect mechanisms linking cotyledon damage and plant fitness in the annual species Medicago lupulina are examined. Methods Growth and reproductive traits, including mature plant size, time to first flowering, flower number, seed number and individual seed mass were monitored in M. lupulina plants when zero, one or two cotyledons were removed at 7 d old. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine the mechanisms linking cotyledon damage to seed number and seed mass. Key Results Cotyledon damage reduced seed number but not individual seed mass. The primary mechanism was a reduction in plant biomass with cotyledon damage that in turn reduced seed number primarily through a reduction in flower numbers. Although cotyledon damage delayed flower initiation, it had little effect on seed number. Individual seed mass was not affected by cotyledon removal, but there was a trade-off between seed number and seed mass. Conclusions It is shown how a network of indirect mechanisms link damage to cotyledons and fitness in M. lupulina. Cotyledon damage had strong direct effects on both plant size and flowering phenology, but an analysis of the causal relationships among plant traits and fitness components showed that a reduction in plant size associated with cotyledon damage was an important mechanism influencing fitness. PMID:21196450

  15. Cosmonumerology, Cosmophysics, and the Large Numbers Hypothesis: British Cosmology in the 1930s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, Ian

    2001-04-01

    A number of unorthodox cosmological models were developed in the 1930s, many by British theoreticians. Three of the most notable of these theories included Eddington's cosmonumerology, Milne's cosmophysics, and Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). Dirac's LNH was based partly on the other two and it has been argued that modern steady-state theories are based partly on Milne's cosmophysics. But what influenced Eddington and Milne? Both were products of the late Victorian education system in Britain and could conceivably have been influenced by Victorian thought which, in addition to its strict (though technically unoffical) social caste system, had a flair for the unusual. Victorianism was filled with a fascination for the occult and the supernatural, and science was not insulated from this trend (witness the Henry Slade trial in 1877). It is conceivable that the normally strict mentality of the scientific process in the minds of Eddington and Milne was affected, indirectly, by this trend for the unusual, possibly pushing them into thinking "outside the box" as it were. In addition, cosmonumerology and the LNH exhibit signs of Pythagorean and Aristotelian thought. It is the aim of this ongoing project at St. Andrews to determine the influences and characterize the relations existing in and within these and related theories.

  16. Ratio dependence in small number discrimination is affected by the experimental procedure

    PubMed Central

    Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo; Butterworth, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Adults, infants and some non-human animals share an approximate number system (ANS) to estimate numerical quantities, and are supposed to share a second, ‘object-tracking,’ system (OTS) that supports the precise representation of a small number of items (up to 3 or 4). In relative numerosity judgments, accuracy depends on the ratio of the two numerosities (Weber’s Law) for numerosities >4 (the typical ANS range), while for numerosities ≤4 (OTS range) there is usually no ratio effect. However, recent studies have found evidence for ratio effects for small numerosities, challenging the idea that the OTS might be involved for small number discrimination. Here we tested the hypothesis that the lack of ratio effect in the numbers 1–4 is largely dependent on the type of stimulus presentation. We investigated relative numerosity judgments in college students using three different procedures: a simultaneous presentation of intermingled and separate groups of dots in separate experiments, and a further experiment with sequential presentation. As predicted, in the large number range, ratio dependence was observed in all tasks. By contrast, in the small number range, ratio insensitivity was found in one task (sequential presentation). In a fourth experiment, we showed that the presence of intermingled distractors elicited a ratio effect, while easily distinguishable distractors did not. As the different ratio sensitivity for small and large numbers has been often interpreted in terms of the activation of the OTS and ANS, our results suggest that numbers 1–4 may be represented by both numerical systems and that the experimental context, such as the presence/absence of task-irrelevant items in the visual field, would determine which system is activated. PMID:26579032

  17. Studies in Public Welfare. Paper Number 13. How Income Supplements Can Affect Work Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Irwin; And Others

    To what extent, if any, will workers in families receiving Government cash benefits reduce their hours of work? The papers by Irwin Garfinkel and by Glen Cain and Harold Watts review large numbers of studies on this question. These authors caution us against having great confidence in the detailed estimates of how workers will respond because…

  18. How large-scale subsidence affects stratocumulus transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Dussen, J. J.; de Roode, S. R.; Siebesma, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Some climate modeling results suggest that the Hadley circulation might weaken in a future climate, causing a subsequent reduction in the large-scale subsidence velocity in the subtropics. In this study we analyze the cloud liquid water path (LWP) budget from large-eddy simulation (LES) results of three idealized stratocumulus transition cases, each with a different subsidence rate. As shown in previous studies a reduced subsidence is found to lead to a deeper stratocumulus-topped boundary layer, an enhanced cloud-top entrainment rate and a delay in the transition of stratocumulus clouds into shallow cumulus clouds during its equatorwards advection by the prevailing trade winds. The effect of a reduction of the subsidence rate can be summarized as follows. The initial deepening of the stratocumulus layer is partly counteracted by an enhanced absorption of solar radiation. After some hours the deepening of the boundary layer is accelerated by an enhancement of the entrainment rate. Because this is accompanied by a change in the cloud-base turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat, the net change in the LWP due to changes in the turbulent flux profiles is negligibly small.

  19. Airfoil Section Characteristics as Affected by Variations of the Reynolds Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Sherman, Albert

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation of a systematically chosen representative group of related airfoils conducted in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel over a wide range of Reynolds number extending well into the flight range. The tests were made to provide information from which the variations of airfoil section characteristics with changes in the Reynolds number could be inferred and methods of allowing for these variations in practice could be determined. This work is one phase of an extensive and general airfoil investigation being conducted in the variable-density tunnel and extends the previously published researches concerning airfoil characteristics as affected by variations in airfoil profile determined at a single value of the Reynolds number.

  20. A method for estimating the effective number of loci affecting a quantitative character.

    PubMed

    Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-11-01

    A likelihood method is introduced that jointly estimates the number of loci and the additive effect of alleles that account for the genetic variance of a normally distributed quantitative character in a randomly mating population. The method assumes that measurements of the character are available from one or both parents and an arbitrary number of full siblings. The method uses the fact, first recognized by Karl Pearson in 1904, that the variance of a character among offspring depends on both the parental phenotypes and on the number of loci. Simulations show that the method performs well provided that data from a sufficient number of families (on the order of thousands) are available. This method assumes that the loci are in Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium but does not assume anything about the linkage relationships. It performs equally well if all loci are on the same non-recombining chromosome provided they are in linkage equilibrium. The method can be adapted to take account of loci already identified as being associated with the character of interest. In that case, the method estimates the number of loci not already known to affect the character. The method applied to measurements of crown-rump length in 281 family trios in a captive colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiopus sabaeus) estimates the number of loci to be 112 and the additive effect to be 0.26 cm. A parametric bootstrap analysis shows that a rough confidence interval has a lower bound of 14 loci. PMID:23973416

  1. UGT2B17 copy number gain in a large ankylosing spondylitis multiplex family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this study is to identify novel copy number variations (CNVs) associated with familial ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A customized genome-wide microarray was designed to detect CNVs and applied to a multiplex AS family with six (6) affected family members. CNVs were detected using the built-in DNA analytics aberration detection method-2 (ADM-2) algorithm. Gene enrichment analysis was performed to observe the segregation. Subsequent validation was performed using real time quantitative fluorescence polymerase reaction (QF-PCR). The frequency of copy number variation for the UGT2B17 gene was then performed on two well-defined AS cohorts. Fisher exact test was performed to quantify the association. Results Our family-based analysis revealed ten gene-enriched CNVs that segregate with all six family members affected with AS. Based on the proposed function and the polymorphic nature of the UGT2B17 gene, the UGT2B17 gene CNV was selected for validation using real time QF-PCR with full concordance. The frequency of two copies of the UGT2B17 gene CNV was 0.41 in the Newfoundland AS cases and 0.35 in the Newfoundland controls (OR = 1.26(0.99-1.59); p < 0.05)), whereas the frequency of two (2) copies of the UGT2B17 gene CNV was 0.40 in the Alberta AS cases and 0.39 in the Alberta controls (OR = 1.05(95% CI: 0.83-1.33); p < 0.71)). Conclusions A genome-wide microarray interrogation of a large multiplex AS family revealed segregation of the UGT2B17 gene CNV among all affected family members. The association of the UGT2B17 CNV with AS is particularly interesting given the recent association of this CNV with osteoporosis and the proposed function as it encodes a key enzyme that inhibits androgens. However, two copies of the UGT2B17 gene CNV were only marginally significant in a uniplex AS cohort from Newfoundland but not in a uniplex AS cohort from Alberta. PMID:23927372

  2. Genomic Copy Number Variation Affecting Genes Involved in the Cell Cycle Pathway: Implications for Somatic Mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    Iourov, Ivan Y.; Vorsanova, Svetlana G.; Zelenova, Maria A.; Korostelev, Sergei A.; Yurov, Yuri B.

    2015-01-01

    Somatic genome variations (mosaicism) seem to represent a common mechanism for human intercellular/interindividual diversity in health and disease. However, origins and mechanisms of somatic mosaicism remain a matter of conjecture. Recently, it has been hypothesized that zygotic genomic variation naturally occurring in humans is likely to predispose to nonheritable genetic changes (aneuploidy) acquired during the lifetime through affecting cell cycle regulation, genome stability maintenance, and related pathways. Here, we have evaluated genomic copy number variation (CNV) in genes implicated in the cell cycle pathway (according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes/KEGG) within a cohort of patients with intellectual disability, autism, and/or epilepsy, in which the phenotype was not associated with genomic rearrangements altering this pathway. Benign CNVs affecting 20 genes of the cell cycle pathway were detected in 161 out of 255 patients (71.6%). Among them, 62 individuals exhibited >2 CNVs affecting the cell cycle pathway. Taking into account the number of individuals demonstrating CNV of these genes, a support for this hypothesis appears to be presented. Accordingly, we speculate that further studies of CNV burden across the genes implicated in related pathways might clarify whether zygotic genomic variation generates somatic mosaicism in health and disease. PMID:26421275

  3. Cigarette toxicity triggers Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy by affecting mtDNA copy number, oxidative phosphorylation and ROS detoxification pathways

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, L; Deceglie, S; d'Adamo, P; Valentino, M L; La Morgia, C; Fracasso, F; Roberti, M; Cappellari, M; Petrosillo, G; Ciaravolo, S; Parente, D; Giordano, C; Maresca, A; Iommarini, L; Del Dotto, V; Ghelli, A M; Salomao, S R; Berezovsky, A; Belfort, R; Sadun, A A; Carelli, V; Loguercio Polosa, P; Cantatore, P

    2015-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), the most frequent mitochondrial disease, is associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations affecting Complex I subunits, usually homoplasmic. This blinding disorder is characterized by incomplete penetrance, possibly related to several genetic modifying factors. We recently reported that increased mitochondrial biogenesis in unaffected mutation carriers is a compensatory mechanism, which reduces penetrance. Also, environmental factors such as cigarette smoking have been implicated as disease triggers. To investigate this issue further, we first assessed the relationship between cigarette smoke and mtDNA copy number in blood cells from large cohorts of LHON families, finding that smoking was significantly associated with the lowest mtDNA content in affected individuals. To unwrap the mechanism of tobacco toxicity in LHON, we exposed fibroblasts from affected individuals, unaffected mutation carriers and controls to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). CSC decreased mtDNA copy number in all cells; moreover, it caused significant reduction of ATP level only in mutated cells including carriers. This implies that the bioenergetic compensation in carriers is hampered by exposure to smoke derivatives. We also observed that in untreated cells the level of carbonylated proteins was highest in affected individuals, whereas the level of several detoxifying enzymes was highest in carriers. Thus, carriers are particularly successful in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity. After CSC exposure, the amount of detoxifying enzymes increased in all cells, but carbonylated proteins increased only in LHON mutant cells, mostly from affected individuals. All considered, it appears that exposure to smoke derivatives has a more deleterious effect in affected individuals, whereas carriers are the most efficient in mitigating ROS rather than recovering bioenergetics. Therefore, the identification of genetic modifiers that

  4. Some factors affecting the number of days open in Argentinean dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, M; Funes, A Capitaine; Balzarini, M; Bó, G A

    2013-03-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative contribution of factors affecting how quickly cattle become pregnant in Argentine dairy herds. Data from 76,401 cows from 249 dairy herds were analyzed. A hazard model was used to explore days open (DO). The factors considered were milk yield, lactation number, calving season, and breeding technique (i.e., type of service: artificial insemination [AI], or combined service). Cows with lower milk yield had 1.09 to 1.38 higher likelihood to become pregnant than those with higher milk yield (P < 0.0001). The number of DO increased linearly with an increasing number of lactations (P < 0.0001). Cows calving in fall-winter had a shorter interval to conception than those calving in summer. The hazard rate for combined service was 1.27; therefore, cows with combined service were more likely to become pregnant during the observation period than those bred by AI. The difference in DO between cows of high versus low milk yield was smaller when dairies used AI as the main breeding technique than when they used combined service. Furthermore, dairies using mainly combined service had lower milk yield (5693.7 L) than those using mainly AI (7684.4 L). Although lactation number and calving season contributed to explain the number of DO, the influence of production level, the type of service, and the interaction between them was also associated with reproductive efficiency in Argentine dairy herds. PMID:23290433

  5. Large-eddy simulation of very large kinetic and magnetic Reynolds number isotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence using a spectral subgrid model

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, T; Sagaut, P; Schilling, O; Zhou, Y

    2006-07-05

    A spectral subggrid-scale eddy viscosity and magnetic resisitivity model based on the eddy-damped quasi-normal Markovian (EDQNM) spectral kinetic and magnetic energy transfer presented in [12] is used in large-eddy simulation (LES) of large kinetic and magnetic Reynold number magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The proposed model is assessed via a posteri tests on three-dimensional, incompressible, isotropic, non-helical, freely-decaying MHD turbulence at asymptotically large Reynolds numbers. Using LES with an initial condition characterized by an Alfv{acute e}n ratio of kinetic to magnetic energy {tau}{sub A} equal to unity, it is shown that at the kinetic energy spectrum E{sub K}(k) and magnetic energy spectrum E{sub M}(k) exhibit Kolmogorov -5/3 inertial subrange scalings in the LES, consistent with the EDQNM model.

  6. Toddler Subtraction with Large Sets: Further Evidence for an Analog-Magnitude Representation of Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Kamppi, Dorian; Paynter, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that toddlers have access to an analog-magnitude number representation that supports numerical reasoning about relatively large numbers. Three-year-olds were presented with subtraction problems in which initial set size and proportions subtracted were systematically varied. Two sets of cookies…

  7. Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta") Spontaneously Compute Addition Operations Over Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flombaum, Jonathan I.; Junge, Justin A.; Hauser, Marc D.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics is a uniquely human capacity. Studies of animals and human infants reveal, however, that this capacity builds on language-independent mechanisms for quantifying small numbers ([less than] 4) precisely and large numbers approximately. It is unclear whether animals and human infants can spontaneously tap mechanisms for quantifying large…

  8. Analytical formulas for the performance scaling of quantum processors with a large number of defective gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Y. S.; Blümel, R.

    2015-10-01

    Removing a single logical gate from a classical information processor renders this processor useless. This is not so for a quantum information processor. A large number of quantum gates may be removed without significantly affecting the processor's performance. In this paper, focusing on the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) and quantum adder, we show even more: Even if most of its gates are eliminated and the remaining gates are selected from a randomly generated set, the QFT, one of the most useful quantum processors, and the quantum adder, one of the most basic building blocks of a universal quantum computer, still operate with satisfactory success probability, comparable to that of a quantum computer constructed with perfect gates. We support these conclusions by first laying out a general analytical framework and then deriving analytical scaling relations, which are in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. The demonstrated robustness of the QFT and quantum adder, to the point where randomly generated quantum gates take the place of the exact gates, is an important boon for the construction of quantum computers, since it shows that stringent gate error tolerances do not have to be met to obtain satisfactory performance of the corresponding quantum processors. Our analytical techniques are powerful enough to generate asymptotic scaling laws for any gate defect model of quantum information processors and we illustrate this point by explicitly computing asymptotic analytical scaling formulas for several other defect models as well.

  9. Very Large Data Volumes Analysis of Collaborative Systems with Finite Number of States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivan, Ion; Ciurea, Cristian; Pavel, Sorin

    2010-01-01

    The collaborative system with finite number of states is defined. A very large database is structured. Operations on large databases are identified. Repetitive procedures for collaborative systems operations are derived. The efficiency of such procedures is analyzed. (Contains 6 tables, 5 footnotes and 3 figures.)

  10. Lessons learned in preparing to receive large numbers of contaminated individuals.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ken; Groff, Lee; Erdman, Mike; King, Steve

    2005-08-01

    Traditionally, medical radiation emergency plans have provided for the receipt and care of a limited number of individuals, usually no more than two or three at any given time. Large numbers of contaminated, uninjured individuals cannot be effectively handled in the emergency departments (EDs) of hospitals as they present a risk of forcing the ED to close because of contamination and they divert ED personnel away from patients needing medical attention. Alternative locations and plans for handling large numbers of contaminated but otherwise uninjured patients must be considered. Such plans developed at the Penn State Hershey Medical Center (HMC) during the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant (TMI) were resurrected post 9/11 and used there in developing and upgrading plans and capabilities for handling large numbers of contaminated, uninjured individuals. PMID:16010120

  11. Solar concentration properties of flat fresnel lenses with large F-numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosby, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The solar concentration performances of flat, line-focusing sun-tracking Fresnel lenses with selected f-numbers between 0.9 and 2.0 were analyzed. Lens transmittance was found to have a weak dependence on f-number, with a 2% increase occuring as the f-number is increased from 0.9 to 2.0. The geometric concentration ratio for perfectly tracking lenses peaked for an f-number near 1.35. Intensity profiles were more uniform over the image extent for large f-number lenses when compared to the f/0.9 lens results. Substantial decreases in geometri concentration ratios were observed for transverse tracking errors equal to or below 1 degree for all f-number lenses. With respect to tracking errors, the solar performance is optimum for f-numbers between 1.25 and 1.5.

  12. Large Eddy Simulations of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities at high Reynolds number stratified flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Dana; Goodman, Lou; Raessi, Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of Kelvin Helmholtz Instabilities (KHI) at high Reynolds numbers are performed using the Large Eddy Simulation technique. Reynolds numbers up to 100,000 are achieved using our model. The resulting data set is used to examine the effect of Reynolds number on various statistics, including dissipation flux coefficient, turbulent kinetic energy budget, and Thorpe length scale. It is shown that KHI are qualitatively different at high Re, up to and including the onset of vortex pairing and billow collapse and quantitatively different afterward. The effect of Richardson number is also examined. The results are discussed as they apply to ocean experiments.

  13. On large-scale dynamo action at high magnetic Reynolds number

    SciTech Connect

    Cattaneo, F.; Tobias, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    We consider the generation of magnetic activity—dynamo waves—in the astrophysical limit of very large magnetic Reynolds number. We consider kinematic dynamo action for a system consisting of helical flow and large-scale shear. We demonstrate that large-scale dynamo waves persist at high Rm if the helical flow is characterized by a narrow band of spatial scales and the shear is large enough. However, for a wide band of scales the dynamo becomes small scale with a further increase of Rm, with dynamo waves re-emerging only if the shear is then increased. We show that at high Rm, the key effect of the shear is to suppress small-scale dynamo action, allowing large-scale dynamo action to be observed. We conjecture that this supports a general 'suppression principle'—large-scale dynamo action can only be observed if there is a mechanism that suppresses the small-scale fluctuations.

  14. Central Limit Theorems and Uniform Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Random Fields

    PubMed Central

    Jenish, Nazgul; Prucha, Ingmar R.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decades, spatial-interaction models have been increasingly used in economics. However, the development of a sufficiently general asymptotic theory for nonlinear spatial models has been hampered by a lack of relevant central limit theorems (CLTs), uniform laws of large numbers (ULLNs) and pointwise laws of large numbers (LLNs). These limit theorems form the essential building blocks towards developing the asymptotic theory of M-estimators, including maximum likelihood and generalized method of moments estimators. The paper establishes a CLT, ULLN, and LLN for spatial processes or random fields that should be applicable to a broad range of data processes. PMID:20161289

  15. Multiple paternity: determining the minimum number of sires of a large brood.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, A; Mehlig, B; Panova, M; Andre, C; Johannesson, K

    2010-03-01

    We describe an efficient algorithm for determining exactly the minimum number of sires consistent with the multi-locus genotypes of a mother and her progeny. We consider cases where a simple exhaustive search through all possible sets of sires is impossible in practice because it would take too long to complete. Our algorithm for solving this combinatorial optimization problem avoids visiting large parts of search space that would not result in a solution with fewer sires. This improvement is of particular importance when the number of allelic types in the progeny array is large and when the minimum number of sires is expected to be large. Precisely in such cases, it is important to know the minimum number of sires: this number gives an exact bound on the most likely number of sires estimated by a random search algorithm in a parameter region where it may be difficult to determine whether it has converged. We apply our algorithm to data from the marine snail, Littorina saxatilis. PMID:21565023

  16. Eulerian models for particle trajectory crossing in turbulent flows over a large range of Stokes numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Rodney O.; Vie, Aymeric; Laurent, Frederique; Chalons, Christophe; Massot, Marc

    2012-11-01

    Numerous applications involve a disperse phase carried by a gaseous flow. To simulate such flows, one can resort to a number density function (NDF) governed a kinetic equation. Traditionally, Lagrangian Monte-Carlo methods are used to solve for the NDF, but are expensive as the number of numerical particles needed must be large to control statistical errors. Moreover, such methods are not well adapted to high-performance computing because of the intrinsic inhomogeneity of the NDF. To overcome these issues, Eulerian methods can be used to solve for the moments of the NDF resulting in an unclosed Eulerian system of hyperbolic conservation laws. To obtain closure, in this work a multivariate bi-Gaussian quadrature is used, which can account for particle trajectory crossing (PTC) over a large range of Stokes numbers. This closure uses up to four quadrature points in 2-D velocity phase space to capture large-scale PTC, and an anisotropic Gaussian distribution around each quadrature point to model small-scale PTC. Simulations of 2-D particle-laden isotropic turbulence at different Stokes numbers are employed to validate the Eulerian models against results from the Lagrangian approach. Good agreement is found for the number density fields over the entire range of Stokes numbers tested. Research carried out at the Center for Turbulence Research 2012 Summer Program.

  17. Modeling of Large Methane Releases and their affect on the Chemistry of the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, D. J.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Elliot, S.; Reagan, M. T.; Maltrud, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    A vast quantity of methane is locked in solid phase as methane clathrates in ocean sediments (as much carbon as all other fossil fuels combined). Rapid destabilization of the clathrates due to climate warming would significantly increase methane emissions from the ocean. This would result in a number of affects including strong greenhouse heating, increased surface ozone, reduced stratospheric ozone, and intensification of the ozone hole. Many of the affects in the chemistry of the atmosphere are non-linear and difficult to estimate without a detailed model. As part of the DOE IMPACTS project on abrupt climate change we have used our 3D global atmospheric chemistry model (IMPACT) to take a first look at some of these affects. This model includes detailed chemistry of the troposphere (including isoprene and other hydrocarbons) and the stratosphere (including the important chlorine and bromine compounds). We ran the model at 4x5 degree resolution with methane simply scaled to present day emissions. We show results for 1x, 2x, 10x, 100x, and 1000x emission scenarios. We analyzed the results after the simulations have reached steady state (many years of simulation) and show the affect of these large releases on tropospheric air quality, the “health” of the stratosphere, and greenhouse heating. Substantial increases were seen in atmospheric methane lifetime, a positive feedback, due to the increased methane reducing the OH concentration. In the future we will couple our atmospheric chemistry to a complete Earth system model (based on CCSM) for methane including ocean ecosystem, ocean sediment and boreal land models to give more accurate estimates of the emission term and to look at the full system response.

  18. Large Eddy Simulations of a turbulent periodic channel with conjugate heat transfer at low Prandtl number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monod, R.; Brillant, G.; Toutant, A.; Bataille, F.

    2012-11-01

    Thermal striping is one of the possible initiator of pipe rupture. In this framework, thermal fluctuations in a heated periodic channel have been calculated using Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The fluid Prandtl number is set to 0.01 and the friction Reynolds number to 395. The Werner and Wengle Wall Function is used with the Navier-Stokes equations to reduce the computational cost. Satisfactory results can be noticed on the temperature fluctuations for low Prandtl number fluids. Several boundary conditions are considered, namely isothermal, isoflux, and conjugate heat transfer. The impacts of the wall properties on the temperature statistics for conjugated heat transfer boundary conditions are deeply analysed.

  19. Structure of Wall-Eddies at Very Large Reynolds Number--A Large-Scale PIV Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommema, S. E.; Adrian, R. J.

    2000-11-01

    The results of an experiment performed in the first 5 m of the neutral atmospheric boundary layer are presented. Large-scale PIV measurements (up to 2 m × 2 m field-of-view) were obtained in the streamwise / wall-normal plane of a very-large Reynolds number (Re_θ > 10^6, based on momentum thickness and freestream velocity), flat-plate, zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. Measurements were obtained at the SLTEST facility in the U.S. Army's Dugway Proving Grounds. Coherent packets of ramp-like structures with downstream inclination are observed and show a remarkable resemblance to those observed in typical laboratory-scale experiments at far lower Reynolds number. The results are interpreted in terms of a vortex packet paradigm(Adrian, R.J., C.D. Meinhart, and C.D. Tomkins, Vortex organization in the outer region of the turbulent boundary layer, to appear in J. Fluid Mech., 2000.) and begin to extend the model to high Reynolds numbers of technological importance. Additional results obtained during periods of non-neutral atmospheric stability are contrasted with those of the canonical neutral boundary layer. Sample smoke visualization images (3 m × 15 m field-of-view) are available online from the author.

  20. Observation of lasing modes with exotic localized wave patterns from astigmatic large-Fresnel-number cavities.

    PubMed

    Lu, T H; Lin, Y C; Liang, H C; Huang, Y J; Chen, Y F; Huang, K F

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the lasing modes in large-Fresnel-number laser systems with astigmatism effects. Experimental results reveal that numerous lasing modes are concentrated on exotic patterns corresponding to intriguing geometries. We theoretically use the quantum operator algebra to construct the wave representation for manifesting the origin of the localized wave patterns. PMID:20125716

  1. Assessment of Sugarcane Yield Potential across Large Numbers of Genotypes Using Canopy Reflectance Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canopy reflectance indices have been used to monitor plant growth and estimate yields in many field crops. Little is known if canopy reflectance of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) can be used to estimate growth and yield potential across large numbers of genotypes (clones) in the earl...

  2. Infants Use Different Mechanisms to Make Small and Large Number Ordinal Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vanMarle, Kristy

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown indirectly that infants may use two different mechanisms-an object tracking system and an analog magnitude mechanism--to represent small (less than 4) and large (greater than or equal to 4) numbers of objects, respectively. The current study directly tested this hypothesis in an ordinal choice task by presenting 10- to…

  3. Coherent large-scale structures in high Reynolds number supersonic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Ahuja, K. K.; Brown, W. H.; Burrin, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The flow structure of a 50.8 mm (2 in) diameter jet operated at a full expanded Mach number of 1.37, with Reynolds numbers in the range 1.7 to 2.35 million, was examined for the first 20 jet diameters. To facilitate the study of the large scale structure, and determine any coherence, a discrete tone acoustic excitation method was used. Phase locked flow visualization as well as laser velocimeter quantitative measurements were made. The main conclusions derived from this study are: (1) large scale coherent like turbulence structures do exist in large Reynolds number supersonic jets, and they prevail even beyond the potential core; (2) the most preferential Strouhal number for these structures is in the vicinity of 0.4; and (3) quantitatively, the peak amplitudes of these structures are rather low, and are about 1% of the jet exit velocity. Finally, since a number of unique problems related to LV measurements in supersonic jets were encountered, a summary of these problems and lessons learned therefrom are also reported.

  4. Unusually Large Number of Mutations in Asexually Reproducing Clonal Planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Osamu; Hosoda, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Eri; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Inoue, Takeshi; Umesono, Yoshihiko; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

    We established a laboratory clonal strain of freshwater planarian (Dugesia japonica) that was derived from a single individual and that continued to undergo autotomous asexual reproduction for more than 20 years, and we performed large-scale genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis on it. Despite the fact that a completely clonal strain of the planarian was used, an unusually large number of mutations were detected. To enable quantitative genetic analysis of such a unique organism, we developed a new model called the Reference Gene Model, and used it to conduct large-scale transcriptome analysis. The results revealed large numbers of mutations not only outside but also inside gene-coding regions. Non-synonymous SNPs were detected in 74% of the genes for which valid ORFs were predicted. Interestingly, the high-mutation genes, such as metabolism- and defense-related genes, were correlated with genes that were previously identified as diverse genes among different planarian species. Although a large number of amino acid substitutions were apparently accumulated during asexual reproduction over this long period of time, the planarian maintained normal body-shape, behaviors, and physiological functions. The results of the present study reveal a unique aspect of asexual reproduction. PMID:26588467

  5. Unusually Large Number of Mutations in Asexually Reproducing Clonal Planarian Dugesia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Osamu; Hosoda, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Eri; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Inoue, Takeshi; Umesono, Yoshihiko; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

    We established a laboratory clonal strain of freshwater planarian (Dugesia japonica) that was derived from a single individual and that continued to undergo autotomous asexual reproduction for more than 20 years, and we performed large-scale genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis on it. Despite the fact that a completely clonal strain of the planarian was used, an unusually large number of mutations were detected. To enable quantitative genetic analysis of such a unique organism, we developed a new model called the Reference Gene Model, and used it to conduct large-scale transcriptome analysis. The results revealed large numbers of mutations not only outside but also inside gene-coding regions. Non-synonymous SNPs were detected in 74% of the genes for which valid ORFs were predicted. Interestingly, the high-mutation genes, such as metabolism- and defense-related genes, were correlated with genes that were previously identified as diverse genes among different planarian species. Although a large number of amino acid substitutions were apparently accumulated during asexual reproduction over this long period of time, the planarian maintained normal body-shape, behaviors, and physiological functions. The results of the present study reveal a unique aspect of asexual reproduction. PMID:26588467

  6. Similarities between 2D and 3D convection for large Prandtl number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Ambrish; Verma, Mahendra K.; Chatterjee, Anando G.; Dutta, Biplab

    2016-06-01

    Using direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection (RBC), we perform a comparative study of the spectra and fluxes of energy and entropy, and the scaling of large-scale quantities for large and infinite Prandtl numbers in two (2D) and three (3D) dimensions. We observe close similarities between the 2D and 3D RBC, in particular the kinetic energy spectrum $E_u(k) \\sim k^{-13/3}$, and the entropy spectrum exhibits a dual branch with a dominant $k^{-2}$ spectrum. We showed that the dominant Fourier modes in the 2D and 3D flows are very close. Consequently, the 3D RBC is quasi two-dimensional, which is the reason for the similarities between the 2D and 3D RBC for large- and infinite Prandtl numbers.

  7. Trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptomatology in older persons affected by a large-magnitude disaster

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Van Ness, Peter H.; Fried, Terri R.; Galea, Sandro; Norris, Fran H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature and determinants of longitudinal trajectories of disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in older persons affected by a large-magnitude disaster. Two hundred six adults age 60 or older (mean=69, range=60–92) who resided in the Galveston Bay area when Hurricane Ike struck in September 2008 completed telephone interviews an average of 3-, 6-, and 15-months after this disaster. Latent growth mixture modeling was employed to identify predominant trajectories of disaster-related PTSD symptoms over time; and pre-, peri-, and post-disaster determinants of these trajectories were then examined. A 3-class solution optimally characterized PTSD symptom trajectories, with the majority (78.7%) of the sample having low/no PTSD symptoms over all assessments (i.e., resistant); 16.0% having chronically elevated symptoms (i.e., chronic); and 5.3% having a delayed onset course of symptoms (i.e., delayed-onset). Lower education, greater severity of Hurricane Ike exposure (i.e., Ike-related physical illness or injury and high level of community destruction), and greater number of traumatic and stressful life events after Hurricane Ike, particularly financial problems, were associated with a chronic PTSD trajectory. Greater number of traumatic and stressful life events, particularly financial problems after Hurricane Ike, was also associated with a delayed-onset trajectory. These findings suggest that there are heterogeneous trajectories of disaster-related PTSD symptoms in older adults and that these trajectories have common and unique determinants. They also underscore the importance of prevention efforts designed to mitigate the effects of post-disaster stressors, most notably financial distress, in older persons affected by disasters. PMID:23290559

  8. Wall-modeling for large-eddy simulation of high Reynolds number supersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Soshi; Larsson, Johan; Lele, Sanjiva

    2010-11-01

    We present an idea of approximate wall-boundary-condition approach with dynamic procedure for large-eddy simulation of Mach 3 supersonic turbulent boundary layer at various Reynolds numbers (Reδ=2 x10^4, 10^5 and 10^6) on a flat plate. This wall-model is the extension of previous work by Wang and Moin [Phys. Fluid, 14, 2043 (2002)] for incompressible flows to compressible flows. We note that the present study is both the first extension of the dynamic concept to compressible flows and also the first test at high Reynolds number flows. The present study also revisits the issue of numerical errors near wall-region on outer-layer coarse LES mesh. The numerical results are compared with wall-resolved LES data (at low Reynolds number case) and available experimental data (at high Reynolds number case).

  9. LEBU drag reduction in high Reynolds number boundary layers. [Large Eddy Break-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional and inverted, outer-layer leading-edge breakup devices (LEBUs) were water tunnel tested on an axisymmetric body over the Re number range from 380,000 to 3.8 million. Test results indicate a sharp degradation of the LEBUs' drag-reduction mechanism with increasing Re number. The most likely result of this degradation is a decoupling of the inner and outer scales at higher Re numbers; due to this decoupling, the breakup of the large structures by outer-layer devices has minimal influence on the near-wall, shear-producing scales. This suggests that smaller devices, closer to the walls, may be required for operation at elevated Re numbers.

  10. Genome size variation affects song attractiveness in grasshoppers: evidence for sexual selection against large genomes.

    PubMed

    Schielzeth, Holger; Streitner, Corinna; Lampe, Ulrike; Franzke, Alexandra; Reinhold, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Genome size is largely uncorrelated to organismal complexity and adaptive scenarios. Genetic drift as well as intragenomic conflict have been put forward to explain this observation. We here study the impact of genome size on sexual attractiveness in the bow-winged grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Grasshoppers show particularly large variation in genome size due to the high prevalence of supernumerary chromosomes that are considered (mildly) selfish, as evidenced by non-Mendelian inheritance and fitness costs if present in high numbers. We ranked male grasshoppers by song characteristics that are known to affect female preferences in this species and scored genome sizes of attractive and unattractive individuals from the extremes of this distribution. We find that attractive singers have significantly smaller genomes, demonstrating that genome size is reflected in male courtship songs and that females prefer songs of males with small genomes. Such a genome size dependent mate preference effectively selects against selfish genetic elements that tend to increase genome size. The data therefore provide a novel example of how sexual selection can reinforce natural selection and can act as an agent in an intragenomic arms race. Furthermore, our findings indicate an underappreciated route of how choosy females could gain indirect benefits. PMID:25200798

  11. Indirect interband transition induced by optical near fields with large wave numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Maiku; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Optical near fields (ONFs) have Fourier components with large wave numbers that are two or three orders of magnitude larger than those of far-field propagating light owing to their nonuniformity in space. By utilizing these large wave numbers, the ONF is expected to induce an indirect interband transition between Bloch states having different wave numbers and directly generate an electron-hole pair without electron-phonon coupling. We perform time-dependent dynamics calculations of a one-dimensional periodic potential with an indirect band-gap structure and demonstrate that the ONF definitely induces an indirect interband transition. Instead of using the general Bloch boundary condition, which is usually imposed in conventional band structure calculations, we adopt an alternative boundary condition, the Born-von Kármán boundary condition, to appropriately treat indirect interband transitions. The calculated absorption spectra for the far-field and ONF excitations show different absorption edges and spectral patterns. We argue that this difference can be experimentally measured as evidence of the effects of the large wave numbers of the ONF.

  12. Orthographic familiarity, phonological legality and number of orthographic neighbours affect the onset of ERP lexical effects

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that the variability among studies in the onset of lexical effects may be due to a series of methodological differences. In this study we investigated the role of orthographic familiarity, phonological legality and number of orthographic neighbours of words in determining the onset of word/non-word discriminative responses. Methods ERPs were recorded from 128 sites in 16 Italian University students engaged in a lexical decision task. Stimuli were 100 words, 100 quasi-words (obtained by the replacement of a single letter), 100 pseudo-words (non-derived) and 100 illegal letter strings. All stimuli were balanced for length; words and quasi-words were also balanced for frequency of use, domain of semantic category and imageability. SwLORETA source reconstruction was performed on ERP difference waves of interest. Results Overall, the data provided evidence that the latency of lexical effects (word/non-word discrimination) varied as a function of the number of a word's orthographic neighbours, being shorter to non-derived than to derived pseudo-words. This suggests some caveats about the use in lexical decision paradigms of quasi-words obtained by transposing or replacing only 1 or 2 letters. Our findings also showed that the left-occipito/temporal area, reflecting the activity of the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) of the temporal lobe, was affected by the visual familiarity of words, thus explaining its lexical sensitivity (word vs. non-word discrimination). The temporo-parietal area was markedly sensitive to phonological legality exhibiting a clear-cut discriminative response between illegal and legal strings as early as 250 ms of latency. Conclusion The onset of lexical effects in a lexical decision paradigm depends on a series of factors, including orthographic familiarity, degree of global lexical activity, and phonologic legality of non-words. PMID:18601726

  13. Large-scale magnetic fields at high Reynolds numbers in magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, H.; Rempel, M.; Yokoyama, T.

    2016-03-01

    The 11-year solar magnetic cycle shows a high degree of coherence in spite of the turbulent nature of the solar convection zone. It has been found in recent high-resolution magnetohydrodynamics simulations that the maintenance of a large-scale coherent magnetic field is difficult with small viscosity and magnetic diffusivity (≲1012square centimenters per second). We reproduced previous findings that indicate a reduction of the energy in the large-scale magnetic field for lower diffusivities and demonstrate the recovery of the global-scale magnetic field using unprecedentedly high resolution. We found an efficient small-scale dynamo that suppresses small-scale flows, which mimics the properties of large diffusivity. As a result, the global-scale magnetic field is maintained even in the regime of small diffusivities—that is, large Reynolds numbers.

  14. Large-scale magnetic fields at high Reynolds numbers in magnetohydrodynamic simulations.

    PubMed

    Hotta, H; Rempel, M; Yokoyama, T

    2016-03-25

    The 11-year solar magnetic cycle shows a high degree of coherence in spite of the turbulent nature of the solar convection zone. It has been found in recent high-resolution magnetohydrodynamics simulations that the maintenance of a large-scale coherent magnetic field is difficult with small viscosity and magnetic diffusivity (≲10 (12) square centimenters per second). We reproduced previous findings that indicate a reduction of the energy in the large-scale magnetic field for lower diffusivities and demonstrate the recovery of the global-scale magnetic field using unprecedentedly high resolution. We found an efficient small-scale dynamo that suppresses small-scale flows, which mimics the properties of large diffusivity. As a result, the global-scale magnetic field is maintained even in the regime of small diffusivities-that is, large Reynolds numbers. PMID:27013727

  15. Large deviations of the shifted index number in the Gaussian ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Castillo, Isaac

    2016-06-01

    We show that, using the Coulomb fluid approach, we are able to derive a rate function \\Psi(c,x) of two variables that captures: (i) the large deviations of bulk eigenvalues; (ii) the large deviations of extreme eigenvalues (both left and right large deviations); (iii) the statistics of the fraction c of eigenvalues to the left of a position x. Thus, \\Psi(c,x) explains the full order statistics of the eigenvalues of large random Gaussian matrices as well as the statistics of the shifted index number. All our analytical findings are thoroughly compared with Monte Carlo simulations, obtaining excellent agreement. A summary of preliminary results has already been presented in Pérez Castillo (2014 Phys. Rev. E 90 040102) in the context of one-dimensional trapped spinless fermions in a harmonic potential.

  16. Confined rotating convection with large Prandtl number: centrifugal effects on wall modes.

    PubMed

    Curbelo, Jezabel; Lopez, Juan M; Mancho, Ana M; Marques, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Thermal convection in a rotating cylinder with a radius-to-height aspect ratio of Γ=4 for fluids with large Prandtl number is studied numerically. Centrifugal buoyancy effects are investigated in a regime where the Coriolis force is relatively large and the onset of thermal convection is in the so-called wall modes regime, where pairs of hot and cold thermal plumes ascend and descend in the cylinder sidewall boundary layer, forming an essentially one-dimensional pattern characterized by the number of hot and cold plume pairs. In our numerical study, we use the physical parameters corresponding to aqueous mixtures of glycerine with mass concentration in the range of 60%-90% glycerine and a Rayleigh number range that extends from the threshold for wall modes up to values where the bulk fluid region is also convecting. The study shows that for the range of Rayleigh numbers considered, the local variations in viscosity due to temperature variation in the flow are negligible. However, the mean viscosity, which varies faster than exponentially with variations in the percentage of glycerine, leads to a faster than exponential increase in the Froude number for a fixed Coriolis force, and hence an enhancement of the centrifugal buoyancy effects with significant dynamical consequences, which are detailed. PMID:24580332

  17. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749

  18. Investigating the evolution of Shared Socioeconomic Pathways with a large number of scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, V. J.; Guivarch, C.; Rozenberg, J.

    2013-12-01

    The new scenario framework for climate change research includes alternative possible trends for socioeconomic development called Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). The SSPs bear some similarities to other scenarios used for global change research, but they also have important differences. Like the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios or the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, SSPs are defined by a scenario logic consisting of two axes. However, these axes define SSPs with respect to their location in an outcome space for challenges to mitigation and to adaptation rather than by their drivers. Open questions for the SSPs include what their drivers are and how the time dimension could be interpreted with the outcomes space. We present a new analytical approach for addressing both questions by studying large numbers of scenarios produced by an integrated assessment model, IMACLIM-R. We systematically generated 432 scenarios and used the SSP framework to classify them by typology. We then analyzed them dynamically, tracing their evolution through the SSP challenges space at annual time steps over the period 2010-2090. Through this approach, we found that many scenarios do not remain fixed to a particular SSP domain; they drift from one domain to another. In papers describing the framework for new scenarios, SSPs are envisioned as hypothetical (counter-factual) reference scenarios that remain fixed in one domain over some time period of interest. However, we conclude that it may be important to also research scenarios that shift across SSP domains. This is relevant for another open question, which is what scenarios are important to explore given their consequences. Through a data mining technique, we uncovered prominent drivers for scenarios that shift across SSP domains. Scenarios with different challenges for adaptation and mitigation (that is, mitigation and adaptation challenges that are not co-varying) were found to be the least stable, and the following

  19. Large herbivore grazing affects the vegetation structure and greenhouse gas balance in a high arctic mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Julie Maria; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Ström, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Herbivory is an important part of most ecosystems and affects the ecosystems’ carbon balance both directly and indirectly. Little is known about herbivory and its impact on the carbon balance in high arctic mire ecosystems. We hypothesized that trampling and grazing by large herbivores influences the vegetation density and composition and thereby also the carbon balance. In 2010, we established fenced exclosures in high arctic Greenland to prevent muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from grazing. During the growing seasons of 2011 to 2013 we measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes in these ungrazed blocks and compared them to blocks subjected to natural grazing. Additionally, we measured depth of the water table and active layer, soil temperature, and in 2011 and 2013 an inventory of the vegetation density and composition were made. In 2013 a significant decrease in total number of vascular plant (33-44%) and Eriophorum scheuchzeri (51-53%) tillers were found in ungrazed plots, the moss-layer and amount of litter had also increased substantially in these plots. This resulted in a significant decrease in net ecosystem uptake of CO2 (47%) and likewise a decrease in CH4 emission (44%) in ungrazed plots in 2013. While the future of the muskoxen in a changing arctic is unknown, this experiment points to a potentially large effect of large herbivores on the carbon balance in natural Arctic ecosystems. It thus sheds light on the importance of grazing mammals, and hence adds to our understanding of natural ecosystem greenhouse gas balance in the past and in the future.

  20. Reynolds number scaling of coherent vortex simulation and stochastic coherent adaptive large eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejadmalayeri, Alireza; Vezolainen, Alexei; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2013-11-01

    In view of the ongoing longtime pursuit of numerical approaches that can capture important flow physics of high Reynolds number flows with fewest degrees of freedom, two important wavelet-based multi-resolution schemes are thoroughly examined, namely, the Coherent Vortex Simulation (CVS) and the Stochastic Coherent Adaptive Large Eddy Simulation (SCALES) with constant and spatially/temporarily variable thresholding. Reynolds number scaling of active spatial modes for CVS and SCALES of linearly forced homogeneous turbulence at high Reynolds numbers is investigated in dynamic study for the first time. This dynamic computational complexity study demonstrates that wavelet-based methods can capture flow-physics while using substantially fewer degrees of freedom than both direct numerical simulation and marginally resolved LES with the same level of fidelity or turbulence resolution, defined as ratio of subgrid scale and the total dissipations. The study provides four important observations: (1) the linear Reynolds number scaling of energy containing structures at a fixed level of kinetic energy, (2) small, close to unity, fractal dimension for constant-threshold CVS and SCALES simulations, (3) constant, close to two, fractal dimension for constant-dissipation SCALES that is insensitive to the level of fidelity, and (4) faster than quadratic decay of the compression ratio as a function of turbulence resolution. The very promising slope for Reynolds number scaling of CVS and SCALES demonstrates the potential of the wavelet-based methodologies for hierarchical multiscale space/time adaptive variable fidelity simulations of high Reynolds number turbulent flows.

  1. Investigation of Rossby-number similarity in the neutral boundary layer using large-eddy simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmstede, W.D.; Cederwall, R.T.; Meyers, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    One special case of particular interest, especially to theoreticians, is the steady-state, horizontally homogeneous, autobarotropic (PLB), hereafter referred to as the neutral boundary layer (NBL). The NBL is in fact a 'rare' atmospheric phenomenon, generally associated with high-wind situations. Nevertheless, there is a disproportionate interest in this problem because Rossby-number similarity theory provides a sound approach for addressing this issue. Rossby-number similarity theory has rather wide acceptance, but because of the rarity of the 'true' NBL state, there remains an inadequate experimental database for quantifying constants associated with the Rossby-number similarity concept. Although it remains a controversial issue, it has been proposed that large-eddy simulation (LES) is an alternative to physical experimentation for obtaining basic atmospherc 'data'. The objective of the study reported here is to investigate Rossby-number similarity in the NBL using LES. Previous studies have not addressed Rossby-number similarity explicitly, although they made use of it in the interpretation of their results. The intent is to calculate several sets of NBL solutions that are ambiguous relative to the their respective Rossby numbers and compare the results for similarity, or the lack of it. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  2. An autostereoscopic display with high resolution and large number of view zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wu-Li; Hsu, Wei-Liang; Tsai, Chao-Hsu; Wang, Chy-Lin; Wu, Chang-Shuo; Yang, Jinn-Cherng; Cheng, Shu-Chuan

    2008-02-01

    For a spatial-multiplexed 3D display, trade-off between resolution and number of view-zones are usually unavoidable due to the limited number of pixels on the screen. In this paper, we present a new autostereoscopic system, named as "integrated-screen system," to substantially increase the total number of pixels on the screen, which in turn increase both the resolution and number of view-zones. In the integrated-screen system, a large number of mini-projectors are arrayed and the images are tiled together without seams in between. For displaying 3D images, the lenticular screen with predesigned tilted angle is used for distributing different viewing zones. In order to achieve good performance, we design a brand-new projector with special lens set to meet the low-distortion requirement because the distortion of the image will induce serious crosstalk between view-zones. The proposed system has two advantages. One is the extensibility of the screen size. The size of the display can be chosen based on the applications we deal with, including the size of the projected pixel and the number of viewing zones. The other advantage is that the integrated-screen system provides projected pixels in great density to solve the major problem of the poor resolution that a lenticular-type 3D display has.

  3. Differences in Factors Affecting Various Crash Types with High Numbers of Fatalities and Injuries in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; He, Jie; Ding, Jianxun; Shi, Qin; Wang, Changjun; Li, Pingfan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Road traffic crashes that involve very high numbers of fatalities and injuries arouse public concern wherever they occur. In China, there are two categories of such crashes: a crash that results in 10–30 fatalities, 50–100 serious injuries or a total cost of 50–100 million RMB ($US8-16m) is a “serious road traffic crash” (SRTC), while a crash that is even more severe or costly is a “particularly serious road traffic crash” (PSRTC). The aim of this study is to identify the main factors affecting different types of these crashes (single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact) with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. Methods Detailed descriptions of the SRTCs and PSRTCs that occurred from 2007 to 2014 were collected from the database “In-depth Investigation and Analysis System for Major Road Traffic Crashes” (IIASMRTC), which is maintained by the Traffic Management Research Institute of the Ministry of Public Security of China (TMRI). 18 main risk factors, which were categorized into four areas (participant, vehicle, road and environment-related) were chosen as potential independent variables for the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Comparisons were made among the single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact crashes in terms of factors affecting crash occurrence. Findings Five risk factors were significant for the six multinomial logistic regression models, which were location, vertical alignment, roadside safety rating, driver distraction and overloading of cargo. It was indicated that intersections were more likely to have side impact SRTCs and PSRTCs, especially with poor visibility at night. Overloaded freight vehicles were more likely to be involved in a rear-end crash than other freight vehicles. Driver distraction is an important risk factor for head-on crashes, while vertical alignment and roadside safety rating are positively associated with single-vehicle crashes. Conclusion Based

  4. Effect of a large number of parties on the monogamy of quantum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Asutosh; Prabhu, R.; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2015-01-01

    Monogamy is a nonclassical property that restricts the sharability of quantum correlation among the constituents of a multipartite quantum system. Quantum correlations may satisfy or violate monogamy for quantum states, which was tested mainly for three-qubit states. Here we establish a sufficient condition for monogamy of arbitrary quantum correlation measures of states of an arbitrary number of parties, using which and further numerical results, we obtain evidence for monogamy of measures such as distillable entanglement and relative entropy of entanglement, which are physically important but mathematically intractable, for almost all quantum states of a moderate number of parties. The result is generic and holds for a large class of quantum correlation measures. Nonetheless, we identify important zero Haar measure classes of pure states that remain nonmonogamous with respect to quantum discord and quantum work deficit, irrespective of the number of qubits.

  5. Estimation of parameters in large offspring number models and ratios of coalescence times.

    PubMed

    Eldon, Bjarki

    2011-08-01

    The ratio of singletons to the total number of segregating sites is used to estimate a reproduction parameter in a population model of large offspring numbers without having to jointly estimate the mutation rate. For neutral genetic variation, the ratio of singletons to the total number of segregating sites is equivalent to the ratio of total length of external branches to the total length of the gene genealogy. A multinomial maximum likelihood method that takes into account more frequency classes than just the singletons is developed to estimate the parameter of another large offspring number model. The performance of these methods with regard to sample size, mutation rate, and bias, is investigated by simulation. The expected value of the ratio of the total length of external branches to the total length of the whole tree is, using simulation, shown to decrease for the Kingman coalescent as sample size increases, but can increase or decrease, depending on parameter values, for Λ coalescents. Considering ratios of tree statistics, as opposed to considering lengths of various subtrees separately, can yield better insight into the dynamics of gene genealogies. PMID:21570995

  6. Population Analysis of Large Copy Number Variants and Hotspots of Human Genetic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Itsara, Andy; Cooper, Gregory M.; Baker, Carl; Girirajan, Santhosh; Li, Jun; Absher, Devin; Krauss, Ronald M.; Myers, Richard M.; Ridker, Paul M.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Mefford, Heather; Ying, Phyllis; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Eichler, Evan E.

    2009-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to human genetic and phenotypic diversity. However, the distribution of larger CNVs in the general population remains largely unexplored. We identify large variants in ∼2500 individuals by using Illumina SNP data, with an emphasis on “hotspots” prone to recurrent mutations. We find variants larger than 500 kb in 5%–10% of individuals and variants greater than 1 Mb in 1%–2%. In contrast to previous studies, we find limited evidence for stratification of CNVs in geographically distinct human populations. Importantly, our sample size permits a robust distinction between truly rare and polymorphic but low-frequency copy number variation. We find that a significant fraction of individual CNVs larger than 100 kb are rare and that both gene density and size are strongly anticorrelated with allele frequency. Thus, although large CNVs commonly exist in normal individuals, which suggests that size alone can not be used as a predictor of pathogenicity, such variation is generally deleterious. Considering these observations, we combine our data with published CNVs from more than 12,000 individuals contrasting control and neurological disease collections. This analysis identifies known disease loci and highlights additional CNVs (e.g., 3q29, 16p12, and 15q25.2) for further investigation. This study provides one of the first analyses of large, rare (0.1%–1%) CNVs in the general population, with insights relevant to future analyses of genetic disease. PMID:19166990

  7. A Simple Method for Estimating Interactions between a Treatment and a Large Number of Covariates

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lu; Alizadeh, Ash A; Gentles, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    We consider a setting in which we have a treatment and a potentially large number of covariates for a set of observations, and wish to model their relationship with an outcome of interest. We propose a simple method for modeling interactions between the treatment and covariates. The idea is to modify the covariate in a simple way, and then fit a standard model using the modified covariates and no main effects. We show that coupled with an efficiency augmentation procedure, this method produces clinically meaningful estimators in a variety of settings. It can be useful for practicing personalized medicine: determining from a large set of biomarkers the subset of patients that can potentially benefit from a treatment. We apply the method to both simulated datasets and real trial data. The modified covariates idea can be used for other purposes, for example, large scale hypothesis testing for determining which of a set of covariates interact with a treatment variable. PMID:25729117

  8. Not only pregnancy but also the number of fetuses in the uterus affects intraocular pressure

    PubMed Central

    Saylık, Metin; Saylık, Safiye A

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether, intraocular pressure (IOP) is affected when there is a second fetus in the uterus during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Eighty eyes of 40 twin pregnancies (TwPs), 80 eyes of 40 singleton pregnancies (SiPs) and 80 eyes of 40 non-pregnant females (NoPs) were included in the study. Statistical Analysis: Repeated measurements analysis of variance with two factors, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and theTukey's multiple comparison test were used. Results: The mean IOP (MIOP) values in TwPs were 14.29 ± 1.28, 11.48 ± 1.20, and 9.81 ± 1.36 mmHg and the MIOP values in SiPs were 14.42 ± 0.95, 13.12 ± 0.75, and 10.97 ± 0.89 mmHg in subsequent trimesters. The MIOP values in NoPs were 14.77 ± 1.18, 14.92 ± 1.33, and 15.08 ± 0.89 mmHg in subsequent 3-month measurements. The results show that the MIOP values for the TwPs group were significantly lower than the SiPs in all trimesters. Conclusions: During pregnancy, the number of fetuses in the uterus is an indirectly important factor that influences the decrease in IOP. We hypothesize that the increased ocular hypotensive effect of TwPs is most likely related to the presence of higher levels of hormones, particularly estrogen, progesterone and relaxin compared with SiPs. PMID:24178401

  9. 0{sup +} states in the large boson number limit of the Interacting Boson Approximation model

    SciTech Connect

    Bonatsos, Dennis; McCutchan, E. A.; Casten, R. F.

    2008-11-11

    Studies of the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) model for large boson numbers have been triggered by the discovery of shape/phase transitions between different limiting symmetries of the model. These transitions become sharper in the large boson number limit, revealing previously unnoticed regularities, which also survive to a large extent for finite boson numbers, corresponding to valence nucleon pairs in collective nuclei. It is shown that energies of 0{sub n}{sup +} states grow linearly with their ordinal number n in all three limiting symmetries of IBA [U(5), SU(3), and O(6)]. Furthermore, it is proved that the narrow transition region separating the symmetry triangle of the IBA into a spherical and a deformed region is described quite well by the degeneracies E(0{sub 2}{sup +}) = E(6{sub 1}{sup +}, E(0{sub 3}{sup +}) = E(10{sub 1}{sup +}), E(0{sub 4}{sup +}) = E(14{sub 1}{sup +}, while the energy ratio E(6{sub 1}{sup +})/E(0{sub 2}{sup +} turns out to be a simple, empirical, easy-to-measure effective order parameter, distinguishing between first- and second-order transitions. The energies of 0{sub n}{sup +} states near the point of the first order shape/phase transition between U(5) and SU(3) are shown to grow as n(n+3), in agreement with the rule dictated by the relevant critical point symmetries resulting in the framework of special solutions of the Bohr Hamiltonian. The underlying partial dynamical symmetries and quasi-dynamical symmetries are also discussed.

  10. Large scale dynamics in a turbulent compressible rotor/stator cavity flow at high Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachize, C.; Verhille, G.; Le Gal, P.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of a turbulent flow confined within a rotor/stator cavity of aspect ratio close to unity at high Reynolds number. The experiments have been driven by changing both the rotation rate of the disk and the thermodynamical properties of the working fluid. This fluid is sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) whose physical properties are adjusted by imposing the operating temperature and the absolute pressure in a pressurized vessel, especially near the critical point of SF6 reached for T c = 45.58 ◦C, P c = 37.55 bar. This original set-up allows to obtain Reynolds numbers as high as 2 × 107 together with compressibility effects as the Mach number can reach 0.5. Pressure measurements reveal that the resulting fully turbulent flow shows both a direct and an inverse cascade as observed in rotating turbulence and in accordance with Kraichnan conjecture for 2D-turbulence. The spectra are however dominated by low-frequency peaks, which are subharmonics of the rotating disk frequency, involving large scale structures at small azimuthal wavenumbers. These modes appear for a Reynolds number around 105 and experience a transition at a critical Reynolds number Re c ≈ 106. Moreover they show an unexpected nonlinear behavior that we understand with the help of a low dimensional amplitude equations.

  11. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bost, Charles A.; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-10-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes.

  12. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography

    PubMed Central

    Bost, Charles A.; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes. PMID:26506134

  13. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography.

    PubMed

    Bost, Charles A; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes. PMID:26506134

  14. Estimating the effective Reynolds number in implicit large-eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ye; Grinstein, Fernando F; Wachtor, Adam J; Haines, Brian M

    2014-01-01

    In implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES), energy-containing large scales are resolved, and physics capturing numerics are used to spatially filter out unresolved scales and to implicitly model subgrid scale effects. From an applied perspective, it is highly desirable to estimate a characteristic Reynolds number (Re)-and therefore a relevant effective viscosity-so that the impact of resolution on predicted flow quantities and their macroscopic convergence can usefully be characterized. We argue in favor of obtaining robust Re estimates away from the smallest scales of the simulated flow-where numerically controlled dissipation takes place and propose a theoretical basis and framework to determine such measures. ILES examples include forced turbulence as a steady flow case, the Taylor-Green vortex to address transition and decaying turbulence, and simulations of a laser-driven reshock experiment illustrating a fairly complex turbulence problem of current practical interest. PMID:24580356

  15. Impact factors for Reggeon-gluon transition in N=4 SYM with large number of colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. S.; Fiore, R.

    2014-06-01

    We calculate impact factors for Reggeon-gluon transition in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with four supercharges at large number of colours Nc. In the next-to-leading order impact factors are not uniquely defined and must accord with BFKL kernels and energy scales. We obtain the impact factor corresponding to the kernel and the energy evolution parameter, which is invariant under Möbius transformation in momentum space, and show that it is also Möbius invariant up to terms taken into account in the BDS ansatz.

  16. Diffractive imaging at large Fresnel number: Challenge of dynamic mesoscale imaging with hard x rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, John L.; Barnes, Cris W.; Sandberg, Richard L.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    2014-05-01

    Real materials have structure at both the atomic or crystalline scale as well as at interfaces and defects at the larger scale of grains. There is a need for the study of materials at the "mesoscale," the scale at which subgranular physical processes and intergranular organization couple to determine microstructure, crucially impacting constitutive response at the engineering macroscale. Diffractive imaging using photons that can penetrate multiple grains of material would be a transformative technique for the study of the performance of materials in dynamic extremes. Thicker samples imply higher energy photons of shorter wavelength, and imaging of multiple grains implies bigger spot sizes. Such imaging requires the use of future planned and proposed hard x-ray free electron lasers (such as the European XFEL) to provide both the spatial coherence transverse to the large spots and the peak brilliance to provide the short illumination times. The result is that the Fresnel number of the system becomes large and is no longer in the Fraunhofer far-field limit. The interrelated issues of diffractive imaging at large Fresnel number are analyzed, including proof that diffractive imaging is possible in this limit and estimates of the signal-to-noise possible. In addition, derivation of the heating rates for brilliant pulses of x rays are presented. The potential and limitations on multiple dynamic images are derived. This paper will present a study of x-ray interactions with materials in this new regime of spatially coherent but relatively large mesoscale spots at very hard energies. It should provide the theory and design background for the experiments and facilities required to control materials in extreme environments, in particular for the next generation of very-hard-x-ray free electron lasers.

