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Sample records for affect local air

  1. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  2. Remote Sensing of Urban Thermal Landscape Characteristics and Their Affects on Local and Regional Meteorology and Air Quality: An Overview of NASA EOS-IDS Project Atlanta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    As an entity, the city is a manifestation of human "management" of the land. The act of city-building, however, drastically alters the biophysical environment, which ultimately, impacts local and regional land-atmosphere energy exchange processes. Because of the complexity of both the urban landscape and the attendant energy fluxes that result from urbanization, remote sensing offers the only real way to synoptically quantify these processes. One of the more important land-atmosphere fluxes that occurs over cities relates to the way that thermal energy is partitioned across the heterogeneous urban landscape. The individual land cover and surface material types that comprise the city, such as pavements and buildings, each have their own thermal energy regimes. As the collective urban landscape, the individual thermal energy responses from specific surfaces come together to form the urban heat island phenomena, which prevails as a dome of elevated air temperatures over cities. Although the urban heat island has been known to exist for well over 150 years, it is not understood how differences in thermal energy responses for land covers across the city interact to produce this phenomenon, or how the variability in thermal energy responses from different surface types drive its development. Additionally, it can be hypothesized that as cities grow in size through time, so do their urban heat islands. The interrelationships between urban sprawl and the respective growth of the urban heat island, however, have not been investigated. Moreover, little is known of the consequential effects of urban growth, land cover change, and the urban heat island as they impact local and regional meteorology and air quality.

  3. Legal and regulatory issues affecting compressed air energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-07-01

    Several regulatory and legal issues that can potentially affect implementation of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system are discussed. This technology involves the compression of air using base load electric power for storage in an underground storage medium. The air is subsequently released and allowed to pass through a turbine to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The storage media considered most feasible are a mined hard rock cavern, a solution-mined cavern in a salt deposit, and a porous geologic formation (normally an aquifer) of suitable structure. The issues are discussed in four categories: regulatory issues common to most CAES facilities regardless of storage medium, regulatory issues applicable to particular CAES reservoir media, issues related to possible liability from CAES operations, and issues related to acquisition of appropriate property rights for CAES implementation. The focus is on selected federal regulation. Lesser attention is given to state and local regulation. (WHK)

  4. Space Weather affects on Air Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. B. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Dyer, C.; Shaw, A.

    In Europe, legislation requires the airline industry to monitor the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. However, there are other significant impacts of space weather phenomena on the technological systems used for day-to-day operations which need to be considered by the airlines. These were highlighted by the disruption caused to the industry by the period of significant solar activity in late October and early November 2003. Next generation aircraft will utilize increasingly complex avionics as well as expanding the performance envelopes. These and future generation platforms will require the development of a new air-space management infrastructure with improved position accuracy (for route navigation and landing in bad weather) and reduced separation minima in order to cope with the expected growth in air travel. Similarly, greater reliance will be placed upon satellites for command, control, communication and information (C3I) of the operation. However, to maximize effectiveness of this globally interoperable C3I and ensure seamless fusion of all components for a safe operation will require a greater understanding of the space weather affects, their risks with increasing technology, and the inclusion of space weather information into the operation. This paper will review space weather effects on air transport and the increasing risks for future operations cause by them. We will examine how well the effects can be predicted, some of the tools that can be used and the practicalities of using such predictions in an operational scenario. Initial results from the SOARS ESA Space Weather Pilot Project will also be discussed,

  5. New Zealand traffic and local air quality.

    PubMed

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Since 1996 the New Zealand Ministry of Transport (MOT) has been investigating the effects of road transport on local air quality. The outcome has been the government's Vehicle Fleet Emissions Control Strategy (VFECS). This is a programme of measures designed to assist with the improvement in local air quality, and especially in the appropriate management of transport sector emissions. Key to the VFECS has been the development of tools to assess and predict the contribution of vehicle emissions to local air pollution, in a given urban situation. Determining how vehicles behave as an emissions source, and more importantly, how the combined traffic flows contribute to the total emissions within a given airshed location was an important element of the programme. The actual emissions output of a vehicle is more than that determined by a certified emission standard, at the point of manufacture. It is the engine technology's general performance capability, in conjunction with the local driving conditions, that determines its actual emissions output. As vehicles are a mobile emissions source, to understand the effect of vehicle technology, it is necessary to work with the average fleet performance, or "fleet-weighted average emissions rate". This is the unit measure of performance of the general traffic flow that could be passing through a given road corridor or network, as an average, over time. The flow composition can be representative of the national fleet population, but also may feature particular vehicle types in a given locality, thereby have a different emissions 'signature'. A summary of the range of work that has been completed as part of the VFECS programme is provided. The NZ Vehicle Fleet Emissions Model and the derived data set available in the NZ Traffic Emission Rates provide a significant step forward in the consistent analysis of practical, sustainable vehicle emissions policy and air-quality management in New Zealand. PMID:15504517

  6. Local autonomic failure affecting a limb.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R H; Robinson, B J

    1987-01-01

    Three patients are described who presented with autonomic failure affecting predominantly one limb. Physiological studies revealed that there was sweating loss in the limb which appeared to be due to a preganglionic autonomic lesion and not to a sweat gland abnormality. In all three patients there was also evidence of failure of vasomotor control. There was no evidence of more generalised autonomic failure or neurological deficit. In two patients the condition appeared to be static and, according to the patients' accounts was life long. In the third the sweating loss was present for three years prior to pain loss becoming evident from C2/3 to T1 on the same side as the sweating loss. These patients, together with two recent case reports, indicate that isolated local autonomic failure, probably from a discrete cord lesion, can be a cause of presenting symptoms related to sweating loss or to change in temperature in a limb. PMID:3612155

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING AIR EXCHANGE IN TWO HOUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air exchange rate is critical to determining the relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations of hazardous pollutants. Approximately 150 air exchange experiments were completed in two residences: a two-story detached house located in Redwood City, CA and a three-story...

  8. Local ventilation for powder handling--combination of local supply and exhaust air.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, K; Kulmala, I; Säämänen, A

    1996-04-01

    The performance of a modified local ventilation unit equipped with local supply and exhaust ventilation was evaluated during the manual handling of flour additive powder. The investigation tested five different configurations to study the effects of the exhaust opening location and local supply air on worker exposure. The measurements were done under controlled conditions in a test room. The breathing zone (BZ) dust concentration was measured by gravimetric sampling and real time monitoring. The different local ventilation configurations were also modeled numerically using computational fluid dynamics. Without local ventilation the average BZ dust concentration was 42 mg/m3. With local exhaust only the exposure was reduced below 1 mg/m3. The addition of local supply air further reduced the exposure to below 0.5 mg/m3. The lowest results were achieved by locating two exhaust openings on either side of the contaminant source combined with local supply air. With this configuration the average BZ exposure was only 0.08 mg/m3, a reduction of 99.8%. Numerical simulations also gave useful information about the airflow fields in stationary conditions. However, the worker's exposure was greatly affected by body movements, and this was not possible to simulate numerically. The results of this investigation can be useful when controlling dust exposure in manual powder handling operations. PMID:8901237

  9. The AIRE -230Y Polymorphism Affects AIRE Transcriptional Activity: Potential Influence on AIRE Function in the Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Lovewell, Thomas R. J.; McDonagh, Andrew J.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Azzouz, Mimoun; Tazi-Ahnini, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Background The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is expressed in the thymus, particularly in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs), and is required for the ectopic expression of a diverse range of peripheral tissue antigens by mTECs, facilitating their ability to perform negative selection of auto-reactive immature T-cells. The expression profile of peripheral tissue antigens is affected not only by AIRE deficiency but also with variation of AIRE activity in the thymus. Method and Results Therefore we screened 591bp upstream of the AIRE transcription start site including AIRE minimal promoter for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and identified two SNPs -655R (rs117557896) and -230Y (rs751032) respectively. To study the effect of these variations on AIRE promoter activity we generated a Flp-In host cell line which was stably transfected with a single copy of the reporter vector. Relative promoter activity was estimated by comparing the luciferase specific activity for lysates of the different reporter AIRE promoter-reporter gene constructs including AIRE-655G AIRE-230C, AIRE-655G AIRE-230T and AIRE-655A AIRE-230C. The analysis showed that the commonest haplotype AIRE-655G AIRE-230C has the highest luciferase specific activity (p<0.001). Whereas AIRE-655G AIRE-230T has a luciferase specific activity value that approaches null. Both AIRE promoter polymorphic sites have one allele that forms a CpG methylation site which we determined can be methylated in methylation assays using the M.SssI CpG methyltransferase. Conclusion AIRE-230Y is in a conserved region of the promoter and is adjacent to a predicted WT1 transcription factor binding site, suggesting that AIRE-230Y affects AIRE expression by influencing the binding of biochemical factors to this region. Our findings show that AIRE-655GAIRE-230T haplotype could dramatically alter AIRE transcription and so have an effect on the process of negative selection and affect susceptibility to autoimmune conditions. PMID

  10. Effect of road blockages on local air pollution during the Hong Kong protests and its implications for air quality management.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Roadside air quality in urban areas is largely affected by the traffic emissions. Changes in emissions and transport control policy are often assumed to yield benefits in air quality, but have often not always been effective in producing perceptible improvements due to the complexity of meteorological conditions. This study evaluates the air quality before, during and after a temporary roadway blockage event in Hong Kong that took place during Hong Kong protests from late September to mid-December, 2014. The local regulatory air quality monitoring data from both roadside and general ambient stations were used to assess the impact of roadway blockages on the air quality. There was a public perception of improved air quality, but analysis of the data shows the changes can be difficult to discern. This study showed some benefits deriving from road blockages on the local air quality, but the impact was not always apparent because of seasonal variation in meteorological conditions and synoptic transport of pollutants. The finding suggests care is required before making policy changes based on claimed benefits of shifting transport routes. The study highlights the needs to remove seasonal and meteorological change when examining air pollution data to develop strategies to improve air quality. PMID:26245533

  11. AIR TOXICS MODELING FROM LOCAL TO REGIONAL SCALES TO SUPPORT THE 2002 MULTIPOLLUTANT ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research focuses on developing models that can describe the chemical and physical processes affecting concentrations of toxic air pollutants in the atmosphere, at spatial scales, ranging from local (< 1 km) to regional (36 km). One objective of this task is to extend the ca...

  12. Factors Affecting the Comprehension of Global and Local Main Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Danhua

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated factors that would affect a reader's understanding of the main idea at the global level and explicit and implicit main ideas at the local level. Fifty-seven first-year university students taking a college reading course took a comprehension test on an expository text. Statistical analyses revealed that text structure had a…

  13. A NEW COMBINED LOCAL AND NON-LOCAL PBL MODEL FOR METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new version of the Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM) has been developed to describe sub-grid vertical turbulent transport in both meteorology models and air quality models. The new version (ACM2) combines the non-local convective mixing of the original ACM with local eddy diff...

  14. Sexual selection affects local extinction and turnover in bird communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F., Jr.; Sorci, G.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting extinction risks has become a central goal for conservation and evolutionary biologists interested in population and community dynamics. Several factors have been put forward to explain risks of extinction, including ecological and life history characteristics of individuals. For instance, factors that affect the balance between natality and mortality can have profound effects on population persistence. Sexual selection has been identified as one such factor. Populations under strong sexual selection experience a number of costs ranging from increased predation and parasitism to enhanced sensitivity to environmental and demographic stochasticity. These findings have led to the prediction that local extinction rates should be higher for species/populations with intense sexual selection. We tested this prediction by analyzing the dynamics of natural bird communities at a continental scale over a period of 21 years (1975-1996), using relevant statistical tools. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, we found that sexual selection increased risks of local extinction (dichromatic birds had on average a 23% higher local extinction rate than monochromatic species). However, despite higher local extinction probabilities, the number of dichromatic species did not decrease over the period considered in this study. This pattern was caused by higher local turnover rates of dichromatic species, resulting in relatively stable communities for both groups of species. Our results suggest that these communities function as metacommunities, with frequent local extinctions followed by colonization. Anthropogenic factors impeding dispersal might therefore have a significant impact on the global persistence of sexually selected species.

  15. Vertical air mass exchange driven by the local circulation on the northern slope of Mount Everest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Libo; Zou, Han; Ma, Shupo; Li, Peng; Zhu, Jinhuan; Huo, Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    To better understand vertical air mass exchange driven by local circulation in the Himalayas, the volume flux of air mass is estimated in the Rongbuk Valley on the northern slope of Mount Everest, based on a volume closure method and wind-profiler measurements during the HEST2006 campaign in June 2006. Vertical air mass exchange was found to be dominated by a strong downward mass transfer from the late morning to late night. The average vertical air volume flux was 0.09 m s-1, which could be equivalent to a daily ventilation of 30 times the enclosed valley volume. This vertical air mass exchange process was greatly affected by the evolution of the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM), with a strong downward transfer during the SASM break stage, and a weak transfer during the SASM active stage.

  16. Local Perturbations Do Not Affect Stability of Laboratory Fruitfly Metapopulations

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sutirth; Joshi, Amitabh

    2007-01-01

    Background A large number of theoretical studies predict that the dynamics of spatially structured populations (metapopulations) can be altered by constant perturbations to local population size. However, these studies presume large metapopulations inhabiting noise-free, zero-extinction environments, and their predictions have never been empirically verified. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report an empirical study on the effects of localized perturbations on global dynamics and stability, using fruitfly metapopulations in the laboratory. We find that constant addition of individuals to a particular subpopulation in every generation stabilizes that subpopulation locally, but does not have any detectable effect on the dynamics and stability of the metapopulation. Simulations of our experimental system using a simple but widely applicable model of population dynamics were able to recover the empirical findings, indicating the generality of our results. We then simulated the possible consequences of perturbing more subpopulations, increasing the strength of perturbations, and varying the rate of migration, but found that none of these conditions were expected to alter the outcomes of our experiments. Finally, we show that our main results are robust to the presence of local extinctions in the metapopulation. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that localized perturbations are unlikely to affect the dynamics of real metapopulations, a finding that has cautionary implications for ecologists and conservation biologists faced with the problem of stabilizing unstable metapopulations in nature. PMID:17311100

  17. An approximate local thermodynamic nonequilibrium radiation model for air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gally, Thomas A.; Carlson, Leland A.

    1992-01-01

    A radiatively coupled viscous shock layer analysis program which includes chemical and thermal nonequilibrium is used to calculate stagnation point flow profiles for typical aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle conditions. Two methods of predicting local thermodynamic nonequilibrium radiation effects are used as a first and second order approximation to this phenomena. Tabulated results for both nitrogen and air freestreams are given with temperature, species, and radiation profiles for some air conditions. Two body solution results are shown for 45 and 60 degree hyperboloid bodies at 12 km/sec and 80 km altitude. The presented results constitute an advancement in the engineering modeling of radiating nonequilibrium reentry flows.

  18. Fuzzy clustering of infrared images applied in air leak localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Nan; Peng, Guang-zheng; Jiang, Mu-zhou

    2009-07-01

    Most current research into the localization of leaks is focused on leaks of petroleum and natural gas pipelines, while there is very little new work being done on the leakage of vessels. A novel air-leak diagnosis and localization method based on infrared thermography is described in this paper, which is developed in an attempt to overcome the disadvantages of low efficiency and poor anti-jamming ability associated with the traditional approaches to localization of leaks from a vessel. The method achieves leak positioning through a factor θ based kernelized fuzzy clustering segmentation done to weighted differential thermal images of the test objects. The temperature difference factor θ is inventively built as a parameter changed with temperature range of the target region, in order to enhance the robustness and the interference proof ability of the algorithm. Heat transfer simulation with air-leak flow is addressed by the finite element analysis. The experimental results indicate that the method proposed is effective and sensitive. The purpose of air-leak localization has been reached.

  19. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Olson, Zachary H; Beasley, James C; Rhodes, Olin E

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically. PMID:26886299

  20. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Zachary H.; Beasley, James C.; Rhodes, Olin E.

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically. PMID:26886299

  1. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  2. Acute exposure to Buenos Aires air particles (UAP-BA) induces local and systemic inflammatory response in middle-aged mice: A time course study.

    PubMed

    Orona, Nadia S; Ferraro, Sebastián A; Astort, Francisco; Morales, Celina; Brites, Fernando; Boero, Laura; Tiscornia, Gisela; Maglione, Guillermo A; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Yakisich, Sebastian; Tasat, Deborah R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbimortality. However, PM doesn't affect equally to all people, being the old cohort the most susceptible and studied. We hypothesized that another specific life phase, the middle-aged subpopulation, may be negatively affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze in vivo the acute biological impact of two environmental particles, Urban Air Particles from Buenos Aires and Residual Oil Fly Ash, on the cardiorespiratory system of middle-aged mice, evaluating oxidative metabolism and inflammation. Both PM provoked a local and systemic inflammatory response, leading to a reduced alveolar area in the lung, an epicard inflammation in the heart, an increment of IL-6, and a reduction on PON 1 activity in serum of middle-aged animals. The positive correlation of local parameters with systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation could be responsible for associations of cardiovascular morbimortality in this subpopulation. PMID:26255684

  3. Impact of aircraft plume dynamics on airport local air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven R. H.; Britter, Rex E.; Waitz, Ian A.

    2013-08-01

    Air quality degradation in the locality of airports poses a public health hazard. The ability to quantitatively predict the air quality impacts of airport operations is of importance for assessing the air quality and public health impacts of airports today, of future developments, and for evaluating approaches for mitigating these impacts. However, studies such as the Project for the Sustainable Development of Heathrow have highlighted shortcomings in understanding of aircraft plume dispersion. Further, if national or international aviation environmental policies are to be assessed, a computationally efficient method of modeling aircraft plume dispersion is needed. To address these needs, we describe the formulation and validation of a three-dimensional integral plume model appropriate for modeling aircraft exhaust plumes at airports. We also develop a simplified concentration correction factor approach to efficiently account for dispersion processes particular to aircraft plumes. The model is used to explain monitoring station results in the London Heathrow area showing that pollutant concentrations are approximately constant over wind speeds of 3-12 m s-1, and is applied to reproduce empirically derived relationships between engine types and peak NOx concentrations at Heathrow. We calculated that not accounting for aircraft plume dynamics would result in a factor of 1.36-2.3 over-prediction of the mean NOx concentration (depending on location), consistent with empirical evidence of a factor of 1.7 over-prediction. Concentration correction factors are also calculated for aircraft takeoff, landing and taxi emissions, providing an efficient way to account for aircraft plume effects in atmospheric dispersion models.

  4. Factors affecting survivability of local Rohilkhand goats under organized farm

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, D.; Patel, B. H. M.; Sahu, S.; Gaur, G. K.; Singh, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the pattern of mortality as affected by age, season and various diseases in local goats of Rohilkhand region maintained at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly. Materials and Methods: Post-mortem records of 12 years (2000-01 to 2011-12) were used, and total 243 mortality data were collected and analyzed. The causes of mortality were classified into seven major classes viz. digestive disorders, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, musculoskeletal disorder, parasitic disorders, mixed disorders (combination of digestive, respiratory, parasitic, and cardiovascular disorders) and miscellaneous disorders (cold, hypoglycemia, emaciation, endometritis, traumatic injury, etc.). Results: The average mortality was 10.93%. The overall mortality was more during rainy season followed by winter and summer season. The mortality in 4-6 months of age was high (2.52%) followed by 0-1 month (2.34%) and 2-3 months (1.35%). The average mortality among adult age groups (>12 months) was 3.42%. The mortality showed declining trend with the advancement of age up to 3 months and then again increased in 4-6 months age group. The digestive diseases (3.51%) followed by respiratory diseases (1.89%) and parasitic diseases (1.48%) contributed major share to the total mortality occurred and the remaining disorders were of lesser significance in causing death in goats. There is significant (p<0.01; χ2=55.62) association between year with season and age with the season (p<0.05, χ2=16.083) found in the present study. Conclusion: This study confirms that overall mortality rate averaged 10.93% (ranged between 1.10% and 25.56%) over 12 years under semi-intensive farm condition. It was generally higher in rainy season. The mortality remains higher in kids particularly under 1 month of age. The digestive diseases contributed major share to overall mortality. PMID:27047020

  5. Agriculture as a source of Aeolian sediment affecting air quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeolian processes on agricultural lands have been examined for the past several decades on nearly every continent and has led to a better understanding of detachment, entrainment, transport, and deposition. Relatively little is known concerning the effect of these processes on air quality. In fact, ...

  6. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  7. Understanding temporal patterns and characteristics of air quality in Beijing: A local and regional perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ziyue; Xu, Bing; Cai, Jun; Gao, Bingbo

    2016-02-01

    Sources, characteristics and seasonal variation of airborne pollutants in China, especially in Beijing, have been massively examined. However, most studies analyze local air quality from an isolated perspective and interactions between local and regional air quality have not been fully considered. This research attempts to evaluate Beijing air quality at the local and regional scale. The weighted cross correlogram spectral matching (CCSM) and convergent cross mapping (CCM) method are employed for similarity and causality analysis respectively. At the local scale, the air quality in Beijing experiences frequent and sudden change, yet changes smoothly across a day's time. At the regional scale, the air quality in Beijing and four neighboring cities is compared. The result suggests that although air quality in Beijing and neighboring cities is of some differences, strong bidirectional coupling exists between the local and regional air quality. The research indicates that air quality in Beijing is better than the general situation in this region, and Tianjin should be a good comparative site for monitoring and evaluating air quality in Beijing. This research provides a feasible methodology for comprehensive analysis of local air quality at multiple scales, which may shed some lights on the forthcoming implementation of local air quality evaluation.

  8. Assessing Rail Yard Impact on Local Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a technical presentation at the Air and Waste Management Association Measurements Symposium occurring in Durham, NC in April, 2012. The presentation describes preliminary results from air pollution measurements collected surrounding a rail yard in Chicago, IL.

  9. How do emission patterns in megacities affect regional air pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, A.; Richter, C.; Schroeder, S.; Schultz, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Megacities around the world show distinctly different emission patterns in terms of absolute amounts and emission ratios of individual chemical compounds due to varying socio-economic developments and technological standards. The emission patterns influence the chemical reactivity of the urban pollution plume, and hence determine air quality in and around megacity areas. In this study, which is part of the European project CITYZEN (megaCITY - Zoom for the ENvironment), the effects of emission changes in four selected megacity areas on air pollution were investigated: BeNeLux (BNL), Istanbul (IST), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Sao Paulo (SAP). The study aims at answering the question: how would air pollution in megacity X change if it had the same urban emissions per capita as megacity Y? Model simulations with the global chemistry climate model ECHAM5-MOZ were carried out for the year 2001 using a resolution of about 2 degrees in the horizontal and of 31 levels (surface to 10 hPa) in the vertical. The model was driven by meteorological input data from the ECMWF ERA Interim reanalysis. Emissions were taken from the gridded global ACCMIP emission inventory recently established for use in chemistry-climate simulations in connection to the IPCC-AR5 assessments (Lamarque et al. 2010). We carried out sensitivity simulations where emission patterns from each of the megacity areas were replaced by those from all others. This was done on the basis of the per capita emissions for each species and sector averaged over the respective region. Total per capita CO and NMVOC emissions are highest in PRD and lowest in SAP while total per capita NOx emissions are highest in BNL and lowest in SAP. There are strong differences in the relative contribution of the urban sectors to total emissions of individual compounds. As a result, each of the four megacity areas exhibits a very characteristic NMVOC speciation profile which determines the NMVOC-related photochemical ozone (O_3

  10. Socioeconomic factors affecting local support for black bear recovery strategies.

    PubMed

    Morzillo, Anita T; Mertig, Angela G; Hollister, Jeffrey W; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species' historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict. PMID:20401658

  11. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  12. Alternative splicing affects the subcellular localization of Drosha

    PubMed Central

    Link, Steffen; Grund, Stefanie E.; Diederichs, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The RNase III enzyme Drosha is a key factor in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and as such indispensable for cellular homeostasis and developmental processes. Together with its co-factor DGCR8, it converts the primary transcript (pri-miRNA) into the precursor hairpin (pre-miRNA) in the nucleus. While the middle and the C-terminal domain are crucial for pri-miRNA processing and DGCR8 binding, the function of the N-terminus remains cryptic. Different studies have linked this region to the subcellular localization of Drosha, stabilization and response to stress. In this study, we identify alternatively spliced Drosha transcripts that are devoid of a part of the arginine/serine-rich (RS-rich) domain and expressed in a large set of human cells. In contrast to their expected habitation, we find two isoforms also present in the cytoplasm, while the other two isoforms reside exclusively in the nucleus. Their processing activity for pri-miRNAs and the binding to co-factors remains unaltered. In multiple cell lines, the endogenous mRNA expression of the Drosha isoforms correlates with the localization of endogenous Drosha proteins. The pri-miRNA processing efficiency is not significantly different between groups of cells with or without cytoplasmic Drosha expression. In summary, we discovered novel isoforms of Drosha with differential subcellular localization pointing toward additional layers of complexity in the regulation of its activity. PMID:27185895

  13. Alternative splicing affects the subcellular localization of Drosha.

    PubMed

    Link, Steffen; Grund, Stefanie E; Diederichs, Sven

    2016-06-20

    The RNase III enzyme Drosha is a key factor in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and as such indispensable for cellular homeostasis and developmental processes. Together with its co-factor DGCR8, it converts the primary transcript (pri-miRNA) into the precursor hairpin (pre-miRNA) in the nucleus. While the middle and the C-terminal domain are crucial for pri-miRNA processing and DGCR8 binding, the function of the N-terminus remains cryptic. Different studies have linked this region to the subcellular localization of Drosha, stabilization and response to stress. In this study, we identify alternatively spliced Drosha transcripts that are devoid of a part of the arginine/serine-rich (RS-rich) domain and expressed in a large set of human cells. In contrast to their expected habitation, we find two isoforms also present in the cytoplasm, while the other two isoforms reside exclusively in the nucleus. Their processing activity for pri-miRNAs and the binding to co-factors remains unaltered. In multiple cell lines, the endogenous mRNA expression of the Drosha isoforms correlates with the localization of endogenous Drosha proteins. The pri-miRNA processing efficiency is not significantly different between groups of cells with or without cytoplasmic Drosha expression. In summary, we discovered novel isoforms of Drosha with differential subcellular localization pointing toward additional layers of complexity in the regulation of its activity. PMID:27185895

  14. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  15. Local bacteria affect the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lehouritis, Panos; Cummins, Joanne; Stanton, Michael; Murphy, Carola T.; McCarthy, Florence O.; Reid, Gregor; Urbaniak, Camilla; Byrne, William L.; Tangney, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the potential effects of bacteria on the efficacy of frequently used chemotherapies was examined. Bacteria and cancer cell lines were examined in vitro and in vivo for changes in the efficacy of cancer cell killing mediated by chemotherapeutic agents. Of 30 drugs examined in vitro, the efficacy of 10 was found to be significantly inhibited by certain bacteria, while the same bacteria improved the efficacy of six others. HPLC and mass spectrometry analyses of sample drugs (gemcitabine, fludarabine, cladribine, CB1954) demonstrated modification of drug chemical structure. The chemoresistance or increased cytotoxicity observed in vitro with sample drugs (gemcitabine and CB1954) was replicated in in vivo murine subcutaneous tumour models. These findings suggest that bacterial presence in the body due to systemic or local infection may influence tumour responses or off-target toxicity during chemotherapy. PMID:26416623

  16. How Clean is your Local Air? Here's an app for that

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, M.; Yang, E.; Christopher, S. A.; Keiser, K.; Nair, U. S.; Graves, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Air quality is a vital element of our environment. Accurate and localized air quality information is critical for characterizing environmental impacts at the local and regional levels. Advances in location-aware handheld devices and air quality modeling have enabled a group of UAHuntsville scientists to develop a mobile app, LocalAQI, that informs users of current conditions and forecasts of up to twenty-four hours, of air quality indices. The air quality index is based on Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ). UAHuntsville scientists have used satellite remote sensing products as inputs to CMAQ, resulting in forecast guidance for particulate matter air quality. The CMAQ output is processed to compute a standardized air quality index. Currently, the air quality index is available for the eastern half of the United States. LocalAQI consists of two main views: air quality index view and map view. The air quality index view displays current air quality for the zip code of a location of interest. Air quality index value is translated into a color-coded advisory system. In addition, users are able to cycle through available hourly forecasts for a location. This location-aware app defaults to the current air quality of user's location. The map view displays color-coded air quality information for the eastern US with an ability to animate through the available forecasts. The app is developed using a cross-platform native application development tool, appcelerator; hence LocalAQI is available for iOS and Android-based phones and pads.

  17. LOCAL AIR: Local Aerosol monitoring combining in-situ and Remote Sensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Caggiano, Rosa; Donvito, Angelo; Giannini, Vincenzo; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Sarli, Valentina; Trippetta, Serena

    2015-04-01

    local sources, which in the troposphere, where there are aerosols transported over long distances by the phenomena of atmospheric circulation. The purpose of the LOCAL AIR project is the development of a methodology for using synergistic data at different resolutions (ground measurements, remote sensing from ground and satellite) as an effective tool for the characterization of tropospheric aerosols on a local scale. The backbone of the project is the long-term ground-based measurements collected at CIAO (CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory) plus the CALIPSO observations.. The location of the plethora of instruments and measurements of atmospheric interest available at CNR-IMAA makes it a sample site not only for the realization of the methodology, but also allows a feasibility study of this method in the absence of some by analysis of the measures considered in the scaling down of the algorithm developed. It will be evaluated the applicability and reliability of the algorithm implemented for the characterization of the aerosol content to the ground in other places of special interest. Acknowledgments: LOCAL AIR is supported by PO FSE Basilicata 2007-2013 Azione n. 45/AP/05/2013/REG - CUP: G53G13000300009.

  18. Bio-Inspired In-Air Sonar Localization: What Artificial Pinnae do for Robotic Bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillebeeckx, Filips

    This dissertation investigates the hypothesis that binaural spectral cues, as generated by biomimetic microphone-baffle shapes in a suitable configuration, are both a sufficient and efficient means to realize real-time 3D localization capabilities for an in-air sonar system. We demonstrate 3D localization of real reflectors under realistic noise conditions, a task previously not performed successfully with a single binaural sonar measurement. The principal driving force behind this new approach is the use of two complex artificial pinna structures acting as complex direction-dependent spectral filters on the returning echoes. The technique makes use of broadband spectral cues in the received echoes only. Experiments with complex reflectors illustrate that the active head-related transfer function dominates the echo spectrum, allowing 3D localization in the presence of spectrum distortions caused by unknown reflector filtering. Also, experimental results in which multiple targets are localized simultaneously are presented. It is then investigated how binaural sonar system configuration choices affect 3D spectrum-based reflector localization. The proposed model demonstrates the limits of the spectral cue information provided by conventional transducers. Configurations composed of conventional receivers are evaluated as a function of unknown reflection strength and compared with a system with artificial pinnae receivers. Localization performance is quantified by an information theoretic performance criterion expressing the mutual information carried by a binaural spectrum on the corresponding 3D reflector location. Optimal configurations with conventional transducers are shown to be a function of echo reflection strength and the specific region of interest. The more complex spatial sensitivity patterns of organic pinna forms such as that of the Phyllostomus discolor bat species provide additional spectral cues that greatly improve localization information transfer

  19. Air pollution information activities at state and local agencies--United States, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-08

    Because air pollution is a pervasive environmental health problem in the United States, one of the national health objectives for the year 2000 is to increase from 49.7% to 85.0% the proportion of persons who live in counties that have not exceeded any air quality standard during the previous 12 months (1). Public support for air pollution control efforts is critical if this national health objective is to be achieved. To characterize public health information activities related to air pollution, in 1992, the State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators (STAPPA) and the Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials (ALAPCO), with the assistance of CDC, conducted a survey of state and local air pollution control agencies. This report summarizes the findings of that survey.

  20. Identification of processes affecting excess air formation during natural bank filtration and managed aquifer recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, Gudrun; Sültenfuß, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    SummaryManaged aquifer recharge is gaining importance as a practice to bank and treat surface water for drinking water production. Neon (Ne) concentrations were analysed at four different recharge sites in and near Berlin, where groundwater is recharged directly from surface water courses, either by near-natural bank filtration, induced bank filtration or engineered basin recharge. Neon concentrations in excess of saturation (ΔNe) were used to identify excess air in the infiltrates. Excess air concentrations were around saturation at the near-natural bank filtration site, where river water infiltrates through a permeable river bed into a confined aquifer under completely saturated conditions. At two induced unconfined bank filtration sites, samples generally contained excess air (up to 60% ΔNe). Highest excess air concentrations (up to 81% ΔNe) were encountered at the engineered basin recharge site. The degree of water table fluctuations, the water saturation of the sediments in the infiltration zone and the presence of a confining layer affect the formation of excess air. Excess air can only be used to trace bank filtrate or artificially recharged water in a setting where the ambient groundwater in the near vicinity of production wells is not affected by large water-table fluctuations. Nevertheless, excess air concentrations provide valuable additional information on the type of recharge (saturated or unsaturated, degree of water table fluctuations).

  1. Dengue Virus 1 in Buenos Aires from 1999 to 2010: Towards Local Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tittarelli, Estefanía; Mistchenko, Alicia S.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a public health problem representing the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in humans. In Argentina, Northern provinces have reported autochthonous cases since 1997, though these outbreaks have originated in bordering countries, where co-circulation of more than one serotype has been reported. In the last decade, imported dengue cases have been reported in Buenos Aires, the urban area of Argentina with the highest population density. In 2009, a dengue outbreak affected Buenos Aires and, for the first time, local transmission was detected. All cases of this outbreak were caused by DENV-1. In this report, we present the full-length sequences of 27 DENV-1 isolates, corresponding to imported cases of 1999–2000, as well as local and imported cases of the 2009 and 2010 outbreaks. We analyzed their phylogenetic and phylodynamic relationships and their global and local spread. Additionally, we characterized their genomic and phenotypic features. All cases belonged to DENV-1 genotype V. The most recent ancestor for this genotype was dated ∼1934, whereas that for the 2009 outbreak was dated ∼2007. The mean rates of nucleotide substitution were 4.98E-4 and 8.53E-4 subs./site/yr, respectively. We inferred an introduction from Paraguay in 1999–2000 and mainly from Venezuela during 2009–2010. Overall, the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site significantly exceeded the number of non-synonymous substitutions per site and 12 positively selected sites were detected. These analyses could contribute to a better understanding regarding spread and evolution of this pathogen in the Southern Cone of South America. PMID:25343372

  2. Local air quality constraints on energy growth, 1985-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D.G.

    1980-03-01

    This report examines the potential future conflict between energy growth and environmental protection, from the perspective of siting constraints imposed by requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977. County-level projections of additional utility powerplant capacity and increases in industrial coal, oil, and gas consumption are derived for the period 1985 to 1990. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulate matter, after the application of appropriate control systems, are converted to changes in ambient air quality using a proportional modeling approach. These changes are then compared with Nonattainment and Prevention of Significant Deterioration requirements, and the energy activity is considered to be constrained if a violation is projected. Total percentages of constrained energy activity are developed for the nation, and the geographical patterns of significant impacts are presented.

  3. Localization using ground- and air-based acoustic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Geoffrey H.; Reiff, Chris

    2011-06-01

    Techniques were developed to localize acoustic quasiperiodic signals using microphone arrays located on the ground and on an aerostat. The direction of arrival (DOA) was computed at each array and then the position of the source was estimated using algorithms based upon triangulation. Differential time delays between the microphones in a tetrahedral array were estimated in the frequency domain, and then DOA estimates were calculated using a weighted least squares approach. The location of the target was calculated by minimizing the weighted squared error of a cost function for different combinations of DOA estimates. The algorithms were tested offline using data collected by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory on an aircraft. The ground-truth position of the target was recorded using a GPS system as it maneuvered and compared to the results obtained from the localization algorithms. The algorithms performed well when estimating the x and y positions, but had difficulty obtaining consistently good z positions, or equivalently, height estimates.

  4. Environmental equity in air quality management: local and international implications for human health and climate change.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Marie S; Kinney, Patrick L; Cohen, Aaron J

    2008-01-01

    The health burden of environmental exposures, including ambient air pollution and climate-change-related health impacts, is not equally distributed between or within regions and countries. These inequalities are currently receiving increased attention in environmental research as well as enhanced appreciation in environmental policy, where calls for environmental equity are more frequently heard. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 Global Update of the Air Quality Guidelines attempted to address the global-scale inequalities in exposures to air pollution and the burden of diseases due to air pollution. The guidelines stop short, however, of addressing explicitly the inequalities in exposure and adverse health effects within countries and urban areas due to differential distribution of sources of air pollution such as motor vehicles and local industry, and differences in susceptibility to the adverse health effects attributed to air pollution. These inequalities, may, however, be addressed in local air quality and land use management decisions. Locally, community-based participatory research can play an important role in documenting potential inequities and fostering corrective action. Research on environmental inequities will also benefit from current efforts to (1) better understand social determinants of health and (2) apply research evidence to reduce health disparities. Similarly, future research and policy action will benefit from stronger linkages between equity concerns related to health consequences of both air pollution exposure and climate change, since combustion products are important contributors to both of these environmental problems. PMID:18569628

  5. Political Factors Affecting the Enactment of State-Level Clean Indoor Air Laws

    PubMed Central

    Vernick, Jon S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of key political institutional factors on the advancement of state-level clean indoor air laws. Methods. We performed an observational study of state-level clean indoor air law enactment among all 50 US states from 1993 to 2010 by using extended Cox hazard models to assess risk of enacting a relevant law. Results. During the 18-year period from 1993 to 2010, 28 states passed a law covering workplaces, 33 states passed a law covering restaurants, 29 states passed a law covering bars, and 16 states passed a law covering gaming facilities. States with term limits had a 2.15 times greater hazard (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27, 3.65; P = .005) of enacting clean indoor air laws. The presence of state-level preemption of local clean indoor air laws was associated with a 3.26 times greater hazard (95% CI = 1.11, 9.53; P = .031) of state-level policy enactment. In the presence of preemption, increased legislative professionalism was strongly associated (hazard ratio = 3.28; 95% CI = 1.10, 9.75; P = .033) with clean indoor air law enactment. Conclusions. Political institutional factors do influence state-level clean indoor air law enactment and may be relevant to other public health policy areas. PMID:24825239

  6. Factors affecting air sparging remediation systems using field data and numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Benner, Michael L; Mohtar, Rabi H; Lee, Linda S

    2002-12-01

    Field data from five air sparging sites were used to assess the effect of several soil, contaminant, and air sparging system factors on the removal time and associated costs required to reach specified clean-up criteria. Numerical simulations were also performed to better assess the field data and to expand the data sets beyond the five field sites. Ten factors were selected and evaluated individually over a range of values based on information from practitioners and the literature. Trends in removal time and removal cost to reach a specified clean-up criterion were analyzed to ascertain the conditions controlling contaminant removal with variations in each factors' value. A linear sensitivity equation was used to quantify system dynamics controlling the observed contaminant removal trends for each factor. Factors found most critical across all field sites in terms of removal time and/or cost were contaminant type, sparge pulsing schedule, number of wells, maximum biodecay rate, total soil porosity, and aquifer organic carbon content. Factors showing moderate to low effect included the depth of the sparge point below the water table, air injection rate/pressure, horizontal air conductivity, and anisotropy ratio. At each field site, subsurface coverage of sparged air, sparged air residence time, contaminant equilibrium in the system, contaminant phase distribution, oxygen availability to microbes, and contaminant volatility seem to control the system responses and were affected by one or more of the 10 factors evaluated. PMID:12423944

  7. Open Air Silicon Deposition by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma under Local Ambient Gas Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report open air silicon (Si) deposition by combining a silane free Si deposition technology and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. Recently, material processing in open air has been investigated intensively. While a variety of materials have been deposited, there were only few reports on Si deposition due to the susceptibility to contamination and the hazardous nature of source materials. Since Si deposition is one of the most important processes in device fabrication, we have developed open air silicon deposition technologies in BEANS project. For a clean and safe process, a local ambient gas control head was designed. Process gas leakage was prevented by local evacuation, and air contamination was shut out by inert curtain gas. By numerical and experimental investigations, a safe and clean process condition with air contamination less than 10 ppm was achieved. Si film was deposited in open air by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under the local ambient gas control. The film was microcrystalline Si with the crystallite size of 17 nm, and the Hall mobility was 2.3 cm2/V .s. These properties were comparable to those of Si films deposited in a vacuum chamber. This research has been conducted as one of the research items of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization ``BEANS'' project.

  8. Ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide affects flight activity in bees

    SciTech Connect

    Ginevan, M.E.; Lane, D.D.; Greenberg, L.

    1980-10-01

    Three long-term (16 to 29 days) low-level (0.14 to 0.28 ppM) sulfur dioxide fumigations showed that exposure tothis gas has deleterious effects on male sweat bees (Lasioglossum zephrum). Although effects on mortality were equivocal, flight activity was definitely reduced. Because flight is necessary for successful mating behavior, the results suggest that sulfur dioxide air pollution could adversely affect this and doubtless other terrestrial insects.

  9. Affect of Air Leakage into a Thermal-Vacuum Chamber on Helium Refrigeration Heat Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Sam; Meagher, Daniel; Linza, Robert; Saheli, Fariborz; Vargas, Gerardo; Lauterbach, John; Reis, Carl; Ganni, Venkatarao (Rao); Homan, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) Building 32 houses two large thermal-vacuum chambers (Chamber A and Chamber B). Within these chambers are liquid nitrogen shrouds to provide a thermal environment and helium panels which operate at 20K to provide cryopumping. Some amount of air leakage into the chambers during tests is inevitable. This causes "air fouling" of the helium panel surfaces due to the components of the air that adhere to the panels. The air fouling causes the emittance of the helium panels to increase during tests. The increase in helium panel emittance increases the heat load on the helium refrigerator that supplies the 20K helium for those panels. Planning for thermal-vacuum tests should account for this increase to make sure that the helium refrigerator capacity will not be exceeded over the duration of a test. During a recent test conducted in Chamber B a known-size air leak was introduced to the chamber. Emittance change of the helium panels and the affect on the helium refrigerator was characterized. A description of the test and the results will be presented.

  10. Summary of gamma spectrometry on local air samples from 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1997-04-02

    This report summarizes the 1985--1995 results of low-level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis of high-volume air samples collected at the Aiken Airport, which is about 25 miles north of SRS. The author began analyzing these samples with new calibrations using the newly developed GRABGAM code in 1985. The air sample collections were terminated in 1995, as the facilities at the Aiken Airport were no longer available. Air sample measurements prior to 1985 were conducted with a different analysis system (and by others prior to 1984), and the data were not readily available. The report serves to closeout this phase of local NTS air sample studies, while documenting the capabilities and accomplishments. Hopefully, the information will guide other applications for this technology, both locally and elsewhere.

  11. Local quenching phenomena of a lean premixed flat flame impinging with a pulsating air jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahagi, Y.; Makino, I.

    2014-08-01

    Local quenching phenomena of a lean methane air premixed flat flame formed horizontally in a wall stagnating flow impinging with a pulsating air jet has been investigated experimentally. The burner system consists of 40mm inverted nozzle burner and a solid wall with 8mm diameter air jet placed in line vertically. The pulsating frequencies set up to 100Hz while the jet intensities generate up to 6 m/s by a loud speaker. Approximately '00mm disk shape flame front is curved by the pulsating air jet and the air jet impacting point is locally quenched. The fuel concentration of quenching start condition increases with increasing the intensity of air jet, because the increased jet intensity linked with the flame strain rate gain. For weak jet intensity range, the quenching hole becomes directly to develop the whole flame extinction. On the other hand, for moderate or strong jet condition, the flame can recover from the local quenching phenomena. In this condition, once the quenching hole creates, but the hole may close by the flame propagation or reigniting process. Then, the whole flame extinction limits are lower than no jet impacting condition depending on the circumstances.

  12. Variability of local PM10 mass concentrations in connection with blocking air circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ştefan, Sabina; Roman, Iuliana

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the temporal variability of Particulate Matter mass concentrations in connection with air circulation, for eight rural sites situated in the Central and Eastern parts of Europe. The stations from Poland, Hungary and Romania are rural stations without sources of pollutants. The analysis covers four winters, between December 2004 and February 2008. The pollution episodes were selected to explain air circulation influence. The results show that the causes of pollution were local, due to high mean sea level pressure and the blocking, as air circulation on large scale, was dominant in the cases of enhanced pollution in the selected area.

  13. Local-Scale Air Quality Modeling in Support of Human Health and Exposure Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, V.

    2010-12-01

    Spatially- and temporally-sparse information on air quality is a key concern for air-pollution-related environmental health studies. Monitor networks are sparse in both space and time, are costly to maintain, and are often designed purposely to avoid detecting highly localized sources. Recent studies have shown that more narrowly defining the geographic domain of the study populations and improvements in the measured/estimated ambient concentrations can lead to stronger associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and mortality records. Traditionally, ambient air quality measurements have been used as a primary input to support human health and exposure research. However, there is increasing evidence that the current ambient monitoring network is not capturing sharp gradients in exposure due to the presence of high concentration levels near, for example, major roadways. Many air pollutants exhibit large concentration gradients near large emitters such as major roadways, factories, ports, etc. To overcome these limitations, researchers are now beginning to use air quality models to support air pollution exposure and health studies. There are many advantages to using air quality models over traditional approaches based on existing ambient measurements alone. First, models can provide spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations as direct input to exposure and health studies and thus better defining the concentration levels for the population in the geographic domain. Air quality models have a long history of use in air pollution regulations, and supported by regulatory agencies and a large user community. Also, models can provide bidirectional linkages between sources of emissions and ambient concentrations, thus allowing exploration of various mitigation strategies to reduce risk to exposure. In order to provide best estimates of air concentrations to support human health and exposure studies, model estimates should consider local-scale features

  14. Diffusion of gases in air and its affect on oxygen deficiency hazard abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Theilacker, J.C.; White, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    Density differences between air and released gases of cryogenic systems have been used to either require special oxygen deficiency hazard (ODH) control measures, or as a means of abatement. For example, it is not uncommon to assume that helium spills will quickly collect at the ceiling of a building or enclosure and will efficiently exit at the nearest vertical penetration or vent. Oxygen concentration reduction was found to be detectable during a localized helium spill throughout the entire 6.3 km Tevatron tunnel. This prompted us to perform diffusion tests in air with common gases used at Fermilab. The tests showed that gases, more readily than expected, diffused through an air column in the direction opposing buoyancy. Test results for helium and sulfur hexafluoride are presented. A system of tests were performed to better understand how easily released gases would fully mix with air and whether they remained fully mixed. The test results have been applied to a new system at Fermilab for ODH abatement.

  15. Emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants from mobile sources: Insights from integrating real-time traffic data into local air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gately, Conor; Hutyra, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, on-road mobile sources were responsible for over 26% of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (ffCO2) emissions, and over 34% of both CO and NOx emissions. However, accurate representations of these emissions at the scale of urban areas remains a difficult challenge. Quantifying emissions at the scale of local streets and highways is critical to provide policymakers with the information needed to develop appropriate mitigation strategies and to guide research into the underlying process that drive mobile emissions. Quantification of vehicle ffCO2 emissions at high spatial and temporal resolutions requires a detailed synthesis of data on traffic activity, roadway attributes, fleet characteristics and vehicle speeds. To accurately characterize criteria air pollutant emissions, information on local meteorology is also critical, as the temperature and relative humidity can affect emissions rates of these pollutants by as much as 400%. As the health impacts of air pollutants are more severe for residents living in close proximity (<500m) to road sources, it is critical that inventories of these emissions rely on highly resolved source data to locate potential hot-spots of exposure. In this study we utilize real-time GPS estimates of vehicle speeds to estimate ffCO2 and criteria air pollutant emissions at multiple spatial and temporal scales across a large metropolitan area. We observe large variations in emissions associated with diurnal activity patterns, congestion, sporting and civic events, and weather anomalies. We discuss the advantages and challenges of using highly-resolved source data to quantify emissions at a roadway scale, and the potential of this methodology for forecasting the air quality impacts of changes in infrastructure, urban planning policies, and regional climate.

  16. [Spatiotemporal distribution of negative air ion concentration in urban area and related affecting factors: a review].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Jian; Zeng, Hong-Da; Chen, Guang-Shui; Zhong, Xian-Fang

    2013-06-01

    Negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an important indicator comprehensively reflecting air quality, and has significance to human beings living environment. This paper summarized the spatiotemporal distribution features of urban NAI concentration, and discussed the causes of these features based on the characteristics of the environmental factors in urban area and their effects on the physical and chemical processes of NAI. The temporal distribution of NAI concentration is mainly controlled by the periodic variation of solar radiation, while the spatial distribution of NAI concentration along the urban-rural gradient is mainly affected by the urban aerosol distribution, underlying surface characters, and urban heat island effect. The high NAI concentration in urban green area is related to the vegetation life activities and soil radiation, while the higher NAI concentration near the water environment is attributed to the water molecules that participate in the generation of NAI through a variety of ways. The other environmental factors can also affect the generation, life span, component, translocation, and distribution of NAI to some extent. To increase the urban green space and atmospheric humidity and to maintain the soil natural attributes of underlying surface could be the effective ways to increase the urban NAI concentration and improve the urban air quality. PMID:24066568

  17. Salivary enzymes and exhaled air affect Streptococcus salivarius growth and physiological state in complemented artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Roger, P; Harn-Arsa, S; Delettre, J; Béal, C

    2011-12-01

    To better understand the phenomena governing the establishment of the oral bacterium Streptococcus salivarius in the mouth, the effect of some environmental factors has been studied in complemented artificial saliva, under oral pH and temperature conditions. Three salivary enzymes at physiological concentrations were tested: peroxidase, lysozyme and amylase, as well as injection of exhaled air. Injection of air containing 5% CO2 and 16% O2 induced a deleterious effect on S. salivarius K12, mainly by increasing redox potential. Addition of lysozyme slightly affected the physiological state of S. salivarius by altering membrane integrity. In contrast, peroxidase was not detrimental as it made it possible to decrease the redox potential. The addition of amylase reduced the specific growth rate of S. salivarius by formation of a complex with amylase and mucins, but led to high final biomass, as a result of enzymatic degradation of some nutrients. Finally, this work demonstrated that salivary enzymes had a slight impact on S. salivarius behaviour. It can thus be concluded that this bacterium was well adapted to in-mouth conditions, as it was able to resist certain salivary enzymes, even if tolerance to expired air was affected, as a result of an increased redox potential. PMID:21892611

  18. Unsteady behavior of locally strained diffusion flames affected by curvature and preferential diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kenji; Takagi, Toshimi

    1999-07-01

    Experimental and numerical studies are made of transient H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}--air counterflow diffusion flames unsteadily strained by an impinging micro jet. Two-dimensional temperature measurements by laser Rayleigh scattering method and numerical computations taking into account detailed chemical kinetics are conducted paying attention to transient local extinction and reignition in relation to the unsteadiness, flame curvature and preferential diffusion effects. The results are as follows. (1) Transient local flame extinction is observed where the micro jet impinges. But, the transient flame can survive instantaneously in spite of quite high stretch rate where the steady flame cannot exist. (2) Reignition is observed after the local extinction due to the micro air jet impingement. The temperature after reignition becomes significantly higher than that of the original flame. This high temperature is induced by the concentration of H{sub 2} species due to the preferential diffusion in relation to the concave curvature. The predicted behaviors of the local transient extinction and reignition are well confirmed by the experiments. (3) The reignition is induced after the formation of combustible premixed gas mixture and the consequent flame propagation. (4) The reignition is hardly observed after the extinction by micro fuel jet impingement. This is due to the dilution of H{sub 2} species induced by the preferential diffusion in relation to the convex curvature. (5) The maximum flame temperature cannot be rationalized by the stretch rate but changes widely depending on the unsteadiness and the flame curvature in relation with preferential diffusion.

  19. Impacts of South East Biomass Burning on local air quality in South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai-man Yeung, Irene; Fat Lam, Yun; Eniolu Morakinyo, Tobi

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of carbon monoxide and particulate matter, which is not only contribute to the local air pollution, but also regional air pollution. This study investigated the impacts of biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia (SEA) as well as its contribution to the local air pollution in East and South China Sea, including Hong Kong and Taiwan. Three years (2012 - 2014) of the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian-Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) with particles dispersion analyses using NCEP (Final) Operational Global Analysis data (FNL) data (2012 - 2014) were analyzed to track down all possible long-range transport from SEA with a sinking motion that worsened the surface air quality (tropospheric downwash from the free troposphere). The major sources of SEA biomass burning emissions were first identified using high fire emissions from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED), followed by the HYSPLIT backward trajectory dispersion modeling analysis. The analyses were compared with the local observation data from Tai Mo Shan (1,000 msl) and Tap Mun (60 msl) in Hong Kong, as well as the data from Lulin mountain (2,600 msl) in Taiwan, to assess the possible impacts of SEA biomass burning on local air quality. The correlation between long-range transport events from the particles dispersion results and locally observed air quality data indicated that the background concentrations of ozone, PM2.5 and PM10 at the surface stations were enhanced by 12 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 7 μg/m3, respectively, while the long-range transport contributed to enhancements of 4 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 8 μg/m3 for O3, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively at the lower free atmosphere.

  20. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local air quality of Mexico Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almanza, V. H.; Molina, L. T.; Li, G.; Fast, J.; Sosa, G.

    2013-10-01

    changes in the existing refinery is briefly discussed. These changes are due to the upcoming construction of a new refinery in Tula. The combination of emission reductions in the power plant, the refinery and in local sources in the MCMA could result in higher reductions on the average SO2 concentration. Reductions in external sources tend to affect more the northern part of the basin (-16.35% to -45.58%), whilst reductions of urban sources in the megacity tend to diminish SO2 levels substantially in the central, southwest, and southeast regions (-30.71% to -49.75%).

  1. Influence of local air flow regimes on the ozone content of two Pyrenean valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezcurra, A.; Benech, B.; Echelecou, A.; Santamaría, J. M.; Herrero, I.; Zulueta, E.

    2013-08-01

    The Pyrenees Mountains, the natural border between France and Spain, have experienced a large increase in road traffic in the last decade. Due to this fact, a research program named PAP (Pollution Atmospheric in the Pyrenees) was established in 2004 by several laboratories from Spain and France to address the influence of meteorological regimes on the pollution levels of two adjacent valleys, Aspe valley (France) and Canfranc valley (Spain), situated in the center of the Pyrenean range. Pollution measurements show that mean ozone concentrations increase with height. In Sarrance, the site placed at the bottom of the valleys at 335 m above sea level (ASL), the mean ozone value was 23 ppb, whereas at the Pic Midi observatory (2877 m ASL), the top of the PAP network, the value found for mean ozone values was 52 ppb. A linear trend fits this altitudinal variation with a vertical gradient of 17 ppb km-1. The data demonstrate that the observatories located over 1400 m ASL do not show the classical mean daily ozone cycle, and that mean ozone concentrations throughout the day are nearly constant. By contrast, below 1400 m ASL, the classical mean daily ozone cycle is clear, reaching a maximum around noon. These findings indicate that the photochemical reactions are almost inactive at the elevated observatories and, as a result, it can be concluded that ozone levels at those locations are mostly caused by advection of aged air masses. Consequently, we could find that the gradient inside the valleys follows a linear trend of 29 ppb km-1. Finally, it has been observed that in north Foehn situations, intrusions of polluted air coming from the Free Troposphere (FT) can be detected in the upper part of the Spanish valley of Canfranc, where the mean daily ozone cycle changes significantly and becomes similar to the ones measured at the stations situated above 1400 m ASL. However, the results also pointed out that, except for the Foehn situations, the different local air flow

  2. Temporal dynamics of a local fish community are strongly affected by immigration from the surrounding metacommunity

    PubMed Central

    Stoffels, Rick J; Clarke, Kenneth Robert; Linklater, Danielle S

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year time series of annual censuses was collected from a large floodplain lake to determine how dynamics of the local fish community were affected by changes in hydrological connectivity with the surrounding metacommunity. The lake was disconnected from the metacommunity for 1 year prior to our study and remained disconnected until 3 months before our third annual census, when a flood reconnected the lake to the metacommunity. We determined how changes in connectivity affected temporal dynamics of (1) local community composition and (2) the population composition, condition, and growth of catfish, to shed light on how immigration of other species might affect local population dynamics. Before reconnection, the community was likely shaped by interactions between the local environment and species traits. The reconnection caused significant immigration and change in community composition and correlated with a significant and abrupt decline in catfish condition, growth, and abundance; effects likely due to the immigration of a competitor with a similar trophic niche: carp. The community was slow to return to its preconnection state, which may be due to dispersal traits of the fishes, and a time-lag in the recovery of the local catfish population following transient intensification of species interactions. The dynamics observed were concordant with the species sorting and mass-effects perspectives of metacommunity theory. Floods cause episodic dispersal in floodplain fish metacommunities, and so, flood frequency determines the relative importance of regional and local processes. Local processes may be particularly important to certain species, but these species may need sufficient time between floods for population increase, before the next flood-induced dispersal episode brings competitors and predators that might cause population decline. Accordingly, species coexistence in these metacommunities may be facilitated by spatiotemporal storage effects, which may in

  3. 78 FR 18235 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Lauderdale Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a special local regulation on the Atlantic Ocean and the entrance of Port Everglades in the vicinity of Fort Lauderdale, Florida during the 2013 Lauderdale Air Show. The event is scheduled to take place from Thursday April 18, 2013, until Sunday, April 21, 2013. The regulation is necessary to ensure the safety of the participants, spectators, and the general......

  4. Local-Scale Exposure Assessment of Air Pollutants in Source-Impacted Neighborhoods in Detroit, MI (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vette, A. F.; Bereznicki, S.; Sobus, J.; Norris, G.; Williams, R.; Batterman, S.; Breen, M.; Isakov, V.; Perry, S.; Heist, D.; Community Action Against Asthma Steering Committee

    2010-12-01

    There has been growing interest in improving local-scale (< 1-km) exposure assessments to better understand the impact of local sources of air pollutants on adverse health outcomes. This paper describes two research studies aimed at understanding the impact of local sources contributing to spatial gradients at the neighborhood-scale in Detroit, MI. The first study, the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS), was designed to assess the variability in concentrations of air pollutants derived from local and regional sources on community, neighborhood and personal exposures to air pollutants. Homes were identified at random in six different neighborhoods throughout Wayne County, MI that varied proximally to local industrial and mobile sources. Data were collected in summer (July-August) and winter (January-March) at a total of 135 homes over a three-year period (2004-2007). For five consecutive days at each home in summer and winter concurrent samples were collected of personal exposures, residential indoor and outdoor concentrations, and at a community monitoring site. The samples were analyzed for PM2.5 (mass and composition), air toxics, O3 and NO2. The second study is on-going and focuses on characterizing the impacts of mobile sources on near-road air quality and exposures among a cohort of asthmatic children. The Near-road EXposures and effects from Urban air pollutants Study (NEXUS) is designed to examine the relationship between near-road exposures to traffic-related air pollutants (BC, CO, NOx and PM components) and respiratory health of asthmatic children who live close to major roadways. The study will investigate the effects of traffic-associated exposures on exaggerated airway responses, biomolecular responses of inflammatory and oxidative stress, and how these exposures affect the frequency and severity of adverse respiratory outcomes. The study will also examine different near-road exposure assessment metrics, including monitoring and

  5. Local, regional, and global views of tropospheric carbon monoxide from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, W. Wallace; Yurganov, Leonid

    2008-04-01

    More than five years of CO retrievals from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite reveal variations in tropospheric CO on timescales from twelve hours to five years and on spatial scales from local to global. The shorter timescales are invaluable to monitor daily variations in CO emissions, to enable three-dimensional tracking of atmospheric motions, and to enhance insights into atmospheric mixing. Previous studies have utilized AIRS CO retrievals over the course of days to weeks to track plumes from large forest fires. On the local scale, we will present AIRS observations of pollution from several northern hemisphere Megacities. On the regional scale, we will present AIRS observations of the Mexico City pollution plume. We will illustrate global scale AIRS CO observations of interannual variations linked to the influence of large-scale atmospheric perturbations from the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In particular, we observe a quasi-biennial variation in CO emissions from Indonesia with varying magnitudes in peak emission occurring in 2002, 2004, and 2006. Examining satellite rainfall measurements over Indonesia, we find the enhanced CO emission correlates with occasions of less rainfall during the month of October. Continuing this satellite record of tropospheric CO with measurements from the European IASI instrument will permit construction of a long time-series useful for further investigations of climatological variations in CO emissions and their impact on the health of the atmosphere.

  6. Targeting of blood safety measures to affected areas with ongoing local transmission of malaria.

    PubMed

    Domanović, D; Kitchen, A; Politis, C; Panagiotopoulos, T; Bluemel, J; Van Bortel, W; Overbosch, D; Lieshout-Krikke, R; Fabra, C; Facco, G; Zeller, H

    2016-06-01

    An outbreak of locally acquired Plasmodium vivax malaria in Greece started in 2009 and peaked in 2011. Targeting of blood safety measures to affected areas with ongoing transmission of malaria raised questions of how to define spatial boundaries of such an area and when to trigger any specific blood safety measures, including whether and which blood donation screening strategy to apply. To provide scientific advice the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) organised expert meetings in 2013. The outcomes of these consultations are expert opinions covering spatial targeting of blood safety measures to affected areas with ongoing local transmission of malaria and blood donation screening strategy for evidence of malaria infection in these areas. Opinions could help EU national blood safety authorities in developing a preventive strategy during malaria outbreaks. PMID:27238883

  7. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  8. Does the restoration of an inner-city stream in Seoul affect local thermal environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.-H.; Ryoo, S.-B.; Baik, J.-J.; Park, I.-S.; Koo, H.-J.; Nam, J.-C.

    2008-05-01

    Changes in local thermal environment associated with the restoration of an inner-city stream in Seoul, Korea, are investigated using observational data. The stream, called the Cheonggye stream, which had been hidden and covered with cement/asphalt for 46 years, runs 5.8 km eastward through a central region of Seoul. Intensive observations were made in the stream area for a number of summertime periods before, during, and after the stream restoration to detect the effects of the stream on local environment and to quantify them. It is estimated that after the stream restoration the near-surface temperature averaged over the stream area dropped by 0.4 °C, with the largest local temperature drop being 0.9 °C. However, it cannot be stated that this 0.4 °C temperature drop is due entirely to the stream effect only, because synoptic-scale and local-scale weather conditions during the two periods were inevitably not identical. The stream effect on air temperature is also evident in the temperature distribution along a street traversing the stream. In the daytime after the stream restoration, the sensible heat flux was greatly reduced and the ratio of sensible heat flux to net radiative flux dramatically decreased. These first-time results of the restored-stream effects on urban thermal environment could contribute to the scientific basis of urban planning which aims to make a large city comfortable to live in and nature- and environment-friendly.

  9. Local-scale variability in regional air quality modelling: Implications on temporal distribution of emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian

    2010-05-01

    In the field of air quality modeling, the comparison of model results with ground-based measurements is essential for validation purposes. The usefulness of these measurements for regional air quality modeling is however limited by the extremely local nature of station measurements. This is especially true for short-lived species like NO2, which is of high importance for public health. Nevertheless station observations are the only continuously available source of data on ground level air quality besides model results. Uncertainties in air quality models mainly arise from the lack of precise knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of pollutants. Most emission inventories provide aggregated values for long periods of time and yield no information on the temporal (diurnal) distribution of emissions. By applying ground-based measurements, our study yields optimized diurnal variations of anthropogenic emissions for different urban regions of Germany. In the course of the study the variability of air pollution on the urban scale (the model's subgrid scale) is also addressed. The study applies the newly established POLYPHEMUS/DLR model at a moderate resolution. In the framework of the GMES project "PROMOTE", this model system operationally analyzes and forecasts air quality in Bavaria, Germany. The model employs the latest version of the EMEP emission register in combination with high-resolution emission data provided by Bavarian authorities.

  10. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today. PMID:26573709

  11. Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level. PMID:24522894

  12. Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  13. Coastal recirculation potential affecting air pollutants in Portugal: The role of circulation weather types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Levy, Ilan; Dayan, Uri; Jerez, Sonia; Mendes, Manuel; Trigo, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are under increasing development and experience air pollution episodes regularly. These episodes are often related to peaks in local emissions from industry or transportation, but can also be associated with regional transport from neighbour urban areas influenced by land-sea breeze recirculation. This study intends to analyze the relation between circulation weather patterns, air mass recirculation and pollution levels in three coastal airsheds of Portugal (Lisbon, Porto and Sines) based on the application of an objective quantitative measure of potential recirculation. Although ventilation events have a dominant presence throughout the studied 9-yrs period on all the three airsheds, recirculation and stagnation conditions occur frequently. The association between NO2, SO2 and O3 levels and recirculation potential is evident during summer months. Under high average recirculation potential and high variability, NO2 and SO2 levels are higher for the three airsheds, whilst for O3 each airshed responds differently. This indicates a high heterogeneity among the three airsheds in (1) the type of emission - traffic or industry - prevailing for each contaminant, and (2) the response to the various circulation weather patterns and recirculation situations. Irrespectively of that, the proposed methodology, based on iterative K-means clustering, allows to identify which prevailing patterns are associated with high recirculation potential, having the advantage of being applicable to any geographical location.

  14. Local droplet etching – Nanoholes, quantum dots, and air-gap heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Heyn, Ch.; Sonnenberg, D.; Graf, A.; Kerbst, J.; Stemmann, A.; Hansen, W.

    2014-05-15

    Local droplet etching (LDE) allows the self-organized generation of nanoholes in semiconductor surfaces and is fully compatible with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The influence of the process parameters as well as of droplet and substrate materials on the LDE nanohole morphology is discussed. Furthermore, recent applications of LDE, the fabrication of quantum dots by hole filling and the creation of air-gap heterostructures are addressed.

  15. Sun/shade conditions affect recruitment and local adaptation of a columnar cactus in dry forests

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Jácome, Antonio; Montaña, Carlos; Fornoni, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Facilitation among plants in water-limited environments (i.e. where evapotranspiration overcomes the availability of water during the growing season) has been considered a local adaptation to water and light conditions. Among cacti, early life-history stages can benefit from the facilitative effects of nurse plants that reduce solar radiation and water stress. However, whether light condition itself acts as an agent of selection through facilitation remains untested. The aim of this study was to determine (1) whether light conditions affect seedling recruitment, (2) whether the positive effect of shade on seedling recruitment is more intense under more stressful conditions and (3) whether shade condition (facilitation) reduces the magnitude of local adaptation on seedling recruitment relative to full sunlight conditions. Methods A reciprocal transplant experiment, coupled with the artificial manipulation of sun/shade conditions, was performed to test for the effects of local adaptation on germination, seedling survival and growth, using two demes of the columnar cactus Pilosocereus leucocephalus, representing different intensities of stressful conditions. Key Results Full sunlight conditions reduced recruitment success and supported the expectation of lower recruitment in more stressful environments. Significant local adaptation was mainly detected under full sunlight conditions, indicating that this environmental factor acts as an agent of selection at both sites. Conclusions The results supported the expectation that the magnitude of local adaptation, driven by the effects of facilitative nurse plants, is less intense under reduced stressful conditions. This study is the first to demonstrate that sun/shade conditions act as a selective agent accounting for local adaptation in water-limited environments, and that facilitation provided by nurse plants in these environments can attenuate the patterns of local adaptation among plants benefiting

  16. Examples of scale interactions in local, urban, and regional air quality modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensink, C.; De Ridder, K.; Deutsch, F.; Lefebre, F.; Van de Vel, K.

    2008-09-01

    Air quality modeling can help to improve understanding of scale interactions related to meteorology, transport, emissions, formation, removal, and other processes taking place at local, urban, and regional scales. For the local scale, we used the coupling of a street canyon model with a Gaussian dispersion model to study the interactions of emissions and concentrations in urban streets and surrounding urban neighborhoods. The model combination was applied to a city quarter in Ghent, Belgium, and showed that up to 40% of the PM 2.5 concentrations inside street canyons were caused by emissions from the surrounding streets. For the urban scale, the AURORA model has been used successfully in assessments of urban air quality for entire cities or urbanized areas. It has been applied to the Ruhr area in Germany to evaluate the impact of compact or polycentric cities versus the impact of urban sprawl developments. Results for ozone and PM 10 showed that compact city structures may have more adverse effects in terms of air pollution exposure. For the regional scale, the EUROS model was used to study the urban and regional-scale interactions that are important in simulating concentrations of ozone, PM 2.5, and PM 10. It has been applied to study seasonal changes in aerosol concentrations in Flanders. High secondary aerosol concentrations were found during summer. This contribution was related to large contributions from outside the region, showing the importance of the continental scale when studying regional air quality problems.

  17. Near-surface physics during convection affecting air-water gas transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksson, S. T.; Arneborg, L.; Nilsson, H.; Handler, R. A.

    2016-05-01

    The gas flux at the water surface is affected by physical processes including turbulence from wind shear, microscale wave breaking, large-scale breaking, and convection due to heat loss at the surface. The main route in the parameterizations of the gas flux has been to use the wind speed as a proxy for the gas flux velocity, indirectly taking into account the dependency of the wind shear and the wave processes. The interest in the contributions from convection processes has increased as the gas flux from inland waters (with typically lower wind and sheltered conditions) now is believed to play a substantial role in the air-water gas flux budget. The gas flux is enhanced by convection through the mixing of the mixed layer as well as by decreasing the diffusive boundary layer thickness. The direct numerical simulations performed in this study are shown to be a valuable tool to enhance the understanding of this flow configuration often present in nature.

  18. Factors Affecting Parent’s Perception on Air Quality—From the Individual to the Community Level

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government’s environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents’ perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan’s environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170–9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244–25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212–21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents’ perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public’s perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  19. Variability of stratospheric mean age of air and of the local effects of residual circulation and eddy mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploeger, F.; Riese, M.; Haenel, F.; Konopka, P.; Müller, R.; Stiller, G.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the variability of mean age of air (AoA) and of the local effects of the stratospheric residual circulation and eddy mixing on AoA within the framework of the isentropic zonal mean continuity equation. AoA for the period 1988-2013 has been simulated with the Lagrangian chemistry transport model CLaMS driven by ERA-Interim winds and diabatic heating rates. Model simulated AoA in the lower stratosphere shows good agreement with both in situ observations and satellite observations from Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, even regarding interannual variability and changes during the last decade. The interannual variability throughout the lower stratosphere is largely affected by the quasi-biennial-oscillation-induced circulation and mixing anomalies, with year-to-year AoA changes of about 0.5 years. The decadal 2002-2012 change shows decreasing AoA in the lowest stratosphere, below about 450 K. Above, AoA increases in the Northern Hemisphere and decreases in the Southern Hemisphere. Mixing appears to be crucial for understanding AoA variability, with local AoA changes resulting from a close balance between residual circulation and mixing effects. Locally, mixing increases AoA at low latitudes (40°S-40°N) and decreases AoA at higher latitudes. Strongest mixing occurs below about 500 K, consistent with the separation between shallow and deep circulation branches. The effect of mixing integrated along the air parcel path, however, significantly increases AoA globally, except in the polar lower stratosphere. Changes of local effects of residual circulation and mixing during the last decade are supportive of a strengthening shallow circulation branch in the lowest stratosphere and a southward shifting circulation pattern above.

  20. Local 24-h hyperglycemia does not affect endothelium-dependent or -independent vasoreactivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Houben, A J; Schaper, N C; de Haan, C H; Huvers, F C; Slaaf, D W; de Leeuw, P W; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, C

    1996-06-01

    Hyperglycemia induces regional hemodynamic changes, as suggested by animal studies. These hemodynamic changes may play an initiating role in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute local hyperglycemia for 24 h on basal human forearm muscle and skin blood flow and endothelium-dependent and -independent vasoreactivity. Local hyperglycemia (approximately 15 mM) was induced by infusion of 5% glucose into the brachial artery of the nondominant arm. In control experiments, the same individual amount of glucose was infused intravenously in the dominant arm to correct for possible systemic effects of the infused glucose. Vasoreactivity of the forearm vasculature was evaluated by local infusion of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), and norepinephrine (NE) into the brachial artery. Regional hemodynamic measurements were performed at baseline and after 6, 12, and 24 h of local hyperglycemia. Median (with interquartile range) basal forearm (muscle) blood flow (FBF) was not influenced by the 24-h local hyperglycemia [infused-to-contralateral arm FBF ratio for glucose 1.32 (1.16-1.64) vs. control 1.54 (1.34-1.69)]. Skin microcirculatory blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry, LDF) was not influenced by the 24-h local hyperglycemia [LDF ratio for glucose 1.00 (0.62-1.56) vs control 0.80 (0.58-1.14)]. In addition, the vasoreactivity of both muscle and skin (not shown) vasculature to ACh [percent change in FBF ratio for glucose 167% (81-263) vs. control 148% (94-211)], SNP [for glucose 486% (178-586) vs. control 293% (196-454)], L-NMMA [for glucose -36% (-56 to -22) vs. control -41% (-51 to -24)], and NE [for glucose -48% (-72 to -41) vs. control -66% (-79 to -33)] was also not affected by the local hyperglycemia. Thus, in contrast to animal studies, our results suggest that a moderate-to-severe hyperglycemia does not affect the regulation of basal blood flow or

  1. Did the summer 2003 forest fires in Portugal affect air quality over Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, A. I.; Martins, V.; Sá, E.; Carvalho, A.; Amorim, J. H.; Borrego, C.