  17. Learning Collocations: Do the Number of Collocates, Position of the Node Word, and Synonymy Affect Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart; Kagimoto, Eve

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three factors (the number of collocates per node word, the position of the node word, synonymy) on learning collocations. Japanese students studying English as a foreign language learned five sets of 12 target collocations. Each collocation was presented in a single glossed sentence. The number of collocates…

  18. Superposition of elliptic functions as solutions for a large number of nonlinear equations

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, Avinash; Saxena, Avadh

    2014-03-15

    For a large number of nonlinear equations, both discrete and continuum, we demonstrate a kind of linear superposition. We show that whenever a nonlinear equation admits solutions in terms of both Jacobi elliptic functions cn(x, m) and dn(x, m) with modulus m, then it also admits solutions in terms of their sum as well as difference. We have checked this in the case of several nonlinear equations such as the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, MKdV, a mixed KdV-MKdV system, a mixed quadratic-cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the Ablowitz-Ladik equation, the saturable nonlinear Schrödinger equation, λϕ{sup 4}, the discrete MKdV as well as for several coupled field equations. Further, for a large number of nonlinear equations, we show that whenever a nonlinear equation admits a periodic solution in terms of dn{sup 2}(x, m), it also admits solutions in terms of dn {sup 2}(x,m)±√(m) cn (x,m) dn (x,m), even though cn(x, m)dn(x, m) is not a solution of these nonlinear equations. Finally, we also obtain superposed solutions of various forms for several coupled nonlinear equations.

  19. Law of Large Numbers: the Theory, Applications and Technology-based Education

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo D.; Christou, Nicolas; Gould, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Modern approaches for technology-based blended education utilize a variety of recently developed novel pedagogical, computational and network resources. Such attempts employ technology to deliver integrated, dynamically-linked, interactive-content and heterogeneous learning environments, which may improve student comprehension and information retention. In this paper, we describe one such innovative effort of using technological tools to expose students in probability and statistics courses to the theory, practice and usability of the Law of Large Numbers (LLN). We base our approach on integrating pedagogical instruments with the computational libraries developed by the Statistics Online Computational Resource (www.SOCR.ucla.edu). To achieve this merger we designed a new interactive Java applet and a corresponding demonstration activity that illustrate the concept and the applications of the LLN. The LLN applet and activity have common goals – to provide graphical representation of the LLN principle, build lasting student intuition and present the common misconceptions about the law of large numbers. Both the SOCR LLN applet and activity are freely available online to the community to test, validate and extend (Applet: http://socr.ucla.edu/htmls/exp/Coin_Toss_LLN_Experiment.html, and Activity: http://wiki.stat.ucla.edu/socr/index.php/SOCR_EduMaterials_Activities_LLN). PMID:21603584

  20. Molecular replacement with a large number of molecules in the asymmetric unit

    PubMed Central

    Jobichen, Chacko; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2014-01-01

    The exponential increase in protein structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) has resulted in the elucidation of most, if not all, protein folds, thus making molecular replacement (MR) the most frequently used method for structure determination. A survey of the PDB shows that most of the structures determined by molecular replacement contain less than ten molecules in the asymmetric unit and that it is predominantly virus and ribosome structures that contain more than 20 molecules in the asymmetric unit. While the success of the MR method depends on several factors, such as the homology and the size of an input model, it is also a well known fact that this method can become significantly difficult in cases with a large number of molecules in the asymmetric unit, higher crystallographic symmetry and tight packing. In this paper, five representative structures containing 16–18 homomeric molecules in the asymmetric unit and the strategies that have been used to solve these structures are described. The difficulties faced and the lessons learned from these structure-determination efforts will be useful for selected and similar future situations with a large number of molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:25195913

  1. Automated 3D trajectory measuring of large numbers of moving particles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai Shan; Zhao, Qi; Zou, Danping; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2011-04-11

    Complex dynamics of natural particle systems, such as insect swarms, bird flocks, fish schools, has attracted great attention of scientists for years. Measuring 3D trajectory of each individual in a group is vital for quantitative study of their dynamic properties, yet such empirical data is rare mainly due to the challenges of maintaining the identities of large numbers of individuals with similar visual features and frequent occlusions. We here present an automatic and efficient algorithm to track 3D motion trajectories of large numbers of moving particles using two video cameras. Our method solves this problem by formulating it as three linear assignment problems (LAP). For each video sequence, the first LAP obtains 2D tracks of moving targets and is able to maintain target identities in the presence of occlusions; the second one matches the visually similar targets across two views via a novel technique named maximum epipolar co-motion length (MECL), which is not only able to effectively reduce matching ambiguity but also further diminish the influence of frequent occlusions; the last one links 3D track segments into complete trajectories via computing a globally optimal assignment based on temporal and kinematic cues. Experiment results on simulated particle swarms with various particle densities validated the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. As real-world case, our method successfully acquired 3D flight paths of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) group comprising hundreds of freely flying individuals. PMID:21503074

  2. Double large field stereoscopic PIV in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudert, S.; Foucaut, J. M.; Kostas, J.; Stanislas, M.; Braud, P.; Fourment, C.; Delville, J.; Tutkun, M.; Mehdi, F.; Johansson, P.; George, W. K.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds number has been carried out in the Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille (LML, UMR CNRS 8107) wind tunnel. This experiment was performed jointly with LEA (UMR CNRS 6609) in Poitiers (France) and Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden), in the frame of the WALLTURB European project. The simultaneous recording of 143 hot wires in one transverse plane and of two perpendicular stereoscopic PIV fields was performed successfully. The first SPIV plane is 1 cm upstream of the hot wire rake and the second is both orthogonal to the first one and to the wall. The first PIV results show a blockage effect which based on both statistical results (i.e. mean, RMS and spatial correlation) and a potential model does not seem to affect the turbulence organization.

  3. Methods to produce and safely work with large numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and bradyzoite cysts

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, H.; Barr, B.; Packham, A.; Melli, A.; Conrad, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Two major obstacles to conducting studies with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are the difficulty in reliably producing large numbers of this life stage and safety concerns because the oocyst is the most environmentally resistant stage of this zoonotic organism. Oocyst production requires oral infection of the definitive feline host with adequate numbers of T. gondii organisms to obtain unsporulated oocysts that are shed in the feces for 3-10 days after infection. Since the most successful and common mode of experimental infection of kittens with T. gondii is by ingestion of bradyzoite tissue cysts, the first step in successful oocyst production is to ensure a high bradyzoite tissue cyst burden in the brains of mice that can be used for the oral inoculum. We compared two methods for producing bradyzoite brain cysts in mice, by infecting them either orally or subcutaneously with oocysts. In both cases, oocysts derived from a low passage T. gondii Type II strain (M4) were used to infect eight-ten week-old Swiss Webster mice. First the number of bradyzoite cysts that were purified from infected mouse brains was compared. Then to evaluate the effect of the route of oocyst inoculation on tissue cyst distribution in mice, a second group of mice was infected with oocysts by one of each route and tissues were examined by histology. In separate experiments, brains from infected mice were used to infect kittens for oocyst production. Greater than 1.3 billion oocysts were isolated from the feces of two infected kittens in the first production and greater than 1.8 billion oocysts from three kittens in the second production. Our results demonstrate that oral delivery of oocysts to mice results in both higher cyst loads in the brain and greater cyst burdens in other tissues examined as compared to those of mice that received the same number of oocysts subcutaneously. The ultimate goal in producing large numbers of oocysts in kittens is to generate adequate amounts of starting material

  4. Laws of Large Numbers and Langevin Approximations for Stochastic Neural Field Equations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we consider limit theorems for microscopic stochastic models of neural fields. We show that the Wilson–Cowan equation can be obtained as the limit in uniform convergence on compacts in probability for a sequence of microscopic models when the number of neuron populations distributed in space and the number of neurons per population tend to infinity. This result also allows to obtain limits for qualitatively different stochastic convergence concepts, e.g., convergence in the mean. Further, we present a central limit theorem for the martingale part of the microscopic models which, suitably re-scaled, converges to a centred Gaussian process with independent increments. These two results provide the basis for presenting the neural field Langevin equation, a stochastic differential equation taking values in a Hilbert space, which is the infinite-dimensional analogue of the chemical Langevin equation in the present setting. On a technical level, we apply recently developed law of large numbers and central limit theorems for piecewise deterministic processes taking values in Hilbert spaces to a master equation formulation of stochastic neuronal network models. These theorems are valid for processes taking values in Hilbert spaces, and by this are able to incorporate spatial structures of the underlying model. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F05, 60J25, 60J75, 92C20. PMID:23343328

  5. Large-eddy simulations of impinging jets at high Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Piomelli, Ugo

    2013-11-01

    We have performed large-eddy simulations of an impinging jet with embedded azimuthal vortices. We used a hybrid approach in which the near-wall layer is modelled using the RANS equations with the Spalart-Allmaras model, while away from the wall Lagrangian-averaged dynamic eddy-viscosity modelled LES is used. This method allowed us to reach Reynolds numbers that would be prohibitively expensive for wall-resolving LES. First, we compared the results of the hybrid calculation with a wall-resolved one at moderate Reynolds number, Re = 66 , 000 (based on jet diameter and velocity). The mean velocity and Reynolds stresses were in good agreement between the simulations, and, in particular, the generation of secondary vorticity at the wall and its liftup were captured well. The simulation cost was reduced by 86%. We then carried out simulations at Re = 266 , 000 and 1.3 million. The effect of Reynolds number on vortex development will be discussed. Canada Research Chair in Computational Turbulence, HPCVL-Sun Microsystems Chair in Computational Science and Engineering.

  6. Large Autosomal Copy-Number Differences within Unselected Monozygotic Twin Pairs are Rare.

    PubMed

    McRae, Allan F; Visscher, Peter M; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G

    2015-02-01

    Monozygotic (MZ) twins form an important system for the study of biological plasticity in humans. While MZ twins are generally considered to be genetically identical, a number of studies have emerged that have demonstrated copy-number differences within a twin pair, particularly in those discordant for disease. The rate of autosomal copy-number variation (CNV) discordance within MZ twin pairs was investigated using a population sample of 376 twin pairs genotyped on Illumina Human610-Quad arrays. After CNV calling using both QuantiSNP and PennCNV followed by manual annotation, only a single CNV difference was observed within the MZ twin pairs, being a 130 KB duplication of chromosome 5. Five other potential discordant CNV were called by the software, but excluded based on manual annotation of the regions. It is concluded that large CNV discordance is rare within MZ twin pairs, indicating that any CNV difference found within phenotypically discordant MZ twin pairs has a high probability of containing the causal gene(s) involved. PMID:25578400

  7. The power of sensitivity analysis and thoughts on models with large numbers of parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Havlacek, William

    2008-01-01

    The regulatory systems that allow cells to adapt to their environments are exceedingly complex, and although we know a great deal about the intricate mechanistic details of many of these systems, our ability to make accurate predictions about their system-level behaviors is severely limited. We would like to make such predictions for a number of reasons. How can we reverse dysfunctional molecular changes of these systems that cause disease? More generally, how can we harness and direct cellular activities for beneficial purposes? Our ability to make accurate predictions about a system is also a measure ofour fundamental understanding of that system. As evidenced by our mastery of technological systems, a useful understanding ofa complex system can often be obtained through the development and analysis ofa mathematical model, but predictive modeling of cellular regulatory systems, which necessarily relies on quantitative experimentation, is still in its infancy. There is much that we need to learn before modeling for practical applications becomes routine. In particular, we need to address a number of issues surrounding the large number of parameters that are typically found in a model for a cellular regulatory system.

  8. Timeless: A Large Sample Study on the Temporal Robustness of Affective Responses

    PubMed Central

    Postzich, Christopher; Blask, Katarina; Frings, Christian; Walther, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Emotion and its effects on other psychological phenomena are frequently studied by presenting emotional pictures for a short amount of time. However, the duration of exposure strongly differs across paradigms. In order to ensure the comparability of affective response elicitation across those paradigms, it is crucial to empirically validate emotional material not only with regard to the affective dimensions valence and arousal, but also with regard to varying presentation times. Despite this operational necessity for the temporal robustness of emotional material, there is only tentative empirical evidence on this issue. To close this gap, we conducted a large sample study testing for the influence of presentation time on affective response elicitation. Two hundred and forty emotional pictures were presented for either 200 or 1000 ms and were rated by 302 participants on the core affect dimensions valence and arousal. The most important finding was that affective response elicitation was comparable for 200 and 1000 ms presentation times, indicating reliable temporal robustness of affective response elicitation within the supra-liminal spectrum. Yet, a more detailed look on the data showed that presentation time impacted particularly on high arousing negative stimuli. However, because these interaction effects were exceedingly small, they must be interpreted with caution and do not endanger the main finding, namely the quite reliable temporal robustness of affective response elicitation. Results are discussed with regard to the comparability of affective response elicitation across varying paradigms. PMID:27313561

  9. A Genome-Wide Association Study in Large White and Landrace Pig Populations for Number Piglets Born Alive

    PubMed Central

    Bergfelder-Drüing, Sarah; Grosse-Brinkhaus, Christine; Lind, Bianca; Erbe, Malena; Schellander, Karl; Simianer, Henner; Tholen, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The number of piglets born alive (NBA) per litter is one of the most important traits in pig breeding due to its influence on production efficiency. It is difficult to improve NBA because the heritability of the trait is low and it is governed by a high number of loci with low to moderate effects. To clarify the biological and genetic background of NBA, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed using 4,012 Large White and Landrace pigs from herdbook and commercial breeding companies in Germany (3), Austria (1) and Switzerland (1). The animals were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Because of population stratifications within and between breeds, clusters were formed using the genetic distances between the populations. Five clusters for each breed were formed and analysed by GWAS approaches. In total, 17 different significant markers affecting NBA were found in regions with known effects on female reproduction. No overlapping significant chromosome areas or QTL between Large White and Landrace breed were detected. PMID:25781935

  10. A genome-wide association study in large white and landrace pig populations for number piglets born alive.

    PubMed

    Bergfelder-Drüing, Sarah; Grosse-Brinkhaus, Christine; Lind, Bianca; Erbe, Malena; Schellander, Karl; Simianer, Henner; Tholen, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The number of piglets born alive (NBA) per litter is one of the most important traits in pig breeding due to its influence on production efficiency. It is difficult to improve NBA because the heritability of the trait is low and it is governed by a high number of loci with low to moderate effects. To clarify the biological and genetic background of NBA, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed using 4,012 Large White and Landrace pigs from herdbook and commercial breeding companies in Germany (3), Austria (1) and Switzerland (1). The animals were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Because of population stratifications within and between breeds, clusters were formed using the genetic distances between the populations. Five clusters for each breed were formed and analysed by GWAS approaches. In total, 17 different significant markers affecting NBA were found in regions with known effects on female reproduction. No overlapping significant chromosome areas or QTL between Large White and Landrace breed were detected. PMID:25781935

  11. Research on beam characteristics in a large-Fresnel-number unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator with parabolic mirrors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Yingxiong; Xiao, Yu; Zhong, Lijing; Wu, Chao; Wang, Zhen; Wan, Wen; Tang, Xiahui

    2016-07-20

    Large-Fresnel-number unstable-waveguide hybrid resonators employing spherical resonator mirrors suffer from spherical aberration, which adversely affects beam quality and alignment sensitivity. In this paper, we present experimental and numerical wave-optics simulations of the beam characteristics of a negative-branch hybrid resonator having parabolic mirrors with a large equivalent Fresnel number in the unstable direction. These results are compared with a resonator using spherical mirrors. Using parabolic mirrors, the output beam has a smaller beam spot size and higher power density at the focal plane. We found that the power extraction efficiency is 3.5% higher when compared with a resonator using spherical mirrors as the cavity length was varied between -1 and 1 mm from the ideal confocal resonator. In addition, the power extraction efficiency is 5.6% higher for mirror tilt angles varied between -6 and 6 mrad. Furthermore, the output propagating field is similar to a converging wave for a spherical mirror resonator and the output beam direction deviates 3.5 mrad from the optical axis. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:27463896

  12. Support for the involvement of large copy number variants in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, George; Grozeva, Detelina; Norton, Nadine; Ivanov, Dobril; Mantripragada, Kiran K.; Holmans, Peter; Craddock, Nick; Owen, Michael J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the involvement of rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in 471 cases of schizophrenia and 2792 controls that had been genotyped using the Affymetrix GeneChip® 500K Mapping Array. Large CNVs >1 Mb were 2.26 times more common in cases (P = 0.00027), with the effect coming mostly from deletions (odds ratio, OR = 4.53, P = 0.00013) although duplications were also more common (OR = 1.71, P = 0.04). Two large deletions were found in two cases each, but in no controls: a deletion at 22q11.2 known to be a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia and a deletion on 17p12, at 14.0–15.4 Mb. The latter is known to cause hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies. The same deletion was found in 6 of 4618 (0.13%) cases and 6 of 36 092 (0.017%) controls in the re-analysed data of two recent large CNV studies of schizophrenia (OR = 7.82, P = 0.001), with the combined significance level for all three studies achieving P = 5 × 10−5. One large duplication on 16p13.1, which has been previously implicated as a susceptibility factor for autism, was found in three cases and six controls (0.6% versus 0.2%, OR = 2.98, P = 0.13). We also provide the first support for a recently reported association between deletions at 15q11.2 and schizophrenia (P = 0.026). This study confirms the involvement of rare CNVs in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and contributes to the growing list of specific CNVs that are implicated. PMID:19181681

  13. Large numbers of genetic variants considered to be pathogenic are common in asymptomatic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cassa, Christopher A.; Tong, Mark Y.; Jordan, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    It is now affordable to order clinically interpreted whole genome sequence reports from clinical laboratories. One major component of these reports is derived from the knowledge base of previously identified pathogenic variants, including research articles, locus specific and other databases. While over 150,000 such pathogenic variants have been identified, many of these were originally discovered in small cohort studies of affected individuals, so their applicability to asymptomatic populations is unclear. We analyzed the prevalence of a large set of pathogenic variants from the medical and scientific literature in a large set of asymptomatic individuals (N=1,092) and found 8.5% of these pathogenic variants in at least one individual. In the average individual in the 1000 Genomes Project, previously identified pathogenic variants occur on average 294 times (σ= 25.5) in homozygous form and 942 times (σ = 68.2) in heterozygous form. We also find that many of these pathogenic variants are frequently occurring: there are 3,744 variants with MAF >= 0.01 (4.6%) and 2,837 variants with MAF >= 0.05 (3.5%). This indicates that many of these variants may be erroneous findings or have lower penetrance than previously expected. PMID:23818451

  14. Optimization of evaporative cooling towards a large number of Bose-Einstein-condensed atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Makoto; Mukai, Tetsuya; Mukai, Takaaki; Koashi, Masato; Mitsunaga, Masaharu; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2003-02-01

    We study the optimization of evaporative cooling in trapped bosonic atoms on the basis of quantum kinetic theory of a Bose gas. The optimized cooling trajectory for {sup 87}Rb atoms indicates that the acceleration of evaporative cooling around the transition point of Bose-Einstein condensation is very effective against loss of trapped atoms caused by three-body recombination. The number of condensed atoms is largely enhanced by the optimization, more than two orders of magnitude in our present calculation using relevant experimental parameters, as compared with the typical value given by the conventional evaporative cooling where the frequency of radio-frequency magnetic field is swept exponentially. In addition to this optimized cooling, it is also shown that highly efficient evaporative cooling can be achieved by an initial exponential and then a rapid linear sweep of frequency.

  15. Variation of froude number with discharge for large-gradient steams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahl, Kenneth L.

    1993-01-01

    Under chemical-control conditions, the Froude number (f) for a cross-section can be approximated as a function of the ratio R2/ 3/d 1/2 , where R is the hydraulic radius and d is the average depth. For cross sections where the ratio increases with increasing depth, F can also increase with depth Current-meter measurement data for 433 streamflow gaging stations in Colorado were reviewed, and 62 stations were identified at which F increases with depth of flow. Data for four streamflow gaging stations are presented. In some cases, F approaches 1 as the discharge approaches the magnitude of the median annual peak discharge. The data also indicate that few actual current meter measurement have been made at the large discharges where velocities can be supercritical.

  16. Large-Eddy Simulation of a High Reynolds Number Flow Around a Cylinder Including Aeroacoustic Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spyropoulos, Evangelos T.; Holmes, Bayard S.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamic subgrid-scale model is employed in large-eddy simulations of flow over a cylinder at a Reynolds number, based on the diameter of the cylinder, of 90,000. The Centric SPECTRUM(trademark) finite element solver is used for the analysis. The far field sound pressure is calculated from Lighthill-Curle's equation using the computed fluctuating pressure at the surface of the cylinder. The sound pressure level at a location 35 diameters away from the cylinder and at an angle of 90 deg with respect to the wake's downstream axis was found to have a peak value of approximately 110 db. Slightly smaller peak values were predicted at the 60 deg and 120 deg locations. A grid refinement study suggests that the dynamic model demands mesh refinement beyond that used here.

  17. STARE Observations of a Pc 5 pulsation with large azimuthal wave number

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, W.; Poulter, E.M.; Nielsen, E.

    1982-08-01

    In recent years the STARE system has been used to analyze Pc5 pulsations of several different types. In this paper a detailed description of a new type of pulsation is given. The event described occurred during local magnetic afternoon; it had small amplitude (Vertical BarEVertical Bar< or approx. =5mV m/sup -1/ in the ionosphere), a period which varied from 220 to 385 s during the event, and a large azimuthal wave number (mapprox.35) which varied such as to keep the azimuthal phase velocity approximately constant for a given geomagnetic latitude; propagation was geomagnetic westward. When maped into the equatorial plane, the properties of the wave strongly suggest that the wave phase velocity was determined by hot proton drift motions near the equatorial plane. The observational results are compared with theoretical properties of the drift mirror instability. While the results do not contradict the predicted properties, it is felt that further theoretical development is required.

  18. Properties of sound attenuation around a two-dimensional underwater vehicle with a large cavitation number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Peng-Cheng; Pan, Guang

    2015-06-01

    Due to the high speed of underwater vehicles, cavitation is generated inevitably along with the sound attenuation when the sound signal traverses through the cavity region around the underwater vehicle. The linear wave propagation is studied to obtain the influence of bubbly liquid on the acoustic wave propagation in the cavity region. The sound attenuation coefficient and the sound speed formula of the bubbly liquid are presented. Based on the sound attenuation coefficients with various vapor volume fractions, the attenuation of sound intensity is calculated under large cavitation number conditions. The result shows that the sound intensity attenuation is fairly small in a certain condition. Consequently, the intensity attenuation can be neglected in engineering. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51279165 and 51479170) and the National Defense Basic Scientific Research Program of China (Grant No. B2720133014).

  19. Tail probabilities of extinction time in a large number of experimental populations.

    PubMed

    Drake, John M

    2014-05-01

    Determining the distribution of population extinction times is a fundamental problem in theoretical population biology. In particular, the tail properties, patterns in the probability of long-term persistence, have not been studied. Further, until now there have been no experimental or observational data sets with which to empirically test the "rare event" predictions of the standard stochastic theory of extinction, which holds that extinction times should be exponentially distributed. I performed an experimental study of extinction in a large number of replicate (n = 1076) laboratory populations of the waterflea Daphnia pulicaria. Observed extinction time ranged from 1 to 1239 days. Statistical models supported the hypothesis of a power-law distribution over the exponential distribution and other alternatives. This pattern contradicts the notion that population extinction time has an exponential tail, questioning its ubiquitous use in theoretical ecology. It is also a rare instance of a data set that exhibits power-law scaling under appropriate statistical criteria. PMID:25000743

  20. Storage conditions affecting increase in falling number of soft red winter wheat grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Falling number (FN) of wheat grain, a measure of preharvest sprouting, tends to increase during storage; however, grain and storage conditions that impact FN changes are poorly understood. Wheat grain samples of varying FN from several cultivars were obtained by malting, by incubating wheat stalks,...

  1. Language affects symbolic arithmetic in children: the case of number word inversion.

    PubMed

    Göbel, Silke M; Moeller, Korbinian; Pixner, Silvia; Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Specific language influences have been observed in basic numerical tasks such as magnitude comparison, transcoding, and the number line estimation task. However, so far language influences in more complex calculations have not been reported in children. In this translingual study, 7- to 9-year-old German- and Italian-speaking children were tested on a symbolic addition task. Whereas the order of tens and units in Italian number words follows the order of the Arabic notation, the order is inverted in German number words. For both language groups, addition problems were more difficult when a carry operation was needed, that is, when a manipulation within the place-value structure of the Arabic number system was particularly important. Most important, this carry effect was more pronounced in response latencies for children speaking German, a language with inverted verbal mapping of the place-value structure. In addition, independent of language group, the size of the carry effect was significantly related to verbal working memory. The current study indicates that symbolic arithmetic and the carry effect in particular are modulated by language-specific characteristics. Our results underline the fact that the structure of the language of instruction is an important factor in children's mathematical education and needs to be taken into account even for seemingly nonverbal symbolic Arabic tasks. PMID:24269580

  2. Large number of endemic equilibria for disease transmission models in patchy environment.

    PubMed

    Knipl, D H; Röst, G

    2014-12-01

    We show that disease transmission models in a spatially heterogeneous environment can have a large number of coexisting endemic equilibria. A general compartmental model is considered to describe the spread of an infectious disease in a population distributed over several patches. For disconnected regions, many boundary equilibria may exist with mixed disease free and endemic components, but these steady states usually disappear in the presence of spatial dispersal. However, if backward bifurcations can occur in the regions, some partially endemic equilibria of the disconnected system move into the interior of the nonnegative cone and persist with the introduction of mobility between the patches. We provide a mathematical procedure that precisely describes in terms of the local reproduction numbers and the connectivity network of the patches, whether a steady state of the disconnected system is preserved or ceases to exist for low volumes of travel. Our results are illustrated on a patchy HIV transmission model with subthreshold endemic equilibria and backward bifurcation. We demonstrate the rich dynamical behavior (i.e., creation and destruction of steady states) and the presence of multiple stable endemic equilibria for various connection networks. PMID:25223233

  3. Conflict of Interest Policies for Organizations Producing a Large Number of Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Susan L.; Holmer, Haley K.; Burda, Brittany U.; Ogden, Lauren A.; Fu, Rongwei

    2012-01-01

    Background Conflict of interest (COI) of clinical practice guideline (CPG) sponsors and authors is an important potential source of bias in CPG development. The objectives of this study were to describe the COI policies for organizations currently producing a significant number of CPGs, and to determine if these policies meet 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified organizations with five or more guidelines listed in the National Guideline Clearinghouse between January 1, 2009 and November 5, 2010. We obtained the COI policy for each organization from publicly accessible sources, most often the organization's website, and compared those polices to IOM standards related to COI. 37 organizations fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of which 17 (46%) had a COI policy directly related to CPGs. These COI policies varied widely with respect to types of COI addressed, from whom disclosures were collected, monetary thresholds for disclosure, approaches to management, and updating requirements. Not one organization's policy adhered to all seven of the IOM standards that were examined, and nine organizations did not meet a single one of the standards. Conclusions/Significance COI policies among organizations producing a large number of CPGs currently do not measure up to IOM standards related to COI disclosure and management. CPG developers need to make significant improvements in these policies and their implementation in order to optimize the quality and credibility of their guidelines. PMID:22629391

  4. A New Approach to Reduce Number of Split Fields in Large Field IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chen-Chiao; Wu, Andrew; Garg, Madhur; Mutyala, Subhakar; Kalnicki, Shalom; Sayed, Gary; Mah, Dennis

    2011-04-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been applied for treatments of primary head with neck nodes, lung with supraclavicular nodes, and high-risk prostate cancer with pelvis wall nodes, all of which require large fields. However, the design of the Varian multileaf collimator requires fields >14 cm in width to be split into 2 or more carriage movements. With the split-field technique, both the number of monitor units (MUs) and total treatment time are significantly increased. Although many different approaches have been investigated to reduce the MU, including introducing new leaf segmentation algorithms, none have resulted in widespread success. In addition, for most clinics, writing such algorithms is not a feasible solution, particularly with commercial treatment planning systems. We introduce a new approach that can minimize the number of split fields and reduce the total MUs, thereby reducing treatment time. The technique is demonstrated on the Eclipse planning system V7.3, but could be generalized to any other system.

  5. Bichromatic Cooling used to Achieve a Large Number of Cold Atoms in a Compact Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubel Liebisch, Tara; Donley, Elizabeth; Blanshan, Eric; Kitching, John

    2010-03-01

    For cold atomic samples to be used in emerging technologies such as compact atomic clocks and sensors it is necessary to achieve small sample sizes with a large number of cold atoms. This is a challenge because in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) the number of cooled and trapped atoms scales as d^4, where d is the diameter of the laser beams (Gibble et.al.OL17, 526 (1992)). In a MOT the maximum radiation force is limited by spontaneous emission to hkγ/2. Bichromatic cooling first studied by Söding et.al. (PRL78,1420(1997)), takes advantage of stimulated emission and driven Rabi oscillations to cool atoms over a broad velocity range with forces >> hkγ/2. With the faster cooling rates, larger atom numbers can be obtained in very small cooling volumes. We report on preliminary results of cooling a thermal beam down to MOT capture velocities over distances of <1cm, our experimental set up, and theoretical results using our experimental parameters. We expect to be able to load a MOT with 1mm diameter beams with a factor of 100 more atoms than if loaded from a background vapor. With this atom sample we estimate we could achieve a clock stability of 1E-12 @ 1s with a Ramsey time of 4ms, a cycle time of 10ms, and a clock transition frequency of 6.8GHz. [0pt] We would like to acknowledge funding from NIST, DARPA, and NRC.

  6. Chaotic advection at large Péclet number: Electromagnetically driven experiments, numerical simulations, and theoretical predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Aldo; Meunier, Patrice; Cuevas, Sergio; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Ramos, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    We present a combination of experiment, theory, and modelling on laminar mixing at large Péclet number. The flow is produced by oscillating electromagnetic forces in a thin electrolytic fluid layer, leading to oscillating dipoles, quadrupoles, octopoles, and disordered flows. The numerical simulations are based on the Diffusive Strip Method (DSM) which was recently introduced (P. Meunier and E. Villermaux, "The diffusive strip method for scalar mixing in two-dimensions," J. Fluid Mech. 662, 134-172 (2010)) to solve the advection-diffusion problem by combining Lagrangian techniques and theoretical modelling of the diffusion. Numerical simulations obtained with the DSM are in reasonable agreement with quantitative dye visualization experiments of the scalar fields. A theoretical model based on log-normal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of stretching factors, characteristic of homogeneous turbulence in the Batchelor regime, allows to predict the PDFs of scalar in agreement with numerical and experimental results. This model also indicates that the PDFs of scalar are asymptotically close to log-normal at late stages, except for the large concentration levels which correspond to low stretching factors.

  7. Large eddy simulation of the FDA benchmark nozzle for a Reynolds number of 6500.

    PubMed

    Janiga, Gábor

    2014-04-01

    This work investigates the flow in a benchmark nozzle model of an idealized medical device proposed by the FDA using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It was in particular shown that a proper modeling of the transitional flow features is particularly challenging, leading to large discrepancies and inaccurate predictions from the different research groups using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) modeling. In spite of the relatively simple, axisymmetric computational geometry, the resulting turbulent flow is fairly complex and non-axisymmetric, in particular due to the sudden expansion. The resulting flow cannot be well predicted with simple modeling approaches. Due to the varying diameters and flow velocities encountered in the nozzle, different typical flow regions and regimes can be distinguished, from laminar to transitional and to weakly turbulent. The purpose of the present work is to re-examine the FDA-CFD benchmark nozzle model at a Reynolds number of 6500 using large eddy simulation (LES). The LES results are compared with published experimental data obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and an excellent agreement can be observed considering the temporally averaged flow velocities. Different flow regimes are characterized by computing the temporal energy spectra at different locations along the main axis. PMID:24561349

  8. Two-position IR zoom lens with low f-number and large format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, James W.; Garner, Michael S.; Freniere, Edward R.; Stern, Ronald D.; Armstrong, Karen L.

    1992-09-01

    We describe the optical, mechanical and servo designs for a motorized, two-FOV (field of view) IR objective lens for use in the 8 - 12 micrometers spectral band. The FOV is changed by moving lenses axially instead of the more traditional approach which is to add and remove lenses. The advantages of this approach include: simple mechanics, since a single mechanism can be used for both adjusting focus and changing FOV; only one lens group need be moved; no stow space is needed for removed lenses; and fewer total lenses are needed (four elements). The lens is used with a low-cost, uncooled focal plane array. This dictates relatively fast F- number, large image format (F/1.1, 7.8 degree(s) narrow FOV, 155-mm narrow-field focal length), and low cost. This combination of wide field and large collecting aperture pose a difficult optical design challenge. The lens meets a range of military environmental requirements including immersion in one meter of water. We describe how the requirements were met. We have fabricated and tested five lenses and we describe the assembly and testing process and present a summary of test results.

  9. Optimum Guidance Law and Information Management for a Large Number of Formation Flying Spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Yuichi; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    In recent years, formation flying technique is recognized as one of the most important technologies for deep space and orbital missions that involve multiple spacecraft operations. Formation flying mission improves simultaneous observability over a wide area, redundancy and reconfigurability of the system with relatively small and low cost spacecrafts compared with the conventional single spacecraft mission. From the viewpoint of guidance and control, realizing formation flying mission usually requires tight maintenance and control of the relative distances, speeds and orientations between the member satellites. This paper studies a practical architecture for formation flight missions focusing mainly on guidance and control, and describes a new guidance algorithm for changing and keeping the relative positions and speeds of the satellites in formation. The resulting algorithm is suitable for onboard processing and gives the optimum impulsive trajectory for satellites flying closely around a certain reference orbit, that can be elliptic, parabolic or hyperbolic. Based on this guidance algorithm, this study introduces an information management methodology between the member spacecrafts which is suitable for a large formation flight architecture. Routing and multicast communication based on the wireless local area network technology are introduced. Some mathematical analyses and computer simulations will be shown in the presentation to reveal the feasibility of the proposed formation flight architecture, especially when a very large number of satellites join the formation.

  10. Chaotic advection at large Péclet number: Electromagnetically driven experiments, numerical simulations, and theoretical predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, Aldo; Meunier, Patrice; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Cuevas, Sergio; Ramos, Eduardo

    2014-01-15

    We present a combination of experiment, theory, and modelling on laminar mixing at large Péclet number. The flow is produced by oscillating electromagnetic forces in a thin electrolytic fluid layer, leading to oscillating dipoles, quadrupoles, octopoles, and disordered flows. The numerical simulations are based on the Diffusive Strip Method (DSM) which was recently introduced (P. Meunier and E. Villermaux, “The diffusive strip method for scalar mixing in two-dimensions,” J. Fluid Mech. 662, 134–172 (2010)) to solve the advection-diffusion problem by combining Lagrangian techniques and theoretical modelling of the diffusion. Numerical simulations obtained with the DSM are in reasonable agreement with quantitative dye visualization experiments of the scalar fields. A theoretical model based on log-normal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of stretching factors, characteristic of homogeneous turbulence in the Batchelor regime, allows to predict the PDFs of scalar in agreement with numerical and experimental results. This model also indicates that the PDFs of scalar are asymptotically close to log-normal at late stages, except for the large concentration levels which correspond to low stretching factors.

  11. MHC variability supports dog domestication from a large number of wolves: high diversity in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, A K; Hagström, E; Lohi, H; Ruokonen, M; Esparza-Salas, R; Aspi, J; Savolainen, P

    2013-01-01

    The process of dog domestication is still somewhat unresolved. Earlier studies indicate that domestic dogs from all over the world have a common origin in Asia. So far, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity has not been studied in detail in Asian dogs, although high levels of genetic diversity are expected at the domestication locality. We sequenced the second exon of the canine MHC gene DLA–DRB1 from 128 Asian dogs and compared our data with a previously published large data set of MHC alleles, mostly from European dogs. Our results show that Asian dogs have a higher MHC diversity than European dogs. We also estimated that there is only a small probability that new alleles have arisen by mutation since domestication. Based on the assumption that all of the currently known 102 DLA–DRB1 alleles come from the founding wolf population, we simulated the number of founding wolf individuals. Our simulations indicate an effective population size of at least 500 founding wolves, suggesting that the founding wolf population was large or that backcrossing has taken place. PMID:23073392

  12. Numerical Investigation on Large Scale Eddy Structure in Unsteady Pipe Elbow Flow at High Reynolds Number Conditions with Large Eddy Simulation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    Flow induced vibration in primary cooling system of the Japan Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) has been investigated. The primary cooling system consists of a large diameter pipe and a pipe elbow with short curvature radius corresponding to its diameter (short-elbow). Flow-induced vibration by flow through the short-elbow is an important issue in design study of the JSFR, because it may affect to structural integrity of the piping. In this paper, numerical simulations for several pipe elbows with different pipe diameters and curvature radii in literature were conducted at Reynolds number conditions from Re=500 to 1.47x107 to investigate unsteady flow behavior through the short-elbow, including validation study of an in-house LES code (MUGTHES). Numerical results in each condition were compared with the experimental results in literature. Unsteady flow characteristics and pressure fluctuation generation mechanism in the short-elbow were clarified in relation to the large-scale eddy motion.

  13. Using large clinical data sets to infer pathogenicity for rare copy number variants in autism cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-De-Luca, D; Sanders, S J; Willsey, A J; Mulle, J G; Lowe, J K; Geschwind, D H; State, M W; Martin, C L; Ledbetter, D H

    2013-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) have a major role in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and several of these have reached statistical significance in case–control analyses. Nevertheless, current ASD cohorts are not large enough to detect very rare CNVs that may be causative or contributory (that is, risk alleles). Here, we use a tiered approach, in which clinically significant CNVs are first identified in large clinical cohorts of neurodevelopmental disorders (including but not specific to ASD), after which these CNVs are then systematically identified within well-characterized ASD cohorts. We focused our initial analysis on 48 recurrent CNVs (segmental duplication-mediated ‘hotspots') from 24 loci in 31 516 published clinical cases with neurodevelopmental disorders and 13 696 published controls, which yielded a total of 19 deletion CNVs and 11 duplication CNVs that reached statistical significance. We then investigated the overlap of these 30 CNVs in a combined sample of 3955 well-characterized ASD cases from three published studies. We identified 73 deleterious recurrent CNVs, including 36 deletions from 11 loci and 37 duplications from seven loci, for a frequency of 1 in 54; had we considered the ASD cohorts alone, only 58 CNVs from eight loci (24 deletions from three loci and 34 duplications from five loci) would have reached statistical significance. In conclusion, until there are sufficiently large ASD research cohorts with enough power to detect very rare causative or contributory CNVs, data from larger clinical cohorts can be used to infer the likely clinical significance of CNVs in ASD. PMID:23044707

  14. Rhythm in number: exploring the affective, social and mathematical dimensions of using TouchCounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Nathalie; Chorney, Sean; Rodney, Sheree

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the mathematical, social and affective nature of children's engagement with TouchCounts, a multitouch application for counting and doing arithmetic. In order to study these dimensions of engagement in a way that recognizes their fundamental intertwinement, we use rhythm as a primary unit of analysis. Drawing on over 8 hours of research sessions with children aged 6, 7 and 8 years old, we show how various rhythms emerged from their interactions and how these rhythms changed over time—moving from the particular to the more general. We also show how important rhythm is to children's carrying of activity, which relates to aspects of interest and motivation.

  15. Porous medium convection at large Rayleigh number: Studies of coherent structure, transport, and reduced dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Baole

    Buoyancy-driven convection in fluid-saturated porous media is a key environmental and technological process, with applications ranging from carbon dioxide storage in terrestrial aquifers to the design of compact heat exchangers. Porous medium convection is also a paradigm for forced-dissipative infinite-dimensional dynamical systems, exhibiting spatiotemporally chaotic dynamics if not "true" turbulence. The objective of this dissertation research is to quantitatively characterize the dynamics and heat transport in two-dimensional horizontal and inclined porous medium convection between isothermal plane parallel boundaries at asymptotically large values of the Rayleigh number Ra by investigating the emergent, quasi-coherent flow. This investigation employs a complement of direct numerical simulations (DNS), secondary stability and dynamical systems theory, and variational analysis. The DNS confirm the remarkable tendency for the interior flow to self-organize into closely-spaced columnar plumes at sufficiently large Ra (up to Ra ≃ 105), with more complex spatiotemporal features being confined to boundary layers near the heated and cooled walls. The relatively simple form of the interior flow motivates investigation of unstable steady and time-periodic convective states at large Ra as a function of the domain aspect ratio L. To gain insight into the development of spatiotemporally chaotic convection, the (secondary) stability of these fully nonlinear states to small-amplitude disturbances is investigated using a spatial Floquet analysis. The results indicate that there exist two distinct modes of instability at large Ra: a bulk instability mode and a wall instability mode. The former usually is excited by long-wavelength disturbances and is generally much weaker than the latter. DNS, strategically initialized to investigate the fully nonlinear evolution of the most dangerous secondary instability modes, suggest that the (long time) mean inter-plume spacing in

  16. HPC-Colony: Services and Interfaces to Aupport Systems With Very Large Numbers of Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T; Kale, L; Moreira, J; Mendes, C; Chakravorty, S; Tauferner, A; Inglett, T

    2007-01-31

    The HPC-Colony Project, a collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and IBM, is focused on services and interfaces for very large numbers of processors. Advances in parallel systems in the last decade have delivered phenomenal progress in the overall capability available to a single parallel application. Several systems with peak capability of over 100TF are already available and systems are expected to exceed 1PF within a few years. Despite these impressive advances in peak performance capability, the sustained performance of these systems continues to fall as a percentage of the peak capability. Initial analysis suggests that key architectural bottlenecks (in hardware and software) are responsible for the lower sustained performance and some architectural change of direction may be necessary to address the declining sustained performance. In this proposal we focus on addressing software architectural bottlenecks, in the areas of operating system and runtime systems. While the trend towards larger processor counts benefits application developers through more processing power, it also challenges application developers to harness ever-increasing numbers of processors for productive work. Much of the burden falls to operating systems and runtime systems that were originally designed for much smaller processor counts. Under the Colony project, we are researching and developing system software to enable general purpose operating and runtime systems for tens of thousands of processors. Difficulties in achieving a balanced partitioning and dynamically scheduling workloads can limit scaling for complex problems on large machines. Scientific simulations that span components of large machines require common operating system services, such as process scheduling, event notification, and job management to scale to large machines. Today, application programmers must explicitly manage these resources. We address

  17. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    PubMed

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of β-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells. PMID:25305245

  18. Generation of Large Numbers of Antigen-Expressing Human Dendritic Cells Using CD14-ML Technology

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Yuya; Haruta, Miwa; Tomita, Yusuke; Matsumura, Keiko; Ikeda, Tokunori; Yuno, Akira; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Senju, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a method to expand human monocytes through lentivirus-mediated introduction of cMYC and BMI1, and we named the monocyte-derived proliferating cells, CD14-ML. CD14-ML differentiated into functional DC (CD14-ML-DC) upon addition of IL-4, resulting in the generation of a large number of DC. One drawback of this method was the extensive donor-dependent variation in proliferation efficiency. In the current study, we found that introduction of BCL2 or LYL1 along with cMYC and BMI1 was beneficial. Using the improved method, we obtained CD14-ML from all samples, regardless of whether the donors were healthy individuals or cancer patients. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood T cells with CD14-ML-DC that were loaded with cancer antigen-derived peptides led to the establishment of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the peptides. Since CD14-ML was propagated for more than 1 month, we could readily conduct genetic modification experiments. To generate CD14-ML-DC that expressed antigenic proteins, we introduced lentiviral antigen-expression vectors and subjected the cells to 2 weeks of culture for drug-selection and expansion. The resulting antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC successfully induced CD8+ T cell lines that were reactive to CMVpp65 or MART1/MelanA, suggesting an application in vaccination therapy. Thus, this improved method enables the generation of a sufficient number of DC for vaccination therapy from a small amount of peripheral blood from cancer patients. Information on T cell epitopes is not necessary in vaccination with cancer antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC; therefore, all patients, irrespective of HLA type, will benefit from anti-cancer therapy based on this technology. PMID:27050553

  19. Large-Actuator-Number Horizontal Path Correction of Atmospheric Turbulence utilizing an Interferometric Phase Conjugate Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K L; Stappaerts, E A; Gavel, D; Tucker, J; Silva, D A; Wilks, S C; Olivier, S S; Olsen, J

    2004-08-25

    An adaptive optical system used to correct horizontal beam propagation paths has been demonstrated. This system utilizes an interferometric wave-front sensor and a large-actuator-number MEMS-based spatial light modulator to correct the aberrations incurred by the beam after propagation along the path. Horizontal path correction presents a severe challenge to adaptive optics systems due to the short atmospheric transverse coherence length and the high degree of scintillation incurred by laser propagation along these paths. Unlike wave-front sensors that detect phase gradients, however, the interferometric wave-front sensor measures the wrapped phase directly. Because the system operates with nearly monochromatic light and uses a segmented spatial light modulator, it does not require that the phase be unwrapped to provide a correction and it also does not require a global reconstruction of the wave-front to determine the phase as required by gradient detecting wave-front sensors. As a result, issues with branch points are eliminated. Because the atmospheric probe beam is mixed with a large amplitude reference beam, it can be made to operate in a photon noise limited regime making its performance relatively unaffected by scintillation. The MEMS-based spatial light modulator in the system contains 1024 pixels and is controlled to speeds in excess of 800 Hz, enabling its use for correction of horizontal path beam propagation. In this article results are shown of both atmospheric characterization with the system and open loop horizontal path correction of a 1.53 micron laser by the system. To date Strehl ratios of greater than 0.5 have been achieved.

  20. Historical changes in the annual number of large floods in North America and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkins, G. A.; Whitfield, P. H.; Hannaford, J.; Burn, D. H.; Renard, B.; Stahl, K.; Fleig, A.; Madsen, H.; Mediero, L.; Korhonen, J.; Murphy, C.; Crochet, P.; Wilson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have analyzed historical changes in low magnitude floods, such as the annual peak flow, at a national or regional scale. However, the river basins used have often been influenced by human alterations such as reservoir regulation or urbanization. No known studies have analyzed changes in large floods (greater than 25-year return period) at a continental scale for minimally impacted basins. To fill this research gap, this study analyzed flood flows from reference hydrologic networks (RHNs) or RHN-like gauges in North America (United States and Canada) and Europe (United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland). RHNs are formally defined networks in several countries that comprise gauging stations with a natural or near-natural flow regime and provide good quality data. Selected RHN-like gauges were included following a major effort to ensure RHN-like status through consultation with local experts. Peak flows with recurrence intervals of 25, 50, and 100 years were estimated using consistent methods for over 1200 study gauges, and peak flows at each gauge that exceeded these flood thresholds in the last 40-100 years were compiled. Continental and regional trends over time in the annual number of large floods, with regions differentiated by type of hydrological regime (pluvial, nival, mixed), are being computed and will be presented at AGU. The unique dataset used for this study is an example of successful international collaboration on hydro-climatic data exchange, which is potentially a step towards establishing RHN or RHN-like networks on a global scale. Analysis of flows from such networks would make a valuable contribution to the understanding of historical global hydrological change and would help inform expected future hydrologic changes.

  1. Technical note: Computing options for genetic evaluation with a large number of genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, S; Misztal, I

    2008-07-01

    Two simulated data sets and one commercial data set were used to evaluate computing options for models in which the effects attributable to QTL were fit as covariables. The simulated data sets included records on 24,000 animals for 10 traits. Data sets 1 and 2 were simulated with low and high correlations among traits, respectively. The model included an overall mean, 160 covariables as effects attributable to QTL, the random animal genetic effect, and the random residual effect. A commercial data set included records on approximately 110,000 animals for 11 growth, reproduction, and other traits. The model included the effects usually fitted for these traits as well as 116 covariables as effects attributable to QTL; models including the number of covariables varied by trait. Initial computing was by the BLUP90IOD program, which applies iterations on data by using a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm with a diagonal preconditioner. Modifications included adding block preconditioners for effects attributable to QTL (BQ) and for traits (BT). With the simulated data sets and the original program, one-trait analyses without the covariables took 7 s, whereas the 10-trait analyses with the covariables took 15 min for a data set with low correlations and 1 h 40 m for a data set with high correlations. The BQ improved the convergence rate but increased the computing time. The BT decreased the computing time from 1.5 times (low correlations) to 7 times (high correlation) at a cost of greater memory requirements. For the commercial data and the complete model, computing took 10.3 h with the unmodified program and was reduced to 6 h with BT. Relative changes in computing time and convergence rate with the commercial data set were close to those of the simulated data set, with low correlations among the traits. The BQ decreased the number of rounds by less than expected. Genetic evaluation with a large number of effects attributable to QTL fit as covariables is

  2. Space Situational Awareness of Large Numbers of Payloads From a Single Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segerman, A.; Byers, J.; Emmert, J.; Nicholas, A.

    2014-09-01

    The nearly simultaneous deployment of a large number of payloads from a single vehicle presents a new challenge for space object catalog maintenance and space situational awareness (SSA). Following two cubesat deployments last November, it took five weeks to catalog the resulting 64 orbits. The upcoming Kicksat mission will present an even greater SSA challenge, with its deployment of 128 chip-sized picosats. Although all of these deployments are in short-lived orbits, future deployments will inevitably occur at higher altitudes, with a longer term threat of collision with active spacecraft. With such deployments, individual scientific payload operators require rapid precise knowledge of their satellites' locations. Following the first November launch, the cataloguing did not initially associate a payload with each orbit, leaving this to the satellite operators. For short duration missions, the time required to identify an experiment's specific orbit may easily be a large fraction of the spacecraft's lifetime. For a Kicksat-type deployment, present tracking cannot collect enough observations to catalog each small object. The current approach is to treat the chip cloud as a single catalog object. However, the cloud dissipates into multiple subclouds and, ultimately, tiny groups of untrackable chips. One response to this challenge may be to mandate installation of a transponder on each spacecraft. Directional transponder transmission detections could be used as angle observations for orbit cataloguing. Of course, such an approach would only be employable with cooperative spacecraft. In other cases, a probabilistic association approach may be useful, with the goal being to establish the probability of an element being at a given point in space. This would permit more reliable assessment of the probability of collision of active spacecraft with any cloud element. This paper surveys the cataloguing challenges presented by large scale deployments of small spacecraft

  3. Number of Sialic Acid Residues in Ganglioside Headgroup Affects Interactions with Neighboring Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Shelli L.; Lee, Ka Yee C.

    2013-01-01

    Monolayers of binary mixtures of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and asialo-(GA1), disialo-(GD1b) and trisialo-(GT1b) gangliosides were used to determine the effect of ganglioside headgroup charge and geometry on its interactions with the neighboring zwitterionic lipid. Surface pressure versus molecular area isotherm measurements along with concurrent fluorescence microscopy of the monolayers at the air-water interface were complemented with atomic force microscopy imaging of monolayers deposited on solid substrates. Results were used to further develop a proposed geometric packing model that the complementary geometry of DPPC and monosialoganglioside GM1 headgroups affects their close molecular packing, inducing condensation of the layer at small mol % of ganglioside. For GA1, GD1b, and GT1b, a similar condensing effect, followed by a fluidizing effect is seen that varies with glycosphingolipid concentration, but results do not directly follow from geometric arguments because less DPPC is needed to condense ganglioside molecules with larger cross-sectional areas. The variations in critical packing mole ratios can be explained by global effects of headgroup charge and resultant dipole moments within the monolayer. Atomic force microscopy micrographs further support the model of ganglioside-induced DPPC condensation with condensed domains composed of a striped phase of condensed DPPC and DPPC/ganglioside geometrically packed complexes at low concentrations. PMID:24047994

  4. Number of sialic acid residues in ganglioside headgroup affects interactions with neighboring lipids.

    PubMed

    Frey, Shelli L; Lee, Ka Yee C

    2013-09-17

    Monolayers of binary mixtures of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and asialo-(GA1), disialo-(GD1b) and trisialo-(GT1b) gangliosides were used to determine the effect of ganglioside headgroup charge and geometry on its interactions with the neighboring zwitterionic lipid. Surface pressure versus molecular area isotherm measurements along with concurrent fluorescence microscopy of the monolayers at the air-water interface were complemented with atomic force microscopy imaging of monolayers deposited on solid substrates. Results were used to further develop a proposed geometric packing model that the complementary geometry of DPPC and monosialoganglioside GM1 headgroups affects their close molecular packing, inducing condensation of the layer at small mol % of ganglioside. For GA1, GD1b, and GT1b, a similar condensing effect, followed by a fluidizing effect is seen that varies with glycosphingolipid concentration, but results do not directly follow from geometric arguments because less DPPC is needed to condense ganglioside molecules with larger cross-sectional areas. The variations in critical packing mole ratios can be explained by global effects of headgroup charge and resultant dipole moments within the monolayer. Atomic force microscopy micrographs further support the model of ganglioside-induced DPPC condensation with condensed domains composed of a striped phase of condensed DPPC and DPPC/ganglioside geometrically packed complexes at low concentrations. PMID:24047994

  5. An evidential approach to problem solving when a large number of knowledge systems is available

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekorvin, Andre

    1989-01-01

    Some recent problems are no longer formulated in terms of imprecise facts, missing data or inadequate measuring devices. Instead, questions pertaining to knowledge and information itself arise and can be phrased independently of any particular area of knowledge. The problem considered in the present work is how to model a problem solver that is trying to find the answer to some query. The problem solver has access to a large number of knowledge systems that specialize in diverse features. In this context, feature means an indicator of what the possibilities for the answer are. The knowledge systems should not be accessed more than once, in order to have truly independent sources of information. Moreover, these systems are allowed to run in parallel. Since access might be expensive, it is necessary to construct a management policy for accessing these knowledge systems. To help in the access policy, some control knowledge systems are available. Control knowledge systems have knowledge about the performance parameters status of the knowledge systems. In order to carry out the double goal of estimating what units to access and to answer the given query, diverse pieces of evidence must be fused. The Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence is used to pool the knowledge bases.

  6. Dynamic non-equilibrium wall-modeling for large eddy simulation at high Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Soshi; Larsson, Johan

    2013-01-01

    A dynamic non-equilibrium wall-model for large-eddy simulation at arbitrarily high Reynolds numbers is proposed and validated on equilibrium boundary layers and a non-equilibrium shock/boundary-layer interaction problem. The proposed method builds on the prior non-equilibrium wall-models of Balaras et al. [AIAA J. 34, 1111-1119 (1996)], 10.2514/3.13200 and Wang and Moin [Phys. Fluids 14, 2043-2051 (2002)], 10.1063/1.1476668: the failure of these wall-models to accurately predict the skin friction in equilibrium boundary layers is shown and analyzed, and an improved wall-model that solves this issue is proposed. The improvement stems directly from reasoning about how the turbulence length scale changes with wall distance in the inertial sublayer, the grid resolution, and the resolution-characteristics of numerical methods. The proposed model yields accurate resolved turbulence, both in terms of structure and statistics for both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium flows without the use of ad hoc corrections. Crucially, the model accurately predicts the skin friction, something that existing non-equilibrium wall-models fail to do robustly.

  7. Porous capsules with a large number of active sites: nucleation/growth under confined conditions.

    PubMed

    Garai, Somenath; Rubčić, Mirta; Bögge, Hartmut; Gouzerh, Pierre; Müller, Achim

    2015-03-01

    This work deals with the generation of large numbers of active sites and with ensuing nucleation/ growth processes on the inside wall of the cavity of porous nanocapsules of the type (pentagon)12(linker)30≡{(Mo(VI))Mo(VI)5}12{Mo(V)2(ligand)}30. A first example refers to sulfur dioxide capture through displacement of acetate ligands, while the grafted sulfite ligands are able to trap {MoO3H}(+) units thereby forming unusual {(O2SO)3MoO3H}(5-) assemblies. A second example relates to the generation of open coordination sites through release of carbon dioxide upon mild acidification of a carbonate-type capsule. When the reaction is performed in the presence of heptamolybdate ions, MoO4(2-) ions enter the cavity where they bind to the inside wall while forming new types of polyoxomolybdate architectures, thereby extending the molybdenum oxide skeleton of the capsule. Parallels can be drawn with Mo-storage proteins and supported MoO3 catalysts, making the results relevant to molybdenum biochemistry and to catalysis. PMID:25653204

  8. An automated search of O'Connell effect for Large Numbers of Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, A.; Kleftogiannis, G.; Christopoulou, P. E.

    2013-09-01

    The O'Connell effect in eclipsing binary systems (unequally high maxima) has stood for many decades as one of the most perplexing challenges in binary studies. So far, this simple asymmetry has not been convincingly explained, but most theories attribute the effect to dynamic phenomena such as migrating star-spots or swirling circumstellar gas and dust. Nevertheless there has been no clear demonstration of a correlation between the assumptions of any one theory and the morphology of physical parameters of binary systems that exhibit O'Connell effect. We have developed an automated program that characterizes the morphology of light curves by depth of both minima, height of both maxima and curvature outside the eclipses. In terms of programming it is being developed in FORTRAN and PYTHON. This project results from realization of two needs, both related to recent discoveries of large number of contact binaries. Thus the first need is of a simple method to obtain essential parameters for these systems, without the necessity of full light-curve synthesis solution. The second is a statistical one: we would like to extract information from light curves with the use of coefficients that describe the asymmetry in the light curve maxima and the overall shape in the growing observational data of eclipsing binaries (OGLE, ASAS, KEPLER, GAIA). Before applying the automated program several complications must be addressed, as eccentricity, quality of data with many outlying points, limitations to the classification method already applied.

  9. Left-right symmetry and lepton number violation at the Large Hadron electron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Rodejohann, Werner; Yaguna, Carlos E.

    2016-06-01

    We show that the proposed Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) will provide an opportunity to search for left-right symmetry and establish lepton number violation, complementing current and planned searches based on LHC data and neutrinoless double beta decay. We consider several plausible configurations for the LHeC — including different electron energies and polarizations, as well as distinct values for the charge misidentification rate. Within left-right symmetric theories we determine the values of right-handed neutrino and gauge boson masses that could be tested at the LHeC after one, five and ten years of operation. Our results indicate that this collider might probe, via the Δ L = 2 signal e - p → e + jjj, Majorana neutrino masses up to 1 TeV and W R masses up to ˜ 6 .5 TeV. Interestingly, part of this parameter space is beyond the expected reach of the LHC and of future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments.

  10. Use of epidemiological data and direct bioassay for prioritization of affected populations in a large-scale radiation emergency.

    PubMed

    Miller, Charles W; Ansari, Armin; Martin, Colleen; Chang, Art; Buzzell, Jennifer; Whitcomb, Robert C

    2011-08-01

    Following a radiation emergency, evacuated, sheltered or other members of the public would require monitoring for external and/or internal contamination and, if indicated, decontamination. In addition, the potentially-impacted population would be identified for biodosimetry/bioassay or needed medical treatment (chelation therapy, cytokine treatment, etc.) and prioritized for follow-up. Expeditious implementation of these activities presents many challenges, especially when a large population is affected. Furthermore, experience from previous radiation incidents has demonstrated that the number of people seeking monitoring for radioactive contamination (both external and internal) could be much higher than the actual number of contaminated individuals. In the United States, the Department of Health and Human Services is the lead agency to coordinate federal support for population monitoring activities. Population monitoring includes (1) monitoring people for external contamination; (2) monitoring people for internal contamination; (3) population decontamination; (4) collecting epidemiologic data regarding potentially exposed and/or contaminated individuals to prioritize the affected population for limited medical resources; (5) administering available pharmaceuticals for internal decontamination as deemed necessary by appropriate health officials; (6) performing dose reconstruction; and (7) establishing a registry to conduct long-term monitoring of this population for potential long-term health effects. This paper will focus on screening for internal contamination and will describe the use of early epidemiologic data as well as direct bioassay techniques to rapidly identify and prioritize the affected population for further analysis and medical attention. PMID:21709510

  11. Environmental Factors Affecting Large-Bodied Coral Reef Fish Assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Benjamin L.; Williams, Ivor D.; Vetter, Oliver J.; Williams, Gareth J.

    2012-01-01

    Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores). Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct) or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research. PMID:22384014

  12. Affective video retrieval: violence detection in Hollywood movies by large-scale segmental feature extraction.

    PubMed

    Eyben, Florian; Weninger, Felix; Lehment, Nicolas; Schuller, Björn; Rigoll, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology "out of the lab" to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding "disturbing" scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP) on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis. PMID:24391704

  13. Affective Video Retrieval: Violence Detection in Hollywood Movies by Large-Scale Segmental Feature Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Eyben, Florian; Weninger, Felix; Lehment, Nicolas; Schuller, Björn; Rigoll, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology “out of the lab” to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding “disturbing” scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP) on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis. PMID:24391704

  14. Higher-order interaction between molluscs and sheep affecting seedling numbers in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clear Hill, B. H.; Silvertown, J.

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores are both important in mesotrophic grasslands and these two different classes of herbivore potentially interact in their effect upon plant populations. We used two field experiments to test for higher order interactions (HOIs) among sheep, slugs and seedlings, using the mechanistic definition that an HOI occurs when the presence of one species modifies the interaction between two others. In each experiment slug addition and slug-removal treatments were nested inside treatments that altered sheep grazing intensity and timing, and the emergence, of seedlings from experimentally sown seeds was monitored. In Experiment 1, seedling numbers of Cerastium fontanum were increased by intense summer grazing by sheep in both slug-addition and slugremoval treatment, but winter grazing by sheep only increased seedling emergence if slugs were removed. In Experiment 2, winter grazing by sheep significantly reduced total seedling emergence of four species sown ( Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata, Leucanthemum vulgare, Achillea millefolium), but the effect was only seen where slugs were removed. Though the experimental system is a relatively simple one with only four components (sheep, slugs, seedlings and the matrix vegetation), higher order interactions, a combination of direct and indirect effects and possible switching behaviour by slugs are all suggested by our results.

  15. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin(-/-) mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7(+) muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  16. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin−/− mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7+ muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  17. Large-scale copy number variants (CNVs): Distribution in normal subjects and FISH/real-time qPCR analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Ying; Liu, Xudong; Harvard, Chansonette; Nolin, Sarah L; Brown, W Ted; Koochek, Maryam; Holden, Jeanette JA; Lewis, ME Suzanne; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica

    2007-01-01

    Background Genomic copy number variants (CNVs) involving >1 kb of DNA have recently been found to be widely distributed throughout the human genome. They represent a newly recognized form of DNA variation in normal populations, discovered through screening of the human genome using high-throughput and high resolution methods such as array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). In order to understand their potential significance and to facilitate interpretation of array-CGH findings in constitutional disorders and cancers, we studied 27 normal individuals (9 Caucasian; 9 African American; 9 Hispanic) using commercially available 1 Mb resolution BAC array (Spectral Genomics). A selection of CNVs was further analyzed by FISH and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Results A total of 42 different CNVs were detected in 27 normal subjects. Sixteen (38%) were not previously reported. Thirteen of the 42 CNVs (31%) contained 28 genes listed in OMIM. FISH analysis of 6 CNVs (4 previously reported and 2 novel CNVs) in normal subjects resulted in the confirmation of copy number changes for 1 of 2 novel CNVs and 2 of 4 known CNVs. Three CNVs tested by FISH were further validated by RT-qPCR and comparable data were obtained. This included the lack of copy number change by both RT-qPCR and FISH for clone RP11-100C24, one of the most common known copy number variants, as well as confirmation of deletions for clones RP11-89M16 and RP5-1011O17. Conclusion We have described 16 novel CNVs in 27 individuals. Further study of a small selection of CNVs indicated concordant and discordant array vs. FISH/RT-qPCR results. Although a large number of CNVs has been reported to date, quantification using independent methods and detailed cellular and/or molecular assessment has been performed on a very small number of CNVs. This information is, however, very much needed as it is currently common practice to consider CNVs reported in normal subjects as benign changes when detected in

  18. Overexpression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase in Yarrowia lipolytica affects lipid body size, number and distribution.

    PubMed

    Gajdoš, Peter; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Čertík, Milan; Rossignol, Tristan

    2016-09-01

    In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are major factors for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. The Q4 strain, in which the four acyltransferases have been deleted, is unable to accumulate lipids and to form lipid bodies (LBs). However, the expression of a single acyltransferase in this strain restores TAG accumulation and LB formation. Using this system, it becomes possible to characterize the activity and specificity of an individual DGAT. Here, we examined the effects of DGAT overexpression on lipid accumulation and LB formation in Y. lipolytica Specifically, we evaluated the consequences of introducing one or two copies of the Y. lipolytica DGAT genes YlDGA1 and YlDGA2 Overall, multi-copy DGAT overexpression increased the lipid content of yeast cells. However, the size and distribution of LBs depended on the specific DGAT overexpressed. YlDGA2 overexpression caused the formation of large LBs, while YlDGA1 overexpression generated smaller but more numerous LBs. This phenotype was accentuated through the addition of a second copy of the overexpressed gene and might be linked to the distinct subcellular localization of each DGAT, i.e. YlDga1 being localized in LBs, while YlDga2 being localized in a structure strongly resembling the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27506614

  19. Large-scale climatic patterns and area affected by mountain pine beetle in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias Fauria, Marc; Johnson, E. A.

    2009-03-01

    We present evidence of high spatial synchrony in an area affected by mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) across large distances in British Columbia, Canada, in a study of a spatially explicit database of an area affected by MPB-caused tree mortality for the period 1959-2002. We further show that large-scale climatic patterns (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and, to a lesser degree, Arctic Oscillation (AO)) are strongly related to the observed MPB synchrony, and that they probably operate through controlling the frequency of extreme cold winter temperatures that affect MPB larvae survival. A smaller portion of the data's variability is linked to the onset of the two largest outbreaks in the studied period and might be attributed to dispersal from outbreak-prone areas or else to differences in microhabitat (e.g., host availability) in these regions. The onset of a warm PDO phase in 1976 favored MPB outbreaks by reducing the occurrence of extremely low winter temperatures province-wide. Likewise, the exceptionally high and persistent AO values of the late 1980s and 1990s enhanced MPB activity in the southern and northern parts of the region. Summer warmth cannot be discarded as an important agent at smaller scales.

  20. Large-scale fluctuations in the number density of galaxies in independent surveys of deep fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, S. I.; Lovyagin, N. Yu.; Baryshev, Yu. V.; Gorokhov, V. L.

    2016-06-01

    New arguments supporting the reality of large-scale fluctuations in the density of the visible matter in deep galaxy surveys are presented. A statistical analysis of the radial distributions of galaxies in the COSMOS and HDF-N deep fields is presented. Independent spectral and photometric surveys exist for each field, carried out in different wavelength ranges and using different observing methods. Catalogs of photometric redshifts in the optical (COSMOS-Zphot) and infrared (UltraVISTA) were used for the COSMOS field in the redshift interval 0.1 < z < 3.5, as well as the zCOSMOS (10kZ) spectroscopic survey and the XMM-COSMOS and ALHAMBRA-F4 photometric redshift surveys. The HDFN-Zphot and ALHAMBRA-F5 catalogs of photometric redshifts were used for the HDF-N field. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the fluctuations in the numbers of galaxies obtained for independent surveys of the same deep field reaches R = 0.70 ± 0.16. The presence of this positive correlation supports the reality of fluctuations in the density of visible matter with sizes of up to 1000 Mpc and amplitudes of up to 20% at redshifts z ~ 2. The absence of correlations between the fluctuations in different fields (the correlation coefficient between COSMOS and HDF-N is R = -0.20 ± 0.31) testifies to the independence of structures visible in different directions on the celestial sphere. This also indicates an absence of any influence from universal systematic errors (such as "spectral voids"), which could imitate the detection of correlated structures.

  1. Dynamic Response of Large Wind Power Plant Affected by Diverse Conditions at Individual Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang; Wang, Shaobu

    2014-07-31

    Diverse operating conditions at individual wind turbine generators (WTG) within wind power plants (WPPs) can affect the WPP dynamic response to system faults. For example, individual WTGs can experience diverse terminal voltage and power output caused by different wind direction and speed, affecting the response of protection and control limiters. In this paper, we present a study to investigate the dynamic response of a detailed WPP model under diverse power outputs of its individual WTGs. Wake effect is considered as the reason for diverse power outputs. The diverse WTG power output is evaluated in a test system where a large 168-machine test WPP is connected to the IEEE-39-bus system. The power output from each WTG is derived from a wake effect model that uses realistic statistical data for incoming wind speed and direction. The results show that diverse WTG output due to wake effect can affect the WPP dynamic response activating specialized control in some turbines. In addition, transient stability is affected by exhibiting uncertainty in critical clearing time calculation.

  2. Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer-aquitard complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T; Tick, Geoffrey R

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the role of the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion in transient anomalous transport, which is one of the major knowledge gaps in anomalous transport, by combining Monte Carlo simulations and stochastic model analysis. Two alluvial settings containing either short- or long-connected hydrofacies are generated and used as media for flow and transport modeling. Numerical experiments show that 1) the Peclet number affects both the duration of the power-law segment of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) and the transition rate from anomalous to Fickian transport by determining the solute residence time for a given low-permeability layer, 2) mechanical dispersion has a limited contribution to the anomalous characteristics of late-time transport as compared to molecular diffusion due to an almost negligible velocity in floodplain deposits, and 3) the initial source dimensions only enhance the power-law tail of the BTCs at short travel distances. A tempered stable stochastic (TSS) model is then applied to analyze the modeled transport. Applications show that the time-nonlocal parameters in the TSS model relate to the Peclet number, Pe. In particular, the truncation parameter in the TSS model increases nonlinearly with a decrease in Pe due to the decrease of the mean residence time, and the capacity coefficient increases with an increase in molecular diffusion which is probably due to the increase in the number of immobile particles. The above numerical experiments and stochastic analysis therefore reveal that the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer-aquitard complexes. PMID:26001981

  3. Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer-aquitard complexes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.; Tick, Geoffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the role of the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion in transient anomalous transport, which is one of the major knowledge gaps in anomalous transport, by combining Monte Carlo simulations and stochastic model analysis. Two alluvial settings containing either short- or long-connected hydrofacies are generated and used as media for flow and transport modeling. Numerical experiments show that 1) the Peclet number affects both the duration of the power-law segment of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) and the transition rate from anomalous to Fickian transport by determining the solute residence time for a given low-permeability layer, 2) mechanical dispersion has a limited contribution to the anomalous characteristics of late-time transport as compared to molecular diffusion due to an almost negligible velocity in floodplain deposits, and 3) the initial source dimensions only enhance the power-law tail of the BTCs at short travel distances. A tempered stable stochastic (TSS) model is then applied to analyze the modeled transport. Applications show that the time-nonlocal parameters in the TSS model relate to the Peclet number, Pe. In particular, the truncation parameter in the TSS model increases nonlinearly with a decrease in Pe due to the decrease of the mean residence time, and the capacity coefficient increases with an increase in molecular diffusion which is probably due to the increase in the number of immobile particles. The above numerical experiments and stochastic analysis therefore reveal that the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer–aquitard complexes.

  4. What caused a large number of fatalities in the Tohoku earthquake?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, M.; Ishida, M.; Nishikawa, Y.; Mizuki, C.; Hayashi, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Mw9.0 earthquake caused 20,000 deaths and missing persons in northeastern Japan. 115 years prior to this event, there were three historical tsunamis that struck the region, one of which is a "tsunami earthquake" resulted with a death toll of 22,000. Since then, numerous breakwaters were constructed along the entire northeastern coasts and tsunami evacuation drills were carried out and hazard maps were distributed to local residents on numerous communities. However, despite the constructions and preparedness efforts, the March 11 Tohoku earthquake caused numerous fatalities. The strong shaking lasted three minutes or longer, thus all residents recognized that this is the strongest and longest earthquake that they had been ever experienced in their lives. The tsunami inundated an enormous area at about 560km2 over 35 cities along the coast of northeast Japan. To find out the reasons behind the high number of fatalities due to the March 11 tsunami, we interviewed 150 tsunami survivors at public evacuation shelters in 7 cities mainly in Iwate prefecture in mid-April and early June 2011. Interviews were done for about 30min or longer focused on their evacuation behaviors and those that they had observed. On the basis of the interviews, we found that residents' decisions not to evacuate immediately were partly due to or influenced by earthquake science results. Below are some of the factors that affected residents' decisions. 1. Earthquake hazard assessments turned out to be incorrect. Expected earthquake magnitudes and resultant hazards in northeastern Japan assessed and publicized by the government were significantly smaller than the actual Tohoku earthquake. 2. Many residents did not receive accurate tsunami warnings. The first tsunami warning were too small compared with the actual tsunami heights. 3. The previous frequent warnings with overestimated tsunami height influenced the behavior of the residents. 4. Many local residents above 55 years old experienced

  5. Anatomical, physiological and experimental factors affecting the bioavailability of sc administered large biotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Fathallah, Anas M.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous route of administration is highly desirable for protein therapeutics. It improves patient compliance and quality of life1,2, while reducing healthcare cost2. Recent evidence also suggests that sc administration of protein therapeutics can increase tolerability to some treatments such as intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) by administering it subcutaneously (subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy SCIG), which will reduce fluctuation in plasma drug concentration3. Furthermore, sc administration may reduce the risk of systemic infections associated with iv infusion1,2. This route, however, has its challenges especially for large multi-domain proteins. Poor bioavailability and poor scalability from preclinical models are often cited. This commentary will discuss barriers to sc absorption as well as physiological and experimental factors that could affect pharmacokinetics of subcutaneously administered large protein therapeutics in preclinical models. A mechanistic pharmacokinetic model is proposed as a potential tool to address the issue of scalability of sc pharmacokinetic from preclinical models to humans PMID:25411114

  6. Experimental parasite community ecology: intraspecific variation in a large tapeworm affects community assembly.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Daniel P; Kalbe, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Non-random species associations occur in naturally sampled parasite communities. The processes resulting in predictable community structure (e.g. particular host behaviours, cross-immunity, interspecific competition) could be affected by traits that vary within a parasite species, like growth or antigenicity. We experimentally infected three-spined sticklebacks with a large tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) that impacts the energy needs, foraging behaviour and immune reactions of its host. The tapeworms came from two populations, characterized by high or low growth in sticklebacks. Our goal was to evaluate how this parasite, and variation in its growth, affects the acquisition of other parasites. Fish infected with S. solidus were placed into cages in a lake to expose them to the natural parasite community. We also performed a laboratory experiment in which infected fish were exposed to a fixed dose of a common trematode parasite. In the field experiment, infection with S. solidus affected the abundance of four parasite species, relative to controls. For two of the four species, changes occurred only in fish harbouring the high-growth S. solidus; one species increased in abundance and the other decreased. These changes did not appear to be directly linked to S. solidus growth though. The parasite exhibiting elevated abundance was the same trematode used in the laboratory infection. In that experiment, we found a similar infection pattern, suggesting that S. solidus affects the physiological susceptibility of fish to this trematode. Associations between S. solidus and other parasites occur and vary in direction. However, some of these associations were contingent on the S. solidus population, suggesting that intraspecific variability can affect the assembly of parasite communities. PMID:27061288

  7. Nonclassical light from a large number of independent single-photon emitters

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, Lukáš; Slodička, Lukáš; Filip, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Nonclassical quantum effects gradually reach domains of physics of large systems previously considered as purely classical. We derive a hierarchy of operational criteria suitable for a reliable detection of nonclassicality of light from an arbitrarily large ensemble of independent single-photon emitters. We show, that such large ensemble can always emit nonclassical light without any phase reference and under realistic experimental conditions including incoherent background noise. The nonclassical light from the large ensemble of the emitters can be witnessed much better than light coming from a single or a few emitters. PMID:26813774

  8. Nonclassical light from a large number of independent single-photon emitters.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Lukáš; Slodička, Lukáš; Filip, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Nonclassical quantum effects gradually reach domains of physics of large systems previously considered as purely classical. We derive a hierarchy of operational criteria suitable for a reliable detection of nonclassicality of light from an arbitrarily large ensemble of independent single-photon emitters. We show, that such large ensemble can always emit nonclassical light without any phase reference and under realistic experimental conditions including incoherent background noise. The nonclassical light from the large ensemble of the emitters can be witnessed much better than light coming from a single or a few emitters. PMID:26813774

  9. Allelic and copy-number variations of FcγRs affect granulocyte function and susceptibility for autoimmune blistering diseases.

    PubMed

    Recke, Andreas; Vidarsson, Gestur; Ludwig, Ralf J; Freitag, Miriam; Möller, Steffen; Vonthein, Reinhard; Schellenberger, Julia; Haase, Ozan; Görg, Siegfried; Nebel, Almut; Flachsbart, Friederike; Schreiber, Stefan; Lieb, Wolfgang; Gläser, Regine; Benoit, Sandrine; Sárdy, Miklós; Eming, Rüdiger; Hertl, Michael; Zillikens, Detlef; König, Inke R; Schmidt, Enno; Ibrahim, Saleh

    2015-07-01

    Low-affinity Fcγ receptors (FcγR) bridge innate and adaptive immune responses. In many autoimmune diseases, these receptors act as key mediators of the pathogenic effects of autoantibodies. Genes encoding FcγR exhibit frequent variations in sequence and gene copy number that influence their functional properties. FcγR variations also affect the susceptibility to systemic autoimmunity, e.g. systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. This raises the question whether FcγR variations are also associated with organ-specific autoimmunity, particularly autoantibody-mediated diseases, such as subepidermal autoimmune blistering diseases (AIBD). A multitude of evidence suggests a pathogenic role of neutrophil granulocyte interaction with autoantibodies via FcγR. In a two-stage study, we analyzed whether the FcγR genotype affects neutrophil function and mRNA expression, and consequently, bullous pemphigoid (BP) disease risk. We compared this to findings in pemphigus vulgaris/foliaceus (PV/PF), two Fc-independent AIBDs. Our results indicate that both allele and copy number variation of FcγR genes affect FcγR mRNA expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) release by granulocytes. Susceptibility of BP was associated with FcγR genotypes that led to a decreased ROS release by neutrophils, indicating an unexpected protective role for these cells. BP and PV/PF differed substantially regarding the FcγR genotype association patterns, pointing towards different disease etiologies. PMID:26032265

  10. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations differentially affect large-scale functional networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Disha; Blockx, Ines; Keliris, Georgios A; Kara, Firat; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2016-07-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a widely implemented technique used to investigate large-scale topology in the human brain during health and disease. Studies in mice provide additional advantages, including the possibility to flexibly modulate the brain by pharmacological or genetic manipulations in combination with high-throughput functional connectivity (FC) investigations. Pharmacological modulations that target specific neurotransmitter systems, partly mimicking the effect of pathological events, could allow discriminating the effect of specific systems on functional network disruptions. The current study investigated the effect of cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists on large-scale brain networks in mice. The cholinergic system is involved in cognitive functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, while the serotonergic system is involved in emotional and introspective functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, depression and autism. Specific interest goes to the default-mode-network (DMN), which is studied extensively in humans and is affected in many neurological disorders. The results show that both cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists impaired the mouse DMN-like network similarly, except that cholinergic modulation additionally affected the retrosplenial cortex. This suggests that both neurotransmitter systems are involved in maintaining integrity of FC within the DMN-like network in mice. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations also affected other functional networks, however, serotonergic modulation impaired the frontal and thalamus networks more extensively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of pharmacological rsfMRI in animal models to provide insights into the role of specific neurotransmitter systems on functional networks in neurological disorders. PMID:26195064

  11. Cognitive and structural neuroimaging characteristics of schizophrenia patients with large, rare copy number deletions.

    PubMed

    Kenneth Martin, Andrew; Robinson, Gail; Reutens, David; Mowry, Bryan

    2014-12-30

    Large (>500 Kb), rare (frequency <1%) deletions are associated with risk for schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to characterise patients with these deletions using measures of cognition, grey-matter volume and white-matter integrity. Patients with schizophrenia and large, rare deletions (SZ-del) (n=17) were assessed on a test of intelligence, the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), and compared with age- and sex-matched schizophrenia patients without large, rare deletions (SZ-nodel) (n=65), and healthy controls (HCs) (n=50). Regional grey-matter differences were investigated using voxel-based morphometry (SZ-del=9; SZ-nodel=26; HC=19). White-matter integrity was assessed using fractional anisotropy (SZ-del=9; SZ-nodel=24; HC=15). Compared with schizophrenia patients without large, rare deletions, those with large, rare deletions had lower IQ; greater grey-matter volume in clusters with peaks in the left and right cerebellum, left hippocampus, and right rectal gyrus; and increased white-matter anisotropy in the body and genu of the corpus callosum. Compared with healthy controls, patients with large, rare deletions had reduced grey matter volume in the right calcarine gyrus. In sum, patients with large, rare deletions had structural profiles intermediate to those observed in healthy controls and schizophrenia patients without large, rare deletions, but had greater impairment in intelligence. PMID:25453991

  12. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Burger, D.; Dolivo, G.; Marti, E.; Sieme, H.; Wedekind, C.

    2015-01-01

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies. PMID:25904670

  13. Investigation of the Turbulent Bursting Period over a Very Large Reynolds Number Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce-Larreta, Enrique; Metzger, Meredith

    2008-11-01

    The present study examines Reynolds number scaling of the average bursting period, Tb, over a Reynolds number range spanning three orders of magnitude, using hot-wire anemometry measurements from combined wind tunnel and field experiments. Wind tunnel data were obtained from the study of Klewicki and Falco (1990) at Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness of Reθ=1010, 2870, 4850; while the field data were acquired at the Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Test (SLTEST) facility at Reθ=5x10^6. Ejection events were detected from streamwise velocity time series using the U-Level algorithm of Lu and Wilmarth (1973). Events appearing in close succession were grouped into multiple event bursts using a statistical iterative approach based on pattern clustering. Four different Reynolds number scalings of Tb were investigated, namely: inner, outer, mixed, and intermediate. Data reveal that, of these four types of scalings, the Taylor microscale performs the best in removing Reynolds number dependencies in Tb. In addition, the present data reveal that outer scaled values of Tb decrease by two orders of magnitude over the range of Reynolds numbers; while inner scaled values of Tb increase by one order of magnitude.

  14. Experimental study of cold plume instability in large Prandtl number Czochralski melt: Parametric dependences and scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, E.; Kit, E.; Gelfgat, A. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    A parametric experimental study of the cold plume instability that appears in the large-Prandtl-number Czochralski melt flows is reported. The critical temperature difference (the critical Grashof number) and the frequency of appearing oscillations were measured for varying Prandtl numbers, aspect ratios of the melt, and crystal/crucible radii ratio. The measurements were carried out by two independent and fully non-intrusive experimental techniques. The results are reported as dimensional and dimensionless parametric dependences, and then are joined into relatively simple empirical relations showing how the critical Grashof number and the frequency of emerging oscillations depend on other parameters.

  15. Comparison of jet Mach number decay data with a correlation and jet spreading contours for a large variety of nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groesbeck, D. E.; Huff, R. G.; Vonglahn, U. H.

    1977-01-01

    Small-scale circular, noncircular, single- and multi-element nozzles with flow areas as large as 122 sq cm were tested with cold airflow at exit Mach numbers from 0.28 to 1.15. The effects of multi-element nozzle shape and element spacing on jet Mach number decay were studied in an effort to reduce the noise caused by jet impingement on externally blown flap (EBF) STOL aircraft. The jet Mach number decay data are well represented by empirical relations. Jet spreading and Mach number decay contours are presented for all configurations tested.

  16. Canine Mammary Tumours Are Affected by Frequent Copy Number Aberrations, including Amplification of MYC and Loss of PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Borge, Kaja S.; Nord, Silje; Van Loo, Peter; Lingjærde, Ole C.; Gunnes, Gjermund; Alnæs, Grethe I. G.; Solvang, Hiroko K.; Lüders, Torben; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lingaas, Frode

    2015-01-01

    Background Copy number aberrations frequently occur during the development of many cancers. Such events affect dosage of involved genes and may cause further genomic instability and progression of cancer. In this survey, canine SNP microarrays were used to study 117 canine mammary tumours from 69 dogs. Results We found a high occurrence of copy number aberrations in canine mammary tumours, losses being more frequent than gains. Increased frequency of aberrations and loss of heterozygosity were positively correlated with increased malignancy in terms of histopathological diagnosis. One of the most highly recurrently amplified regions harbored the MYC gene. PTEN was located to a frequently lost region and also homozygously deleted in five tumours. Thus, deregulation of these genes due to copy number aberrations appears to be an important event in canine mammary tumour development. Other potential contributors to canine mammary tumour pathogenesis are COL9A3, INPP5A, CYP2E1 and RB1. The present study also shows that a more detailed analysis of chromosomal aberrations associated with histopathological parameters may aid in identifying specific genes associated with canine mammary tumour progression. Conclusions The high frequency of copy number aberrations is a prominent feature of canine mammary tumours as seen in other canine and human cancers. Our findings share several features with corresponding studies in human breast tumours and strengthen the dog as a suitable model organism for this disease. PMID:25955013

  17. Practical quantum metrology with large precision gains in the low-photon-number regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, P. A.; Proctor, T. J.; Hayes, A. J.; Cooling, J. P.; Dunningham, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum metrology exploits quantum correlations to make precise measurements with limited particle numbers. By utilizing inter- and intramode correlations in an optical interferometer, we find a state that combines entanglement and squeezing to give a sevenfold enhancement in the quantum Fisher information (QFI)—a metric related to the precision—over the shot-noise limit, for low photon numbers. Motivated by practicality we then look at the squeezed cat state, which has recently been made experimentally, and shows further precision gains over the shot-noise limit and a threefold improvement in the QFI over the optimal Gaussian state. We present a conceptually simple measurement scheme that saturates the QFI, and we demonstrate a robustness to loss for small photon numbers. The squeezed cat state can therefore give a significant precision enhancement in optical quantum metrology in practical and realistic conditions.

  18. Large-Chern-number quantum anomalous Hall effect in thin-film topological crystalline insulators.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chen; Gilbert, Matthew J; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2014-01-31

    We theoretically predict that thin-film topological crystalline insulators can host various quantum anomalous Hall phases when doped by ferromagnetically ordered dopants. Any Chern number between ±4 can, in principle, be reached as a result of the interplay between (a) the induced Zeeman field, depending on the magnetic doping concentration, (b) the structural distortion, either intrinsic or induced by a piezoelectric material through the proximity effect, and (c) the thickness of the thin film. We propose a heterostructure to realize quantum anomalous Hall phases with Chern numbers that can be tuned by electric fields. PMID:24580476

  19. Distance graphs having large chromatic numbers and containing no cliques or cycles of a given size

    SciTech Connect

    Demekhin, Evgenii E; Raigorodskii, Andrei M; Rubanov, Oleg I

    2013-04-30

    It is established that there exist sequences of distance graphs G{sub n} subset of R{sup n}, with chromatic numbers which grow exponentially, but, at the same time, without cliques or cycles of a given size. Bibliography: 42 titles.

  20. A Treatment of Computational Precision, Number Representation, and Large Integers in an Introductory Fortran Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, William H., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Computational precision is sometimes given short shrift in a first programming course. Treating this topic requires discussing integer and floating-point number representations and inaccuracies that may result from their use. An example of a moderately simple programming problem from elementary statistics was examined. It forced students to…

  1. Accelerated Modular Multiplication Algorithm of Large Word Length Numbers with a Fixed Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardis, Nikolaos; Drigas, Athanasios; Markovskyy, Alexander; Vrettaros, John

    A new algorithm is proposed for the software implementation of modular multiplication, which uses pre-computations with a constant module. The developed modular multiplication algorithm provides high performance in comparison with the already known algorithms, and is oriented at the variable value of the module, especially with the software implementation on micro controllers and smart cards with a small number of bits.

  2. Characteristics of Turbulent Flow Past Passive Rectangular Cavity at Large Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezhil Kumar, Perumal Kumaresan; Mishra, Debi Prasad

    2016-06-01

    In the present investigation, turbulent flow past passive rectangular cavity is investigated numerically for four mainstream Reynolds numbers namely Re ms = 20,000-50,000. Validation study reveals that the numerical models used in the present investigation predicts the data close to the existing experimental results. Further attempts are made to bring out the flow structure in terms of velocity profile, velocity gradients, shear layer growth rate, and turbulence characteristics. Numerical results are analyzed to bring out the variation in the velocity profile at different axial locations within the cavity. Also, the velocity gradient, turbulence level at the shear layer and the reverse flow velocity in the cavity are found to be sensitive to the mainstream Reynolds number. Finally, the cavity drag is estimated and its relation to the pressure drop across the cavity is brought out. These results reveal the nature of interaction between the passive cavity flow and mainstream flow.

  3. A comment on "bats killed in large numbers at United States wind energy facilities"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huso, Manuela M.P.; Dalthorp, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Widespread reports of bat fatalities caused by wind turbines have raised concerns about the impacts of wind power development. Reliable estimates of the total number killed and the potential effects on populations are needed, but it is crucial that they be based on sound data. In a recent BioScience article, Hayes (2013) estimated that over 600,000 bats were killed at wind turbines in the United States in 2012. The scientific errors in the analysis are numerous, with the two most serious being that the included sites constituted a convenience sample, not a representative sample, and that the individual site estimates are derived from such different methodologies that they are inherently not comparable. This estimate is almost certainly inaccurate, but whether the actual number is much smaller, much larger, or about the same is uncertain. An accurate estimate of total bat fatality is not currently possible, given the shortcomings of the available data.

  4. Production of large numbers of size-controlled tumor spheroids using microwell plates.

    PubMed

    Razian, Golsa; Yu, Yang; Ungrin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Tumor spheroids are increasingly recognized as an important in vitro model for the behavior of tumor cells in three dimensions. More physiologically relevant than conventional adherent-sheet cultures, they more accurately recapitulate the complexity and interactions present in real tumors. In order to harness this model to better assess tumor biology, or the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents, it is necessary to be able to generate spheroids reproducibly, in a controlled manner and in significant numbers. The AggreWell system consists of a high-density array of pyramid-shaped microwells, into which a suspension of single cells is centrifuged. The numbers of cells clustering at the bottom of each microwell, and the number and ratio of distinct cell types involved depend only on the properties of the suspension introduced by the experimenter. Thus, we are able to generate tumor spheroids of arbitrary size and composition without needing to modify the underlying platform technology. The hundreds of microwells per square centimeter of culture surface area in turn ensure that extremely high production levels may be attained via a straightforward, nonlabor-intensive process. We therefore expect that this protocol will be broadly useful to researchers in the tumor spheroid field. PMID:24300192

  5. Sequencing-based large-scale genomics approaches with small numbers of isolated maize meiocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dukowic-Schulze, Stefanie; Sundararajan, Anitha; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Mudge, Joann; Chen, Changbin

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing has become the large-scale approach of choice to study global gene expression and the distribution of specific chromatin marks and features. However, the limited availability of large amounts of purified cells made it very challenging to apply sequencing-based techniques in plant meiosis research in the past. In this paper, we describe a method to isolate meiocytes from maize anthers and detailed protocols to successfully perform RNA-seq, smRNA-seq, H3K4me3-ChIP-seq, and DNA bisulfite conversion sequencing with 5000–30,000 isolated maize male meiotic cells. These methods can be adjusted for other flowering plant species as well. PMID:24611068

  6. Optimized arrays for 2-D resistivity survey lines with a large number of electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loke, M. H.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Chambers, J. E.; Uhlemann, S. S.; Sorensen, J. P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that optimized arrays generated using the 'Compare R' method have significantly better resolution than conventional arrays. This method determines the optimum set of arrays by selecting those that give the maximum model resolution. The number of possible arrays (the comprehensive data set) increases with the fourth power of the number of electrodes. The optimization method faces practical limitations for 2-D survey lines with more than 60 electrodes where the number of possible arrays exceeds a million. Several techniques are proposed to reduce the calculation time for such survey lines. A single-precision version of the 'Compare R' algorithm using a new ranking function reduces the calculation time by two to eight times while providing results similar to the double-precision version. Recent improvements in computer GPU technology can reduce the calculation time by about seven times. The calculation time is reduced by half by using the fact that arrays that are symmetrical about the center of the line produce identical changes in the model resolution values. It is further reduced by more than thirty times by calculating the Sherman-Morrison update for all the possible two-electrode combinations, which are then used to calculate the model resolution values for the four-electrode arrays. The calculation time is reduced by more then ten times by using a subset of the comprehensive data set consisting of only symmetrical arrays. Tests with a synthetic model and field data set show that optimized arrays derived from this subset produce inversion models with differences of less than 10% from those derived using the full comprehensive data set. The optimized data sets produced models that are more accurate than the Wenner-Schlumberger array data sets in all the tests.

  7. Large-Eddy Simulation of Conductive Flows at Low Magnetic Reynolds Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knaepen, B.; Moin, P.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the LES method with dynamic procedure in the context of conductive flows subject to an applied external magnetic field at low magnetic Reynolds number R(sub m). These kind of flows are encountered in many industrial applications. For example, in the steel industry, applied magnetic fields can be used to damp turbulence in the casting process. In nuclear fusion devices (Tokamaks), liquid-lithium flows are used as coolant blankets and interact with the surrounding magnetic field that drives and confines the fusion plasma. Also, in experimental facilities investigating the dynamo effect, the flow consists of liquid-sodium for which the Prandtl number and, as a consequence, the magnetic Reynolds number is low. Our attention is focused here on the case of homogeneous (initially isotropic) decaying turbulence. The numerical simulations performed mimic the thought experiment described in Moffatt in which an initially homogeneous isotropic conductive flow is suddenly subjected to an applied magnetic field and freely decays without any forcing. Note that this flow was first studied numerically by Schumann. It is well known that in that case, extra damping of turbulence occurs due to the Joule effect and that the flow tends to become progressively independent of the coordinate along the direction of the magnetic field. Our comparison of filtered direct numerical simulation (DNS) predictions and LES predictions show that the dynamic Smagorinsky model enables one to capture successfully the flow with LES, and that it automatically incorporates the effect of the magnetic field on the turbulence. Our paper is organized as follows. In the next section we summarize the LES approach in the case of MHD turbulence at low R(sub m) and recall the definition of the dynamic Smagorinsky model. In Sec. 3 we describe the parameters of the numerical experiments performed and the code used. Section 4 is devoted to the comparison of filtered DNS results and LES results

  8. Laboratory Study of Magnetorotational Instability and Hydrodynamic Stability at Large Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, H.; Burin, M.; Schartman, E.; Goodman, J.; Liu, W.

    2006-01-01

    Two plausible mechanisms have been proposed to explain rapid angular momentum transport during accretion processes in astrophysical disks: nonlinear hydrodynamic instabilities and magnetorotational instability (MRI). A laboratory experiment in a short Taylor-Couette flow geometry has been constructed in Princeton to study both mechanisms, with novel features for better controls of the boundary-driven secondary flows (Ekman circulation). Initial results on hydrodynamic stability have shown negligible angular momentum transport in Keplerian-like flows with Reynolds numbers approaching one million, casting strong doubt on the viability of nonlinear hydrodynamic instability as a source for accretion disk turbulence.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Free-Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Tube at Large Grashof Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Diaguila, A J

    1955-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation conducted to study free-convection heat transfer in a stationary vertical tube closed at the bottom. The walls of the tube were heated, and heated air in the tube was continuously replaced by fresh cool air at the top. The tube was designed to provide a gravitational field with Grashof numbers of a magnitude comparable with those generated by the centrifugal field in rotating-blade coolant passages (10(8) to 10(13)). Local heat-transfer coefficients in the turbulent-flow range and the temperature field within the fluid were obtained.

  10. Using addition to solve large subtractions in the number domain up to 20.

    PubMed

    Peters, Greet; De Smedt, Bert; Torbeyns, Joke; Ghesquière, Pol; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-02-01

    This study examined 25 university students' use of addition to solve large single-digit subtractions by contrasting performance in the standard subtraction format (12-9=.) and in the addition format (9+.=12). In particular, we investigated the effect of the relative size of the subtrahend on performance in both formats. We found a significant interaction between format, the magnitude of the subtrahend (S) compared to the difference (D) (S>D vs. Slarge single-digit subtractions, but select either addition-based or subtraction-based strategies depending on the relative size of the subtrahend. PMID:19963199

  11. Large Eddy Simulation of Airfoil Self-Noise at High Reynolds Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocheemoolayil, Joseph; Lele, Sanjiva

    2015-11-01

    The trailing edge noise section (Category 1) of the Benchmark Problems for Airframe Noise Computations (BANC) workshop features five canonical problems. No first-principles based approach free of empiricism and tunable coefficients has successfully predicted trailing edge noise for the five configurations to date. Our simulations predict trailing edge noise accurately for all five configurations. The simulation database is described in detail, highlighting efforts undertaken to validate the results through systematic comparison with dedicated experiments and establish insensitivity to grid resolution, domain size, alleatory uncertainties such as the tripping mechanism used to force transition to turbulence and epistemic uncertainties such as models for unresolved near-wall turbulence. Ongoing efforts to extend the predictive capability to non-canonical configurations featuring flow separation are summarized. A novel, large-span calculation that predicts the flow past a wind turbine airfoil in deep stall with unprecedented accuracy is presented. The simulations predict airfoil noise in the near-stall regime accurately. While the post-stall noise predictions leave room for improvement, significant uncertainties in the experiment might preclude a fair comparison in this regime. We thank Cascade Technologies Inc. for providing access to the CharLES toolkit - a massively-parallel, unstructured large eddy simulation framework.

  12. Ecological specialization and rarity indices estimated for a large number of plant species in France

    PubMed Central

    Mobaied, Samira; Machon, Nathalie; Porcher, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    The biological diversity of the Earth is being rapidly depleted due to the direct and indirect consequences of human activities. Specialist or rare species are generally thought to be more extinction prone than generalist or common species. Testing this assumption however requires that the rarity and ecological specialization of the species are quantified. Many indices have been developed to classify species as generalists vs. specialists or as rare vs. common, but large data sets are needed to calculate these indices. Here, we present a list of specialization and rarity values for more than 2800 plant species of continental France, which were computed from the large botanical and ecological dataset SOPHY. Three specialization indices were calculated using species co-occurrence data. All three indices are based on (dis)similarity among plant communities containing a focal species, quantified either as beta diversity in an additive (Fridley et al., 2007 [6]) or multiplicative (Zeleny, 2008 [15]) partitioning of diversity or as the multiple site similarity of Baselga et al. (2007) [1]. Species rarity was calculated as the inverse of a species occurrence. PMID:26217738

  13. Electrically driving large magnetic Reynolds number flows on the Madison plasma dynamo experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, David; Wallace, John; Peterson, Ethan; Endrezzi, Douglass; Forest, Cary B.; Desangles, Victor

    2015-11-01

    Electrically-driven plasma flows, predicted to excite a large-scale dynamo instability, have been generated in the Madison plasma dynamo experiment (MPDX), at the Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory. Numerical simulations show that certain topologies of these simply-connected flows may be optimal for creating a plasma dynamo and predict critical thresholds as low as Rmcrit =μ0 σLV = 250 . MPDX plasmas are shown to exceed this critical Rm , generating large (L = 1 . 4 m), warm (Te > 10 eV), unmagnetized (MA > 1) plasmas where Rm < 600 . Plasma flow is driven using ten thermally emissive LaB6 cathodes which generate a J × B torque in Helium plasmas. Detailed Mach probe measurements of plasma velocity for two flow topologies will be presented: edge-localized drive using the multi-cusp boundary field, and volumetric drive using an axial Helmholtz field. Radial velocity profiles show that edge-driven flow is established via ion viscosity but is limited by a volumetric neutral drag force (χ ~ 1 / (ντin)), and measurements of velocity shear compare favorably to Braginskii transport theory. Volumetric flow drive is shown to produce stronger velocity shear, and is characterized by the radial potential gradient as determined by global charge balance.

  14. Exploring the feasibility of using copy number variants as genetic markers through large-scale whole genome sequencing experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variants (CNV) are large scale duplications or deletions of genomic sequence that are caused by a diverse set of molecular phenomena that are distinct from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) formation. Due to their different mechanisms of formation, CNVs are often difficult to track us...

  15. Large-scale brain networks are distinctly affected in right and left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Brunno Machado; Coan, Ana Carolina; Lin Yasuda, Clarissa; Casseb, Raphael Fernandes; Cendes, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampus sclerosis (HS) is associated with functional and structural alterations extending beyond the temporal regions and abnormal pattern of brain resting state networks (RSNs) connectivity. We hypothesized that the interaction of large-scale RSNs is differently affected in patients with right- and left-MTLE with HS compared to controls. We aimed to determine and characterize these alterations through the analysis of 12 RSNs, functionally parceled in 70 regions of interest (ROIs), from resting-state functional-MRIs of 99 subjects (52 controls, 26 right- and 21 left-MTLE patients with HS). Image preprocessing and statistical analysis were performed using UF(2) C-toolbox, which provided ROI-wise results for intranetwork and internetwork connectivity. Intranetwork abnormalities were observed in the dorsal default mode network (DMN) in both groups of patients and in the posterior salience network in right-MTLE. Both groups showed abnormal correlation between the dorsal-DMN and the posterior salience, as well as between the dorsal-DMN and the executive-control network. Patients with left-MTLE also showed reduced correlation between the dorsal-DMN and visuospatial network and increased correlation between bilateral thalamus and the posterior salience network. The ipsilateral hippocampus stood out as a central area of abnormalities. Alterations on left-MTLE expressed a low cluster coefficient, whereas the altered connections on right-MTLE showed low cluster coefficient in the DMN but high in the posterior salience regions. Both right- and left-MTLE patients with HS have widespread abnormal interactions of large-scale brain networks; however, all parameters evaluated indicate that left-MTLE has a more intricate bihemispheric dysfunction compared to right-MTLE. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3137-3152, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27133613

  16. [A Large Number of Circulating Tumor Cells(CTCs)Can Be Isolated from Samples Obtained by Using Leukapheresis Procedures].

    PubMed

    Soya, Ryoko; Taguchi, Jyunichi; Nagakawa, Yuichi; Takahashi, Osamu; Sandoh, Norimasa; Hosokawa, Yuichi; Kasuya, Kazuhiko; Umeda, Naoki; Okamoto, Masato; Tsujitani, Shunichi; Tsuchida, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that a large number of circulating tumor cells(CTCs)may be isolated from samples obtained by using the leukapheresis procedures that are utilized to collect peripheral blood mononuclear cells for dendritic cell vaccine therapy. We utilized the CellSearch System to determine the number of CTCs in samples obtained by using leukapheresis in 7 patients with colorectal cancer, 5 patients with breast cancer, and 3 patients with gastric cancer. In all patients, a large number of CTCs were isolated. The mean number of CTCs per tumor was 17.1(range 10-34)in colorectal cancer, 10.0(range 2-27)in breast cancer, and 24.0(range 2-42)in gastric cancer. We succeeded in culturing the isolated CTCs from 7 patients with colorectal cancer, 5 patients with breast cancer, and 3 patients with gastric cancer. In conclusion, compared to conventional methods, a large number of CTCs can be obtained by using leukapheresis procedures. The molecular analyses of the CTCs isolated by using this method should be promising in the development of personalized cancer treatments. PMID:26469161

  17. Factors affecting fuel break effectiveness in the control of large fires on the Los Padres National Forest, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Brennan, Teresa J.

    2011-01-01

    As wildfires have increased in frequency and extent, so have the number of homes developed in the wildland-urban interface. In California, the predominant approach to mitigating fire risk is construction of fuel breaks, but there has been little empirical study of their role in controlling large fires.We constructed a spatial database of fuel breaks on the Los Padres National Forest in southern California to better understand characteristics of fuel breaks that affect the behaviour of large fires and to map where fires and fuel breaks most commonly intersect. We evaluated whether fires stopped or crossed over fuel breaks over a 28-year period and compared the outcomes with physical characteristics of the sites, weather and firefighting activities during the fire event. Many fuel breaks never intersected fires, but others intersected several, primarily in historically fire-prone areas. Fires stopped at fuel breaks 46% of the time, almost invariably owing to fire suppression activities. Firefighter access to treatments, smaller fires and longer fuel breaks were significant direct influences, and younger vegetation and fuel break maintenance indirectly improved the outcome by facilitating firefighter access. This study illustrates the importance of strategic location of fuel breaks because they have been most effective where they provided access for firefighting activities.

  18. Unexpectedly large number of conserved noncoding regions within the ancestral chordate Hox cluster.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Anaya, Juan; D'Aniello, Salvatore; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi

    2008-12-01

    The single amphioxus Hox cluster contains 15 genes and may well resemble the ancestral chordate Hox cluster. We have sequenced the Hox genomic complement of the European amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum and compared it to the American species, Branchiostoma floridae, by phylogenetic footprinting to gain insights into the evolution of Hox gene regulation in chordates. We found that Hox intergenic regions are largely conserved between the two amphioxus species, especially in the case of genes located at the 3' of the cluster, a trend previously observed in vertebrates. We further compared the amphioxus Hox cluster with the human HoxA, HoxB, HoxC, and HoxD clusters, finding several conserved noncoding regions, both in intergenic and intronic regions. This suggests that the regulation of Hox genes is highly conserved across chordates, consistent with the similar Hox expression patterns in vertebrates and amphioxus. PMID:18791732

  19. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Roberta R; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Firmino, Alexandre A P; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Fonseca, Fernando C A; Terra, Walter R; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; da Silva, Maria Cristina M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW) Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg) knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest. PMID:27419079

  20. Large change in the predicted number of small halos due to a small amplitude oscillating inflaton potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Felippe S.; Opher, Reuven

    2010-07-01

    A smooth inflaton potential is generally assumed when calculating the primordial power spectrum, implicitly assuming that a very small oscillation in the inflaton potential creates a negligible change in the predicted halo mass function. We show that this is not true. We find that a small oscillating perturbation in the inflaton potential in the slow-roll regime can alter significantly the predicted number of small halos. A class of models derived from supergravity theories gives rise to inflaton potentials with a large number of steps and many trans-Planckian effects may generate oscillations in the primordial power spectrum. The potentials we study are the simple quadratic (chaotic inflation) potential with superimposed small oscillations for small field values. Without leaving the slow-roll regime, we find that for a wide choice of parameters, the predicted number of halos change appreciably. For the oscillations beginning in the 107-108M⊙ range, for example, we find that only a 5% change in the amplitude of the chaotic potential causes a 50% suppression of the number of halos for masses between 107-108M⊙ and an increase in the number of halos for masses <106M⊙ by factors ˜15-50. We suggest that this might be a solution to the problem of the lack of observed dwarf galaxies in the range 107-108M⊙. This might also be a solution to the reionization problem where a very large number of Population III stars in low mass halos are required.

  1. Transient high-Rayleigh-number thermal convection with large viscosity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davaille, Anne; Jaupart, Claude

    1993-08-01

    Results of laboratory studies of the characteristics of thermal convection in a fluid whose viscosity varies strongly with temperature are presented. The upper boundary of an isothermal layer of Golden Syrup is cooled rapidly and maintained at a fixed temperature. The fluid layer is insulated at the bottom and cools continuously. Rayleigh number calculated with the viscosity of the well-mixed interior are between 10 exp 6 and 10 exp 8, and viscosity contrasts are up to 10 exp 6. Thermal convection develops only in the lower part of the thermal boundary layer, and the upper part remains stagnant. At the onset of convection, the viscosity contrast across the unstable boundary layer has a value of about 3. In fully developed convection, this viscosity contrast is higher, with a typical value of 10. The heat flux through the top of the layer depends solely on local conditions in the unstable boundary layer. The magnitude of temperature fluctuations and the thickness of the stagnant lid are calculated to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  2. High Reynolds Number Investigation of a Flush Mounted, S-Duct Inlet With Large Amounts of Boundary Layer Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Allan, Brian G.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a flush-mounted, S-duct inlet with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion has been conducted at Reynolds numbers up to full scale. The study was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. In addition, a supplemental computational study on one of the inlet configurations was conducted using the Navier-Stokes flow solver, OVERFLOW. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83, Reynolds numbers (based on aerodynamic interface plane diameter) from 5.1 million to 13.9 million (full-scale value), and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.29 to 1.22, depending on Mach number. Results of the study indicated that increasing Mach number, increasing boundary layer thickness (relative to inlet height) or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted profile decreased inlet performance. At Mach numbers above 0.4, increasing inlet airflow increased inlet pressure recovery but also increased distortion. Finally, inlet distortion was found to be relatively insensitive to Reynolds number, but pressure recovery increased slightly with increasing Reynolds number.This CD-ROM supplement contains inlet data including: Boundary layer data, Duct static pressure data, performance-AIP (fan face) data, Photos, Tunnel wall P-PTO data and definitions.

  3. High Reynolds Number Investigation of a Flush-Mounted, S-Duct Inlet With Large Amounts of Boundary Layer Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Allan, Brian G.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a flush-mounted, S-duct inlet with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion has been conducted at Reynolds numbers up to full scale. The study was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. In addition, a supplemental computational study on one of the inlet configurations was conducted using the Navier-Stokes flow solver, OVERFLOW. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.83, Reynolds numbers (based on aerodynamic interface plane diameter) from 5.1 million to 13.9 million (full-scale value), and inlet mass-flow ratios from 0.29 to 1.22, depending on Mach number. Results of the study indicated that increasing Mach number, increasing boundary layer thickness (relative to inlet height) or ingesting a boundary layer with a distorted profile decreased inlet performance. At Mach numbers above 0.4, increasing inlet airflow increased inlet pressure recovery but also increased distortion. Finally, inlet distortion was found to be relatively insensitive to Reynolds number, but pressure recovery increased slightly with increasing Reynolds number.

  4. Activation process in excitable systems with multiple noise sources: Large number of units.

    PubMed

    Franović, Igor; Perc, Matjaž; Todorović, Kristina; Kostić, Srdjan; Burić, Nikola

    2015-12-01

    We study the activation process in large assemblies of type II excitable units whose dynamics is influenced by two independent noise terms. The mean-field approach is applied to explicitly demonstrate that the assembly of excitable units can itself exhibit macroscopic excitable behavior. In order to facilitate the comparison between the excitable dynamics of a single unit and an assembly, we introduce three distinct formulations of the assembly activation event. Each formulation treats different aspects of the relevant phenomena, including the thresholdlike behavior and the role of coherence of individual spikes. Statistical properties of the assembly activation process, such as the mean time-to-first pulse and the associated coefficient of variation, are found to be qualitatively analogous for all three formulations, as well as to resemble the results for a single unit. These analogies are shown to derive from the fact that global variables undergo a stochastic bifurcation from the stochastically stable fixed point to continuous oscillations. Local activation processes are analyzed in the light of the competition between the noise-led and the relaxation-driven dynamics. We also briefly report on a system-size antiresonant effect displayed by the mean time-to-first pulse. PMID:26764779

  5. Hard Numbers for Large Molecules: Toward Exact Energetics for Supramolecular Systems.

    PubMed

    Ambrosetti, Alberto; Alfè, Dario; DiStasio, Robert A; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2014-03-01

    Noncovalent interactions are ubiquitous in molecular and condensed-phase environments, and hence a reliable theoretical description of these fundamental interactions could pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the microscopic underpinnings for a diverse set of systems in chemistry and biology. In this work, we demonstrate that recent algorithmic advances coupled to the availability of large-scale computational resources make the stochastic quantum Monte Carlo approach to solving the Schrödinger equation an optimal contender for attaining "chemical accuracy" (1 kcal/mol) in the binding energies of supramolecular complexes of chemical relevance. To illustrate this point, we considered a select set of seven host-guest complexes, representing the spectrum of noncovalent interactions, including dispersion or van der Waals forces, π-π stacking, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, and electrostatic (ion-dipole) attraction. A detailed analysis of the interaction energies reveals that a complete theoretical description necessitates treatment of terms well beyond the standard London and Axilrod-Teller contributions to the van der Waals dispersion energy. PMID:26274077

  6. Activation process in excitable systems with multiple noise sources: Large number of units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franović, Igor; Perc, Matjaž; Todorović, Kristina; Kostić, Srdjan; Burić, Nikola

    2015-12-01

    We study the activation process in large assemblies of type II excitable units whose dynamics is influenced by two independent noise terms. The mean-field approach is applied to explicitly demonstrate that the assembly of excitable units can itself exhibit macroscopic excitable behavior. In order to facilitate the comparison between the excitable dynamics of a single unit and an assembly, we introduce three distinct formulations of the assembly activation event. Each formulation treats different aspects of the relevant phenomena, including the thresholdlike behavior and the role of coherence of individual spikes. Statistical properties of the assembly activation process, such as the mean time-to-first pulse and the associated coefficient of variation, are found to be qualitatively analogous for all three formulations, as well as to resemble the results for a single unit. These analogies are shown to derive from the fact that global variables undergo a stochastic bifurcation from the stochastically stable fixed point to continuous oscillations. Local activation processes are analyzed in the light of the competition between the noise-led and the relaxation-driven dynamics. We also briefly report on a system-size antiresonant effect displayed by the mean time-to-first pulse.

  7. Tectonic stress field of China inferred from a large number of small earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-07-01

    Mean principal tress axes were inferred for China using 9621 P wave first motion polarity readings from 5054 small earthquakes (1<=ML<=5). The area studied was divided into 76 subregions. The mean P (compressive), B (intermediate), and T (relatively tensional) axes corresponding to composite focal mechanism solutions of multiple earthquakes for each subregion were determined by a grid test to all possible orientations of the P, B, and T axes with a step of 5° or 10°. In order to get a relatively homogeneous sampling in space we have avoided using the readings from spatially and temporally clustered earthquakes. We have rechecked most of the polarity readings by inspection of original seismograms. The focal mechanism solutions of large (M>=6) individual earthquakes are also presented for comparison. The results indicate the existence of an overall radial pattern of the present-day maximum horizontal stress orientations throughout the continental area of China. This pattern is thought to be closely related to indentor models of continental collision between the Indian Ocean and the Eurasian plate.

  8. Large volcanic eruptions affect climate in many more ways than just cooling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    . Each of the largest sulfur-emitting eruptions since 1600 (Huaynaputina, Laki, Tambora, Krakatau, Santa Maria, Novarupta, Pinatubo) were in the same year as moderate to strong El Niños but were typically followed by very strong El Niños within 6 to 8 years (Data: Bradley and Jones, 1992). During El Niños, warm water heats the tropical Pacific atmosphere. Many ocean currents are affected over short time scales by atmospheric teleconnections but then affect atmospheric conditions over longer time scales. The sum of these processes with different time constants varies when the rate of volcanic activity changes by orders of magnitude. Ward (2009, doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2009.01.005) presents data suggesting large eruptions occurring on average once per century (current rate) provide only short-term changes in climate, but when they occur every few decades, they supplement Milanković cycles and increment the world into ice ages, and when they occur as often as once per year, they cause rapid global warming. Volcanic-like sulfate deposited in Greenland from man burning fossil fuels between 1930 and 1980 was as high as the highest levels of sulfate deposited during rapid warming at the end of the last ice age. Man did not eject sulfur into the stratosphere, but it remained in the atmosphere long enough to be deposited in Greenland. Understanding how volcanoes caused abrupt warming in the past would help us understand how man is causing abrupt warming today.

  9. Three-dimensional structure of confined swirling jets at moderately large Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanmiguel-Rojas, E.; Burgos, M. A.; del Pino, C.; Fernandez-Feria, R.

    2008-04-01

    We have performed a series of three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of the incompressible flow discharging from a rotating pipe into a coaxial static cylindrical container through a sudden expansion. We have considered several values of the Reynolds number based on the pipe flow rate ReQ between 50 and 300, and an expansion diameter ratio of 8, and have analyzed the emerging 3D flow structures in the swirling jet exiting from the rotating pipe as the swirl parameter S is increased. The results are compared to axisymmetric numerical simulations of the same problem. Three-dimensional, nonlinear instabilities are found in the swirling jet when ReQ≳98 above a critical value of S, which depends on ReQ, that obviously do not appear in the axisymmetric simulations. These nonlinear instabilities are initially triggered by the linear instabilities inside the rotating pipe, which are already present in the pipe from a much lower value of S, and are transformed in the jet. As S increases further, there exists another critical value above which the swirling jet undergoes vortex breakdown, producing a flow in the jet which is basically axisymmetric. This critical value of the swirl parameter for breakdown is significantly larger than that found in the axisymmetric simulations. Thus, one of the main results of the present work is that 3D instabilities delay the formation of vortex breakdown in the jet, in relation to the same axisymmetric flow, but once the vortex breakdown phenomenon occurs, the 3D instabilities coming from the rotating pipe appear to be suppressed in the jet, and the swirling flow becomes basically axisymmetric again. Finally, the axisymmetric simulations show that the jet becomes unstable to axisymmetric perturbations, when ReQ≳188, above another critical value of S. However, these axisymmetric instabilities do not appear in the 3D simulations because the flow becomes unstable to asymmetric perturbations at much lower values of S.

  10. Detection of Large Numbers of Novel Sequences in the Metatranscriptomes of Complex Marine Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jack A.; Field, Dawn; Huang, Ying; Edwards, Rob; Li, Weizhong; Gilna, Paul; Joint, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Background Sequencing the expressed genetic information of an ecosystem (metatranscriptome) can provide information about the response of organisms to varying environmental conditions. Until recently, metatranscriptomics has been limited to microarray technology and random cloning methodologies. The application of high-throughput sequencing technology is now enabling access to both known and previously unknown transcripts in natural communities. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a study of a complex marine metatranscriptome obtained from random whole-community mRNA using the GS-FLX Pyrosequencing technology. Eight samples, four DNA and four mRNA, were processed from two time points in a controlled coastal ocean mesocosm study (Bergen, Norway) involving an induced phytoplankton bloom producing a total of 323,161,989 base pairs. Our study confirms the finding of the first published metatranscriptomic studies of marine and soil environments that metatranscriptomics targets highly expressed sequences which are frequently novel. Our alternative methodology increases the range of experimental options available for conducting such studies and is characterized by an exceptional enrichment of mRNA (99.92%) versus ribosomal RNA. Analysis of corresponding metagenomes confirms much higher levels of assembly in the metatranscriptomic samples and a far higher yield of large gene families with >100 members, ∼91% of which were novel. Conclusions/Significance This study provides further evidence that metatranscriptomic studies of natural microbial communities are not only feasible, but when paired with metagenomic data sets, offer an unprecedented opportunity to explore both structure and function of microbial communities – if we can overcome the challenges of elucidating the functions of so many never-seen-before gene families. PMID:18725995

  11. Biological soil crusts emit large amounts of NO and HONO affecting the nitrogen cycle in drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamm, Alexandra; Wu, Dianming; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Steinkamp, Jörg; Meusel, Hannah; Elbert, Wolfgang; Behrendt, Thomas; Sörgel, Matthias; Cheng, Yafang; Crutzen, Paul J.; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    to the latest IPCC report. In summary, our measurements show that dryland emissions of nitrogen oxides are largely driven by biocrusts and not by the underlying soil. As precipitation patterns, which influence biocrust activity, are affected by climate change, alterations in global nitrogen oxide emissions are to be expected. Thus, the role of biocrusts in the global cycling of reactive nitrogen needs to be followed and also implemented in regional and global models of biogeochemistry, air chemistry and climate.

  12. Biological soil crusts emit large amounts of NO and HONO affecting the nitrogen cycle in drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamm, Alexandra; Wu, Dianming; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Steinkamp, Jörg; Meusel, Hannah; Elbert, Wolfgang; Behrendt, Thomas; Sörgel, Matthias; Cheng, Yafang; Crutzen, Paul J.; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    according to the latest IPCC report. In summary, our measurements show that dryland emissions of nitrogen oxides are largely driven by biocrusts and not by the underlying soil. As precipitation patterns, which influence biocrust activity, are affected by climate change, alterations in global nitrogen oxide emissions are to be expected. Thus, the role of biocrusts in the global cycling of reactive nitrogen needs to be followed and also implemented in regional and global models of biogeochemistry, air chemistry and climate.