    2009-04-01

    A forest fire is a large-scale natural combustion process consuming various types, sizes and ages of botanical specimen growing outdoors in a defined geographical area. Although wildland fires are an integral part of ecosystems management and are essential to maintain functional ecosystems their dimensions can give rise to disastrous results. Due to the frequency of occurrence and the magnitude of effects on the environment, health, economy and security, forest fires have increasingly become a major subject of concern for decision-makers, firefighters, researchers and citizens in general. Among their consequences, is the emission of various environmentally significant gases and solid particulate matter to the atmosphere that interfere with local, regional and global phenomena in the biosphere. Smoke from forest fires contains important amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM) (that is usually referred in terms of particles with a mean diameter less than 2.5 μm, or PM2.5, and particles with a mean diameter less than 10 μm, or PM10), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and other chemical compounds. These air pollutants can cause serious consequences to local and regional air quality by reducing visibility, contributing to smog and impairing air quality in general, thus threatening human health and ecosystems. Pollutants emitted from forest fires are transported, chemically transformed, and dispersed in the atmosphere. Although major wildfires are limited to some hundreds of hectares, their impacts, with no natural or political boundaries, can be felt and reported far beyond the physical limits of the fire spread. Depending on meteorological conditions, smoke plumes and haze layers can persist in the atmosphere for long periods of time and prevailing conditions will influence the chemical and optical characteristics of the plume. The extreme fire events occurred in the summer of

  2. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey

    PubMed Central

    Schartel, Tyler E.; Schauber, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus) utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable) and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable). We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1) mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2) consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3) consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly <15 m from the control (empty) feeder. Feeders with highly preferred food (sunflower seeds) created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m) from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn) generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds <10 m of the feeder. Our findings highlight the contingent but predictable effects of locally abundant food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference. PMID:26978659

  3. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey.

    PubMed

    Schartel, Tyler E; Schauber, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus) utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable) and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable). We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1) mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2) consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3) consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly <15 m from the control (empty) feeder. Feeders with highly preferred food (sunflower seeds) created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m) from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn) generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds <10 m of the feeder. Our findings highlight the contingent but predictable effects of locally abundant food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference. PMID:26978659

  4. A Novel Approach in Quantifying the Effect of Urban Design Features on Local-Scale Air Pollution in Central Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Miskell, Georgia; Salmond, Jennifer; Longley, Ian; Dirks, Kim N

    2015-08-01

    Differences in urban design features may affect emission and dispersion patterns of air pollution at local-scales within cities. However, the complexity of urban forms, interdependence of variables, and temporal and spatial variability of processes make it difficult to quantify determinants of local-scale air pollution. This paper uses a combination of dense measurements and a novel approach to land-use regression (LUR) modeling to identify key controls on concentrations of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at a local-scale within a central business district (CBD). Sixty-two locations were measured over 44 days in Auckland, New Zealand at high density (study area 0.15 km(2)). A local-scale LUR model was developed, with seven variables identified as determinants based on standard model criteria. A novel method for improving standard LUR design was developed using two independent data sets (at local and "city" scales) to generate improved accuracy in predictions and greater confidence in results. This revised multiscale LUR model identified three urban design variables (intersection, proximity to a bus stop, and street width) as having the more significant determination on local-scale air quality, and had improved adaptability between data sets. PMID:26151151

  5. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    SciTech Connect

    Baone, Chaitanya A; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  6. Small but Powerful: Top Predator Local Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure and Function in an Intermittent Stream

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators’ extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a ‘mesopredator release’, affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to ‘mesopredator release’, and also to ‘prey release’ despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem’s structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers’ extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been

  7. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  8. Crack arrest toughness of a heat-affected zone containing local brittle zones

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, L.; Pussegoda, L.N.; Graville, B.A.; Tyson, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    The awareness of the presence of local brittle zones (LBZs) in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of welds has led to the requirements for minimum initiation toughness for the HAZ for critical applications. A fracture control philosophy that is proposed to be an attractive alternative for heat-affected zones containing LBZs is the prevention of crack propagation rather than of crack initiation. Such an approach would be viable if it could be demonstrated that cracks initiated in the LBZs will be arrested without causing catastrophic failure, notwithstanding the low initiation (CTOD) toughness resulting from the presence of LBZs. Unstable propagation of a crack initiating from an LBZ requires the rupture of tougher microstructural regions surrounding the LBZ in HAZ, and therefore the CTOD value reflecting the presence of LBZ is unlikely to provide a true indication of the potential for fast fracture along the heat-affected zone. Base metal specifications usually ensure that small unstable cracks propagating from the weld zone into the base metal would be arrested. To investigate the likelihood of fast fracture within the HAZ, a test program has been carried out that involved performing compact plane strain and plane stress crack arrest tests on a heat-affected zone that contained LBZs, and thus exhibited unacceptable low CTOD toughness for resistance to brittle fracture initiation. The results indicated that the crack arrest toughness was little influenced by the presence of local brittle zones. Instead, the superior toughness of the larger proportion of finer-grain HAZ surrounding the LBZ present along the crack path has a greater influence on the crack arrest toughness.

  9. Spectral effects on latitude-tilt and vertical PV modules as affected by latitude, air mass, and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueymard, Christian A.

    2007-09-01

    Using the same SMARTS radiative code as for the development of improved reference spectra for PV rating, an analysis of the spectral sensitivity of specific PV technologies to varying air mass and other factors is presented. To the difference of previous studies, the approach taken here considers realistic atmospheric conditions, as measured at five North- American sites from widely different climatic zones. Two different PV applications (latitude-tilted flat-plates and vertical building-integrated modules) are showcased with seven possible materials, including a-Si, m-Si, and triple junctions. Considering the most frequent clear-sky conditions around the summer solstice at the selected sites, the Spectral Enhancement Factor (SEF) is calculated both for a fixed air mass (1.5) and daily-average spectral conditions. This analysis provides a preliminary assessment of how latitude, local climatic conditions, and PV geometry affect the relative merits of different technologies relatively to standard rating conditions. In particular, it is shown that, in summer, latitude-tilt PV modules experience bluer incident spectra than the reference spectrum, therefore favoring the a-Si modules (SEF > 1). For vertical-tilt PV systems, the SEF is generally lower than for latitude-tilt systems, with the notable exception of m- Si. When considering daily-average results, the effective SEF can become extremely low in the case of a-Si (down to 0.65) and moderately high for m-Si (up to 1.09). It is concluded that the effects of location, season, and PV material on the spectral effect needs to be investigated in detail, particularly for applications involving vertical building-integrated systems.

  10. Attention to local and global levels of hierarchical Navon figures affects rapid scene categorization.

    PubMed

    Brand, John; Johnson, Aaron P

    2014-01-01

    In four experiments, we investigated how attention to local and global levels of hierarchical Navon figures affected the selection of diagnostic spatial scale information used in scene categorization. We explored this issue by asking observers to classify hybrid images (i.e., images that contain low spatial frequency (LSF) content of one image, and high spatial frequency (HSF) content from a second image) immediately following global and local Navon tasks. Hybrid images can be classified according to either their LSF, or HSF content; thus, making them ideal for investigating diagnostic spatial scale preference. Although observers were sensitive to both spatial scales (Experiment 1), they overwhelmingly preferred to classify hybrids based on LSF content (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that LSF based hybrid categorization was faster following global Navon tasks, suggesting that LSF processing associated with global Navon tasks primed the selection of LSFs in hybrid images. In Experiment 4, replicating Experiment 3 but suppressing the LSF information in Navon letters by contrast balancing the stimuli examined this hypothesis. Similar to Experiment 3, observers preferred to classify hybrids based on LSF content; however and in contrast, LSF based hybrid categorization was slower following global than local Navon tasks. PMID:25520675

  11. Identifying and quantifying transported vs. local sources of New York City PM 2.5 fine particulate matter air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, Ramona; Thurston, George D.

    New York City (NYC) is presently in violation of the nation's PM 2.5 annual mass standard, and will have to take actions to control the sources contributing to these violations. This paper seeks to differentiate the impact of long-range transported aerosols on the air quality of downtown NYC, so that the roles of local sources can more clearly be evaluated. Past source apportionment studies have considered single sites individually in their source apportionment analyses to identify and determine sources affecting that site, often finding secondary sulfates to be an important contributor, but not being able to quantify the portion that is transported vs. local. In this study, a rural site located in Sterling Forest, NY, which is near to the NYC area, but unaffected by local NYC sources, is instead used as a reference to separate the portion of the aerosol that is transported to our Manhattan, NYC site before conducting the source apportionment analysis. Sterling Forest is confirmed as a background site via elemental comparisons with NYC during regional transport episodes of Asian and Sahara sandstorm dusts, as well as by comparisons with a second background site in Chester, NJ. Two different approaches that incorporate Sterling Forest background data into the NYC source apportionment analysis are then applied to quantify local vs. transported aerosols. Six source categories are identified for NYC: regional transported sulfate, trans-continental desert dust, traffic, residual oil, "local" dust and World Trade Center fires pollution. Of these, the transported sulfates and trans-continental desert dust accounted for nearly half of the total PM 2.5 mass in Manhattan during 2001, with more than half coming from these transported sources during the summer months. More than 90% of the Manhattan elemental carbon was found to be of local origins. Conversely, roughly 90% of the NYC sulfate mass was identified as transported into the city. Our results indicate that transported

  12. Meteorological Processes Affecting Air Quality – Research and Model Development Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorology modeling is an important component of air quality modeling systems that defines the physical and dynamical environment for atmospheric chemistry. The meteorology models used for air quality applications are based on numerical weather prediction models that were devel...

  13. Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring: Factors Affecting Network Design and Interpretation of Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing number of health studies identifying adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near large roadways has increased the interest in monitoring air quality in this microenvironment. Designing near-road air monitoring networks or interpret...

  14. Local Cattle and Badger Populations Affect the Risk of Confirmed Tuberculosis in British Cattle Herds

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Flavie; Johnston, W. Thomas; Donnelly, Christl A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a priority on the public health agenda in Great Britain, after launching in 1998 the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of badger (Meles meles) culling as a control strategy. Our study complements previous analyses of the RBCT data (focusing on treatment effects) by presenting analyses of herd-level risks factors associated with the probability of a confirmed bTB breakdown in herds within each treatment: repeated widespread proactive culling, localized reactive culling and no culling (survey-only). Methodology/Principal Findings New cases of bTB breakdowns were monitored inside the RBCT areas from the end of the first proactive badger cull to one year after the last proactive cull. The risk of a herd bTB breakdown was modeled using logistic regression and proportional hazard models adjusting for local farm-level risk factors. Inside survey-only and reactive areas, increased numbers of active badger setts and cattle herds within 1500 m of a farm were associated with an increased bTB risk. Inside proactive areas, the number of M. bovis positive badgers initially culled within 1500 m of a farm was the strongest predictor of the risk of a confirmed bTB breakdown. Conclusions/Significance The use of herd-based models provide insights into how local cattle and badger populations affect the bTB breakdown risks of individual cattle herds in the absence of and in the presence of badger culling. These measures of local bTB risks could be integrated into a risk-based herd testing programme to improve the targeting of interventions aimed at reducing the risks of bTB transmission. PMID:21464920

  15. NEK8 mutations affect ciliary and centrosomal localization and may cause nephronophthisis.

    PubMed

    Otto, Edgar A; Trapp, Melissa L; Schultheiss, Ulla T; Helou, Juliana; Quarmby, Lynne M; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2008-03-01

    Nephronophthisis, an autosomal recessive kidney disease, is the most frequent genetic cause of chronic renal failure in the first 3 decades of life. Causative mutations in 8 genes (NPHP1-8) have been identified, and homologous mouse models for NPHP2/INVS and NPHP3 have been described. The jck mouse is another model of recessive cystic kidney disease, and this mouse harbors a missense mutation, G448V, in the highly conserved RCC1 domain of Nek8. We hypothesized that mutations in NEK8 might cause nephronophthisis in humans, so we performed mutational analysis in a worldwide cohort of 588 patients. We identified 3 different amino acid changes that were conserved through evolution (L330F, H425Y, and A497P) and that were absent from at least 80 ethnically matched controls. All 3 mutations were within RCC1 domains, and the mutation H425Y was positioned within the same RCC1 repeat as the mouse jck mutation. To test the functional significance of these mutations, we introduced them into full-length mouse Nek8 GFP-tagged cDNA constructs. We transiently overexpressed the constructs in inner medullary collecting duct cells (IMCD-3 cell line) and compared the subcellular localization of mutant Nek8 to wild-type Nek8. All mutant forms of Nek8 showed defects in ciliary localization to varying degrees; the H431Y mutant (human H425Y) was completely absent from cilia and the amount localized to centrosomes was decreased. Overexpression of these mutants did not affect overall ciliogenesis, mitosis, or centriole number. Our genetic and functional data support the assumption that mutations in NEK8 cause nephronophthisis (NPHP9), adding another link between proteins mutated in cystic kidney disease and their localization to cilia and centrosomes. PMID:18199800

  16. Finite element simulation of a local scale air quality model over complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, A.; Montero, G.; Montenegro, R.; Rodríguez, E.; Escobar, J. M.; Perez-Foguet, A.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we propose a finite element method approach for modelling the air quality in a local scale over complex terrain. The area of interest is up to tens of kilometres and it includes pollutant sources. The proposed methodology involves the generation of an adaptive tetrahedral mesh, the computation of an ambient wind field, the inclusion of the plume rise effect in the wind field, and the simulation of transport and reaction of pollutants. We apply our methodology to simulate a fictitious pollution episode in La Palma island (Canary Island, Spain).

  17. Variation of Local Surface Properties of an Air Bubble in Water Caused by Its Interaction with Another Surface.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Lorena A; Ohnishi, Satomi; Carnie, Steven L; Horn, Roger G

    2016-08-01

    Surface and hydrodynamic forces acting between an air bubble and a flat mica surface in surfactant-free water and in 1 mM KCl solution have been investigated by observing film drainage using a modified surface force apparatus (SFA). The bubble shapes observed with the SFA are compared to theoretical profiles computed from a model that considers hydrodynamic interactions, surface curvature, and disjoining pressure arising from electrical double layer and van der Waals interactions. It is shown that the bubble experiences double-layer forces, and a final equilibrium wetting film between the bubble and mica surfaces is formed by van der Waals repulsion. However, comparison with the theoretical model reveals that the double-layer forces are not simply a function of surface separation. Rather, they appear to be changed by one of more of the following: the bubble's dynamic deformation, its proximity to another surface, and/or hydrodynamic flow in the aqueous film that separate them. The same comments apply to the hydrodynamic mobility or immobility of the air-water interface. Together the results show that the bubble's surface is "soft" in two senses: in addition to its well-known deformability, its local properties are affected by weak external forces, in this case the electrical double-layer interactions with a nearby surface and hydrodynamic flow in the neighboring aqueous phase. PMID:27391417

  18. DIRECT COMPARISON OF KINETIC AND LOCAL EQUILIBRIUM FORMULATIONS FOR SOLUTE TRANSPORT AFFECTED BY SURFACE REACTIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bahr, Jean M.; Rubin, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    Modeling transport of reacting solutes in porous media often requires a choice between models based on the local equilibrium assumption (LEA) and models involving reaction kinetics. Direct comparison of the mathematical formulations for these two types of transport models can aid in this choice. For cases of transport affected by surface reaction, such a comparison is made possible by a new derivation procedure. This procedure yields a kinetics-based formulation that is the sum of the LEA formulation and one or more kinetically influenced terms. The dimensionless form of the new kinetics-based formulation facilitates identification of critical parameter groupings which control the approach to transport behavior consistent with LEA model predictions. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate that criteria for LEA applicability can be expressed conveniently in terms of these parameter groupings. The derivation procedure is demonstrated for examples of surface reactions including first-order reversible sorption, Langmuir-type kinetics and binary, homovalent ion exchange.

  19. Local and regional factors affecting atmospheric mercury speciation at a remote location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manolopoulos, H.; Schauer, J.J.; Purcell, M.D.; Rudolph, T.M.; Olson, M.L.; Rodger, B.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of elemental (Hg0), reactive gaseous (RGM), and particulate (PHg) mercury were measured at two remote sites in the midwestern United States. Concurrent measurements of Hg0, PHg, and RGM obtained at Devil's Lake and Mt. Horeb, located approximately 65 km apart, showed that Hg0 and PHg concentrations were affected by regional, as well as local sources, while RGM was mainly impacted by local sources. Plumes reaching the Devil's Lake site from a nearby coal-fired power plant significantly impacted SO2 and RGM concentrations at Devil's Lake, but had little impact on Hg0. Our findings suggest that traditional modeling approaches to assess sources of mercury deposited that utilize source emissions and large-scale grids may not be sufficient to predict mercury deposition at sensitive locations due to the importance of small-scale sources and processes. We suggest the use of a receptor-based monitoring to better understand mercury source-receptor relationships. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  20. Do the Concentration and Volume of Local Anesthetics Affect the Onset and Success of Infraclavicular Anesthesia?

    PubMed Central

    Mosaffa, Faramarz; Gharaei, Babak; Qoreishi, Mohammad; Razavi, Sajjad; Safari, Farhad; Fathi, Mohammad; Mohseni, Gholamreza; Elyasi, Hedayatollah; Hosseini, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although local anesthesia is a suitable method for upper limb surgeries, there is debate regarding the effects of appropriate dosing. Objectives: In the current study, we investigated the effects of the concentration and volume of a local anesthetic on the beginning and quality of anesthesia during upper limb orthopedic surgeries. Patients and Methods: This double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients aged between 18 and 85 years candidated for upper limb orthopedic operations. The patients were equally and randomly distributed into two groups (n = 30). Under ultrasound imaging guidance, the first group received 7 mL of 2% lidocaine and the second group 10 mL of 1.3% lidocaine into the brachial plexus cords. The onset of block and the level of sensory and motor block were documented for each nerve territory. Results: The onset of sensory and motor block was significantly shorter in the 1.3% lidocaine group than in the 2% lidocaine group (P ≤ 0.05). The success rate of sensory and motor block was not different. The quality (completeness) of sensory block for the musculocutaneous nerve and that of motor block for the radial nerve were significantly better in the 1.3% lidocaine group than in the 2% lidocaine group. Conclusions: The volume of the injected anesthetic accelerated the onset of sensory and motor block without affecting the rate of success in our patients. PMID:26473102

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the localization and signaling of PIP3/AKT in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhennan; Wu, Jiansheng; Wang, Shihua; Suburu, Janel; Chen, Haiqin; Thomas, Michael J; Shi, Lihong; Edwards, Iris J; Berquin, Isabelle M; Chen, Yong Q

    2013-09-01

    AKT is a serine-threonine protein kinase that plays important roles in cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. It is activated after binding to phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) with phosphate groups at positions 3,4 and 3,4,5 on the inositol ring. In spite of extensive research on AKT, one aspect has been largely overlooked, namely the role of the fatty acid chains on PIPs. PIPs are phospholipids composed of a glycerol backbone with fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-2 position and inositol at the sn-3 position. Here, we show that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modify phospholipid content. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω3 PUFA, can replace the fatty acid at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone, thereby changing the species of phospholipids. DHA also inhibits AKT(T308) but not AKT(S473) phosphorylation, alters PI(3,4,5)P3 (PIP3) and phospho-AKT(S473) protein localization, decreases pPDPK1(S241)-AKT and AKT-BAD interaction and suppresses prostate tumor growth. Our study highlights a potential novel mechanism of cancer inhibition by ω3 PUFA through alteration of PIP3 and AKT localization and affecting the AKT signaling pathway. PMID:23633519

  2. Local divergence of thermal reaction norms among amphibian populations is affected by pond temperature variation.

    PubMed

    Richter-Boix, Alex; Katzenberger, Marco; Duarte, Helder; Quintela, María; Tejedo, Miguel; Laurila, Anssi

    2015-08-01

    Although temperature variation is known to cause large-scale adaptive divergence, its potential role as a selective factor over microgeographic scales is less well-understood. Here, we investigated how variation in breeding pond temperature affects divergence in multiple physiological (thermal performance curve and critical thermal maximum [CTmax]) and life-history (thermal developmental reaction norms) traits in a network of Rana arvalis populations. The results supported adaptive responses to face two main constraints limiting the evolution of thermal adaptation. First, we found support for the faster-slower model, indicating an adaptive response to compensate for the thermodynamic constraint of low temperatures in colder environments. Second, we found evidence for the generalist-specialist trade-off with populations from colder and less thermally variable environments exhibiting a specialist phenotype performing at higher rates but over a narrower range of temperatures. By contrast, the local optimal temperature for locomotor performance and CTmax did not match either mean or maximum pond temperatures. These results highlight the complexity of the adaptive multiple-trait thermal responses in natural populations, and the role of local thermal variation as a selective force driving diversity in life-history and physiological traits in the presence of gene flow. PMID:26118477

  3. Efficacy and Factors Affecting Outcome of Gemcitabine Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, P.-I.; Chao, Yee; Li, C.-P.; Lee, R.-C.; Chi, K.-H.; Shiau, C.-Y.; Wang, L.-W.; Yen, S.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and prognostic factors of gemcitabine (GEM) concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and December 2005, 55 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with GEM (400 mg/m{sup 2}/wk) concurrently with radiotherapy (median dose, 50.4 Gy; range, 26-61.2) at Taipei Veterans General Hospital were enrolled. GEM (1,000 mg/m{sup 2}) was continued after CCRT as maintenance therapy once weekly for 3 weeks and repeated every 4 weeks. The response, survival, toxicity, and prognostic factors were evaluated. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.8 months, the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 52% and 19%, respectively. The median overall survival (OS) and median time to progression (TTP) was 12.4 and 5.9 months, respectively. The response rate was 42% (2 complete responses and 21 partial responses). The major Grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia (22%) and anorexia (19%). The median OS and TTP was 15.8 and 9.5 months in the GEM CCRT responders compared with 7.5 and 3.5 months in the nonresponders, respectively (both p < 0.001). The responders had a better Karnofsky performance status (KPS) (86 {+-} 2 vs. 77 {+-} 2, p = 0.002) and had received a greater GEM dose intensity (347 {+-} 13 mg/m{sup 2}/wk vs. 296 {+-} 15 mg/m{sup 2}/wk, p = 0.02) than the nonresponders. KPS and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were the most significant prognostic factors of OS and TTP. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that GEM CCRT is effective and tolerable for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. The KPS and GEM dose correlated with response. Also, the KPS and CA 19-9 level were the most important factors affecting OS and TTP.

  4. Local Navon letter processing affects skilled behavior: a golf-putting experiment.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael B; Dawkins, Gemma

    2015-04-01

    Expert or skilled behaviors (for example, face recognition or sporting performance) are typically performed automatically and with little conscious awareness. Previous studies, in various domains of performance, have shown that activities immediately prior to a task demanding a learned skill can affect performance. In sport, describing the to-be-performed action is detrimental, whereas in face recognition, describing a face or reading local Navon letters is detrimental. Two golf-putting experiments are presented that compare the effects that these three tasks have on experienced and novice golfers. Experiment 1 found a Navon effect on golf performance for experienced players. Experiment 2 found, for experienced players only, that performance was impaired following the three tasks described above, when compared with reading or global Navon tasks. It is suggested that the three tasks affect skilled performance by provoking a shift from automatic behavior to a more analytic style. By demonstrating similarities between effects in face recognition and sporting behavior, it is hoped to better understand concepts in both fields. PMID:25102927

  5. Transport Regimes of Air Masses Affecting the Tropospheric Composition of the Canadian and European Arctic During RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2014/2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozem, H.; Hoor, P. M.; Koellner, F.; Kunkel, D.; Schneider, J.; Schulz, C.; Herber, A. B.; Borrmann, S.; Wendisch, M.; Ehrlich, A.; Leaitch, W. R.; Willis, M. D.; Burkart, J.; Thomas, J. L.; Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is warming much faster than any other place in the world and undergoes a rapid change dominated by a changing climate in this region. The impact of polluted air masses traveling to the Arctic from various remote sources significantly contributes to the observed climate change, in contrast there are additional local emission sources contributing to the level of pollutants (trace gases and aerosol). Processes affecting the emission and transport of these pollutants are not well understood and need to be further investigated. We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories we analyze the transport regimes prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014) in the observed region. Whereas the eastern part of the Canadian Arctic is affected by air masses with their origin in Asia, in the central and western parts of the Canadian and European Arctic air masses from North America are predominant at the time of the measurement. In general the more northern parts of the Arctic were relatively unaffected by pollution from mid-latitudes since air masses mostly travel within the polar dome, being quite isolated. Associated mixing ratios of CO and CO2 fit into the seasonal cycle observed at NOAA ground stations throughout the Arctic, but show a more mid-latitudinal characteristic at higher altitudes. The transition is remarkably sharp and allows for a chemical definition of the polar dome. At low altitudes, synoptic disturbances transport polluted air masses from mid-latitudes into regions of the polar dome. These air masses contribute to the Arctic pollution background, but also

  6. A Study of the Physiological Factors Affecting the Nature of the Adult Learner in the Phoenix Air National Guard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, James Brison

    An investigation reviewed current literature in the field of physiological factors affecting the adult learning environment. These findings were compared to the academic learning environment at the Phoenix Air National Guard. The end product was a set of recommendations for management to implement in order to improve the learning climate for the…

  7. Local and Regional Interactions Between Air Quality and Climate in New Delhi -- a Sector Based Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrapu, P.; Cheng, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Beig, G.; Spak, S.; Lin, M.; Decker, M.; Schultz, M. G.; Winiwarter, W.

    2011-12-01

    Out of the 26 mega-cities in the world, 13 of them are affected by atmospheric brown clouds with high aerosol loadings and 5 of them are in South Asia. New Delhi (India) is one of the world's most polluted megacities. In this study we evaluate the air pollution levels in Delhi and their impacts on weather and climate. The two way interactions between pollution and meteorology are evaluated using the WRF-Chem model. The analysis period is focused on October 2010, the time period of the Commonwealth Games. The model is compared to BC and PM2.5 measurements at 11 sites. A sector based analysis is performed to assess the contributions to pollution and direct radiative forcing from transport, residential, power and industrial emissions. The contributions from emissions outside of Delhi are also evaluated to see the extent that regional emissions need to be controlled to meet air quality targets in Delhi. Results of simulations for emission scenarios generated by the GAINS model that address air quality and climate strategies are also discussed

  8. Magnetic Characterization of Stream-Sediments From Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, Affected by Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro, M. A.; Sinito, A. M.; Bidegain, J. C.; Gogorza, C. S.; Jurado, S.

    2001-12-01

    A wide urban area from Northeast of Buenos Aires Province is exposed to an important anthropogenic influence, mainly due to industrial activity. In this two water streams were chosen: one of them (Del Gato stream, G) next to La Plata City and the another one (El Pescado stream, P) on the outskirts of the city. Both streams have similar characteristics, although the first one (G) has a higher input of pollutants (fluvial effluents, fly ashes, solid wastes, etc.) than the last one (P). Sediments analyzed in this work are limes from continental origin of PostPampeano (Holocene). Although, some cores were affected by sandy-limy sediments with mollusc valves from Querandino Sea (Pleistocene - later Holocene) and limy sediments of chestnut color with calcareous concretions from the Ensenadense. Magnetic measurements and geochemical studies were carried out on the samples. Among the magnetic parameters, specific susceptibility (X), X frequency-dependence (Xfd%), X temperature-dependence, Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM), Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM), Saturation IRM (SIRM), coercivity of remanence (Bcr), S ratio and SIRM/X ratio, Anhysteric Remanent Magnetization (ARM), Magnetic and Thermal Demagnetization were studied. The magnetic characteristics for both sites indicate the predominance of magnetically soft minerals on G site and relatively hard minerals on P site. Magnetite is the main magnetic carrier, Pseudo Single Domain and Single Domain grains were found. Chemical studies show (in some cases) a high concentration for some heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe) on the upper 22-cm. Contents of heavy metals and ARM were correlated. Very good correlation (R> 0.81) is found for Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe and the sum (of Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni), and a weaker correlation for Pb.

  9. COMMUNICATING RISK INFORMATION TO STATE AND LOCAL AIR POLLUTION CONTROL AGENCIES VIA U.S. EPA'S AIR RISK INFORMATION SUPPORT CENTER (AIR RISC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) has been organized by U.S. EPA's offices of Air Quality Planning and Standards and Health and Environmental Assessment. The center has been developed in cooperation with the State and Territorial air Pollution Control Program Adm...

  10. Molecular characterization of Oryza sativa arsenic-induced RING E3 ligase 1 (OsAIR1): Expression patterns, localization, functional interaction, and heterogeneous overexpression.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sun-Goo; Park, Hyeon Mi; Han, A-Reum; Jang, Cheol Seong

    2016-02-01

    High levels of arsenic (As) in plants are a serious threat to human health, and arsenic accumulation affects plant metabolism and ultimately photosynthesis, growth, and development. We attempted to isolate As-responsive Really Interesting New Gene (RING) E3 ubiquitin ligase genes from rice, and we have designated one such gene Oryza sativa arsenic-induced RING E3 ligase 1 (OsAIR1). OsAIR1 expression was induced under abiotic stress conditions, including drought, salt, heat, and As exposure. Results from an in vitro ubiquitination assay showed that OsAIR1 possesses E3 ligase activity. Within the cell, the expression of this gene was found to be localized to the vacuole. In a network-based analysis, we found significantly enriched gene ontology (GO) functions, which included ribonucleoprotein complexes such as ribosomes, suggesting that the function of OsAIR1 are related to translation. Differences in the proportion of seedlings with expanded cotyledons and root lengths, and the lack of differences in germination rates between OsAIR1-overexpressing lines and control plants under AsV stress, suggest that OsAIR1 may positively regulate post-germination plant growth under stress conditions. PMID:26788958

  11. Plasma column and nano-powder generation from solid titanium by localized microwaves in air

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Simona; Jerby, Eli Meir, Yehuda; Ashkenazi, Dana; Barkay, Zahava; Mitchell, J. Brian A.; Le Garrec, Jean-Luc; Narayanan, Theyencheri

    2015-07-14

    This paper studies the effect of a plasma column ejected from solid titanium by localized microwaves in an ambient air atmosphere. Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (titania) are found to be directly synthesized in this plasma column maintained by the microwave energy in the cavity. The process is initiated by a hotspot induced by localized microwaves, which melts the titanium substrate locally. The molten hotspot emits ionized titanium vapors continuously into the stable plasma column, which may last for more than a minute duration. The characterization of the dusty plasma obtained is performed in-situ by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), optical spectroscopy, and microwave reflection analyses. The deposited titania nanoparticles are structurally and morphologically analyzed by ex-situ optical and scanning-electron microscope observations, and also by X-ray diffraction. Using the Boltzmann plot method combined with the SAXS results, the electron temperature and density in the dusty plasma are estimated as ∼0.4 eV and ∼10{sup 19 }m{sup −3}, respectively. The analysis of the plasma product reveals nanoparticles of titania in crystalline phases of anatase, brookite, and rutile. These are spatially arranged in various spherical, cubic, lamellar, and network forms. Several applications are considered for this process of titania nano-powder production.

  12. Phylogenetic isolation of host trees affects assembly of local Heteroptera communities

    PubMed Central

    Vialatte, A.; Bailey, R. I.; Vasseur, C.; Matocq, A.; Gossner, M. M.; Everhart, D.; Vitrac, X.; Belhadj, A.; Ernoult, A.; Prinzing, A.

    2010-01-01

    A host may be physically isolated in space and then may correspond to a geographical island, but it may also be separated from its local neighbours by hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary history, and may form in this case an evolutionarily distinct island. We test how this affects the assembly processes of the host's colonizers, this question being until now only invoked at the scale of physically distinct islands or patches. We studied the assembly of true bugs in crowns of oaks surrounded by phylogenetically more or less closely related trees. Despite the short distances (less than 150 m) between phylogenetically isolated and non-isolated trees, we found major differences between their Heteroptera faunas. We show that phylogenetically isolated trees support smaller numbers and fewer species of Heteroptera, an increasing proportion of phytophages and a decreasing proportion of omnivores, and proportionally more non-host-specialists. These differences were not due to changes in the nutritional quality of the trees, i.e. species sorting, which we accounted for. Comparison with predictions from meta-community theories suggests that the assembly of local Heteroptera communities may be strongly driven by independent metapopulation processes at the level of the individual species. We conclude that the assembly of communities on hosts separated from their neighbours by long periods of evolutionary history is qualitatively and quantitatively different from that on hosts established surrounded by closely related trees. Potentially, the biotic selection pressure on a host might thus change with the evolutionary proximity of the surrounding hosts. PMID:20335208

  13. Validation of AIRS Cloud Cleared Radiances Using MODIS and its Affect on QualityControl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. C.; Schreier, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched aboard the AQUA satellite to provide measurements of temperature, humidity, and various trace gases in support of climate research and weather prediction. Only clear sky measurements of the outgoing radiance are used in the AIRS physical retrieval of temperature, water vapor, and certain trace gases. To overcome cloud contamination the clear sky radiance is estimated using an iterative procedure that combines an initial estimate of the clear state from a neural network along with a three by three grid of AIRS measurements. The radiance error estimate, a component critical to the AIRS physical retrieval, must include contributions from all assumed parameters input to the forward model on top of instrument noise and amplification from cloud clearing. When the error estimate is too large the AIRS physical retrieval becomes over-constrained to the first guess profile. Therefore quantifying the cloud cleared error estimate is essential to an effective physical retrieval. We will validate the cloud-cleared radiances through the use of nearby clear ocean scenes and with comparisons to clear pixels from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS). AIRS cloud cleared radiances are spectrally convolved to MODIS channels for this comparison. This analysis quantifies error due to cloud-clearing and demonstrates that clear MODIS pixels can be used with the standard AIRS quality control procedure to improve identification poor retrievals.

  14. Localized β-adrenergic receptor blockade does not affect sweating during exercise.

    PubMed

    Buono, Michael J; Tabor, Brian; White, Ailish

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of a locally administered nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist on sweat gland function during exercise. Systemically administered propranolol has been reported to increase, decrease, or not alter sweat production during exercise. To eliminate the confounding systemic effects associated with orally administered propranolol, we used iontophoresis to deliver it to the eccrine sweat glands within a localized area on one forearm prior to exercise. This allowed for determination of the direct effect of β-adrenergic receptor blockade on sweating during exercise. Subjects (n = 14) reported to the laboratory (23 ± 1°C, 35 ± 3% relative humidity) after having refrained from exercise for ≥12 h. Propranolol (1% solution) was administered to a 5-cm(2) area of the flexor surface of one forearm via iontophoresis (1.5 mA) for 5 min. A saline solution was administered to the opposing arm via iontophoresis. Each subject then exercised on a motor-driven treadmill at 75% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate for 20 min, while sweat rate was measured simultaneously in both forearms. Immediately after cessation of exercise, the number of active sweat glands was measured by application of iodine-impregnated paper to each forearm. The sweat rate for the control and propranolol-treated forearm was 0.62 ± 41 and 0.60 ± 0.44 (SD) mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), respectively (P = 0.86). The density of active sweat glands for the control and propranolol-treated forearm was 130 ± 6 and 134 ± 5 (SD) glands/cm(2), respectively, (P = 0.33). End-exercise skin temperature was 32.9 ± 0.2 and 33.1 ± 0.3°C for the control and propranolol-treated forearm, respectively (P = 0.51). Results of the current study show that when propranolol is administered locally, thus eliminating the potential confounding systemic effects of the drug, it does not directly affect sweating during the initial stages of high-intensity exercise in young, healthy

  15. A simulator investigation of parameters affecting helicopter handling qualities in air combat (HAC II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.; Mansur, M. Hossein; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1987-01-01

    The Helicopter Air Combat system was used to conduct a pilot simulation study investigating the handling qualities and flight characteristics required for helicopter air-to-air combat. Results indicate that a well-damped directional response, low sideforce caused by sideslip, and some effective dihedral are all desirable for weapon system performance, good handling qualities, and low pilot workload. An angular rate command system was favored over the attitude-type pitch and roll response for most applications, and an enhanced maneuver envelope size over that of current generation aircraft was found to be of advantage.

  16. Gas and Particulate Aircraft Emissions Measurements: Impacts on local air quality.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, T.; Northway, M.; Canagaratna, M.; Worsnop, D.; Timko, M.; Wood, E.; Miake-Lye, R.; Herndon, S.; Knighton, B.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Anderson, B.

    2007-12-01

    Air travel and freight shipping by air are becoming increasingly important and are expected to continue to expand. The resulting increases in the local concentrations of pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen oxides (NOX), can have negative impacts on regional air quality, human health and can impact climate change. In order to construct valid emission inventories, accurate measurements of aircraft emissions are needed. These measurements must be done both at the engine exit plane (certification) and downwind following the rapid cooling, dilution and initial atmospheric processing of the exhaust plume. We present here results from multiple field experiments which include the Experiment to Characterize Volatile Aerosol and Trace Species Emissions (EXCAVATE) and the four Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiments (APEX- 1/Atlanta/2/3) which characterized gas and particle emissions from both stationary or in-use aircraft. Emission indices (EIs) for NOx and VOCs and for particle number concentration, refractory PM (black carbon soot) and volatile PM (primarily sulfate and organic) particles are reported. Measurements were made at the engine exit plane and at several downstream locations (10 and 30 meters) for a number of different engine types and engine thrust settings. A significant fraction of organic particle mass is composed of low volatility oil-related compounds and is not combustion related, potentially emitted by vents or heated surfaces within aircraft engines. Advected plumes measurements from in-use aircraft show that the practice of reduced thrust take-offs has a significant effect on total NOx and soot emitted in the vicinity of the airport. The measurements reported here represent a first observation of this effect and new insights have been gained with respect to the chemical processing of gases and particulates important to the urban airshed.