  13. How would increasing seat belt use affect the number of killed or seriously injured light vehicle occupants?

    PubMed

    Høye, Alena

    2016-03-01

    The expected effects of increasing seat belt use on the number of killed or seriously injured (KSI) light vehicle occupants have been estimated for three scenarios of increased seat belt use in Norway, taking into account current seat belt use, the effects of seat belts and differences in crash risk between belted and unbelted drivers. The effects of seat belts on fatality and injury risk were investigated in a meta-analysis that is based on 24 studies from 2000 or later. The results indicate that seat belts reduce both fatal and non-fatal injuries by 60% among front seat occupants and by 44% among rear seat occupants. Both results are statistically significant. Seat belt use among rear seat occupants was additionally found to about halve fatality risk among belted front seat occupants in a meta-analysis that is based on six studies. Based on an analysis of seat belt wearing rates among crash involved and non-crash involved drivers in Norway it is estimated that unbelted drivers have 8.3 times the fatal crash risk and 5.2 times the serious injury crash risk of belted drivers. The large differences in crash risk are likely to be due to other risk factors that are common among unbelted drivers such as drunk driving and speeding. Without taking into account differences in crash risk between belted and unbelted drivers, the estimated effects of increasing seat belt use are likely to be biased. When differences in crash risk are taken into account, it is estimated that the annual numbers of KSI front seat occupants in light vehicles in Norway could be reduced by 11.3% if all vehicles had seat belt reminders (assumed seat belt wearing rate 98.9%), by 17.5% if all light vehicles had seat belt interlocks (assumed seat belt wearing rate 99.7%) and by 19.9% if all front seat occupants of light vehicles were belted. Currently 96.6% of all (non-crash involved) front seat occupants are belted. The effect on KSI per percentage increase of seat belt use increases with increasing

  14. CRE dating on the scarps of large landslides affecting the Belledonne massif ( French Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrouc, V.; Baillet, L.; Schwartz, S.; Jongmans, D.; Gamond, J. F.; Bourles, D.; Le Roux, O.; Carcaillet, J.; Braucher, R.

    2012-04-01

    The southwestern edge of the Belledonne Massif (French Alps) consists of micaschists unconformably covered with Mesozoic sediments and Quaternary deposits. The morphology corresponds to a glacial plateau (Mont Sec plateau) bordered by steep slopes (around 40°), where moraines and peat bog subsist. The massif is incised by the East-West trending Romanche valley that was shaped by several cycles of quaternary glaciations and deglaciations. Slopes are affected by several active or past large scale rock mass instabilities. Cosmic Ray Exposure (CRE) dating was applied on the head scarps of three large landslides, one of which being the active Séchilienne landslide whose headscarp was already dated by Leroux et al. [2009]. Dating results suggest a concomitant initiation of these instabilities at about 7 ± 2 10Be ka, thousands years after the total downwastage of the valley. A different kinematic behaviour was however observed on two contiguous landslides for which continuous exposure profiles were obtained. On the Séchilienne landslide, 23 samples were collected from internal and lateral scarps, as well as on polished bedrock surfaces, with the aim of dating the internal kinematics of the landslide. Preliminary dating results obtained on polished surfaces and near the top of the scarps show unexpected low 10Be concentrations, suggesting the existence of thin moraine or peat bog deposits masking the bedrock, which have been subsequently eroded. The minimum thickness of these deposits was estimated assuming a constant denudation rate over time. Exposure date profiles show that the studied lateral and internal scarps were initiated at the same period as the Sechilienne headscarp. An increase in the exposure rate was also observed between 2 and 1 ka, in agreement with that evidenced along the headscarp. Forty other samples have been collected in the landslide to corroborate these results. Reference Le Roux, O., S. Schwartz , J.-F. Gamond, D. Jongmans, D. Bourles, R

  15. How Venus surface conditions evolution can be affected by large impacts at long timescales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmann, Cedric; Golabek, Gregor; Tackley, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Using numerical simulations, we investigate how the evolution of Venus' atmosphere and mantle is modified by large impacts, during Late Veneer and Late Heavy Bombardment. We propose a coupled model of mantle/atmosphere feedback. We also focus on volatile fluxes in and out of the atmosphere: atmospheric escape and degassing. The solid part of the planet is simulated using the StagYY code (Armann and Tackley, 2012) and releases volatiles into the atmosphere through degassing. Physical properties are depth-dependent. The assumed rheology is Newtonian diffusion creep plus plastic yielding. Atmospheric escape modeling involves two different aspects: hydrodynamic escape (0-500 Myr) and non-thermal escape mechanisms (dominant post 4 Ga). Hydrodynamic escape is the massive outflow of volatiles occurring when the solar energy input is strong. Post 4 Ga escape from non-thermal processes is comparatively low. The evolution of surface temperature is calculated from the greenhouse effect dependent on CO2 and water concentrations in the atmosphere, using a one-dimensional gray radiative-convective atmosphere model. It allows us to complete the coupling of the model: feedback of the atmosphere on the mantle is obtained by using surface temperature as a boundary condition for the convection. Large impacts are capable of contributing to (i) atmospheric escape, (ii) volatile replenishment and (iii) energy transfer to the mantle of the solid planet. We test a wide range of impactor parameters (size, velocity, timing) and different assumptions related to impact erosion (Shuvalov, 2010). For energy transfer, 2D distribution of the thermal anomaly created by the impact is used, leading to melting and subjected to transport by the mantle convection. Small (0-50 km) meteorites have a negligible effect on the global scale: they only affect the impact point and do not have lasting consequences on surface conditions. Medium ones (50-150 km) have strong short term influence through volatile

  16. Introducing a semi-automatic method to simulate large numbers of forensic fingermarks for research on fingerprint identification.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Crystal M; de Jongh, Arent; Meuwly, Didier

    2012-03-01

    Statistical research on fingerprint identification and the testing of automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) performances require large numbers of forensic fingermarks. These fingermarks are rarely available. This study presents a semi-automatic method to create simulated fingermarks in large quantities that model minutiae features or images of forensic fingermarks. This method takes into account several aspects contributing to the variability of forensic fingermarks such as the number of minutiae, the finger region, and the elastic deformation of the skin. To investigate the applicability of the simulated fingermarks, fingermarks have been simulated with 5-12 minutiae originating from different finger regions for six fingers. An AFIS matching algorithm was used to obtain similarity scores for comparisons between the minutiae configurations of fingerprints and the minutiae configurations of simulated and forensic fingermarks. The results showed similar scores for both types of fingermarks suggesting that the simulated fingermarks are good substitutes for forensic fingermarks. PMID:22103733

  17. Study on the dynamic characteristics of flow over building cluster at high Reynolds number by large eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, BoBin; Wang, ZhiShi; Cui, GuiXiang; Zhang, ZhaoShun

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of building clusters are simulated by large eddy simulation at high Reynolds number for both homogeneous and heterogeneous building clusters. To save the computational cost a channel-like flow model is applied to the urban canopy with free slip condition at the upper boundary. The results show that the domain height is an important parameter for correct evaluation of the dynamic characteristics. The domain height must be greater than 8 h ( h is the average building height) in order to obtain correct roughness height while displacement height and roughness sublayer are less sensitive to the domain height. The Reynolds number effects on the dynamic characteristics and flow patterns are investigated. The turbulence intensity is stronger inside building cluster at high Reynolds number while turbulence intensity is almost unchanged with Reynolds number above the building cluster. Roughness height increases monotonously with Reynolds number by 20% from Re*=103 to Re*=105 but displacement height is almost unchanged. Within the canopy layer of heterogeneous building clusters, flow structures vary between buildings and turbulence is more active at high Reynolds number.

  18. Digital genotyping of macrosatellites and multicopy genes reveals novel biological functions associated with copy number variation of large tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Brahmachary, Manisha; Guilmatre, Audrey; Quilez, Javier; Hasson, Dan; Borel, Christelle; Warburton, Peter; Sharp, Andrew J

    2014-06-01

    Tandem repeats are common in eukaryotic genomes, but due to difficulties in assaying them remain poorly studied. Here, we demonstrate the utility of Nanostring technology as a targeted approach to perform accurate measurement of tandem repeats even at extremely high copy number, and apply this technology to genotype 165 HapMap samples from three different populations and five species of non-human primates. We observed extreme variability in copy number of tandemly repeated genes, with many loci showing 5-10 fold variation in copy number among humans. Many of these loci show hallmarks of genome assembly errors, and the true copy number of many large tandem repeats is significantly under-represented even in the high quality 'finished' human reference assembly. Importantly, we demonstrate that most large tandem repeat variations are not tagged by nearby SNPs, and are therefore essentially invisible to SNP-based GWAS approaches. Using association analysis we identify many cis correlations of large tandem repeat variants with nearby gene expression and DNA methylation levels, indicating that variations of tandem repeat length are associated with functional effects on the local genomic environment. This includes an example where expansion of a macrosatellite repeat is associated with increased DNA methylation and suppression of nearby gene expression, suggesting a mechanism termed "repeat induced gene silencing", which has previously been observed only in transgenic organisms. We also observed multiple signatures consistent with altered selective pressures at tandemly repeated loci, suggesting important biological functions. Our studies show that tandemly repeated loci represent a highly variable fraction of the genome that have been systematically ignored by most previous studies, copy number variation of which can exert functionally significant effects. We suggest that future studies of tandem repeat loci will lead to many novel insights into their role in modulating

  19. Design and test of a natural laminar flow/large Reynolds number airfoil with a high design cruise lift coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolesar, C. E.

    1987-01-01

    Research activity on an airfoil designed for a large airplane capable of very long endurance times at a low Mach number of 0.22 is examined. Airplane mission objectives and design optimization resulted in requirements for a very high design lift coefficient and a large amount of laminar flow at high Reynolds number to increase the lift/drag ratio and reduce the loiter lift coefficient. Natural laminar flow was selected instead of distributed mechanical suction for the measurement technique. A design lift coefficient of 1.5 was identified as the highest which could be achieved with a large extent of laminar flow. A single element airfoil was designed using an inverse boundary layer solution and inverse airfoil design computer codes to create an airfoil section that would achieve performance goals. The design process and results, including airfoil shape, pressure distributions, and aerodynamic characteristics are presented. A two dimensional wind tunnel model was constructed and tested in a NASA Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel which enabled testing at full scale design Reynolds number. A comparison is made between theoretical and measured results to establish accuracy and quality of the airfoil design technique.

  20. Deformation of leaky-dielectric fluid globules under strong electric fields: Boundary layers and jets at large Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitzer, Ory; Frankel, Itzchak; Yariv, Ehud

    2013-11-01

    In Taylor's theory of electrohydrodynamic drop deformation (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 291, 1966, pp. 159-166), inertia is neglected at the outset, resulting in fluid velocity that scales as the square of the applied-field magnitude. For large drops, with increasing field strength the Reynolds number predicted by this scaling may actually become large, suggesting the need for a complementary large-Reynolds-number investigation. Balancing viscous stresses and electrical shear forces in this limit reveals a different velocity scaling, with the 4/3-power of the applied-field magnitude. We focus here on the flow over a gas bubble. It is essentially confined to two boundary layers propagating from the poles to the equator, where they collide to form a radial jet. At leading order in the Capillary number, the bubble deforms due to (i) Maxwell stresses; (ii) the hydrodynamic boundary-layer pressure associated with centripetal acceleration; and (iii) the intense pressure distribution acting over the narrow equatorial deflection zone, appearing as a concentrated load. Remarkably, the unique flow topology and associated scalings allow to obtain a closed-form expression for this deformation through application of integral mass and momentum balances. On the bubble scale, the concentrated pressure load is manifested in the appearance of a non-smooth equatorial dimple.

  1. Pharmaceutical quality evaluation of lipid emulsions containing PGE1: alteration in the number of large particles in infusion solutions.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hiroko; Saito, Haruna; Yomota, Chikako; Kawanishi, Toru

    2009-08-13

    There are two generics of a parenteral lipid emulsion of prostaglandin E1 (PGE(1)) (Lipo-PGE(1)) in addition to two innovators. It was reported the change from innovator to generic in clinical practice caused the slowing of drip rate and formation of aggregates in the infusion line. Thus, we investigated the difference of pharmaceutical quality in these Lipo-PGE(1) formulations. After mixing with some infusion solutions, the mean diameter and number of large particles were determined. Although the mean diameter did not change in any infusion solutions, the number of large particles (diameter >1.0 microm) dramatically increased in generics with Hartmann's solution pH 8 or Lactec injection with 7% sodium bicarbonate. Next, we investigated the effect of these infusion solutions on the retention rate of PGE(1) in lipid particles. The retention rate of PGE(1) in these two infusion solutions decreased more quickly than that in normal saline. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences among the formulations tested. Our results suggest that there is no difference between innovators and generics except in mixing with these infusion solutions. Furthermore, that monitoring the number of large particles can be an effective means of evaluating pharmaceutical interactions and/or the stability of lipid emulsions. PMID:19465103

  2. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) treat small and large numbers of items similarly during a relative quantity judgment task.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E

    2016-08-01

    A key issue in understanding the evolutionary and developmental emergence of numerical cognition is to learn what mechanism(s) support perception and representation of quantitative information. Two such systems have been proposed, one for dealing with approximate representation of sets of items across an extended numerical range and another for highly precise representation of only small numbers of items. Evidence for the first system is abundant across species and in many tests with human adults and children, whereas the second system is primarily evident in research with children and in some tests with non-human animals. A recent paper (Choo & Franconeri, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 93-99, 2014) with adult humans also reported "superprecise" representation of small sets of items in comparison to large sets of items, which would provide more support for the presence of a second system in human adults. We first presented capuchin monkeys with a test similar to that of Choo and Franconeri in which small or large sets with the same ratios had to be discriminated. We then presented the same monkeys with an expanded range of comparisons in the small number range (all comparisons of 1-9 items) and the large number range (all comparisons of 10-90 items in 10-item increments). Capuchin monkeys showed no increased precision for small over large sets in making these discriminations in either experiment. These data indicate a difference in the performance of monkeys to that of adult humans, and specifically that monkeys do not show improved discrimination performance for small sets relative to large sets when the relative numerical differences are held constant. PMID:26689808

  3. A comparison of three approaches to compute the effective Reynolds number of the implicit large-eddy simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Ye; Thornber, Ben

    2016-04-12

    Here, the implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) has been utilized as an effective approach for calculating many complex flows at high Reynolds number flows. Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) induced flow can be viewed as a homogeneous decaying turbulence (HDT) after the passage of the shock. In this article, a critical evaluation of three methods for estimating the effective Reynolds number and the effective kinematic viscosity is undertaken utilizing high-resolution ILES data. Effective Reynolds numbers based on the vorticity and dissipation rate, or the integral and inner-viscous length scales, are found to be the most self-consistent when compared to the expected phenomenology andmore » wind tunnel experiments.« less

  4. Cooling Characteristics of Highly Viscous Liquids in a Channel with a Large Number of Right-Angled Bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriyam, Masafumi; Li, Xiangyi; Harada, Eiji; Konno, Hirotaka

    An investigation was performed on the flow and cooling characteristics of highly viscous liquids in the channel with a large number of right-angled bends. The variation of flow pattern and temperature profile according to Reynolds number and Prandtl number were presented by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equations with energy equation under the condition that the fluid properties were independent on temperature. Average heat transfer cofficient and friction factor were also calculated and compared with the experimental data regarding aqueous solutions of corn syrup. Through the comparison, the effect of the variable viscosity of the test fluid on the flow and heat transfer characteristics was considered in connection with the channel configuration.

  5. Abdominally implanted satellite transmitters affect reproduction and survival rather than migration of large shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Kentie, Rosemarie; Gerritsen, Gerrit J.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Tijssen, David C.; Harwood, Christopher M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a common technique to investigate avian life-histories, but whether such tagging will affect fitness is a critical unknown. In this study, we evaluate multi-year effects of implanted transmitters on migratory timing and reproductive performance in shorebirds. Shorebirds increasingly are recognized as good models in ecology and evolution. That many of them are of conservation concern adds to the research responsibilities. In May 2009, we captured 56 female Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during late incubation in The Netherlands. Of these, 15 birds were equipped with 26-g satellite transmitters with a percutaneous antenna (7.8 % ± 0.2 SD of body mass), surgically implanted in the coelom. We compared immediate nest survival, timing of migration, subsequent nest site fidelity and reproductive behaviour including egg laying with those of the remaining birds, a comparison group of 41 females. We found no effects on immediate nest survival. Fledging success and subsequent southward and northward migration patterns of the implanted birds conformed to the expectations, and arrival time on the breeding grounds in 2010–2012 did not differ from the comparison group. Compared with the comparison group, in the year after implantation, implanted birds were equally faithful to the nest site and showed equal territorial behaviour, but a paucity of behaviours indicating nests or clutches. In the 3 years after implantation, the yearly apparent survival of implanted birds was 16 % points lower. Despite intense searching, we found only three eggs of two implanted birds; all were deformed. A similarly deformed egg was reported in a similarly implanted Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus returning to breed in central Alaska. The presence in the body cavity of an object slightly smaller than a normal egg may thus lead to egg malformation and, likely, reduced egg viability. That the use of implanted satellite transmitters in these large shorebirds

  6. Large-s expansions for the low-energy parameters of the honeycomb-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet with spin quantum number s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, R. F.; Li, P. H. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The coupled cluster method (CCM) is employed to very high orders of approximation to study the ground-state (GS) properties of the spin-s Heisenberg antiferromagnet (with isotropic interactions, all of equal strength, between nearest-neighbour pairs only) on the honeycomb lattice. We calculate with high accuracy the complete set of GS parameters that fully describes the low-energy behaviour of the system, in terms of an effective magnon field theory, viz., the energy per spin, the magnetic order parameter (i.e., the sublattice magnetization), the spin stiffness and the zero-field (uniform, transverse) magnetic susceptibility, for all values of the spin quantum numbers in the range 1/2 ≤ s ≤ 9/2. The CCM data points are used to calculate the leading quantum corrections to the classical (s → ∞) values of these low-energy parameters, considered as large-s asymptotic expansions.

  7. The number of patients with severe encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis is decreasing in a large referral center in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kitterer, Daniel; Braun, Niko; Alscher, M Dominik; Segerer, Stephan; Latus, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Background Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is the most severe complication associated with long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD). Previous studies noticed a sharp decline in new patients with severe EPS. We investigated the number of severe EPS patients in our large referral center over almost 20 years. Methods All late-stage EPS patients who underwent major surgery due to extensive symptoms caused by bowel obstruction (vomiting, abdominal pain, and weight loss) between March 1997 and end of December 2015 in our hospital were included in the present study. An index was calculated between the number of patients with severe EPS and the implanted PD catheters in our center. Results Between 1979 and 2015, a total of 745 PD catheters were implanted in our center, with a steady increase in the numbers between 2003 and 2015. First patient with severe EPS was treated in 1998, then a rise in the number of patients with EPS was present in 2005. The number of patients with EPS peaked in the period of 2010–2012 (15 patients within 3 years). Afterward, both the absolute numbers and the index between the number of patients with severe EPS and the implanted catheters demonstrated a prominent reduction in the next 3-year period from 2013 to 2015. Conclusion Our data support the hypothesis that there seems to be a decrease of late-stage EPS incidence over the last years, but data about milder or asymptomatic patients are lacking. This should be kept in mind while giving the patients information about different renal replacement therapies at start of dialysis. PMID:27540308

  8. Type I error robustness of ANOVA and ANOVA on ranks when the number of treatments is large.

    PubMed

    Brownie, C; Boos, D D

    1994-06-01

    Agricultural screening trials often involve a large number (t) of treatments in a complete block design with limited replication (b = 3 or 4 blocks). The null hypothesis of interest is that of no differences between treatments. For the commonly used analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure, most texts do not discuss agreement between actual and nominal Type I error rates in the presence of nonnormality, in this small b, large t, situation. Similarly, for the Friedman and the increasingly popular "ANOVA on ranks" procedures, it is not easy to find results concerning null performance given b small and t large. In this article, we therefore present results, from two different bodies of theory, that provide useful insight concerning null performance of these ANOVA and rank procedures when t is large. The two types of theory are (i) the classical approach based on moment approximations to the permutation distribution, and (ii) central-limit-theory-based asymptotics in the nonstandard t--> infinity situation. Both approaches demonstrate the validity of standard ANOVA and of ANOVA on within-block ranks, under nonnormality when t is large. Choice of the procedure to be used on a given data set should therefore be based on consideration of power properties. In general, ANOVA on ranks will be superior to standard ANOVA for data with frequent extreme values. PMID:19405210

  9. Understanding the Factors that Affect the Severity of Juvenile Stranger Sex Offenses: The Effect of Victim Characteristics and Number of Suspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhams, Jessica; Gillett, Raphael; Grant, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Understanding factors that affect the severity of a juvenile-stranger sexual assault has implications for crime prevention, and potentially, the assessment and treatment of juvenile sex offenders. This study investigated how victim characteristics and the number of suspects affected the use of physical violence and weapons and the occurrence of…

  10. A large-domain approach for calculating ship boundary layers and wakes and wave fields for nonzero Froude number

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, Y.; Stern, F.

    1996-09-01

    A large-domain approach is developed for calculating ship boundary layers and wakes and wave fields for nonzero Froude number. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and continuity equations are solved with the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, exact nonlinear kinematic and approximate dynamic free-surface boundary conditions, and a body/free-surface conforming grid. The results are validated through comparisons with data for the Series 60 C{sub B} = 0.6 ship model at low and high Froude numbers and results of a precursory interactive approach. Both approaches yield satisfactory results; however, the large-domain results indicate improved resolution of the flow close to the hull and wake centerplane and of the Froucle number differences due to near-wall turbulence modeling and non-linear free-surface boundary conditions. Additional evaluation is provided through discussion of the recent CFD Workshop Tokyo 1994, where both methods were among the best. Last, some concluding remarks are made. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  11. A Multilayer Secure Biomedical Data Management System for Remotely Managing a Very Large Number of Diverse Personal Healthcare Devices

    PubMed Central

    Park, KeeHyun; Lim, SeungHyeon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multilayer secure biomedical data management system for managing a very large number of diverse personal health devices is proposed. The system has the following characteristics: the system supports international standard communication protocols to achieve interoperability. The system is integrated in the sense that both a PHD communication system and a remote PHD management system work together as a single system. Finally, the system proposed in this paper provides user/message authentication processes to securely transmit biomedical data measured by PHDs based on the concept of a biomedical signature. Some experiments, including the stress test, have been conducted to show that the system proposed/constructed in this study performs very well even when a very large number of PHDs are used. For a stress test, up to 1,200 threads are made to represent the same number of PHD agents. The loss ratio of the ISO/IEEE 11073 messages in the normal system is as high as 14% when 1,200 PHD agents are connected. On the other hand, no message loss occurs in the multilayered system proposed in this study, which demonstrates the superiority of the multilayered system to the normal system with regard to heavy traffic. PMID:26247034

  12. On the variational computation of a large number of vibrational energy levels and wave functions for medium-sized molecules.

    PubMed

    Mátyus, Edit; Simunek, Ján; Császár, Attila G

    2009-08-21

    In a recent publication [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 084102 (2007)], the nearly variational DEWE approach (DEWE denotes Discrete variable representation of the Watson Hamiltonian using the Eckart frame and an Exact inclusion of a potential energy surface expressed in arbitrarily chosen coordinates) was developed to compute a large number of (ro)vibrational eigenpairs for medium-sized semirigid molecules having a single well-defined minimum. In this publication, memory, CPU, and hard disk usage requirements of DEWE, and thus of any DEWE-type approach, are carefully considered, analyzed, and optimized. Particular attention is paid to the sparse matrix-vector multiplication, the most expensive part of the computation, and to rate-determining steps in the iterative Lanczos eigensolver, including spectral transformation, reorthogonalization, and restart of the iteration. Algorithmic improvements are discussed in considerable detail. Numerical results are presented for the vibrational band origins of the (12)CH(4) and (12)CH(2)D(2) isotopologues of the methane molecule. The largest matrix handled on a personal computer during these computations is of the size of (4x10(8))x(4x10(8)). The best strategy for determining vibrational eigenpairs depends largely on the actual details of the required computation. Nevertheless, for a usual scenario requiring a large number of the lowest eigenpairs of the Hamiltonian matrix the combination of the thick-restart Lanczos method, shift-fold filtering, and periodic reorthogonalization appears to result in the computationally most feasible approach. PMID:19708731

  13. The 3D MHD code GOEMHD3 for astrophysical plasmas with large Reynolds numbers. Code description, verification, and computational performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skála, J.; Baruffa, F.; Büchner, J.; Rampp, M.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The numerical simulation of turbulence and flows in almost ideal astrophysical plasmas with large Reynolds numbers motivates the implementation of magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) computer codes with low resistivity. They need to be computationally efficient and scale well with large numbers of CPU cores, allow obtaining a high grid resolution over large simulation domains, and be easily and modularly extensible, for instance, to new initial and boundary conditions. Aims: Our aims are the implementation, optimization, and verification of a computationally efficient, highly scalable, and easily extensible low-dissipative MHD simulation code for the numerical investigation of the dynamics of astrophysical plasmas with large Reynolds numbers in three dimensions (3D). Methods: The new GOEMHD3 code discretizes the ideal part of the MHD equations using a fast and efficient leap-frog scheme that is second-order accurate in space and time and whose initial and boundary conditions can easily be modified. For the investigation of diffusive and dissipative processes the corresponding terms are discretized by a DuFort-Frankel scheme. To always fulfill the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy stability criterion, the time step of the code is adapted dynamically. Numerically induced local oscillations are suppressed by explicit, externally controlled diffusion terms. Non-equidistant grids are implemented, which enhance the spatial resolution, where needed. GOEMHD3 is parallelized based on the hybrid MPI-OpenMP programing paradigm, adopting a standard two-dimensional domain-decomposition approach. Results: The ideal part of the equation solver is verified by performing numerical tests of the evolution of the well-understood Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and of Orszag-Tang vortices. The accuracy of solving the (resistive) induction equation is tested by simulating the decay of a cylindrical current column. Furthermore, we show that the computational performance of the code scales very

  14. Theory of magnetospheric standing hydromagnetic waves with large azimuthal wave number. 1. Coupled magnetosonic and Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.D.M. )

    1987-09-01

    A new hydromagnetic theory is developed for describing compressional pulsations with azimuthal wave number. It is assumed that there are two plasma, one hot, in which pressure effects are important, and the other cold. The equations are derived in a general set of magnetic coordinates which allow realistic calculations including geometrical effects in the magnetosphere. The equations describe the three hydromagnetic modes which are coupled by the geometry. When the azimuthal wave number is large, the fast mode is strongly evanescent. This allows an expansion in 1/m in order to decouple the fast wave. The remaining equations describe the coupled transverse Alfven and magnetosonic modes. Some of the puzzling features of the observations of polarization are discussed.

  15. High-resolution copy number analysis of paired normal-tumor samples from diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Elena; Alcoceba, Miguel; Martín-García, David; Blanco, Óscar; Sanchez-Barba, Mercedes; Balanzategui, Ana; Marín, Luis; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; González-Barca, Eva; Pardal, Emilia; Jiménez, Cristina; García-Álvarez, María; Clot, Guillem; Carracedo, Ángel; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Sarasquete, M Eugenia; Chillón, Carmen; Corral, Rocío; Prieto-Conde, M Isabel; Caballero, M Dolores; Salaverria, Itziar; García-Sanz, Ramón; González, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Copy number analysis can be useful for assessing prognosis in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We analyzed copy number data from tumor samples of 60 patients diagnosed with DLBCL de novo and their matched normal samples. We detected 63 recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs), including 33 gains, 30 losses, and nine recurrent acquired copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity (CNN-LOH). Interestingly, 20 % of cases acquired CNN-LOH of 6p21 locus, which involves the HLA region. In normal cells, there were no CNAs but we observed CNN-LOH involving some key lymphoma regions such as 6p21 and 9p24.1 (5 %) and 17p13.1 (2.5 %) in DLBCL patients. Furthermore, a model with some specific CNA was able to predict the subtype of DLBCL, 1p36.32 and 10q23.31 losses being restricted to germinal center B cell-like (GCB) DLBCL. In contrast, 8p23.3 losses and 11q24.3 gains were strongly associated with the non-GCB subtype. A poor prognosis was associated with biallelic inactivation of TP53 or 18p11.32 losses, while prognosis was better in cases carrying 11q24.3 gains. In summary, CNA abnormalities identify specific DLBCL groups, and we describe CNN-LOH in germline cells from DLBCL patients that are associated with genes that probably play a key role in DLBCL development. PMID:26573278

  16. Multiplex titration RT-PCR: rapid determination of gene expression patterns for a large number of genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nebenfuhr, A.; Lomax, T. L.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed an improved method for determination of gene expression levels with RT-PCR. The procedure is rapid and does not require extensive optimization or densitometric analysis. Since the detection of individual transcripts is PCR-based, small amounts of tissue samples are sufficient for the analysis of expression patterns in large gene families. Using this method, we were able to rapidly screen nine members of the Aux/IAA family of auxin-responsive genes and identify those genes which vary in message abundance in a tissue- and light-specific manner. While not offering the accuracy of conventional semi-quantitative or competitive RT-PCR, our method allows quick screening of large numbers of genes in a wide range of RNA samples with just a thermal cycler and standard gel analysis equipment.

  17. Note: A method to isolate and detect a large number of single molecules by microdroplet fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ng, K C; Heredia, K H; Kliewer, D

    2012-03-01

    A laser induced fluorescence system, in combination with a glass-frit nebulizer and a photo-voltaic cell detector, is described for single molecule detection. The glass-frit nebulizer continuously generates a large number of droplets with an average droplet size of three micrometers in diameter. Rhodamine 6G molecules were detected at the 10(-12) M level. Concentrations 10(-12)-10(-10) M would provide mostly single molecules (0, 1, 2, 3, ...) in the individual droplets, as determined by Poisson distribution. PMID:22462973

  18. Note: A method to isolate and detect a large number of single molecules by microdroplet fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, K. C.; Heredia, K. H.; Kliewer, D.

    2012-03-01

    A laser induced fluorescence system, in combination with a glass-frit nebulizer and a photo-voltaic cell detector, is described for single molecule detection. The glass-frit nebulizer continuously generates a large number of droplets with an average droplet size of three micrometers in diameter. Rhodamine 6G molecules were detected at the 10-12 M level. Concentrations 10-12-10-10 M would provide mostly single molecules (0, 1, 2, 3, …) in the individual droplets, as determined by Poisson distribution.

  19. Atomic Number Dependence of Hadron Production at Large Transverse Momentum in 300 GeV Proton--Nucleus Collisions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cronin, J. W.; Frisch, H. J.; Shochet, M. J.; Boymond, J. P.; Mermod, R.; Piroue, P. A.; Sumner, R. L.

    1974-07-15

    In an experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory we have compared the production of large transverse momentum hadrons from targets of W, Ti, and Be bombarded by 300 GeV protons. The hadron yields were measured at 90 degrees in the proton-nucleon c.m. system with a magnetic spectrometer equipped with 2 Cerenkov counters and a hadron calorimeter. The production cross-sections have a dependence on the atomic number A that grows with P{sub 1}, eventually leveling off proportional to A{sup 1.1}.

  20. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Vol. 4: Large-radius leading edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 120 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  1. Arrangement of scale-interaction and large-scale modulation in high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, Woutijn J.; Hutchins, Nicholas; Marusic, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between small- and large-scale motions are inherent in the near-wall dynamics of wall-bounded flows. We here examine the scale-interaction embedded within the streamwise velocity component. Data were acquired using hot-wire anemometry in ZPG turbulent boundary layers, for Reynolds numbers ranging from Reτ ≡ δUτ / ν ~ 2800 to 22800. After first decomposing velocity signals into contributions from small- and large-scales, we then represent the time-varying small-scale energy with time series of its instantaneous amplitude and instantaneous frequency, via a wavelet-based method. Features of the scale-interaction are inferred from isocorrelation maps, formed by correlating the large-scale velocity with its concurrent small-scale amplitude and frequency. Below the onset of the log-region, the physics constitutes aspects of amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. Time shifts, associated with the correlation extrema--representing the lead/lag of the small-scale signatures relative to the large-scales--are shown to be governed by inner-scaling. Wall-normal trends of time shifts are explained by considering the arrangement of scales in the log- and intermittent-regions, and how they relate to stochastic top-down and bottom-up processes.

  2. Tracking a large number of closely spaced objects based on the particle probability hypothesis density filter via optical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liangkui; Xu, Hui; An, Wei; Sheng, Weidong; Xu, Dan

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to tracking a large number of closely spaced objects (CSO) in image sequences that is based on the particle probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter and multiassignment data association. First, the particle PHD filter is adopted to eliminate most of the clutters and to estimate multitarget states. In the particle PHD filter, a noniterative multitarget estimation technique is introduced to reliably estimate multitarget states, and an improved birth particle sampling scheme is present to effectively acquire targets among clutters. Then, an integrated track management method is proposed to realize multitarget track continuity. The core of the track management is the track-to-estimation multiassignment association, which relaxes the traditional one-to-one data association restriction due to the unresolved focal plane CSO measurements. Meanwhile, a unified technique of multiple consecutive misses for track deletion is used jointly to cope with the sensitivity of the PHD filter to the missed detections and to eliminate false alarms further, as well as to initiate tracks of large numbers of CSO. Finally, results of two simulations and one experiment show that the proposed approach is feasible and efficient.

  3. Controlled Cu nanoparticle growth on wrinkle affecting deposition of large scale graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohsin; Uddin, Md Jasim; Rahman, Muhammad Anisur; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2016-09-01

    For Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) grown graphene on Cu substrate, deviation from atomic orientation in crystals may be resulted from diffusion of abnormalities in the form of Cu nanoparticle (NP) formation or defects and affects graphene quality and properties drastically. However, for the uniform graphene deposition, mechanism of nanoparticle formation and its suppression procedure need to be better understood. We report growth of graphene, affected by Cu nanoparticles (NPs) emergence on Cu substrates. In the current study, growth of these nanoparticles has been suppressed by fine tuning of carrier gas by two-fold gas insertion mechanism and hence, quality and uniformity of graphene is significantly improved. It has been also observed that during the deposition by CVD, Cu nanoparticles cluster preferentially on wrinkles or terrace of the Cu surface. Composition of NP is extensively studied and found to be the oxide nanoparticle of Cu. Our result, controlled NP growth affecting deposition of graphene layer would provide useful insight on the growth of uniform and high quality Single layer or bilayer graphene for numerous electronics applications.

  4. Discovery and characterization of a large number of diagnostic markers to discriminate Oncorhynchus mykiss and O. clarkii.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, V L; Abadía-Cardoso, A; Garza, J C

    2012-09-01

    Hybridization of cutthroat trout and steelhead/rainbow trout is ubiquitous where they are sympatric, either naturally or owing to introductions. The ability to detect hybridization and introgression between the two species would be greatly improved by the development of more diagnostic markers validated across the two species' many phylogenetic lineages. Here, we describe 81 novel genetic markers and associated assays for discriminating the genomes of these sister species. These diagnostic nucleotide polymorphisms were discovered by sequencing of rainbow trout expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in a diverse panel of both cutthroat trout and steelhead/rainbow trout. The resulting markers were validated in a large number of lineages of both species, including all extant subspecies of cutthroat trout and most of the lineages of rainbow trout that are found in natural sympatry with cutthroat trout or used in stocking practices. Most of these markers (79%) distinguish genomic regions for all lineages of the two species, but a small number do not reliably diagnose coastal, westslope and/or other subspecies of cutthroat trout. Surveys of natural populations and hatchery strains of trout and steelhead found rare occurrences of the alternative allele, which may be due to either previous introgression or shared polymorphism. The availability of a large number of genetic markers for distinguishing genomic regions originating in these sister species will allow the detection of both recent and more distant hybridization events, facilitate the study of the evolutionary dynamics of hybridization and provide a powerful set of tools for the conservation and management of both species. PMID:22591214

  5. Computational Complexity of Coherent Vortex and Adaptive Large Eddy Simulations of Three-Dimensional Homogeneous Turbulence at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejadmalayeri, Alireza; Vezolainen, Alexei; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2011-11-01

    With the recent development of parallel adaptive wavelet collocation method, adaptive numerical simulations of high Reynolds number turbulent flows have become feasible. The integration of turbulence modeling of different fidelity with adaptive wavelet methods results in a hierarchical approach for modeling and simulating turbulent flows in which all or most energetic parts of coherent eddies are dynamically resolved on self-adaptive computational grids, while modeling the effect of the unresolved incoherent or less energetic modes. This talk is the first attempt to estimate how spatial modes of both Coherent Vortex Simulations (CVS) and Stochastic Coherent Adaptive Large Eddy Simulations (SCALES) scale with Reynolds number. The computational complexity studies for both CVS and SCALES of linearly forced homogeneous turbulence are performed at effective non-adaptive resolutions of 2563, 5123, 10243, and 20483 corresponding to approximate Reλ of 70, 120, 190, 320. The details of the simulations are discussed and the results of compression achieved by CVS and SCALES as well as scalability studies of the parallel algorithm for the aforementioned Taylor micro-scale Reynolds numbers are presented. This work was supported by NSF under grant No. CBET-0756046.

  6. Two-dimensional wave-number spectral analysis techniques for phase contrast imaging turbulence imaging data on large helical device.

    PubMed

    Michael, C A; Tanaka, K; Vyacheslavov, L; Sanin, A; Kawahata, K

    2015-09-01

    An analysis method for unfolding the spatially resolved wave-number spectrum and phase velocity from the 2D CO2 laser phase contrast imaging system on the large helical device is described. This is based on the magnetic shear technique which identifies propagation direction from 2D spatial Fourier analysis of images detected by a 6 × 8 detector array. Because the strongest modes have wave-number at the lower end of the instrumental k range, high resolution spectral techniques are necessary to clearly resolve the propagation direction and hence the spatial distribution of fluctuations along the probing laser beam. Multiple-spatial point cross-correlation averaging is applied before calculating the spatial power spectrum. Different methods are compared, and it is found that the maximum entropy method (MEM) gives best results. The possible generation of artifacts from the over-narrowing of spectra are investigated and found not to be a significant problem. The spatial resolution Δρ (normalized radius) around the peak wave-number, for conventional Fourier analysis, is ∼0.5, making physical interpretation difficult, while for MEM, Δρ ∼ 0.1. PMID:26429439

  7. Two-dimensional wave-number spectral analysis techniques for phase contrast imaging turbulence imaging data on large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, C. A.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K.; Vyacheslavov, L.; Sanin, A.

    2015-09-15

    An analysis method for unfolding the spatially resolved wave-number spectrum and phase velocity from the 2D CO{sub 2} laser phase contrast imaging system on the large helical device is described. This is based on the magnetic shear technique which identifies propagation direction from 2D spatial Fourier analysis of images detected by a 6 × 8 detector array. Because the strongest modes have wave-number at the lower end of the instrumental k range, high resolution spectral techniques are necessary to clearly resolve the propagation direction and hence the spatial distribution of fluctuations along the probing laser beam. Multiple-spatial point cross-correlation averaging is applied before calculating the spatial power spectrum. Different methods are compared, and it is found that the maximum entropy method (MEM) gives best results. The possible generation of artifacts from the over-narrowing of spectra are investigated and found not to be a significant problem. The spatial resolution Δρ (normalized radius) around the peak wave-number, for conventional Fourier analysis, is ∼0.5, making physical interpretation difficult, while for MEM, Δρ ∼ 0.1.

  8. Large wood budget assessment along a gravel bed river affected by volcanic eruption: the Rio Blanco study case (Chile).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oss-Cazzador, Daniele; Iroume, Andres; Lenzi, Mario; Picco, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Wood in riverine environments exerts different functions on ecological and geomorphic settings, influencing morphological processes, and increasing risks for sensitive structures. Large wood (LW) is defined as wood material, dead or alive, larger than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length. Natural hazards can strongly increase the presence of LW in waterways and flood events can transport it affecting the ecosystem and landscape. This study aims to increase the knowledge of wood budget, considering the effects of two subsequent slight flood events along a sub-reach of the Rio Blanco gravel bed river , in Chilean Patagonia, strongly affected by the eruption of Chaiten volcano in 2008. The volcanic eruption affected almost 3,5 km 2 of evergreen forest on the southern (left) bank, because of primary direct effects from pyroclastic density currents and lahar-floods that caused deposition up to 8 m of reworked tephra, alluvium, and wood on floodplains and terrace along the Rio Blanco. After the eruption, there was a considerable increase of LW into the main channel: into the bankfull channel, volume exceeds 100 m 3 /ha. Field surveys were carried out in January and March 2015, before and after two slight flood events (Recurrence Intervals lower than 1 year). The pre-event phase permitted to detect and analyze the presence of LW into the study area, along a 80 m-long reach of Rio Blanco (7500 m 2 . Every LW element was manually measured and described, a numbered metal tag was installed, and the position was recorded by GPS device. In January, there was a total amount of 113 m 3 /ha, 90% accumulated in LW jams (WJ) and 10% as single logs. The LW was characterized by mean dimensions of 3,36 m height, 0,25 m diameter and 0,26 m 3 volume, respectively. The WJ are characterized by wide range of dimension: volume varies from 0,28 m 3 to 672 m 3 , length from 1,20 m to 56 m, width from 0,40 m to 8,70 m and height from 0,20 m to 3 m, respectively. After the flood events, field

  9. Analysis of a large number of clinical studies for breast cancer radiotherapy: estimation of radiobiological parameters for treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, M.; Li, X. Allen

    2003-10-01

    Numerous studies of early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (RT) have been published in recent years. Both external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or brachytherapy (BT) with different fractionation schemes are currently used. The present RT practice is largely based on empirical experience and it lacks a reliable modelling tool to compare different RT modalities or to design new treatment strategies. The purpose of this work is to derive a plausible set of radiobiological parameters that can be used for RT treatment planning. The derivation is based on existing clinical data and is consistent with the analysis of a large number of published clinical studies on early-stage breast cancer. A large number of published clinical studies on the treatment of early breast cancer with BCS plus RT (including whole breast EBRT with or without a boost to the tumour bed, whole breast EBRT alone, brachytherapy alone) and RT alone are compiled and analysed. The linear quadratic (LQ) model is used in the analysis. Three of these clinical studies are selected to derive a plausible set of LQ parameters. The potential doubling time is set a priori in the derivation according to in vitro measurements from the literature. The impact of considering lower or higher Tpot is investigated. The effects of inhomogeneous dose distributions are considered using clinically representative dose volume histograms. The derived LQ parameters are used to compare a large number of clinical studies using different regimes (e.g., RT modality and/or different fractionation schemes with different prescribed dose) in order to validate their applicability. The values of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and biologically effective dose (BED) are used as a common metric to compare the biological effectiveness of each treatment regime. We have obtained a plausible set of radiobiological parameters for breast cancer: agr = 0.3 Gy-1, agr/bgr = 10 Gy and sub

  10. Large nuclear vacuoles in spermatozoa negatively affect pregnancy rate in IVF cycles

    PubMed Central

    Ghazali, Shahin; Talebi, Ali Reza; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Esfandiari, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) criteria as a new real time tool for evaluation of spermatozoa in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles has been considered. Objective: The aim was to investigate the predictive value of MSOME in in vitro fertilization (IVF) in comparison to ICSI cycles and evaluation of the association between MSOME parameters and traditional sperm parameters in both groups. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional prospective analysis of MSOME parameters in IVF (n=31) and ICSI cycles (n=35). MSOME parameters were also evaluated as the presence of vacuole (none, small, medium, large or mix); head size (normal, small or large); cytoplasmic droplet; head shape and acrosome normality. In sub-analysis, MSOME parameters were compared between two groups with successful or failed clinical pregnancy in each group. Results: In IVF group, the rate of large nuclear vacuole showed significant increase in failed as compared to successful pregnancies (13.81±9.7vs7.38±4.4, respectively, p=0.045) while MSOME parameters were the same between successful and failed pregnancies in ICSI group. Moreover, a negative correlation was noticed between LNV and sperm shape normalcy. In ICSI group, a negative correlation was established between cytoplasmic droplet and sperm shape normalcy. In addition, there was a positive correlation between sperm shape normalcy and non-vacuolated spermatozoa. Conclusion: The high rate of large nuclear vacuoles in sperm used in IVF cycles with failed pregnancies confirms that MSOME, is a helpful tool for fine sperm morphology assessment, and its application may enhance the assisted reproduction technology success rates. PMID:26494990

  11. Large numbers of cold positronium atoms created in laser-selected Rydberg states using resonant charge exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, R.; Gabrielse, G.; Kolthammer, W. S.; Richerme, P.; Müllers, A.; Walz, J.; Grzonka, D.; Zielinski, M.; Fitzakerley, D.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; ATRAP Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Lasers are used to control the production of highly excited positronium atoms (Ps*). The laser light excites Cs atoms to Rydberg states that have a large cross section for resonant charge-exchange collisions with cold trapped positrons. For each trial with 30 million trapped positrons, more than 700 000 of the created Ps* have trajectories near the axis of the apparatus, and are detected using Stark ionization. This number of Ps* is 500 times higher than realized in an earlier proof-of-principle demonstration (2004 Phys. Lett. B 597 257). A second charge exchange of these near-axis Ps* with trapped antiprotons could be used to produce cold antihydrogen, and this antihydrogen production is expected to be increased by a similar factor.

  12. States of local stresses in the Sea of Marmara through the analysis of large numbers of small earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkusuz Öztürk, Yasemin; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Özbakir, Ali Değer

    2015-12-01

    We invert the present day states of stresses for five apparent earthquake clusters in the Northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara. As the center of the Sea of Marmara is prone to a devastating earthquake within a seismic gap between these selected clusters, sensitive analyses of the understanding of the stress and strain characteristics of the region are all-important. We use high quality P and S phases, and P-wave first motion polarities from 398 earthquakes with ML ≥ 1.5 using at least 10 P-wave first motion polarities (FMPs), and a maximum of 1 inconsistent station, obtained from a total of 105 seismic stations, including 5 continuous OBSs. We report here on large numbers of simultaneously determined individual fault plane solutions (FPSs), and orientations of principal stress axes, which previously have not been determined with any confidence from the basins of the Sea of Marmara and prominent fault branches. We find NE-SW trending transtensional stress structures, predominantly in the earthquake clusters of the Eastern Tekirdağ Basin, Eastern Çınarcık Basin, Yalova and Gemlik areas. We infer that a dextral strike-slip deformation exist in the Eastern Ganos Offshore cluster. Furthermore, we analyze FPSs of four ML ≥ 4.0 earthquakes, occurred in seismically quiet regions after 1999 Izmit earthquake. Stress tensor solutions from a cluster of small events that we have obtained, correlate with FPSs of these moderate size events as a demonstration of the effectiveness of the small earthquakes in the derivation of states of local stresses. Consequently, our analyses of seismicity and large numbers of FPSs using the densest seismic network of Turkey contribute to better understanding of the present states of the stresses and seismotectonics of the Sea of Marmara.

  13. Exome Sequencing of 75 Individuals from Multiply Affected Coeliac Families and Large Scale Resequencing Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Vanisha; Bockett, Nicholas A.; Levine, Adam P.; Mirza, Muddassar M.; Hunt, Karen A.; Ciclitira, Paul J.; Hummerich, Holger; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Simpson, Michael A.; Plagnol, Vincent; van Heel, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CeD) is a highly heritable common autoimmune disease involving chronic small intestinal inflammation in response to dietary wheat. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, and 40 newer regions identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and dense fine mapping, account for ∼40% of the disease heritability. We hypothesized that in pedigrees with multiple individuals with CeD rare [minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.5%] mutations of larger effect size (odds ratios of ∼ 2–5) might exist. We sequenced the exomes of 75 coeliac individuals of European ancestry from 55 multiply affected families. We selected interesting variants and genes for further follow up using a combination of: an assessment of shared variants between related subjects, a model-free linkage test, and gene burden tests for multiple, potentially causal, variants. We next performed highly multiplexed amplicon resequencing of all RefSeq exons from 24 candidate genes selected on the basis of the exome sequencing data in 2,248 unrelated coeliac cases and 2,230 controls. 1,335 variants with a 99.9% genotyping call rate were observed in 4,478 samples, of which 939 were present in coding regions of 24 genes (Ti/Tv 2.99). 91.7% of coding variants were rare (MAF <0.5%) and 60% were novel. Gene burden tests performed on rare functional variants identified no significant associations (p<1×10−3) in the resequenced candidate genes. Our strategy of sequencing multiply affected families with deep follow up of candidate genes has not identified any new CeD risk mutations. PMID:25635822

  14. Large-scale dynamics associated with clustering of extratropical cyclones affecting Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Joaquim G.; Gómara, Iñigo; Masato, Giacomo; Dacre, Helen F.; Woollings, Tim; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Some recent winters in Western Europe have been characterized by the occurrence of multiple extratropical cyclones following a similar path. The occurrence of such cyclone clusters leads to large socio-economic impacts due to damaging winds, storm surges, and floods. Recent studies have statistically characterized the clustering of extratropical cyclones over the North Atlantic and Europe and hypothesized potential physical mechanisms responsible for their formation. Here we analyze 4 months characterized by multiple cyclones over Western Europe (February 1990, January 1993, December 1999, and January 2007). The evolution of the eddy driven jet stream, Rossby wave-breaking, and upstream/downstream cyclone development are investigated to infer the role of the large-scale flow and to determine if clustered cyclones are related to each other. Results suggest that optimal conditions for the occurrence of cyclone clusters are provided by a recurrent extension of an intensified eddy driven jet toward Western Europe lasting at least 1 week. Multiple Rossby wave-breaking occurrences on both the poleward and equatorward flanks of the jet contribute to the development of these anomalous large-scale conditions. The analysis of the daily weather charts reveals that upstream cyclone development (secondary cyclogenesis, where new cyclones are generated on the trailing fronts of mature cyclones) is strongly related to cyclone clustering, with multiple cyclones developing on a single jet streak. The present analysis permits a deeper understanding of the physical reasons leading to the occurrence of cyclone families over the North Atlantic, enabling a better estimation of the associated cumulative risk over Europe.

  15. Large-scale dynamics associated with clustering of extratropical cyclones affecting Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Joaquim G.; Gómara, Iñigo; Masato, Giacomo; Dacre, Helen F.; Woollings, Tim; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2014-12-01

    Some recent winters in Western Europe have been characterized by the occurrence of multiple extratropical cyclones following a similar path. The occurrence of such cyclone clusters leads to large socio-economic impacts due to damaging winds, storm surges, and floods. Recent studies have statistically characterized the clustering of extratropical cyclones over the North Atlantic and Europe and hypothesized potential physical mechanisms responsible for their formation. Here we analyze 4 months characterized by multiple cyclones over Western Europe (February 1990, January 1993, December 1999, and January 2007). The evolution of the eddy driven jet stream, Rossby wave-breaking, and upstream/downstream cyclone development are investigated to infer the role of the large-scale flow and to determine if clustered cyclones are related to each other. Results suggest that optimal conditions for the occurrence of cyclone clusters are provided by a recurrent extension of an intensified eddy driven jet toward Western Europe lasting at least 1 week. Multiple Rossby wave-breaking occurrences on both the poleward and equatorward flanks of the jet contribute to the development of these anomalous large-scale conditions. The analysis of the daily weather charts reveals that upstream cyclone development (secondary cyclogenesis, where new cyclones are generated on the trailing fronts of mature cyclones) is strongly related to cyclone clustering, with multiple cyclones developing on a single jet streak. The present analysis permits a deeper understanding of the physical reasons leading to the occurrence of cyclone families over the North Atlantic, enabling a better estimation of the associated cumulative risk over Europe.

  16. Can large scale sea ice cover changes affect precipitation patterns over California?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvijanovic, I.; Bonfils, C.; Lucas, D. D.; Santer, B. D.; Chiang, J. C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Pronounced Arctic sea ice loss since the beginning of the satellite era has intensified the interest into whether these high latitude changes can significantly influence the weather and climate far from the Arctic. Current attempts to demonstrate statistically significant remote responses to sea ice changes have been hindered by factors such as large high latitude variability, relatively short observational datasets, and model limitations in adequately representing current sea ice changes. In this study, we sample uncertainty in sea ice physics parameters and variability in atmospheric initial conditions to obtain an ensemble of simulations with substantially different states of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice cover. This large ensemble isolates a robust, statistically significant climate change response arising from changes in sea ice cover only. Our results show a significant link between Arctic and Antarctic sea ice cover changes and precipitation across the tropical Atlantic and Pacific basins, the Sahel, and the west coast of the United States. For example, large Arctic sea ice decline leads to a northward shift of the tropical convergence zone, increased subsidence over the southwest United States and a geopotential anomaly over the North Pacific; with all of these factors resulting in significant drying over California. We conclude that high-latitude sea ice cover changes are an important driver of low-latitude precipitation. Consequently, reliable predictions of future precipitation changes over areas such as California (and the Sahel) will strongly depend on our ability to adequately simulate both Arctic and Antarctic sea ice changes. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and is released as LLNL-ABS-675694.

  17. Retrograde rotation of the large-scale flow in turbulent rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection with high Rossby number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jin-Qiang; Li, Hui-Min; Wang, Xue-Ying

    2015-11-01

    We present measurements of the azimuthal orientation θ (t) of the large-scale circulation (LSC) for turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in the presence of week rotations Ω . Linear retrograde rotations of the LSC circulating plane are observed over the entire Rossby-number range (1 <= Ro <= 300) studied. When the Ro increases, the ratio of the retrograde rotation rate, γ = - < . θ > / Ω remains nearly a constant 0.12 in the range of (1 <= Ro <= 80) and starts to increases when Ro > 80 . When Ro ~= 300 , γ approaches a value of 0.36 close to the prediction from previous theoretical models. In a background of linear rotations, erratic changes in θ (t) accompanied by decreasing in the LSC amplitude δ are observed. These small- δ events give rise to the increasing γ with very high Ro numbers (80 <= Ro <= 300). In this range, the diffusivity of θ is proportional to δ-2 . Moreover, the occurrence frequency of the small- δ events, and their average duration are independent on Ro. We propose a model to include additional viscous damping for the LSC azimuthal motion due to turbulent viscosity and provide theoretical interpretations of the experimental results. Work supported by NSFC Grant No. 11202151.

  18. Drug testing and flow cytometry analysis on a large number of uniform sized tumor spheroids using a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Bishnubrata; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid possesses great potential as an in vitro model to improve predictive capacity for pre-clinical drug testing. In this paper, we combine advantages of flow cytometry and microfluidics to perform drug testing and analysis on a large number (5000) of uniform sized tumor spheroids. The spheroids are formed, cultured, and treated with drugs inside a microfluidic device. The spheroids can then be harvested from the device without tedious operation. Due to the ample cell numbers, the spheroids can be dissociated into single cells for flow cytometry analysis. Flow cytometry provides statistical information in single cell resolution that makes it feasible to better investigate drug functions on the cells in more in vivo-like 3D formation. In the experiments, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) are exploited to form tumor spheroids within the microfluidic device, and three anti-cancer drugs: Cisplatin, Resveratrol, and Tirapazamine (TPZ), and their combinations are tested on the tumor spheroids with two different sizes. The experimental results suggest the cell culture format (2D monolayer vs. 3D spheroid) and spheroid size play critical roles in drug responses, and also demonstrate the advantages of bridging the two techniques in pharmaceutical drug screening applications.

  19. Drug testing and flow cytometry analysis on a large number of uniform sized tumor spheroids using a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Bishnubrata; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid possesses great potential as an in vitro model to improve predictive capacity for pre-clinical drug testing. In this paper, we combine advantages of flow cytometry and microfluidics to perform drug testing and analysis on a large number (5000) of uniform sized tumor spheroids. The spheroids are formed, cultured, and treated with drugs inside a microfluidic device. The spheroids can then be harvested from the device without tedious operation. Due to the ample cell numbers, the spheroids can be dissociated into single cells for flow cytometry analysis. Flow cytometry provides statistical information in single cell resolution that makes it feasible to better investigate drug functions on the cells in more in vivo-like 3D formation. In the experiments, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) are exploited to form tumor spheroids within the microfluidic device, and three anti-cancer drugs: Cisplatin, Resveratrol, and Tirapazamine (TPZ), and their combinations are tested on the tumor spheroids with two different sizes. The experimental results suggest the cell culture format (2D monolayer vs. 3D spheroid) and spheroid size play critical roles in drug responses, and also demonstrate the advantages of bridging the two techniques in pharmaceutical drug screening applications. PMID:26877244

  20. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator. PMID:23505967

  1. An Examination of Parameters Affecting Large Eddy Simulations of Flow Past a Square Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankbadi, M. R.; Georgiadis, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    Separated flow over a bluff body is analyzed via large eddy simulations. The turbulent flow around a square cylinder features a variety of complex flow phenomena such as highly unsteady vortical structures, reverse flow in the near wall region, and wake turbulence. The formation of spanwise vortices is often times artificially suppressed in computations by either insufficient depth or a coarse spanwise resolution. As the resolution is refined and the domain extended, the artificial turbulent energy exchange between spanwise and streamwise turbulence is eliminated within the wake region. A parametric study is performed highlighting the effects of spanwise vortices where the spanwise computational domain's resolution and depth are varied. For Re=22,000, the mean and turbulent statistics computed from the numerical large eddy simulations (NLES) are in good agreement with experimental data. Von-Karman shedding is observed in the wake of the cylinder. Mesh independence is illustrated by comparing a mesh resolution of 2 million to 16 million. Sensitivities to time stepping were minimized and sampling frequency sensitivities were nonpresent. While increasing the spanwise depth and resolution can be costly, this practice was found to be necessary to eliminating the artificial turbulent energy exchange.

  2. Large-scale gas dynamical processes affecting the origin and evolution of gaseous galactic halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    Observations of galactic halo gas are consistent with an interpretation in terms of the galactic fountain model in which supernova heated gas in the galactic disk escapes into the halo, radiatively cools and forms clouds which fall back to the disk. The results of a new study of several large-scale gas dynamical effects which are expected to occur in such a model for the origin and evolution of galactic halo gas will be summarized, including the following: (1) nonequilibrium absorption line and emission spectrum diagnostics for radiatively cooling halo gas in our own galaxy, as well the implications of such absorption line diagnostics for the origin of quasar absorption lines in galactic halo clouds of high redshift galaxies; (2) numerical MHD simulations and analytical analysis of large-scale explosions ad superbubbles in the galactic disk and halo; (3) numerical MHD simulations of halo cloud formation by thermal instability, with and without magnetic field; and (4) the effect of the galactic fountain on the galactic dynamo.

  3. Large number of replacement polymorphisms in rapidly evolving genes of Drosophila. Implications for genome-wide surveys of DNA polymorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, K J; Nigro, L; Aquadro, C F; Tautz, D

    1999-01-01

    We present a survey of nucleotide polymorphism of three novel, rapidly evolving genes in populations of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Levels of silent polymorphism are comparable to other loci, but the number of replacement polymorphisms is higher than that in most other genes surveyed in D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Tests of neutrality fail to reject neutral evolution with one exception. This concerns a gene located in a region of high recombination rate in D. simulans and in a region of low recombination rate in D. melanogaster, due to an inversion. In the latter case it shows a very low number of polymorphisms, presumably due to selective sweeps in the region. Patterns of nucleotide polymorphism suggest that most substitutions are neutral or nearly neutral and that weak (positive and purifying) selection plays a significant role in the evolution of these genes. At all three loci, purifying selection of slightly deleterious replacement mutations appears to be more efficient in D. simulans than in D. melanogaster, presumably due to different effective population sizes. Our analysis suggests that current knowledge about genome-wide patterns of nucleotide polymorphism is far from complete with respect to the types and range of nucleotide substitutions and that further analysis of differences between local populations will be required to understand the forces more completely. We note that rapidly diverging and nearly neutrally evolving genes cannot be expected only in the genome of Drosophila, but are likely to occur in large numbers also in other organisms and that their function and evolution are little understood so far. PMID:10581279

  4. Development and application of an optogenetic platform for controlling and imaging a large number of individual neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Ali Ibrahim Ali

    The understanding and treatment of brain disorders as well as the development of intelligent machines is hampered by the lack of knowledge of how the brain fundamentally functions. Over the past century, we have learned much about how individual neurons and neural networks behave, however new tools are critically needed to interrogate how neural networks give rise to complex brain processes and disease conditions. Recent innovations in molecular techniques, such as optogenetics, have enabled neuroscientists unprecedented precision to excite, inhibit and record defined neurons. The impressive sensitivity of currently available optogenetic sensors and actuators has now enabled the possibility of analyzing a large number of individual neurons in the brains of behaving animals. To promote the use of these optogenetic tools, this thesis integrates cutting edge optogenetic molecular sensors which is ultrasensitive for imaging neuronal activity with custom wide field optical microscope to analyze a large number of individual neurons in living brains. Wide-field microscopy provides a large field of view and better spatial resolution approaching the Abbe diffraction limit of fluorescent microscope. To demonstrate the advantages of this optical platform, we imaged a deep brain structure, the Hippocampus, and tracked hundreds of neurons over time while mouse was performing a memory task to investigate how those individual neurons related to behavior. In addition, we tested our optical platform in investigating transient neural network changes upon mechanical perturbation related to blast injuries. In this experiment, all blasted mice show a consistent change in neural network. A small portion of neurons showed a sustained calcium increase for an extended period of time, whereas the majority lost their activities. Finally, using optogenetic silencer to control selective motor cortex neurons, we examined their contributions to the network pathology of basal ganglia related to

  5. Density affects mating mode and large male mating advantage in a fiddler crab.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Pablo D; Daleo, Pedro; Iribarne, Oscar O

    2010-12-01

    Fiddler crabs show two different mating modes: either females search and crabs mate underground in male burrows, or males search and crabs mate on the surface near female burrows. We explored the relationship between crab density, body size, the searching behavior of both sexes, and the occurrence of both mating modes in the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis. We found that crabs change their mating mode depending on their size and crab density. Crabs mated mostly on the surface at low densities, and underground at high densities. The proportion of wandering receptive females but not courting males accounted for the variation in mating modes. This suggests that whether crabs mate underground (or on the surface) is determined by the presence (or absence) of searching females. We found that the change in the mating mode affected the level of assortative mating; males mating underground were bigger than those mating on the surface, suggesting active female choice. Given that fiddler crabs experience multiple reproductive cycles, they are prone to showing behavioral plasticity in their mating strategy whenever the payoffs of using different mating modes differ between reproductive events. Our results suggest that the incorporation of different levels of environmental variability may be important in theoretical models aimed at improving our understanding of the evolution of alternative mating tactics and strategies. PMID:20931233

  6. Short-term glutamate administration positively affects the number of antral follicles and the ovulation rate in cyclic adult goats.

    PubMed

    Meza-Herrera, César A; González-Velázquez, Antonio; Veliz-Deras, Francisco G; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; Arellano-Rodriguez, Gerardo; Serradilla, Juan M; García-Martínez, Antón; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Macías-Cruz, Ulises

    2014-12-01

    The acute effects of short-term glutamate administration on the number of antral follicles and ovulation rate were examined in adult goats. Neither live weight (44.5±1.3 kg) nor body condition (3.3±0.8 units) differed between the control (untreated) and glutamate-treated (0.175 mg/kg) animals (p>0.05). However, the number of antral follicles (3.4 vs. 2.1, p=0.05) and ovulation rate (2.5 vs. 1.5, p=0.05) was higher in the glutamate-administered group than in the controls. PMID:25454497

  7. How historic simulation-observation discrepancy affects future warming projections in a very large model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Projections of future climate made by model-ensembles have credibility because the historic simulations by these models are consistent with, or near-consistent with, historic observations. However, it is not known how small inconsistencies between the ranges of observed and simulated historic climate change affects the future projections made by a model ensemble. Here, the impact of historical simulation-observation inconsistencies on future warming projections is quantified in a 4-million member Monte Carlo ensemble from a new efficient Earth System Model (ESM). Of the 4-million ensemble members, a subset of 182,500 are consistent with historic ranges of warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake simulated by the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) ensemble. This simulation-consistent subset projects similar future warming ranges to the CMIP5 ensemble for all four RCP scenarios, indicating the new ESM represents an efficient tool to explore parameter space for future warming projections based on historic performance. A second subset of 14,500 ensemble members are consistent with historic observations for warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake. This observation-consistent subset projects a narrower range for future warming, with the lower bounds of projected warming still similar to CMIP5, but the upper warming bounds reduced by 20-35 %. These findings suggest that part of the upper range of twenty-first century CMIP5 warming projections may reflect historical simulation-observation inconsistencies. However, the agreement of lower bounds for projected warming implies that the likelihood of warming exceeding dangerous levels over the twenty-first century is unaffected by small discrepancies between CMIP5 models and observations.

  8. Null Mutations of NT-3 and Bax Affect Trigeminal Ganglion Cell Number but Not Brainstem Barrelette Pattern Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Tony; Arends, J.J.; Jacquin, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervate the grid-like array of whisker follicles on the face of the mouse. Central TG axons project to the trigeminal (V) brainstem nuclear complex, including the nucleus principalis (PrV), and the spinal subnucleus interpolaris (SpVi), where they innervate barrelettes that are organized in a pattern that recapitulates the whisker pattern on the face. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) supports a population of TG cells that supply slowly adapting mechanoreceptors in the whisker pad. We examined mice at embryonic day 17 (E17) and on the day of birth (P0) with null mutations of NT-3, Bax, a proapoptotic gene associated with naturally occurring cell death, and Bax/NT-3 double knockout mutants to determine if: 1) the number of TG cells would be reduced; 2) eliminating the Bax gene would rescue the NT-3 dependent neurons; and 3) the central projections of the rescued axons in the Bax/NT-3 double knockout mice would fail to develop the barrelette patterns in the PrV and SpVi subnuclei. In mice at E17, NT-3−/− mutants had 65% fewer TG neurons than found in age matched wild-type (WT) mice, and at P0, the number was reduced by 55% (p < 0.001 for both). Bax null mutant mice at E17 had 132% of the WT number of TG cells (p < 0.001), although the numbers returned to WT levels by P0. Bax/NT-3 double knockout mice at E17 had TG cell numbers equal to those seen in WT, but the double knockout failed to retain WT TG neuron numbers in P0 mice (39% fewer cells; p < 0.001). In all cases of reduced experimental neuron numbers, and in the E17 Bax−/− mice with supernumerary cells, the barrelette patterns in the PrV and SpVi were normal. Only a slight qualitative reduction in overall barrelette field area and clarity of barrelettes were seen. These results suggest that NT-3 is not necessary for barrelette pattern formation in the brainstem. PMID:23614607

  9. High resolution copy number analysis of IRF4 translocation-positive diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Salaverria, Itziar; Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Burkhardt, Birgit; Kreuz, Markus; Zenz, Thorsten; Oschlies, Ilske; Arnold, Norbert; Baudis, Michael; Bens, Susanne; García-Orad, Africa; Lisfeld, Jasmin; Schwaenen, Carsten; Szczepanowski, Monika; Wessendorf, Swen; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Trümper, Lorenz; Klapper, Wolfram; Siebert, Reiner

    2013-02-01

    Translocations affecting chromosome subband 6p25.3 containing the IRF4 gene have been recently described as characteristic alterations in a molecularly distinct subset of germinal center B-cell-derived lymphomas. Secondary changes have yet only been described in few of these lymphomas. Here, we performed array-comparative genomic hybridization and molecular inversion probe microarray analyses on DNA from 12 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and two fresh-frozen IRF4 translocation-positive lymphomas, which together with the previously published data on nine cases allowed the extension of copy number analyses to a total of 23 of these lymphomas. All except one case carried chromosomal imbalances, most frequently gains in Xq28, 11q22.3-qter, and 7q32.1-qter and losses in 6q13-16.1, 15q14-22.31, and 17p. No recurrent copy-neutral losses of heterozygosity were observed. TP53 point mutations were detected in three of six cases with loss of 17p. Overall this study unravels a recurrent pattern of secondary genetic alterations in IRF4 translocation-positive lymphomas. PMID:23073988

  10. A dynamic response model for pressure sensors in continuum and high Knudsen number flows with large temperature gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Petersen, Brian J.; Scott, David D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic model for pressure sensors in continuum and rarefied flows with longitudinal temperature gradients. The model was developed from the unsteady Navier-Stokes momentum, energy, and continuity equations and was linearized using small perturbations. The energy equation was decoupled from momentum and continuity assuming a polytropic flow process. Rarefied flow conditions were accounted for using a slip flow boundary condition at the tubing wall. The equations were radially averaged and solved assuming gas properties remain constant along a small tubing element. This fundamental solution was used as a building block for arbitrary geometries where fluid properties may also vary longitudinally in the tube. The problem was solved recursively starting at the transducer and working upstream in the tube. Dynamic frequency response tests were performed for continuum flow conditions in the presence of temperature gradients. These tests validated the recursive formulation of the model. Model steady-state behavior was analyzed using the final value theorem. Tests were performed for rarefied flow conditions and compared to the model steady-state response to evaluate the regime of applicability. Model comparisons were excellent for Knudsen numbers up to 0.6. Beyond this point, molecular affects caused model analyses to become inaccurate.

  11. Quality of random number generators significantly affects results of Monte Carlo simulations for organic and biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Click, Timothy H.; Kaminski, George A.; Liu, Aibing B.

    2010-01-01

    We have simulated pure liquid butane, methanol and hydrated alanine polypeptide with the Monte Carlo technique using three kinds of random number generators - the standard Linear Congruential Generator (LCG), a modification of the LCG with additional randomization used in the BOSS software, and the “Mersenne Twister” generator by Matsumoto and Nishimura. While using the latter two random number generators leads to reasonably similar physical features, the LCG produces a significant different results. For the pure fluids, a noticeable expansion occurs. Using the original LCG on butane yields a molecular volume of 171.4 Å3 per molecule compared to ca. 163.6–163.9 Å3 for the other two generators, a deviation of about 5%. For methanol, the LCG produces an average volume of 86.3 Å3 per molecule, which is about 24% higher than the 68.8–70.2 Å3 obtained with the random number generator in BOSS and the generator by Matsumoto and Nishimura. In case of the hydrated tridecaalanine peptide, the volume and energy tend to be noticeably greater with the LCG than with the BOSS (modified LCG) random number generator. For the simulated hydrated extended conformation of tridecaalanine, the difference in volume reached ca. 87%. The uniformity and periodicity of the generators do not seem to play the crucial role in these phenomena. We conclude that it is important to test a random number generator by modeling a system such as the pure liquid methanol with a well-established force field before routinely employing it in Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:20734313

  12. Rare variants of large effect in BRCA2 and CHEK2 affect risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufei; McKay, James D; Rafnar, Thorunn; Wang, Zhaoming; Timofeeva, Maria N; Broderick, Peter; Zong, Xuchen; Laplana, Marina; Wei, Yongyue; Han, Younghun; Lloyd, Amy; Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Chubb, Daniel; Gaborieau, Valerie; Wheeler, William; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Sulem, Patrick; Liu, Geoffrey; Kaaks, Rudolf; Henrion, Marc; Kinnersley, Ben; Vallée, Maxime; LeCalvez-Kelm, Florence; Stevens, Victoria L; Gapstur, Susan M; Chen, Wei V; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Krokan, Hans E; Gabrielsen, Maiken Elvestad; Skorpen, Frank; Vatten, Lars; Njølstad, Inger; Chen, Chu; Goodman, Gary; Benhamou, Simone; Vooder, Tonu; Välk, Kristjan; Nelis, Mari; Metspalu, Andres; Lener, Marcin; Lubiński, Jan; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Agudo, Antonio; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Johansson, Mikael; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Riboli, Elio; Lathrop, Mark; Scelo, Ghislaine; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Ye, Yuanqing; Gu, Jian; Wu, Xifeng; Spitz, Margaret R; Dienemann, Hendrik; Rosenberger, Albert; Su, Li; Matakidou, Athena; Eisen, Timothy; Stefansson, Kari; Risch, Angela; Chanock, Stephen J; Christiani, David C; Hung, Rayjean J; Brennan, Paul; Landi, Maria Teresa; Houlston, Richard S; Amos, Christopher I

    2014-07-01

    We conducted imputation to the 1000 Genomes Project of four genome-wide association studies of lung cancer in populations of European ancestry (11,348 cases and 15,861 controls) and genotyped an additional 10,246 cases and 38,295 controls for follow-up. We identified large-effect genome-wide associations for squamous lung cancer with the rare variants BRCA2 p.Lys3326X (rs11571833, odds ratio (OR) = 2.47, P = 4.74 × 10(-20)) and CHEK2 p.Ile157Thr (rs17879961, OR = 0.38, P = 1.27 × 10(-13)). We also showed an association between common variation at 3q28 (TP63, rs13314271, OR = 1.13, P = 7.22 × 10(-10)) and lung adenocarcinoma that had been previously reported only in Asians. These findings provide further evidence for inherited genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and its biological basis. Additionally, our analysis demonstrates that imputation can identify rare disease-causing variants with substantive effects on cancer risk from preexisting genome-wide association study data. PMID:24880342

  13. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart Ec of... - Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c(a)(1) and (2) 1A Table 1A to Subpart Ec of... Table 1A to Subpart Ec of Part 60—Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected... limits HMIWI size Small Medium Large Averaging time 1 Method for demonstrating compliance 2...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Ec of... - Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c(a)(3) and (4) 1B Table 1B to Subpart Ec of... Table 1B to Subpart Ec of Part 60—Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected... limits HMIWI size Small Medium Large Averaging time1 Method for demonstrating compliance 2...

  15. Long-Term Changes in Nutrients and Mussel Stocks Are Related to Numbers of Breeding Eiders Somateria mollissima at a Large Baltic Colony

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Karsten; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-01-01

    Background The Baltic/Wadden Sea eider Somateria mollissima flyway population is decreasing, and this trend is also reflected in the large eider colony at Christiansø situated in the Baltic Sea. This colony showed a 15-fold increase from 1925 until the mid-1990's, followed by a rapid decline in recent years, although the causes of this trend remain unknown. Most birds from the colony winter in the Wadden Sea, from which environmental data and information on the size of the main diet, the mussel Mytilus edulis stock exists. We hypothesised that changes in nutrients and water temperature in the Wadden Sea had an effect on the ecosystem affecting the size of mussel stocks, the principal food item for eiders, thereby influencing the number of breeding eider in the Christiansø colony. Methodology/Principal Finding A positive relationship between the amount of fertilizer used by farmers and the concentration of phosphorus in the Wadden Sea (with a time lag of one year) allowed analysis of the predictions concerning effects of nutrients for the period 1925–2010. There was (1) increasing amounts of fertilizer used in agriculture and this increased the amount of nutrients in the marine environment thereby increasing the mussel stocks in the Wadden Sea. (2) The number of eiders at Christiansø increased when the amount of fertilizer increased. Finally (3) the number of eiders in the colony at Christiansø increased with the amount of mussel stocks in the Wadden Sea. Conclusions/Significance The trend in the number of eiders at Christiansø is representative for the entire flyway population, and since nutrient reduction in the marine environment occurs in most parts of Northwest Europe, we hypothesize that this environmental candidate parameter is involved in the overall regulation of the Baltic/Wadden Sea eider population during recent decades. PMID:24781984

  16. A Budyko framework for estimating how lateral redistribution affects large-scale evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-04-01

    , lateral redistribution can alter regional ET fluxes. Using this approach, one can obtain a first-order estimate for how much lateral redistribution may affect evapotranspiration rates at regional, continental, and global scales.

  17. Maintenance of Large Numbers of Virus Genomes in Human Cytomegalovirus-Infected T98G Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ying-Liang; Ye, Han-Qing; Zavala, Anamaria G.; Yang, Cui-Qing; Miao, Ling-Feng; Fu, Bi-Shi; Seo, Keun Seok; Davrinche, Christian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT After infection, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) persists for life. Primary infections and reactivation of latent virus can both result in congenital infection, a leading cause of central nervous system birth defects. We previously reported long-term HCMV infection in the T98G glioblastoma cell line (1). HCMV infection has been further characterized in T98Gs, emphasizing the presence of HCMV DNA over an extended time frame. T98Gs were infected with either HCMV Towne or AD169-IE2-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) strains. Towne infections yielded mixed IE1 antigen-positive and -negative (Ag+/Ag−) populations. AD169-IE2-eGFP infections also yielded mixed populations, which were sorted to obtain an IE2− (Ag−) population. Viral gene expression over the course of infection was determined by immunofluorescent analysis (IFA) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The presence of HCMV genomes was determined by PCR, nested PCR (n-PCR), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Compared to the HCMV latency model, THP-1, Towne-infected T98Gs expressed IE1 and latency-associated transcripts for longer periods, contained many more HCMV genomes during early passages, and carried genomes for a greatly extended period of passaging. Large numbers of HCMV genomes were also found in purified Ag− AD169-infected cells for the first several passages. Interestingly, latency transcripts were observed from very early times in the Towne-infected cells, even when IE1 was expressed at low levels. Although AD169-infected Ag− cells expressed no detectable levels of either IE1 or latency transcripts, they also maintained large numbers of genomes within the cell nuclei for several passages. These results identify HCMV-infected T98Gs as an attractive new model in the study of the long-term maintenance of virus genomes in the context of neural cell types. IMPORTANCE Our previous work showed that T98G glioblastoma cells were semipermissive to HCMV infection; virus

  18. An improved multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver for three-dimensional flows with large density ratio and high Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Shu, C.; Yang, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    An improved multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver (MLBFS) is proposed in this work for effective simulation of three-dimensional (3D) multiphase flows with large density ratio and high Reynolds number. As a finite volume scheme, the MLBFS originally proposed in [27] applies the finite volume method to solve for macroscopic flow variables directly. The fluxes are reconstructed locally at each cell interface by using the standard LBM solutions. Due to the modeling error of the standard LBM, the reconstructed fluxes deviate from those in the Navier-Stokes equations; and to compensate this error, a complex tensor is introduced in the original MLBFS. However, the computation of the tensor introduces additional complexity and usually needs a relatively thicker interface thickness to maintain numerical stability, which makes the solver be complex and inefficient in the 3D case. To remove this drawback, in this work, a theoretical analysis to the formulations obtained from the Chapman-Enskog expansion is conducted. It is shown that the modeling error can be effectively removed by modifying the computation of the equilibrium density distribution function. With this improvement, the proposed 3D MLBFS not only avoids the calculation of the compensation tensor but also is able to maintain numerical stability with very thin interface thickness. Several benchmark cases, including the challenging droplet impacting on a dry surface, head-on collisions of binary droplets and droplet splashing on a thin film with density ratio 1000 and Reynolds number up to 3000, are studied to validate the proposed solver. The obtained results agree well with the published data.

  19. Automated calculation of the evapotranspiration and crop coefficients for a large number of peatland sites using diurnal groundwater table fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Eike; Bechtold, Michel; Dettmann, Ullrich; Tiemeyer, Bärbel

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration is one of the main processes controlling peatland hydrology. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands are in turn strongly controlled by the groundwater table. Through the increasing political and scientific interest to reduce GHG emissions, monitoring and modelling strategies to optimize re-wetting strategies and to quantify GHG emissions are needed. To achieve these aims, an accurate determination of the evapotranspiration as an essential part of the water balance is required. Many different approaches are known to determine the evapotranspiration. They are mostly either expensive or hard to parameterize. Plant specific crop coefficients (Kc-values) are an option to calculate plant-specific evapotranspiration but due to the lack of Kc-values for typical peatland vegetation types more data on evapotranspiration from peatlands in the temperate zone are required. Furthermore, simple methods to estimate evapotranspiration are needed especially for monitoring projects. Diurnal groundwater table fluctuations caused by root water uptake and groundwater inflow can be used to calculate daily evapotranspiration rates. This approach was first described by White (1932) who compared groundwater recovery rates at night to the decline during daytime. Besides the groundwater table data only the specific yield (Sy) is needed to calculate evapotranspiration. However, the method has some limitations because not all days can be evaluated which leads to data gaps during rainy and very dry or very wet periods. This study presents an automated method to calculate the specific yield, evapotranspiration and crop coefficients for a large number of sites covering all major peatland types and their typical land uses in Germany. As an input for our method, only groundwater level, precipitation and grass reference evapotranspiration (ET0) data is required. In a first step, the groundwater level data was smoothed by a LOESS function. In a second step, site-specific SY

  20. Factors affecting ion kinetic temperature, number density, and containment time in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The degree of toroidal symmetry of the plasma, the number of midplane electrode rings, the configuration of electrode rings, and the location of the diagnostic instruments with respect to the electrode rings used to generate the plasma are discussed. Impurities were deliberately introduced into the plasma, and the effects of the impurity fraction on ion kinetic temperature and electron number density were observed. It is concluded that, if necessary precautions are taken, the plasma communicates extremely well along the magnetic field lines and displays a high degree of symmetry from sector to sector for a wide range of electrode ring configurations and operating conditions. Finally, some characteristic data taken under nonoptimized conditions are presented, which include the highest electron number density and the longest particle containment time (1.9 msec) observed. Also, evidence from a paired comparison test is presented which shows that the electric field acting along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma improves the plasma density and the calculated containment time more than an order of magnitude if the electric field points inward, relative to the values observed when it points (and pushes ions) radially outward.

  1. Pursuing the plasma dynamo and MRI in the laboratory: Hydrodynamic studies of unmagnetized plasmas at large magnetic Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, David B.

    A new method for studying flow-driven MHD instabilities in the laboratory has been developed, using a highly conductive, low viscosity, spherical plasma. The confinement, heating, and stirring of this unmagnetized plasma has been demonstrated experimentally, laying the foundations for the laboratory studies of a diverse collection of astrophysically-relevant instabilities. Specifically, plasma flows conducive to studies of the dynamo effect and the magnetorotational instability (MRI) are measured using a wide array of plasma diagnostics, and compare favorably to hydrodynamic numerical models. The Madison plasma dynamo experiment (MPDX) uses a cylindrically symmetric spherical boundary ring cusp geometry built from strong permanent magnets to confine a large (R=1.5 m), warm (Te < 20eV), dense, unmagnetized plasma. Detailed probe measurements of plasma transport into the edge cusp have demonstrated that particle confinement follows an ambipolar diffusion model, wherein unmagnetized ions are the more mobile plasma species and total plasma transport is limited by the slow cross-field diffusion of magnetized electrons. Emissive discharge heating is shown to be an efficient method of plasma heating, but limitations caused by instabilities in the anode-plasma sheath are found to prohibit the desired access to the full dimensionless parameter space in Re and Rm. The plasma is stirred via J x B torques using current drawn from emissive LaB6 cathodes located at the magnetized plasma edge, which also ionize and heat the plasma via sizable discharge current injection. Combination Langmuir/Mach probes measure maximum velocities of 6 km/s and 3 km/s in helium and argon plasmas, respectively, and ion viscosity is shown to be an efficient mechanism for transporting momentum from the magnetized edge into the unmagnetized core. Momentum loss to neutral charge-exchange collisions serves as the main source of drag on the bulk plasma velocity, and ionization fraction (He ˜ 0.6, Ar

  2. Large copy number variations in combination with point mutations in the TYMP and SCO2 genes found in two patients with mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vondráčková, Alžběta; Veselá, Kateřina; Kratochvílová, Hana; Kučerová Vidrová, Vendula; Vinšová, Kamila; Stránecký, Viktor; Honzík, Tomáš; Hansíková, Hana; Zeman, Jiří; Tesařová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are caused by defects in mitochondrial or nuclear DNA. Although the existence of large deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is well known, deletions affecting whole genes are not commonly described in patients with mitochondrial disorders. Based on the results of whole-genome analyses, copy number variations (CNVs) occur frequently in the human genome and may overlap with many genes associated with clinical phenotypes. We report the discovery of two large heterozygous CNVs on 22q13.33 in two patients with mitochondrial disorders. The first patient harboured a novel point mutation c.667G>A (p.D223N) in the SCO2 gene in combination with a paternally inherited 87-kb deletion. As hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP) was not documented in the patient, this observation prompted us to compare his clinical features with all 44 reported SCO2 patients in the literature. Surprisingly, the review shows that HCMP was present in only about 50% of the SCO2 patients with non-neonatal onset. In the second patient, who had mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE), a maternally inherited 175-kb deletion and the paternally inherited point mutation c.261G>T (p.E87D) in the TYMP gene were identified. PMID:23838601

  3. Large copy number variations in combination with point mutations in the TYMP and SCO2 genes found in two patients with mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Vondráčková, Alžběta; Veselá, Kateřina; Kratochvílová, Hana; Kučerová Vidrová, Vendula; Vinšová, Kamila; Stránecký, Viktor; Honzík, Tomáš; Hansíková, Hana; Zeman, Jiří; Tesařová, Markéta

    2014-03-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are caused by defects in mitochondrial or nuclear DNA. Although the existence of large deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is well known, deletions affecting whole genes are not commonly described in patients with mitochondrial disorders. Based on the results of whole-genome analyses, copy number variations (CNVs) occur frequently in the human genome and may overlap with many genes associated with clinical phenotypes. We report the discovery of two large heterozygous CNVs on 22q13.33 in two patients with mitochondrial disorders. The first patient harboured a novel point mutation c.667G>A (p.D223N) in the SCO2 gene in combination with a paternally inherited 87-kb deletion. As hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP) was not documented in the patient, this observation prompted us to compare his clinical features with all 44 reported SCO2 patients in the literature. Surprisingly, the review shows that HCMP was present in only about 50% of the SCO2 patients with non-neonatal onset. In the second patient, who had mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE), a maternally inherited 175-kb deletion and the paternally inherited point mutation c.261G>T (p.E87D) in the TYMP gene were identified. PMID:23838601

  4. Increased number of sex chromosomes affects height in a nonlinear fashion: a study of 305 patients with sex chromosome aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Anne Marie; Aksglaede, Lise; Garn, Inger; Tartaglia, Nicole; Tassone, Flora; Gravholt, Claus H; Bojesen, Anders; Sørensen, Kaspar; Jørgensen, Niels; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Gerdes, Tommy; Lind, Anne-Marie; Kjaergaard, Susanne; Juul, Anders

    2010-05-01

    Tall stature and eunuchoid body proportions characterize patients with 47,XXY Klinefelter syndrome, whereas patients with 45,X Turner syndrome are characterized by impaired growth. Growth is relatively well characterized in these two syndromes, while few studies describe the growth of patients with higher grade sex chromosome aneuploidies. It has been proposed that tall stature in sex chromosome aneuploidy is related to an overexpression of SHOX, although the copy number of SHOX has not been evaluated in previous studies. Our aims were therefore: (1) to assess stature in 305 patients with sex chromosome aneuploidy and (2) to determine the number of SHOX copies in a subgroup of these patients (n = 255) these patients and 74 healthy controls. Median height standard deviation scores in 46,XX males (n = 6) were -1.2 (-2.8 to 0.3), +0.9 (-2.2 to +4.6) in 47,XXY (n = 129), +1.3 (-1.8 to +4.9) in 47,XYY (n = 44), +1.1 (-1.9 to +3.4) in 48,XXYY (n = 45), +1.8 (-2.0 to +3.2) in 48,XXXY (n = 9), and -1.8 (-4.2 to -0.1) in 49,XXXXY (n = 10). Median height standard deviation scores in patients with 45,X (n = 6) were -2.6 (-4.1 to -1.6), +0.7 (-0.9 to +3.2) in 47,XXX (n = 40), -0.6 (-1.9 to +2.1) in 48,XXXX (n = 13), and -1.0 (-3.5 to -0.8) in 49,XXXXX (n = 3). Height increased with an increasing number of extra X or Y chromosomes, except in males with five, and in females with four or five sex chromosomes, consistent with a nonlinear effect on height. PMID:20425825

  5. Lesions in two Escherichia coli type 1 pilus genes alter pilus number and length without affecting receptor binding.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, P W; Orndorff, P E

    1992-01-01

    We describe the characterization of two genes, fimF and fimG (also called pilD), that encode two minor components of type 1 pili in Escherichia coli. Defined, in-frame deletion mutations were generated in vitro in each of these two genes. A double mutation that had deletions identical to both single lesions was also constructed. Examination of minicell transcription and translation products of parental and mutant plasmids revealed that, as predicted from the nucleotide sequence and previous reports, the fimF gene product was a protein of ca. 16 kDa and that the fimG gene product was a protein of ca. 14 kDa. Each of the constructions was introduced, via homologous recombination, into the E. coli chromosome. All three of the resulting mutants produced type 1 pili and exhibited hemagglutination of guinea pig erythrocytes. The latter property was also exhibited by partially purified pili isolated from each of the mutants. Electron microscopic examination revealed that the fimF mutant had markedly reduced numbers of pili per cell, whereas the fimG mutant had very long pili. The double mutant displayed the characteristics of both single mutants. However, pili in the double mutant were even longer than those seen in the fimG mutant, and the numbers of pili were even fewer than those displayed by the fimF mutant. All three mutants could be complemented in trans with a single-copy-number plasmid bearing the appropriate parental gene or genes to give near-normal parental piliation. On the basis of the phenotypes exhibited by the single and double mutants, we believe that the fimF gene product may aid in initiating pilus assembly and that the fimG product may act as an inhibitor of pilus polymerization. In contrast to previous studies, we found that neither gene product was required for type 1 pilus receptor binding. Images PMID:1355769

  6. A new general approach for the simultaneous chemical synthesis of large numbers of oligonucleotides: segmental solid supports.

    PubMed Central

    Frank, R; Heikens, W; Heisterberg-Moutsis, G; Blöcker, H

    1983-01-01

    A new approach is described which will allow the simultaneous synthesis of large numbers of pre-defined oligonucleotide chains. No machine aid is needed. The simultaneous syntheses can be performed by one person and do not require much more time than is currently needed for the synthesis of just one oligonucleotide in existing strategies. The general idea is the following: One uses noninterchangeable polymeric entities from each of which enough OD units can be isolated after completion of the syntheses. Whenever growing chains on different entities have to be elongated with the same building block these entities are gathered in the same reaction vessel. After such a common reaction cycle the entities are separated and now combined according to the next common building blocks etc. The practicability of this approach is demonstrated by the synthesis of d(T-A-A-T-A-T-T-A) and d(T-A-G-T-A-C-T-A) on cellulose filter disks following the phosphotriester approach. Images PMID:6306587

  7. Impact of prospective payments on a tertiary care center receiving large numbers of critically ill patients by aeromedical transport.

    PubMed

    Thomas, F; Larsen, K; Clemmer, T P; Burke, J P; Orme, J F; Napoli, M; Christison, E

    1986-03-01

    To determine the economic impact of federal prospective payments and the potential effect if private insurance payers were to implement similar prospective payments, we examined payments under Medicare diagnosis-related grouping (DRG) reimbursement policies for 105 Medicare and 357 non-Medicare patients admitted to a tertiary care center via air transport. Among the 105 Medicare patients, the average length of stay was 11.4 days and the mortality rate was 24%. Hospital charges exceeded DRG reimbursement for 74% of Medicare patients. A comparison of previous Medicare payment policies to current federal DRG reimbursement resulted in a revenue loss to the hospital of $667,229 ($6335 per patient). For the 357 non-Medicare patients, the average length of stay was 10.8 days, the mortality rate was 10%, and hospital charges exceeded Medicare DRG reimbursement for 78% of the patients. Implementation of DRG-like payments by non-Medicare insurers would create a hospital revenue loss of $2,493,048 ($6983 per patient). We conclude that unless current and planned prospective payment policies are modified, the use of aeromedical transport services to recruit large numbers of critically ill patients to tertiary care centers is economically prohibitive. PMID:3080276

  8. A Large Number of Hα Emission Stars and Herbig-Haro Objects in and around Bright-Rimmed Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, K.; Sugitani, K.

    We present the results of our Hα grism spectroscopy and narrow-band imaging observations of bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) in search of candidate pre-main sequence stars of the T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be and related types, and of Herbig-Haro (HH) objects. We have detected altogether 460 Hα emission stars down to about R = 20, around all but two of the 28 BRCs observed. The present study has, for the first time, reached down nearly to the faintest classical T Tauri stars in OB associations. Twelve new HH objects have also been found. Most are of small apparent size, emphasizing the need for deep searches at high spatial resolution. These stars and HH objects are concentrated near the tip of BRCs, thus supporting our hypothesis of ``small-scale sequential star formation''. The presence of such a large number of Hα emission stars around BRCs implies that second-generation formation of low-mass stars in HII regions is relatively extensive, and further supports the notion of cohabitation of high- and low-mass populations in OB associations.

  9. Theory of magnetospheric standing hydromagnetic waves with large azimuthal wave number 2. Eigenmodes of the magnetosonic and Alfven oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.P.H.; Walker, A.D.M. )

    1987-09-01

    When the azimuthal wave number is large, the equations describing standing hydromagnetic waves in the magnetosphere can be written as a set of coupled equations describing the couples magnetosonic and Alfven waves. These equations are decoupled when the filed lines are straight. The eigenfrequencies of the decoupled oscillations are computed. For typical conditions in the outer magnetosphere these give periods in the Pc 4-5 band or above. The longitudinal magnetosonic wave consists of oscillations in the plasma pressure, the longitudinal plasma drift velocity and the compressional magnetic field. Higher harmonics of the standing waves have nodes quite near the equator. These higher harmonics have larger fractional pressure perturbations at high latitudes. The compressional magnetic field for all modes, however, is substantially attenuated at higher latitudes, and the theory predicts that compressional oscillations of B are only likely to be seen near the equator. Conditions can be favorable for resonance to occur between the magnetosonic mode and the transverse Alfven mode. The computed results show periods of the right order of magnitude to explain observations of compressional pulsations. The theory has the potential to explain the polarization when coupling is fully taken into account.

  10. Numerical Study of Flow Over Two Circular Cylinders Arranged in Tandem at High Reynolds Numbers using Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Raymond; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2005-11-01

    Previously published exprimental data of the flow around two circular cylinders arranged in tandem have shown that for small spacings between the cylinders, the shear layer from the upstream cylinder reattaches to the downstream cylinder, hence creating a recirculation region in between the two cylinders. The experimental data was obtained at Re=65,000 and it was found that beyond a critical spacing (L/D ˜ 4.0), the upstream shear layer ceases to attach to the downstream cylinder, resulting in a dramatic change in the flow mechanisms. Previous numerical studies using two-dimensional RANS and URANS were unsatisfactory at predicting the length of the recirculation region of the upstream cylinder and consequently badly predicted the hydrodynamic forces between the two cylinders. In this study, Large Eddy Simulation with a dynamic Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model was used to investigate the flow around two circular cylinders arranged in tandem. Results from high Reynolds numbers simulations will be presented and practical considerations in using LES in such a flow configuration will be discussed.

  11. Meta-ethnography 25 years on: challenges and insights for synthesising a large number of qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Studies that systematically search for and synthesise qualitative research are becoming more evident in health care, and they can make an important contribution to patient care. Our team was funded to complete a meta-ethnography of patients’ experience of chronic musculoskeletal pain. It has been 25 years since Noblit and Hare published their core text on meta-ethnography, and the current health research environment brings additional challenges to researchers aiming to synthesise qualitative research. Noblit and Hare propose seven stages of meta-ethnography which take the researcher from formulating a research idea to expressing the findings. These stages are not discrete but form part of an iterative research process. We aimed to build on the methods of Noblit and Hare and explore the challenges of including a large number of qualitative studies into a qualitative systematic review. These challenges hinge upon epistemological and practical issues to be considered alongside expectations about what determines high quality research. This paper describes our method and explores these challenges. Central to our method was the process of collaborative interpretation of concepts and the decision to exclude original material where we could not decipher a concept. We use excerpts from our research team’s reflexive statements to illustrate the development of our methods. PMID:24951054

  12. Large Eddy Simulation study of the development of finite-channel lock-release currents at high Grashof numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, Seng-Keat

    2005-11-01

    Lock-exchange gravity current flows produced by the instantaneous release of a heavy fluid are investigated using 3-D well resolved Large Eddy Simulation simulations at Grashof numbers up to 8*10^9. It is found the 3-D simulations correctly predict a constant front velocity over the initial slumping phase and a front speed decrease proportional to t-1/3 (the time t is measured from the release) over the inviscid phase, in agreement with theory. The evolution of the current in the simulations is found to be similar to that observed experimentally by Hacker et al. (1996). The effect of the dynamic LES model on the solutions is discussed. The energy budget of the current is discussed and the contribution of the turbulent dissipation to the total dissipation is analyzed. The limitations of less expensive 2D simulations are discussed; in particular their failure to correctly predict the spatio-temporal distributions of the bed shear stresses which is important in determining the amount of sediment the gravity current can entrain in the case in advances of a loose bed.

  13. ADF95: Tool for automatic differentiation of a FORTRAN code designed for large numbers of independent variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Christian W.

    2005-06-01

    ADF95 is a tool to automatically calculate numerical first derivatives for any mathematical expression as a function of user defined independent variables. Accuracy of derivatives is achieved within machine precision. ADF95 may be applied to any FORTRAN 77/90/95 conforming code and requires minimal changes by the user. It provides a new derived data type that holds the value and derivatives and applies forward differencing by overloading all FORTRAN operators and intrinsic functions. An efficient indexing technique leads to a reduced memory usage and a substantially increased performance gain over other available tools with operator overloading. This gain is especially pronounced for sparse systems with large number of independent variables. A wide class of numerical simulations, e.g., those employing implicit solvers, can profit from ADF95. Program summaryTitle of program:ADF95 Catalogue identifier: ADVI Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVI Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed: all platforms with a FORTRAN 95 compiler Programming language used:FORTRAN 95 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3103 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9862 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of problem: In many areas in the computational sciences first order partial derivatives for large and complex sets of equations are needed with machine precision accuracy. For example, any implicit or semi-implicit solver requires the computation of the Jacobian matrix, which contains the first derivatives with respect to the independent variables. ADF95 is a software module to facilitate the automatic computation of the first partial derivatives of any arbitrarily complex mathematical FORTRAN expression. The program exploits the sparsity inherited by many set of equations thereby enabling faster computations compared to alternate

  14. A sequence that affects the copy number and stability of pSW200 and ColE1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying-Chung; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2010-07-01

    Pantoea stewartii SW2 contains 13 plasmids. One of these plasmids, pSW200, has a replicon that resembles that of ColE1. This study demonstrates that pSW200 contains a 9-bp UP element, 5'-AAGATCTTC, which is located immediately upstream of the -35 box in the RNAII promoter. A transcriptional fusion study reveals that substituting this 9-bp sequence reduces the activity of the RNAII promoter by 78%. The same mutation also reduced the number of plasmid copies from 13 to 5, as well as the plasmid stability. When a similar sequence in a ColE1 derivative, pYCW301, is mutated, the copy number of the plasmid also declines from 34 to 16 per cell. Additionally, inserting this 9-bp sequence stabilizes an unstable pSW100 derivative, pSW142K, which also contains a replicon resembling that of ColE1, indicating the importance of this sequence in maintaining the stability of the plasmid. In conclusion, the 9-bp sequence upstream of the -35 box in the RNAII promoter is required for the efficient synthesis of RNAII and maintenance of the stability of the plasmids in the ColE1 family. PMID:20494993

  15. Email-Based Informed Consent: Innovative Method for Reaching Large Numbers of Subjects for Data Mining Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Lesley R.; Mason, Sara S.; Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana; Ray, Stacie L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA authorization to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for data has greatly increased. Correspondingly, both the number and scope of requests have increased, from 142 requests fulfilled in 2011 to 224 in 2014, and with some datasets comprising up to 1 million data points. To meet the demand, the LSAH and LSDA Repositories project was launched, which allows active and retired astronauts to authorize full, partial, or no access to their data for research without individual, study-specific informed consent. A one-on-one personal informed consent briefing is required to fully communicate the implications of the several tiers of consent. Due to the need for personal contact to conduct Repositories consent meetings, the rate of consenting has not kept up with demand for individualized, possibly attributable data. As a result, other methods had to be implemented to allow the release of large datasets, such as release of only de-identified data. However the compilation of large, de-identified data sets places a significant resource burden on LSAH and LSDA and may result in diminished scientific usefulness of the dataset. As a result, LSAH and LSDA worked with the JSC Institutional Review Board Chair, Astronaut Office physicians, and NASA Office of General Counsel personnel to develop a "Remote Consenting" process for retrospective data mining studies. This is particularly useful since the majority of the astronaut cohort is retired from the agency and living outside the Houston area. Originally planned as a method to send informed consent briefing slides and consent forms only by mail, Remote Consenting has evolved into a means to accept crewmember decisions on individual studies via their method of choice: email or paper copy by mail. To date, 100 emails have been sent to request participation in eight HRP

  16. Small on the Left, Large on the Right: Numbers Orient Visual Attention onto Space in Preverbal Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulf, Hermann; de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2016-01-01

    Numbers are represented as ordered magnitudes along a spatially oriented number line. While culture and formal education modulate the direction of this number-space mapping, it is a matter of debate whether its emergence is entirely driven by cultural experience. By registering 8-9-month-old infants' eye movements, this study shows that numerical…

  17. The concentration of plasma metabolites varies throughout reproduction and affects offspring number in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Gauthey, Zoé; Freychet, Marine; Manicki, Aurélie; Herman, Alexandre; Lepais, Olivier; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In wild populations, measuring energy invested in the reproduction and disentangling investment in gametes versus investment in reproductive behavior (such as intrasexual competition or intersexual preference) remain challenging. In this study, we investigated the energy expenditure in brown trout reproductive behavior by using two proxies: variation in weight and variation of plasma metabolites involved in energy production, over the course of reproductive season in a semi natural experimental river. We estimated overall reproductive success using genetic assignment at the end of the reproductive season. Results show that triglycerides and free fatty acid concentrations vary negatively during reproduction, while amino-acids and glucose concentrations remain stable. Decrease in triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations during reproduction is not related to initial concentration levels or to weight variation. Both metabolite concentration variations and weight variations are correlated to the number of offspring produced, which could indicate that gametic and behavioral reproductive investments substantially contribute to reproductive success in wild brown trout. This study opens a path to further investigate variations in reproductive investment in wild populations. PMID:25666363

  18. Specific collagen XVIII isoforms promote adipose tissue accrual via mechanisms determining adipocyte number and affect fat deposition.

    PubMed

    Aikio, Mari; Elamaa, Harri; Vicente, David; Izzi, Valerio; Kaur, Inderjeet; Seppinen, Lotta; Speedy, Helen E; Kaminska, Dorota; Kuusisto, Sanna; Sormunen, Raija; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Jones, Emma L; Muilu, Mikko; Jauhiainen, Matti; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Savolainen, Markku J; Shoulders, Carol C; Pihlajaniemi, Taina

    2014-07-29

    Collagen XVIII is an evolutionary conserved ubiquitously expressed basement membrane proteoglycan produced in three isoforms via two promoters (P). Here, we assess the function of the N-terminal, domain of unknown function/frizzled-like sequences unique to medium/long collagen XVIII by creating P-specific null mice. P2-null mice, which only produce short collagen XVIII, developed reduced bulk-adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and hypertriglyceridemia. These abnormalities did not develop in P1-null mice, which produce medium/long collagen XVIII. White adipose tissue samples from P2-null mice contain larger reserves of a cell population enriched in early adipocyte progenitors; however, their embryonic fibroblasts had ∼ 50% lower adipocyte differentiation potential. Differentiating 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into mature adipocytes produced striking increases in P2 gene-products and dramatic falls in P1-transcribed mRNA, whereas Wnt3a-induced dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes produced reciprocal changes in P1 and P2 transcript levels. P2-derived gene-products containing frizzled-like sequences bound the potent adipogenic inhibitor, Wnt10b, in vitro. Previously, we have shown that these same sequences bind Wnt3a, inhibiting Wnt3a-mediated signaling. P2-transcript levels in visceral fat were positively correlated with serum free fatty acid levels, suggesting that collagen α1 (XVIII) expression contributes to regulation of adipose tissue metabolism in visceral obesity. Medium/long collagen XVIII is deposited in the Space of Disse, and interaction between hepatic apolipoprotein E and this proteoglycan is lost in P2-null mice. These results describe a previously unidentified extracellular matrix-directed mechanism contributing to the control of the multistep adipogenic program that determines the number of precursors committing to adipocyte differentiation, the maintenance of the differentiated state, and the physiological consequences of its impairment on ectopic fat

  19. Population growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee colonies is affected by the number of foragers with mites.

    PubMed

    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Zazueta, Victor; Chambers, Mona; Hidalgo, Geoffrey; deJong, Emily Watkins

    2016-05-01

    Varroa mites are a serious pest of honey bees and the leading cause of colony losses. Varroa have relatively low reproductive rates, so populations should not increase rapidly, but often they do. Other factors might contribute to the growth of varroa populations including mite migration into colonies on foragers from other hives. We measured the proportion of foragers carrying mites on their bodies while entering and leaving hives, and determined its relationship to the growth of varroa populations in those hives at two apiary sites. We also compared the estimates of mite population growth with predictions from a varroa population dynamics model that generates estimates of mite population growth based on mite reproduction. Samples of capped brood and adult bees indicated that the proportion of brood cells infested with mites and adult bees with phoretic mites was low through the summer but increased sharply in the fall especially at site 1. The frequency of capturing foragers with mites on their bodies while entering or leaving hives also increased in the fall. The growth of varroa populations at both sites was not significantly related to our colony estimates of successful mite reproduction, but instead to the total number of foragers with mites (entering and leaving the colony). There were more foragers with mites at site 1 than site 2, and mite populations at site 1 were larger especially in the fall. The model accurately estimated phoretic mite populations and infested brood cells until November when predictions were much lower than those measured in colonies. The rapid growth of mite populations particularly in the fall being a product of mite migration rather than mite reproduction only is discussed. PMID:26910522

  20. Dissociable large-scale networks anchored in the right anterior insula subserve affective experience and attention1

    PubMed Central

    Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Hollenbeck, Mark; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-01-01

    Meta-analytic summaries of neuroimaging studies point to at least two major functional-anatomic subdivisions within the anterior insula that contribute to the detection and processing of salient information: a dorsal region that is routinely active during attention tasks and a ventral region that is routinely active during affective experience. In two independent samples of cognitively normal human adults, we used intrinsic functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate that the right dorsal and right ventral anterior insula are nodes in separable large-scale functional networks. Furthermore, stronger intrinsic connectivity within the right dorsal anterior insula network was associated with better performance on a task involving attention and processing speed whereas stronger connectivity within the right ventral anterior insula network was associated with more intense affective experience. These results support the hypothesis that the identification and manipulation of salient information is subserved by at least two brain networks anchored in the right anterior insula that exhibit distinct large-scale topography and dissociable behavioral correlates. PMID:22361166

  1. Factors Affecting the Rate of Penetration of Large-Scale Electricity Technologies: The Case of Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    James R. McFarland; Howard J. Herzog

    2007-05-14

    This project falls under the Technology Innovation and Diffusion topic of the Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Research Program. The objective was to better understand the critical variables that affect the rate of penetration of large-scale electricity technologies in order to improve their representation in integrated assessment models. We conducted this research in six integrated tasks. In our first two tasks, we identified potential factors that affect penetration rates through discussions with modeling groups and through case studies of historical precedent. In the next three tasks, we investigated in detail three potential sets of critical factors: industrial conditions, resource conditions, and regulatory/environmental considerations. Research to assess the significance and relative importance of these factors involved the development of a microeconomic, system dynamics model of the US electric power sector. Finally, we implemented the penetration rate models in an integrated assessment model. While the focus of this effort is on carbon capture and sequestration technologies, much of the work will be applicable to other large-scale energy conversion technologies.

  2. Small on the left, large on the right: numbers orient visual attention onto space in preverbal infants.

    PubMed

    Bulf, Hermann; de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2016-05-01

    Numbers are represented as ordered magnitudes along a spatially oriented number line. While culture and formal education modulate the direction of this number-space mapping, it is a matter of debate whether its emergence is entirely driven by cultural experience. By registering 8-9-month-old infants' eye movements, this study shows that numerical cues are critical in orienting infants' visual attention towards a peripheral region of space that is congruent with the number's relative position on a left-to-right oriented representational continuum. This finding provides the first direct evidence that, in humans, the association between numbers and oriented spatial codes occurs before the acquisition of symbols or exposure to formal education, suggesting that the number line is not merely a product of human invention. PMID:26074348

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Applicability of General Provisions to New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions to New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries 3 Table 3 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part 63... Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries As required in § 63.10900(a), you must meet each...

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b),...

  5. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b),...

  6. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b),...

  7. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b),...

  8. Intervention for First Graders with Limited Number Knowledge: Large-Scale Replication of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Russell; Rolfhus, Eric; Clarke, Ben; Decker, Lauren E.; Wilkins, Chuck; Dimino, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Replication studies are extremely rare in education. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a scale-up replication of Fuchs et al., which in a sample of 139 found a statistically significant positive impact for Number Rockets, a small-group intervention for at-risk first graders that focused on building understanding of number operations. The…

  9. Analysis of Fluctuating Static Pressure Measurements in a Large High Reynolds Number Transonic Cryogenic Wind Tunnel. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igoe, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic measurements of fluctuating static pressure levels were made using flush mounted high frequency response pressure transducers at eleven locations in the circuit of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) over the complete operating range of this wind tunnel. Measurements were made at test section Mach numbers from 0.2 to 1.2, at pressure from 1 to 8.6 atmospheres and at temperatures from ambient to -250 F, resulting in dynamic flow disturbance measurements at the highest Reynolds numbers available in a transonic ground test facility. Tests were also made independently at variable Mach number, variable Reynolds number, and variable drivepower, each time keeping the other two variables constant thus allowing for the first time, a distinct separation of these three important variables. A description of the NTF emphasizing its flow quality features, details on the calibration of the instrumentation, results of measurements with the test section slots covered, downstream choke, effects of liquid nitrogen injection and gaseous nitrogen venting, comparisons between air and nitrogen, isolation of the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and fan drive power, and identification of the sources of significant flow disturbances is included. The results indicate that primary sources of flow disturbance in the NTF may be edge-tones generated by test section sidewall re-entry flaps and the venting of nitrogen gas from the return leg of the tunnel circuit between turns 3 and 4 in the cryogenic mode of operation. The tests to isolate the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and drive power indicate that Mach number effects predominate. A comparison with other transonic wind tunnels shows that the NTF has low levels of test section fluctuating static pressure especially in the high subsonic Mach number range from 0.7 to 0.9.

  10. Alterations in the thymocyte phenotype of EphB-deficient mice largely affect the double negative cell compartment

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro, David; Muñoz, Juan José; García-Ceca, Javier; Cejalvo, Teresa; Jiménez, Eva; Zapata, Agustín

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we have analysed the phenotype of EphB2 and/or EphB3 deficient thymocytes confirming and extending previous studies on the role of this family of molecules in T-cell differentiation. In all mutant thymuses statistically significant reduced cell contents were observed. This reduction of thymic cellularity correlated with increased proportions of apoptotic cells, largely both double negative (DN; CD4− CD8−) and double positive (CD4+ CD8+) cells, and decreased proportions of DN cycling cells. Adult deficient thymuses also showed increased proportions of DN cells but not significant variations in the percentages of other thymocyte subsets. In absolute terms, the thymocyte number decreased significantly in all thymocyte compartments from the DN3 (CD44− CD25+) cell stage onward, without variations in the numbers of both DN1 (CD44+ CD25−) and DN2 (CD44+ CD25+) cells. Remarkably, all these changes also occurred from the 15-day fetal EphB2 and/or EphB3 deficient mice, suggesting that adult phenotype results from the gradual accumulations of defects appearing early in the thymus ontogeny. As a reflection of thymus condition, a reduction in the number of T lymphocytes occurred in the peripheral blood and mesenteric lymph nodes, but not in spleen, maintaining the proportions of T-cell subsets defined by CD4/CD8 marker expression, in all cases. PMID:18397270

  11. Challenges of Diabetes Self-Management in Adults Affected by Food Insecurity in a Large Urban Centre of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Justine; DeMelo, Margaret; Gingras, Jacqui; Gucciardi, Enza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how food insecurity affects individuals' ability to manage their diabetes, as narrated by participants living in a large, culturally diverse urban centre. Design. Qualitative study comprising of in-depth interviews, using a semistructured interview guide. Setting. Participants were recruited from the local community, three community health centres, and a community-based diabetes education centre servicing a low-income population in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants. Twenty-one English-speaking adults with a diagnosis of diabetes and having experienced food insecurity in the past year (based on three screening questions). Method. Using six phases of analysis, we used qualitative, deductive thematic analysis to transcribe, code, and analyze participant interviews. Main Findings. Three themes emerged from our analysis of participants' experiences of living with food insecurity and diabetes: (1) barriers to accessing and preparing food, (2) social isolation, and (3) enhancing agency and resilience. Conclusion. Food insecurity appears to negatively impact diabetes self-management. Healthcare professionals need to be cognizant of resources, skills, and supports appropriate for people with diabetes affected by food insecurity. Study findings suggest foci for enhancing diabetes self-management support. PMID:26576154

  12. Likelihood and Bayesian analyses reveal major genes affecting body composition, carcass, meat quality and the number of false teats in a Chinese European pig line

    PubMed Central

    Marie-Pierre, Sanchez; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Zhang, Siqing; Naveau, Jean; Burlot, Thierry; Le Roy, Pascale

    2003-01-01

    Segregation analyses were performed using both maximum likelihood – via a Quasi Newton algorithm – (ML-QN) and Bayesian – via Gibbs sampling – (Bayesian-GS) approaches in the Chinese European Tiameslan pig line. Major genes were searched for average ultrasonic backfat thickness (ABT), carcass fat (X2 and X4) and lean (X5) depths, days from 20 to 100 kg (D20100), Napole technological yield (NTY), number of false (FTN) and good (GTN) teats, as well as total teat number (TTN). The discrete nature of FTN was additionally considered using a threshold model under ML methodology. The results obtained with both methods consistently suggested the presence of major genes affecting ABT, X2, NTY, GTN and FTN. Major genes were also suggested for X4 and X5 using ML-QN, but not the Bayesian-GS, approach. The major gene affecting FTN was confirmed using the threshold model. Genetic correlations as well as gene effect and genotype frequency estimates suggested the presence of four different major genes. The first gene would affect fatness traits (ABT, X2 and X4), the second one a leanness trait (X5), the third one NTY and the last one GTN and FTN. Genotype frequencies of breeding animals and their evolution over time were consistent with the selection performed in the Tiameslan line. PMID:12927073

  13. The pattern of fatal fibrinous pneumonia (shipping fever) affecting calves in a large feedlot in Alberta (1985-1988).

    PubMed Central

    Ribble, C S; Meek, A H; Jim, G K; Guichon, P T

    1995-01-01

    Data from a retrospective field study were used to describe the epidemiology of fatal fibrinous pneumonia as it affected beef calves entering a large commercial feedlot in southwestern Alberta during the fall months of y 1985 to 1988. A chute-side computer system was used to record processing and health data on 58885 calves during this period. The large annual variation (10%-57%) in the proportion of total mortality due to fibrinous pneumonia indicated that crude mortality cannot be used in epidemiological studies as a surrogate measure of fibrinous pneumonia mortality. Yearly epidemic curves for fatal fibrinous pneumonia were very similar, with a short time interval (median, 19-22 d) between arrival and fatal disease. Fully 75% of the calves that died of fibrinous pneumonia already were sick within 2 weeks of arrival. Studies of the biological, environmental, and population factors that are present before and shortly after arrival at the feedlot are needed to identify strategies for reducing the incidence of fatal fibrinous pneumonia. PMID:8748443

  14. Silica distinctively affects cell wall features and lignocellulosic saccharification with large enhancement on biomass production in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zou, Weihua; Li, Ying; Feng, Yongqing; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Zhiliang; Tu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yanting; Cai, Xiwen; Peng, Liangcai

    2015-10-01

    Rice is a typical silicon-accumulating crop with enormous biomass residues for biofuels. Silica is a cell wall component, but its effect on the plant cell wall and biomass production remains largely unknown. In this study, a systems biology approach was performed using 42 distinct rice cell wall mutants. We found that silica levels are significantly positively correlated with three major wall polymers, indicating that silica is associated with the cell wall network. Silicon-supplied hydroculture analysis demonstrated that silica distinctively affects cell wall composition and major wall polymer features, including cellulose crystallinity (CrI), arabinose substitution degree (reverse Xyl/Ara) of xylans, and sinapyl alcohol (S) proportion in three typical rice mutants. Notably, the silicon supplement exhibited dual effects on biomass enzymatic digestibility in the mutant and wild type (NPB) after pre-treatments with 1% NaOH and 1% H2SO4. In addition, silicon supply largely enhanced plant height, mechanical strength and straw biomass production, suggesting that silica rescues mutant growth defects. Hence, this study provides potential approaches for silicon applications in biomass process and bioenergy rice breeding. PMID:26398793

  15. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large “generalist” apex predator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Nifong, James C.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Elsey, Ruth M.; Decker, Rachel A.; Silliman, Brian R.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.; Lowers, Russell H.; Larson, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability.

  16. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large "generalist" apex predator.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Adam E; Nifong, James C; Heithaus, Michael R; Mazzotti, Frank J; Cherkiss, Michael S; Jeffery, Brian M; Elsey, Ruth M; Decker, Rachel A; Silliman, Brian R; Guillette, Louis J; Lowers, Russell H; Larson, Justin C

    2015-05-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability. PMID:25645268

  17. A Few Large Roads or Many Small Ones? How to Accommodate Growth in Vehicle Numbers to Minimise Impacts on Wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Jonathan R.; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2014-01-01

    Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24646891

  18. Estimating upper bounds for occupancy and number of manatees in areas potentially affected by oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; Dupuis, Jérôme A; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M; Aven, Allen M; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I; Carmichael, Ruth H; Fagan, Daniel E; Ross, Monica A; Reinert, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation. PMID:24670971

  19. Does Strand Configuration and Number of Purchase Points Affect the Biomechanical Behavior of a Tendon Repair? A Biomechanical Evaluation Using Different Kessler Methods of Flexor Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kalaci, Aydiner; Sevinç, Teoman Toni; Esen, Erdinc; Komurcu, Mahmut; Yanat, Ahmet Nedim

    2008-01-01

    This study compares the mechanical properties of modified Kessler and double-modified Kessler flexor tendon repair techniques and evaluates simple modifications on both methods. Forty fresh sheep flexor tendons were divided equally into four groups. A transverse sharp cut was done in the middle of each tendon and then repaired with modified Kessler technique, modified Kessler with additional purchase point in the midpoint of each longitudinal strand, double-modified Kessler technique, or a combination of outer Kessler and inner cruciate configuration based on double-modified Kessler technique. The tendons were tested in a tensile testing machine to assess the mechanical performance of the repairs. Outcome measures included gap formation and ultimate forces. The gap strengths of the double-modified Kessler technique (30.85 N, SD 1.90) and double-modified Kessler technique with inner cruciate configuration (33.60 N, SD 4.64) were statistically significantly greater than that of the two-strand modified Kessler (22.56 N, SD 3.44) and modified Kessler with additional purchase configuration (21.75 N, SD 4.03; Tukey honestly significant difference test, P < 0.000). There were statistically significant differences in failure strengths of the all groups (analysis of variance, P < 0.000). With an identical number of strands, the gap formation and ultimate forces of the repairs were not changed by additional locking purchase point in modified Kessler repair or changing the inner strand configuration in double-modified Kessler repair. The results of this study show that the number of strands across the repair site together with the number of locking loops clearly affects the strength of the repair; meanwhile, the longitudinal strand orientation and number of purchase points in a single loop did not affect its strength. PMID:18780108

  20. Uterine Artery Embolization in 101 Cases of Uterine Fibroids: Do Size, Location, and Number of Fibroids Affect Therapeutic Success and Complications?

    SciTech Connect

    Firouznia, Kavous Ghanaati, Hossein; Jalali, Amir H.; Shakiba, Madjid

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the size, location, or number of fibroids affects therapeutic efficacy or complications of uterine artery embolization (UAE). Patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids (n = 101) were treated by selective bilateral UAE using 500- to 710-{mu}m polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles. Baseline measures of clinical symptoms, sonography, and MRI taken before the procedure were compared to those taken 1, 3, 6, and 12 months later. Complications and outcomes were analyzed for associations with fibroid size, location, and number. Reductions in mean fibroid volume were similar in patients with single (66.6 {+-} 21.5%) and multiple (67.4 {+-} 25.0%) fibroids (p-value = 0.83). Menstrual improvement occurred in patients with single (93.3%) and multiple (72.2%) fibroids (p = 0.18). Changes in submucosal and other fibroids were not significantly different between the two groups (p's > 0.56). Linear regression analysis between primary fibroid volume as independent variable and percentage reduction of fibroid volume after 1 year yielded an R{sup 2} of 0.083 and the model coefficient was not statistically significant (p = 0.072). Multivariate regression models revealed no statistically or clinically significant coefficients or odds ratios for three independent variables (primary fibroid size, total number, and fibroid location) and all outcome variables (percent reduction of uterus and fibroid volumes in 1 year, improvement of clinical symptoms [menstrual, bulk related, and urinary] in 1 year, and complications after UAE). In conclusion, neither the success rate nor the probability of complications was affected by the primary fibroid size, location, or total number of fibroids.