  17. Seasonality and Locality Affect the Diversity of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii Midgut Microbiota from Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gendrin, Mathilde; Pels, Nana Adjoa P.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Christophides, George K.; Wilson, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria can have important implications in the development and competence of disease vectors. In Anopheles mosquitoes, the composition of the midgut microbiota is largely influenced by the larval breeding site, but the exact factors shaping this composition are currently unknown. Here, we examined whether the proximity to urban areas and seasons have an impact on the midgut microbial community of the two major malaria vectors in Africa, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. Larvae and pupae were collected from selected habitats in two districts of Ghana during the dry and rainy season periods. The midgut microbiota of adults that emerged from these collections was determined by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. We show that in both mosquito species, Shewanellaceae constituted on average of 54% and 73% of the midgut microbiota from each site in the dry and rainy season, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae was found in comparatively low abundance below 1% in 22/30 samples in the dry season, and in 25/38 samples in the rainy season. Our data indicate that seasonality and locality significantly affect both the diversity of microbiota and the relative abundance of bacterial families with a positive impact of dry season and peri-urban settings. PMID:27322614

  18. Seasonality and Locality Affect the Diversity of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii Midgut Microbiota from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Akorli, Jewelna; Gendrin, Mathilde; Pels, Nana Adjoa P; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Christophides, George K; Wilson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria can have important implications in the development and competence of disease vectors. In Anopheles mosquitoes, the composition of the midgut microbiota is largely influenced by the larval breeding site, but the exact factors shaping this composition are currently unknown. Here, we examined whether the proximity to urban areas and seasons have an impact on the midgut microbial community of the two major malaria vectors in Africa, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. Larvae and pupae were collected from selected habitats in two districts of Ghana during the dry and rainy season periods. The midgut microbiota of adults that emerged from these collections was determined by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. We show that in both mosquito species, Shewanellaceae constituted on average of 54% and 73% of the midgut microbiota from each site in the dry and rainy season, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae was found in comparatively low abundance below 1% in 22/30 samples in the dry season, and in 25/38 samples in the rainy season. Our data indicate that seasonality and locality significantly affect both the diversity of microbiota and the relative abundance of bacterial families with a positive impact of dry season and peri-urban settings. PMID:27322614

  19. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality. PMID:25945619

  20. Cytogenetic and molecular localization of tipE: A gene affecting sodium channels in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, G.; Deak, P.; Hall, L.M.

    1995-04-01

    Voltage-sensitive sodium channels play a key role in nerve cells where they are responsible for the increase in sodium permeability during the rising phase of action potentials. In Drosophila melanogaster a subset of temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations affect sodium channel function. One such mutation is temperature-induced paralysis locus E (tipE), which has been shown by electrophysiology and ligand binding studies to reduce sodium channel numbers. Three new {gamma}-ray-induced tipE alleles associated with either visible deletions in 64AB or a translocation breakpoint within 64B2 provide landmarks for positional cloning of tipE. Beginning with the flanking cloned gene Ras2, a 140-kb walk across the translocation breakpoint was completed. Germline transformation using a 42-kb cosmid clone and successively smaller subclones localized the tipE gene within a 7.4-kb genomic DNA segment. Although this chromosome region is rich in transcripts, only three overlapping mRNAs (5.4, 4.4, and 1.7 kb) lie completely within the smallest rescuing construct. The small sizes of the rescuing construct and transcripts suggests that tipE does not encode a standard sodium channel {alpha}-subunit with four homologous repeats. Sequencing these transcripts will elucidate the role of the tipE gene product in sodium channel functional regulation. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. How does mid-tropospheric dry air affect the evolution of supercellular convection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Takumi; Kawano, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the influence of mid-tropospheric dry air on the evolution of supercell storms, idealized numerical experiments with several moisture profiles were performed. In an environment with (without) a mid-level dry layer, supercellular convection decays immediately (persists for a long period). A set of trajectory analyses revealed that two suppression processes contribute to the convection decay in the environment with the mid-tropospheric dry layer. One is the entrainment process within the mid-tropospheric dry layer, and the other is the dry-air penetration process. In the latter process, dry air penetrates into the low-level updraft region, so that the supply of warm, moist air for convection is reduced. Neither of the processes contributes effectively in an environment with a dry layer located at a higher altitude. The dependence of the results on the environmental shear profile, evaporation rate, and the amount of convective available potential energy (CAPE) was also examined by additional experiments.

  2. The possible role of local air pollution in climate change in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippertz, Peter; Evans, Mat J.; Field, Paul R.; Fink, Andreas H.; Liousse, Catherine; Marsham, John H.

    2015-09-01

    The climate of West Africa is characterized by a sensitive monsoon system that is associated with marked natural precipitation variability. This region has been and is projected to be subject to substantial global and regional-scale changes including greenhouse-gas-induced warming and sea-level rise, land-use and land-cover change, and substantial biomass burning. We argue that more attention should be paid to rapidly increasing air pollution over the explosively growing cities of West Africa, as experiences from other regions suggest that this can alter regional climate through the influences of aerosols on clouds and radiation, and will also affect human health and food security. We need better observations and models to quantify the magnitude and characteristics of these impacts.

  3. Hermetic glass frit packaging in air and vacuum with localized laser joining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, N.; Millar, S.; Desmulliez, M.; Hand, D. P.

    2011-04-01

    Glass frit packaging is a simple and robust method used for hermetic sealing of micro-devices. Conventional glass frit packaging processes rely on furnace heating where the entire package is heated to elevated temperatures, hence restricting the use of temperature-sensitive materials inside the package and generating problems in multi-stage packaging processes. The use of a laser as an alternative heat source offers the possibility of highly localized heating where the heat-input can be restricted to the joining area only. In this paper the clear benefits of combining glass frit packaging and localized laser heating are demonstrated. Two novel laser-based glass frit packaging processes for sealing of leadless chip carrier (LCC) packages in both air and vacuum have been developed. Full hermetic seals according to MIL-STD-883G are achieved in high yield processes where the temperature in the centre of the device is kept at least 230 °C below the temperature in the joining region.

  4. Regression analysis in modeling of air surface temperature and factors affecting its value in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; Jafri, Mohd. Zubir Mat; Lim, Hwee San; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2012-10-01

    This study encompasses air surface temperature (AST) modeling in the lower atmosphere. Data of four atmosphere pollutant gases (CO, O3, CH4, and H2O) dataset, retrieved from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), from 2003 to 2008 was employed to develop a model to predict AST value in the Malaysian peninsula using the multiple regression method. For the entire period, the pollutants were highly correlated (R=0.821) with predicted AST. Comparisons among five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the southwest monsoon (SWM) season, within 1.3 K, and for in situ data, within 1 to 2 K. The validation results of AST with AST from AIRS showed high correlation coefficient (R=0.845 to 0.918), indicating the model's efficiency and accuracy. Statistical analysis in terms of β showed that H2O (0.565 to 1.746) tended to contribute significantly to high AST values during the northeast monsoon season. Generally, these results clearly indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis study to investigate the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases on AST over the Malaysian peninsula. A model was developed that is capable of retrieving the Malaysian peninsulan AST in all weather conditions, with total uncertainties ranging between 1 and 2 K.

  5. Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: Temperature and Air quality): A Study of how the Urban Landscape Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G.; Lo, C. P.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan; Taha, Haider; Bornstein, Robert D.; Gillies, Robert R.; Gallo, Kevin P.

    1998-01-01

    It is our intent through this investigation to help facilitate measures that can be Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: applied to mitigate climatological or air quality Temperature and Air-quality) is a NASA Earth degradation, or to design alternate measures to sustain Observing System (EOS) Interdisciplinary Science or improve the overall urban environment in the future. investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta. The primary objectives for this research effort are: 1) To In the last half of the 20th century, Atlanta, investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta Georgia has risen as the premier commercial, urban growth, land cover change, and the development industrial, and transportation urban area of the of the urban heat island phenomenon through time at southeastern United States. The rapid growth of the nested spatial scales from local to regional; 2) To Atlanta area, particularly within the last 25 years, has investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta made Atlanta one of the fastest growing metropolitan urban growth and land cover change on air quality areas in the United States. The population of the through time at nested spatial scales from local to Atlanta metropolitan area increased 27% between 1970 regional; and 3) To model the overall effects of urban and 1980, and 33% between 1980-1990 (Research development on surface energy budget characteristics Atlanta, Inc., 1993). Concomitant with this high rate of across the Atlanta urban landscape through time at population growth, has been an explosive growth in nested spatial scales from local to regional. Our key retail, industrial, commercial, and transportation goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how services within the Atlanta region. This has resulted in land cover changes associated with urbanization in the tremendous land cover change dynamics within the Atlanta area, principally in transforming

  6. The outlook for aeronautics, 1980 - 2000 - Study report. [trends affecting civil air transportation and defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Trends in civil and military aviation in the period 1980-2000 are examined in terms of the role that NASA should play in aeronautical research and development during this period. Factors considered include the pattern of industry and government relationships, the character of the aircraft to be developed, and the technology advances that will be required as well as demographic, economic, and social factors. Trends are expressed in terms of the most probable developments in civil air transportation and air defense and several characteristically different directions for future development are defined. The longer term opportunities created by developments in air transporation extending into the next century are also examined. Within this framework, a preferred NASA role and a preferred set of objectives are formulated for the research and technology which should be undertaken by NASA during the period 1976-1985.

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Affect Intensity and Reactivity Measure Adapted for Youth (AIR-Y)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rachel E.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Reardon, Laura E.; Hawks, Erin

    2009-01-01

    A valid and reliable instrument for measuring affect intensity does not exist for adolescents; such a measure may help to refine understanding of emotion among youths. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical relevance of a measure of affect intensity adapted for youths. Two hundred five community…

  8. Modeling study on the factors affecting regional air quality during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Cheng, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; Pierce, R.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, M. K.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Ramanathan, V.

    2009-12-01

    Chinese government took measures to control emissions of pollutants before and during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in order to get better air quality for the event. A 3-dimensional regional chemical transport model, the University of Iowa’s Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM), is used to evaluate the effects of emission reductions on regional air quality by this event. The emission inventories with and without the consideration of emission reductions are used in case studies. Impacts of the emissions from different regions and sectors on Beijing and regional air quality are discussed in this study. Meteorological factor on the improvement of air quality during this event is also assessed by using the meteorological conditions from different years to drive the model. Model performance is evaluated by comparing the modeled trace gases and aerosols with the surface measurements from Beijing, the field observations from the Cheju ABC Plume-Asian Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX) during this summer, and satellite data from NASA.

  9. Characterizing local traffic contributions to particulate air pollution in street canyons using mobile monitoring techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwack, Leonard M.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Spengler, John D.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2011-05-01

    Traffic within urban street canyons can contribute significantly to ambient concentrations of particulate air pollution. In these settings, it is challenging to separate within-canyon source contributions from urban and regional background concentrations given the highly variable and complex emissions and dispersion characteristics. In this study, we used continuous mobile monitoring of traffic-related particulate air pollutants to assess the contribution to concentrations, above background, of traffic in the street canyons of midtown Manhattan. Concentrations of both ultrafine particles (UFP) and fine particles (PM 2.5) were measured at street level using portable instruments. Statistical modeling techniques accounting for autocorrelation were used to investigate the presence of spatial heterogeneity of pollutant concentrations as well as to quantify the contribution of within-canyon traffic sources. Measurements were also made within Central Park, to examine the impact of offsets from major roadways in this urban environment. On average, an approximate 11% increase in concentrations of UFP and 8% increase in concentrations of PM 2.5 over urban background was estimated during high-traffic periods in street canyons as opposed to low traffic periods. Estimates were 8% and 5%, respectively, after accounting for temporal autocorrelation. Within Central Park, concentrations were 40% higher than background (5% after accounting for temporal autocorrelation) within the first 100 m from the nearest roadway for UFP, with a smaller but statistically significant increase for PM 2.5. Our findings demonstrate the viability of a mobile monitoring protocol coupled with spatiotemporal modeling techniques in characterizing local source contributions in a setting with street canyons.

  10. Hyperketonemia during lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis affects systemic and local intramammary metabolism in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zarrin, M; Wellnitz, O; van Dorland, H A; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M

    2014-01-01

    Hyperketonemia interferes with the metabolic regulation in dairy cows. It is assumed that metabolic and endocrine changes during hyperketonemia also affect metabolic adaptations during inflammatory processes. We therefore studied systemic and local intramammary effects of elevated plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) before and during the response to an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirteen dairy cows received intravenously either a Na-DL-β-OH-butyrate infusion (n = 5) to achieve a constant plasma BHBA concentration (1.7 ± 0.1 mmol/L), with adjustments of the infusion rates made based on immediate measurements of plasma BHBA every 15 min, or an infusion with a 0.9% NaCl solution (control; n = 8) for 56 h. Infusions started at 0900 h on d 1 and continued until 1700 h 2 d later. Two udder quarters were challenged with 200 μg of Escherichia coli LPS and 2 udder quarters were treated with 0.9% saline solution as control quarters at 48 h after the start of infusion. Blood samples were taken at 1 wk and 2h before the start of infusions as reference samples and hourly during the infusion. Mammary gland biopsies were taken 1 wk before, and 48 and 56 h (8h after LPS challenge) after the start of infusions. The mRNA abundance of key factors related to BHBA and fatty acid metabolism, and glucose transporters was determined in mammary tissue biopsies. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma glucose, BHBA, nonesterified fatty acid, urea, insulin, glucagon, and cortisol concentrations. Differences were not different for effects of BHBA infusion on the mRNA abundance of any of the measured target genes in the mammary gland before LPS challenge. Intramammary LPS challenge increased plasma glucose, cortisol, glucagon, and insulin concentrations in both groups but increases in plasma glucose and glucagon concentration were less pronounced in the Na-DL-β-OH-butyrate infusion group than in controls. In response to LPS challenge, plasma BHBA concentration decreased

  11. Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Factors affecting air-sintering of chromite interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Chick, L.A.; Bates, J.L.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties. Another objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication processes for these materials whereby they can be consolidated in air into SOFCs. The approach is to (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFCs, (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component compositions and processing on those reactions.

  12. Source characterization of volatile organic compounds affecting the air quality in a coastal urban area of South Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-09-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%). PMID:19139530

  13. Source Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds Affecting the Air Quality in a Coastal Urban Area of South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-01-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%). PMID:19139530

  14. Prolonged spontaneous emission and dephasing of localized excitons in air-bridged carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarpkaya, Ibrahim; Zhang, Zhengyi; Walden-Newman, William; Wang, Xuesi; Hone, James; Wong, Chee W.; Strauf, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    The bright exciton emission of carbon nanotubes is appealing for optoelectronic devices and fundamental studies of light-matter interaction in one-dimensional nanostructures. However, to date, the photophysics of excitons in carbon nanotubes is largely affected by extrinsic effects. Here we perform time-resolved photoluminescence measurements over 14 orders of magnitude for ultra-clean carbon nanotubes bridging an air gap over pillar posts. Our measurements demonstrate a new regime of intrinsic exciton photophysics with prolonged spontaneous emission times up to T1=18 ns, about two orders of magnitude better than prior measurements and in agreement with values hypothesized by theorists about a decade ago. Furthermore, we establish for the first time exciton decoherence times of individual nanotubes in the time domain and find fourfold prolonged values up to T2=2.1 ps compared with ensemble measurements. These first observations motivate new discussions about the magnitude of the intrinsic dephasing mechanism while the prolonged exciton dynamics is promising for applications.

  15. The role of a steel plant in north-west Italy to the local air concentrations of PCDD/Fs.

    PubMed

    Onofrio, Maurizio; Spataro, Roberta; Botta, Serena

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are ubiquitous contaminants, mainly released into the environment during combustion processes (point sources), but also from other sources (traffic, uncontrolled combustion). This study aims at investigating the contribution of a steel plant in NW Italy (700000tons of steelyear(-1)) to the air concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs at local level, through the analysis of measured, modelled and literature data. The study was carried out in an area of 600km(2), using air quality data measured by the institutional monitoring network, data obtained from AERMOD simulations and literature data. The measured air concentrations were consistent with literature values for similar areas, and both the homologue profiles and PCA analyses showed a clear distinction between the monitoring stations and the source profiles. All the previous results were confirmed by the air dispersion model (AERMOD), that predicted PCDD/F air concentrations due to the steel plant from four to two orders of magnitude lower than those measured in the monitoring stations, highlighting the presence of other sources. This study outlines the limited influence of the source in the local PCDD/F air concentrations and at the same time the usefulness of a joint analysis of measured, literature and calculated data to correctly evaluate the role of a source to the local pollution. The study also highlights the usefulness of AERMOD as a complementary tool to define the correct placement of monitoring stations and to locate those areas expected to have the highest air concentrations deriving from a source. PMID:21094976

  16. Factors Affecting the Corporate Decision-Making Process of Air Transport Manufacturers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollila, R. G.; Hill, J. D.; Noton, B. R.; Duffy, M. A.; Epstein, M. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fuel economy is a pivotal question influencing the future sale and utilization of commercial aircraft. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program Office has a program intended to accelerate the readiness of advanced technologies for energy efficient aircraft. Because the decision to develop a new airframe or engine is a major financial hazard for manufacturers, it is important to know what factors influence the decision making process. A method is described for identifying and ranking individuals and organizations involved at each stage of commercial air transport development, and the barriers that must be overcome in adopting new technologies.

  17. Multi-step approach for comparing the local air pollution contributions of conventional and innovative MSW thermo-chemical treatments.

    PubMed

    Ragazzi, M; Rada, E C

    2012-10-01

    In the sector of municipal solid waste management the debate on the performances of conventional and novel thermo-chemical technologies is still relevant. When a plant must be constructed, decision makers often select a technology prior to analyzing the local environmental impact of the available options, as this type of study is generally developed when the design of the plant has been carried out. Additionally, in the literature there is a lack of comparative analyses of the contributions to local air pollution from different technologies. The present study offers a multi-step approach, based on pollutant emission factors and atmospheric dilution coefficients, for a local comparative analysis. With this approach it is possible to check if some assumptions related to the advantages of the novel thermochemical technologies, in terms of local direct impact on air quality, can be applied to municipal solid waste treatment. The selected processes concern combustion, gasification and pyrolysis, alone or in combination. The pollutants considered are both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic. A case study is presented concerning the location of a plant in an alpine region and its contribution to the local air pollution. Results show that differences among technologies are less than expected. Performances of each technology are discussed in details. PMID:22795304

  18. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies(AED)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery s...

  19. Preemption of local smoke-free air ordinances: the implications of judicial opinions for meeting national health objectives.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Jean C; MacNeil, Allison; Chriqui, Jamie F; Tynan, Michael; Bates, Hannalori; Eidson, Shelby K S

    2008-01-01

    Elimination of state laws that preempt local antismoking ordinances is a national health objective. However, the tobacco industry and its supporters have continued to pursue state-level preemption of local tobacco control ordinances as part of an apparent strategy to avoid the diffusion of grassroots antismoking initiatives. And, an increasing number of challenges to local ordinances by the tobacco industry and persons supported by the tobacco industry are being decided in state supreme courts and courts of appeals. The outcomes of seemingly similar cases about the validity of local smoke-free air ordinances vary significantly by state. This paper examines the common and unique aspects of the decisions and the potential implications of court rulings on preemption for future state tobacco control efforts and achievement of national health objectives around the elimination of preemption. Using a search strategy developed for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System, cases where a state or federal appellate level court made a finding on the validity of a local smoke-free air ordinance or regulation were identified in 19 states. In contrast to previous studies, we found that cases in approximately half of states were decided for local governments. We also found that across the states, courts were considering similar factors in their decisions including the extent to which: (1) the local government possessed the authority to pass the ordinance, (2) the ordinance conflicted with the state constitution, and (3) state statutes preempt the ordinance. PMID:18547209

  20. North Atlantic Oscillation affecting aerosols ground levels over Europe through local processes: asymmetries in time and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerez, Sonia; Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Montávez, Juan Pedro; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental and health problem. Hence, understanding when and why episodes of air pollution arise becomes essential. Besides emissions, air pollution levels depend on the atmospheric conditions handling and transforming them through processes related to chemistry, transport and removal. In this sense, this contribution assesses the variation in ground-level aerosols concentrations over Europe associated to changes in the phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) motivated by the well-known strong impact of the NAO on the European climate variability. For that we used a high-resolution (25 km) air quality simulation spanning the period 1970-1999 and covering western Europe and most of the Mediterranean basin. Additionally, we used observed aerosol data from the EMEP database whose observational periods range between 1993 and 2010. The simulation was performed by using climatological boundary conditions for the aerosols concentrations, hence allowing to isolate the influence of the local atmospheric processes, as they are governed by the NAO, on the levels of the various aerosol species analyzed (namely sea salt, wind-blown and resuspended dust, secondary inorganic aerosols, organic matter and elemental carbon) from the influence of large-scale mechanisms. The results highlight that positive NAO phases favor increased aerosols levels in southern (northern) regions in winter (summer), while negative NAO phases enhance them in northern (southern) regions in winter (summer), being generally in good agreement with the analysis based on the observational database. Variations are up to and over 100% for most aerosols, being clearly related to the NAO-impact on local precipitation and wind, as they act to clean the atmosphere through removal and dispersion processes, but equally resulting from the NAO-impact on the radiation balance (i.e. cloudiness) as it rebounds on the biogenic emitting activity and on the oxidative capacity of the

  1. Factors Affecting Academic Outcomes of Underprepared Community College Students. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, J. Charles

    This study examined the factors affecting the four-year academic performance and outcomes of 1,249 underprepared students at Prince George's Community College (Maryland). The fall 1994 freshmen required remediation in reading, writing, or mathematics. Subjects were defined as achievers if, by summer 1998, they had earned a degree or certificate…

  2. Ozone and other air quality-related variables affecting visibility in the southeast United States.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Viney P; Brittig, Jeffrey S; Kim, Deug-Soo; Hanna, Adel

    2004-06-01

    An analysis of ozone (O3) concentrations and several other air quality-related variables was performed to elucidate their relationship with visibility at five urban and semi-urban locations in the southeast United States during the summer seasons of 1980-1996. The role and impact of O3 on aerosols was investigated to ascertain a relationship with visibility. Regional trend analysis over the 1980s reveals an increase in maximum O3 concentration coupled with a decrease in visibility. However, a similar analysis for the 1990s shows a leveling-off of both O3 and visibility; in both cases, the results were not statistically significant at the 5% level. A case study of site-specific trends at Nashville, TN, followed similar trends. To better understand the relationships between O3 concentration and visibility, the analysis was varied from yearly through daily to hourly averaged values. This increased temporal resolution showed a statistically significant inverse relationship between visibility and O3. Site-specific hourly r2 values ranged from 0.02 to 0.43. Additionally, by performing back-trajectory analysis, it was found that the visibility degraded by air mass migration over polluted areas. PMID:15242148

  3. Understanding Locally, Culturally, and Contextually Relevant Mental Health Problems among Rwandan Children and Adolescents Affected by HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Beardslee, William R.; Stulac, Sara N.; Fayida, Ildephonse; Safren, Steven

    2011-01-01

    In assessing the mental health of HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa, researchers often employ mental health measures developed in other settings. However, measures derived from standard Western psychiatric criteria are frequently based on conceptual models of illness or terminology that may or may not be an appropriate for diverse populations. Understanding local perceptions of mental health problems can aid in the selection or creation of appropriate measures. This study used qualitative methodologies (Free Listing [FL], Key Informant [KI] interviews, and Clinician Interviews [C-KIs]) to understand local perceptions of mental health problems facing HIV/AIDS-affected youth in Rwinkwavu, Rwanda. Several syndrome terms were identified by participants: agahinda kenshi, kwiheba, guhangayika, ihahamuka, umushiha and uburara. While these local syndromes share some similarities with Western mood, anxiety, and conduct disorders, they also contain important culture-specific features and gradations of severity. Our findings underscore the importance of understanding local manifestations of mental health syndromes when conducting mental health assessments and when planning interventions for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in diverse settings. PMID:21271393

  4. Ionizing air affects influenza virus infectivity and prevents airborne-transmission.

    PubMed

    Hagbom, Marie; Nordgren, Johan; Nybom, Rolf; Hedlund, Kjell-Olof; Wigzell, Hans; Svensson, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    By the use of a modified ionizer device we describe effective prevention of airborne transmitted influenza A (strain Panama 99) virus infection between animals and inactivation of virus (>97%). Active ionizer prevented 100% (4/4) of guinea pigs from infection. Moreover, the device effectively captured airborne transmitted calicivirus, rotavirus and influenza virus, with recovery rates up to 21% after 40 min in a 19 m(3) room. The ionizer generates negative ions, rendering airborne particles/aerosol droplets negatively charged and electrostatically attracts them to a positively charged collector plate. Trapped viruses are then identified by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. The device enables unique possibilities for rapid and simple removal of virus from air and offers possibilities to simultaneously identify and prevent airborne transmission of viruses. PMID:26101102

  5. Factors affecting the microstructural stability and durability of thermal barrier coatings fabricated by air plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Helminiak, M A; Yanar, N M; Pettit, F S; Taylor, T A; Meier, G H

    2012-10-01

    The high-temperature behavior of high-purity, low-density (HP-LD) air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying is described. The high purity yttria-stabilized zirconia resulted in top coats which are highly resistant to sintering and transformation from the metastable tetragonal phase to the equilibrium mixture of monoclinic and cubic phases. The thermal conductivity of the as-processed TBC is low but increases during high temperature exposure even before densification occurs. The porous topcoat microstructure also resulted in good spallation resistance during thermal cycling. The actual failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on topcoat thickness, topcoat density, and the thermal cycle frequency. The failure mechanisms are described and the durability of the HP-LD coatings is compared with that of state-of-the-art electron beam physical vapor deposition TBCs.

  6. Ionizing air affects influenza virus infectivity and prevents airborne-transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hagbom, Marie; Nordgren, Johan; Nybom, Rolf; Hedlund, Kjell-Olof; Wigzell, Hans; Svensson, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    By the use of a modified ionizer device we describe effective prevention of airborne transmitted influenza A (strain Panama 99) virus infection between animals and inactivation of virus (>97%). Active ionizer prevented 100% (4/4) of guinea pigs from infection. Moreover, the device effectively captured airborne transmitted calicivirus, rotavirus and influenza virus, with recovery rates up to 21% after 40 min in a 19 m3 room. The ionizer generates negative ions, rendering airborne particles/aerosol droplets negatively charged and electrostatically attracts them to a positively charged collector plate. Trapped viruses are then identified by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. The device enables unique possibilities for rapid and simple removal of virus from air and offers possibilities to simultaneously identify and prevent airborne transmission of viruses. PMID:26101102

  7. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, Uwe; Burke, Edward J.; Butler, Bruce D.; Davis, Karen L.; Katz, Jeffrey; Melamed, Evan; Morris, William P.; Allen, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 years ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 deg down (LLR-10 deg; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  8. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, U.; Burke, E. J.; Butler, B. D.; Davis, K. L.; Katz, J.; Melamed, E.; Morris, W. P.; Allen, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 yr ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 degrees down (LLR-10 degrees; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  9. Both population size and patch quality affect local extinctions and colonizations.

    PubMed

    Franzén, Markus; Nilsson, Sven G

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the habitat of many species is fragmented, resulting in small local populations with individuals occasionally dispersing between the remaining habitat patches. In a solitary bee metapopulation, extinction probability was related to both local bee population sizes and pollen resources measured as host plant population size. Patch size, on the other hand, had no additional predictive power. The turnover rate of local bee populations in 63 habitat patches over 4 years was high, with 72 extinction events and 31 colonization events, but the pollen plant population was stable with no extinctions or colonizations. Both pollen resources and bee populations had strong and independent effects on extinction probability, but connectivity was not of importance. Colonizations occurred more frequently within larger host plant populations. For metapopulation survival of the bee, large pollen plant populations are essential, independent of current bee population size. PMID:19793747

  10. Feasibility of Assessing Public Health Impacts of Air Pollution Reduction Programs on a Local Scale: New Haven Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Lobdell, Danelle T.; Isakov, Vlad; Baxter, Lisa; Touma, Jawad S.; Smuts, Mary Beth; Özkaynak, Halûk

    2011-01-01

    Background New approaches to link health surveillance data with environmental and population exposure information are needed to examine the health benefits of risk management decisions. Objective We examined the feasibility of conducting a local assessment of the public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities from federal, state, local, and voluntary actions in the City of New Haven, Connecticut (USA). Methods Using a hybrid modeling approach that combines regional and local-scale air quality data, we estimated ambient concentrations for multiple air pollutants [e.g., PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), NOx (nitrogen oxides)] for baseline year 2001 and projected emissions for 2010, 2020, and 2030. We assessed the feasibility of detecting health improvements in relation to reductions in air pollution for 26 different pollutant–health outcome linkages using both sample size and exploratory epidemiological simulations to further inform decision-making needs. Results Model projections suggested decreases (~ 10–60%) in pollutant concentrations, mainly attributable to decreases in pollutants from local sources between 2001 and 2010. Models indicated considerable spatial variability in the concentrations of most pollutants. Sample size analyses supported the feasibility of identifying linkages between reductions in NOx and improvements in all-cause mortality, prevalence of asthma in children and adults, and cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations. Conclusion Substantial reductions in air pollution (e.g., ~ 60% for NOx) are needed to detect health impacts of environmental actions using traditional epidemiological study designs in small communities like New Haven. In contrast, exploratory epidemiological simulations suggest that it may be possible to demonstrate the health impacts of PM reductions by predicting intraurban pollution gradients within New Haven using coupled models. PMID:21335318

  11. Air content and O2/N2 tuned chronologies on local insolation signatures in the Vostok ice core are similar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipenkov, V.; Raynaud, D.; Loutre, M.-F.; Duval, P.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.

    2009-04-01

    An accurate chronology of ice cores is needed for interpreting the paleoclimatic record and understanding the relation between insolation and climate. A new domain of research in this area has been initially stimulated by the work of M. Bender (2002) linking the record of O2/N2 ratio in the air trapped in the Vostok ice with the local insolation. More recently, it has been proposed that the long-term changes in air content, V, recorded in ice from the high Antarctic plateau is also dominantly imprinted by the local summer insolation (Raynaud et al., 2007). The present paper presents a new V record from Vostok, which is compared with the published Vostok O2/N2 record for the same period of time (150-400 ka BP) by using the same spectral analysis methods. The spectral differences between the two properties and the possible mechanisms linking them with insolation through the surface snow structure and the close-off processes are discussed. The main result of our study is that the two experimentally independent local insolation proxies lead to absolute (orbital) time scales, which agree together within a standard deviation of 0.6 ka. This result strongly adds credibility to the air content of ice and the O2 to N2 ratio of the air trapped in ice as equally reliable and complementary tools for accurate dating of existing and future deep ice cores. References: M. Bender, Orbital tuning chronology for the Vostok climate record supported by trapped gas composition, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 204(2002) 275-289. D. Raynaud, V. Lipenkov, B. Lemieux-Dudon, P. Duval, M.F. Loutre, N. Lhomme, The local insolation signature of air content in Antarctic ice: a new step toward an absolute dating of ice records, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 261(2007) 337-349.

  12. Madness or sadness? Local concepts of mental illness in four conflict-affected African communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concepts of ‘what constitutes mental illness’, the presumed aetiology and preferred treatment options, vary considerably from one cultural context to another. Knowledge and understanding of these local conceptualisations is essential to inform public mental health programming and policy. Methods Participants from four locations in Burundi, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, were invited to describe ‘problems they knew of that related to thinking, feeling and behaviour?’ Data were collected over 31 focus groups discussions (251 participants) and key informant interviews with traditional healers and health workers. Results While remarkable similarities occurred across all settings, there were also striking differences. In all areas, participants were able to describe localized syndromes characterized by severe behavioural and cognitive disturbances with considerable resemblance to psychotic disorders. Additionally, respondents throughout all settings described local syndromes that included sadness and social withdrawal as core features. These syndromes had some similarities with nonpsychotic mental disorders, such as major depression or anxiety disorders, but also differed significantly. Aetiological concepts varied a great deal within each setting, and attributed causes varied from supernatural to psychosocial and natural. Local syndromes resembling psychotic disorders were seen as an abnormality in need of treatment, although people did not really know where to go. Local syndromes resembling nonpsychotic mental disorders were not regarded as a ‘medical’ disorder, and were therefore also not seen as a condition for which help should be sought within the biomedical health-care system. Rather, such conditions were expected to improve through social and emotional support from relatives, traditional healers and community members. Conclusions Local conceptualizations have significant implications for the planning of mental

  13. A theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. 2: Experimental support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Olbert, S.

    1979-01-01

    The microscopic characteristics of the Coulomb cross section show that there are three natural subpopulations for plasma electrons: the subthermals with local kinetic energy E kT sub c; the transthermals with kT sub c E 7 kT sub c and the extrathermals E 7 kT sub c. Data from three experimental groups on three different spacecraft in the interplanetary medium over a radial range are presented to support the five interrelations projected between solar wind electron properties and changes in the interplanetary medium: (1) subthermals respond primarily to local changes (compression and rarefactions) in stream dynamics; (2) the extrathermal fraction of the ambient electron density should be anti-correlated with the asymptotic bulk speed; (3) the extrathermal "temperature" should be anti-correlated with the local wind speed at 1 AU; (4) the heat flux carried by electrons should be anti-correlated with the local bulk speed; and (5) the extrathermal differential 'temperature' should be nearly independent of radius within 1 AU.

  14. Dynamics of Choice: Relative Rate and Amount Affect Local Preference at Three Different Time Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Carlos F.; Baum, William M.

    2009-01-01

    To examine extended control over local choice, the present study investigated preference in transition as food-rate ratio provided by two levers changed across seven components within daily sessions, and food-amount ratio changed across phases. Phase 1 arranged a food-amount ratio of 4:1 (i.e., the left lever delivered four pellets and the right…

  15. Development of open air silicon deposition technology by silane-free atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under local ambient gas control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2016-07-01

    Open air silicon deposition was performed by combining silane-free atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical transport and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. The effect of air contamination on silicon deposition was investigated using a vacuum chamber, and the allowable air contamination level was confirmed to be 3 ppm. The capability of the local ambient gas control head was investigated numerically and experimentally. A safe and clean process environment with air contamination less than 1 ppm was achieved. Combining these technologies, a microcrystalline silicon film was deposited in open air, the properties of which were comparable to those of silicon films deposited in a vacuum chamber.

  16. Initial Evaluation of the Heat-Affected Zone, Local Embrittlement Phenomenon as it Applies to Nuclear Reactor Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.E.

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this project was to determine if the local brittle zone (LBZ) problem, encountered in the testing of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) part of welds in offshore platform construction, can also be found in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) welds. Both structures have multipass welds and grain coarsening along the fusion line. Literature was obtained that described the metallurgical evidence and the type of research work performed on offshore structure welds.

  17. An analysis of winds affecting air pollution concentrations in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shouquan; Lam, Kin-Che

    A study of concentrations of SO 2 and TSP has been performed in Hong Kong. The results were discussed from the standpoint of seasonal, monthly, and weekly variations and wind effects. The monthly mean SO 2 concentrations were in the range of 16.6-43.7 μg m -3 and showed regular seasonal variations with the highest concentrations in summer and the lowest in autumn. On the other hand, the monthly TSP concentrations reached the highest (117.7 μg m -3) in December and the lowest (72.9 μg m -3) in June. The procedure was able to identify that the high SO 2 concentrations were generally associated with the southwesterly and westerly winds, while the high TSP concentrations were usually related to the northerly and westerly winds. From 1983 to 1992, 85% of the total high and severe SO 2 concentration days were observed when there were the SSW-WNW winds over Hong Kong; and 70% of the total severe TSP concentration days occurred in the days with the W-ENE winds. Finally, the proportion of the total SO 2 concentrations contributed by each of the source regions was quantitatively estimated. On an average the power stations, industry, and automobiles, etc., are responsible for 40, 35, and 25% of the total SO 2 concentrations in the urban air of Hong Kong, respectively.

  18. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M.L.; Bentley, A.J.; Dunkin, K.A.; Hodgson, A.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Sextro, R.G.; Daisey, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    We report a field study of soil gas transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into a slab-on-grade building found at a site contaminated with gasoline. Although the high VOC concentrations (30-60 g m{sup -3}) measured in the soil gas at depths of 0.7 m below the building suggest a potential for high levels of indoor VOC, the measured indoor air concentrations were lower than those in the soil gas by approximately six orders of magnitude ({approx} 0.03 mg m{sup -3}). This large ratio is explained by (1) the expected dilution of soil gas entering the building via ambient building ventilation (a factor of {approx}1000), and (2) an unexpectedly sharp gradient in soil gas VOC concentration between the depths of 0.1 and 0.7 m (a factor of {approx}1000). Measurements of the soil physical and biological characteristics indicate that a partial physical barrier to vertical transport in combination with microbial degradation provides a likely explanation for this gradient. These factors are likely to be important to varying degrees at other sites.

  19. Meteorological phenomena affecting the presence of solid particles suspended in the air during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñanos, P.; Galán, C.; Alcázar, P.; Dominguez, E.

    Winter is not traditionally considered to be a risky season for people who suffer from pollen allergies. However, increasing numbers of people are showing symptoms in winter. This prompted our investigation into the levels of solid material in the air, and some of the meteorological phenomena that allow their accumulation. This study showed a possible relationship between the phenomenon of thermal inversion, which occurs when very low temperatures, cloudless skies and atmospheric calms coincide, and an increase in the concentration of solid material in the atmosphere. Frequently, this situation is associated with other predictable phenomena such as fog, dew and frost. This may allow a warning system to be derived for urban pollution episodes. The effect caused by parameters such as wind and rainfall was also analysed. Solid material was differentiated into non-biological material from natural and non-natural sources (e.g. soot, dust, sand, diesel exhaust particles, partially burnt residues) and biological material. The latter mainly comprises pollen grains and fungal spores. Owing to its abundance and importance as a causal agent of winter allergies, Cupressaceae pollen was considered separately.

  20. An investigation of potential regional and local source regions affecting fine particulate matter concentrations in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saikat; Biswas, Jhumoor; Guttikunda, Sarath; Roychowdhury, Soma; Nayak, Mugdha

    2015-02-01

    In this study, potential regional and local sources influencing PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter >2.5 μm) concentrations in Delhi, India, are identified and their possible impact evaluated through diverse approaches based on study of variability of synoptic and local airflow patterns that transport aerosol concentrations from these emission sources to an urban receptor site in Delhi, India. Trajectory clustering of 72-hr and 48-hr back trajectories simulated at arrival heights of 500 m and 100 m, respectively, every hour for representative years 2008-2010 are used to assess the relative influence of long-distance, regional, and subregional sources on this site. Nonparametric statistical procedures are employed on trajectory clusters to better delineate various distinct regional pollutant source regions. Trajectory clustering and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) analyses indicate that regional and subregional PM2.5 emission sources in neighboring country of Pakistan and adjacent states of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh contribute significantly to the total surplus of aerosol concentrations in the Delhi region. Conditional probability function and Bayesian approach used to identify local source regions have established substantial influence from highly urbanized satellite towns located southwest (above 25%) and southeast (above 45%) of receptor location. There is significant seasonal variability in synoptic and local air circulation patterns, which is discerned in variability in seasonal concentrations. Mean of daily averaged PM2.5 concentrations at the Income Tax Office (ITO) receptor site over Delhi at 95% confidence level is highest in winter, ranging between 209 and 185 μg m⁻³ for the entire study period. The annual variability in air transport pathways is more in winter than in other seasons. Year-to-year variability is present in aerosol concentrations, especially during winter, with standard deviations varying from a

  1. Prognostic factors affecting local control of hepatic tumors treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Robotic Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy with real-time tumor tracking has shown encouraging results for hepatic tumors with good efficacy and low toxicity. We studied the factors associated with local control of primary or secondary hepatic lesions post-SBRT. Methods and materials Since 2007, 153 stereotactic liver treatments were administered to 120 patients using the CyberKnife® System. Ninety-nine liver metastases (72 patients), 48 hepatocellular carcinomas (42 patients), and six cholangiocarcinomas were treated. On average, three to four sessions were delivered over 12 days. Twenty-seven to 45 Gy was prescribed to the 80% isodose line. Margins consisted of 5 to 10 mm for clinical target volume (CTV) and 3 mm for planning target volume (PTV). Results Median size was 33 mm (range, 5–112 mm). Median gross tumor volume (GTV) was 32.38 cm3 (range, 0.2–499.5 cm3). Median total dose was 45 Gy in three fractions. Median minimum dose was 27 Gy in three fractions. With a median follow-up of 15.0 months, local control rates at one and two years were 84% and 74.6%, respectively. The factors associated with better local control were lesion size < 50 mm (p = 0.019), GTV volume (p < 0.05), PTV volume (p < 0.01) and two treatment factors: a total dose of 45 Gy and a dose–per-fraction of 15 Gy (p = 0.019). Conclusions Dose, tumor diameter and volume are prognostic factors for local control when a stereotactic radiation therapy for hepatic lesions is considered. These results should be considered in order to obtain a maximum therapeutic efficacy. PMID:23050794

  2. Rotational Mobility of Single Molecules Affects Localization Accuracy in Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Matthew D.; Backlund, Mikael P.; Moerner, W. E.

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric nature of single-molecule (SM) dipole emission patterns limits the accuracy of position determination in localization-based super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. The degree of mislocalization depends highly on the rotational mobility of SMs; only for SMs rotating within a cone half angle α > 60° can mislocalization errors be bounded to ≤ 10 nm. Simulations demonstrate how low or high rotational mobility can cause resolution degradation or distortion in super-resolution reconstructions. PMID:23360306

  3. Brain parcellation choice affects disease-related topology differences increasingly from global to local network levels.

    PubMed

    Lord, Anton; Ehrlich, Stefan; Borchardt, Viola; Geisler, Daniel; Seidel, Maria; Huber, Stefanie; Murr, Julia; Walter, Martin

    2016-03-30

    Network-based analyses of deviant brain function have become extremely popular in psychiatric neuroimaging. Underpinning brain network analyses is the selection of appropriate regions of interest (ROIs). Although ROI selection is fundamental in network analysis, its impact on detecting disease effects remains unclear. We investigated the impact of parcellation choice when comparing results from different studies. We investigated the effects of anatomical (AAL) and literature-based (Dosenbach) parcellation schemes on comparability of group differences in 35 female patients with anorexia nervosa and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Global and local network properties, including network-based statistics (NBS), were assessed on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at 3T. Parcellation schemes were comparably consistent on global network properties, while NBS and local metrics differed in location, but not metric type. Location of local metric alterations varied for AAL (parietal and cingulate cortices) versus Dosenbach (insula, thalamus) parcellation approaches. However, consistency was observed for the occipital cortex. Patient-specific global network properties can be robustly observed using different parcellation schemes, while graph metrics characterizing impairments of individual nodes vary considerably. Therefore, the impact of parcellation choice on specific group differences varies depending on the level of network organization. PMID:27000302

  4. Connecting the dots: how local structure affects global integration in infants

    PubMed Central

    Palomares, Melanie; Pettet, Mark; Vildavski, Vladimir; Hou, Chuan; Norcia, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Glass patterns are moirés created from a sparse random dot field paired with its spatially-shifted copy. Because discrimination of these patterns is not based on local features, they have been used extensively to study global integration processes. Here, we investigated whether 4–5.5 month old infants are sensitive to the global structure of Glass patterns by measuring Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs). Although we found strong responses to the appearance of the constituent dots, we found sensitivity to the global structure of the Glass patterns in the infants only over a very limited range of spatial separation. In contrast, we observed robust responses in the infants when we connected the dot pairs of the Glass pattern with lines. Moreover, both infants and adults showed differential responses to exchanges between line patterns portraying different global structures. A control study varying luminance contrast in adults suggests that infant sensitivity to global structure is not primarily limited by reduced element visibility. Together our results suggest that the insensitivity to structure in conventional Glass patterns is due to inefficiencies in extracting the local orientation cues generated by the dot pairs. Once the local orientations are made unambiguous or when the interpolation span is small, infants can integrate these signals over the image. PMID:19642888

  5. Coastal and synoptic recirculation affecting air pollutants dispersion: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Ilan; Mahrer, Yizhak; Dayan, Uri

    This study examines the spatial distribution of potential recirculation over the East Mediterranean Sea, and the combined effect of synoptic and meso-scale recirculations on plume dispersion in the region. For this purpose, three case studies are performed by the RAMS-HYPACT modeling system, each for a different synoptic scale flow pattern. Both a quantitative measure of the recirculation potential at each grid cell and particle dispersion are calculated. Although the recirculation index is an Eulerian quantity for the wind field and plume dispersion is a manifestation of the Lagrangian behavior of the wind, good correlation is found between the two. Several locations are identified as having high recirculation potential, including southern Cyprus, the coasts of Israel and Lebanon, the eastern slopes of the Judean Mountains and the Haifa Bay in particular. In the latter location, high recirculation potential could be explained by strong interaction between the land-sea surfaces, curvature of the bay and proximity of the Carmel ridge. It is shown that the synoptic and meso-scale recirculations may, under certain conditions, act together and at the same time in determining particle distribution. Under weak synoptic scale flows, particles are recirculated over the entire East Mediterranean Sea basin, returning onshore after a period of 2-3 days to join freshly emitted particles. At the same time, near-shore land-sea breeze effects cause particles to recirculate on smaller time scales of less then one day, sometimes passing as much as three times over the same airshed. A single elevated emission source is shown to have the potential to impair air quality at a coastal strip as long as 100-200 km upon returning onshore.

  6. Prognostic Factors Affecting Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer and Clinical Significance of Hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Kuhn, Hildegard; Schultze, Juergen; Homann, Nils; Brandenburg, Bernd; Schulte, Rainer; Krull, Andreas; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate potential prognostic factors, including hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy, for associations with survival and local control in patients with unirradiated locally recurrent rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: Ten potential prognostic factors were investigated in 94 patients receiving radiotherapy for recurrent rectal cancer: age ({<=}68 vs. {>=}69 years), gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0-1 vs. 2-3), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage ({<=}II vs. III vs. IV), grading (G1-2 vs. G3), surgery, administration of chemotherapy, radiation dose (equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions: {<=}50 vs. >50 Gy), and hemoglobin levels before (<12 vs. {>=}12 g/dL) and during (majority of levels: <12 vs. {>=}12 g/dL) radiotherapy. Multivariate analyses were performed, including hemoglobin levels, either before or during radiotherapy (not both) because these are confounding variables. Results: Improved survival was associated with better performance status (p < 0.001), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.023), surgery (p = 0.011), chemotherapy (p = 0.003), and hemoglobin levels {>=}12 g/dL both before (p = 0.031) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, performance status, AJCC stage, and hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy maintained significance. Improved local control was associated with better performance status (p = 0.040), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.010), lower grading (p = 0.012), surgery (p < 0.001), chemotherapy (p < 0.001), and hemoglobin levels {>=}12 g/dL before (p < 0.001) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, chemotherapy, grading, and hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy remained significant. Subgroup analyses of the patients having surgery demonstrated the extent of resection to be significantly associated with local control (p = 0.011) but not with survival (p = 0.45). Conclusion: Predictors for outcome in patients who received radiotherapy for

  7. Impact of local urban design and traffic restrictions on air quality in a medium-sized town.

    PubMed

    Acero, J A; Simon, A; Padro, A; Santa Coloma, O

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is the major air pollution source in most urban areas. Nowadays, most of the strategies carried out to improve urban air quality are focused on reducing traffic emissions. Nevertheless, acting locally on urban design can also reduce levels of air pollutants. In this paper, both strategies are studied in several scenarios for a medium-sized town of the Basque Country (Spain). Two main actions are analysed in order to reduce traffic emissions: (1) minor extension ofa pre-existing low emission zone (LEZ); (2) substitution of 10% of passenger cars that are older than 5 years by hybrid and electric vehicles. Regarding local urban design, three alternatives for the development of one side of a street canyon are considered: (1) a park with trees; (2) an open space without obstacles; (3) a building. Two different urban traffic dispersion models are used to calculate the air quality scenarios: PROKAS (Gaussian&box) to analyse the reduction of traffic emissions in the whole urban area and WinMISKAM (CFD) to evaluate specific urban designs. The results show the effectiveness of the analysed actions. On one hand, the definition of a small LEZ, as well as the introduction in 2015 of vehicles with new technology (hybrid and electric), results in minor impacts on PM10 and NO2 ambient concentrations. On the other hand, local urban design can cause significant variation in spatial distribution ofpollutant concentrations emitted inside street canyons. Consequently, urban planners should consider all these aspects when dealing with urban air pollution control. PMID:23393990

  8. Local variations in 14C - How is bomb-pulse dating of human tissues and cells affected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenström, Kristina; Skog, Göran; Nilsson, Carl Magnus; Hellborg, Ragnar; Svegborn, Sigrid Leide; Georgiadou, Elisavet; Mattsson, Sören

    2010-04-01

    Atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the late 1950s and early 1960s almost doubled the amount of 14C in the atmosphere. The resulting 14C "bomb-pulse" has been shown to provide useful age information in e.g. forensic and environmental sciences, biology and the geosciences. The technique is also currently being used for retrospective cell dating in man, in order to provide insight into the rate of formation of new cells in the human body. Bomb-pulse dating relies on precise measurements of the declining 14C concentration in atmospheric CO 2 collected at clean-air sites. However, it is not always recognized that the calculations can be complicated in some cases by significant local variations in the specific activity of 14C in carbon in the air and foodstuff. This paper presents investigations of local 14C variations in the vicinities of nuclear installations and laboratories using 14C. Levels of 14C in workers using this radioisotope are also discussed.

  9. Factors affecting the removal of ammonia from air on carbonaceous materials: Investigation of reactive adsorption mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Camille

    Air pollution related to the release of industrial toxic gases, represents one of the main concerns of our modern world owing to its detrimental effect on the environment. To tackle this growing issue, efficient ways to reduce/control the release of pollutants are required. Adsorption of gases on porous materials appears as a potential solution. However, the physisorption of small molecules of gases such as ammonia is limited at ambient conditions. For their removal, adsorbents providing strong adsorption forces must be used/developed. In this study, new carbon-based materials are prepared and tested for ammonia adsorption at ambient conditions. Characterization of the adsorbents' texture and surface chemistry is performed before and after exposure to ammonia to identify the features responsible for high adsorption capacity and for controlling the mechanisms of retention. The characterization techniques include: nitrogen adsorption, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy. The results obtained indicate that ammonia removal is governed by the adsorbent's surface chemistry. On the contrary, porosity (and thus physisorption) plays a secondary role in this process, unless strong dispersive forces are provided by the adsorbent. The surface chemistry features responsible for the enhanced ammonia adsorption include the presence of oxygen-(carboxyl, hydroxyl, epoxy) and sulfur- (sulfonic) containing groups. Metallic species improve the breakthrough capacity as well as they lead to the formation of Lewis acid-base interactions, hydrogen-bonding or complexation. In addition to the latter three mechanisms, ammonia is retained on the adsorbent surface via Bronsted acid-base interactions or via specific reactions with the adsorbent's functionalities leading to the incorporation of ammonia into the adsorbent's matrix. Another mechanism

  10. Tuning nano electric field to affect restrictive membrane area on localized single cell nano-electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, Tuhin Subhra; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Chang, Hwan-You; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2013-12-01

    Interaction of electric field with biological cells is an important phenomenon for field induced drug delivery system. We demonstrate a selective and localized single cell nano-electroporation (LSCNEP) by applying an intense electric field on a submicron region of the single cell membrane, which can effectively allow high efficient molecular delivery but low cell damage. The delivery rate is controlled by adjusting transmembrane potential and manipulating membrane status. Thermal and ionic influences are deteriorated from the cell membrane by dielectric passivation. Either reversible or irreversible by LSCNEP can fully controlled with potential applications in medical diagnostics and biological studies.

  11. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airão, Central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luiz C P S; Zappes, Camilah A; Oliveira, Rafael G; Andriolo, Artur; Azevedo, Alexandre de F

    2013-01-01

    Botos (Inia geoffrensis) are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population. PMID:24346803

  12. Optimal Coordination and Synchronization in Local Air Quality and GHG Emissions: An Economic Study of Multiple Gases Issue in Integrated Assessment of Global Change

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zili

    2009-03-19

    In the duration of this project, we finished the main tasks set up in the initial proposal. These tasks include: collecting needed data of regional aerosol emissions (mainly SO2); building the RICES model; conducting preliminary simulation runs on some policy scenarios. We established a unified and transparent IA modeling platform that connecting climate change and local air pollution. The RICES model is the pioneering IA model that treats climate change and local air pollution as correlated global and local stock externalities.

  13. Combining regional- and local-scale air quality models with exposure models for use in environmental health studies.

    PubMed

    Isakov, Vlad; Touma, Jawad S; Burke, Janet; Lobdell, Danelle T; Palma, Ted; Rosenbaum, Arlene; Ozkaynak, Halûk

    2009-04-01

    Population-based human exposure models predict the distribution of personal exposures to pollutants of outdoor origin using a variety of inputs, including air pollution concentrations; human activity patterns, such as the amount of time spent outdoors versus indoors, commuting, walking, and indoors at home; microenvironmental infiltration rates; and pollutant removal rates in indoor environments. Typically, exposure models rely upon ambient air concentration inputs from a sparse network of monitoring stations. Here we present a unique methodology for combining multiple types of air quality models (the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality [CMAQ] chemical transport model added to the AERMOD dispersion model) and linking the resulting hourly concentrations to population exposure models (the Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model [HAPEM] or the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation [SHEDS] model) to enhance estimates of air pollution exposures that vary temporally (annual and seasonal) and spatially (at census-block-group resolution) in an urban area. The results indicate that there is a strong spatial gradient in the predicted mean exposure concentrations near roadways and industrial facilities that can vary by almost a factor of 2 across the urban area studied. At the high end of the exposure distribution (95th percentile), exposures are higher in the central district than in the suburbs. This is mostly due to the importance of personal mobility factors whereby individuals living in the central area often move between microenvironments with high concentrations, as opposed to individuals residing at the outskirts of the city. Also, our results indicate 20-30% differences due to commuting patterns and almost a factor of 2 difference because of near-roadway effects. These differences are smaller for the median exposures, indicating the highly variable nature of the reflected ambient concentrations. In conjunction with local data on emission sources

  14. ColE1 plasmid incompatibility: localization and analysis of mutations affecting incompatibility.

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto-Gotoh, T; Inselburg, J

    1979-01-01

    Deletion mutants of plasmid ColE1 that involve the replication origin and adjacent regions of the plasmid have been studied to determine the mechanism by which those mutations affect the expression of plasmid incompatibility. It was observed that (i) a region of ColE1 that is involved in the expression of plasmid incompatibility lies between base pairs -185 and -684; (ii) the integrity of at least part of the region of ColE1 DNA between base pairs -185 and -572 is essential for the expression of ColE1 incompatibility; (iii) the expression of incompatibility is independent of the ability of the ColE1 genome to replicate autonomously; (iv) plasmid incompatibility is affected by plasmid copy number; and (v) ColE1 plasmid-mediated DNA replication of the lambda phage-ColE1 chimera lambda imm434 Oam29 Pam3 ColE1 is inhibited by ColE1-incompatible but not by ColE1-compatible plasmids. Images PMID:378980

  15. Posttranslational Modifications of GLUT4 Affect Its Subcellular Localization and Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Jessica B. A.; Bryant, Nia J.; Gould, Gwyn W.; Welburn, Cassie R.

    2013-01-01

    The facilitative glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) is expressed in adipose and muscle and plays a vital role in whole body glucose homeostasis. In the absence of insulin, only ~1% of cellular GLUT4 is present at the plasma membrane, with the vast majority localizing to intracellular organelles. GLUT4 is retained intracellularly by continuous trafficking through two inter-related cycles. GLUT4 passes through recycling endosomes, the trans Golgi network and an insulin-sensitive intracellular compartment, termed GLUT4-storage vesicles or GSVs. It is from GSVs that GLUT4 is mobilized to the cell surface in response to insulin, where it increases the rate of glucose uptake into the cell. As with many physiological responses to external stimuli, this regulated trafficking event involves multiple posttranslational modifications. This review outlines the roles of posttranslational modifications of GLUT4 on its function and insulin-regulated trafficking. PMID:23665900

  16. Local hindlimb antioxidant infusion does not affect muscle glucose uptake during in situ contractions in rat.

    PubMed

    Merry, T L; Dywer, R M; Bradley, E A; Rattigan, S; McConell, G K

    2010-05-01

    There is evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the regulation of skeletal muscle glucose uptake during highly fatiguing ex vivo contraction conditions via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In this study we investigated the role of ROS in the regulation of glucose uptake and AMPK signaling during low-moderate intensity in situ hindlimb muscle contractions in rats, which is a more physiological protocol and preparation. Male hooded Wistar rats were anesthetized, and then N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was infused into the epigastric artery (125 mg.kg(-1).h(-1)) of one hindlimb (contracted leg) for 15 min before this leg was electrically stimulated (0.1-ms impulse at 2 Hz and 35 V) to contract at a low-moderate intensity for 15 min. The contralateral leg did not receive stimulation or local NAC infusion (rest leg). NAC infusion increased (P<0.05) plasma cysteine and cystine (by approximately 360- and 1.4-fold, respectively) and muscle cysteine (by 1.5-fold, P=0.001). Although contraction did not significantly alter muscle tyrosine nitration, reduced (GSH) or oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content, S-glutathionylation of protein bands at approximately 250 and 150 kDa was increased (P<0.05) approximately 1.7-fold by contraction, and this increase was prevented by NAC. Contraction increased (P<0.05) skeletal muscle glucose uptake 20-fold, AMPK phosphorylation 6-fold, ACCbeta phosphorylation 10-fold, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation 60-fold, and the muscle fatigued by approximately 30% during contraction and NAC infusion had no significant effect on any of these responses. This was despite NAC preventing increases in S-glutathionylation with contraction. In conclusion, unlike during highly fatiguing ex vivo contractions, local NAC infusion during in situ low-moderate intensity hindlimb contractions in rats, a more physiological preparation, does not attenuate increases in skeletal muscle glucose uptake or AMPK signaling. PMID:20203065

  17. Distensibility in human veins as affected by 5 weeks of repeated elevations of local transmural pressure.

    PubMed

    Kölegård, Roger; Eiken, Ola

    2011-12-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of repeated increments in local intravascular pressure (pressure training; PT) on (1) distensibility in two arm veins, and (2) pain in the arm induced by markedly increased intravascular pressure. Elevation of venous distending pressure (DP) in an arm was induced by placing the subject (n = 8) in a pressure chamber with one arm protruding to the outside via a port in the chamber door, and increasing chamber pressure. During 5 weeks, venous DP in one arm was repeatedly (3 × 40 min/week) increased (65-105 mmHg). Pressure-distension relationships were determined in the brachial and cephalic veins by measuring diameter changes by ultrasonography during stepwise increments in DP to 180 mmHg. In the brachial vein, the diameter change in response to an increase in DP from 30 to 180 mmHg (distensibility) was reduced (P < 0.05) in the pressure-trained arm (11%) compared to that in the control arm before (23%) and after (21%) PT. The cephalic vein showed a similar response with a reduced (P < 0.05) distensibility in the pressure-trained arm (20%) compared to that in the control arm before (29%) and after (25%) PT. At any given DP, arm pain was less (P < 0.05) in the pressure-trained arm than in the control arm before and after PT, presumably reflecting the reduced venous distensibility in the pressure-trained arm. The results support the concept that the distensibility of venous walls adapts to meet the demands imposed by the prevailing local transmural pressures. PMID:21461927

  18. Affective behavior in patients with localized cortical excisions: role of lesion site and side.

    PubMed

    Kolb, B; Taylor, L

    1981-10-01

    The perception of emotion in verbal and facial expression, and the spontaneous production of conversational speech were studied in patients with unilateral focal excisions of frontal, temporal, or parieto-occipital cortex. Lesions of the left hemisphere impaired the matching of verbal descriptions to appropriate verbal categories of emotional states, whereas with lesions of the right hemisphere, the matching of different faces displaying similar emotional states was impaired. The effects of lesions of both left and right hemisphere occurred regardless of the locus of the lesion. On the other hand, frontal-lobe lesions had differential effects upon unsolicited talking; lesions of the left frontal lobe virtually abolished this behavior, whereas lesions of the right frontal lobe produced excessive talking. These data suggest that the nature of the behavioral stimulus as well as the locus and side of damage must be considered in the study of the neural basis of affective behavior. PMID:7280683

  19. Remote Sensing and Spatial Growth Modeling Coupled with Air Quality Modeling to Assess the Impact of Atlanta, Georgia on the Local and Regional Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    island mitigation strategies. The National Land Cover Dataset at 30m resolution is being used as the land use/land cover input and aggregated to the 4km scale for the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model and the (CMAQ) modeling schemes. Use of these data have been found to better characterize low density/suburban development as compared with USGS 1km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the State Environmental Protection agency to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality. The coupled SGM and air quality modeling approach provides insight on what the impacts of Atlanta s growth will be on the local and regional environment and exists as a mechanism that can be used by policy makers to make rationale decisions on urban growth and sustainability for the metropolitan area in the future.

  20. Local and regional interactions between air quality and climate in New Delhi- A sector based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrapu, Pallavi

    Deteriorating air quality is one of the major problems faced worldwide and in particular in Asia. The world's most polluted megacities are located in Asia highlighting the urgent need for efforts to improve the air quality. New Delhi (India), one of the world's most polluted cities, was the host of the Common Wealth Games during the period of 4-14 October 2010. This high profile event provided a good opportunity to accelerate efforts to improve air quality. Computational advances now allow air quality forecast models to fully couple the meteorology with chemical constituents within a unified modeling system that allows two-way interactions. The WRF-Chem model is used to simulate air quality in New Delhi. The thesis focuses on evaluating air quality and meteorology feedbacks. Four nested domains ranging from South Asia, Northern India, NCR Delhi and Delhi city at 45km, 15km, 5km and 1.67km resolution for a period of 20 day (26th Sep--15th Oct, 2010) are used in the study. The predicted mean surface concentrations of various pollutants show similar spatial distributions with peak values in the middle of the domain reflecting the traffic and population patterns in the city. Along with these activities, construction dust and industrial emissions contribute to high levels of criteria pollutants. The study evaluates the WRF-Chem capabilities using a new emission inventory developed over Delhi at a fine resolution of 1.67km and evaluating the results with observational data from 11 monitoring sties placed at various Game venues. The contribution of emission sectors including transportation, power, industry, and domestic to pollutant concentrations at targeted regions are studied and the results show that transportation and domestic sector are the major contributors to the pollution levels in Delhi, followed by industry. Apart from these sectors, emissions outside of Delhi contribute 20-50% to surface concentrations depending on the species. This indicates that pollution

  1. Recruitment and post-recruit immigration affect the local population size of coral reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, A. R.

    1997-07-01

    This study quantifies the contributions of larval recruitment and post-recruit (juvenile and adult) immigration to net increases in population size for 150 species of fishes found on ten isolated coral patches or `bommies' (108-267 m2) within a typical reef of the Great Barrier Reef system. At least one third of the total number of recruits and immigrants to all bommies were post-recruit fishes, and movement between bommies in 136 species was detected at some time during the 22 month sampling period. The relative numbers of recruits and post-recruit immigrants per species varied widely within the assemblage, and between the replicate bommies. Populations of 95 species received both types of immigrants, 41 species had only post-recruit immigrants, and 14 species received only larval recruitment. In most species, recruitment occurred over the austral summer between October and February, while post-recruit movements occurred in both summer and winter. Rates of post-recruit immigration varied temporally within bommies, and pulses of post-recruits were less temporally concordant between bommies than pulses of recruits. This study is further evidence that post-settlement processes can have a significant effect on the local population size of reef fishes.

  2. Mutations in the C-terminal region affect subcellular localization of crucian carp herpesvirus (CaHV) GPCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Gui, Lang; Chen, Zong-Yan; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2016-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known as seven transmembrane domain receptors and consequently can mediate diverse biological functions via regulation of their subcellular localization. Crucian carp herpesvirus (CaHV) was recently isolated from infected fish with acute gill hemorrhage. CaHV GPCR of 349 amino acids (aa) was identified based on amino acid identity. A series of variants with truncation/deletion/substitution mutation in the C-terminal (aa 315-349) were constructed and expressed in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. The roles of three key C-terminal regions in subcellular localization of CaHV GPCR were determined. Lysine-315 (K-315) directed the aggregation of the protein preferentially at the nuclear side. Predicted N-myristoylation site (GGGWTR, aa 335-340) was responsible for punctate distribution in periplasm or throughout the cytoplasm. Predicted phosphorylation site (SSR, aa 327-329) and GGGWTR together determined the punctate distribution in cytoplasm. Detection of organelles localization by specific markers showed that the protein retaining K-315 colocalized with the Golgi apparatus. These experiments provided first evidence that different mutations of CaHV GPCR C-terminals have different affects on the subcellular localization of fish herpesvirus-encoded GPCRs. The study provided valuable information and new insights into the precise interactions between herpesvirus and fish cells, and could also provide useful targets for antiviral agents in aquaculture. PMID:27059239

  3. Cellular localization of long non-coding RNAs affects silencing by RNAi more than by antisense oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Kim A; Behlke, Mark A

    2016-01-29

    Thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in mammalian cells. Some have important functions and their dysregulation can contribute to a variety of disease states. However, most lncRNAs have not been functionally characterized. Complicating their study, lncRNAs have widely varying subcellular distributions: some reside predominantly in the nucleus, the cytoplasm or in both compartments. One method to query function is to suppress expression and examine the resulting phenotype. Methods to suppress expression of mRNAs include antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and RNA interference (RNAi). Antisense and RNAi-based gene-knockdown methods vary in efficacy between different cellular compartments. It is not known if this affects their ability to suppress lncRNAs. To address whether localization of the lncRNA influences susceptibility to degradation by either ASOs or RNAi, nuclear lncRNAs (MALAT1 and NEAT1), cytoplasmic lncRNAs (DANCR and OIP5-AS1) and dual-localized lncRNAs (TUG1, CasC7 and HOTAIR) were compared for knockdown efficiency. We found that nuclear lncRNAs were more effectively suppressed using ASOs, cytoplasmic lncRNAs were more effectively suppressed using RNAi and dual-localized lncRNAs were suppressed using both methods. A mixed-modality approach combining ASOs and RNAi reagents improved knockdown efficacy, particularly for those lncRNAs that localize to both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. PMID:26578588

  4. Factors Affecting Mental Health of Local Staff Working in the Vanni Region, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol; Petit, Pilar; Ghitis, Frida; Sivilli, Teresa I.; Scholte, Willem F.; Ager, Alastair; Eriksson, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of the civil war that extended from 1983–2009, humanitarian organizations provided aid to the conflict-affected population of the Vanni region in northern Sri Lanka. In August, 2010, a needs assessment was conducted to determine the mental-health status of Sri Lankan national humanitarian aid staff working in conditions of stress and hardship, and consider contextual and organizational characteristics influencing such status. A total of 398 staff members from nine organizations working in the Vanni area participated in the survey, which assessed stress, work characteristics, social support, coping styles, and symptoms of psychological distress. Exposure to traumatic, chronic, and secondary stressors was common. Nineteen percent of the population met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 53% of participants reported elevated anxiety symptoms, and 58% reported elevated depression symptoms. Those reporting high levels of support from their organizations were less likely to suffer depression and PTSD symptoms than those reporting lower levels of staff support (OR =.23, p < .001) and (OR =.26, p < .001), respectively. Participants who were age 55 or older were significantly less likely to suffer anxiety symptoms than those who were between 15 and 34 years of age (OR =.13, p = .011). Having experienced travel difficulties was significantly associated with more anxiety symptoms (OR = 3.35, p < .001). It was recommended that organizations provide stress-management training and increase support to their staff. PMID:27099648

  5. DNA topoisomerase III localizes to centromeres and affects centromeric CENP-A levels in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Norman-Axelsson, Ulrika; Durand-Dubief, Mickaël; Prasad, Punit; Ekwall, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Centromeres are specialized chromatin regions marked by the presence of nucleosomes containing the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, which is essential for chromosome segregation. Assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes is intimately linked to DNA topology, and DNA topoisomerases have previously been implicated in the dynamics of canonical H3 nucleosomes. Here we show that Schizosaccharomyces pombe Top3 and its partner Rqh1 are involved in controlling the levels of CENP-A(Cnp1) at centromeres. Both top3 and rqh1 mutants display defects in chromosome segregation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and tiling microarrays, we show that Top3, unlike Top1 and Top2, is highly enriched at centromeric central domains, demonstrating that Top3 is the major topoisomerase in this region. Moreover, centromeric Top3 occupancy positively correlates with CENP-A(Cnp1) occupancy. Intriguingly, both top3 and rqh1 mutants display increased relative enrichment of CENP-A(Cnp1) at centromeric central domains. Thus, Top3 and Rqh1 normally limit the levels of CENP-A(Cnp1) in this region. This new role is independent of the established function of Top3 and Rqh1 in homologous recombination downstream of Rad51. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Top3-Rqh1 complex has an important role in controlling centromere DNA topology, which in turn affects the dynamics of CENP-A(Cnp1) nucleosomes. PMID:23516381

  6. DNA Topoisomerase III Localizes to Centromeres and Affects Centromeric CENP-A Levels in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Norman-Axelsson, Ulrika; Durand-Dubief, Mickaël; Prasad, Punit; Ekwall, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Centromeres are specialized chromatin regions marked by the presence of nucleosomes containing the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, which is essential for chromosome segregation. Assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes is intimately linked to DNA topology, and DNA topoisomerases have previously been implicated in the dynamics of canonical H3 nucleosomes. Here we show that Schizosaccharomyces pombe Top3 and its partner Rqh1 are involved in controlling the levels of CENP-ACnp1 at centromeres. Both top3 and rqh1 mutants display defects in chromosome segregation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and tiling microarrays, we show that Top3, unlike Top1 and Top2, is highly enriched at centromeric central domains, demonstrating that Top3 is the major topoisomerase in this region. Moreover, centromeric Top3 occupancy positively correlates with CENP-ACnp1 occupancy. Intriguingly, both top3 and rqh1 mutants display increased relative enrichment of CENP-ACnp1 at centromeric central domains. Thus, Top3 and Rqh1 normally limit the levels of CENP-ACnp1 in this region. This new role is independent of the established function of Top3 and Rqh1 in homologous recombination downstream of Rad51. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Top3-Rqh1 complex has an important role in controlling centromere DNA topology, which in turn affects the dynamics of CENP-ACnp1 nucleosomes. PMID:23516381

  7. Similar local and landscape processes affect both a common and a rare newt species.

    PubMed

    Denoël, Mathieu; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species. PMID:23658765

  8. LRRK2 Affects Vesicle Trafficking, Neurotransmitter Extracellular Level and Membrane Receptor Localization

    PubMed Central

    Spissu, Ylenia; Sanna, Giovanna; Xiong, Yulan; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Galioto, Manuela; Rocchitta, Gaia; Biosa, Alice; Serra, Pier Andrea; Carri, Maria Teresa; Crosio, Claudia; Iaccarino, Ciro

    2013-01-01

    The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene was found to play a role in the pathogenesis of both familial and sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD). LRRK2 encodes a large multi-domain protein that is expressed in different tissues. To date, the physiological and pathological functions of LRRK2 are not clearly defined. In this study we have explored the role of LRRK2 in controlling vesicle trafficking in different cellular or animal models and using various readouts. In neuronal cells, the presence of LRRK2G2019S pathological mutant determines increased extracellular dopamine levels either under basal conditions or upon nicotine stimulation. Moreover, mutant LRRK2 affects the levels of dopamine receptor D1 on the membrane surface in neuronal cells or animal models. Ultrastructural analysis of PC12-derived cells expressing mutant LRRK2G2019S shows an altered intracellular vesicle distribution. Taken together, our results point to the key role of LRRK2 to control vesicle trafficking in neuronal cells. PMID:24167564

  9. Resolving Local-Scale Emissions for Modeling Air Quality near Roadways

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large body of literature published in recent years suggests increased health risk due to exposure of people to air pollution in close proximity to roadways. As a result, there is a need to more accurately represent the spatial concentration gradients near roadways in order to ...

  10. PRECISION AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS FOR STATE AND LOCAL AIR MONITORING NETWORKS--1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    Precision and accuracy data obtained from state and local agencies (SLAMS) during 1988 are analyzed. ooled site variances and average biases which are relevant quantities to both precision and accuracy determinations are statistically compared within and between states to assess ...

  11. Does the volume and localization of intracerebral hematoma affect short-term prognosis of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage?

    PubMed

    Salihović, Denisa; Smajlović, Dževdet; Ibrahimagić, Omer Ć

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether volume and localization of intracerebral hematoma affects the six-month prognosis of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients and Methods. The study included 75 patients with ICH of both sex and all age groups. ICH, based on CT scan findings, was divided in the following groups: lobar, subcortical, infratentorial, intraventricular haemorrhage and multiple hematomas. Volume of intracerebral hematoma was calculated according to formula V = 0.5 × a × b × c. Intracerebral hematomas, according to the volume, are divided in three groups (0-29 mL, 30-60 mL, and >60 mL). Results. The highest mortality rate was recorded in the group with multiple hematomas (41%), while the lowest in infratentorial (12.8%). The best six-month survival was in patients with a volume up to 29 mL, 30 of them (64%) survived. The highest mortality rate was recorded in patients with the hematoma volume >60 mL (85%). Kaplan-Meier's analysis showed that there was statistical significance between the size of the hematoma and the six-month survival (P < 0.0001). More than half of patients (61.1%) who survived 6 months after ICH were functionally independent (Rankin scale ≤2). Conclusion The volume of hematoma significantly affects six-month prognosis in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, while localization does not. PMID:24967309

  12. Does the Volume and Localization of Intracerebral Hematoma Affect Short-Term Prognosis of Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage?