  1. Estimating Upper Bounds for Occupancy and Number of Manatees in Areas Potentially Affected by Oil from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H.; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Dupuis, Jérôme A.; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M.; Aven, Allen M.; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I.; Carmichael, Ruth H.; Fagan, Daniel E.; Ross, Monica A.; Reinert, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation. PMID:24670971

  2. Weighting Omissions and Best Practices When Using Large-Scale Data in Educational Research. Professional File. Number 101, Fall 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.

    2006-01-01

    Federal agencies conduct large, national studies that provide abundant data easily accessible to researchers. While these datasets provide access to rich data for analyzing a multitude of topics, certain skills are necessary for appropriate use. Specifically, over sampling and multistage cluster sampling must be accommodated in the analyses to…

  3. Community-Organizing Agent: An Artificial Intelligent System for Building Learning Communities among Large Numbers of Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Minjuan; Shen, Ruimin; Han, Peng

    2007-01-01

    Web-based (or online) learning provides an unprecedented flexibility and convenience to both learners and instructors. However, large online classes relying on instructor-centered presentations could tend to isolate many learners. The size of these classes and the wide dispersion of the learners make it challenging for instructors to interact with…

  4. High-speed horizontal-path atmospheric turbulence correction using a large actuator-number MEMS spatial light modulator in an interferometric phase conjugation engine

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K; Stappaerts, E; Gavel, D; Wilks, S; Tucker, J; Silva, D; Olsen, J; Olivier, S; Young, P; Kartz, M; Flath, L; Kruelivitch, P; Crawford, J; Azucena, O

    2004-03-04

    Atmospheric propagation results for a high-speed, large-actuator-number, adaptive optics system are presented. The system uses a MEMS-based spatial light modulator correction device with 1024 actuators. Tests over a 1.35 km path achieved correction speeds in excess of 800 Hz and Strehl ratios close to 0.5. The wave-front sensor was based on a quadrature interferometer that directly measures phase. This technique does not require global wave-front reconstruction, making it relatively insensitive to scintillation and phase residues. The results demonstrate the potential of large actuator number MEMS-based spatial light modulators to replace conventional deformable mirrors.

  5. Reanalysis of Very Large Telescope Data for M83 with Image Subtraction-Ninefold Increase in Number of Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2003-07-01

    We apply the image-subtraction method in order to reanalyze the ESO Very Large Telescope data on M83 (NGC 5236), obtained and analyzed by Thim et al. Whereas Thim et al. found 12 Cepheids with periods between 12 and 55 days, we find 112 Cepheids with periods ranging from 7 to 91 days as well as ~60 other variables. These include two candidate eclipsing binaries, which, if confirmed, would be the first optically discovered outside the Local Group. We thus demonstrate that the image-subtraction method is much more powerful for detecting variability, especially in crowded fields. However, Hubble Space Telescope observations are necessary to obtain a Cepheid period-luminosity distance not dominated by blending and crowding. We propose a ``hybrid'' approach, in which numerous Cepheids are discovered and characterized using large ground-based telescopes and then followed up with the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain precise distances.

  6. Meteorological and trace gas factors affecting the number concentration of atmospheric Aitken (Dp = 50 nm) particles in the continental boundary layer: parameterization using a multivariate mixed effects model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkonen, S.; Korhonen, H.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Smith, J. N.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Hamed, A.; Breider, T. J.; Birmili, W.; Spindler, G.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Facchini, M. C.; Laaksonen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of aerosol size distribution and different gas and meteorological parameters, made in three polluted sites in Central and Southern Europe: Po Valley, Italy, Melpitz and Hohenpeissenberg in Germany, were analysed for this study to examine which of the meteorological and trace gas variables affect the number concentration of Aitken (Dp= 50 nm) particles. The aim of our study was to predict the number concentration of 50 nm particles by a combination of in-situ meteorological and gas phase parameters. The statistical model needs to describe, amongst others, the factors affecting the growth of newly formed aerosol particles (below 10 nm) to 50 nm size, but also sources of direct particle emissions in that size range. As the analysis method we used multivariate nonlinear mixed effects model. Hourly averages of gas and meteorological parameters measured at the stations were used as predictor variables; the best predictive model was attained with a combination of relative humidity, new particle formation event probability, temperature, condensation sink and concentrations of SO2, NO2 and ozone. The seasonal variation was also taken into account in the mixed model structure. Model simulations with the Global Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP) indicate that the parameterization can be used as a part of a larger atmospheric model to predict the concentration of climatically active particles. As an additional benefit, the introduced model framework is, in theory, applicable for any kind of measured aerosol parameter.

  7. Meteorological and trace gas factors affecting the number concentration of atmospheric Aitken (Dp=50 nm) particles in the continental boundary layer: parameterization using a multivariate mixed effects model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkonen, S.; Korhonen, H.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Smith, J. N.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Hamed, A.; Breider, T. J.; Birmili, W.; Spindler, G.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Facchini, M. C.; Laaksonen, A.

    2010-08-01

    Measurements of aerosol size-distribution and different gas and meteorological parameters, made in three polluted sites in Central- and Southern Europe: Po Valley, Italy, Melpitz and Hohenpeissenberg in Germany, were analysed for this study to examine which of the meteorological and trace gas variables affect the number concentration of Aitken (Dp=50 nm) particles. The aim of our study was to predict the number concentration of 50 nm particles by a combination of in-situ meteorological and gas phase parameters. The statistical model needs to describe, amongst others, the factors affecting the growth of newly formed aerosol particles (below 10 nm) to 50 nm size, but also sources of direct particle emissions in that size range. As the analysis method we used multivariate nonlinear mixed effects model. Hourly averages of gas and meteorological parameters measured at the stations were used as predictor variables; the best predictive model was attained with a combination of relative humidity, new particle formation event probability, temperature, condensation sink and concentrations of SO2, NO2 and ozone. The seasonal variation was also taken into account in the mixed model structure. Model simulations with the Global Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP) indicate that the parameterization can be used as a part of a larger atmospheric model to predict the concentration of climatically active particles. As an additional benefit, the introduced model framework is, in theory, applicable for any kind of measured aerosol parameter.

  8. Recombination Can Initiate and Terminate at a Large Number of Sites within the Rosy Locus of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Clark, S. H.; Hilliker, A. J.; Chovnick, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a recombination experiment designed to question the existence of special sites for the initiation or termination of a recombination heteroduplex within the region of the rosy locus. Intragenic recombination events were monitored between two physically separated rosy mutant alleles ry(301) and ry(2) utilizing DNA restriction site polymorphisms as genetic markers. Both ry(301) and ry(2) are known from previous studies to be associated with gene conversion frequencies an order of magnitude lower than single site mutations. The mutations are associated with large, well defined insertions located as internal sites within the locus in prior intragenic mapping studies. On the molecular map, they represent large insertions approximately 2.7 kb apart in the second and third exons, respectively, of the XDH coding region. The present study monitors intragenic recombination in a mutant heterozygous genotype in which DNA homology is disrupted by these large discontinuities, greater than the region of DNA homology and flanking both sides of the locus. If initiation/or termination requires separate sites at either end of the locus, then intragenic recombination within the rosy locus of the heterozygote should be eliminated. Contrary to expectation, significant recombination between these sites is seen. PMID:2834266

  9. Characterization of a large, stable, high-copy-number Streptomyces plasmid that requires stability and transfer functions for heterologous polyketide overproduction.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ryan; Vroom, Jonathan A; Hu, Zhihao; Hutchinson, C Richard; Huang, Jianqiang; Cohen, Stanley N; Cohen, Stanley; Kao, Camilla M; Kao, Camilla

    2007-02-01

    A major limitation to improving small-molecule pharmaceutical production in streptomycetes is the inability of high-copy-number plasmids to tolerate large biosynthetic gene cluster inserts. A recent finding has overcome this barrier. In 2003, Hu et al. discovered a stable, high-copy-number, 81-kb plasmid that significantly elevated production of the polyketide precursor to the antibiotic erythromycin in a heterologous Streptomyces host (J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30:516-522, 2003). Here, we have identified mechanisms by which this SCP2*-derived plasmid achieves increased levels of metabolite production and examined how the 45-bp deletion mutation in the plasmid replication origin increased plasmid copy number. A plasmid intramycelial transfer gene, spd, and a partition gene, parAB, enhance metabolite production by increasing the stable inheritance of large plasmids containing biosynthetic genes. Additionally, high product titers required both activator (actII-ORF4) and biosynthetic genes (eryA) at high copy numbers. DNA gel shift experiments revealed that the 45-bp deletion abolished replication protein (RepI) binding to a plasmid site which, in part, supports an iteron model for plasmid replication and copy number control. Using the new information, we constructed a large high-copy-number plasmid capable of overproducing the polyketide 6-deoxyerythronolide B. However, this plasmid was unstable over multiple culture generations, suggesting that other SCP2* genes may be required for long-term, stable plasmid inheritance. PMID:17142363

  10. Genomic copy number changes affecting the thymidylate synthase (TYMS) gene in cancer: a model for patient classification to aid fluoropyrimidine therapy.

    PubMed

    Brody, Jonathan R; Hucl, Tomas; Gallmeier, Eike; Winter, Jordan M; Kern, Scott E; Murphy, Kathleen M

    2006-10-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) is an important target for 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-based therapy. The TS polymorphic 5'-untranslated region tandem repeat sequence is under investigation to guide 5FU treatment, yet current protocols omit consideration of copy number changes at the TS locus. We surveyed the TS tandem repeat sequence and found copy number changes in gastrointestinal cancers. Ten of 12 informative cases had loss of heterozygosity (LOH), whereas two others and an additional cell line had a novel TS genotype, allelic imbalance at the TS locus due to polysomy. Experimentally, we studied a diploid colorectal cancer line heterozygous at TS to mimic three common TS genotypes of cancers. Using genetic engineering, we deleted the short tandem repeat (two repeats) allele and retained the long (three repeats) allele to produce artificial LOH at the TS gene; the TS(+/-) line had a reduced TS protein expression and was hypersensitive to 5FU and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine in vitro as compared with syngeneic control lines. We linked this sensitivity directly to the reduced TS expression by introducing exogenous TS cDNA expression into the TS(+/-) line (i.e., increased TS copies). Our model predicts that the 5FU sensitivity of a tumor is modified by aneuploidy producing copy number changes of TS alleles by one or more of the following: LOH, amplification, and, as presented here, copy number changes due to polysomy. The data suggest that TS copy number in a patient's tumor may be a dominating variable affecting 5FU responsiveness. PMID:17018589

  11. Factors That Affect Large Subunit Ribosomal DNA Amplicon Sequencing Studies of Fungal Communities: Classification Method, Primer Choice, and Error

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Teresita M.; Golding, G. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA is widely used in fungal phylogenetics and to an increasing extent also amplicon-based environmental sequencing. The relatively short reads produced by next-generation sequencing, however, makes primer choice and sequence error important variables for obtaining accurate taxonomic classifications. In this simulation study we tested the performance of three classification methods: 1) a similarity-based method (BLAST + Metagenomic Analyzer, MEGAN); 2) a composition-based method (Ribosomal Database Project naïve Bayesian classifier, NBC); and, 3) a phylogeny-based method (Statistical Assignment Package, SAP). We also tested the effects of sequence length, primer choice, and sequence error on classification accuracy and perceived community composition. Using a leave-one-out cross validation approach, results for classifications to the genus rank were as follows: BLAST + MEGAN had the lowest error rate and was particularly robust to sequence error; SAP accuracy was highest when long LSU query sequences were classified; and, NBC runs significantly faster than the other tested methods. All methods performed poorly with the shortest 50–100 bp sequences. Increasing simulated sequence error reduced classification accuracy. Community shifts were detected due to sequence error and primer selection even though there was no change in the underlying community composition. Short read datasets from individual primers, as well as pooled datasets, appear to only approximate the true community composition. We hope this work informs investigators of some of the factors that affect the quality and interpretation of their environmental gene surveys. PMID:22558215

  12. Coherence of interacting bosons in optical lattices in synthetic magnetic fields with a large number of subbands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygiel, B.; Patucha, K.; Zaleski, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    We study the behavior of interacting ultracold bosons in optical lattices in synthetic magnetic fields with wide range of in-cell fluxes α =p /q . The problem is similar to the one of an electron moving in a tight-binding scheme in the magnetic field and becomes difficult to tackle for a growing number of magnetic subbands, q . To overcome this, we focus on the interplay of the width, shape, and number of the subbands on the formation of the coherent state of cold bosons. Using the quantum rotor approach, which goes beyond the mean-field approximation, we are able to pinpoint the elements of the band structure, which are the most significant in a proper theoretical description of the synthetic magnetic field in a bosonic lattice system. As a result, we propose a method of reconstruction of the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum by replacing the magnetic subbands with renormalized bands of a square lattice. This allows us to effectively investigate the properties of the studied system for a wide range of magnetic fluxes and their impact on the Mott-insulator-superfluid transition.

  13. Large odd-numbered carbon clusters from fullerene-ozone reactions. (Reannouncement with new availability information). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    McElvany, S.W.; Callahan, J.H.; Ross, M.M.; Lamb, L.D.; Huffman, D.R.

    1993-06-11

    The odd-numbered carbon clusters C119, C129 and C139 have been observed in the mass spectra of toluene extracts of fullerene soots and of the products of ozone-fullerene reactions. Specifically, ozone-C60 reactions yield C119, and ozone-C70 reactions yield C139, and ozone-(C60/C70) reactions produce C119, C129, and C139. These unexpected species correspond to dimers of C60, C60/C70, and C70, respectively, less one carbon atom, and are stable gas-phase ions with behavior similar to that of fullerenes. The results suggest a new route to functionalization and derivatization of fullerenes through controlled ozone-catalyzed cage-opening reactions.

  14. Instability and associated roll structure of Marangoni convection in high Prandtl number liquid bridge with large aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T.; Nishino, K.; Kawamura, H.; Ueno, I.; Matsumoto, S.

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports the experimental results on the instability and associated roll structures (RSs) of Marangoni convection in liquid bridges formed under the microgravity environment on the International Space Station. The geometry of interest is high aspect ratio (AR = height/diameter ≥ 1.0) liquid bridges of high Prandtl number fluids (Pr = 67 and 207) suspended between coaxial disks heated differentially. The unsteady flow field and associated RSs were revealed with the three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. It is found that the flow field after the onset of instability exhibits oscillations with azimuthal mode number m = 1 and associated RSs traveling in the axial direction. The RSs travel in the same direction as the surface flow (co-flow direction) for 1.00 ≤ AR ≤ 1.25 while they travel in the opposite direction (counter-flow direction) for AR ≥ 1.50, thus showing the change of traveling directions with AR. This traveling direction for AR ≥ 1.50 is reversed to the co-flow direction when the temperature difference between the disks is increased to the condition far beyond the critical one. This change of traveling directions is accompanied by the increase of the oscillation frequency. The characteristics of the RSs for AR ≥ 1.50, such as the azimuthal mode of oscillation, the dimensionless oscillation frequency, and the traveling direction, are in reasonable agreement with those of the previous sounding rocket experiment for AR = 2.50 and those of the linear stability analysis of an infinite liquid bridge.

  15. Efficient Evaluation of Ranking Procedures when the Number of Units is Large, With Application to SNP Identification

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Thomas A.; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    Summary Simulation-based assessment is a popular and frequently necessary approach to evaluation of statistical procedures. Sometimes overlooked is the ability to take advantage of underlying mathematical relations and we focus on this aspect. We show how to take advantage of large-sample theory when conducting a simulation using the analysis of genomic data as a motivating example. The approach uses convergence results to provide an approximation to smaller-sample results, results that are available only by simulation. We consider evaluating and comparing a variety of ranking-based methods for identifying the most highly associated SNPs in a genome-wide association study, derive integral equation representations of the pre-posterior distribution of percentiles produced by three ranking methods, and provide examples comparing performance. These results are of interest in their own right and set the framework for a more extensive set of comparisons. PMID:20131327

  16. DISCOVERY OF A LARGE NUMBER OF CANDIDATE PROTOCLUSTERS TRACED BY ∼15 Mpc-SCALE GALAXY OVERDENSITIES IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Gebhardt, Karl; Overzier, Roderik

    2014-02-10

    To demonstrate the feasibility of studying the epoch of massive galaxy cluster formation in a more systematic manner using current and future galaxy surveys, we report the discovery of a large sample of protocluster candidates in the 1.62 deg{sup 2} COSMOS/UltraVISTA field traced by optical/infrared selected galaxies using photometric redshifts. By comparing properly smoothed three-dimensional galaxy density maps of the observations and a set of matched simulations incorporating the dominant observational effects (galaxy selection and photometric redshift uncertainties), we first confirm that the observed ∼15 comoving Mpc-scale galaxy clustering is consistent with ΛCDM models. Using further the relation between high-z overdensity and the present day cluster mass calibrated in these matched simulations, we found 36 candidate structures at 1.6 < z < 3.1, showing overdensities consistent with the progenitors of M{sub z} {sub =} {sub 0} ∼ 10{sup 15} M {sub ☉} clusters. Taking into account the significant upward scattering of lower mass structures, the probabilities for the candidates to have at least M{sub z=} {sub 0} ∼ 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉} are ∼70%. For each structure, about 15%-40% of photometric galaxy candidates are expected to be true protocluster members that will merge into a cluster-scale halo by z = 0. With solely photometric redshifts, we successfully rediscover two spectroscopically confirmed structures in this field, suggesting that our algorithm is robust. This work generates a large sample of uniformly selected protocluster candidates, providing rich targets for spectroscopic follow-up and subsequent studies of cluster formation. Meanwhile, it demonstrates the potential for probing early cluster formation with upcoming redshift surveys such as the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment and the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph survey.

  17. The Calibration of a Large Number of Scientific Instruments for the Auroral Spatial Structures Probe Sub-Orbital Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, A.; Miller, J.; Neilsen, T. L.; Fish, C. S.; Swenson, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe (ASSP) is a NASA sounding rocket mission to be launched in the early January 2015 time frame from the Poker Flat Research Range. The primary scientific objective of this mission is to determine the contribution of small spatial and temporal scale fluctuations of the electric fields to the larger-scale processes during active aurora. This will be accomplished through the use of a constellation of six small payloads ejected at high velocity from a sounding rocket. The multiple baseline observations of the electric and magnetic fields will be used to observe variability of both the E-field and the Poynting flux. These observations will be placed in the context of available data, including winds, large scale E-fields, and proxy conductivity (airglow images) observations.Each sub-payload will carry a crossed pair of electric field double-probe sensors, a three-axis magnetometer, and a Langmuir probe. In total there are eight of each instrument type requireing calibration. Since the instruments need to be calibrated over temperature a full calibration of a single instrument is very time-consuming. The decision was made to automate the calibration process. Measurements were taken using a relay switch-box connecting the instruments to test sources. Calibration data were saved into a database. Using post-processing scripts on these databases a calibration for each instrument at each temperature point was made. This approach is a prototype process that might be used for calibrating a large constellation of CubeSats with similar instruments. In this poster we review the ASSP science and mission, and the results of the pre-flight calibration of the science instruments.

  18. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Procedures for Establishing Operating Limits for New Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for Establishing Operating Limits for New Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries 2 Table 2 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part 63... Sources Classified as Large Foundries As required in § 63.10898(k), you must establish operating...

  19. Visual Search in the Real World: Color Vision Deficiency Affects Peripheral Guidance, but Leaves Foveal Verification Largely Unaffected

    PubMed Central

    Kugler, Günter; 't Hart, Bernard M.; Kohlbecher, Stefan; Bartl, Klaus; Schumann, Frank; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Schneider, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with color vision deficiencies report numerous limitations in daily life, restricting, for example, their access to some professions. However, they use basic color terms systematically and in a similar manner as people with normal color vision. We hypothesize that a possible explanation for this discrepancy between color perception and behavioral consequences might be found in the gaze behavior of people with color vision deficiency. Methods: A group of participants with color vision deficiencies and a control group performed several search tasks in a naturalistic setting on a lawn. All participants wore a mobile eye-tracking-driven camera with a high foveal image resolution (EyeSeeCam). Search performance as well as fixations of objects of different colors were examined. Results: Search performance was similar in both groups in a color-unrelated search task as well as in a search for yellow targets. While searching for red targets, participants with color vision deficiencies exhibited a strongly degraded performance. This was closely matched by the number of fixations on red objects shown by the two groups. Importantly, once they fixated a target, participants with color vision deficiencies exhibited only few identification errors. Conclusions: In contrast to controls, participants with color vision deficiencies are not able to enhance their search for red targets on a (green) lawn by an efficient guiding mechanism. The data indicate that the impaired guiding is the main influence on search performance, while foveal identification (verification) is largely unaffected by the color vision deficiency. PMID:26733851

  20. A LARGE NUMBER OF z > 6 GALAXIES AROUND A QSO AT z = 6.43: EVIDENCE FOR A PROTOCLUSTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Utsumi, Yousuke; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Goto, Tomotsugu; Furusawa, Hisanori; Overzier, Roderik

    2010-10-01

    QSOs have been thought to be important for tracing highly biased regions in the early universe, from which the present-day massive galaxies and galaxy clusters formed. While overdensities of star-forming galaxies have been found around QSOs at 2 < z < 5, the case for excess galaxy clustering around QSOs at z > 6 is less clear. Previous studies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have reported the detection of small excesses of faint dropout galaxies in some QSO fields, but these surveys probed a relatively small region surrounding the QSOs. To overcome this problem, we have observed the most distant QSO at z = 6.4 using the large field of view of the Suprime-Cam (34' x 27'). Newly installed red-sensitive fully depleted CCDs allowed us to select Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z {approx} 6.4 more efficiently. We found seven LBGs in the QSO field, whereas only one exists in a comparison field. The significance of this apparent excess is difficult to quantify without spectroscopic confirmation and additional control fields. The Poisson probability to find seven objects when one expects four is {approx}10%, while the probability to find seven objects in one field and only one in the other is less than 0.4%, suggesting that the QSO field is significantly overdense relative to the control field. These conclusions are supported by a comparison with a cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation which includes the higher order clustering of galaxies. We find some evidence that the LBGs are distributed in a ring-like shape centered on the QSO with a radius of {approx}3 Mpc. There are no candidate LBGs within 2 Mpc from the QSO, i.e., galaxies are clustered around the QSO but appear to avoid the very center. These results suggest that the QSO is embedded in an overdense region when defined on a sufficiently large scale (i.e., larger than an HST/ACS pointing). This suggests that the QSO was indeed born in a massive halo. The central deficit of galaxies may

  1. Genome Reduction Uncovers a Large Dispensable Genome and Adaptive Role for Copy Number Variation in Asexually Propagated Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Hardigan, Michael A; Crisovan, Emily; Hamilton, John P; Kim, Jeongwoon; Laimbeer, Parker; Leisner, Courtney P; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Newton, Linsey; Pham, Gina M; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Yang, Xueming; Zeng, Zixian; Douches, David S; Jiang, Jiming; Veilleux, Richard E; Buell, C Robin

    2016-02-01

    Clonally reproducing plants have the potential to bear a significantly greater mutational load than sexually reproducing species. To investigate this possibility, we examined the breadth of genome-wide structural variation in a panel of monoploid/doubled monoploid clones generated from native populations of diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum), a highly heterozygous asexually propagated plant. As rare instances of purely homozygous clones, they provided an ideal set for determining the degree of structural variation tolerated by this species and deriving its minimal gene complement. Extensive copy number variation (CNV) was uncovered, impacting 219.8 Mb (30.2%) of the potato genome with nearly 30% of genes subject to at least partial duplication or deletion, revealing the highly heterogeneous nature of the potato genome. Dispensable genes (>7000) were associated with limited transcription and/or a recent evolutionary history, with lower deletion frequency observed in genes conserved across angiosperms. Association of CNV with plant adaptation was highlighted by enrichment in gene clusters encoding functions for environmental stress response, with gene duplication playing a part in species-specific expansions of stress-related gene families. This study revealed unique impacts of CNV in a species with asexual reproductive habits and how CNV may drive adaption through evolution of key stress pathways. PMID:26772996

  2. Molecular sexing of unusually large numbers of Spheniscus magellanicus (Spheniscidae) washed ashore along the Brazilian coast in 2008.

    PubMed

    Reis, E C; Aires, R M; Moura, J F; Matias, C A R; Tavares, M; Ott, P H; Siciliano, S; Lôbo-Hajdu, G

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies on Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). In 2008, these penguins washed ashore along the Brazilian coast in unusually high numbers, some reaching as far as northeast Brazil. As Magellanic penguins show little sexual dimorphism, sex determination by morphological features is not accurate. Here, we tested a molecular procedure for sexing specimens of S. magellanicus washed ashore along the coasts of Sergipe, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul in 2008, comparing the sex ratio between these localities. Tissue samples were collected from 135 dead, beached specimens. We carried out total genomic DNA extraction and CHD-Z/CHD-W gene amplification by PCR using P2 and P8 primers. Amplicons were separated by 12% acrylamide gel electrophoresis. We found a greater proportion of females (70%). Sex could be determined because females have two intronic regions of CHD gene of different size in the sex chromosomes, visualized as two bands on the gel (380 and 400 bp approximately), while males have only one (400 bp). Therefore, this method proved to be effective and sensitive for sex determination of S. magellanicus individuals. Data on sex ratios are useful for understanding the dynamics and ecology of Magellanic penguin populations. PMID:22180075

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SUBSTANCE-EXPOSED PREGNANCIES AT ONE GREAT LAKES HOSPITAL THAT SERVES A LARGE NUMBER OF AMERICAN INDIANS

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jessica D.; Jensen, Jamie L.; Campbell, Kelly; Chaudhary, Kaushal Raj; Puumala, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of substance-exposed pregnancies at a hospital in the Great Lakes region of the U.S. Method Data were collected via retrospective chart abstractions of patients who were seen for delivery at one Great Lakes region hospital during a 1-year period who were given at least one of the International Classification of Diseases codes related to substance use. Results A total of 342 medical records were included in the analysis, and, while much race/ethnicity data were missing, a large percentage of those in our analysis identified as American Indian. The prevalence of substance-exposed pregnancies at this hospital during a 1-year period was 34.5%. The majority (84.8%) were tobacco users, and many were found to have multiple substance exposures. Also, 48.5% were found to have a mental health diagnosis in addition to substance use. Conclusions Data from this project can be used in prevention efforts, including preconception care for women at risk for substance use and mental health issues. PMID:27536897

  4. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Leaf-Cutter Ant Atta laevigata: A Mitogenome with a Large Number of Intergenic Spacers

    PubMed Central

    Rodovalho, Cynara de Melo; Lyra, Mariana Lúcio; Ferro, Milene; Bacci, Maurício

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of the leaf-cutter ant Atta laevigata, assembled using transcriptomic libraries from Sanger and Illumina next generation sequencing (NGS), and PCR products. This mitogenome was found to be very large (18,729 bp), given the presence of 30 non-coding intergenic spacers (IGS) spanning 3,808 bp. A portion of the putative control region remained unsequenced. The gene content and organization correspond to that inferred for the ancestral pancrustacea, except for two tRNA gene rearrangements that have been described previously in other ants. The IGS were highly variable in length and dispersed through the mitogenome. This pattern was also found for the other hymenopterans in particular for the monophyletic Apocrita. These spacers with unknown function may be valuable for characterizing genome evolution and distinguishing closely related species and individuals. NGS provided better coverage than Sanger sequencing, especially for tRNA and ribosomal subunit genes, thus facilitating efforts to fill in sequence gaps. The results obtained showed that data from transcriptomic libraries contain valuable information for assembling mitogenomes. The present data also provide a source of molecular markers that will be very important for improving our understanding of genomic evolutionary processes and phylogenetic relationships among hymenopterans. PMID:24828084

  5. Efficient Screening of Climate Model Sensitivity to a Large Number of Perturbed Input Parameters [plus supporting information

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, Curt; Lucas, Donald D.; Tannahill, John; Garaizar, Xabier; Klein, Richard

    2013-07-01

    Modern climate models contain numerous input parameters, each with a range of possible values. Since the volume of parameter space increases exponentially with the number of parameters N, it is generally impossible to directly evaluate a model throughout this space even if just 2-3 values are chosen for each parameter. Sensitivity screening algorithms, however, can identify input parameters having relatively little effect on a variety of output fields, either individually or in nonlinear combination.This can aid both model development and the uncertainty quantification (UQ) process. Here we report results from a parameter sensitivity screening algorithm hitherto untested in climate modeling, the Morris one-at-a-time (MOAT) method. This algorithm drastically reduces the computational cost of estimating sensitivities in a high dimensional parameter space because the sample size grows linearly rather than exponentially with N. It nevertheless samples over much of the N-dimensional volume and allows assessment of parameter interactions, unlike traditional elementary one-at-a-time (EOAT) parameter variation. We applied both EOAT and MOAT to the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), assessing CAM’s behavior as a function of 27 uncertain input parameters related to the boundary layer, clouds, and other subgrid scale processes. For radiation balance at the top of the atmosphere, EOAT and MOAT rank most input parameters similarly, but MOAT identifies a sensitivity that EOAT underplays for two convection parameters that operate nonlinearly in the model. MOAT’s ranking of input parameters is robust to modest algorithmic variations, and it is qualitatively consistent with model development experience. Supporting information is also provided at the end of the full text of the article.

  6. Efficient Screening of Climate Model Sensitivity to a Large Number of Perturbed Input Parameters [plus supporting information

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Covey, Curt; Lucas, Donald D.; Tannahill, John; Garaizar, Xabier; Klein, Richard

    2013-07-01

    Modern climate models contain numerous input parameters, each with a range of possible values. Since the volume of parameter space increases exponentially with the number of parameters N, it is generally impossible to directly evaluate a model throughout this space even if just 2-3 values are chosen for each parameter. Sensitivity screening algorithms, however, can identify input parameters having relatively little effect on a variety of output fields, either individually or in nonlinear combination.This can aid both model development and the uncertainty quantification (UQ) process. Here we report results from a parameter sensitivity screening algorithm hitherto untested in climate modeling,more » the Morris one-at-a-time (MOAT) method. This algorithm drastically reduces the computational cost of estimating sensitivities in a high dimensional parameter space because the sample size grows linearly rather than exponentially with N. It nevertheless samples over much of the N-dimensional volume and allows assessment of parameter interactions, unlike traditional elementary one-at-a-time (EOAT) parameter variation. We applied both EOAT and MOAT to the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), assessing CAM’s behavior as a function of 27 uncertain input parameters related to the boundary layer, clouds, and other subgrid scale processes. For radiation balance at the top of the atmosphere, EOAT and MOAT rank most input parameters similarly, but MOAT identifies a sensitivity that EOAT underplays for two convection parameters that operate nonlinearly in the model. MOAT’s ranking of input parameters is robust to modest algorithmic variations, and it is qualitatively consistent with model development experience. Supporting information is also provided at the end of the full text of the article.« less

  7. SU-E-T-629: Feasibility Study of Treating Multiple Brain Tumors with Large Number of Noncoplanar IMRT Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, P; Ma, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of treating multiple brain tumors withlarge number of noncoplanar IMRT beams. Methods: Thirty beams are selected from 390 deliverable beams separated by six degree in 4pi space. Beam selection optimization is based on a column generation algorithm. MLC leaf size is 2 mm. Dose matrices are calculated with collapsed cone convolution and superposition method in a 2 mm by 2mm by 2 mm grid. Twelve brain tumors of various shapes, sizes and locations are used to generate four plans treating 3, 6, 9 and 12 tumors. The radiation dose was 20 Gy prescribed to the 100% isodose line. Dose Volume Histograms for tumor and brain were compared. Results: All results are based on a 2 mm by 2 mm by 2 mm CT grid. For 3, 6, 9 and 12 tumor plans, minimum tumor doses are all 20 Gy. Mean tumor dose are 20.0, 20.1, 20.1 and 20.1 Gy. Maximum tumor dose are 23.3, 23.6, 25.4 and 25.4 Gy. Mean ventricles dose are 0.7, 1.7, 2.4 and 3.1 Gy.Mean subventricular zone dose are 0.8, 1.3, 2.2 and 3.2 Gy. Average Equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) values for tumor are 20.1, 20.1, 20.2 and 20.2 Gy. The conformity index (CI) values are close to 1 for all 4 plans. The gradient index (GI) values are 2.50, 2.05, 2.09 and 2.19. Conclusion: Compared with published Gamma Knife treatment studies, noncoplanar IMRT treatment plan is superior in terms of dose conformity. Due to maximum limit of beams per plan, Gamma knife has to treat multiple tumors separately in different plans. Noncoplanar IMRT plans theoretically can be delivered in a single plan on any modern linac with an automated couch and image guidance. This warrants further study of using noncoplanar IMRT as a viable treatment solution for multiple brain tumors.

  8. SVA retrotransposon insertion-associated deletion represents a novel mutational mechanism underlying large genomic copy number changes with non-recurrent breakpoints

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genomic disorders are caused by copy number changes that may exhibit recurrent breakpoints processed by nonallelic homologous recombination. However, region-specific disease-associated copy number changes have also been observed which exhibit non-recurrent breakpoints. The mechanisms underlying these non-recurrent copy number changes have not yet been fully elucidated. Results We analyze large NF1 deletions with non-recurrent breakpoints as a model to investigate the full spectrum of causative mechanisms, and observe that they are mediated by various DNA double strand break repair mechanisms, as well as aberrant replication. Further, two of the 17 NF1 deletions with non-recurrent breakpoints, identified in unrelated patients, occur in association with the concomitant insertion of SINE/variable number of tandem repeats/Alu (SVA) retrotransposons at the deletion breakpoints. The respective breakpoints are refractory to analysis by standard breakpoint-spanning PCRs and are only identified by means of optimized PCR protocols designed to amplify across GC-rich sequences. The SVA elements are integrated within SUZ12P intron 8 in both patients, and were mediated by target-primed reverse transcription of SVA mRNA intermediates derived from retrotranspositionally active source elements. Both SVA insertions occurred during early postzygotic development and are uniquely associated with large deletions of 1 Mb and 867 kb, respectively, at the insertion sites. Conclusions Since active SVA elements are abundant in the human genome and the retrotranspositional activity of many SVA source elements is high, SVA insertion-associated large genomic deletions encompassing many hundreds of kilobases could constitute a novel and as yet under-appreciated mechanism underlying large-scale copy number changes in the human genome. PMID:24958239

  9. Large Gradient High Magnetic Fields Affect Osteoblast Ultrastructure and Function by Disrupting Collagen I or Fibronectin/αβ1 Integrin

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Ai-Rong; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jing-Bao; Wang, Yang; Di, Sheng-Meng; Hu, Li-Fang; Shang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The superconducting magnet generates a field and field gradient product that can levitate diamagnetic materials. In this study a specially designed superconducting magnet with a large gradient high magnetic field (LG-HMF), which can provide three apparent gravity levels (μ-g, 1-g, and 2-g), was used to simulate a space-like gravity environment. The effects of LG-HMF on the ultrastructure and function of osteoblast-like cells (MG-63 and MC3T3-E1) and the underlying mechanism were investigated by transmission electromicroscopy (TEM), MTT, and cell western (ICW) assays. Under LG-HMF significant morphologic changes in osteoblast-like cells occurred, including expansion of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, an increased number of lysosomes, distorted microvilli, and aggregates of actin filaments. Compared to controls, cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) secretion were significantly increased, and collagen I (col I), fibronectin (FN), vinculin, integrin α3, αv, and β1 expression were changed under LG-HMF conditions. In conclusion, LG-HMF affects osteoblast ultrastructure, cell viability, and ALP secretion, and the changes caused by LG-HMF may be related to disrupting col I or FN/αβ1 integrin. PMID:23382804

  10. In Vitro Acute Exposure to DEHP Affects Oocyte Meiotic Maturation, Energy and Oxidative Stress Parameters in a Large Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos

  11. Low frequency of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies during chronic infection even in quaternary epitope targeting antibodies containing large numbers of somatic mutations.

    PubMed

    Hicar, Mark D; Chen, Xuemin; Kalams, Spyros A; Sojar, Hakimuddin; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N; Spearman, Paul; Crowe, James E

    2016-02-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (Abs) are thought to be a critical component of an appropriate HIV vaccine response. It has been proposed that Abs recognizing conformationally dependent quaternary epitopes on the HIV envelope (Env) trimer may be necessary to neutralize diverse HIV strains. A number of recently described broadly neutralizing monoclonal Abs (mAbs) recognize complex and quaternary epitopes. Generally, many such Abs exhibit extensive numbers of somatic mutations and unique structural characteristics. We sought to characterize the native antibody (Ab) response against circulating HIV focusing on such conformational responses, without a prior selection based on neutralization. Using a capture system based on VLPs incorporating cleaved envelope protein, we identified a selection of B cells that produce quaternary epitope targeting Abs (QtAbs). Similar to a number of broadly neutralizing Abs, the Ab genes encoding these QtAbs showed extensive numbers of somatic mutations. However, when expressed as recombinant molecules, these Abs failed to neutralize virus or mediate ADCVI activity. Molecular analysis showed unusually high numbers of mutations in the Ab heavy chain framework 3 region of the variable genes. The analysis suggests that large numbers of somatic mutations occur in Ab genes encoding HIV Abs in chronically infected individuals in a non-directed, stochastic, manner. PMID:26748387

  12. Large-Nc limit reduces the number of independent few-body parity-violating low-energy constants in pionless effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Matthias R.; Springer, Roxanne P.; Vanasse, Jared

    2016-02-01

    The symmetries of the standard model dictate that for very low energies, where nucleon dynamics can be described in terms of a pionless effective field theory ( EFT(π / ) ) , the leading-order parity-violating nucleon-nucleon Lagrangian contains five independent unknown low-energy constants (LECs). We find that imposing the approximate symmetry of QCD that appears when the number of colors Nc becomes large reduces the number of independent LECs to two at leading order in the combined EFT(π / ) and large-Nc expansions. We also find a relation between the two isoscalar LECs in the large-Nc limit. This has important implications for the number of experiments and/or lattice calculations necessary to confirm this description of physics. In particular, we find that a future measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in γ ⃗d →n p together with the existing result for parity-violating p ⃗p scattering would constrain all leading-order (in the combined expansion) LECs. This is a considerable improvement on the previous understanding of the system.

  13. Reduction in 50-kHz call-numbers and suppression of tickling-associated positive affective behaviour after lesioning of the lateral hypothalamic parvafox nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Roccaro-Waldmeyer, Diana M; Babalian, Alexandre; Müller, Annelies; Celio, Marco R

    2016-02-01

    The parvafox nucleus is located ventrolaterally in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Its core and shell are composed of neurons expressing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) and the transcription factor Foxb1, respectively. Given the known functions of the LHA and that the parvafox nucleus receives afferents from the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and projects to the periaqueductal gray matter, a functional role of this entity in the expression of positive emotions has been postulated. The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether the deletion of neurons in the parvafox nucleus influenced the tickling-induced 50-kHz calls, which are thought to reflect positive affective states, in rats. To this end, tickling of the animals (heterospecific play) was combined with intracerebral injections of the excitotoxin kainic acid into the parvafox nucleus. The most pronounced surgery-associated reduction in 50-kHz call-numbers was observed in the group of rats in which, on the basis of PV-immunoreactive-cell counts in the parvafox nucleus, bilateral lesions had been successfully produced. Two other parameters that were implemented to quantify positive affective behaviour, namely, an approach towards and a following of the hand of the tickling experimenter, were likewise most markedly suppressed in the group of rats with bilaterally successful lesions. Furthermore, positive correlations were found between each of the investigated parameters. Our data afford evidence that the parvafox nucleus plays a role in the production of 50-kHz calls in rats, and, more generally, in the expression of positive emotions. PMID:26554726

  14. A short-term extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure increases circulating leukocyte numbers and affects HPA-axis signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    de Kleijn, Stan; Ferwerda, Gerben; Wiese, Michelle; Trentelman, Jos; Cuppen, Jan; Kozicz, Tamas; de Jager, Linda; Hermans, Peter W M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy

    2016-10-01

    There is still uncertainty whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can induce health effects like immunomodulation. Despite evidence obtained in vitro, an unambiguous association has not yet been established in vivo. Here, mice were exposed to ELF-EMF for 1, 4, and 24 h/day in a short-term (1 week) and long-term (15 weeks) set-up to investigate whole body effects on the level of stress regulation and immune response. ELF-EMF signal contained multiple frequencies (20-5000 Hz) and a magnetic flux density of 10 μT. After exposure, blood was analyzed for leukocyte numbers (short-term and long-term) and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration (short-term only). Furthermore, in the short-term experiment, stress-related parameters, corticotropin-releasing hormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and CYP11A1 gene-expression, respectively, were determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. In the short-term but not long-term experiment, leukocyte counts were significantly higher in the 24 h-exposed group compared with controls, mainly represented by increased neutrophils and CD4 ± lymphocytes. POMC expression and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly lower compared with unexposed control mice. In conclusion, short-term ELF-EMF exposure may affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation in mice. Changes in stress hormone release may explain changes in circulating leukocyte numbers and composition. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:433-443, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27553635

  15. The Two-Phase Method for Finding a Great Number of Eigenpairs of the Symmetric or Weakly Non-symmetric Large Eigenvalue Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dul, Franciszek A.; Arczewski, Krzysztof

    1994-03-01

    Although it has been stated that "an attempt to solve (very large problems) by subspace iterations seems futile" (H. G. Matthies, Comput. Struct.21 (1985), p. 324), we will show that the statement is not true, especially for extremely large eigenproblems. In this paper a new two-phase subspace iteration/Rayleigh quotient/conjugate gradient method for generalized, large, symmetric eigenproblems Ax = λBx is presented. It has the ability of solving extremely large eigenproblems, N = 216,000, for example, and finding a large number of leftmost or rightmost eigenpairs, up to 1000 or more. Multiple eigenpairs, even those with multiplicity 100, can be easily found. The use of the proposed method for solving the big full eigenproblems ( N ˜ 10 3), as well as for large weakly non-symmetric eigenproblems, have been considered also. The proposed method is fully iterative; thus the factorization of matrices is avoided. The key idea consists in joining two methods: subspace and Rayleigh quotient iterations. The systems of indefinite and almost singular linear equations ( A - σ B) x = By are solved by various iterative conjugate gradient/Lanczos methods. It will be shown that the standard conjugate gradient method can be used without danger of breaking down due to its property that may be called "self-correction towards the eigenvector," discovered recently by us. The use of various preconditioners (SSOR and IC) has also been considered. The main features of the proposed method have been analyzed in detail. Comparisons with other methods, such as, accelerated subspace iteration, Lanczos, Davidson, TLIME, TRACMN, and SRQMCG, are presented. The results of numerical tests for various physical problems (acoustic, vibrations of structures, quantum chemistry) are presented as well. The final conclusion is that our new method is usually much faster than other iterative methods, especially for very large eigenproblems arising from 3D elliptic or biharmonic problems defined on

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Applicability of General Provisions to New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions to New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries 3 Table 3 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart Ec of... - Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources... 60—Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in §...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Ec of... - Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources... 60—Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in §...

  19. Aerodynamic Effects of High Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade with Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of high inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. These results are compared to previous measurements made in a low turbulence environment. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The current study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Assessing the effects of turbulence at these large incidence and Reynolds number variations complements the existing database. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6) and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 8 to 15 percent for the current study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitch/yaw probe located in a survey plane 7 percent axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At

  20. Aerodynamic Effects of High Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade With Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of high inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. These results are compared to previous measurements made in a low turbulence environment. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The current study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Assessing the effects of turbulence at these large incidence and Reynolds number variations complements the existing database. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6) and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 8 to 15 percent for the current study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitch/yaw probe located in a survey plane 7 percent axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At

  1. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible miscible flow with large viscosity ratio and high Péclet number.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xuhui; Guo, Zhaoli

    2015-10-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model with a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator is proposed for incompressible miscible flow with a large viscosity ratio as well as a high Péclet number in this paper. The equilibria in the present model are motivated by the lattice kinetic scheme previously developed by Inamuro et al. [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 360, 477 (2002)]. The fluid viscosity and diffusion coefficient depend on both the corresponding relaxation times and additional adjustable parameters in this model. As a result, the corresponding relaxation times can be adjusted in proper ranges to enhance the performance of the model. Numerical validations of the Poiseuille flow and a diffusion-reaction problem demonstrate that the proposed model has second-order accuracy in space. Thereafter, the model is used to simulate flow through a porous medium, and the results show that the proposed model has the advantage to obtain a viscosity-independent permeability, which makes it a robust method for simulating flow in porous media. Finally, a set of simulations are conducted on the viscous miscible displacement between two parallel plates. The results reveal that the present model can be used to simulate, to a high level of accuracy, flows with large viscosity ratios and/or high Péclet numbers. Moreover, the present model is shown to provide superior stability in the limit of high kinematic viscosity. In summary, the numerical results indicate that the present lattice Boltzmann model is an ideal numerical tool for simulating flow with a large viscosity ratio and/or a high Péclet number. PMID:26565362

  2. Targeted array comparative genomic hybridization--a new diagnostic tool for the detection of large copy number variations in nemaline myopathy-causing genes.

    PubMed

    Kiiski, K; Laari, L; Lehtokari, V-L; Lunkka-Hytönen, M; Angelini, C; Petty, R; Hackman, P; Wallgren-Pettersson, C; Pelin, K

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) constitutes a heterogeneous group of congenital myopathies. Mutations in the nebulin gene (NEB) are the main cause of recessively inherited NM. NEB is one of the most largest genes in human. To date, 68 NEB mutations, mainly small deletions or point mutations have been published. The only large mutation characterized is the 2.5 kb deletion of exon 55 in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. To investigate any copy number variations in this enormous gene, we designed a novel custom comparative genomic hybridization microarray, NM-CGH, targeted towards the seven known genes causative for NM. During the validation of the NM-CGH array we identified two novel deletions in two different families. The first is the largest deletion characterized in NEB to date, (∼53 kb) encompassing 24 exons. The second deletion (1 kb) covers two exons. In both families, the copy number change was the second mutation to be characterized and shown to have been inherited from one of the healthy carrier parents. In addition to these novel mutations, copy number variation was identified in four samples in three families in the triplicate region of NEB. We conclude that this method appears promising for the detection of copy number variations in NEB. PMID:23010307

  3. A phase field approach with a reaction pathways-based potential to model reconstructive martensitic transformations with a large number of variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denoual, C.; Vattré, A.

    2016-05-01

    A pathway tree is constructed by recursively duplicating a single reconstructive martensitic transformation path with respect to lattice symmetries and point-group rotations. An energy potential built on this pathway is implemented in a phase-field technique in large strain framework, with the transformational strain as the order parameter. A specific splitting between non-dissipative elastic behavior and the dissipative evolution of the order parameter allows for the modeling of acoustic waves during rapid transformations. A simple toy-model transition from hexa- to square-lattice successfully demonstrates the possibility to model reconstructive martensitic transformations for a large number of variants (more than one hundred). Pure traction applied to our toy-model shows that variants can nucleate into previously created variants, with a hierarchical nucleation of variants spanning over five levels of transformation.

  4. Electron density and transport in top-gated graphene nanoribbon devices: First-principles Green function algorithms for systems containing a large number of atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areshkin, Denis A.; Nikolić, Branislav K.

    2010-04-01

    The recent fabrication of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) field-effect transistors poses a challenge for first-principles modeling of carbon nanoelectronics due to many thousand atoms present in the device. The state of the art quantum transport algorithms, based on the nonequilibrium Green function formalism combined with the density-functional theory (NEGF-DFT), were originally developed to calculate self-consistent electron density in equilibrium and at finite bias voltage (as a prerequisite to obtain conductance or current-voltage characteristics, respectively) for small molecules attached to metallic electrodes where only a few hundred atoms are typically simulated. Here we introduce combination of two numerically efficient algorithms which make it possible to extend the NEGF-DFT framework to device simulations involving large number of atoms. Our first algorithm offers an alternative to the usual evaluation of the equilibrium part of electron density via numerical contour integration of the retarded Green function in the upper complex half-plane. It is based on the replacement of the Fermi function f(E) with an analytic function f˜(E) coinciding with f(E) inside the integration range along the real axis, but decaying exponentially in the upper complex half-plane. Although f˜(E) has infinite number of poles, whose positions and residues are determined analytically, only a finite number of those poles have non-negligible residues. We also discuss how this algorithm can be extended to compute the nonequilibrium contribution to electron density, thereby evading cumbersome real-axis integration (within the bias voltage window) of NEGFs which is very difficult to converge for systems with large number of atoms while maintaining current conservation. Our second algorithm combines the recursive formulas with the geometrical partitioning of an arbitrary multiterminal device into nonuniform segments in order to reduce the computational complexity of the retarded Green

  5. Boundary-Layer Transition on Hollow Cylinders in Supersonic Free Flight as Affected by Mach Number and a Screwthread Type of Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Carlton S.

    1959-01-01

    The effects of Mach number and surface-roughness variation on boundary-layer transition were studied using fin-stabilized hollow-tube models in free flight. The tests were conducted over the Mach number range from 2.8 to 7 at a nominally constant unit Reynolds number of 3 million per inch, and with heat transfer to the model surface. A screwthread type of distributed two-dimensional roughness was used. Nominal thread heights varied from 100 microinches to 2100 microinches. Transition Reynolds number was found to increase with increasing Mach number at a rate depending simultaneously on Mach number and roughness height. The laminar boundary layer was found to tolerate increasing amounts of roughness as Mach number increased. For a given Mach number an optimum roughness height was found which gave a maximum laminar run greater than was obtained with a smooth surface.

  6. Minimizing DNA microarrays to a single molecule per spot: using zero-mode waveguide technology to obtain kinetic data for a large number of short oligonucleotide hybridization reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobek, Jens; Rehrauer, Hubert; Kuhn, Gerrit; Schlapbach, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    We have shown recently that the hybridization of short oligonucleotides can be studied in a zero-mode waveguide nanostructure (ZMW) chip using a modified DNA sequencer.[1] Here we present an extension of this method enabling the parallel measurement of kinetic constants of a large number of hybridization reactions on a single chip. This can be achieved by immobilization of a mixture of oligonucleotides, which leads to a statistical and random distribution of single molecules in the 150'000 ZMWs of a SMRT™ cell. This setup is comparable to a classical microarray with ZMWs in place of spots but unknown allocation of probes. The probe surface density is reduced by a factor of ~1010 allowing the study of hybridization in the absence of interactions with neighboring probes. Hybridization with a dye labelled oligonucleotide results in trains of fluorescence pulses from which interpulse durations (IPDs) and pulse widths (PWs) can be extracted. Since the identity of a probe in a ZMW is unknown, the immobilized oligonucleotide is sequenced in a subsequent step. After mapping the fluorescence traces to the sequence, the association and dissociation rate constant for each oligonucleotide can be calculated. By selecting suitable probes, the method can be used to determine rate constants of hybridization for a large number of mismatch oligonucleotides in a single measurement and at single-molecule level.

  7. The two-phase method for finding a great number of eigenpairs of the symmetric or weakly non-symmetric large eigenvalue problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arczewski, Krzysztof; Dul, Franciszek A.

    1994-03-01

    In this paper a new two-phase subspace iteration/Rayleigh quotient/conjugate gradient method for generalized, large, symmetric eigenproblems Ax = lambda Bx is presented. It has the ability of solving extremely large eigenproblems, N = 216,000, for example, and finding a large number of leftmost or rightmost eigenpairs, up to 1000 or more. Multiple eigenpairs, even those with multiplicity 100, can be easily found. The use of the proposed method for solving the big full eigenproblems N approximately 10(exp 3), as well as for large weakly non-symmetric eigenproblems, have been considered also. The proposed method is fully iterative; thus the factorization of matrices is avoided. The key idea consists in joining two methods: subspace and Rayleigh quotient iterations. The systems of indefinite and almost singular linear equations (A - sigma B)x = By are solved by various iterative conjugate gradient/Lanczos methods. It will be shown that the standard conjugate gradient method can be used without danger of breaking down due to its property that may be called 'self-correction towards the eigenvector,' discovered recently by us. The use of various preconditions (SSOR and IC) has also been considered. The main features of the proposed method have been analyzed in detail. Comparisons with other methods, such as, accelerated subspace iteration, Lanczos, Davidson, TLIME, TRACMN, and SRQMCG, are presented. The results of numerical tests for various physical problems (acoustic, vibrations of structures, quantum chemistry) are presented as well. The final conclusion is that our new method is usually much faster than other iterative methods, especially for very large eigenproblems arising from 3D elliptic or biharmonic problems defined on irregular, multiply-connected domains, discretized by the finite element (FEM) or finite difference (FDM) methods.

  8. Study of 3-D Dynamic Roughness Effects on Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil Using Large Eddy Simulations at Low Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guda, Venkata Subba Sai Satish

    There have been several advancements in the aerospace industry in areas of design such as aerodynamics, designs, controls and propulsion; all aimed at one common goal i.e. increasing efficiency --range and scope of operation with lesser fuel consumption. Several methods of flow control have been tried. Some were successful, some failed and many were termed as impractical. The low Reynolds number regime of 104 - 105 is a very interesting range. Flow physics in this range are quite different than those of higher Reynolds number range. Mid and high altitude UAV's, MAV's, sailplanes, jet engine fan blades, inboard helicopter rotor blades and wind turbine rotors are some of the aerodynamic applications that fall in this range. The current study deals with using dynamic roughness as a means of flow control over a NACA 0012 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers. Dynamic 3-D surface roughness elements on an airfoil placed near the leading edge aim at increasing the efficiency by suppressing the effects of leading edge separation like leading edge stall by delaying or totally eliminating flow separation. A numerical study of the above method has been carried out by means of a Large Eddy Simulation, a mathematical model for turbulence in Computational Fluid Dynamics, owing to the highly unsteady nature of the flow. A user defined function has been developed for the 3-D dynamic roughness element motion. Results from simulations have been compared to those from experimental PIV data. Large eddy simulations have relatively well captured the leading edge stall. For the clean cases, i.e. with the DR not actuated, the LES was able to reproduce experimental results in a reasonable fashion. However DR simulation results show that it fails to reattach the flow and suppress flow separation compared to experiments. Several novel techniques of grid design and hump creation are introduced through this study.

  9. Quantum state tomography of large nuclear spins in a semiconductor quantum well: Optimal robustness against errors as quantified by condition numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranowicz, Adam; Ã-zdemir, Şahin K.; Bajer, Jiří; Yusa, Go; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Hirayama, Yoshiro; Nori, Franco

    2015-08-01

    We discuss methods of quantum state tomography for solid-state systems with a large nuclear spin I =3 /2 in nanometer-scale semiconductors devices based on a quantum well. Due to quadrupolar interactions, the Zeeman levels of these nuclear-spin devices become nonequidistant, forming a controllable four-level quantum system (known as quartit or ququart). The occupation of these levels can be selectively and coherently manipulated by multiphoton transitions using the techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) [Yusa et al., Nature (London) 434, 1001 (2005), 10.1038/nature03456]. These methods are based on an unconventional approach to NMR, where the longitudinal magnetization Mz is directly measured. This is in contrast to the standard NMR experiments and tomographic methods, where the transverse magnetization Mx y is detected. The robustness against errors in the measured data is analyzed by using the condition number based on the spectral norm. We propose several methods with optimized sets of rotations yielding the highest robustness against errors, as described by the condition number equal to 1, assuming an ideal experimental detection. This robustness is only slightly deteriorated, as given by the condition number equal to 1.05, for a more realistic "noisy" Mz detection based on the standard cyclically ordered phase sequence (CYCLOPS) method.

  10. Historical changes in the annual number of large floods in near-natural catchments across North America and Europe, 1931-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkins, Glenn; Whitfield, Paul; Hannaford, Jamie; Burn, Donald; Renard, Benjamin; Stahl, Kerstin; Fleig, Anne; Madsen, Henrik; Mediero, Luis; Korhonen, Johanna; Murphy, Conor; Crochet, Philippe; Wilson, Donna

    2014-05-01

    Previous investigations have analyzed historical changes in low magnitude floods, such as the annual peak flow, at regional or national scales. These investigations often use catchments where streamflows have been influenced by human alterations such as reservoir regulation or urbanization. No known studies have analyzed changes in large floods (greater than 25-year return period floods) at a continental scale for near-natural catchments. To fill this research gap, this study analyzed flood flows from reference hydrologic networks (RHNs) or RHN-like gauges in North America (United States and Canada) and Europe (United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland). RHNs are formally defined networks in several countries that comprise gauges with a natural or near-natural flow regime and that provide good quality data. Selected RHN-like gauges were included following a major effort to ensure RHN-like status through consultation with local experts. Some 1206 study gauges met near-natural and completeness criteria for 1961-2010 and 322 gauges met criteria for 1931-2010. Peak flows with recurrence intervals of 25, 50, and 100 years were estimated using the generalized extreme-value distribution and L-moments, and peak flows at each gauge that exceeded these flood thresholds in each year were compiled. Continental and regional trends over time in the annual number of large floods, including groups differentiated by catchment size and major Köppen-Geiger climate group, are being computed and will be presented at EGU. Plots will also show the decadal variability in the annual number of large floods. The unique dataset used for this study is an example of successful international collaboration on hydro-climatic data exchange, which is potentially a step towards establishing RHN or RHN-like networks and analyzing near-natural streamflows on a global scale.

  11. Numbers in Action

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; Sartori, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Humans show a remarkable tendency to describe and think of numbers as being placed on a mental number line (MNL), with smaller numbers located on the left and larger ones on the right. Faster responses to small numbers are indeed performed on the left side of space, while responses to large numbers are facilitated on the right side of space (spatial-numerical association of response codes, SNARC effect). This phenomenon is considered the experimental demonstration of the MNL and has been extensively replicated throughout a variety of paradigms. Nevertheless, the majority of previous literature has mainly investigated this effect by means of response times and accuracy, whereas studies considering more subtle and automatic measures such as kinematic parameters are rare (e.g., in a reaching-to-grasp movement, the grip aperture is enlarged in responding to larger numbers than in responding to small numbers). In this brief review we suggest that numerical magnitude can also affect the what and how of action execution (i.e., temporal and spatial components of movement). This evidence could have large implications in the strongly debated issue concerning the effect of experience and culture on the orientation of MNL. PMID:27524965

  12. Ion-kinetic simulations of D-3He gas-filled inertial confinement fusion target implosions with moderate to large Knudsen number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larroche, O.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Hoffman, N. M.; Atzeni, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Séguin, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Experiments designed to investigate the transition to non-collisional behavior in D3He-gas inertial confinement fusion target implosions display increasingly large discrepancies with respect to simulations by standard hydrodynamics codes as the expected ion mean-free-paths λc increase with respect to the target radius R (i.e., when the Knudsen number NK=λc/R grows). To take properly into account large NK's, multi-ion-species Vlasov-Fokker-Planck computations of the inner gas in the capsules have been performed, for two different values of NK, one moderate and one large. The results, including nuclear yield, reactivity-weighted ion temperatures, nuclear emissivities, and surface brightness, have been compared with the experimental data and with the results of hydrodynamical simulations, some of which include an ad hoc modeling of kinetic effects. The experimental results are quite accurately rendered by the kinetic calculations in the smaller-NK case, much better than by the hydrodynamical calculations. The kinetic effects at play in this case are thus correctly understood. However, in the higher-NK case, the agreement is much worse. The remaining discrepancies are shown to arise from kinetic phenomena (e.g., inter-species diffusion) occurring at the gas-pusher interface, which should be investigated in the future work.

  13. Ion-kinetic simulations of D-3He gas-filled inertial confinement fusion target implosions with moderate to large Knudsen number

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Larroche, O.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Hoffman, N. M.; Atzeni, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Seguin, F. H.