    PubMed Central

    Salihović, Denisa; Smajlović, Dževdet; Ibrahimagić, Omer Ć.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether volume and localization of intracerebral hematoma affects the six-month prognosis of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients and Methods. The study included 75 patients with ICH of both sex and all age groups. ICH, based on CT scan findings, was divided in the following groups: lobar, subcortical, infratentorial, intraventricular haemorrhage and multiple hematomas. Volume of intracerebral hematoma was calculated according to formula V = 0.5 × a × b × c. Intracerebral hematomas, according to the volume, are divided in three groups (0–29 mL, 30–60 mL, and >60 mL). Results. The highest mortality rate was recorded in the group with multiple hematomas (41%), while the lowest in infratentorial (12.8%). The best six-month survival was in patients with a volume up to 29 mL, 30 of them (64%) survived. The highest mortality rate was recorded in patients with the hematoma volume >60 mL (85%). Kaplan-Meier's analysis showed that there was statistical significance between the size of the hematoma and the six-month survival (P < 0.0001). More than half of patients (61.1%) who survived 6 months after ICH were functionally independent (Rankin scale ≤2). Conclusion The volume of hematoma significantly affects six-month prognosis in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, while localization does not. PMID:24967309

  13. Air pollution in the last 50 years - From local to global

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Air pollution in the industrialised world has in the last 50 years undergone drastic changes. Until after World War II the most important urban compound was sulphur dioxide combined with soot from the use of fossil fuels in heat and power production. When that problem was partly solved by cleaner fuels, higher stacks and flue gas cleaning in urban areas, the growing traffic gave rise to nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds and in some areas photochemical air pollution, which may be abated by catalytic converters. Lately the interest has centred on small particles and more exotic organic compounds that can be detected with new sophisticated analytical techniques. Simultaneously with the development in compounds, the time and geographical scale of interest have increased. First to transboundary air pollution, which in decades and on continents can degrade ecosystems, later to the depletion of the ozone layer and especially to the increasing greenhouse effect with climate change that will change the conditions for nature and mankind on the entire globe. The possibilities to study these large scale phenomena have been greatly enhanced by the development of electronic computers that can handle large data sets and calculate various scenarios. All these processes take place in the thin layer of gases around the Earth, the atmosphere. Although the abatement is often restricted to a single aspect, they are often connected and should when possible be treated as whole.

  14. Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization but partially affects its apoptotic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-H.; Cheng, C.-M.; Chang, Y.-F.; Wang, T.-Y.; Yuo, C.-Y.; E-mail: m815006@kmu.edu.tw

    2007-03-09

    Apoptin, a chicken anemia virus-encoded protein, induces apoptosis in human tumor cells but not in normal cells. In addition, Apoptin also exhibits tumor-specific nuclear localization and tumor-specific phosphorylation on threonine 108 (T108). Here, we studied the effects of T108 phosphorylation on the tumor-specific nuclear localization and apoptotic activity of Apoptin. We first showed that a hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Apoptin, but not the green fluorescent protein-fused Apoptin used in many previous studies, exhibited the same intracellular distribution pattern as native Apoptin. We then made and analyzed an HA-Apoptin mutant with its T108 phosphorylation site abolished. We found that Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization and abolishing the T108 phosphorylation of Apoptin does affect its apoptotic activity in tumor cells but only partially. Our results support the previous finding that Apoptin contains two distinct apoptosis domains located separately at the N- and C-terminal regions and suggest that the T108 phosphorylation may only be required for the apoptotic activity mediated through the C-terminal apoptosis domain.

  15. Application of nonparametric regression and statistical testing to identify the impact of oil and natural gas development on local air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Pekney, Natalie J.; Cheng, Hanqi; Small, Mitchell J.

    2015-11-05

    Abstract: The objective of the current work was to develop a statistical method and associated tool to evaluate the impact of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities on local air quality.

  16. Novel and recurrent CIB2 variants, associated with nonsyndromic deafness, do not affect calcium buffering and localization in hair cells.

    PubMed

    Seco, Celia Zazo; Giese, Arnaud P; Shafique, Sobia; Schraders, Margit; Oonk, Anne M M; Grossheim, Mike; Oostrik, Jaap; Strom, Tim; Hegde, Rashmi; van Wijk, Erwin; Frolenkov, Gregory I; Azam, Maleeha; Yntema, Helger G; Free, Rolien H; Riazuddin, Saima; Verheij, Joke B G M; Admiraal, Ronald J; Qamar, Raheel; Ahmed, Zubair M; Kremer, Hannie

    2016-04-01

    Variants in CIB2 can underlie either Usher syndrome type I (USH1J) or nonsyndromic hearing impairment (NSHI) (DFNB48). Here, a novel homozygous missense variant c.196C>T and compound heterozygous variants, c.[97C>T];[196C>T], were found, respectively, in two unrelated families of Dutch origin. Besides, the previously reported c.272 T>C functional missense variant in CIB2 was identified in two families of Pakistani origin. The missense variants are demonstrated not to affect subcellular localization of CIB2 in vestibular hair cells in ex vivo expression experiments. Furthermore, these variants do not affect the ATP-induced calcium responses in COS-7 cells. However, based on the residues affected, the variants are suggested to alter αIIβ integrin binding. HI was nonsyndromic in all four families. However, deafness segregating with the c.272T>C variant in one Pakistani family is remarkably less severe than that in all other families with this mutation. Our results contribute to the insight in genotype-phenotype correlations of CIB2 mutations. PMID:26173970

  17. Spatial Growth Modeling and High Resolution Remote Sensing Data Coupled with Air Quality Modeling to Assess the Impact of Atlanta, Georgia on the Local and Regional Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Johnson, Hoyt; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    with USGS lkm land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the Georgia Environmental Protection Division to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality. The coupled SGM and air quality modeling approach provides insight on what the impacts of Atlanta s growth will be on the local and regional environment and exists as a mechanism that can be used by policy makers to make rational decisions on urban growth and sustainability for the metropolitan area in the future.

  18. Remote Sensing and Spatial Growth Modeling Coupled With Air Quality Modeling to Assess the Impact of Atlanta, Georgia on the Local and Regional Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Estes, M. G.; Crosson, W. L.; Johnson, H.; Khan, M.

    2006-05-01

    compared with USGS 1km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the Georgia Environmental Protection Division to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality. The coupled SGM and air quality modeling approach provides insight on what the impacts of Atlanta's growth will be on the local and regional environment and exists as a mechanism that can be used by policy makers to make rational decisions on urban growth and sustainability for the metropolitan area in the future.

  19. REGIONAL AND LOCAL VEGETATION PATTERNS: THE RESPONSES OF VEGETATION TO SUBCONTINENTAL AIR MASSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial patterns of biodiversity in plants were examined through a range of scales from continental and biome to patterns of local habitat variation. e propose a hierarchy of constraints on these patterns. arge-scale climate is proposed to structure continental patterns of specie...

  20. PRECISION AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS FOR STATE AND LOCAL AIR MONITORING NETWORKS, 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    Precision and accuracy data obtained from state and local agencies during 1984 are summarized and compared to data reported earlier for the period 1981-1983. A continual improvement in the completeness of the data is evident. Improvement is also evident in the size of the precisi...

  1. PRECISION AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS FOR STATE AND LOCAL AIR MONITORING NETWORKS, 1983

    EPA Science Inventory

    Precision and accuracy data obtained from State and local agencies during 1983 are summarized and evaluated. Some comparisons are made with the results previously reported for 1981 and 1982 to determine the indication of any trends. Some trends indicated improvement in the comple...

  2. PRECISION AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS FOR STATE AND LOCAL AIR MONITORING NETWORKS, 1985

    EPA Science Inventory

    Precision and accuracy data obtained from State and local agencies during 1985 are summarized and evaluated. Some comparisons are made with the results reported for prior years to determine any trends. Some trends indicated continued improvement in the completeness of reporting o...

  3. Localization of an air target by means of GNSS-based multistatic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, Daulet Sh.; Raskaliyev, Almat S.

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of utilizing transmitters of opportunity for target detection, tracking and positioning is of great interest to the radar community. In particular the optional use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has lately triggered scientific research that has purpose to take advantage of this source of signal generation for passive radar. Number of studies have been conducted previously on development of GNSS-based bistatic and multistatic radars for detection and range estimation to the object located in the close atmosphere. To further enrich research in this area, we present a novel method for coordinate determination of the air target by means of the GNSS-based multistatic radar.

  4. Unusual localization of an hydatid cyst: first reported case in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Menghi, Claudia Irene; Gatta, Claudia Liliana

    2011-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworm larva of Echinococcus spp. Its relevance lies in its wide distribution, great number of clinical cases and outstanding morbility. Hydatid infection of the orbit comprises far less than 1% of the total incidence. This is a case of a patient from Argentina complaining of a two-week evolution proptosis of the right eye. A microscopic examination revealed the presence of protoscolices of Echinococcus spp. in the fluid obtained during the surgical proceedings. The patient was treated with oral albendazole. To our knowledge, this is the first case of ocular hydatidosis diagnosed in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. PMID:21412595

  5. Combined cadmium and elevated ozone affect concentrations of cadmium and antioxidant systems in wheat under fully open-air conditions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongyan; Tian, Ran; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Pei, Daping; Wang, Xiaorong

    2012-03-30

    Pollution of the environment with both ozone (O(3)) and heavy metals has been steadily increasing. An understanding of their combined effects on plants, especially crops, is limited. Here we studied the effects of elevated O(3) on oxidative stress and bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) in wheat under Cd stress using a free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) system. In this field experiment in Jiangdu (Jiangsu Province, China), wheat plants were grown in pots containing soil with various concentrations of cadmium (0, 2, and 10 mg kg(-1) Cd was added to the soil) under ambient conditions and under elevated O(3) levels (50% higher than the ambient O(3)). Present results showed that elevated O(3) led to higher concentrations of Cd in wheat tissues (shoots, husk and grains) with respect to contaminated soil. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated O(3) levels strongly affected the antioxidant isoenzymes POD, APX and CAT and accelerated oxidative stress in wheat leaves. Our results suggest that elevated O(3) levels cause a reduction in food quality and safety. PMID:22285914

  6. Response of SO2 and particulate air pollution to local and regional emission controls: A case study in Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hao; Vinnikov, Konstantin Y.; Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Jongeward, Andrew R.; Li, Zhanqing; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Hains, Jennifer C.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses the questions of what effect local regulations can have on pollutants with different lifetimes and how surface observations and remotely sensed data can be used to determine the impacts. We investigated the decadal trends of tropospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) and aerosol pollution over Maryland and its surrounding states, using surface, aircraft, and satellite measurements. Aircraft measurements indicated fewer isolated SO2 plumes observed in summers, a ˜40% decrease of column SO2, and a ˜20% decrease of atmospheric optical depth (AOD) over Maryland after the implementation of local regulations on sulfur emissions from power plants (˜90% reduction from 2010). Surface observations of SO2 and particulate matter (PM) concentrations in Maryland show similar trends. OMI SO2 and MODIS AOD observations were used to investigate the column contents of air pollutants over the eastern U.S.; these indicate decreasing trends in column SO2 (˜60% decrease) and AOD (˜20% decrease). The decrease of upwind SO2 emissions also reduced aerosol loadings over the downwind Atlantic Ocean near the coast by ˜20%, while indiscernible changes of the SO2 column were observed. A step change of SO2 emissions in Maryland starting in 2009-2010 had an immediate and profound benefit in terms of local surface SO2 concentrations but a modest impact on aerosol pollution, indicating that short-lived pollutants are effectively controlled locally, while long-lived pollutants require regional measures.

  7. Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in mining company.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Farasati, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems and integrated collectors were designed and implemented in a mining company in order to control emitted air pollutant from furnaces. The LEV was designed for capture and transition of air pollutants emitted from furnaces to the integrated collectors. The integrated collectors including four high efficiency Stairmand model cyclones for control of particulate matter, a venturi scrubber for control of the fine particles, SO(2) and a part of H(2)S to follow them, and a packed scrubber for treatment of the residual H(2)S and SO(2) were designed. Pollutants concentration were measured to determine system effectiveness. The results showed that the effectiveness of LEV for reducing workplace pollution is 91.83%, 96.32% and 83.67% for dust, SO(2) and H(2)S, respectively. Average removal efficiency of particles by combination of cyclone and venturi scrubber was 98.72%. Average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were 95.85% and 47.13% for the venturi scrubber and 68.45% and 92.7% for the packed bed scrubber. The average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were increased to 99.1% and 95.95% by the combination of venturi and packed bed scrubbers. According to the results, integrated collectors are a good air pollution control option for industries with economic constraints and ancient technologies. PMID:22878358

  8. Adsorption, Ordering, and Local Environments of Surfactant-Encapsulated Polyoxometalate Ions Probed at the Air-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Benjamin; Yin, Panchao; Ma, Ying-Zhong

    2016-08-16

    The continued development and application of surfactant-encapsulated polyoxometalates (SEPs) relies on understanding the ordering and organization of species at their interface and how these are impacted by the various local environments to which they are exposed. Here, we report on the equilibrium properties of two common SEPs adsorbed to the air-water interface and probed with surface-specific vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. These results reveal clear shifts in vibrational band positions, the magnitude of which scales with the charge of the SEP core, which is indicative of a static field effect on the surfactant coating and the associated local chemical environment. This static field also induces ordering in surrounding water molecules that is mediated by charge screening via the surface-bound surfactants. From these SFG measurements, we are able to show that Mo132-based SEPs are more polar than Mo72V30 SEPs. Disorder in the surfactant chain packing at the highly curved SEP surfaces is attributed to large conic volumes that can be sampled without interactions with neighboring chains. Measurements of adsorption isotherms yield free energies of adsorption to the air-water interface of -46.8 ± 0.4 and -44.8 ± 1.2 kJ/mol for the Mo132 and Mo72V30 SEPs, respectively, indicating a strong propensity for the fluid surface. The influence of intermolecular interactions on the surface adsorption energies is discussed. PMID:27452922

  9. The freely localized microwave discharge in air in the focused beam of the electromagnetic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, A.F.; Kuzovnikov, A.A.; Shibkov, V.M.

    1995-12-31

    The successfull use of the microwave discharge in many applications make it necessary to research the physics of a new kind of discharge - the electrodeless microwave discharge in the focused beam, in the free space and to search for ways to optimize this discharge parameters. The breakdown was performed in a discharge chamber at approximately free space conditions: R/{lambda}{much_gt}1, where R = 1 m is the discharge chamber`s dimension, {lambda} = 2 {divided_by} 10 cm is the wavelength of the microwave radiation. The focused electromagnetic beam was formed by a trumped-lens antenna. The electric field E{le}6 kV/cm, the density of energy flow S{le}10{sup 5} W/cm{sup 2}, the wave is linearity polarized. The microwave pulse duration could be changed from 1 {mu}s to 1 ms. The gas pressure (nitrogen, air) is varied from 1 to 760 torr.

  10. Fireball ejection from a molten hot spot to air by localized microwaves.

    PubMed

    Dikhtyar, Vladimir; Jerby, Eli

    2006-02-01

    A phenomenon of fireball ejection from hot spots in solid materials (silicon, germanium, glass, ceramics, basalt, etc.) to the atmosphere is presented. The hot spot is created in the substrate material by the microwave-drill mechanism [Jerby, Science 298, 587 (2002)10.1126/science.1077062]. The vaporized drop evolved from the hot spot is blown up, and forms a stable fireball buoyant in the air. The experimental observations of fireball ejection from silicate hot spots are referred to the Abrahamson-Dinniss theory [Nature (London) 403, 519 (2000)10.1038/35000525] suggesting a mechanism for ball-lightning initiation in nature. The fireballs observed in our experiments tend to absorb the available microwave power entirely, similarly to the plasmon resonance effect in submicron wavelengths [Nie and Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997)10.1126/science.275.5303.1102]. PMID:16486835

  11. Chemiluminescence-based multivariate sensing of local equivalence ratios in premixed atmospheric methane-air flames

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2011-09-07

    Chemiluminescence emissions from OH*, CH*, C2, and CO2 formed within the reaction zone of premixed flames depend upon the fuel-air equivalence ratio in the burning mixture. In the present paper, a new partial least square regression (PLS-R) based multivariate sensing methodology is investigated and compared with an OH*/CH* intensity ratio-based calibration model for sensing equivalence ratio in atmospheric methane-air premixed flames. Five replications of spectral data at nine different equivalence ratios ranging from 0.73 to 1.48 were used in the calibration of both models. During model development, the PLS-R model was initially validated with the calibration data set using the leave-one-out cross validation technique. Since the PLS-R model used the entire raw spectral intensities, it did not need the nonlinear background subtraction of CO2 emission that is required for typical OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibrations. An unbiased spectral data set (not used in the PLS-R model development), for 28 different equivalence ratio conditions ranging from 0.71 to 1.67, was used to predict equivalence ratios using the PLS-R and the intensity ratio calibration models. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R based multivariate calibration model matched the experimentally measured equivalence ratios within 7%; whereas, the OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibration grossly underpredicted equivalence ratios in comparison to measured equivalence ratios, especially under rich conditions ( > 1.2). The practical implications of the chemiluminescence-based multivariate equivalence ratio sensing methodology are also discussed.

  12. The neuroanatomical basis of affective mentalizing in schizophrenia: comparison of patients with schizophrenia and patients with localized prefrontal lesions.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2007-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show impaired emotional and social behavior, such as misinterpretation of social situations and lack of Theory of Mind (ToM). However, the neuroanatomical basis of impaired ToM and its nature in schizophrenia is still largely unknown. Based on previous findings, the present study suggests that impaired social cognition observed in schizophrenic patients may be similar to that observed in patients with prefrontal (PFC) damage due to impaired 'affective ToM' abilities, rather than to a general impairment in ToM. We examined the behavioral and neural mechanisms that underlie the social and communicative impairments observed in patients with schizophrenia and with PFC damage, by looking at differential patterns of ToM impairment in these individuals. The performance of 24 patients with schizophrenia was compared to the responses of patients with localized lesions in the ventromedial (VM) or dorsolateral PFC, patients with non-frontal lesions, and healthy control subjects. Patients with schizophrenia and those with VM lesions were impaired on 'affective ToM' tasks but not in cognitive ToM conditions. It was concluded that the pattern of mentalizing impairments in schizophrenia resembled those seen in patients with lesions of the frontal lobe, particularly with VM damage, providing support for the notion of a disturbance of the fronto-limbic circuits in schizophrenia. PMID:17182218

  13. The transcriptional activities and cellular localization of the human estrogen receptor alpha are affected by the synonymous Ala87 mutation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Calero, Tamara; Astrada, Soledad; Alberti, Alvaro; Horjales, Sofía; Arnal, Jean Francois; Rovira, Carlos; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Flouriot, Gilles; Marin, Mónica

    2014-09-01

    Until recently, synonymous mutations (which do not change amino acids) have been much neglected. Some evidence suggests that this kind of mutations could affect mRNA secondary structure or stability, translation kinetics and protein structure. To explore deeper the role of synonymous mutations, we studied their consequence on the functional activity of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). The ERα is a ligand-inducible transcription factor that orchestrates pleiotropic cellular effects, at both genomic and non-genomic levels in response to estrogens. In this work we analyzed in transient transfection experiments, the activity of ERα carrying the synonymous mutation Ala87, a polymorphism involving about 5-10% of the population. In comparison to the wild type receptor, our results show that ERαA87 mutation reduces the transactivation efficiency of ERα on an ERE reporter gene while its expression level remains similar. This mutation enhances 4-OHT-induced transactivation of ERα on an AP1 reporter gene. Finally, the mutation affects the subcellular localization of ERα in a cell type specific manner. It enhances the cytoplasmic location of ERα without significant changes in non-genomic effects of E2. The functional alteration of the ERαA87 determined in this work highlights the relevance of synonymous mutations for biomedical and pharmacological points of view. PMID:24607813

  14. Antenna Deployment for the Localization of Partial Discharges in Open-Air Substations.

    PubMed

    Robles, Guillermo; Fresno, José Manuel; Sánchez-Fernández, Matilde; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Partial discharges are ionization processes inside or on the surface of dielectrics that can unveil insulation problems in electrical equipment. The charge accumulated is released under certain environmental and voltage conditions attacking the insulation both physically and chemically. The final consequence of a continuous occurrence of these events is the breakdown of the dielectric. The electron avalanche provokes a derivative of the electric field with respect to time, creating an electromagnetic impulse that can be detected with antennas. The localization of the source helps in the identification of the piece of equipment that has to be decommissioned. This can be done by deploying antennas and calculating the time difference of arrival (TDOA) of the electromagnetic pulses. However, small errors in this parameter can lead to great displacements of the calculated position of the source. Usually, four antennas are used to find the source but the array geometry has to be correctly deployed to have minimal errors in the localization. This paper demonstrates, by an analysis based on simulation and also experimentally, that the most common layouts are not always the best options and proposes a simple antenna layout to reduce the systematic error in the TDOA calculation due to the positions of the antennas in the array. PMID:27092501

  15. Regional and local vegetation patterns: The responses of vegetation to subcontinental air masses

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, R.P.; King, G.A.; DeVelice, R.L.; Lenihan, J.M.

    1990-03-01

    Spatial patterns of biodiversity in plants were examined through a range of scales from continental and biome to patterns of local habitat variation. The authors propose a hierarchy of constraints on these patterns. Large-scale climate is proposed to structure continental patterns of species richness and the diversity and distribution of physiognomic types in the form of biomes. Within biomes regional climatic gradients modulate the length scales of habitats and, hence, the amount of substrate variation within a grain that is perceived by an organism as homogeneous. Most resource variation in the core of biomes is within a given species range of tolerance and large areas of the landscape are perceived as essentially homogeneous. As one moves toward ecotones, the convergence of regional climatic stresses constrains the suitability of habitats to smaller scale variations in substrate and topography. Thus, the size of habitat grain declines, while the diversity of habitat grains increases toward biome ecotones. Biotic interactions form a third level of constraint, operating at yet a smaller spatial scale, to further modify local species associations. The regional gradients in habitat size and variability provide explanatory power of observed patterns in biodiversity and provide a monitoring tool for climate-induced changes in ecotones.

  16. Antenna Deployment for the Localization of Partial Discharges in Open-Air Substations

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Guillermo; Fresno, José Manuel; Sánchez-Fernández, Matilde; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Partial discharges are ionization processes inside or on the surface of dielectrics that can unveil insulation problems in electrical equipment. The charge accumulated is released under certain environmental and voltage conditions attacking the insulation both physically and chemically. The final consequence of a continuous occurrence of these events is the breakdown of the dielectric. The electron avalanche provokes a derivative of the electric field with respect to time, creating an electromagnetic impulse that can be detected with antennas. The localization of the source helps in the identification of the piece of equipment that has to be decommissioned. This can be done by deploying antennas and calculating the time difference of arrival (TDOA) of the electromagnetic pulses. However, small errors in this parameter can lead to great displacements of the calculated position of the source. Usually, four antennas are used to find the source but the array geometry has to be correctly deployed to have minimal errors in the localization. This paper demonstrates, by an analysis based on simulation and also experimentally, that the most common layouts are not always the best options and proposes a simple antenna layout to reduce the systematic error in the TDOA calculation due to the positions of the antennas in the array. PMID:27092501

  17. Characterization of microstructure, local deformation and microchemistry in Alloy 690 heat-affected zone and stress corrosion cracking in high temperature water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhanpeng; Chen, Junjie; Shoji, Tetsuo; Takeda, Yoichi; Yamazaki, Seiya

    2015-10-01

    With increasing the distance from the weld fusion line in an Alloy 690 heat-affected zone, micro-hardness decreases, kernel average misorientation decreases and the fraction of Σ3 boundaries increases. Chromium depletion at grain boundaries in the Alloy 690 heat-affected zone is less significant than that in an Alloy 600 heat-affected zone. Alloy 690 heat-affected zone exhibits much higher IGSCC resistance than Alloy 600 heat-affected zone in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water. Heavily cold worked Alloy 690 exhibits localized intergranular stress corrosion cracking. The effects of metallurgical and mechanical properties on stress corrosion cracking in Alloy 690 are discussed.

  18. Integration of population mobility in the evaluation of air quality measures on local and regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhondt, S.; Beckx, C.; Degraeuwe, B.; Lefebvre, W.; Kochan, B.; Bellemans, T.; Int Panis, L.; Macharis, C.; Putman, K.

    2012-11-01

    By focussing on air pollutant concentration levels only, the variation in population mobility is not taken into account when assessing the exposure. Transportation policies have an impact on both concentration levels and mobility patterns. The impact of a fuel price increase policy on population exposure to elemental carbon (EC) was evaluated and compared to the base scenario (current situation), taking into account time-activity patterns - including time in commute. We assessed the effect on exposure of both the change in concentrations and whereabouts. The decrease in exposure due to the fuel price increase using residential information only was limited to areas near highways and urban centres. Integrating population movement, exposures to EC were higher and the decrease in exposure was no longer limited to areas near traffic hotspots. For inhabitants of urban areas, the exposure integrating time-activity patterns was more similar to the residential exposure, as they spent more time in their own neighbourhood. For people living further away from traffic hotspots, the estimated impact of the policy was higher than expected for residential exposure. These people profited both from the higher decrease in concentrations at their work/shop/leisure destinations in more urban areas and, as they have to travel longer, also had a larger gain from the high decrease in concentrations during transport. Therefore, the impact of changing concentrations is underestimated when using residential exposure only. These results show the importance of taking into activity-travel patterns when planning future actions.

  19. Localized Electronic Excitation Temperature Measurements in an Air Microwave Plasma Torch at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, K. M.; Flores, G. J., III; Woskov, P. P.; Hadidi, K.; Thomas, P.

    1999-10-01

    The Microwave Plasma Continuous Emissions Monitor, currently under development, uses atomic emission spectroscopy for trace metals pollution monitoring of stack exhaust. Operating at 2.45 GHz, the 1.5 kW magnetron sustains the plasma in a shorted WR-284 waveguide. Air flows through a 25.4 mm i.d. fused quartz tube traversing the waveguide. A pneumatic nebulizer introduces an iron nitrate solution into the axial gas flow. Radial profile measurements of atomic excitation temperature inside the waveguide have been obtained by Abel inversion of Fe I emission lines in the 367 nm to 377 nm range. An optical system with image magnification lenses and a fiber optic cable on a translation stage scans the radial intensity profile along 66 chords. Intensity and temperature profiles show peaked values on axis with a FWHM of 11 mm. An electronic excitation temperature of 6551 K ± 349 K is measured with an axial flow of 12 l/min and a swirl flow of 10 l/min.

  20. A case study for assessing uncertainty in local-scale regulatory air quality modeling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sax, Todd; Isakov, Vlad

    In this paper, we expand upon established uncertainty analysis techniques to demonstrate a general method for assessing variability and uncertainty in Gaussian air pollutant dispersion modeling systems. To illustrate this method, we estimated variability and uncertainty in predicted hexavalent chromium concentrations generated by welding operations at a shipbuilding and repair facility in California. Using Monte Carlo statistical techniques, we propagated uncertainty across both ISCST3 and AERMOD, and estimated the contribution of variability and uncertainty from four model components: emissions, spatial and temporal allocation of emissions, model parameters, and meteorology. Our results indicated the 95% confidence interval uncertainty at each receptor spanned an order of magnitude. From a practical perspective uncertainty is most important at receptors with highest predicted concentrations. In this case study, emissions were the primary source of uncertainty. However, Gaussian models are also sensitive to location of emission releases, meteorology, and model parameters. Simplified modeling approaches may lead to errors in pollutant concentration estimates, especially in close proximity to emissions sources where predicted concentrations are highest.

  1. Three dimensional simulations of pattern formation during high-pressure, freely localized microwave breakdown in air

    SciTech Connect

    Kourtzanidis, K. Boeuf, J. P.; Rogier, F.

    2014-12-15

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that a freely localized 100 GHz microwave discharge can propagate towards the microwave source with high speed, forming a complex pattern of self-organized filaments. We present three-dimensional simulations of the formation and propagation of such patterns that reveal more information on their nature and interaction with the electromagnetic waves. The developed three-dimensional Maxwell-plasma solver permits the study of different forms of incident field polarization. Results for linear and circular polarization of the wave are presented and comparisons with recent experiments show a good overall agreement. The three dimensional simulations provide a quantitative analysis of the parameters controlling the time and length scales of the strongly non-linear plasma dynamics and could be useful for potential microwave plasma applications such as aerodynamic flow and combustion control.

  2. Numerical study on interaction of local air cooler with stratified hydrogen cloud in a large vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Z.; Andreani, M.

    2012-07-01

    Within the framework of the ERCOSAM project, planning calculations are performed to examine sensitivity parameters that can affect the break-up (erosion) of a helium layer by mitigation devices (i.e., cooler, spray, or Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner - PAR). This paper reports the GOTHIC analysis results for the cooler tests to be performed in the PANDA facility. The cooler elevation and geometry, helium layer thickness, steam distribution in the vessel, and the vessel geometry (inter-connected multi-compartments versus a single volume) on the erosion process as well as the cooling capacity are studied. This analysis is valuable because only a limited number of conditions will be examined in the planned experiments. The study provides a useful understanding of the interaction of a cooler with a stratified atmosphere. (authors)

  3. Application of XAD-resin based passive air samplers to assess local (roadside) and regional patterns of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Paul; Thuens, Sabine; Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Westgate, John N; Wania, Frank; Radke, Michael

    2012-07-01

    We used XAD-resin based passive air samplers (PAS) to measure atmospheric levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at five ombrotrophic bogs in Eastern Canada. The aims of our study were to investigate the influence of local roads on contaminant levels in the bogs, to derive the regional pattern of atmospheric concentrations, and to assess the uncertainties of the method. Expanded uncertainties based on the duplicate PAS deployed at 24 sites were good for the PAHs, while the deployment period of approx. 100 days was too short to yield acceptable uncertainties for PCBs. The regional PAH distribution was in good agreement with the calculated source proximity of the sampled bogs. We conclude that XAD-resin based PAS deployed for comparatively short periods are well suited for measuring atmospheric concentrations of volatile PAHs, while in remote regions longer deployment is necessary for less volatile PAHs and for PCBs. PMID:22516712

  4. Eukaryotic-Type Ser/Thr Protein Kinase Mediated Phosphorylation of Mycobacterial Phosphodiesterase Affects its Localization to the Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Neha; Chakraborti, Pradip K.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase enzymes, involved in cAMP hydrolysis reaction, are present throughout phylogeny and their phosphorylation mediated regulation remains elusive in prokaryotes. In this context, we focused on this enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gene encoded by Rv0805 was PCR amplified and expressed as a histidine-tagged protein (mPDE) utilizing Escherichia coli based expression system. In kinase assays, upon incubation with mycobacterial Clade I eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr kinases (PknA, PknB, and PknL), Ni-NTA purified mPDE protein exhibited transphosphorylation ability albeit with varying degree. When mPDE was co-expressed one at a time with these kinases in E. coli, it was also recognized by an anti-phosphothreonine antibody, which further indicates its phosphorylating ability. Mass spectrometric analysis identified Thr-309 of mPDE as a phosphosite. In concordance with this observation, anti-phosphothreonine antibody marginally recognized mPDE-T309A mutant protein; however, such alteration did not affect the enzymatic activity. Interestingly, mPDE expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis yielded a phosphorylated protein that preferentially localized to cell wall. In contrast, mPDE-T309A, the phosphoablative variant of mPDE, did not show such behavior. On the other hand, phosphomimics of mPDE (T309D or T309E), exhibited similar cell wall anchorage as was observed with the wild-type. Thus, our results provide credence to the fact that eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr kinase mediated phosphorylation of mPDE renders negative charge to the protein, promoting its localization on cell wall. Furthermore, multiple sequence alignment revealed that Thr-309 is conserved among mPDE orthologs of M. tuberculosis complex, which presumably emphasizes evolutionary significance of phosphorylation at this residue. PMID:26904001

  5. Inhibition of nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont affects the localization of glutamine synthetase in hair cells of Azolla.

    PubMed

    Uheda, Eiji; Maejima, Kazuhiro

    2009-10-15

    In the Azolla-Anabaena association, the host plant Azolla efficiently incorporates and assimilates ammonium ions that are released from the nitrogen-fixing cyanobiont, probably via glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) in hair cells, which are specialized cells protruding into the leaf cavity. In order to clarify the regulatory mechanism underlying ammonium assimilation in the Azolla-Anabaena association, Azolla plants were grown under an argon environment (Ar), in which the nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont was inhibited specifically and completely. The localization of GS in hair cells was determined by immunoelectron microscopy and quantitative analysis of immunogold labeling. Azolla plants grew healthily under Ar when nitrogen sources, such as NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+), were provided in the growth medium. Both the number of cyanobacterial cells per leaf and the heterocyst frequency of the plants under Ar were similar to those of plants in a nitrogen environment (N(2)). In hair cells of plants grown under Ar, regardless of the type of nitrogen source provided, only weak labeling of GS was observed in the cytoplasm and in chloroplasts. In contrast, in hair cells of plants grown under N(2), abundant labeling of GS was observed in both sites. These findings indicate that specific inhibition of the nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont affects the localization of GS isoenzymes. Ammonium fixed and released by the cyanobiont could stimulate GS synthesis in hair cells. Simultaneously, the abundant GS, probably GS1, in these cells, could assimilate ammonium rapidly. PMID:19464754

  6. Whole Genome Sequencing Identifies a Deletion in Protein Phosphatase 2A That Affects Its Stability and Localization in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huawen; Miller, Michelle L.; Granas, David M.; Dutcher, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing is a powerful tool in the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions/deletions (indels) among mutant strains, which simplifies forward genetics approaches. However, identification of the causative mutation among a large number of non-causative SNPs in a mutant strain remains a big challenge. In the unicellular biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we generated a SNP/indel library that contains over 2 million polymorphisms from four wild-type strains, one highly polymorphic strain that is frequently used in meiotic mapping, ten mutant strains that have flagellar assembly or motility defects, and one mutant strain, imp3, which has a mating defect. A comparison of polymorphisms in the imp3 strain and the other 15 strains allowed us to identify a deletion of the last three amino acids, Y313F314L315, in a protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2A3) in the imp3 strain. Introduction of a wild-type HA-tagged PP2A3 rescues the mutant phenotype, but mutant HA-PP2A3 at Y313 or L315 fail to rescue. Our immunoprecipitation results indicate that the Y313, L315, or YFLΔ mutations do not affect the binding of PP2A3 to the scaffold subunit, PP2A-2r. In contrast, the Y313, L315, or YFLΔ mutations affect both the stability and the localization of PP2A3. The PP2A3 protein is less abundant in these mutants and fails to accumulate in the basal body area as observed in transformants with either wild-type HA-PP2A3 or a HA-PP2A3 with a V310T change. The accumulation of HA-PP2A3 in the basal body region disappears in mated dikaryons, which suggests that the localization of PP2A3 may be essential to the mating process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the terminal YFL tail of PP2A3 is important in the regulation on Chlamydomonas mating. PMID:24086163

  7. Biomagnetic monitoring as a validation tool for local air quality models: a case study for an urban street canyon.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Jelle; Samson, Roeland

    2014-09-01

    Biomagnetic monitoring of tree leaf deposited particles has proven to be a good indicator of the ambient particulate concentration. The objective of this study is to apply this method to validate a local-scale air quality model (ENVI-met), using 96 tree crown sampling locations in a typical urban street canyon. To the best of our knowledge, the application of biomagnetic monitoring for the validation of pollutant dispersion modeling is hereby presented for the first time. Quantitative ENVI-met validation showed significant correlations between modeled and measured results throughout the entire in-leaf period. ENVI-met performed much better at the first half of the street canyon close to the ring road (r=0.58-0.79, RMSE=44-49%), compared to second part (r=0.58-0.64, RMSE=74-102%). The spatial model behavior was evaluated by testing effects of height, azimuthal position, tree position and distance from the main pollution source on the obtained model results and magnetic measurements. Our results demonstrate that biomagnetic monitoring seems to be a valuable method to evaluate the performance of air quality models. Due to the high spatial and temporal resolution of this technique, biomagnetic monitoring can be applied anywhere in the city (where urban green is present) to evaluate model performance at different spatial scales. PMID:24907705

  8. Communicating with local elected officials: lessons learned from clean indoor air ordinance campaigns.

    PubMed

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Forster, Jean; Widome, Rachel

    2010-03-01

    This article describes a study of the effectiveness of communication strategies used to influence policy makers to support local smoke-free laws in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region. Twenty-seven of 41 members of three city councils and two county boards of commissioners were individually interviewed as were seven advocates who campaigned for the bans. Officials valued public health and economic data, public opinion polls, personally written e-mails, and dialogue with constituents. Phone banking messages indicated public support but were a nuisance. Officials felt that media ads were a waste of money and leafleting and other personal targeting were unacceptable. Advocates tended not to critically examine their own efforts for strengths and weaknesses and seemed unconcerned by public officials' negative reception to some strategies. This case study suggests the need for reflection on the pros and cons of well-funded, highly orchestrated campaigns for public health policy, as these strategies may clash with the political process of building relationships. PMID:19011117

  9. Biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Monte Hermoso Formation (early Pliocene) at its type locality, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassini, Rodrigo L.; Montalvo, Claudia I.; Deschamps, Cecilia M.; Manera, Teresa

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Hermoso Formation, cropping out at its type locality of Farola Monte Hermoso (Buenos Aires Province), is a classical fossiliferous unit of the South American Neogene, highlighted by the abundance and diversity of its vertebrate remains. However, its biostratigraphy and age have been largely debated, and numerous discrepancies and controversies have been stated. In this regard, the result of the analysis of new materials recovered from the different levels of this formation, following a strict control of stratigraphic provenance, is here reported. As well, the provenance of specimens of previous collections has been evaluated. The studied assemblage consists of Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. These latter are the most numerous and belong to the Didelphimorphia, Polydolopimorphia, Rodentia, Notoungulata, Litopterna and Xenarthra. The recorded taxa suggest no important faunistic variations among the different levels of the Monte Hermoso Formation that would imply significant chronological differences, and hence, justify the recognition of two biostratigraphic units. The analysis of the first and last records as well as the taxa considered as exclusive, does not support the validity of the biozones of Trigodon gaudryi and Neocavia depressidens previously proposed. On this basis, a new scheme for the Monte Hermoso Formation at its type locality is proposed, including a new single biostratigraphic unit. This unit is the Eumysops laeviplicatus Range Zone, which represents the biostratigraphic base for the Montehermosan Stage/Age of the early Pliocene.

  10. Local distribution of wall static pressure and heat transfer on a smooth flat plate impinged by a slot air jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimurthy, M.; Katti, Vadiraj V.

    2016-06-01

    Local distribution of wall static pressure and heat transfer on a smooth flat plate impinged by a normal slot air jet is experimental investigated. Present study focuses on the influence of jet-to-plate spacing (Z/D h ) (0.5-10) and Reynolds number (2500-20,000) on the fluid flow and heat transfer distribution. A single slot jet with an aspect ratio (l/b) of about 22 is chosen for the current study. Infrared Thermal Imaging technique is used to capture the temperature data on the target surface. Local heat transfer coefficients are estimated from the thermal images using `SMART VIEW' software. Wall static pressure measurement is carried out for the specified range of Re and Z/D h . Wall static pressure coefficients are seen to be independent of Re in the range between 5000 and 15,000 for a given Z/D h . Nu values are higher at the stagnation point for all Z/D h and Re investigated. For lower Z/D h and higher Re, secondary peaks are observed in the heat transfer distributions. This may be attributed to fluid translating from laminar to turbulent flow on the target plate. Heat transfer characteristics are explained based on the simplified flow assumptions and the pressure data obtained using Differential pressure transducer and static pressure probe. Semi-empirical correlation for the Nusselt number in the stagnation region is proposed.

  11. Application of nonparametric regression and statistical testing to identify the impact of oil and natural gas development on local air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hanqi; Small, Mitchell J.; Pekney, Natalie J.

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the current work was to develop a statistical method and associated tool to evaluate the impact of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities on local air quality. Nonparametric regression of pollutant concentrations on wind direction was combined with bootstrap hypothesis testing to provide statistical inference regarding the existence of a local/regional air quality impact. The block bootstrap method was employed to address the effect of autocorrelation on test significance. The method was applied to short-term air monitoring data collected at three sites within Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest. All of the measured pollutant concentrations were well below the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, so the usual criteria and methods for data analysis were not sufficient. Using advanced directional analysis methods, test results were first applied to verify the existence of a regional impact at a background site. Next the impact of an oil field on local NOx and SO2 concentrations at a second monitoring site was identified after removal of the regional effect. Analysis of a third site also revealed air quality impacts from nearby areas with a high density of oil and gas wells. All results and conclusions were quantified in terms of statistical significance level for the associated inferences. The proposed method can be used to formulate hypotheses and verify conclusions regarding oil and gas well impacts on air quality and support better-informed decisions for their management and regulation.

  12. Causal Factors Affecting Local Fiscal Stress in U.S. Northeast Counties. Cornell Rural Sociology Series. Bulletin No. 149.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberts, Paul; Khawaja, Marwan

    Conceptualizing high local fiscal stress as a variable which includes low fiscal capacity, high local tax effort and high local need requires building a typology reflecting this conceptualization. This study builds such a typology for 166 counties in the northeastern United States and examines the effects of variables taken from a series of…

  13. Impact of AIRS Thermodynamic Profiles on Precipitation Forecasts for Atmospheric River Cases Affecting the Western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Blakenship, Clay B.; Wick, Gary A.; Neiman, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This project is a collaborative activity between the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center and the NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) to evaluate a SPoRT Advanced Infrared Sounding Radiometer (AIRS: Aumann et al. 2003) enhanced moisture analysis product. We test the impact of assimilating AIRS temperature and humidity profiles above clouds and in partly cloudy regions, using the three-dimensional variational Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation (DA) system (Developmental Testbed Center 2012) to produce a new analysis. Forecasts of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model initialized from the new analysis are compared to control forecasts without the additional AIRS data. We focus on some cases where atmospheric rivers caused heavy precipitation on the US West Coast. We verify the forecasts by comparison with dropsondes and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Blended Total Precipitable Water product.

  14. Long-term continuous measurement of near-road air pollution in Las Vegas: Seasonal variability in traffic emissions impact on local air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess air pollution along roadways is an issue of public health concern and motivated a long-term measurement effort established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Las Vegas, Nevada. Measurements of air pollutants – including black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO),...

  15. Strongly-motivated positive affects induce faster responses to local than global information of visual stimuli: an approach using large-size Navon letters

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Yasuki; Tomoike, Kouta

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies argue that strongly-motivated positive emotions (e.g. desire) narrow a scope of attention. This argument is mainly based on an observation that, while humans normally respond faster to global than local information of a visual stimulus (global advantage), positive affects eliminated the global advantage by selectively speeding responses to local (but not global) information. In other words, narrowing of attentional scope was indirectly evidenced by the elimination of global advantage (the same speed of processing between global and local information). No study has directly shown that strongly-motivated positive affects induce faster responses to local than global information while excluding a bias for global information (global advantage) in a baseline (emotionally-neutral) condition. In the present study, we addressed this issue by eliminating the global advantage in a baseline (neutral) state. Induction of positive affects under this state resulted in faster responses to local than global information. Our results provided direct evidence that positive affects in high motivational intensity narrow a scope of attention. PMID:26754087

  16. Seismic air gun exposure during early-stage embryonic development does not negatively affect spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii larvae (Decapoda: Palinuridae).

    PubMed

    Day, Ryan D; McCauley, Robert D; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Semmens, Jayson M

    2016-01-01

    Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8-12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa(2) · s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages. PMID:26947006

  17. Seismic air gun exposure during early-stage embryonic development does not negatively affect spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii larvae (Decapoda:Palinuridae)

    PubMed Central

    Day, Ryan D.; McCauley, Robert D.; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P.; Semmens, Jayson M.

    2016-01-01

    Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8–12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa2·s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages. PMID:26947006

  18. Space Monitoring of air pollution using satellite time series: from a global view down to local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, Antonio; Aromando, Angelo; Desantis, Fortunato; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Assessment of air pollution has been performed by different means over the years and, recently, the use of satellite data for detecting and monitoring atmospheric pollution has received considerable attention especially for application in industrial and urban areas. Methods based on satellite data (such as Landsat TM, SPOT MODIS images) are focused on the estimation of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that is a measure of aerosol loading in the atmosphere, and therefore, it is considered as the main significant parameter of the presence/absence of atmospheric pollutants. A higher AOT value expresses the degree to which aerosols prevent the transmission of light, therefore, higher columnar of aerosol loading means lower visibility and higher aerosol concentration Several state-of-art aerosol retrieval techniques provide aerosol properties in global scale, as for example products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites. The current aerosol optical thickness (AOT) products from MODIS (available free of charge by the NASA web site) is 10 km. This product is suitable for global research, but it faces difficulty in local area research, especially in urban areas However, new aerosol retrieval algorithm for the (MODIS) 500m resolution data have been developed to retrieve aerosol properties over land, which helps on addressing the aerosol climatic issues in local/urban scale. Over the years, several algorithms for determining the aerosol optical thickness have been developed using several approaches and satellite sensors including medium (Landsat; ASTER) and high resolution imagery (IKONOS and Quickbird). A comparison of results from these methods and independent data sets has been performed in the Basilicata region in the framework of the MITRA project (ref). This research activity was conducted in order to analyze their temporal dynamics and reliability for systematically using them

  19. Elevated air humidity affects hydraulic traits and tree size but not biomass allocation in young silver birches (Betula pendula)

    PubMed Central

    Sellin, Arne; Rosenvald, Katrin; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Tullus, Arvo; Ostonen, Ivika; Lõhmus, Krista

    2015-01-01

    As changes in air temperature, precipitation, and air humidity are expected in the coming decades, studies on the impact of these environmental shifts on plant growth and functioning are of major importance. Greatly understudied aspects of climate change include consequences of increasing air humidity on forest ecosystems, predicted for high latitudes. The main objective of this study was to find a link between hydraulic acclimation and shifts in trees’ resource allocation in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) in response to elevated air relative humidity (RH). A second question was whether the changes in hydraulic architecture depend on tree size. Two years of application of increased RH decreased the biomass accumulation in birch saplings, but the biomass partitioning among aboveground parts (leaves, branches, and stems) remained unaffected. Increased stem Huber values (xylem cross-sectional area to leaf area ratio) observed in trees under elevated RH did not entail changes in the ratio of non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic tissues. The reduction of stem–wood density is attributable to diminished mechanical load imposed on the stem, since humidified trees had relatively shorter crowns. Growing under higher RH caused hydraulic conductance of the root system (KR) to increase, while KR (expressed per unit leaf area) decreased and leaf hydraulic conductance increased with tree size. Saplings of silver birch acclimate to increasing air humidity by adjusting plant morphology (live crown length, slenderness, specific leaf area, and fine-root traits) and wood density rather than biomass distribution among aboveground organs. The treatment had a significant effect on several hydraulic properties of the trees, while the shifts were largely associated with changes in tree size but not in biomass allocation. PMID:26528318

  20. A fitting formula for radiative cooling based on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium population from weakly-ionized air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogino, Yousuke; Nagano, Atsushi; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2013-08-01

    A fitting formula for radiative cooling with collisional-radiative population for air plasma flowfield has been developed. Population number densities are calculated from rate equations in order to evaluate the effects of nonequilibrium atomic and molecular processes. Many elementary processes are integrated to be applied to optically-thin plasmas in the number density range of 1012/cm3 <= N <= 1019/cm3 and the temperature range of 300 K <= T <= 40,000 K. Our results of the total radiative emissivity calculated from the collisional-radiative population are fitted in terms of temperature and total number density. To validate the analytic fitting formula, numerical simulation of a laser-induced blast wave propagation with the nonequilibrium radiative cooling is conducted and successfully reproduces the shock and plasma wave front time history observed by experiments. In addition, from the comparison between numerical simulations with the radiation cooling effect based on the fitting formula and those with a gray gas radiation model that assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium, we find that the displacement of the plasma front is slightly different due to the deviation of population probabilities. By using the fitting formula, we can easily and more accurately evaluate the radiative cooling effect without solving detailed collisional-radiative rate equations.

  1. Unforced surface air temperature anomalies and their opposite relationship with the TOA energy imbalance at local and global scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. T.; Li, W.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.

    2015-12-01

    Unforced global mean surface air temperature (Tglobal) is stable in the long-term primarily because warm Tglobal anomalies are associated with enhanced outgoing longwave radiation to space and thus a negative global radiative energy imbalance (Nglobal, positive downward) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). However, it is shown here that at the local spatial scale, warm unforced Tlocal anomalies tend to be associated with anomalously positive Nlocal imbalances over most of the surface of the planet. It is revealed that this occurs mainly because warm Tlocal anomalies are accompanied by anomalously low surface albedo near sea ice margins and over high altitudes, anomalously low cloud albedo over much of the mid/low-latitudes and an anomalously large water-vapor greenhouse effect over the deep tropical ocean. During warm Tglobal years, the largest negative Nlocal anomalies primarily occur over regions of cool or near-neutral Tlocal anomalies. These results help explain how TOA energy imbalances can act to damp unforced Tglobal anomalies while simultaneously amplifying unforced Tlocal anomalies.

  2. The Affect of Realistic Geologic Heterogeneity on Local and Regional P/S Amplitude Ratios Based on Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S C; Wagoner, J L; Preston, L; Smith, K; Larsen, S C

    2005-07-11

    Regional seismic discriminants based on high-frequency P/S ratios reliably distinguish between earthquakes and explosions. However, P/S discriminants in the 0.5 to 3 Hz band (where SNR can be highest) rarely perform well, with similar ratios for earthquake and explosion populations. Variability in discriminant performance has spawned numerous investigations into the generation of S-waves from explosions. Several viable mechanisms for the generation of S-waves from explosions have been forwarded, but most of these mechanisms do not explain observations of frequency-dependant S-wave generation. Recent studies have focused on the affect of near-source scattering to explain the frequency-dependence of both S-wave generation and P/S discriminant performance. In this study we investigate near-source scatter through numerical simulation with a realistic geological model We have constructed a realistic, 3-dimensional earth model of the southern Basin and Range. This regional model includes detailed constraints at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) based on extensive geologic and geophysical studies. Gross structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface-wave studies. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a compilation of reflection/refraction studies. Upper-crustal constraints are derived from geologic maps and detailed studies of sedimentary basin geometry throughout the study area. The free surface is based on a 10-meter digital elevation model (DEM) at NTS, and a 60-meter DEM elsewhere. The model extends to a depth of 150km, making it suitable for simulations at local and regional distances. Our simulation source is based on the 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment explosion at the NTS. This shot was well recorded, offering ample validation data. Our validation tests include measures of long-period waveform fit and relative amplitude measurements for P and S phases. Our primary conclusion is that near-source topography

  3. Commentary on "Finance, Management, and Costs of Public and Private Schools in Indonesia" and "Do Local Contributions Affect the Efficiency of Public Primary Schools?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Mark C.

    1996-01-01

    Studies on Indonesia and the Philippines in this special issue examine how local financial control affects costs of providing primary schooling. In both countries, schools with greater financial decentralization operated more efficiently. These results have important implications for U.S. schools, where decentralization reforms in Kentucky and…

  4. Project ATLANTA (Atlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality): Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling to Analyze How Urban Land Use Change Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use ANalysis: Temperature and Air-quality) which is an investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since the early 1970's has impacted the region's climate and air quality. The primary objectives for this research effort are: (1) To investigate and model the relationships between land cover change in the Atlanta metropolitan, and the development of the urban heat island phenomenon through time; (2) To investigate and model the temporal relationships between Atlanta urban growth and land cover change on air quality; and (3) To model the overall effects of urban development on surface energy budget characteristics across the Atlanta urban landscape through time. Our key goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization in the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the prospect that the results from this research can be applied by urban planners, environmental managers and other decision-makers, for determining how urbanization has impacted the climate and overall environment of the Atlanta area. Multiscaled remote sensing data, particularly high resolution thermal infrared data, are integral to this study for the analysis of thermal energy fluxes across the Atlanta urban landscape.

  5. Commuters’ Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution Is Affected by Mode of Transport, Fuel Type, and Route

    PubMed Central

    Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; Oldenwening, Marieke; Lenters, Virissa; Meliefste, Kees; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert

    2010-01-01

    Background Commuters are exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, but little quantitative information is currently available on differences in exposure between different modes of transport, routes, and fuel types. Objectives The aim of our study was to assess differences in commuters’ exposure to traffic-related air pollution related to transport mode, route, and fuel type. Methods We measured particle number counts (PNCs) and concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), PM10, and soot between June 2007 and June 2008 on 47 weekdays, from 0800 to 1000 hours, in diesel and electric buses, gasoline- and diesel-fueled cars, and along two bicycle routes with different traffic intensities in Arnhem, the Netherlands. In addition, each-day measurements were taken at an urban background location. Results We found that median PNC exposures were highest in diesel buses (38,500 particles/cm3) and for cyclists along the high-traffic intensity route (46,600 particles/cm3) and lowest in electric buses (29,200 particles/cm3). Median PM10 exposure was highest from diesel buses (47 μg/m3) and lowest along the high- and low-traffic bicycle routes (39 and 37 μg/m3). The median soot exposure was highest in gasoline-fueled cars (9.0 × 10−5/m), diesel cars (7.9 × 10−5/m), and diesel buses (7.4 × 10−5/m) and lowest along the low-traffic bicycle route (4.9 × 10−5/m). Because the minute ventilation (volume of air per minute) of cyclists, which we estimated from measured heart rates, was twice the minute ventilation of car and bus passengers, we calculated that the inhaled air pollution doses were highest for cyclists. With the exception of PM10, we found that inhaled air pollution doses were lowest for electric bus passengers. Conclusions Commuters’ rush hour exposures were significantly influenced by mode of transport, route, and fuel type. PMID:20185385

  6. Low-cost multi-vehicle air temperature measurements for heat load assessment in local-scale climate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Weyss, Gernot; Aloise, Giulliano; Mifka, Boris; Löffelmann, Philemon; Hollosi, Brigitta; Nemec, Johana; Vucetic, Visnja

    2014-05-01

    radiation protection. Duration of each measurement tour lasted approximately 2 hours covering the distances in radius of about 10-30 km, logging the air temperature and geographical positioning in intervals of 1-5 seconds. The collected data were aggregated on a 100 m horizontal resolution grid and compared with the local-scale climate modelling simulations with the urban climate model MUKLIMO3 initialized with the atmospheric conditions for a given day. Both measurement and modelling results show similar features for distinct local climate zones (built-up area, near water environment, forest, parks, agricultural area, etc). The spatial gradients in temperature can be assigned to different orographical and land use characteristics. Even if many ambiguities remain in both modelling and the measurement approach, the collected data provide useful information for local-scale heat assessment and can serve as a base to increase the model reliability, especially in areas with low data coverage.

  7. Drought and air warming affect the species-specific levels of stress-related foliar metabolites of three oak species on acidic and calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2013-05-01

    Climate change as projected for Central Europe will lead to prolonged periods of summer drought and enhanced air temperature. Thus, forest management practices are required to take into account how species performance is adapted to cope with these climate changes. Oak trees may play a major role in future forests because of their relative drought-tolerance compared with other species like beech. Therefore, this study investigated the stress responses (i.e., anti-oxidants, free amino acids) in the leaves of three widely distributed oak species in Central Europe (i.e., Quercus robur L., Q. petraea [Matt.] Libel., Q. pubescens Willd.) to drought, air warming and the combination of drought plus air warming under controlled conditions after periods of spring drought, a short rewetting and summer drought. We quantified foliar levels of thiols, ascorbate, and free amino compounds in Q robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens. Our study showed that oak saplings had increased levels of γ-glutamylcysteine and total glutathione and proline with drought and air warming. Foliar ascorbate, glutathione disulfide and dehydroascorbic acid levels were not affected. The comparison of stress responses to drought and/or air warming between the three species showed higher foliar thiol levels in Q. robur and Q. pubescens compared with Q. petraea. For total and reduced ascorbic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid, the highest levels were found in Q. robur. In conclusion, our study showed that foliar anti-oxidant and free amino acid levels were significantly affected by drought plus air warming; however, this effect was species-dependent with the drought-tolerant species of Q. pubescens having the highest reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity among three tested oak species. Furthermore, stress responses as shown by increased levels of foliar anti-oxidants and free amino acids differ between calcareous and acidic soil indicating that the capacities of anti-oxidative defense and osmotic stress

  8. Local emission of primary air pollutants and its contribution to wet deposition and concentrations of aerosols and gases in ambient air in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Masahide; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Tomoyose, Nobutaka; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Noguchi, Izumi; Murano, Kentaro; Mukai, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    We studied wet deposition by precipitation and the concentrations of aerosols and gases in ambient air in relation to the primary air pollutants discharged from domestic areas. The concentrations of aerosols and gases were influenced by nearby emissions except for non-sea-salt SO, which is transported long distances. The area facing the Sea of Japan showed much larger wet deposition than other areas, although the domestic emissions of the primary air pollutants there were small and showed a peak in wet deposition from October to March, as distinct from April to September in other areas. We performed the correlation analyses between wet deposition of each component and the product of the concentrations of corresponding aerosols and gases in ambient air and the two-thirds power of the precipitation. From the results, following scavenging processes were suggested. • Sulfate and ammonium were scavenged in precipitation as particulate matter such as (NH4)2SO4 and NH4HSO4. • Nitrate was scavenged mainly in precipitation through gaseous HNO3. • Ammonium was complementarily scavenged in precipitation through aerosols such as (NH4)2SO4 and NH4HSO4 and through gaseous NH3.

  9. A Correlational Study of How Airline Customer Service and Consumer Perception of Airline Customer Service Affect the Air Rage Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Joyce A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, customer service declined throughout the airline industry, as reported in February 2001 by the U.S. Department of Transportation (2001). One of the biggest problems today within the airline industry is the constant complaining from customers regarding the deterioraton of service (McCollough, Berry, & Yadav, 2000). Since 1995, unfortunately no airline has been immune from service deterioration, as reported by the Airline Quality Rating, an annual report by two airline industry experts who analyzed Department of Transportation statistics (Harrison & Kleinsasser, 1999). The airline' refusal to recognize the issue of customer service has perpetuated an environment that has become dangerous and detrimental to the traveling public as well as to airline employees, which in turn has fueled a new phenomenon, now referred to as "air rage".

  10. How local authority services may be affected during the 2012 Olympics and how they can be maintained.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    On 6th July, 2005, the International Olympic Committee awarded London the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. This is the first time an event of this magnitude has been hosted in a western country since the September 11th attacks. The UK Government continues to assess the risk, and five years on, planning is well under way. With a limited amount of time remaining, those UK local authorities hosting Olympic events will be considering what they need to have in place to support command and control arrangements during the Games. This paper provides an overview of what local authorities need to be doing over the next two years to prepare. PMID:21482515

  11. Quantification of emissions from domestic heating in residential areas of İzmir, Turkey and assessment of the impact on local/regional air-quality.

    PubMed

    Sari, Deniz; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2014-08-01

    Air pollution in cities is a major environmental problem principally in the developing countries. The quantification of emissions is a basic requirement to assess the human influence to the atmosphere. The air quality generally shows decreases with the major contribution residential emissions and meteorology in the winter season in the big cities. Poor meteorological conditions especially inversion events for the efficient mixing of air pollutants occurred during the winter months in İzmir. With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxides (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO) together with greenhouse gases which are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) in İzmir for 2008-2009 winter season. The results showed that the most affected residential areas were central districts in the city center from domestic heating emissions due to meteorological condition and demographic reasons. Air quality modeling is a great tool for assisting policy makers how to decrease emissions and improve air quality. At the second part of the study, calculated emissions were modeled by using CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system and plotted in the form of air pollution maps by using geographical information system to determine the locations and estimate the effects of the new residential areas that will be established in the future in İzmir. PMID:24315026

  12. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  13. Variation at Local Government Level in the Support for Families of Severely Disabled Children and the Factors that Affect It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Rob; McNally, Richard; James, Peter; Crossland, Kevin; Woolley, Mark; Colver, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine geographical variability in the support for families caring for children with severe disabilities as well as the relationships between this variability and local government social and educational performance indicators. Method: Data were collected from a cross-sectional, self-completed postal survey of the…

  14. The Duluth Clean Indoor Air Ordinance: Problems and Success in Fighting the Tobacco Industry at the Local Level in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Tsoukalas, Theodore; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2003-01-01

    Case study methodology was used to investigate the tobacco industry’s strategies to fight local tobacco control efforts in Duluth, Minn. The industry opposed the clean indoor air ordinance indirectly through allies and front groups and directly in a referendum. Health groups failed to win a strong ordinance because they framed it as a youth issue rather than a workplace issue and failed to engage the industry’s economic claims. Opponents’ overexploitation of weaknesses in the ordinance allowed health advocates to construct a stronger version. Health advocates should assume that the tobacco industry will oppose all local tobacco control measures indirectly, directly, or both. Clean indoor air ordinances should be framed as workplace safety issues. PMID:12893598

  15. Factors Affecting Student Success in Distance Learning Courses at a Local California Community College: Joint Governance Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of staff and faculty regarding factors affecting student success in distance learning at a California community college (CCC). Participants were members of the leadership group known as the distance learning committee. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using open-ended…

  16. Quantum efficiency affected by localized carrier distribution near the V-defect in GaN based quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yong-Hee Shim, Mun-Bo; Hwang, Sangheum; Kim, Sungjin; Kim, Jun-Youn; Kim, Jaekyun; Park, Young-Soo; Park, Seoung-Hwan

    2013-12-23

    It is known that due to the formation of in-plane local energy barrier, V-defects can screen the carriers which non-radiatively recombine in threading dislocations (TDs) and hence, enhance the internal quantum efficiency in GaN based light-emitting diodes. By a theoretical modeling capable of describing the inhomogeneous carrier distribution near the V-defect in GaN based quantum wells, we show that the efficient suppression of non-radiative (NR) recombination via TD requires the local energy barrier height of V-defect larger than ∼80 meV. The NR process in TD combined with V-defect influences the quantum efficiency mainly in the low injection current density regime suitably described by the linear dependence of carrier density. We provide a simple phenomenological expression for the NR recombination rate based on the model result.

  17. What is the local air quality impact related to major transit sources and can barriers reduce exposure?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will describe measurement and modeling activities to study the dispersion of air pollution from transit emissions (highway, rail, port) and evaluation of barriers as a mitigation method.

  18. Air Quality Impairment Associated to Local and Regional Pollutants Sources in the Megacity of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), with more than 19 million inhabitants in 2006, about 2000 major industrial facilities, and more than 7 million vehicles based on diesel, gasoline, and ethanol, has 8051 km2. MASP is one of the biggest urban agglomerate in the world. Associated to its dimension many important problems appear and among them the bad air quality is one of the most important due to the human health effects. MASP is the richest area in Brazil representing 17% of Brazilian GNP in 2000. Not only the high pollutants concentration but also the accentuated modification of the land use in the area resulted in bad quality of life characterized by local and regional climate modification, as for instance the light rain suppression and the increase of the heavier rain. In MASP the air pollution has worsened due to the cumulative effects of population growth, industrialization and increased vehicle use. Currently there are about 7.2 million passenger and commercial vehicles: 93.5% light- duty and 6.5% heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Of the light-duty vehicles, approximately 76.3% burn a mixture of 78-80% (v/v) gasoline and 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), and 17.2% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), these data were obtained from the Sao Paulo Environmental Protection Agency. Over the past several years, ambient ozone concentrations in the MASP have reached levels of more than five times that considered protective of public health by the World Health Organization. In the wintertime, ozone levels routinely exceed the 160 ug/m3 hourly Brazilian National Ambient Air-Quality Standard. About 90% of the O3 precursors in the MASP atmosphere are emitted by the vehicle fleet. According to the official state EI of HC (hydrocarbons) emissions from mobile sources, 22% are from gasohol-powered vehicles, 15% from diesel-powered vehicles, 6% from ethanol-powered vehicles and 5% from motorcycles. In addition, a significant contribution to HC emissions comes

  19. The localization of FGFR3 mutations causing thanatophoric dysplasia type I differentially affects phosphorylation, processing and ubiquitylation of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Bonaventure, Jacky; Gibbs, Linda; Horne, William C; Baron, Roland

    2007-06-01

    Recurrent missense fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations have been ascribed to skeletal dysplasias of variable severity including the lethal neonatal thanatophoric dysplasia types I (TDI) and II (TDII). To elucidate the role of activating mutations causing TDI on receptor trafficking and endocytosis, a series of four mutants located in different domains of the receptor were generated and transiently expressed. The putatively elongated X807R receptor was identified as three isoforms. The fully glycosylated mature isoform was constitutively but mildly phosphorylated. Similarly, mutations affecting the extracellular domain (R248C and Y373C) induced moderate constitutive receptor phosphorylation. By contrast, the K650M mutation affecting the tyrosine kinase 2 (TK2) domain produced heavy phosphorylation of the nonglycosylated and mannose-rich isoforms that impaired receptor trafficking through the Golgi network. This resulted in defective expression of the mature isoform at the cell surface. Normal processing was rescued by tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Internalization of the R248C and Y373C mutant receptors, which form stable disulfide-bonded dimers at the cell surface was less efficient than the wild-type, whereas ubiquitylation was markedly increased but apparently independent of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl). Constitutive phosphorylation of c-Cbl by the K650M mutant appeared to be related to the intracellular retention of the receptor. Therefore, although mutation K650M affecting the TK2 domain induces defective targeting of the overphosphorylated receptor, a different mechanism characterized by receptor retention at the plasma membrane, excessive ubiquitylation and reduced degradation results from mutations that affect the extracellular domain and the stop codon. PMID:17509076

  20. Prime-Boost Strategies in Mucosal Immunization Affect Local IgA Production and the Type of Th Response

    PubMed Central

    Fiorino, Fabio; Pettini, Elena; Pozzi, Gianni; Medaglini, Donata; Ciabattini, Annalisa

    2013-01-01

    Combinations of different delivery routes for priming and boosting represent vaccination strategies that can modulate magnitude, quality, and localization of the immune response. A murine model was used to study T cell clonal expansion following intranasal (IN) or subcutaneous (SC) priming, and secondary immune responses after boosting by either homologous or heterologous routes. T cell primary activation was studied by using the adoptive transfer model of ovalbumin-specific transgenic CD4+ T cells. Both IN and SC immunization efficiently elicited, in the respective draining lymph nodes, primary clonal expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that disseminated toward distal lymph nodes (mesenteric and iliac) and the spleen. After boosting, a significant serum IgG response was induced in all groups independent of the combination of immunization routes used, while significant levels of local IgA were detected only in mice boosted by the IN route. Mucosal priming drove a stronger Th1 polarization than the systemic route, as shown by serum IgG subclass analysis. IFN-gamma production was observed in splenocytes of all groups, while prime-boost vaccine combinations that included the mucosal route, yielded higher levels of IL-17. Memory lymphocytes were identified in both spleen and draining lymph nodes in all immunized mice, with the highest number of IL-2 producing cells detected in mice primed and boosted by the nasal route. This work shows the critical role of immunization routes in modulating quality and localization of immune responses in prime-boost vaccine strategies. PMID:23755051

  1. Body fat does not affect venous bubble formation after air dives of moderate severity: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Schellart, Nico A M; van Rees Vellinga, Tjeerd P; van Hulst, Rob A

    2013-03-01

    For over a century, studies on body fat (BF) in decompression sickness and venous gas embolism of divers have been inconsistent. A major problem is that age, BF, and maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) show high multicollinearity. Using the Bühlmann model with eight parallel compartments, preceded by a blood compartment in series, nitrogen tensions and loads were calculated with a 40 min/3.1 bar (absolute) profile. Compared with Haldanian models, the new model showed a substantial delay in N2 uptake and (especially) release. One hour after surfacing, an increase of 14-28% in BF resulted in a whole body increase of the N2 load of 51%, but in only 15% in the blood compartment. This would result in an increase in the bubble grade of only 0.01 Kisman-Masurel (KM) units at the scale near KM = I-. This outcome was tested indirectly by a dry dive simulation (air breathing) with 53 male divers with a small range in age and Vo2max to suppress multicollinearity. BF was determined with the four-skinfold method. Precordial Doppler bubble grades determined at 40, 80, 120, and 160 min after surfacing were used to calculate the Kisman Integrated Severity Score and were also transformed to the logarithm of the number of bubbles/cm(2) (logB). The highest of the four scores yielded logB = -1.78, equivalent to KM = I-. All statistical outcomes of partial correlations with BF were nonsignificant. These results support the model outcomes. Although this and our previous study suggest that BF does not influence venous gas embolism (Schellart NAM, van Rees Vellinga TP, van Dijk FH, Sterk W. Aviat Space Environ Med 83: 951-957, 2012), more studies with different profiles under various conditions are needed to establish whether BF remains (together with age and Vo2max) a basic physical characteristic or will become less important for the medical examination and for risk assessment. PMID:23305985

  2. Altered Subcellular Localization of Tumor-Specific Cyclin E Isoforms Affects Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 Complex Formation and Proteasomal Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Delk, Nikki A.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Keyomarsi, Khandan

    2009-01-01

    In tumors, alternative translation and posttranslational proteolytic cleavage of full-length cyclin E (EL) produces tumorigenic low molecular weight cyclin E (LMW-E) isoforms that lack a portion of the EL amino-terminus containing a nuclear localization sequence. Therefore, we hypothesized that LMW-E isoforms have altered subcellular localization. To explore our hypothesis, we compared EL versus LMW-E localization in cell lysates and in vivo using fractionation and protein complementation assays. Our results reveal that LMW-E isoforms preferentially accumulate in the cytoplasm where they bind the cyclin E kinase partner, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), and have associated kinase activity. The nuclear ubiquitin ligase Fbw7 targets Cdk2-bound cyclin E for degradation; thus, we examined if altered subcellular localization affected LMW-E degradation. We found that cytoplasmic LMW-E/Cdk2 was less susceptible to Fbw7-mediated degradation. One implication of our findings is that altered LMW-E and LMW-E/Cdk2 subcellular localization may lead to aberrant LMW-E protein interactions, regulation, and activity, ultimately contributing to LMW-E tumorigenicity. PMID:19318554

  3. Piloted jet flames of CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/air: Experiments on localized extinction in the near field at high Reynolds numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.S.; Ozarovsky, H.C.; Lindstedt, R.P.; Karpetis, A.N.

    2009-11-15

    Measurements of temperature and major species concentrations, based on the simultaneous line-imaged Raman/Rayleigh/CO-LIF technique, are reported for piloted jet flames of CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} fuel with varying amounts of partial premixing with air (jet equivalence ratios of {phi}{sub j} = 3.2, 2.5, 2.1 corresponding to stoichiometric mixture fraction values of {xi}{sub st} = 0.35, 0.43, 0.50, respectively) and varying degrees of localized extinction. Each jet flame is operated at a fixed and relatively high exit Reynolds number (60,000 or 67,000), and the probability of localized extinction is increased in several steps by progressively decreasing the flow rate of the pilot flame. Dimensions of the piloted burner, originally developed at Sydney University, are the same as for previous studies. The present measurements complement previous results from piloted CH{sub 4}/air jet flames as targets for combustion model calculations by extending to higher Reynolds number, including more steps in the progression of each flame from a fully burning state to a flame with high probability of local extinction, and adding the degree of partial premixing as an experimental parameter. Local extinction in these flames occurs close to the nozzle near a downstream location of four times the jet exit diameter. Consequently, these data provide the additional modeling challenge of accurately representing the initial development of the reacting jet and the near-field mixing processes. (author)

  4. Genotype-by-Environment Interactions and Adaptation to Local Temperature Affect Immunity and Fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Brian P.; Flores, Heather A.; Lorigan, James G.; Yourth, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    Natural populations of most organisms harbor substantial genetic variation for resistance to infection. The continued existence of such variation is unexpected under simple evolutionary models that either posit direct and continuous natural selection on the immune system or an evolved life history “balance” between immunity and other fitness traits in a constant environment. However, both local adaptation to heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions can maintain genetic variation in a species. In this study, we test Drosophila melanogaster genotypes sampled from tropical Africa, temperate northeastern North America, and semi-tropical southeastern North America for resistance to bacterial infection and fecundity at three different environmental temperatures. Environmental temperature had absolute effects on all traits, but there were also marked genotype-by-environment interactions that may limit the global efficiency of natural selection on both traits. African flies performed more poorly than North American flies in both immunity and fecundity at the lowest temperature, but not at the higher temperatures, suggesting that the African population is maladapted to low temperature. In contrast, there was no evidence for clinal variation driven by thermal adaptation within North America for either trait. Resistance to infection and reproductive success were generally uncorrelated across genotypes, so this study finds no evidence for a fitness tradeoff between immunity and fecundity under the conditions tested. Both local adaptation to geographically heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions may explain the persistence of genetic variation for resistance to infection in natural populations. PMID:18369474

  5. Cell surface localization of importin α1/KPNA2 affects cancer cell proliferation by regulating FGF1 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kohji; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Tsujii, Akira; Moriyama, Tetsuji; Ikuno, Yudai; Shiromizu, Takashi; Serada, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Minoru; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Naka, Tetsuji; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Oka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Importin α1 is involved in nuclear import as a receptor for proteins with a classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS). Here, we report that importin α1 is localized to the cell surface in several cancer cell lines and detected in their cultured medium. We also found that exogenously added importin α1 is associated with the cell membrane via interaction with heparan sulfate. Furthermore, we revealed that the cell surface importin α1 recognizes cNLS-containing substrates. More particularly, importin α1 bound directly to FGF1 and FGF2, secreted cNLS-containing growth factors, and addition of exogenous importin α1 enhanced the activation of ERK1/2, downstream targets of FGF1 signalling, in FGF1-stimulated cancer cells. Additionally, anti-importin α1 antibody treatment suppressed the importin α1−FGF1 complex formation and ERK1/2 activation, resulting in decreased cell growth. This study provides novel evidence that functional importin α1 is located at the cell surface, where it accelerates the proliferation of cancer cells. PMID:26887791

  6. Local adaptations to frost in marginal and central populations of the dominant forest tree Fagus sylvatica L. as affected by temperature and extreme drought in common garden experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kreyling, Juergen; Buhk, Constanze; Backhaus, Sabrina; Hallinger, Martin; Huber, Gerhard; Huber, Lukas; Jentsch, Anke; Konnert, Monika; Thiel, Daniel; Wilmking, Martin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Local adaptations to environmental conditions are of high ecological importance as they determine distribution ranges and likely affect species responses to climate change. Increased environmental stress (warming, extreme drought) due to climate change in combination with decreased genetic mixing due to isolation may lead to stronger local adaptations of geographically marginal than central populations. We experimentally observed local adaptations of three marginal and four central populations of Fagus sylvaticaL., the dominant native forest tree, to frost over winter and in spring (late frost). We determined frost hardiness of buds and roots by the relative electrolyte leakage in two common garden experiments. The experiment at the cold site included a continuous warming treatment; the experiment at the warm site included a preceding summer drought manipulation. In both experiments, we found evidence for local adaptation to frost, with stronger signs of local adaptation in marginal populations. Winter frost killed many of the potted individuals at the cold site, with higher survival in the warming treatment and in those populations originating from colder environments. However, we found no difference in winter frost tolerance of buds among populations, implying that bud survival was not the main cue for mortality. Bud late frost tolerance in April differed between populations at the warm site, mainly because of phenological differences in bud break. Increased spring frost tolerance of plants which had experienced drought stress in the preceding summer could also be explained by shifts in phenology. Stronger local adaptations to climate in geographically marginal than central populations imply the potential for adaptation to climate at range edges. In times of climate change, however, it needs to be tested whether locally adapted populations at range margins can successfully adapt further to changing conditions. PMID:25035801

  7. Sensitivity of in-situ trace gas profiles to air traffic and local urban sources as seen by MOZAIC and DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, M. L.; Crawford, J. H.; Szykman, J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Montzka, D.; Knapp, D. J.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Nedelec, P.; Cammas, J.