    2016-01-06

    Experiments designed to investigate the transition to non-collisional behavior in D3He-gas inertial confinement fusion target implosions display increasingly large discrepancies with respect to simulations by standard hydrodynamics codes as the expected ion mean-free-paths λc increase with respect to the target radius R (i.e., when the Knudsen number NK = λc/R grows). To take properly into account large NK's, multi-ion-species Vlasov-Fokker-Planck computations of the inner gas in the capsules have been performed, for two different values of NK, one moderate and one large. The results, including nuclear yield, reactivity-weighted ion temperatures, nuclear emissivities, and surface brightness, have been compared with themore » experimental data and with the results of hydrodynamical simulations, some of which include an ad hocmodeling of kinetic effects. The experimental results are quite accurately rendered by the kinetic calculations in the smaller-NK case, much better than by the hydrodynamical calculations. The kinetic effects at play in this case are thus correctly understood. However, in the higher-NK case, the agreement is much worse. Furthermore, the remaining discrepancies are shown to arise from kinetic phenomena (e.g., inter-species diffusion) occurring at the gas-pusher interface, which should be investigated in the future work.« less

  14. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed

  15. Large-eddy simulation of the flow and acoustic fields of a Reynolds number 105 subsonic jet with tripped exit boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogey, Christophe; Marsden, Olivier; Bailly, Christophe

    2011-03-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LESs) of isothermal round jets at a Mach number of 0.9 and a diameter-based Reynolds number ReD of 105 originating from a pipe are performed using low-dissipation schemes in combination with relaxation filtering. The aim is to carefully examine the capability of LES to compute the flow and acoustic fields of initially nominally turbulent jets. As in experiments on laboratory-scale jets, the boundary layers inside the pipe are tripped in order to obtain laminar mean exit velocity profiles with high perturbation levels. At the pipe outlet, their momentum thickness is δθ(0)=0.018 times the jet radius, yielding a Reynolds number Reθ=900, and peak turbulence intensities are around 9% of the jet velocity. Two methods of boundary-layer tripping and five grids are considered. The results are found to vary negligibly with the tripping procedure but appreciably with the grid resolution. Based on analyses of the LES quality and on comparisons with measurements at high Reynolds numbers, fine discretizations appear necessary in the three coordinate directions over the entire jet flow. The final LES carried out using 252×106 points with minimum radial, azimuthal, and axial mesh spacings, respectively, of 0.20, 0.34, and 0.40×δθ(0) is also shown to provide shear-layer solutions that are practically grid converged and, more generally, results that can be regarded as numerically accurate as well as physically relevant. They suggest that the mixing-layer development in the present tripped jet, while exhibiting a wide range of turbulent scales, is characterized by persistent coherent vortex pairings.

  16. Aerodynamic Effects of Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade with Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie Brynn; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The high turbulence study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for ten incidence angles ranging from +15.8 to 51.0. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12105 to 2.12106 and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 0.25 - 0.4 for the low Tu tests and 8- 15 for the high Tu study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitchyaw probe located in a survey plane 7 axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At the extreme positive and negative incidence angles, the data show substantial differences in the exit flow field. These differences are attributable to both the higher inlet Tu directly and to the thinner inlet endwall

  17. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart Ec of... - Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c(a)(1) and (2) 1A Table 1A to Subpart Ec of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Ec of... - Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c(a)(3) and (4) 1B Table 1B to Subpart Ec of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW...

  19. Changes in the number and timing of days of ice-affected flow on northern New England rivers, 1930-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, G.A.; Dudley, R.W.; Huntington, T.G.

    2005-01-01

    Historical dates of ice-affected flows for 16 rural, unregulated rivers in northern New England, USA were analyzed. The total annual days of ice-affected flow decreased significantly (p < 0.1) over the 20th century at 12 of the 16 rivers. On average, for the nine longest-record rivers, the total annual days of ice-affected flow decreased by 20 days from 1936 to 2000, with most of the decrease occurring from the 1960s to 2000. Four of the 16 rivers had significantly later first dates of ice-affected flow in the fall. Twelve of the 16 rivers had significantly earlier last dates of ice-affected flow in the spring. On average, the last dates became earlier by 11 days from 1936 to 2000 with most of the change occurring from the 1960s to 2000. The total annual days of ice-affected flow were significantly correlated with November through April air temperatures (r = -0.70) and with November through April precipitation (r = -0.52). The last spring dates were significantly correlated with March through April air temperatures (r = -0.73) and with January through April precipitation (r = -0.37). March mean river flows increased significantly at 13 of the 16 rivers in this study. ?? Springer 2005.

  20. A study of the effectiveness of machine learning methods for classification of clinical interview fragments into a large number of categories.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Mehedi; Kotov, Alexander; Idalski Carcone, April; Dong, Ming; Naar, Sylvie; Brogan Hartlieb, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of state-of-the-art supervised machine learning methods in conjunction with different feature types for the task of automatic annotation of fragments of clinical text based on codebooks with a large number of categories. We used a collection of motivational interview transcripts consisting of 11,353 utterances, which were manually annotated by two human coders as the gold standard, and experimented with state-of-art classifiers, including Naïve Bayes, J48 Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), AdaBoost, DiscLDA, Conditional Random Fields (CRF) and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) in conjunction with lexical, contextual (label of the previous utterance) and semantic (distribution of words in the utterance across the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count dictionaries) features. We found out that, when the number of classes is large, the performance of CNN and CRF is inferior to SVM. When only lexical features were used, interview transcripts were automatically annotated by SVM with the highest classification accuracy among all classifiers of 70.8%, 61% and 53.7% based on the codebooks consisting of 17, 20 and 41 codes, respectively. Using contextual and semantic features, as well as their combination, in addition to lexical ones, improved the accuracy of SVM for annotation of utterances in motivational interview transcripts with a codebook consisting of 17 classes to 71.5%, 74.2%, and 75.1%, respectively. Our results demonstrate the potential of using machine learning methods in conjunction with lexical, semantic and contextual features for automatic annotation of clinical interview transcripts with near-human accuracy. PMID:27185608

  1. Nonperfect mixing affects synchronization on a large number of chemical oscillators immersed in a chemically active time-dependent chaotic flow.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Muñuzuri, V; Garaboa-Paz, D; Muñuzuri, A P

    2016-07-01

    The problem of synchronization of finite-size chemical oscillators described by active inertial particles is addressed for situations in which they are immersed in a reacting nonstationary chaotic flow. Active substances in the fluid will be modeled by Lagrangian particles closely following the fluid streamlines. Their interaction with the active inertial particles as well as the properties of the fluid dynamics will result in modifying the synchronization state of the chemical oscillators. This behavior is studied in terms of the exchange rate between the Lagrangian and inertial particles, and the finite-time Lyapunov exponents characterizing the flow. The coherence of the population of oscillators is determined by means of the order parameter introduced by Kuramoto. The different dynamics observed for the inertial particles (chemical oscillators) and Lagrangian particles (describing chemicals in the flow) lead to nonlinear interactions and patches of synchronized regions within the domain. PMID:27575213

  2. Nonperfect mixing affects synchronization on a large number of chemical oscillators immersed in a chemically active time-dependent chaotic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Muñuzuri, V.; Garaboa-Paz, D.; Muñuzuri, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    The problem of synchronization of finite-size chemical oscillators described by active inertial particles is addressed for situations in which they are immersed in a reacting nonstationary chaotic flow. Active substances in the fluid will be modeled by Lagrangian particles closely following the fluid streamlines. Their interaction with the active inertial particles as well as the properties of the fluid dynamics will result in modifying the synchronization state of the chemical oscillators. This behavior is studied in terms of the exchange rate between the Lagrangian and inertial particles, and the finite-time Lyapunov exponents characterizing the flow. The coherence of the population of oscillators is determined by means of the order parameter introduced by Kuramoto. The different dynamics observed for the inertial particles (chemical oscillators) and Lagrangian particles (describing chemicals in the flow) lead to nonlinear interactions and patches of synchronized regions within the domain.

  3. The radial transmission line as a broad-band shielded exposure system for microwave irradiation of large numbers of culture flasks.

    PubMed

    Moros, E G; Straube, W L; Pickard, W F

    1999-01-01

    The problem of simultaneously exposing large numbers of culture flasks at nominally equivalent incident power densities and with good thermal control is considered, and the radial transmission line (RTL) is proposed as a solution. The electromagnetic design of this structure is discussed, and an extensively bench-tested realization is described. Referred to 1 W of net forward power, the following specific absorption rate (SAR) data were obtained: at 835.62 MHz, 16.0+/-2.5 mW/kg (mean+/-SD) with range (11-22); at 2450 MHz, 245+/-50 mW/kg with range (130-323). Radio-frequency interference from an RTL driven at roughly 100 W is so low as to be compatible with a cellular base station only 500 m distant. To avoid potential confounding by temperature differences among as many as 144 T-75 flasks distributed over 9 RTLs (six irradiates and three shams), temperature within all flasks was controlled to 37.0+/-0.3 degrees C. Experience with over two years of trouble-free operation suggests that the RTL offers a robust, logistically friendly, and environmentally satisfactory solution to the problem of large-scale in vitro experiments in bioelectromagnetics. PMID:10029133

  4. Melanocytes Affect Nodal Expression and Signaling in Melanoma Cells: A Lesson from Pediatric Large Congenital Melanocytic Nevi

    PubMed Central

    Margaryan, Naira V.; Gilgur, Alina; Seftor, Elisabeth A.; Purnell, Chad; Arva, Nicoleta C.; Gosain, Arun K.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Strizzi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Expression of Nodal, a Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) related growth factor, is associated with aggressive melanoma. Nodal expression in adult dysplastic nevi may predict the development of aggressive melanoma in some patients. A subset of pediatric patients diagnosed with giant or large congenital melanocytic nevi (LCMN) has shown increased risk for development of melanoma. Here, we investigate whether Nodal expression can help identify the rare cases of LCMN that develop melanoma and shed light on why the majority of these patients do not. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining results show varying degree of Nodal expression in pediatric dysplastic nevi and LCMN. Moreover, median scores from Nodal IHC expression analysis were not significantly different between these two groups. Additionally, none of the LCMN patients in this study developed melanoma, regardless of Nodal IHC levels. Co-culture experiments revealed reduced tumor growth and lower levels of Nodal and its signaling molecules P-SMAD2 and P-ERK1/2 when melanoma cells were grown in vivo or in vitro with normal melanocytes. The same was observed in melanoma cells cultured with melanocyte conditioned media containing pigmented melanocyte derived melanosomes (MDM). Since MDM contain molecules capable of inactivating radical oxygen species, to investigate potential anti-oxidant effect of MDM on Nodal expression and signaling in melanoma, melanoma cells were treated with either N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a component of the anti-oxidant glutathione or synthetic melanin, which in addition to providing pigmentation can also exert free radical scavenging activity. Melanoma cells treated with NAC or synthetic melanin showed reduced levels of Nodal, P-SMAD2 and P-ERK1/2 compared to untreated melanoma cells. Thus, the potential role for Nodal in melanoma development in LCMN is less evident than in adult dysplastic nevi possibly due to melanocyte cross-talk in LCMN capable of offsetting or delaying the pro

  5. Mapping the end points of large deletions affecting the hprt locus in human peripheral blood cells and cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.L.; Grosovsky, A.J.; Jones, I.M.; Burkhart-Schultz, K.; Fuscoe, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the extent of of HPRT{sup {minus}} total gene deletions in three mutant collections: spontaneous and X-ray-induced deletions in TK6 human B lymphoblasts, and HPRT{sup {minus}} deletions arising in vivo in T cells. A set of 13 Xq26 STS markers surrounding hprt and spanning approximately 3.3 Mb was used. Each marker used was observed to be missing in at least one of the hprt deletion mutants analyzed. The largest deletion observed encompassed at least 3 Mb. Nine deletions extended outside of the mapped region in the centromeric direction (>1.7 Mb). In contrast, only two telomeric deletions extended to marker 342R (1.26 Mb), and both exhibited slowed or limited cell growth. These data suggest the existence of a gene, within the vicinity of 342R, which establishes the telomeric limit of recoverable deletions. Most (25/41) X-ray-induced total gene deletion mutants exhibited marker loss, but only 1/8 of the spontaneous deletions encompassed any Xq26 markers (P = 0.0187). Furthermore, nearly half (3/8) of the spontaneous 3{prime} total deletion breakpoints were within 14 kb of the hprt coding sequence. In contrast, 40/41 X-ray-induced HPRT{sup {minus}} total deletions extended beyond this point (P = 0.011). Although the overall representation of total gene deletions in the in vivo spectrum is low, 4/5 encompass Xq26 markers flanking hprt. This pattern differs significantly from spontaneous HPRT{sup {minus}} large deletions occurring in vitro (P = 0.032) but resembles the spectrum of X-ray-induced deletions. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. PMA/IONO affects diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell growth through upregulation of A20 expression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenxiu; Li, Yi; Li, Pinhao; Wang, Lingling

    2016-08-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A20 and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) are known to be related to DLBCL pathogenesis and progression. This study aimed to assess the effects of phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin (PMA/IONO) on the growth and apoptosis of the DLBCL cell line OCI-LY1, and their associations with A20, MALT1 and survivin levels. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were evaluated using flow cytometry after incubation with Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) and RNase/PI, respectively. Gene and protein expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. To further determine the role of A20, this gene was silenced in the OCI-LY1 cell line by specific siRNA transfection. A20 protein levels were higher in the OCI-LY1 cells treated with PMA/IONO compared with the controls, and were positively correlated with the concentration and treatment time of IONO, but not with changes of PMA and MALT1. Meanwhile, survivin expression was reduced in the OCI-LY1 cells after PMA/IONO treatment. In addition, OCI-LY1 proliferation was markedly inhibited, with a negative correlation between cell viability and IONO concentration. In concordance, apoptosis rates were higher in the OCI-LY1 cells after PMA + IONO treatment. Cell cycle distribution differed between the OCI-LY1 cells with and without PMA/IONO treatment only at 24 h, with increased cells in the G0/G1 stage after PMA/IONO treatment. These findings indicate that PMA/IONO promotes the apoptosis and inhibits the growth of DLBCL cells, in association with A20 upregulation. Thus, A20 may be a potential therapeutic target for DLBCL. PMID:27349720

  7. Melanocytes Affect Nodal Expression and Signaling in Melanoma Cells: A Lesson from Pediatric Large Congenital Melanocytic Nevi.

    PubMed

    Margaryan, Naira V; Gilgur, Alina; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Purnell, Chad; Arva, Nicoleta C; Gosain, Arun K; Hendrix, Mary J C; Strizzi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Expression of Nodal, a Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) related growth factor, is associated with aggressive melanoma. Nodal expression in adult dysplastic nevi may predict the development of aggressive melanoma in some patients. A subset of pediatric patients diagnosed with giant or large congenital melanocytic nevi (LCMN) has shown increased risk for development of melanoma. Here, we investigate whether Nodal expression can help identify the rare cases of LCMN that develop melanoma and shed light on why the majority of these patients do not. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining results show varying degree of Nodal expression in pediatric dysplastic nevi and LCMN. Moreover, median scores from Nodal IHC expression analysis were not significantly different between these two groups. Additionally, none of the LCMN patients in this study developed melanoma, regardless of Nodal IHC levels. Co-culture experiments revealed reduced tumor growth and lower levels of Nodal and its signaling molecules P-SMAD2 and P-ERK1/2 when melanoma cells were grown in vivo or in vitro with normal melanocytes. The same was observed in melanoma cells cultured with melanocyte conditioned media containing pigmented melanocyte derived melanosomes (MDM). Since MDM contain molecules capable of inactivating radical oxygen species, to investigate potential anti-oxidant effect of MDM on Nodal expression and signaling in melanoma, melanoma cells were treated with either N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a component of the anti-oxidant glutathione or synthetic melanin, which in addition to providing pigmentation can also exert free radical scavenging activity. Melanoma cells treated with NAC or synthetic melanin showed reduced levels of Nodal, P-SMAD2 and P-ERK1/2 compared to untreated melanoma cells. Thus, the potential role for Nodal in melanoma development in LCMN is less evident than in adult dysplastic nevi possibly due to melanocyte cross-talk in LCMN capable of offsetting or delaying the pro

  8. Dynamics of Rear Stagnant Cap formation at the surface of spherical bubbles rising in surfactant solutions at large Reynolds numbers under conditions of small Marangoni number and slow sorption kinetics.

    PubMed

    Dukhin, S S; Kovalchuk, V I; Gochev, G G; Lotfi, M; Krzan, M; Malysa, K; Miller, R

    2015-08-01

    On the surface of bubbles rising in a surfactant solution the adsorption process proceeds and leads to the formation of a so called Rear Stagnant Cap (RSC). The larger this RSC is the stronger is the retardation of the rising velocity. The theory of a steady RSC and steady retarded rising velocity, which sets in after a transient stage, has been generally accepted. However, a non-steady process of bubble rising starting from the initial zero velocity represents an important portion of the trajectory of rising, characterized by a local velocity profile (LVP). As there is no theory of RSC growth for large Reynolds numbers Re » 1 so far, the interpretation of LVPs measured in this regime was impossible. It turned out, that an analytical theory for a quasi-steady growth of RSC is possible for small Marangoni numbers Ma « 1, i.e. when the RSC is almost completely compressed, which means a uniform surface concentration Γ(θ)=Γ(∞) within the RSC. Hence, the RSC angle ψ(t) is obtained as a function of the adsorption isotherm parameters and time t. From the steady velocity v(st)(ψ), the dependence of non-steady velocity on time is obtained by employing v(st)[ψ(t)] via a quasi-steady approximation. The measurement of LVP creates a promising new opportunity for investigation of the RSC dynamics and adsorption kinetics. While adsorption and desorption happen at the same localization in the classical methods, in rising bubble experiments desorption occurs mainly within RSC while adsorption on the mobile part of the bubble surface. The desorption flux from RSC is proportional to αΓ(∞), while it is usually αΓ. The adsorption flux at the mobile surface above RSC can be assumed proportional to βC0, while it is usually βC0(1-Γ/Γ(∞)). These simplifications may become favorable in investigations of the adsorption kinetics for larger molecules, in particular for globular proteins, which essentially stay at an interface once adsorbed. PMID:25455807

  9. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    SciTech Connect

    Grilo, Clara; Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy

    2015-11-15

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into account

  10. Influences of a Socially Interactive Robot on the Affective Behavior of Young Children with Disabilities. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    Findings from two studies of 11 young children with autism, Down syndrome, or attention deficit disorders investigating the effects of Popchilla, a socially interactive robot, on the children's affective behavior are reported. The children were observed under two conditions, child-toy interactions and child-robot interactions, and ratings of child…

  11. Copy Number Variation of CCL3-like Genes Affects Rate of Progression to Simian-AIDS in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; de Candia, Paola; Chabot, Adrien; Schwartz, Stuart; Henderson, Les; Ling, Binhua; Hunter, Meredith; Jiang, Zhaoshi; Palermo, Robert E.; Katze, Michael; Eichler, Evan E.; Ventura, Mario; Rogers, Jeffrey; Marx, Preston

    2009-01-01

    Variation in genes underlying host immunity can lead to marked differences in susceptibility to HIV infection among humans. Despite heavy reliance on non-human primates as models for HIV/AIDS, little is known about which host factors are shared and which are unique to a given primate lineage. Here, we investigate whether copy number variation (CNV) at CCL3-like genes (CCL3L), a key genetic host factor for HIV/AIDS susceptibility and cell-mediated immune response in humans, is also a determinant of time until onset of simian-AIDS in rhesus macaques. Using a retrospective study of 57 rhesus macaques experimentally infected with SIVmac, we find that CCL3L CNV explains approximately 18% of the variance in time to simian-AIDS (p<0.001) with lower CCL3L copy number associating with more rapid disease course. We also find that CCL3L copy number varies significantly (p<10−6) among rhesus subpopulations, with Indian-origin macaques having, on average, half as many CCL3L gene copies as Chinese-origin macaques. Lastly, we confirm that CCL3L shows variable copy number in humans and chimpanzees and report on CCL3L CNV within and among three additional primate species. On the basis of our findings we suggest that (1) the difference in population level copy number may explain previously reported observations of longer post-infection survivorship of Chinese-origin rhesus macaques, (2) stratification by CCL3L copy number in rhesus SIV vaccine trials will increase power and reduce noise due to non-vaccine-related differences in survival, and (3) CCL3L CNV is an ancestral component of the primate immune response and, therefore, copy number variation has not been driven by HIV or SIV per se. PMID:19165326

  12. Does diabetes affect the distribution and number of interstitial cells and neuronal tissue in the ureter, bladder, prostate, and urethra of humans?

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Hayriye; Kandemir, Olcay; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Akbulut, Ziya; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the distribution and number of interstitial cells (ICs) and neuronal tissue in the ureter, bladder, prostate, and urethra of human patients with and without diabetes. Material and methods Human tissue was obtained from patients who had undergone radical cystectomy for bladder cancer (10 diabetic and 11 non–diabetic males). Interstitial cells were stained immunohistochemically with anti–human CD117 (c–kit) rabbit polyclonal antibody, Vimentin, and Connexin–43. Neural tissue was stained with synaptophysin. The number of ICs and neurons was evaluated and compared between the groups (diabetic versus non–diabetic). Results The mean number of c–kit (+) ICs in bladder lamina propria was significantly decreased in diabetics (32.40 ±12.96 versus 57.18 ±25.37, p = 0.036). The mean number of ICs in the detrusor muscle was significantly decreased in diabetics (40.50 ±16.79 versus 64.55 ±22.08, p = 0.013). Between the groups, no significant differences were detected regarding the number of ICs at the level of the ureter, urethra, and prostate. No significant differences were detected regarding the number of nerves in the ureter, bladder, prostate, and urethra of both groups. Conclusions The number of ICs may be decreased in the lamina propria and detrusor muscle of the human bladder in diabetes. This can be an underlying cause of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction in diabetics. Research into the development of drugs targeting or stimulating IC function in order to prevent diabetic LUT dysfunction is warranted. PMID:25667756

  13. Diet selection variation of a large herbivore in a feeding experiment with increasing species numbers and different plant functional group combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Deli; Liu, Jushan; Huang, Yue; Hodgkinson, Ken C.

    2011-05-01

    The grazing of domestic herbivores affects the biodiversity of rangeland. Knowledge on the feedback of changed plant diversity on diet selection by domestic herbivores is poor even though it is at the core of the effects of herbivores on biodiversity of rangeland. We investigated the influence of increasing species numbers and different plant functional group combinations on the dynamics of diet preference and foraging selectivity by sheep. Sheep were given 16 consecutive meals at each sequential level of plant species richness. Three combinations of species, selected for functional types, were presented to sheep. The results showed that sheep did not usually maintain stable diet preference patterns for the 16 consecutive meals of the plant species combinations offered. The magnitude of meal to meal variation in the preference index for each species increased significantly with plant species richness. There was no obvious effect of post-ingestive learning on the meal variation in diet preference. The magnitude of sheep foraging selectivity within each meal significantly reduced with plant species richness. These results indicated that, when plant diversity was high, the diet selection pattern of herbivore may be more beneficial to maintaining high plant diversity. Thus, there may be a weak positive feedback between plant species richness and herbivore foraging. We suggested that increasing plant diversity, especially for plant functional group diversity, can reduce herbivore selectivity and promote more uniform use of different plant species in rangeland.

  14. The twofold difference in adult size between the red junglefowl and White Leghorn chickens is largely explained by a limited number of QTLs.

    PubMed

    Kerje, S; Carlborg, O; Jacobsson, L; Schütz, K; Hartmann, C; Jensen, P; Andersson, L

    2003-08-01

    A large intercross between the domestic White Leghorn chicken and the wild ancestor, the red junglefowl, has been used in a Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) study of growth and egg production. The linkage map based on 105 marker loci was in good agreement with the chicken consensus map. The growth of the 851 F2 individuals was lower than both parental lines prior to 46 days of age and intermediate to the two parental lines thereafter. The QTL analysis of growth traits revealed 13 loci that showed genome-wide significance. The four major growth QTLs explained 50 and 80% of the difference in adult body weight between the founder populations for females and males, respectively. A major QTL for growth, located on chromosome 1 appears to have pleiotropic effects on feed consumption, egg production and behaviour. There was a strong positive correlation between adult body weight and average egg weight. However, three QTLs affecting average egg weight but not body weight were identified. An interesting observation was that the estimated effects for the four major growth QTLs all indicated a codominant inheritance. PMID:12873214

  15. Quiescent Galaxies in the 3D-HST Survey: Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Large Number of Galaxies With Relatively Old Stellar Populations at z Approx. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tease, Katherine Whitaker; vanDokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Skelton, Rosalind; Franx, Marijin; Kriek, Mariska; Labbe, Ivo; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt F.; Nelson, Erica J.; Patel, Shannon G.; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2013-01-01

    Quiescent galaxies at z approx. 2 have been identified in large numbers based on rest-frame colors, but only a small number of these galaxies have been spectroscopically confirmed to show that their rest-frame optical spectra show either strong Balmer or metal absorption lines. Here, we median stack the rest-frame optical spectra for 171 photometrically quiescent galaxies at 1.4 < z < 2.2 from the 3D-HST grism survey. In addition to H (4861 ),we unambiguously identify metal absorption lines in the stacked spectrum, including the G band (4304 ),Mgi (5175 ), and Na i (5894 ). This finding demonstrates that galaxies with relatively old stellar populations already existed when the universe was approx. 3 Gyr old, and that rest-frame color selection techniques can efficiently select them. We find an average age of 1.3+0.10.3 Gyr when fitting a simple stellar population to the entire stack. We confirm our previous result from medium-band photometry that the stellar age varies with the colors of quiescent galaxies: the reddest 80 of galaxies are dominated by metal lines and have a relatively old mean age of 1.6+0.50.4 Gyr, whereas the bluest (and brightest) galaxies have strong Balmer lines and a spectroscopic age of 0.9+0.20.1 Gyr. Although the spectrum is dominated by an evolved stellar population, we also find [O iii] and H emission. Interestingly, this emission is more centrally concentrated than the continuum with LOiii = 1.7+/- 0.3 x 10(exp 40) erg/s, indicating residual central star formation or nuclear activity.

  16. Quiescent Galaxies in the 3D-HST Survey: Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Large Number of Galaxies with Relatively Old Stellar Populations at Z approx. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tease, Katherine Whitaker; VanDokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Skelton, Rosalind; Franx, Marijn; Kriek, Mariska; Labbe, Ivo; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt F.; Nelson, Erica J.; Patel, Shannon G.; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2013-01-01

    Quiescent galaxies at zeta approximately 2 have been identified in large numbers based on rest-frame colors, but only a small number of these galaxies have been spectroscopically confirmed to show that their rest-frame optical spectra show either strong Balmer or metal absorption lines. Here, we median stack the rest-frame optical spectra for 171 photometrically quiescent galaxies at 1.4 less than z less than 2.2 from the 3D-HST grism survey. In addition to H(Beta) (lambda 4861 Angstroms), we unambiguously identify metal absorption lines in the stacked spectrum, including the G band (lambda 4304 Angstroms), Mg I (lambda 5175 Angstroms), and Na i (lambda 5894 Angstroms). This finding demonstrates that galaxies with relatively old stellar populations already existed when the universe was approximately 3 Gyr old, and that rest-frame color selection techniques can efficiently select them. We find an average age of 1.3(+0.1/-0.3) Gyr when fitting a simple stellar population to the entire stack. We confirm our previous result from medium-band photometry that the stellar age varies with the colors of quiescent galaxies: the reddest 80% of galaxies are dominated by metal lines and have a relatively old mean age of 1.6(+0.5/-0.4) Gyr, whereas the bluest (and brightest) galaxies have strong Balmer lines and a spectroscopic age of 0.9(+0.2/-0.1) Gyr. Although the spectrum is dominated by an evolved stellar population, we also find [O III] and Hß emission. Interestingly, this emission is more centrally concentrated than the continuum with L(sub OIII) = 1.7 +/- 0.3 × 10(exp 40 erg s-1, indicating residual central star formation or nuclear activity.

  17. Integrated copy number and gene expression profiling analysis of Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Heejei; Park, Sanghui; Ju, Hyunjeong; Ha, Sang Yun; Sohn, InSuk; Jo, Jisuk; Do, In-Gu; Min, Sookee; Kim, Seok Jin; Kim, Won Seog; Yoo, Hae Yong; Ko, Young Hyeh

    2015-06-01

    Viral oncogenes and host immunosenescence have been suggested as causes of Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV + DLBCL) of the elderly. To investigate the molecular genetic basis of immune evasion and tumor outgrowth, we analyzed copy number alterations (CNAs) and gene expression profiles in EBV + DLBCL samples compared with EBV - DLBCL. There were relatively few genomic alterations in EBV + DLBCL compared with those detected in EBV-negative DLBCL. The most frequent CNAs (>30%) in EBV + DLBCLs were gains at 1q23.2-23.3, 1q23.3, 1q32.1, 5p15.3, 8q22.3, 8q24.1-24.2, and 9p24.1; losses at 6q27, 7q11.2, and 7q36.2-36.3 were also recurrent. A gene expression profile analysis identified the host immune response as a key molecular signature in EBV + DLBCL. Antiviral response genes, proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines associated with the innate immune response were overexpressed, indicating the presence of a virusinduced inflammatory microenvironment. Genes associated with the B-cell receptor signaling pathway were downregulated. An integrated analysis indicated that SLAMF1 and PDL2 were key targets of the gains detected at 1q23.2-23.3 and 9p24.1. The chromosomal gain at 9p24.1 was associated with poor overall survival. Taken together, our results led to the identification of recurrent copy number alterations and distinct gene expression associated with the host immune response in EBV + DLBCL. We suggest that the upregulation of PDL2 on 9p24.1 promotes immune evasion and is associated with poor prognosis in EBV + DLBCL. PMID:25832818

  18. QUIESCENT GALAXIES IN THE 3D-HST SURVEY: SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF A LARGE NUMBER OF GALAXIES WITH RELATIVELY OLD STELLAR POPULATIONS AT z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Skelton, Rosalind; Nelson, Erica J.; Brammer, Gabriel; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon G.; Kriek, Mariska; Lundgren, Britt F.; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2013-06-20

    Quiescent galaxies at z {approx} 2 have been identified in large numbers based on rest-frame colors, but only a small number of these galaxies have been spectroscopically confirmed to show that their rest-frame optical spectra show either strong Balmer or metal absorption lines. Here, we median stack the rest-frame optical spectra for 171 photometrically quiescent galaxies at 1.4 < z < 2.2 from the 3D-HST grism survey. In addition to H{beta} ({lambda}4861 A), we unambiguously identify metal absorption lines in the stacked spectrum, including the G band ({lambda}4304 A), Mg I ({lambda}5175 A), and Na I ({lambda}5894 A). This finding demonstrates that galaxies with relatively old stellar populations already existed when the universe was {approx}3 Gyr old, and that rest-frame color selection techniques can efficiently select them. We find an average age of 1.3{sup +0.1}{sub -0.3} Gyr when fitting a simple stellar population to the entire stack. We confirm our previous result from medium-band photometry that the stellar age varies with the colors of quiescent galaxies: the reddest 80% of galaxies are dominated by metal lines and have a relatively old mean age of 1.6{sup +0.5}{sub -0.4} Gyr, whereas the bluest (and brightest) galaxies have strong Balmer lines and a spectroscopic age of 0.9{sup +0.2}{sub -0.1} Gyr. Although the spectrum is dominated by an evolved stellar population, we also find [O III] and H{beta} emission. Interestingly, this emission is more centrally concentrated than the continuum with L{sub OIII}=1.7{+-}0.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}, indicating residual central star formation or nuclear activity.

  19. Chorionicity and Heritability Estimates from Twin Studies: The Prenatal Environment of Twins and Their Resemblance Across a Large Number of Traits.

    PubMed

    van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Overbeek, L I H; Rozendaal, L; McMaster, M T B; Glasner, T J; Bartels, M; Vink, J M; Martin, N G; Dolan, C V; Boomsma, D I

    2016-05-01

    There are three types of monozygotic (MZ) twins. MZ twins can either share one chorion and one amnion, each twin can have its own amnion, or MZ twins can-like dizygotic twins-each have their own chorion and amnion. Sharing the same chorion may create a more similar/dissimilar prenatal environment and bias heritability estimates, but most twin studies do not distinguish between these three types of MZ twin pairs. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of chorion sharing on the similarity within MZ twin pairs for a large number of traits. Information on chorion status was obtained for the Netherlands twin register (NTR) by linkage to the records from the database of the dutch pathological anatomy national automated archive (PALGA). Record linkage was successful for over 9000 pairs. Effect of chorion type was tested by comparing the within-pair similarity between monochorionic (MC) and dichorionic (DC) MZ twins on 66 traits including weight, height, motor milestones, child problem behaviors, cognitive function, wellbeing and personality. For only 10 traits, within-pair similarity differed between MCMZ and DCMZ pairs. For traits influenced by birth weight (e.g. weight and height in young children) we expected that MC twins would be more discordant. This was found for 5 out of 13 measures. When looking at traits where blood supply is important, we saw MCMZ twins to be more concordant than DCMZ's for 3 traits. We conclude that the influence on the MZ twin correlation of the intra-uterine prenatal environment, as measured by sharing a chorion type, is small and limited to a few phenotypes. This implies that the assumption of equal prenatal environment of mono- and DC MZ twins, which characterizes the classical twin design, is largely tenable. PMID:26410687

  20. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  1. Children Affected by AIDS in Brazil: Estimates of the Number of Children at Risk of Being Orphaned and Displaced by AIDS in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Miguel B.; Hillis, Janette; Wasek, Glenn K.

    1998-01-01

    Estimated the number of Brazilian children under 14 whose mothers are HIV-positive, living with AIDS, or dead due to AIDS. Found that of the 210,150 children, 17,600 were HIV-positive Findings underscore the urgent need for new programs to increase the longevity of persons with AIDS and to decrease the likelihood of child displacement and severe…

  2. Pressure and Force Characteristics of Noncircular Cylinders as Affected by Reynolds Number with a Method Included for Determining the Potential Flow About Arbitrary Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, Edward C.; Geller, Edward W.; Grunwald, Kalman J.

    1959-01-01

    The low-speed pressure-distribution and force characteristics of several noncircular two-dimensional cylinders were measured in wind tunnel through a range of Reynolds numbers and flow incidences. A method of determining the potential-flow pressure distribution for arbitrary cross sections is described. Application of the data in predicting the spin characteristics of fuselages is briefly discussed.

  3. 70 Years of Sunspot Observations at the Kanzelhöhe Observatory: Systematic Study of Parameters Affecting the Derivation of the Relative Sunspot Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pötzi, Werner; Veronig, Astrid M.; Temmer, Manuela; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Freislich, Heinrich; Strutzmann, Heinz

    2016-03-01

    The Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO) was founded during World War II by the Deutsche Luftwaffe (German Airforce) as one station of a network of observatories that were set up to provide information on solar activity in order to better assess the actual conditions of the Earth's ionosphere in terms of radio-wave propagation. Solar observations began in 1943 with photographs of the photosphere and drawings of sunspots, plage regions, and faculae, as well as patrol observations of the solar corona. At the beginning, all data were sent to Freiburg (Germany). After WW II, international cooperation was established and the data were sent to Zurich, Paris, Moscow, and Greenwich. Relative sunspot numbers have been derived since 1944. The agreement between relative sunspot numbers derived at KSO and the new International Sunspot Number (ISN) (SILSO World Data Center in International Sunspot Number Monthly Bulletin and online catalogue, 1945 - 2015) lies within {≈} 10 %. However, revisiting the historical data, we also find periods with larger deviations. The reasons for the deviations were twofold: On the one hand, a major instrumental change took place during which the instrument was relocated and modified. On the other hand, a period of frequent replacements of personnel caused significant deviations; this clearly shows the importance of experienced observers. In the long term, the instrumental improvements led to better image quality. Additionally, we find a long-term trend towards better seeing conditions that began in 2000.

  4. Studies of a Large Odd‐Numbered Odd‐Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8Mn

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J.; Barker, Claire; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U.; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Möller, Johannes S.; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L.; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna‐Piggott, Philip L. W.; Vitorica‐Yrezabal, Iñigo J.; Timco, Grigore A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The spin dynamics of Cr8Mn, a nine‐membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8Mn is a rare example of a large odd‐membered AF ring, and has an odd‐number of 3d‐electrons present. Odd‐membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated‐spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground‐spin‐state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin‐pair correlations and scalar‐spin chirality, shows a non‐collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non‐planar states of opposite chiralities. PMID:26748964

  5. Correlation between the structural and cathodoluminescence properties in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with large number of quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Degang Jiang, Desheng; Chen, Ping; Zhu, Jianjun; Liu, Zongshun; Le, Lingcong; He, Xiaoguang; Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hui; Jahn, Uwe

    2014-09-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics on 30-period InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cell structures are investigated, revealing the relationship between optical and structural properties of the MQW structures with a large number of quantum wells. In the bottom MQW layers, a blueshift of CL peak along the growth direction is found and attributed to the decrease of indium content due to the compositional pulling effect. An obvious split of emission peak and a redshift of the main emission energy are found in the top MQW layers when the MQW grows above the critical layer thickness. They are attributed to the segregation of In-rich InGaN clusters rather than the increase of indium content in quantum well layer. The MQW structure is identified to consist of two regions: a strained one in the bottom, where the indium content is gradually decreased, and a partly relaxed one in the top with segregated In-rich InGaN clusters.

  6. Studies of a Large Odd-Numbered Odd-Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8 Mn.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-26

    The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities. PMID:26748964

  7. Large number of putative chemoreception and pheromone biosynthesis genes revealed by analyzing transcriptome from ovipositor-pheromone glands of Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yi-Han; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Hou, Xiao-Qing; Li, Fei; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The chemoreception role of moth ovipositor has long been suggested, but its molecular mechanism is mostly unknown. By transcriptomic analysis of the female ovipositor-pheromone glands (OV-PG) of Chilo suppressalis, we obtained 31 putative chemoreception genes (9 OBPs, 10 CSPs, 2 ORs, 1 SNMP, 8 CXEs and 1 AOX), in addition to 32 genes related to sex pheromone biosynthesis (1 FAS, 6 Dess, 10 FARs, 2 ACOs, 1 ACC, 4 FATPs, 3 ACBPs and 5 ELOs). Tissue expression profiles further revealed that CsupCSP2 and CsupCSP10 were OV-PG biased, while most chemoreception genes were highly and preferably expressed in antennae. This suggests that OV-PG employs mostly the same chemoreception proteins as in antennae, although the physiological roles of these proteins might be different in OV-PG. Of the 32 pheromone biosynthesis related genes, CsupDes4, CsupDes5 and CsupFAR2 are strongly OV-PG biased, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, strongly indicating their involvement in specific step of the pheromone biosynthesis. Our study for the first time identified a large number of putative chemoreception genes, and provided an important basis for exploring the chemoreception mechanisms of OV-PG in C. suppressalis, as well as other moth species. PMID:25601555

  8. The use of mass spectrometry for analysing metabolite biomarkers in epidemiology: methodological and statistical considerations for application to large numbers of biological samples.

    PubMed

    Lind, Mads V; Savolainen, Otto I; Ross, Alastair B

    2016-08-01

    Data quality is critical for epidemiology, and as scientific understanding expands, the range of data available for epidemiological studies and the types of tools used for measurement have also expanded. It is essential for the epidemiologist to have a grasp of the issues involved with different measurement tools. One tool that is increasingly being used for measuring biomarkers in epidemiological cohorts is mass spectrometry (MS), because of the high specificity and sensitivity of MS-based methods and the expanding range of biomarkers that can be measured. Further, the ability of MS to quantify many biomarkers simultaneously is advantageously compared to single biomarker methods. However, as with all methods used to measure biomarkers, there are a number of pitfalls to consider which may have an impact on results when used in epidemiology. In this review we discuss the use of MS for biomarker analyses, focusing on metabolites and their application and potential issues related to large-scale epidemiology studies, the use of MS "omics" approaches for biomarker discovery and how MS-based results can be used for increasing biological knowledge gained from epidemiological studies. Better understanding of the possibilities and possible problems related to MS-based measurements will help the epidemiologist in their discussions with analytical chemists and lead to the use of the most appropriate statistical tools for these data. PMID:27230258

  9. The application of the central limit theorem and the law of large numbers to facial soft tissue depths: T-Table robustness and trends since 2008.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Carl N

    2014-03-01

    By pooling independent study means (x¯), the T-Tables use the central limit theorem and law of large numbers to average out study-specific sampling bias and instrument errors and, in turn, triangulate upon human population means (μ). Since their first publication in 2008, new data from >2660 adults have been collected (c.30% of the original sample) making a review of the T-Table's robustness timely. Updated grand means show that the new data have negligible impact on the previously published statistics: maximum change = 1.7 mm at gonion; and ≤1 mm at 93% of all landmarks measured. This confirms the utility of the 2008 T-Table as a proxy to soft tissue depth population means and, together with updated sample sizes (8851 individuals at pogonion), earmarks the 2013 T-Table as the premier mean facial soft tissue depth standard for craniofacial identification casework. The utility of the T-Table, in comparison with shorths and 75-shormaxes, is also discussed. PMID:24313424

  10. Does the number of cancer patients’ close social ties affect cancer-related information seeking through communication efficacy? Testing a mediation model

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Nehama; Martinez, Lourdes S.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether having a broad social network of close friends equips cancer patients with increased efficacy to engage in communication about their cancer, which then leads to an increased likelihood of patients’ actively seeking cancer-related information. Guided by the theory of motivated information management (TMIM: Afifi & Weiner, 2006), the study also tests whether the effect of the number of close social ties on information seeking is mediated, in part, by communication efficacy. Results are based on data collected from a randomly drawn sample from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry of 2,013 cancer patients who completed mail surveys in the Fall of 2006. Results are consistent with a cross-sectional mediation effect in which the number of close social ties in one’s social network is positively associated with communication efficacy (b = .17, p = .001), which, in turn, is positively associated with cancer-related information seeking (b = .13, p < .001). PMID:24673194

  11. Does the number of cancer patients' close social ties affect cancer-related information seeking through communication efficacy? Testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nehama; Martinez, Lourdes S

    2014-09-01

    This study addresses whether having a broad social network of close friends equips cancer patients with increased efficacy to engage in communication about their cancer, which then leads to an increased likelihood of patients actively seeking cancer-related information. Guided by the theory of motivated information management, the study also tests whether the effect of the number of close social ties on information seeking is mediated, in part, by communication efficacy. Results are based on data collected from a randomly drawn sample from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry of 2,013 cancer patients who completed mail surveys in the Fall of 2006. Results are consistent with a cross-sectional mediation effect in which the number of close social ties in one's social network is positively associated with communication efficacy (b = .17, p = .001), which, in turn, is positively associated with cancer-related information seeking (b = .13, p < .001). PMID:24673194

  12. Does Choice of Head Size and Neck Geometry Affect Stem Migration in Modular Large-Diameter Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Preliminary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, CS; Evangelou, KG; Theodorou, EG; Provatidis, CG; Megas, PD

    2012-01-01

    Due to their theoretical advantages, hip systems combining modular necks and large diameter femoral heads have gradually gained popularity. However, among others, concerns regarding changes in the load transfer patterns were raised. Recent stress analyses have indeed shown that the use of modular necks and big femoral heads causes significant changes in the strain distribution along the femur. Our original hypothesis was that these changes may affect early distal migration of a modular stem. We examined the effect of head diameter and neck geometry on migration at two years of follow-up in a case series of 116 patients (125 hips), who have undergone primary Metal-on-Metal total hip arthroplasty with the modular grit-blasted Profemur®E stem combined with large-diameter heads (>36 mm). We found that choice of neck geometry and head diameter has no effect on stem migration. A multivariate regression analysis including the potential confounding variables of the body mass index, bone quality, canal fill and stem positioning revealed only a negative correlation between subsidence and canal fill in midstem area. Statistical analysis, despite its limitations, did not confirm our hypothesis that choice of neck geometry and/or head diameter affects early distal migration of a modular stem. However, the importance of correct stem sizing was revealed. PMID:23284597

  13. The effects of Reynolds number, rotor incidence angle, and surface roughness on the heat transfer distribution in a large-scale turbine rotor passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, Michael F.; Anderson, Olof L.

    1989-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational program was conducted to examine the heat transfer distribution in a turbine rotor passage geometrically similiar to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP). Heat transfer was measured and computed for both the full-span suction and pressure surfaces of the rotor airfoil as well as for the hub endwall surface. The primary objective of the program was to provide a benchmark-quality data base for the assessment of rotor passage heat transfer computational procedures. The experimental portion of the study was conducted in a large-scale, ambient temperature, rotating turbine model. Heat transfer data were obtained using thermocouple and liquid-crystal techniques to measure temperature distributions on the thin, electrically-heated skin of the rotor passage model. Test data were obtained for various combinations of Reynolds number, rotor incidence angle and model surface roughness. The data are reported in the form of contour maps of Stanton number. These heat distribution maps revealed numerous local effects produced by the three-dimensional flows within the rotor passage. Of particular importance were regions of local enhancement produced on the airfoil suction surface by the main-passage and tip-leakage vortices and on the hub endwall by the leading-edge horseshoe vortex system. The computational portion consisted of the application of a well-posed parabolized Navier-Stokes analysis to the calculation of the three-dimensional viscous flow through ducts simulating the a gas turbine passage. These cases include a 90 deg turning duct, a gas turbine cascade simulating a stator passage, and a gas turbine rotor passage including Coriolis forces. The calculated results were evaluated using experimental data of the three-dimensional velocity fields, wall static pressures, and wall heat transfer on the suction surface of the turbine airfoil and on the end wall. Particular attention was paid to an

  14. The design for off-axis multimirror optical system with large field and small F number using coaxial assembly of two mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Yan, Shi-qiang; Pei, Yun-tian; Hu, Lei; Xu, Song

    2012-09-01

    The reflection optical system gets more and more attention nowadays owing to without chromatic aberration and small volume. The manufacturing and assembly/calibration technology for the coaxial reflection optical system is more mature relative to the other reflection optical systems. But the coaxial reflection optical system will obstruct the incidence ray especially when the field is large, which will reduce the energy entering the optical system and reduce the resolution. The off-axis Three-Mirror Optical Systems can conquer those disadvantages of the coaxial reflection optical system, however the manufacturing and assembly/calibration for the off-axis Optical Systems is very difficult which must use computer-aided technology. The manufacturing and assembly/calibration technology is the main bottleneck for the off-axis Optical Systems to the engineering application. The Author of this thesis researched the design theory of the Three-Mirror Optical System, and then schemed out off-axis Three-Mirror and Multi-Mirror Optical System smartly using coaxial two-mirror optical structure which conquers the disadvantage of small field and possesses of the all advantages of the coaxial reflection optical system. This new optical system has two mirrors, one of which is a parabolic mirror with high-order aspheric term and the other is a hyperboloid mirror with high-order aspheric term. The characteristics of this new optical system are as follows: the F Number is 1.25, the field of view is 2°×2° and the total length is only 115mm with coaxial assembly of the two mirrors.

  15. Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis Reveals Chromosomal Copy Number Aberrations Associated with Clinical Outcome in Canine Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bresolin, Silvia; Marconato, Laura; Comazzi, Stefano; Te Kronnie, Geertruy; Aresu, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Canine Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (cDLBCL) is an aggressive cancer with variable clinical response. Despite recent attempts by gene expression profiling to identify the dog as a potential animal model for human DLBCL, this tumor remains biologically heterogeneous with no prognostic biomarkers to predict prognosis. The aim of this work was to identify copy number aberrations (CNAs) by high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in 12 dogs with newly diagnosed DLBCL. In a subset of these dogs, the genetic profiles at the end of therapy and at relapse were also assessed. In primary DLBCLs, 90 different genomic imbalances were counted, consisting of 46 gains and 44 losses. Two gains in chr13 were significantly correlated with clinical stage. In addition, specific regions of gains and losses were significantly associated to duration of remission. In primary DLBCLs, individual variability was found, however 14 recurrent CNAs (>30%) were identified. Losses involving IGK, IGL and IGH were always found, and gains along the length of chr13 and chr31 were often observed (>41%). In these segments, MYC, LDHB, HSF1, KIT and PDGFRα are annotated. At the end of therapy, dogs in remission showed four new CNAs, whereas three new CNAs were observed in dogs at relapse compared with the previous profiles. One ex novo CNA, involving TCR, was present in dogs in remission after therapy, possibly induced by the autologous vaccine. Overall, aCGH identified small CNAs associated with outcome, which, along with future expression studies, may reveal target genes relevant to cDLBCL. PMID:25372838

  16. Antibiotics conspicuously affect community profiles and richness, but not the density of bacterial cells associated with mucosa in the large and small intestines of mice.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Nathan J; Uwiera, Richard R E; Yanke, L Jay; Selinger, L Brent; Inglis, G Douglas

    2012-02-01

    The influence of three antibiotics (bacitracin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin sulfate) on the mucosa-associated enteric microbiota and the intestines of mice was examined. Antibiotics caused conspicuous enlargement of ceca and an increase in overall length of the intestine. However, there were no pathologic changes associated with increased cecal size or length of the intestine. Conspicuous reductions in the richness of mucosa-associated bacteria and changes to community profiles within the small (duodenum, proximal jejunum, middle jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum) and large (cecum, ascending colon, and descending colon) intestine occurred in mice administered antibiotics. Communities in antibiotic-treated mice were dominated by a limited number of Clostridium-like (i.e. clostridial cluster XIVa) and Bacteroides species. The richness of mucosa-associated communities within the small and large intestine increased during the 14-day recovery period. However, community profiles within the large intestine did not return to baseline (i.e. relative to the control). Although antibiotic administration greatly reduced bacterial richness, densities of mucosa-associated bacteria were not reduced correspondingly. These data showed that the antibiotics, bacitracin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin sulfate, administered for 21 days to mice did not sterilize the intestine, but did impart a tremendous and prolonged impact on mucosa-associated bacterial communities throughout the small and large intestine. PMID:22185696

  17. Anti tumour necrosis-α therapy increases the number of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in children affected by Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ricciardelli, Ida; Lindley, Keith J; Londei, Marco; Quaratino, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Its pathogenesis is not completely understood, though the prevailing model is that the intestinal flora drives a strong intestinal T helper 1 (Th1)/Th17 type immune response and inflammation in the genetically susceptible host. This leads to overly aggressive T-cell responses to normal bacteria causing tissue damage. Intestinal homeostasis and maintenance of tolerance to harmless antigens in the intestine has been shown to be maintained by CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells (Treg) in animal models of inflammatory bowel diseases. Here we investigated whether Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α shown to be highly effective in the treatment of CD, has any effect on mucosal CD4+ CD25+ (FOXP3+) Tregs. Colonic mucosal biopsies from children with active Crohn's disease treated in vivo with Infliximab and controls were analysed to determine FOXP3 expression by immunofluorescence and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. We observed that FOXP3+ T cells were significantly reduced in mucosa of CD patients with active disease compared with controls and restored to normal following Infliximab treatment. The frequency of FOXP3+ cells and mRNA expression was significantly increased in CD mucosa from patients treated in vivo with Infliximab compared with CD patients treated with conventional therapies. In conclusion, we show that Infliximab treatment does not solely neutralize soluble TNF-α, but also affects activation and possibly expansion of mucosal regulatory T cells. We suggest that anti TNF-α immunotherapy can also restore mucosal homeostasis in Crohn's disease. PMID:18422560

  18. Increased total number of genetic aberrations and changes affecting specific chromosomal regions may underlie prostate cancer recurrence and development of hormone-independent growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hyytinen, E.; Visakorpi, T.; Kallioniemi, A.

    1994-09-01

    At the time of diagnosis, prostate carcinomas are often rather slowly proliferating and shows a favorable response to anti-androgen treatment. However, often the tumors metastasize or recur locally and thereafter show an aggressive behavior and rapid growth despite of the endocrine therapy. In order to understand the genetic basis of this change in phenotype and clinical behavior, we used comparative genomic hybridization to analyze for losses and gains of DNA sequences along all human chromosomes in primary prostate carcinomas as well as in local recurrencies during hormonal therapy. The total number of genetic changes in 9 recurrences was almost three times higher than that observed in 31 primary prostate carcinomas. Whereas gains and amplifications were only seen in 6/31 primary tumors, all recurrences showed gains of at least one chromosomal site. Gain of 8q was seen at 89% of recurrences as compared to 6% in the primary tumors. Other prominent increases of prevalence were +X (56% vs. 0%), +7 (50% vs. 6%), and 8p- (78% vs. 32%). In one case where DNA was available from both the primary tumor and recurrence of the same patient, appearance of some of these gains during tumor progression was validated. Analysis of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues by CGH is in progress and will make it possible to extensively compare genetic changes between the primary tumor and its local recurrence or metastasis.

  19. [Hereditary amyloid cardiomyopathy related to a mutation at transthyretin protein number 111. A clinical, genetic and echocardiographic study of an affected Danish family].

    PubMed

    Svendsen, I H; Steensgaard-Hansen, F; Nordvåg, B Y

    1999-09-01

    Amyloidosis is a group of diseases characterized by amyloid deposition in various tissues. The diseases can roughly be divided into hereditary and non-hereditary forms. The hereditary forms are related to a mutation in the serum protein transthyretin which is produced mainly in the liver. The inheritance is autosomal dominant. A family in Denmark has earlier been described as having inherited cardiac amyloidosis with a mutation at amino acid number 111 in the transthyretin protein. The family now has been re-examined because of new diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities. The aims of the study were to identify carriers and non-carriers of the mutant transthyretin methionine 111 linked familial amyloid disease, to detect early signs of the restrictive cardiomyopathy and other clinical manifestations of this disease. Clinical, echocardiographic and genetic examination was carried out. Out of 125 living family members, 99 were available for examination. Twenty-five persons were heterozygous carriers of the mutant transthyretin methionine 111 genotype, while 74 were non-carriers. Eight carriers, all above the age of 35, showed echocardiographic abnormalities suggestive of developing or manifest restrictive cardiomyopathy. Nine carriers had carpal tunnel syndrome as opposed to none of the non-carriers. It is concluded that for early detection of familial amyloid cardiomyopathy, echocardiography is the investigation of choice. The first sign is diastolic dysfunction detected as an abnormal relaxation pattern. Carpal tunnel syndrome appears to be the earliest presenting clinical symptom. Early liver transplantation seems to be curative. PMID:10489791

  20. Cell number and chondrogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cell aggregates is affected by the sulfation level of heparin used as a cell coating.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jennifer; Trevino, Elda; Temenoff, Johnna

    2016-07-01

    For particular cell-based therapies, it may be required to culture mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) aggregates with growth factors to promote cell proliferation and/or differentiation. Heparin, a negatively charged glycosaminoglycan (GAG) is known to play an important role in sequestration of positively charged growth factors and, when incorporated within cellular aggregates, could be used to promote local availability of growth factors. We have developed a heparin-based cell coating and we believe that the electrostatic interaction between native heparin and the positively charged growth factors will result in (1) higher cell number in response to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and 2) greater chondrogenic differentiation in response to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), compared to a desulfated heparin coating. Results revealed that in the presence of FGF-2, by day 14, heparin-coated MSC aggregates increased in DNA content 8.5 ± 1.6 fold compared to day 1, which was greater than noncoated and desulfated heparin-coated aggregates. In contrast, when cultured in the presence of TGF-β1, by day 21, desulfated heparin-coated aggregates upregulated gene expression of collagen II by 86.5 ± 7.5 fold and collagen X by 37.1 ± 4.7 fold, which was higher than that recorded in the noncoated and heparin-coated aggregates. These observations indicate that this coating technology represents a versatile platform to design MSC culture systems with pairings of GAGs and growth factors that can be tailored to overcome specific challenges in scale-up and culture for MSC-based therapeutics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1817-1829, 2016. PMID:26990913

  1. On the calculation of line strengths, oscillator strengths and lifetimes for very large principal quantum numbers in hydrogenic atoms and ions by the McLean-Watson formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    As a sequel to an earlier study (Hey 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 125701), we consider further the application of the line strength formula derived by Watson (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 L291) to transitions arising from states of very high principal quantum number in hydrogenic atoms and ions (Rydberg-Rydberg transitions, n > 1000). It is shown how apparent difficulties associated with the use of recurrence relations, derived (Hey 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 2641) by the ladder operator technique of Infeld and Hull (1951 Rev. Mod. Phys. 23 21), may be eliminated by a very simple numerical device, whereby this method may readily be applied up to n ≈ 10 000. Beyond this range, programming of the method may entail greater care and complexity. The use of the numerically efficient McLean-Watson formula for such cases is again illustrated by the determination of radiative lifetimes and comparison of present results with those from an asymptotic formula. The question of the influence on the results of the omission or inclusion of fine structure is considered by comparison with calculations based on the standard Condon-Shortley line strength formula. Interest in this work on the radial matrix elements for large n and n‧ is related to measurements of radio recombination lines from tenuous space plasmas, e.g. Stepkin et al (2007 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 374 852), Bell et al (2011 Astrophys. Space Sci. 333 377), to the calculation of electron impact broadening parameters for such spectra (Watson 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 1889) and comparison with other theoretical methods (Peach 2014 Adv. Space Res. in press), to the modelling of physical processes in H II regions (Roshi et al 2012 Astrophys. J. 749 49), and the evaluation bound-bound transitions from states of high n during primordial cosmological recombination (Grin and Hirata 2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 083005, Ali-Haïmoud and Hirata 2010 Phys. Rev. D 82 063521, Ali

  2. Directed evolution reveals the binding motif preference of the LC8/DYNLL hub protein and predicts large numbers of novel binders in the human proteome.

    PubMed

    Rapali, Péter; Radnai, László; Süveges, Dániel; Harmat, Veronika; Tölgyesi, Ferenc; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y; Katona, Gergely; Nyitray, László; Pál, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    LC8 dynein light chain (DYNLL) is a eukaryotic hub protein that is thought to function as a dimerization engine. Its interacting partners are involved in a wide range of cellular functions. In its dozens of hitherto identified binding partners DYNLL binds to a linear peptide segment. The known segments define a loosely characterized binding motif: [D/S](-4)K(-3)X(-2)[T/V/I](-1)Q(0)[T/V](1)[D/E](2). The motifs are localized in disordered segments of the DYNLL-binding proteins and are often flanked by coiled coil or other potential dimerization domains. Based on a directed evolution approach, here we provide the first quantitative characterization of the binding preference of the DYNLL binding site. We displayed on M13 phage a naïve peptide library with seven fully randomized positions around a fixed, naturally conserved glutamine. The peptides were presented in a bivalent manner fused to a leucine zipper mimicking the natural dimer to dimer binding stoichiometry of DYNLL-partner complexes. The phage-selected consensus sequence V(-5)S(-4)R(-3)G(-2)T(-1)Q(0)T(1)E(2) resembles the natural one, but is extended by an additional N-terminal valine, which increases the affinity of the monomeric peptide twentyfold. Leu-zipper dimerization increases the affinity into the subnanomolar range. By comparing crystal structures of an SRGTQTE-DYNLL and a dimeric VSRGTQTE-DYNLL complex we find that the affinity enhancing valine is accommodated in a binding pocket on DYNLL. Based on the in vitro evolved sequence pattern we predict a large number of novel DYNLL binding partners in the human proteome. Among these EML3, a microtubule-binding protein involved in mitosis contains an exact match of the phage-evolved consensus and binds to DYNLL with nanomolar affinity. These results significantly widen the scope of the human interactome around DYNLL and will certainly shed more light on the biological functions and organizing role of DYNLL in the human and other eukaryotic interactomes

  3. Directed Evolution Reveals the Binding Motif Preference of the LC8/DYNLL Hub Protein and Predicts Large Numbers of Novel Binders in the Human Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Rapali, Péter; Radnai, László; Süveges, Dániel; Harmat, Veronika; Tölgyesi, Ferenc; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y.; Katona, Gergely; Nyitray, László; Pál, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    LC8 dynein light chain (DYNLL) is a eukaryotic hub protein that is thought to function as a dimerization engine. Its interacting partners are involved in a wide range of cellular functions. In its dozens of hitherto identified binding partners DYNLL binds to a linear peptide segment. The known segments define a loosely characterized binding motif: [D/S]-4K-3X-2[T/V/I]-1Q0[T/V]1[D/E]2. The motifs are localized in disordered segments of the DYNLL-binding proteins and are often flanked by coiled coil or other potential dimerization domains. Based on a directed evolution approach, here we provide the first quantitative characterization of the binding preference of the DYNLL binding site. We displayed on M13 phage a naïve peptide library with seven fully randomized positions around a fixed, naturally conserved glutamine. The peptides were presented in a bivalent manner fused to a leucine zipper mimicking the natural dimer to dimer binding stoichiometry of DYNLL-partner complexes. The phage-selected consensus sequence V-5S-4R-3G-2T-1Q0T1E2 resembles the natural one, but is extended by an additional N-terminal valine, which increases the affinity of the monomeric peptide twentyfold. Leu-zipper dimerization increases the affinity into the subnanomolar range. By comparing crystal structures of an SRGTQTE-DYNLL and a dimeric VSRGTQTE-DYNLL complex we find that the affinity enhancing valine is accommodated in a binding pocket on DYNLL. Based on the in vitro evolved sequence pattern we predict a large number of novel DYNLL binding partners in the human proteome. Among these EML3, a microtubule-binding protein involved in mitosis contains an exact match of the phage-evolved consensus and binds to DYNLL with nanomolar affinity. These results significantly widen the scope of the human interactome around DYNLL and will certainly shed more light on the biological functions and organizing role of DYNLL in the human and other eukaryotic interactomes. PMID:21533121

  4. pH gradients and a micro-pore filter at the luminal surface affect fluxes of propionic acid across guinea pig large intestine.

    PubMed

    Busche, Roger; von Engelhardt, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    A neutral pH microclimate had been shown at the luminal surface of the large intestine. The aim was to estimate to what extent fluxes of propionic acid/propionate are affected by changes of the luminal pH when this microclimate is present, largely reduced or absent. Fluxes of propionic acid/propionate (J(Pr)) across epithelia from the caecum, the proximal and the distal colon of guinea pigs were measured in Ussing chambers with and without a filter at the luminal surface. With bicarbonate and with a neutral or an acid pH of mucosal solutions (pH 7.4 or 6.4), mucosal-to-serosal fluxes (J(ms)(Pr) ) were 1.5 to 1.9-fold higher at the lower pH, in bicarbonate-free solutions and carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition 2.1 to 2.6-fold. With a filter at the mucosal surface and with bicarbonate containing solutions, J (ms) (Pr) was not or only little elevated at the lower pH. Without bicarbonate J(ms)(Pr) was clearly higher. We conclude that the higher J(ms)(Pr) after luminal acidification is due to vigorous mixing in Ussing chambers resulting in a markedly reduced unstirred layer. Therefore, an effective pH microclimate at the epithelial surface is missing. J(ms)(Pr) is not or is little affected by lowering of pH because in the presence of bicarbonate the filter maintains the pH microclimate. However, in bicarbonate-free solutions J(ms)(Pr) was higher at pH 6.4 because a pH microclimate does not develop. Findings confirm that 30-60% of J(ms)(Pr) results from non-ionic diffusion. PMID:17639416

  5. How the FSH/LH ratio and dose numbers in the p-FSH administration treatment regimen, and insemination schedule affect superovulatory response in ewes.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A G; Martemucci, G; Taibi, L

    2005-04-01

    We wished to evaluate the effects of FSH/LH ratio and number of doses of p-FSH during a superovulatory treatment on ovulation rate and embryo production (Experiment I). In Experiment II, we studied the efficacy of fertilization after various insemination schedules in superovulated donors. In Experiment I estrus was synchronized in 40 ewes (FGA, for 9 days plus PGF2alpha on Day 7) and the ewes were randomly assigned to four treatment groups as follows (n = 10 ewes each): Group A: four p-FSH doses with the FSH/LH ratio held constant (1.6); Group B: four p-FSH doses with the FSH/LH ratio decreasing (FSH/LH 1.6-1.0-0.6-0.3); Group C: eight p-FSH doses with the FSH/LH ratio held constant (1.6); Group D: eight p-FSH doses and FSH/LH ratio decreasing (1.6-1.6, 1.0-1.0, 0.6-0.6, 0.3-0.3). p-FSH administrations were performed twice daily 12 h apart. The ewes were mated at the onset of estrus and again after 12 and 24 h; then, one ram per four ewes was maintained with the ewes for two additional days. Ovarian response and embryo production were assessed on Day 7 after estrus. Experiment II. Three groups (n = 10 each) of superovulated ewes were inseminated as follows: Group M: mated at onset of estrus; Group AI: artificial insemination 30 h after onset of estrus; M + AI) mating at onset of estrus and intrauterine AI performed 30 h from estrus with fresh semen. Results of Experiment I showed that treatment (D) improved (P < 0.05) ovulatory response in comparison to Groups (C) and (A). The fertilization rate was lower (P < 0.01) in Group D) than Group (A). Also the proportion of transferable embryos was lower in Group (D) in comparison to all the other treatments (P < 0.01). Group A gave the best production of embryos (7.3/ewe; 89.0% transferable). In Experiment II, combined mating plus AI improved fertilization rate (80.3%) compared to both mating (P < 0.01) and AI (P < 0.02) alone. PMID:15763116

  6. Tests of a mixed compression axisymmetric inlet with large transonic mass flow at Mach numbers 0.6 to 2.65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, D. B.; Sorensen, N. E.

    1972-01-01

    A 38.8-cm (15.28-in.) capture diameter model of a mixed-compression axisymmetric inlet system with a translating cowl was designed and tested. The internal contours, designed for Mach number 2.65, provided a throat area of 59 percent of the capture area when the cowl was retracted for transonic operation. Other model features included a boundary-layer removal system, vortex generators, an engine airflow bypass system, cowl support struts, and rotating rakes at the engine face. All tunnel testing was conducted at a tunnel total pressure of about 1 atm (a unit Reynolds number of about 8.53 million/m at Mach number 2.65) at angles of attack from 0 deg to 4 deg. Results for the following were obtained: total-pressure recovery and distortion at the engine face as a function of bleed mass-flow ratio, the effect of bleed and vortex generator configurations on pressure recovery and distortion, inlet tolerance to unstart due to changes in angle of attack or Mach number, surface pressure distributions, boundary-layer profiles, and transonic additive drag. At Mach number 2.65 and with the best bleed configurations, maximum total pressure recovery at the engine face ranged from 91 to 94.5 percent with bleed mass-flow ratios from 4 to 9 percent, respectively, and total-pressure distortion was less than 10 percent. At off-design supersonic Mach numbers above 1.70, maximum total-pressure recoveries and corresponding bleed mass flows were about the same as at Mach number 2.65, with about 10 to 15 percent distortion. In the transonic Mach number range, total pressure recovery was high (above 96 percent) and distortion was low (less than 15 percent) only when the inlet mass-flow ration was reduced 0.02 to 0.06 from the maximum theoretical value (0.590 at Mach number 1.0).

  7. Do we really need a large number of particles to simulate bimolecular reactive transport with random walk methods? A kernel density estimation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbaralam, Maryam; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Random walk particle tracking methods are a computationally efficient family of methods to solve reactive transport problems. While the number of particles in most realistic applications is in the order of 106-109, the number of reactive molecules even in diluted systems might be in the order of fractions of the Avogadro number. Thus, each particle actually represents a group of potentially reactive molecules. The use of a low number of particles may result not only in loss of accuracy, but also may lead to an improper reproduction of the mixing process, limited by diffusion. Recent works have used this effect as a proxy to model incomplete mixing in porous media. In this work, we propose using a Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) of the concentrations that allows getting the expected results for a well-mixed solution with a limited number of particles. The idea consists of treating each particle as a sample drawn from the pool of molecules that it represents; this way, the actual location of a tracked particle is seen as a sample drawn from the density function of the location of molecules represented by that given particle, rigorously represented by a kernel density function. The probability of reaction can be obtained by combining the kernels associated to two potentially reactive particles. We demonstrate that the observed deviation in the reaction vs time curves in numerical experiments reported in the literature could be attributed to the statistical method used to reconstruct concentrations (fixed particle support) from discrete particle distributions, and not to the occurrence of true incomplete mixing. We further explore the evolution of the kernel size with time, linking it to the diffusion process. Our results show that KDEs are powerful tools to improve computational efficiency and robustness in reactive transport simulations, and indicates that incomplete mixing in diluted systems should be modeled based on alternative mechanistic models and not on a

  8. Film Excerpts Shown to Specifically Elicit Various Affects Lead to Overlapping Activation Foci in a Large Set of Symmetrical Brain Regions in Males

    PubMed Central

    Karama, Sherif; Armony, Jorge; Beauregard, Mario

    2011-01-01

    While the limbic system theory continues to be part of common scientific parlance, its validity has been questioned on multiple grounds. Nonetheless, the issue of whether or not there exists a set of brain areas preferentially dedicated to emotional processing remains central within affective neuroscience. Recently, a widespread neural reference space for emotion which includes limbic as well as other regions was characterized in a large meta-analysis. As methodologically heterogeneous studies go into such meta-analyses, showing in an individual study in which all parameters are kept constant, the involvement of overlapping areas for various emotion conditions in keeping with the neural reference space for emotion, would serve as valuable confirmatory evidence. Here, using fMRI, 20 young adult men were scanned while viewing validated neutral and effective emotion-eliciting short film excerpts shown to quickly and specifically elicit disgust, amusement, or sexual arousal. Each emotion-specific run included, in random order, multiple neutral and emotion condition blocks. A stringent conjunction analysis revealed a large overlap across emotion conditions that fit remarkably well with the neural reference space for emotion. This overlap included symmetrical bilateral activation of the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the temporo-occipital junction, the basal ganglia, the brainstem, the amygdala, the hippocampus, the thalamus, the subthalamic nucleus, the posterior hypothalamus, the cerebellum, as well as the frontal operculum extending towards the anterior insula. This study clearly confirms for the visual modality, that processing emotional stimuli leads to widespread increases in activation that cluster within relatively confined areas, regardless of valence. PMID:21818311

  9. TGF-β regulates LARG and GEF-H1 during EMT to affect stiffening response to force and cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Lukas D.; Li, George Z.; How, Tam; O'Brien, E. Tim; Blobe, Gerard C.; Superfine, Richard; Mythreye, Karthikeyan

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies implicate a role for cell mechanics in cancer progression. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulates the detachment of cancer cells from the epithelium and facilitates their invasion into stromal tissue. Although classic EMT hallmarks include loss of cell–cell adhesions, morphology changes, and increased invasion capacity, little is known about the associated mechanical changes. Previously, force application on integrins has been shown to initiate cytoskeletal rearrangements that result in increased cell stiffness and a stiffening response. Here we demonstrate that transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)–induced EMT results in decreased stiffness and loss of the normal stiffening response to force applied on integrins. We find that suppression of the RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) LARG and GEF-H1 through TGF-β/ALK5–enhanced proteasomal degradation mediates these changes in cell mechanics and affects EMT-associated invasion. Taken together, our results reveal a functional connection between attenuated stiffness and stiffening response and the increased invasion capacity acquired after TGF-β–induced EMT. PMID:25143398

  10. Load Frequency Control by use of a Number of Both Heat Pump Water Heaters and Electric Vehicles in Power System with a Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Shimizu, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    In Japan, from the viewpoints of global warming countermeasures and energy security, it is expected to establish a smart grid as a power system into which a large amount of generation from renewable energy sources such as wind power generation and photovoltaic generation can be installed. Measures for the power system stability and reliability are necessary because a large integration of these renewable energy sources causes some problems in power systems, e.g. frequency fluctuation and distribution voltage rise, and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is one of effective solutions to these problems. Due to a high cost of the BESS, our research group has studied an application of controllable loads such as Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) and Electric Vehicle (EV) to the power system control for reduction of the required capacity of BESS. This paper proposes a new coordinated Load Frequency Control (LFC) method for the conventional power plants, the BESS, the HPWHs, and the EVs. The performance of the proposed LFC method is evaluated by the numerical simulations conducted on a power system model with a large integration of wind power generation and photovoltaic generation.

  11. Experimental investigation of free-convection heat transfer in vertical tube at large Grashof numbers / E. R. G. Eckert, A. J. Diaguila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Diaguila, A J

    1952-01-01

    Local free-convection heat-transfer coefficients and temperature fields in the turbulent flow range were obtained within a vertical, stationary tube closed at the boom, heated along its walls, and having a length-to-diameter ratio of 5. Convective heat-transfer coefficients were correlated by the general relations for free-convection heat transfer. These coefficients, converted to dimensionless Nusselt numbers were 35 percent below known relations for vertical flat plates. Air temperature measurements within the tube indicated a thin boundary layer along the heated wall surface and unstable conditions in the air flow.

  12. Story Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swafford, Jane; McGinty, Robert

    1978-01-01

    A concrete approach to prime numbers is presented using rectangles and triangles to construct a building for each number so that each story represents a pair of factors and the triangular-shaped roof represents the number. (MP)

  13. Laminar-to-turbulence and relaminarization zones detection by simulation of low Reynolds number turbulent blood flow in large stenosed arteries.

    PubMed

    Tabe, Reza; Ghalichi, Farzan; Hossainpour, Siamak; Ghasemzadeh, Kamran

    2016-08-12

    Laminar, turbulent, transitional, or combine areas of all three types of viscous flow can occur downstream of a stenosis depending upon the Reynolds number and constriction shape parameter. Neither laminar flow solver nor turbulent models for instance the k-ω (k-omega), k-ε (k-epsilon), RANS or LES are opportune for this type of flow. In the present study attention has been focused vigorously on the effect of the constriction in the flow field with a unique way. It means that the laminar solver was employed from entry up to the beginning of the turbulent shear flow. The turbulent model (k-ω SST Transitional Flows) was utilized from starting of turbulence to relaminarization zone while the laminar model was applied again with onset of the relaminarization district. Stenotic flows, with 50 and 75% cross-sectional area, were simulated at Reynolds numbers range from 500 to 2000 employing FLUENT (v6.3.17). The flow was considered to be steady, axisymmetric, and incompressible. Achieving results were reported as axial velocity, disturbance velocity, wall shear stress and the outcomes were compared with previously experimental and CFD computations. The analogy of axial velocity profiles shows that they are in acceptable compliance with the empirical data. As well as disturbance velocity and wall shear stresses anticipated by this new approach, part by part simulation, are reasonably valid with the acceptable experimental studies. PMID:27567769

  14. Solar and geomagnetic effects on the frequency of atmospheric circulation types over Europe: an analysis based on a large number of classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Recently, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on various aspects of tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter have been recognized. One of our previous studies showed a significant solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types from the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue. Here, we use a large collection of varied classifications of circulation patterns, assembled within the COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" to detect the solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types. The collection contains both objective and subjective classifications. The advantage of this multi-classification approach is that peculiarities or biases of any single classification (catalogue) that might influence the detected solar signal vanish once a large ensemble of classifications is used. We divide winter months (December to March) into three groups according to the mean monthly solar activity, quantified by the F10.7 flux. The three groups correspond to the minima of the 11-year solar cycle, a moderate solar activity, and solar maxima. Within each group, frequencies of occurrence of individual circulation types are calculated. Differences in the occurrence of individual classes between solar activity groups indicate the presence of a solar activity effect on atmospheric circulation over Europe. Statistical significance of these differences is estimated by a block resampling method. The research is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805, and by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

  15. Satellite and ground detection of very dense smoke clouds produced on the islands of the Paraná river delta that affected a large region in Central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipiña, A.; Salum, G. M.; Crinó, E.; Piacentini, R. D.

    2012-03-01

    Intense fires were produced on the Paraná river delta islands, Argentina, during most part of 2008, by a combination of an exceptionally dry period and the farmers' use of a fire land-cleaning technique. In April 2008, those fires significantly affected the nearby regions and their inhabitants, from Rosario city to Buenos Aires mega-city. In this work we present satellite as well as ground Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 550 nm data obtained during the propagation of pollution clouds to the central zone of Argentina. The highest value (1.18) was registered at Buenos Aires by atmospheric remote sensing, using the satellite instrument MODIS/Terra on April 18th 2008 at 10:35 local time (= UT - 3 h). On the same day, ground air quality detectors also measured in this city the highest Total Suspended Particle (TSP) value of the month, 2.02 mg/m3. The AOD(550) daily variation at Rosario Astronomical Observatory, which is located near the Paraná riverside, was derived by combining solar ultraviolet erythemal irradiance data (measured with a YES biometre) with model calculations. On April 25th 2008, from 12:00 to 15:30 local time, a rather high and constant AOD(550) value was registered, with a mean value of (0.90 ± 0.21). Cities located on the side of the Rosario-Buenos Aires highway (San Nicolás, Baradero and San Pedro) were also affected, showing a mean AOD(550) between the Rosario and Buenos Aires values. The particulate matter was collected with gridded samplers placed on the Paraná river islands as well as at the Rosario Observatory. They were analysed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and mainly showed a biological origin. Even if normally large particles travel small distances from the source, organic aerosol in the range of 40-100 μm and complex asymmetric structures were registered several kilometres away from the aerosol sources on the islands. Another event of intense UV index attenuation (98.6%) occurred on September 18th 2008, due to very dense

  16. A vectorized algorithm on the ETA 10-P for molecular dynamics simulation of large number of particles confined in a long cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mościński, J.; Kitowski, J.; Rycerz, Z. A.; Jacobs, P. W. M.

    1989-04-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm suitable for molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulation of particles confined in a cylinder and interacting by short-ranged forces. A procedure for determining neighbours is based on sorting the particles according to values of one coordinate along the axis of a cylinder and gathering the values of the other two coordinates due to indices of the sorted list. In addition to the classical cut-off distance an integer cut-off number is introduced. This and the organization of data structures make that the calculating forces loop is completely vectorized. The algorithm has been devised for the CYBER 205 and ETA 10 computers and is specially efficient for MD simulation in cylindrical micropores.

  17. A modification to linearized theory for prediction of pressure loadings on lifting surfaces at high supersonic Mach numbers and large angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    A new linearized-theory pressure-coefficient formulation was studied. The new formulation is intended to provide more accurate estimates of detailed pressure loadings for improved stability analysis and for analysis of critical structural design conditions. The approach is based on the use of oblique-shock and Prandtl-Meyer expansion relationships for accurate representation of the variation of pressures with surface slopes in two-dimensional flow and linearized-theory perturbation velocities for evaluation of local three-dimensional aerodynamic interference effects. The applicability and limitations of the modification to linearized theory are illustrated through comparisons with experimental pressure distributions for delta wings covering a Mach number range from 1.45 to 4.60 and angles of attack from 0 to 25 degrees.

  18. High Frequency Design Considerations for the Large Detector Number and Small Form Factor Dual Electron Spectrometer of the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kujawski, Joseph T.; Gliese, Ulrik B.; Cao, N. T.; Zeuch, M. A.; White, D.; Chornay, D. J; Lobell, J. V.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A. C.; Mariano, A. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Piepgrass, B.; Auletti, C.; Weidner, S.; Jacques, A. D.; Pollock, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Each half of the Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) of the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission utilizes a microchannel plate Chevron stack feeding 16 separate detection channels each with a dedicated anode and amplifier/discriminator chip. The desire to detect events on a single channel with a temporal spacing of 100 ns and a fixed dead-time drove our decision to use an amplifier/discriminator with a very fast (GHz class) front end. Since the inherent frequency response of each pulse in the output of the DES microchannel plate system also has frequency components above a GHz, this produced a number of design constraints not normally expected in electronic systems operating at peak speeds of 10 MHz. Additional constraints are imposed by the geometry of the instrument requiring all 16 channels along with each anode and amplifier/discriminator to be packaged in a relatively small space. We developed an electrical model for board level interactions between the detector channels to allow us to design a board topology which gave us the best detection sensitivity and lowest channel to channel crosstalk. The amplifier/discriminator output was designed to prevent the outputs from one channel from producing triggers on the inputs of other channels. A number of Radio Frequency design techniques were then applied to prevent signals from other subsystems (e.g. the high voltage power supply, command and data handling board, and Ultraviolet stimulation for the MCP) from generating false events. These techniques enabled us to operate the board at its highest sensitivity when operated in isolation and at very high sensitivity when placed into the overall system.

  19. Universal logarithmic law of velocity distribution as applied to the investigation of boundary layer and drag of streamline bodies at large Reynolds number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurjienko, G

    1937-01-01

    In the present paper we shall consider a figure of revolution, so that the formulas applicable to the more simple cases as, for example, a wing or flat plate will follow from our equations as corollaries. For checking the results of our theory, we made use of the data derived from the tests of Freeman on a 1/40-scale model of the airship "Akron" conducted in the large NACA wind tunnel. In the first part we shall derive the fundamental equation for a body of revolution according to the Karman theory in its original form, and in the second part we shall give all the comparisons of the results of tests with the modified theory.

  20. Correlation between the VITEK2 system and cefoxitin disk diffusion for the daily detection of oxacillin resistance in a large number of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    PubMed

    Bemer, P; Juvin, M E; Le Gargasson, G; Drugeon, H; Reynaud, A; Corvec, S

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of the new VITEK2 AST-P551 card with the cefoxitin disk diffusion method for the daily detection of methicillin resistance with a high number of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. Detection of the PBP2a protein or mecA gene was performed for each discordant case. Seventy (3.3%) isolates out of 2,107 clinical strains showed discordant results, two very major errors, four major errors and 64 minor errors. Fifty-nine (84%) discordant results were resolved, with a final overall agreement of 99.5%. Eleven (0.5%) strains remained discordant (minor error [mE]). Four of 370 MRSA strains were misclassified as susceptible in daily practice by the cefoxitin disk diffusion method. All of these strains were resistant to aminoglycosides and/or fluoroquinolones. The VITEK2 system is highly reliable for methicillin resistance detection at the routine level. Oxacillin-susceptible classified clinical strains with associated resistance patterns required attention. PMID:20372955

  1. Genome Reduction Uncovers a Large Dispensable Genome and Adaptive Role for Copy Number Variation in Asexually Propagated Solanum tuberosum[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hardigan, Michael A.; Crisovan, Emily; Hamilton, John P.; Laimbeer, Parker; Leisner, Courtney P.; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C.; Newton, Linsey; Pham, Gina M.; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Zeng, Zixian; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Clonally reproducing plants have the potential to bear a significantly greater mutational load than sexually reproducing species. To investigate this possibility, we examined the breadth of genome-wide structural variation in a panel of monoploid/doubled monoploid clones generated from native populations of diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum), a highly heterozygous asexually propagated plant. As rare instances of purely homozygous clones, they provided an ideal set for determining the degree of structural variation tolerated by this species and deriving its minimal gene complement. Extensive copy number variation (CNV) was uncovered, impacting 219.8 Mb (30.2%) of the potato genome with nearly 30% of genes subject to at least partial duplication or deletion, revealing the highly heterogeneous nature of the potato genome. Dispensable genes (>7000) were associated with limited transcription and/or a recent evolutionary history, with lower deletion frequency observed in genes conserved across angiosperms. Association of CNV with plant adaptation was highlighted by enrichment in gene clusters encoding functions for environmental stress response, with gene duplication playing a part in species-specific expansions of stress-related gene families. This study revealed unique impacts of CNV in a species with asexual reproductive habits and how CNV may drive adaption through evolution of key stress pathways. PMID:26772996

  2. Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Hua, Hong; Talha, M M

    2009-05-10

    It has been a challenge to design an optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD) that has a wide field of view (FOV) and low f-number (f/#) while maintaining a compact, lightweight, and nonintrusive form factor. In this paper, we present an OST-HMD design using a wedge-shaped freeform prism cemented with a freeform lens. The prism, consisting of three freeform surfaces (FFSs), serves as the near-eye viewing optics that magnifies the image displayed through a microdisplay, and the freeform lens is an auxiliary element attached to the prism in order to maintain a nondistorted see-through view of a real-world scene. Both the freeform prism and the lens utilize plastic materials to achieve light weight. The overall dimension of the optical system per eye is no larger than 25 mm by 22 mm by 12 mm, and the weight is 8 g. Based on a 0.61 in. microdisplay, our system demonstrates a diagonal FOV of 53.5 degrees and an f/# of 1.875, with an 8 mm exit pupil diameter and an 18.25 mm eye relief. PMID:19424386

  3. A Large Number of Nuclear Genes in the Human Parasite Blastocystis Require mRNA Polyadenylation to Create Functional Termination Codons

    PubMed Central

    Klimeš, Vladimír; Gentekaki, Eleni; Roger, Andrew J.; Eliáš, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Termination codons in mRNA molecules are typically specified directly by the sequence of the corresponding gene. However, in mitochondria of a few eukaryotic groups, some mRNAs contain the termination codon UAA deriving one or both adenosines from transcript polyadenylation. Here, we show that a similar phenomenon occurs for a substantial number of nuclear genes in Blastocystis spp., divergent unicellular eukaryote gut parasites. Our analyses of published genomic data from Blastocystis sp. subtype 7 revealed that polyadenylation-mediated creation of termination codons occurs in approximately 15% of all nuclear genes. As this phenomenon has not been noticed before, the procedure previously employed to annotate the Blastocystis nuclear genome sequence failed to correctly define the structure of the 3′-ends of hundreds of genes. From sequence data we have obtained from the distantly related Blastocystis sp. subtype 1 strain, we show that this phenomenon is widespread within the Blastocystis genus. Polyadenylation in Blastocystis appears to be directed by a conserved GU-rich element located four nucleotides downstream of the polyadenylation site. Thus, the highly precise positioning of the polyadenylation in Blastocystis has allowed reduction of the 3′-untranslated regions to the point that, in many genes, only one or two nucleotides of the termination codon are left. PMID:25015079

  4. Arabidopsis AtMORC4 and AtMORC7 Form Nuclear Bodies and Repress a Large Number of Protein-Coding Genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wanlu; Wang, Haifeng; Papikian, Ashot; Pastor, William A.; Moissiard, Guillaume; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    The MORC family of GHKL ATPases are an enigmatic class of proteins with diverse chromatin related functions. In Arabidopsis, AtMORC1, AtMORC2, and AtMORC6 act together in heterodimeric complexes to mediate transcriptional silencing of methylated DNA elements. Here, we studied Arabidopsis AtMORC4 and AtMORC7. We found that, in contrast to AtMORC1,2,6, they act to suppress a wide set of non-methylated protein-coding genes that are enriched for those involved in pathogen response. Furthermore, atmorc4 atmorc7 double mutants show a pathogen response phenotype. We found that AtMORC4 and AtMORC7 form homomeric complexes in vivo and are concentrated in discrete nuclear bodies adjacent to chromocenters. Analysis of an atmorc1,2,4,5,6,7 hextuple mutant demonstrates that transcriptional de-repression is largely uncoupled from changes in DNA methylation in plants devoid of MORC function. However, we also uncover a requirement for MORC in both DNA methylation and silencing at a small but distinct subset of RNA-directed DNA methylation target loci. These regions are characterized by poised transcriptional potential and a low density of sites for symmetric cytosine methylation. These results provide insight into the biological function of MORC proteins in higher eukaryotes. PMID:27171361

  5. Colorimetric In Situ Hybridization Identifies MYC Gene Signal Clusters Correlating With Increased Copy Number, mRNA, and Protein in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Carlo; Kendrick, Samantha; Johnson, Nathalie; Gascoyne, Randy; Chan, Wing C.; Weisenburger, Dennis; Braziel, Rita; Cook, James R.; Tubbs, Raymond; Campo, Elias; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Delabie, Jan; Jaffe, Elaine; Zhang, Wenjun; Brunhoeber, Patrick; Nitta, Hiro; Grogan, Tom; Rimsza, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities of the MYC oncogene on chromosome 8 are characteristic of Burkitt lymphoma and other aggressive B-cell lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We recently described a colorimetric in situ hybridization (CISH) method for detecting extra copies of the MYC gene in DLBCL and the frequent occurrence of excess copies of discrete MYC signals in the context of diploidy or polyploidy of chromosome 8, which correlated with increased mRNA signals. We further observed enlarged MYC signals, which were counted as a single gene copy but, by their dimension and unusual shape, likely consisted of “clusters” of MYC genes. In this study, we sought to further characterize these clusters of MYC signals by determining whether the presence of these correlated with other genetic features, mRNA levels, protein, and overall survival. We found that MYC clusters correlated with an abnormal MYC locus and with increased mRNA. MYC mRNA correlated with protein levels, and both increased mRNA and protein correlated with poorer overall survival. MYC clusters were seen in both the germinal center and activated B-cell subtypes of DLBCL. Clusters of MYC signals may be an underappreciated, but clinically important, feature of aggressive B-cell lymphomas with potential prognostic and therapeutic relevance. PMID:23355209

  6. Arabidopsis AtMORC4 and AtMORC7 Form Nuclear Bodies and Repress a Large Number of Protein-Coding Genes.

    PubMed

    Harris, C Jake; Husmann, Dylan; Liu, Wanlu; Kasmi, Farid El; Wang, Haifeng; Papikian, Ashot; Pastor, William A; Moissiard, Guillaume; Vashisht, Ajay A; Dangl, Jeffery L; Wohlschlegel, James A; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2016-05-01

    The MORC family of GHKL ATPases are an enigmatic class of proteins with diverse chromatin related functions. In Arabidopsis, AtMORC1, AtMORC2, and AtMORC6 act together in heterodimeric complexes to mediate transcriptional silencing of methylated DNA elements. Here, we studied Arabidopsis AtMORC4 and AtMORC7. We found that, in contrast to AtMORC1,2,6, they act to suppress a wide set of non-methylated protein-coding genes that are enriched for those involved in pathogen response. Furthermore, atmorc4 atmorc7 double mutants show a pathogen response phenotype. We found that AtMORC4 and AtMORC7 form homomeric complexes in vivo and are concentrated in discrete nuclear bodies adjacent to chromocenters. Analysis of an atmorc1,2,4,5,6,7 hextuple mutant demonstrates that transcriptional de-repression is largely uncoupled from changes in DNA methylation in plants devoid of MORC function. However, we also uncover a requirement for MORC in both DNA methylation and silencing at a small but distinct subset of RNA-directed DNA methylation target loci. These regions are characterized by poised transcriptional potential and a low density of sites for symmetric cytosine methylation. These results provide insight into the biological function of MORC proteins in higher eukaryotes. PMID:27171361

  7. Metabolome Analysis of Biosynthetic Mutants Reveals a Diversity of Metabolic Changes and Allows Identification of a Large Number of New Compounds in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Christoph; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Schmidt, Jürgen; Schmotz, Constanze; Neumann, Steffen; Scheel, Dierk; Clemens, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Metabolomics is facing a major challenge: the lack of knowledge about metabolites present in a given biological system. Thus, large-scale discovery of metabolites is considered an essential step toward a better understanding of plant metabolism. We show here that the application of a metabolomics approach generating structural information for the analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants allows the efficient cataloging of metabolites. Fifty-six percent of the features that showed significant differences in abundance between seeds of wild-type, transparent testa4, and transparent testa5 plants could be annotated. Seventy-five compounds were structurally characterized, 21 of which could be identified. About 40 compounds had not been known from Arabidopsis before. Also, the high-resolution analysis revealed an unanticipated expansion of metabolic conversions upstream of biosynthetic blocks. Deficiency in chalcone synthase results in the increased seed-specific biosynthesis of a range of phenolic choline esters. Similarly, a lack of chalcone isomerase activity leads to the accumulation of various naringenin chalcone derivatives. Furthermore, our data provide insight into the connection between p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A-dependent pathways. Lack of flavonoid biosynthesis results in elevated synthesis not only of p-coumarate-derived choline esters but also of sinapate-derived metabolites. However, sinapoylcholine is not the only accumulating end product. Instead, we observed specific and sophisticated changes in the complex pattern of sinapate derivatives. PMID:18552234

  8. The effects of Reynolds number, rotor incidence angle and surface roughness on the heat transfer distribution in a large-scale turbine rotor passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational program was conducted to examine the heat transfer distribution in a turbine rotor passage geometrically similar to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP). Heat transfer was measured and computed for both the full span suction and pressure surfaces of the rotor airfoil as well as for the hub endwall surface. The objective of the program was to provide a benchmark-quality database for the assessment of rotor heat transfer computational techniques. The experimental portion of the study was conducted in a large scale, ambient temperature, rotating turbine model. The computational portion consisted of the application of a well-posed parabolized Navier-Stokes analysis of the calculation of the three-dimensional viscous flow through ducts simulating a gas turbine package. The results of this assessment indicate that the procedure has the potential to predict the aerodynamics and the heat transfer in a gas turbine passage and can be used to develop detailed three dimensional turbulence models for the prediction of skin friction and heat transfer in complex three dimensional flow passages.

  9. Aspergillus niger genome-wide analysis reveals a large number of novel alpha-glucan acting enzymes with unexpected expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Lian; van der Kaaij, Rachel M; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; Punt, Peter J; van der Maarel, Marc J E C; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Ram, Arthur F J

    2008-06-01

    The filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus niger is well known for its ability to produce a large variety of enzymes for the degradation of plant polysaccharide material. A major carbon and energy source for this soil fungus is starch, which can be degraded by the concerted action of alpha-amylase, glucoamylase and alpha-glucosidase enzymes, members of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 13, 15 and 31, respectively. In this study we have combined analysis of the genome sequence of A. niger CBS 513.88 with microarray experiments to identify novel enzymes from these families and to predict their physiological functions. We have identified 17 previously unknown family GH13, 15 and 31 enzymes in the A. niger genome, all of which have orthologues in other aspergilli. Only two of the newly identified enzymes, a putative alpha-glucosidase (AgdB) and an alpha-amylase (AmyC), were predicted to play a role in starch degradation. The expression of the majority of the genes identified was not induced by maltose as carbon source, and not dependent on the presence of AmyR, the transcriptional regulator for starch degrading enzymes. The possible physiological functions of the other predicted family GH13, GH15 and GH31 enzymes, including intracellular enzymes and cell wall associated proteins, in alternative alpha-glucan modifying processes are discussed. PMID:18320228

  10. A Combined Classical Genetic and High Resolution Two-Dimensional Electrophoretic Approach to the Assessment of the Number of Genes Affecting Hybrid Male Sterility in Drosophila Simulans and Drosophila Sechellia

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, L. W.; Singh, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    We have attempted to estimate the number of genes involved in postzygotic reproductive isolation between two closely related species, Drosophila simulans and Drosophila sechellia, by a novel approach that involves the use of high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to examine testis proteins in parents, hybrids and fertile and sterile backcross progenies. The important results that have emerged from this study are as follows: (1) about 8% of about 1000 proteins examined showed divergence (presence/absence) between the two species; (2) by tracing individual proteins in parental, hybrid and backcross males, we were able to associate the divergent proteins with different chromosomes and found that most divergent proteins are associated with autosomes and very few with X chromosome, Y chromosome and cytoplasm; (3) when proteins showing both quantitative and qualitative differences between the two species were examined in F(1) hybrid males, most (97.4%) proteins were expressed at levels between the two parents and no sign of large scale changes in spot density was observed. All the proteins observed in the two parental species were present in F(1) hybrid males except two species-specific proteins that may be encoded (or regulated) by sex chromosomes; (4) when different fertile and sterile backcross male testes were compared, a few D. sechellia-specific proteins were identified to be consistently associated with male sterility. These results along with the observation that a large proportion (23.6%) of first generation backcross males were fertile show that hybrid male sterility between D. simulans and D. sechellia involves a relatively small number of genes. Role of large scale genetic changes due to general genome incompatibility is not supported. The results also suggest that the large effect of X chromosome on hybrid male sterility is not due to higher divergence of X chromosome than autosomes. PMID:8224814

  11. How Did Multiple Years (7+) in a BE/ESL Program Affect the English Acquisition and Academic Achievement of Secondary LEP Students? Results from a Large Urban School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hua; Urrabazo, Theresa; Murray, Wayne

    The rapid increase in the number of Limited English Proficient (LEP) students is especially significant in the nation's large urban school districts. The numbers of LEP students in special, bilingual education programs has exploded due to the constant stream of immigrants into the United States and the inability of so many children, even those who…

  12. Prediction using step-wise L1, L2 regularization and feature selection for small data sets with large number of features

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Machine learning methods are nowadays used for many biological prediction problems involving drugs, ligands or polypeptide segments of a protein. In order to build a prediction model a so called training data set of molecules with measured target properties is needed. For many such problems the size of the training data set is limited as measurements have to be performed in a wet lab. Furthermore, the considered problems are often complex, such that it is not clear which molecular descriptors (features) may be suitable to establish a strong correlation with the target property. In many applications all available descriptors are used. This can lead to difficult machine learning problems, when thousands of descriptors are considered and only few (e.g. below hundred) molecules are available for training. Results The CoEPrA contest provides four data sets, which are typical for biological regression problems (few molecules in the training data set and thousands of descriptors). We applied the same two-step training procedure for all four regression tasks. In the first stage, we used optimized L1 regularization to select the most relevant features. Thus, the initial set of more than 6,000 features was reduced to about 50. In the second stage, we used only the selected features from the preceding stage applying a milder L2 regularization, which generally yielded further improvement of prediction performance. Our linear model employed a soft loss function which minimizes the influence of outliers. Conclusions The proposed two-step method showed good results on all four CoEPrA regression tasks. Thus, it may be useful for many other biological prediction problems where for training only a small number of molecules are available, which are described by thousands of descriptors. PMID:22026913

  13. Suspect screening of large numbers of emerging contaminants in environmental waters using artificial neural networks for chromatographic retention time prediction and high resolution mass spectrometry data analysis.

    PubMed

    Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Miller, Thomas H; Barron, Leon P; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Hernández, Felix

    2015-12-15

    The recent development of broad-scope high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) screening methods has resulted in a much improved capability for new compound identification in environmental samples. However, positive identifications at the ng/L concentration level rely on analytical reference standards for chromatographic retention time (tR) and mass spectral comparisons. Chromatographic tR prediction can play a role in increasing confidence in suspect screening efforts for new compounds in the environment, especially when standards are not available, but reliable methods are lacking. The current work focuses on the development of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for tR prediction in gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography and applied along with HRMS data to suspect screening of wastewater and environmental surface water samples. Based on a compound tR dataset of >500 compounds, an optimized 4-layer back-propagation multi-layer perceptron model enabled predictions for 85% of all compounds to within 2min of their measured tR for training (n=344) and verification (n=100) datasets. To evaluate the ANN ability for generalization to new data, the model was further tested using 100 randomly selected compounds and revealed 95% prediction accuracy within the 2-minute elution interval. Given the increasing concern on the presence of drug metabolites and other transformation products (TPs) in the aquatic environment, the model was applied along with HRMS data for preliminary identification of pharmaceutically-related compounds in real samples. Examples of compounds where reference standards were subsequently acquired and later confirmed are also presented. To our knowledge, this work presents for the first time, the successful application of an accurate retention time predictor and HRMS data-mining using the largest number of compounds to preliminarily identify new or emerging contaminants in wastewater and surface waters. PMID:26363605

  14. An Exploratory Study on Initial STEM Classes and African American Freshman Males Who Are STEM Majors at a Large Mid-Atlantic State University: Factors Affecting Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Persistence in the STEM Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calhoun, William Jason

    The purpose of this study was to test how well social cognitive career theory (SCCT) explains the effects of an introductory freshman year science course on the career perspectives of African American males at a large, public mid-Atlantic state university. Embracing SCCT as the foundation of this project, the dissertation intended to gather data from these young men to develop insight into how and in what ways their self-efficacy throughout the semester was influenced by their first science course, and changing their outlook on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers while in school and after graduation. To a small number of freshman African American male students who have declared themselves STEM majors, I utilized a qualitative study investigating this phenomenon. The major findings detailed themes that affected these young men including concerns about mathmatics preparation, isolation, balance, microagression, and help-seeking. Results indicate that there was an impact on the confidence, achievement, and goal setting for these young men due to these factors and that social cognitive career theory was an appropriate framework from which to test these questions.

  15. The combustion of large particles of char in bubbling fluidized beds: The dependence of Sherwood number and the rate of burning on particle diameter

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, J.S.; Hayhurst, A.N.; Scott, S.A.

    2006-11-15

    Particles of char derived from a variety of fuels (e.g., biomass, sewage sludge, coal, or graphite), with diameters in excess of {approx}1.5mm, burn in fluidized bed combustors containing smaller particles of, e.g., sand, such that the rate is controlled by the diffusion both of O{sub 2} to the burning solid and of the products CO and CO{sub 2} away from it into the particulate phase. It is therefore important to characterize these mass transfer processes accurately. Measurements of the burning rate of char particles made from sewage sludge suggest that the Sherwood number, Sh, increases linearly with the diameter of the fuel particle, d{sub char} (for d{sub char}>{approx}1.5mm). This linear dependence of Sh on d{sub char} is expected from the basic equation Sh=2{epsilon}{sub mf}(1+d{sub char}/2{delta}{sub diff})/{tau}, provided the thickness of the boundary layer for mass transfer, {delta}{sub diff}, is constant in the region of interest (d{sub char}>{approx}1.5mm). Such a dependence is not seen in the empirical equations currently used and based on the Frossling expression. It is found here that for chars made from sewage sludge (for d{sub char}>{approx}1.5mm), the thickness of the boundary layer for mass transfer in a fluidized bed, {delta}{sub diff}, is less than that predicted by empirical correlations based on the Frossling expression. In fact, {delta}{sub diff} is not more than the diameter of the fluidized sand particles. Finally, the experiments in this study indicate that models based on surface renewal theory should be rejected for a fluidized bed, because they give unrealistically short contact times for packets of fluidized particles at the surface of a burning sphere. The result is the new correlation Sh = 2{epsilon}{sub mf}/{tau} + (A{sub cush}/A{sub char})(d{sub char}/ {delta}{sub diff}) for the dependence of Sh on d{sub char}, the diameter of a burning char particle. This equation is based on there being a gas-cushion of fluidizing gas underneath a

  16. Number relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Philip

    Number relativity 1.Every equation of the relativity is just the way to understand through to solve one question of the math problem. We just add the hypothesis into the number. 2. Sequence of number is the machine physics for software(computer) as the number order is program equation as calculator. 3. When zero is denominator, it is not existing as it is doing something by nothing. So nothing means time as we put zero denominator into time. My personal physics imagine.

  17. Direct sequencing and expression analysis of a large number of miRNAs in Aedes aegypti and a multi-species survey of novel mosquito miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of gene regulators whose biogenesis involves hairpin structures called precursor miRNAs, or pre-miRNAs. A pre-miRNA is processed to make a miRNA:miRNA* duplex, which is then separated to generate a mature miRNA and a miRNA*. The mature miRNAs play key regulatory roles during embryonic development as well as other cellular processes. They are also implicated in control of viral infection as well as innate immunity. Direct experimental evidence for mosquito miRNAs has been recently reported in anopheline mosquitoes based on small-scale cloning efforts. Results We obtained approximately 130, 000 small RNA sequences from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, by 454 sequencing of samples that were isolated from mixed-age embryos and midguts from sugar-fed and blood-fed females, respectively. We also performed bioinformatics analysis on the Ae. aegypti genome assembly to identify evidence for additional miRNAs. The combination of these approaches uncovered 98 different pre-miRNAs in Ae. aegypti which could produce 86 distinct miRNAs. Thirteen miRNAs, including eight novel miRNAs identified in this study, are currently only found in mosquitoes. We also identified five potential revisions to previously annotated miRNAs at the miRNA termini, two cases of highly abundant miRNA* sequences, 14 miRNA clusters, and 17 cases where more than one pre-miRNA hairpin produces the same or highly similar mature miRNAs. A number of miRNAs showed higher levels in midgut from blood-fed female than that from sugar-fed female, which was confirmed by northern blots on two of these miRNAs. Northern blots also revealed several miRNAs that showed stage-specific expression. Detailed expression analysis of eight of the 13 mosquito-specific miRNAs in four divergent mosquito genera identified cases of clearly conserved expression patterns and obvious differences. Four of the 13 miRNAs are specific to certain lineage(s) within mosquitoes. Conclusion

  18. Leftist Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The leftist number system consists of numbers with decimal digits arranged in strings to the left, instead of to the right. This system fails to be a field only because it contains zerodivisors. The same construction with prime base yields the p-adic numbers.

  19. Superharmonic numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Graeme L.

    2009-03-01

    Let tau(n) denote the number of positive divisors of a natural number n>1 and let sigma(n) denote their sum. Then n is superharmonic if sigma(n)mid n^ktau(n) for some positive integer k . We deduce numerous properties of superharmonic numbers and show in particular that the set of all superharmonic numbers is the first nontrivial example that has been given of an infinite set that contains all perfect numbers but for which it is difficult to determine whether there is an odd member.

  20. Factors affecting compliance with colorectal cancer screening among households residing in the largely Haitian community of Little Haiti, Miami-Dade County, Florida: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Meredith Leigh; Acuña, Juan Manuel; de la Vega, Pura Rodriguez; Castro, Grettel; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2015-05-01

    The United States Black population is disproportionately affected by colorectal cancer (CRC) in terms of incidence and mortality. Studies suggest that screening rates are lower among Blacks compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). However, studies on CRC screening within Black subgroups are lacking. This study examined disparities in blood stool test (BST) compliance and colonoscopy use by race/ethnicity (Haitian, NHW, non-Hispanic Black [NHB], and Hispanic) among randomly selected households in Little Haiti, Miami-Dade County, Florida.This study used cross-sectional, health and wellness data from a random-sample, population-based survey conducted within 951 households in Little Haiti between November 2011 and December 2012. BST compliance and colonoscopy use were self-reported and defined, conservatively, as the use of BST within the past 2 years and the ever use of colonoscopy by any household member. Factors associated with BST compliance and colonoscopy use were identified using logistic regression models. Analyses were restricted to households containing at least 1 member ≥50 years (n = 666).Nearly half of the households were compliant with BST (rate [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 45% [41%-49%]) and completed colonoscopy (rate [95% CI] = 53% [49%-58%]). Compliance with BST was not associated with race/ethnicity (P = 0.76). Factors independently associated with BST compliance included low educational attainment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.63, P = 0.03), being single (AOR = 0.47, P = 0.004), retirement (AOR = 1.96, P = 0.01), and the presence of diagnosed health problems (AOR = 1.24, P = 0.01). Colonoscopy use was lower among Haitian households (46%) compared with NHW (63%), NHB (62%), and Hispanic households (54%) (P = 0.002). Factors independently associated with colonoscopy use included identifying as NHB (compared with Haitian) (AOR = 1.80, P = 0.05), being single (AOR = 0.44, P = 0

  1. Factors Affecting Compliance With Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Households Residing in the Largely Haitian Community of Little Haiti, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Meredith Leigh; Acuña, Juan Manuel; de la Vega, Pura Rodriguez; Castro, Grettel; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The United States Black population is disproportionately affected by colorectal cancer (CRC) in terms of incidence and mortality. Studies suggest that screening rates are lower among Blacks compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). However, studies on CRC screening within Black subgroups are lacking. This study examined disparities in blood stool test (BST) compliance and colonoscopy use by race/ethnicity (Haitian, NHW, non-Hispanic Black [NHB], and Hispanic) among randomly selected households in Little Haiti, Miami-Dade County, Florida. This study used cross-sectional, health and wellness data from a random-sample, population-based survey conducted within 951 households in Little Haiti between November 2011 and December 2012. BST compliance and colonoscopy use were self-reported and defined, conservatively, as the use of BST within the past 2 years and the ever use of colonoscopy by any household member. Factors associated with BST compliance and colonoscopy use were identified using logistic regression models. Analyses were restricted to households containing at least 1 member ≥50 years (n = 666). Nearly half of the households were compliant with BST (rate [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 45% [41%–49%]) and completed colonoscopy (rate [95% CI] = 53% [49%–58%]). Compliance with BST was not associated with race/ethnicity (P = 0.76). Factors independently associated with BST compliance included low educational attainment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.63, P = 0.03), being single (AOR = 0.47, P = 0.004), retirement (AOR = 1.96, P = 0.01), and the presence of diagnosed health problems (AOR = 1.24, P = 0.01). Colonoscopy use was lower among Haitian households (46%) compared with NHW (63%), NHB (62%), and Hispanic households (54%) (P = 0.002). Factors independently associated with colonoscopy use included identifying as NHB (compared with Haitian) (AOR = 1.80, P = 0.05), being single (AOR = 0

  2. Measurement of Unsteady Blade Surface Pressure on a Single Rotation Large Scale Advanced Prop-fan with Angular and Wake Inflow at Mach Numbers from 0.02 to 0.70

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, P.; Gruber, M.; Parzych, D.

    1988-01-01

    Unsteady blade surface pressure data for the Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) blade operation with angular inflow, wake inflow and uniform flow over a range of inflow Mach numbers of 0.02 to 0.70 is provided. The data are presented as Fourier coefficients for the first 35 harmonics of shaft rotational frequency. Also presented is a brief discussion of the unsteady blade response observed at takeoff and cruise conditions with angular and wake inflow.

  3. Primordial nucleosynthesis and Dirac's large numbers hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.

    1980-01-01

    Consideration is given to the analysis of Falik (1979) which attempted to show that the cosmological model proposed by Canuto and Hsieh (1978) in which the gravitational constant varies with time contradicts observations of primordial helium. It is shown that the analysis was based on the assumptions that (1) the energy density of radiation in local thermodynamic equilibrium is approximately equal to the fourth power of the equilibrium temperature, where the product of the equilibrium temperature with the scale factor of the Robertson-Walker metric is constant, and (2) the gravitational constant is approximately equal to the inverse of the time even at early cosmological epochs. These assumptions are demonstrated to be invalid in the scale covariant theory of gravitation used to develop the model, thus negating the conclusion that the Canuto and Hsieh model excludes the primordial synthesis of helium.

  4. Gaming the Law of Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Thomas R.; Snapp, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Many view mathematics as a rich and wonderfully elaborate game. In turn, games can be used to illustrate mathematical ideas. Fibber's Dice, an adaptation of the game Liar's Dice, is a fast-paced game that rewards gutsy moves and favors the underdog. It also brings to life concepts arising in the study of probability. In particular, Fibber's Dice…

  5. Number Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Terese A.

    2004-01-01

    This article features Number Time, a site developed by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for young mathematics learners, located at www.bbc.co.uk/schools/numbertime. The site uses interactive animation to help children in pre-K through grade 2 understand and practice number basics. Users will find online games, videos that tell number…

  6. Strongly-motivated positive affects induce faster responses to local than global information of visual stimuli: an approach using large-size Navon letters

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Yasuki; Tomoike, Kouta

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies argue that strongly-motivated positive emotions (e.g. desire) narrow a scope of attention. This argument is mainly based on an observation that, while humans normally respond faster to global than local information of a visual stimulus (global advantage), positive affects eliminated the global advantage by selectively speeding responses to local (but not global) information. In other words, narrowing of attentional scope was indirectly evidenced by the elimination of global advantage (the same speed of processing between global and local information). No study has directly shown that strongly-motivated positive affects induce faster responses to local than global information while excluding a bias for global information (global advantage) in a baseline (emotionally-neutral) condition. In the present study, we addressed this issue by eliminating the global advantage in a baseline (neutral) state. Induction of positive affects under this state resulted in faster responses to local than global information. Our results provided direct evidence that positive affects in high motivational intensity narrow a scope of attention. PMID:26754087

  7. The influence of numbers on invasion success.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Tim M; Lockwood, Julie L; Cassey, Phillip

    2015-05-01

    The process by which a species becomes a biological invader, at a location where it does not naturally occur, can be divided into a series of sequential stages (transport, introduction, establishment and spread). A species' success at passing through each of these stages depends, in a large part, on the number of individuals available to assist making each transition. Here, we review the evidence that numbers determine success at each stage of the invasion process and then discuss the likely mechanisms by which numbers affect success. We conclude that numbers of individuals affect transport and introduction by moderating the likelihood that abundant (and widespread) species are deliberately or accidentally translocated; affect establishment success by moderating the stochastic processes (demographic, environmental, genetic or Allee) to which small, introduced populations will be vulnerable; and affect invasive spread most likely because of persistent genetic effects determined by the numbers of individuals involved in the establishment phase. We finish by suggesting some further steps to advance our understanding of the influence of numbers on invasion success, particularly as they relate to the genetics of the process. PMID:25641210

  8. Genome-wide study refines the quantitative trait locus for number of ribs in a Large White × Minzhu intercross pig population and reveals a new candidate gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long-Chao; Yue, Jing-Wei; Pu, Lei; Wang, Li-Gang; Liu, Xin; Liang, Jing; Yan, Hua; Zhao, Ke-Bin; Li, Na; Shi, Hui-Bi; Zhang, Yue-Bo; Wang, Li-Xian

    2016-10-01

    In China, sparerib is one of the most valuable parts of the pork carcass. As a result, candidate gene mining for number of ribs has become an interesting study focus. To examine the genetic basis for this major trait, we genotyped 596 individuals from an F2 Large White × Minzhu intercross pig population using the PorcineSNP60 Genotyping BeadChip. The genome-wide association study identified a locus for number of ribs in a 2.38-Mb region on Sus scrofa chromosome 7 (SSC7 of Sus scrofa genome assembly, Sscrofa10.2). We identified the top significant SNP ASGA0035536, which explained 16.51 % of the phenotypic variance. A previously reported candidate causal mutation (g.19034 A>C) in vertebrae development-associated gene VRTN explained 8.79 % of the phenotypic variation on number of ribs and had a much lower effect than ASGA0035536. Haplotype sharing analysis in F1 boars localized the rib number QTL to a 951-kb interval on SSC7. This interval encompassed 17 annotated genes in Sscrofa10.2, including the previously reported VRTN candidate gene. Of the 17 candidate genes, LTBP2, which encodes a latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein, was previously reported to indirectly regulate the activity of growth differentiation factor Gdf11, which has been shown to increase the number of ribs in knock-out mice. Thus, we propose LTBP2 as a good new candidate gene for number of ribs in the pig population. This finding advances our understanding of the genetic architecture of rib number in pigs. PMID:27307002

  9. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Ec of... - Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hospital/Medical/Infectious... Table 1B to Subpart Ec of Part 60—Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at...

  10. The Depression Network (DeNT) Study: methodology and sociodemographic characteristics of the first 470 affected sibling pairs from a large multi-site linkage genetic study

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Anne; Breen, Gerome; Brewster, Shyama; Craddock, Nick; Gill, Mike; Korszun, Ania; Maier, Wolfgang; Middleton, Lefkos; Mors, Ole; Owen, Mike; Perry, Julia; Preisig, Martin; Rietschel, Marcella; Reich, Theodore; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; McGuffin, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Background The Depression Network Study (DeNt) is a multicentre study designed to identify genes and/or loci linked to and/or associated with susceptibility to unipolar depression in Caucasian families. This study presents the method and socio-demographic details of the first 470 affected sibling pairs recruited from 8 different sites in Europe and the United States of America. Methods Probands fulfilling either the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 4th edition (DSM-IV) or the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition (ICD-10) criteria for recurrent unipolar depression of moderate or severe degree and who had at least one similarly affected sibling were eligible for the study. Detailed clinical and psychological assessments were undertaken on all subjects including an interview using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. Blood samples were collected from all participants to extract DNA for linkage analysis. Results The different sites used different recruitment strategies depending on local health care organisation but despite this there was remarkable similarity across sites for the subjects recruited. Although the Bonn site had significantly older subjects both for age of onset and age at interview, for the sample as a whole, subjects were interviewed in their mid-40s and had experienced the onset of their recurrent depression in their 20s. Preliminary genome screening was able to include 929 out of the 944 subjects (98.4%) typed at 932 autosomal and 544 X chromosome markers Conclusions This paper describes the methodology and the characteristics of the subjects from the 414 families included in the first wave of genotyping from the multi-site DeNT study. Ultimately the study aims to collect affected sibling pairs from approximately 1200 families. PMID:15588307

  11. Templates, Numbers & Watercolors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemesha, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)

  12. Long Pathways for Outgassing Generated by a Rapid and Large Shear Strain of Bubbly Fluids Reducing Effective Viscosity and Affecting Eruption Styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, A.; Tanaka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The styles of basaltic explosive eruptions have a wide variety, which is usually attributed to the separation of volcanic gas from the surrounding silicate melt. As a mechanism of gas separation, shear deformation has been suggested. However, the bubble shape evolution under large strain at high strain rate and its effects on viscosity have not yet understood well. We thus performed shear deformation experiments of bubbly liquid under high shear rate and large strain with in situ observation of bubble deformation and viscosity measurements. We used syrup solution as a magma analogue whose viscosity of 3, 50, 500 Pa s, similar to that of basaltic magma. We rotated disc-shaped bubbly syrup at shear rates of 0.03-10 s-1 with strains of 3-1000. Experiments show that deformed bubbles coalesce into larger bubbles and finally generate concentric air rings, resulting that the striped shape of air and liquid parts appears. The widths of air rings greatly exceed the bubble sizes and can be long outgassing pathways if those exist in a volcanic conduit. During the evolution of air rings the measured effective viscosity decreases, while after reaching to a steady state, viscous resistance increases again. At this stage, bubble volume and size in the liquid parts become considerably small. Time evolution of bubble size distribution suggests that most of bubbles are assimilated into the air rings and the remnants in the liquid parts break up into small bubbles. Similar shear deformation of bubbly magma could occur in volcanic conduits, which generates large bubbles at a depth where the lower effective viscosity enhances the ascending velocity. The large bubbles may originate Strombolian eruption or suppresses the explosive eruption by making the long outgassing pathways reaching to the Earth's surface. In both cases, bubble free dense melt accumulates at a shallow conduit. Our experiments suggest that, for larger melt viscosity and narrower conduit, the gas separation occurs

  13. Number Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezin, Fatin

    2009-01-01

    It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…

  14. Numbers, Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  15. Numbers Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and…

  16. Historical analysis of sockeye salmon growth among populations affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill and large spawning escapements. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project 86048-BAA: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Rogers, D.E.

    1998-12-01

    Adult sockeye salmon scales, which provide an index of annual salmon growth in fresh and marine waters during 1965--1997, were measured to examine the effects on growth and adult returns of large spawning escapements influenced by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Scale growth in freshwater was significantly reduced by the large 1989 spawning escapements in the Kenai River system, Red Lake, and Akalura Lake, but not in Chignik Lake. These data suggest that sockeye growth in freshwater may be less stable following the large escapement. Furthermore, the observations of large escapement adversely affecting growth of adjacent brood years of salmon has important implications for stock-recruitment modeling. In Prince William Sound, Coghill Lake sockeye salmon that migrated through oil-contaminated waters did not exhibit noticeably reduced marine growth, but a model was developed that might explain low adult returns in recent years.

  17. Use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for the Analysis and Modeling of Factors That Affect Occupational Injuries in Large Construction Industries

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Savareh, Behrouz Alizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Occupational injuries as a workforce’s health problem are very important in large-scale workplaces. Analysis and modeling the health-threatening factors are good ways to promote the workforce’s health and a fundamental step in developing health programs. The purpose of this study was ANN modeling of the severity of occupational injuries to determine the health-threatening factors and to introduce a model to predict the severity of occupational injuries. Methods This analytical chain study was conducted in 10 large construction industries during a 10-year period (2005–2014). Nine hundred sixty occupational injuries were analyzed and modeled based on feature weighting by the rough set theory and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Two analytical software programs, i.e., RSES and MATLAB 2014 were used in the study. Results The severity of occupational injuries was calculated as 557.47 ± 397.87 days. The findings of both models showed that the injuries’ severity as a health problem resulted in various factors, including individual, organizational, health and safety (H&S) training, and risk management factors, which could be considered as causal and predictive factors of accident severity rate (ASR). Conclusion The results indicated that ANNs were a reliable tool that can be used to analyze and model the severity of occupational injuries as one of the important health problems in large-scale workplaces. Additionally, the combination of rough set and ANNs is a good and proper chain approach to modeling the factors that threaten the health of workforces and other H&S problems. PMID:26767107

  18. Mtf-1 lymphoma-susceptibility locus affects retention of large thymocytes with high ROS levels in mice after {gamma}-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kohara, Yuki; Katsuragi, Yoshinori; Mishima, Yukio; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Kominami, Ryo; E-mail: rykomina@med.niigata-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-02

    Mouse strains exhibit different susceptibilities to {gamma}-ray-induced thymic lymphomas. Our previous study identified Mtf-1 (metal responsive transcription factor-1) as a candidate susceptibility gene, which is involved in the radiation-induced signaling pathway that regulates the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). To reveal the mechanism for the increased susceptibility conferred by Mtf-1 locus, we examined early effects of {gamma}-ray on ROS levels in vivo and its difference between Mtf-1 susceptible and resistant congenic mice. Here, we show the detection of clonally growing thymocytes at 4 weeks after irradiation, indicating the start of clonal expansion at a very early stage. We also show that large thymocytes with higher ROS levels and a proliferation capacity were more numerous in the Mtf-1 susceptible mice than the resistant mice when examined at 7 days after irradiation, although such tendency was not found in mice lacking one allele of Bcl11b tumor suppressor gene. This high retention of the large thymocytes, at a high risk for ROS-induced mutation, is a compensatory proliferation and regeneration response to depletion of the thymocytes after irradiation and the response is likely to augment the development of prelymphoma cells leading to thymic lymphomas.

  19. Large national series of patients with Xq28 duplication involving MECP2: Delineation of brain MRI abnormalities in 30 affected patients.