    2011-12-01

    Since the mid-90's the MOZAIC (Measurements of OZone, water vapor, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides by in-service AIrbus airCraft) program has been providing vertical profiles of reactive gases into and out of major airports. In 2001, NOy instruments were added to the aircraft providing a means to assess the influence of aircraft traveling along constant flight corridors. Recent interest in using MOZAIC data to validate air quality models such as CMAQ raises questions regarding the suitability of the data for this purpose. Specifically, to what degree are aircraft data influenced by aviation emissions versus local pollution along approach and departure flight paths at lower altitudes. From 2002-2004, there were 14 flights into Dulles International Airport with available NOy measurements. Additional profiles with similar characteristics are available from airports along the eastern seaboard. Appropriate data for comparison with these profiles has become available with the recent completion of phase-I of DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and VERtically resolved observations relevant to Air Quality) during which the NASA's P-3B aircraft performed over 250 profiles, including one landing at the Baltimore Washington International Airport. These profiles offer comparative observations of O3, CO, and reactive nitrogen both near and away from major air traffic patterns in the Baltimore-DC region. Similarities and differences in the MOZAIC and DISCOVER-AQ data sets are assessed to evaluate their sensitivity to emission from air traffic versus local urban sources. Acknowledging the lack of temporal overlap in the two datasets, historical surface measurements will also be used to estimate any temporal trends related to changing emission levels.

  8. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS). Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757) approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p< 0.001). Longitudinal analyses showed a decrease of the mean healthy (−1.12, se 0.12) and unhealthy (−0.48, se 0.16) diet scores. There were significant positive relationships between the distances travelled to grocers and healthy diet scores though effects were very small (0.003, 95%CI 0.001 – 0.006). Significant negative relationships between proximity to takeaways and unhealthy diet scores also resulted in small parameter estimates. Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools

  9. How water molecules affect the catalytic activity of hydrolases - A XANES study of the local structures of peptide deformylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Peixin; Wang, Yu; Chu, Wangsheng; Guo, Xiaoyun; Yang, Feifei; Yu, Meijuan; Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Yuhui; Xie, Yaning; Gong, Weimin; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-12-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is a prokaryotic enzyme that catalyzes the deformylation of nascent peptides generated during protein synthesis and water molecules play a key role in these hydrolases. Using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and ab initio calculations we accurately probe the local atomic environment of the metal ion binding in the active site of PDF at different pH values and with different metal ions. This new approach is an effective way to monitor existing correlations among functions and structural changes. We show for the first time that the enzymatic activity depends on pH values and metal ions via the bond length of the nearest coordinating water (Wat1) to the metal ion. Combining experimental and theoretical data we may claim that PDF exhibits an enhanced enzymatic activity only when the distance of the Wat1 molecule with the metal ion falls in the limited range from 2.15 to 2.55 Å.

  10. Local overexpression of Su(H)-MAPK variants affects Notch target gene expression and adult phenotypes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Jasmin S.; Nagel, Anja C.; Schulz, Adriana; Wahl, Vanessa; Preiss, Anette

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila, Notch and EGFR signalling pathways are closely intertwined. Their relationship is mostly antagonistic, and may in part be based on the phosphorylation of the Notch signal transducer Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] by MAPK. Su(H) is a transcription factor that together with several cofactors regulates the expression of Notch target genes. Here we address the consequences of a local induction of three Su(H) variants on Notch target gene expression. To this end, wild-type Su(H), a phospho-deficient Su(H)MAPK-ko and a phospho-mimetic Su(H)MAPK-ac isoform were overexpressed in the central domain of the wing anlagen. The expression of the Notch target genes cut, wingless, E(spl)m8-HLH and vestigial, was monitored. For the latter two, reporter genes were used (E(spl)m8-lacZ, vgBE-lacZ). In general, Su(H)MAPK-ko induced a stronger response than wild-type Su(H), whereas the response to Su(H)MAPK-ac was very weak. Notch target genes cut, wingless and vgBE-lacZ were ectopically activated, whereas E(spl)m8-lacZ was repressed by overexpression of Su(H) proteins. In addition, in epistasis experiments an activated form of the EGF-receptor (DERact) or the MAPK (rlSEM) and individual Su(H) variants were co-overexpressed locally, to compare the resultant phenotypes in adult flies (thorax, wings and eyes) as well as to assay the response of the Notch target gene cut in cell clones. PMID:26702412

  11. Adaptation to local thermal regimes by crustose coralline algae does not affect rates of recruitment in coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Evenhuis, Christian; Logan, Murray; Motti, Cherie A.

    2015-12-01

    Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are well known for their ability to induce settlement in coral larvae. While their wide distribution spans reefs that differ substantially in temperature regimes, the extent of local adaptation to these regimes and the impact they have on CCA inductive ability are unknown. CCA Porolithon onkodes from Heron (southern) and Lizard (northern) islands on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (separated by 1181 km) were experimentally exposed to acute or prolonged thermal stress events and their thermal tolerance and recruitment capacity determined. A sudden onset bleaching model was developed to determine the health status of CCA based on the rate of change in the CCA live surface area (LSA). The interaction between location and temperature was significant ( F (2,119) = 6.74, p = 0.0017), indicating that thermally driven local adaptation had occurred. The southern population remained healthy after prolonged exposure to 28 °C and exhibited growth compared to the northern population ( p = 0.022), with its optimum temperature determined to be slightly below 28 °C. As expected, at the higher temperatures (30 and 32 °C) the Lizard Island population performed better that those from Heron Island, with an optimum temperature of 30 °C. Lizard Island CCA displayed the lowest bleaching rates at 30 °C, while levels consistently increased with temperature in their southern counterparts. The ability of those CCA deemed thermally tolerant (based on LSA) to induce Acropora millepora larval settlement was then assessed. While spatial differences influenced the health and bleaching levels of P. onkodes during prolonged and acute thermal exposure, thermally tolerant fragments, regardless of location, induced similar rates of coral larval settlement. This confirmed that recent thermal history does not influence the ability of CCA to induce settlement of A. millepora larvae.

  12. Local overexpression of Su(H)-MAPK variants affects Notch target gene expression and adult phenotypes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Auer, Jasmin S; Nagel, Anja C; Schulz, Adriana; Wahl, Vanessa; Preiss, Anette

    2015-12-01

    In Drosophila, Notch and EGFR signalling pathways are closely intertwined. Their relationship is mostly antagonistic, and may in part be based on the phosphorylation of the Notch signal transducer Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] by MAPK. Su(H) is a transcription factor that together with several cofactors regulates the expression of Notch target genes. Here we address the consequences of a local induction of three Su(H) variants on Notch target gene expression. To this end, wild-type Su(H), a phospho-deficient Su(H) (MAPK-) (ko) and a phospho-mimetic Su(H) (MAPK-ac) isoform were overexpressed in the central domain of the wing anlagen. The expression of the Notch target genes cut, wingless, E(spl)m8-HLH and vestigial, was monitored. For the latter two, reporter genes were used (E(spl)m8-lacZ, vg (BE) -lacZ). In general, Su(H) (MAPK-) (ko) induced a stronger response than wild-type Su(H), whereas the response to Su(H) (MAPK-ac) was very weak. Notch target genes cut, wingless and vg (BE) -lacZ were ectopically activated, whereas E(spl)m8-lacZ was repressed by overexpression of Su(H) proteins. In addition, in epistasis experiments an activated form of the EGF-receptor (DER (act) ) or the MAPK (rl (SEM) ) and individual Su(H) variants were co-overexpressed locally, to compare the resultant phenotypes in adult flies (thorax, wings and eyes) as well as to assay the response of the Notch target gene cut in cell clones. PMID:26702412

  13. Development of a local continuous sampling probe for the equivalence air-fuel ratio measurement. Application to spark ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guibert, P.; Dicocco, E.

    This paper is a contribution to the development of an original technique for measuring the in-cylinder equivalence air-fuel ratio. The main objective was to construct an instrument able to furnish instantaneous values of hydrocarbon concentration for many consecutive cycles at a definite location, especially at the spark plug location. The probe is based on a hot-wire-like apparatus, but involves catalytic oxidation on the wire surface in order to be sensitive to the hydrocarbon concentration. In this paper, we present the different steps needed to develop and validate the probe. The first step focuses on the geometric configuration to simplify as much as possible the mass transfer phenomena on the wire. The second step is a parametric study to evaluate the sensitivity, confidence and lifetime of the wire. By physical analysis, we propose a relationship between the electrical signal and the air-fuel equivalence ratio of the sampled gases. The third step is the application of the probe to in-cylinder motored engine measurements, which confirms the ability of the technique to characterise, quantitatively, the homogeneity of the air-fuel mixture, especially during the compression stroke. This work points out that the global sensitivity is estimated at 4V per unit of equivalence air-fuel ratio and the response time is estimated at about 400μs. The equivalence air-fuel ratio range is from pure air to 1.2. Experiments show that it is necessary to calibrate the system before use because of the existence of multiple catalysis states. The probe presents advantages associated with its simplicity, its low cost and its direct engine application without any modifications.

  14. Roosters affected by epididymal lithiasis present local alteration in vitamin D3, testosterone and estradiol levels as well as estrogen receptor 2 (beta) expression.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, André G; Dornas, Rubem A P; Praes, Lílian C; Hess, Rex A; Mahecha, Germán A B; Oliveira, Cleida A

    2011-09-01

    Epididymal lithiasis is a reproductive dysfunction of roosters that is associated with loss of fertility and is characterized by the formation of calcium stones in the lumen of the efferent ductules of the epididymal region. The efferent ductules of birds are responsible for the reabsorption of the fluid coming from the testis as well as luminal calcium. It has been hypothesized that the epididymal stone formation may be related to the impairment of local fluid or calcium homeostasis, which depends on hormones such as estradiol (E(2)). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate possible alterations in the expression of ERα (ESR1) and ERβ (ESR2) in the epididymal region of roosters affected by epididymal lithiasis. The study was performed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting assays. In addition, the concentrations of E(2), vitamin D3, and testosterone, which are also key hormones in maintenance of calcium homeostasis, were determined in the plasma and epididymal region, by ELISA. It was observed that ESR2 expression is increased in all segments of the epididymal region of affected roosters, whereas ESR1 levels are not altered. Moreover, the hormone concentration profiles were changed, as in the epididymal region of roosters with lithiasis the E(2) levels were increased and vitamin D3 as well as testosterone concentrations were significantly decreased. These results suggest that a hormonal imbalance may be involved with the origin and progression of the epididymal lithiasis, possibly by affecting the local fluid or calcium homeostasis. PMID:21670126

  15. Localization of the bacterial agent of juvenile oyster disease (Roseovarius crassostreae) within affected eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    PubMed

    Boardman, Cynthia L; Maloy, Aaron P; Boettcher, Katherine J

    2008-02-01

    The bacterium Roseovarius crassostreae causes seasonal mortalities among commercially produced eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) grown in the Northeastern United States. Phylogenetically, the species belongs to a major lineage of marine bacteria (the Roseobacter clade), within which Roseovarius crassostreae is the only known pathogen to be isolated in laboratory culture. The objective of the current study was to determine the location and nature of R. crassostreae interactions with oysters affected by juvenile oyster disease (JOD). Scanning electron microscopy of diseased individuals revealed abundant colonization of the inner shell surfaces by bacteria which were morphologically similar to R. crassostreae. The same types of cells were also observed on and within layers of host-derived conchiolin on the inner valves. Most bacterial cells were alive as determined by the use of a fluorescent viability stain. Further, most were clearly attached at the cell poles, which is consistent with the ability of R. crassostreae to express polar fimbriae. When material from the pallial fluid, soft tissue and inner valve surfaces was cultured, the highest numbers of R. crassostreae were recovered from the inner valves. These samples also contained the greatest abundance of R. crassostreae as a percentage of total colonies. Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes provided culture-independent evidence of the numerical dominance of R. crassostreae among the bacterial consortia associated with the inner shell surfaces of JOD-affected animals. The ability of R. crassostreae to colonize shell and conchiolin is consistent with the described JOD-pathology and may aid the bacteria in avoiding hemocyte-mediated killing. PMID:17931651

  16. Combining Regional- and Local-Scale Air Quality Models with Exposure Models for Use in Environmental Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based human exposure models predict the distribution of personal exposures to pollutants of outdoor origin using a variety of inputs, including: air pollution concentrations; human activity patterns, such as the amount of time spent outdoors vs. indoors, commuting, wal...

  17. Diversity and Composition of the Leaf Mycobiome of Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Are Affected by Local Habitat Conditions and Leaf Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Unterseher, Martin; Siddique, Abu Bakar; Brachmann, Andreas; Peršoh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Comparative investigations of plant-associated fungal communities (mycobiomes) in distinct habitats and under distinct climate regimes have been rarely conducted in the past. Nowadays, high-throughput sequencing allows routine examination of mycobiome responses to environmental changes and results at an unprecedented level of detail. In the present study, we analysed Illumina-generated fungal ITS1 sequences from European beech (Fagus sylvatica) originating from natural habitats at two different altitudes in the German Alps and from a managed tree nursery in northern Germany. In general, leaf-inhabiting mycobiome diversity and composition correlated significantly with the origin of the trees. Under natural condition the mycobiome was more diverse at lower than at higher elevation, whereas fungal diversity was lowest in the artificial habitat of the tree nursery. We further identified significant correlation of leaf chlorophylls and flavonoids with both habitat parameters and mycobiome biodiversity. The present results clearly point towards a pronounced importance of local stand conditions for the structure of beech leaf mycobiomes and for a close interrelation of phyllosphere fungi and leaf physiology. PMID:27078859

  18. How water molecules affect the catalytic activity of hydrolases--a XANES study of the local structures of peptide deformylase.

    PubMed

    Cui, Peixin; Wang, Yu; Chu, Wangsheng; Guo, Xiaoyun; Yang, Feifei; Yu, Meijuan; Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Yuhui; Xie, Yaning; Gong, Weimin; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is a prokaryotic enzyme that catalyzes the deformylation of nascent peptides generated during protein synthesis and water molecules play a key role in these hydrolases. Using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and ab initio calculations we accurately probe the local atomic environment of the metal ion binding in the active site of PDF at different pH values and with different metal ions. This new approach is an effective way to monitor existing correlations among functions and structural changes. We show for the first time that the enzymatic activity depends on pH values and metal ions via the bond length of the nearest coordinating water (Wat1) to the metal ion. Combining experimental and theoretical data we may claim that PDF exhibits an enhanced enzymatic activity only when the distance of the Wat1 molecule with the metal ion falls in the limited range from 2.15 to 2.55 Å. PMID:25503313

  19. Diversity and Composition of the Leaf Mycobiome of Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Are Affected by Local Habitat Conditions and Leaf Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Unterseher, Martin; Siddique, Abu Bakar; Brachmann, Andreas; Peršoh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Comparative investigations of plant-associated fungal communities (mycobiomes) in distinct habitats and under distinct climate regimes have been rarely conducted in the past. Nowadays, high-throughput sequencing allows routine examination of mycobiome responses to environmental changes and results at an unprecedented level of detail. In the present study, we analysed Illumina-generated fungal ITS1 sequences from European beech (Fagus sylvatica) originating from natural habitats at two different altitudes in the German Alps and from a managed tree nursery in northern Germany. In general, leaf-inhabiting mycobiome diversity and composition correlated significantly with the origin of the trees. Under natural condition the mycobiome was more diverse at lower than at higher elevation, whereas fungal diversity was lowest in the artificial habitat of the tree nursery. We further identified significant correlation of leaf chlorophylls and flavonoids with both habitat parameters and mycobiome biodiversity. The present results clearly point towards a pronounced importance of local stand conditions for the structure of beech leaf mycobiomes and for a close interrelation of phyllosphere fungi and leaf physiology. PMID:27078859

  20. Do local adaptation and the reproductive tactic of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affect offspring metabolic capacities?

    PubMed

    Rossignol, O; Dodson, J J; Marquilly, C; Guderley, H

    2010-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is an iteroparous, anadromous species that exhibits some of the greatest within-population variability in size and age at maturity of all vertebrates. In the conditional reproductive strategy of salmonids, the male reproductive tactic expressed is believed to depend on an individual male's status relative to others in the population and therefore depends on his capacity to attain a physiological threshold, the exact nature of which is unknown. Although the threshold is influenced by local biotic and abiotic conditions, it is likely to be under genetic control. Our study examined whether the early growth, muscle metabolic capacities, routine metabolic rate, and spontaneous swimming of salmon alevins reared in laboratory conditions varied with the population of origin, maternal investment, and the paternal reproductive tactic. Our experimental design allowed us to establish that neither the population of origin nor the paternal reproductive tactic influenced the physiological capacities of alevins. The strong influence of the mother on alevin metabolic capacities suggests that the bioenergetic differences in metabolic capacities, realized metabolic rates, and activity levels that could eventually dictate the reproductive tactic of male offspring may originate in maternal effects. PMID:20350165

  1. Simulation study for lifetime distribution of middle-of-line time-dependent dielectric breakdown affected by global and local spacing variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokogawa, Shinji

    2016-06-01

    The impact of process fluctuations for the lifetime distribution of middle-of-line time-dependent dielectric breakdown was investigated by Monte-Carlo simulation. Global and local variations were simulated using a doubly truncated normal distribution. A goodness of fit to the generated data was determined statistically in terms of the Weibull distribution and clustering model. A change in the standard deviation of the global variation shows a large contribution to lifetime variation. However, it does not affect the average lifetime. A change in the standard deviation of the local variation contributes to both the average lifetime and the distribution variation. The upper limit of the process variation induces the convex upward shape of the lifetime distribution on the Weibull plot. The clustering model well explains the distribution shape.

  2. GRP-3 and KAPP, encoding interactors of WAK1, negatively affect defense responses induced by oligogalacturonides and local response to wounding.

    PubMed

    Gramegna, Giovanna; Modesti, Vanessa; Savatin, Daniel V; Sicilia, Francesca; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) act as danger signals to activate the plant immune response. These molecules are recognized by surface receptors that are referred to as pattern recognition receptors. Oligogalacturonides (OGs), DAMPs released from the plant cell wall homogalacturonan, have also been proposed to act as local signals in the response to wounding. The Arabidopsis Wall-Associated Kinase 1 (WAK1), a receptor of OGs, has been described to form a complex with a cytoplasmic plasma membrane-localized kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP) and a glycine-rich protein (GRP-3) that we find localized mainly in the cell wall and, in a small part, on the plasma membrane. By using Arabidopsis plants overexpressing WAK1, and both grp-3 and kapp null insertional mutant and overexpressing plants, we demonstrate a positive function of WAK1 and a negative function of GRP-3 and KAPP in the OG-triggered expression of defence genes and the production of an oxidative burst. The three proteins also affect the local response to wounding and the basal resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. GRP-3 and KAPP are likely to function in the phasing out of the plant immune response. PMID:26748394

  3. GRP-3 and KAPP, encoding interactors of WAK1, negatively affect defense responses induced by oligogalacturonides and local response to wounding

    PubMed Central

    Gramegna, Giovanna; Modesti, Vanessa; Savatin, Daniel V.; Sicilia, Francesca; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) act as danger signals to activate the plant immune response. These molecules are recognized by surface receptors that are referred to as pattern recognition receptors. Oligogalacturonides (OGs), DAMPs released from the plant cell wall homogalacturonan, have also been proposed to act as local signals in the response to wounding. The Arabidopsis Wall-Associated Kinase 1 (WAK1), a receptor of OGs, has been described to form a complex with a cytoplasmic plasma membrane-localized kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP) and a glycine-rich protein (GRP-3) that we find localized mainly in the cell wall and, in a small part, on the plasma membrane. By using Arabidopsis plants overexpressing WAK1, and both grp-3 and kapp null insertional mutant and overexpressing plants, we demonstrate a positive function of WAK1 and a negative function of GRP-3 and KAPP in the OG-triggered expression of defence genes and the production of an oxidative burst. The three proteins also affect the local response to wounding and the basal resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. GRP-3 and KAPP are likely to function in the phasing out of the plant immune response. PMID:26748394

  4. Conifer Encroachment into Tuolumne Meadows, Yosemite National Park: How Anthropogenic Impacts to Local Hydrology Affect Meadow Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, J. W.; Lundquist, J. L.; Cooper, D. J.; King, J. C.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Tuolumne Meadows, at 2600 m in Yosemite National Park, is one of the most popular sub-alpine destinations in the Sierra Nevada of California and, as such, one of the most impacted by current and historic use. Conifer (lodgepole pine) encroachment into the meadow has been managed for over 70 years to maintain vistas and to protect potentially impacted meadow vegetation. This study seeks to characterize hydrologic, soil, and vegetation assemblages throughout the affected area, document departures from expected relationships, and identify causative disruptive mechanisms. The snowmelt-dominated Tuolumne River, an integral part of the meadow system, drains 200 km{2} of the Sierra Nevada crest above the meadows. Much of the meadow area consists of recently glaciated granitic bedrock overlain by 1-2 meters of alluvial sand and gravel topped with 30-40 cm of organic-rich meadow soil. Almost all areas examined to date reveal plant assemblages and hydrologic regimes that are inconsistent with the formation of these meadow soils. In upland sites, this is characterized by groundwater conditions that are incapable of supporting meadow forming vegetation and soils. In lower areas, where groundwater levels remain close to the surface throughout the summer, the vegetation present lacks plant species with high below ground biomass production, and could not have formed the existing meadow soils. Potential mechanisms for these disruptions include ditching associated with road construction and drainage, changes in river morphology due to loss of willow riparian vegetation, and lingering impacts of intensive grazing more than a century ago. Patterns of conifer invasion as well as tree-ring and fire scar chronologies were also documented and appear to reflect similar responses to the impacts mentioned above. Results of this study are intended to inform future management and possible restoration of the area.

  5. Co-control of local air pollutants and CO2 in the Chinese iron and steel industry.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xianqiang; Zeng, An; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Ji; Xing, Youkai; Liu, Shengqiang

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated multipollutant cocontrol strategy framework in the context of the Chinese iron and steel industry. The unit cost of pollutant reduction (UCPR) was used to examine the cost-effectiveness of each emission reduction measure. The marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and CO2 were drawn based on the UCPR and the abatement potential. Air pollutant equivalence (APeq) captures the nature of the damage value-weights of various air pollutants and acts as uniformization multiple air pollutants index. Single pollutant abatement routes designed in accordance with the corresponding reduction targets revealed that the cocontrol strategy has promising potential. Moreover, with the same reduction cost limitations as the single pollutant abatement routes, the multipollutant cocontrol routes are able to obtain more desirable pollution reduction and health benefits. Co-control strategy generally shows cost-effective advantage over single-pollutant abatement strategy. The results are robust to changing parameters according to sensitivity analysis. Co-control strategy would be an important step to achieve energy/carbon intensity targets and pollution control targets in China. Though cocontrol strategy has got some traction in policy debates, there are barriers to integrate it into policy making in the near future in China. PMID:24083613

  6. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  7. A Synthesis of Local, State, and National Studies in Work Force Education and Training. AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Randall C.; Quinley, John W.

    This study investigated what the workforce education, training, and retraining needs of businesses and organizations in the United States are, and how well community colleges are meeting these needs. Conventional and meta-analytical methods were employed to analyze a sample of 10 local, state, and national studies in workforce development with a…

  8. 75 FR 33587 - Local Redevelopment Authority and Available Surplus Buildings and Land at Air Force Research Labs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Force Research Labs (AFRL) Mesa, Located in Maricopa County, AZ SUMMARY: This notice provides information regarding the surplus property at AFRL Mesa in Maricopa County, Arizona and information about ] the local redevelopment authority that has been established to plan the reuse of the AFRL...

  9. Combustion of hydrogen-air jets in local chemical equilibrium: A guide to the CHARNAL computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalding, D. B.; Launder, B. E.; Morse, A. P.; Maples, G.

    1974-01-01

    A guide to a computer program, written in FORTRAN 4, for predicting the flow properties of turbulent mixing with combustion of a circular jet of hydrogen into a co-flowing stream of air is presented. The program, which is based upon the Imperial College group's PASSA series, solves differential equations for diffusion and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy and also of the R.M.S. fluctuation of hydrogen concentration. The effective turbulent viscosity for use in the shear stress equation is computed. Chemical equilibrium is assumed throughout the flow.

  10. Louisiana Air Quality - Using ASTER, Landsat 5, and MODIS to Assess the Impact of Sugar Cane and Marsh Burning Practices on Local Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Robert; Reahard, Ross; Robin, Chad; Zeringue, Jared

    2010-01-01

    document the impact of these smoke plumes on local populations for the improvement of biomass burning policies in Louisiana.

  11. A High-Spatial-Resolution, Localized MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Product for Use in Air Quality Exposure Assessment During Large Wildfire Smoke Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Raffuse, S. M.; DeWinter, J. L.; Craig, K. J.; Jumbam, L. K.; Fruin, S.; Lurmann, F.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has potential use for determining the intra-urban variability of airborne particulate matter exposure during wildfire events; however, the standard Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD products have limitations for this application. Specifically, the 10x10 km resolution is too coarse for intra-urban population exposure assessments, the assumed aerosol optical properties are not representative of biomass burning aerosol, and the cloud masking algorithm misinterprets heavy smoke as clouds. We developed a localized MODIS AOD product at 1.5 and 2.5 km resolutions and tested the performance in northern California during the 2008 wildfires. The localized product's algorithm uses local biomass burning aerosol optical properties, local surface reflectance data, and a relaxed cloud filter. During the 2008 season, persistent heavy smoke was produced over northern California and the San Joaquin Valley for over two months. As California is both highly populated and covered with a relatively dense network of ground-based aerosol monitoring stations, this event provided an excellent opportunity to develop the AOD product and test its ability to predict aerosol concentrations on the ground to assess population exposure. We will present our methodology and discuss its potential for air quality and public health applications.

  12. Increased air temperature during simulated autumn conditions does not increase photosynthetic carbon gain but affects the dissipation of excess energy in seedlings of the evergreen conifer Jack pine.

    PubMed

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P A; Ensminger, Ingo

    2007-03-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in controlled environments during a simulated summer-autumn transition under natural conditions and conditions with altered air temperature and photoperiod. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of daylength and temperature. Control plants were grown at either warm summer conditions with 16-h photoperiod and 22 degrees C or conditions representing a cool autumn with 8 h/7 degrees C. To assess the impact of photoperiod and temperature on photosynthesis and energy dissipation, plants were also grown under either cold summer (16-h photoperiod/7 degrees C) or warm autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/22 degrees C). Photosynthetic gas exchange was affected by both daylength and temperature. Assimilation and respiration rates under warm autumn conditions were only about one-half of the summer values but were similar to values obtained for cold summer and natural autumn treatments. In contrast, photosynthetic efficiency was largely determined by temperature but not by daylength. Plants of different treatments followed different strategies for dissipating excess energy. Whereas in the warm summer treatment safe dissipation of excess energy was facilitated via zeaxanthin, in all other treatments dissipation of excess energy was facilitated predominantly via increased aggregation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. These differences were accompanied by a lower deepoxidation state and larger amounts of beta-carotene in the warm autumn

  13. Gas-phase alkyl amines in urban air; comparison with a boreal forest site and importance for local atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellén, H.; Kieloaho, A.-J.; Hakola, H.

    2014-09-01

    Low-molecular-weight aliphatic amines were measured in the ambient urban background air at the SMEAR III station (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations III) in Helsinki, Finland, from May until late August 2011. The alkyl amines measured were dimethylamine (DMA), ethylamine (EA), trimethylamine (TMA), propylamine (PA), diethylamine (DEA), butylamine (BA) and triethylamine (TEA). Of these amines, DMA + EA and TMA + PA were the most abundant, with average concentrations of 24 and 8 ppt. The ranges of weekly mean concentrations of DMA + EA and TMA + PA were

    air in Helsinki were lower than at a boreal forest site (SMEAR II), indicating the presence at the latter site of some additional sources. Amine lifetimes are short, varying from 2.3 h to 7.6 h against hydroxyl (OH) radicals. The amine concentrations were scaled against OH reactivity and compared with the OH reactivities of aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenes. The results showed that amines strongly influenced the total OH reactivity, especially at the boreal forest site in May, September and October, showing contributions almost as high as those of monoterpenes.

  14. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF–PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF–PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8. PMID:26963482

  15. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers.

    PubMed

    Herkert, Nicholas J; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2016-07-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF-PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8. PMID:26963482

  16. MODIFICATION OF SPILL FACTORS AFFECTING AIR POLLUTION. VOLUME II. THE CONTROL OF THE VAPOR HAZARD FROM SPILLS OF LIQUID ROCKET FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypergolic rocket fuels, hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide, are volatile hazardous materials of special interest to the Air Force. Through monitoring of ongoing Environmental Protection Agency programs, the Air Force has maintained cognizance of the developing state of the art...

  17. Building long-term and high spatio-temporal resolution precipitation and air temperature reanalyses by mixing local observations and global atmospheric reanalyses: the ANATEM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathevet, T.; Gailhard, J.; Kuentz, A.; Hingray, B.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts to improve the understanding of past climatic or hydrologic variability have received a great deal of attention in various fields of geosciences such as glaciology, dendrochronology, sedimentology and hydrology. Based on different proxies, each research community produces different kinds of climatic or hydrologic reanalyses at different spatio-temporal scales and resolutions. When considering climate or hydrology, many studies have been devoted to characterising variability, trends or breaks using observed time series representing different regions or climates of the world. However, in hydrology, these studies have usually been limited to short temporal scales (mainly a few decades and more rarely a century) because they require observed time series (which suffer from a limited spatio-temporal density). This paper introduces ANATEM, a method that combines local observations and large-scale climatic information (such as the 20CR Reanalysis) to build long-term probabilistic air temperature and precipitation time series with a high spatio-temporal resolution (1 day and a few km2). ANATEM was tested on the reconstruction of air temperature and precipitation time series of 22 watersheds situated in the Durance River basin, in the French Alps. Based on a multi-criteria and multi-scale diagnosis, the results show that ANATEM improves the performance of classical statistical models - especially concerning spatial homogeneity - while providing an original representation of uncertainties which are conditioned by atmospheric circulation patterns. The ANATEM model has been also evaluated for the regional scale against independent long-term time series and was able to capture regional low-frequency variability over more than a century (1883-2010). Citation: Kuentz, A., Mathevet, T., Gailhard, J., and Hingray, B.: Building long-term and high spatio-temporal resolution precipitation and air temperature reanalyses by mixing local observations and global atmospheric

  18. A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and local area pollution of highspeed rail and air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Damien

    Global warming is one of the most discussed global environmental issues in the world today. Global warming is driven by fossil fuel combustion emissions known as Green-house Gases (GHG). One of the major contributors to GHG emissions is the transport sector, emitting approximately 30% of total U.S. CO 2 emissions in 2010. Air travel contributed approximately 3.5% of total U.S. CO2 in 2008. High-speed Rail (HSR) is often touted as cleaner, more sustainable mode of transport than air travel. HSR is one of few modes of transport capable of competing with air travel for short to medium-haul distances. There has been considerable study of GHG emissions of each independently. Research has also been carried out into the economics and competition of these transport modes. However, there has been very limited study of the comparative emissions of each, apart from one study in Europe (Givoni, 2007). The current study was undertaken with the goal of quantifying potential emission savings due to mode substitution from air travel to HSR in the Los Angeles to Las Vegas corridor. This study only considered the emissions which occurred from the combustion of the relevant fuels, either in power plants or the engines of an aircraft. Emissions from fuel production/refining or transport of fuels were not considered. Another issue compared was Local Area Pollution (LAP), which is a measure of the severity of emissions effect on the environment. This was examined because all emissions from HSR occur close to the surface of the earth, and hence effect the local environment, while only a portion of aircraft emissions do. This study was carried out using internationally recognized emission inventory methodologies. For the air travel emission estimate methodologies and data published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) were used. The HSR energy use was estimated from energy use data from currently running HSR

  19. The impact of local surface changes in Borneo on atmospheric composition at wider spatial scales: coastal processes, land-use change and air quality

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, J. A.; Warwick, N. J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Abas, Mohd Radzi; Archibald, A. T.; Ashfold, M. J.; Ashworth, K.; Barkley, Michael P.; Carver, G. D.; Chance, K.; Dorsey, J. R.; Fowler, D.; Gonzi, S.; Gostlow, B.; Hewitt, C. N.; Kurosu, T. P.; Lee, J. D.; Langford, S. B.; Mills, G.; Moller, S.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Manning, A. J.; Misztal, P.; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Nemitz, E.; Newton, H. M.; O'Brien, L. M.; Ong, Simon; Oram, D.; Palmer, P. I.; Peng, Leong Kok; Phang, Siew Moi; Pike, R.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abdul; Robinson, A. D.; Sentian, J.; Samah, Azizan Abu; Skiba, U.; Ung, Huan Eng; Yong, Sei Eng; Young, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from the OP3 campaign in Sabah during 2008 that allow us to study the impact of local emission changes over Borneo on atmospheric composition at the regional and wider scale. OP3 constituent data provide an important constraint on model performance. Treatment of boundary layer processes is highlighted as an important area of model uncertainty. Model studies of land-use change confirm earlier work, indicating that further changes to intensive oil palm agriculture in South East Asia, and the tropics in general, could have important impacts on air quality, with the biggest factor being the concomitant changes in NOx emissions. With the model scenarios used here, local increases in ozone of around 50 per cent could occur. We also report measurements of short-lived brominated compounds around Sabah suggesting that oceanic (and, especially, coastal) emission sources dominate locally. The concentration of bromine in short-lived halocarbons measured at the surface during OP3 amounted to about 7 ppt, setting an upper limit on the amount of these species that can reach the lower stratosphere. PMID:22006963

  20. The impact of local surface changes in Borneo on atmospheric composition at wider spatial scales: coastal processes, land-use change and air quality.

    PubMed

    Pyle, J A; Warwick, N J; Harris, N R P; Abas, Mohd Radzi; Archibald, A T; Ashfold, M J; Ashworth, K; Barkley, Michael P; Carver, G D; Chance, K; Dorsey, J R; Fowler, D; Gonzi, S; Gostlow, B; Hewitt, C N; Kurosu, T P; Lee, J D; Langford, S B; Mills, G; Moller, S; MacKenzie, A R; Manning, A J; Misztal, P; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Nemitz, E; Newton, H M; O'Brien, L M; Ong, Simon; Oram, D; Palmer, P I; Peng, Leong Kok; Phang, Siew Moi; Pike, R; Pugh, T A M; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abdul; Robinson, A D; Sentian, J; Samah, Azizan Abu; Skiba, U; Ung, Huan Eng; Yong, Sei Eng; Young, P J

    2011-11-27

    We present results from the OP3 campaign in Sabah during 2008 that allow us to study the impact of local emission changes over Borneo on atmospheric composition at the regional and wider scale. OP3 constituent data provide an important constraint on model performance. Treatment of boundary layer processes is highlighted as an important area of model uncertainty. Model studies of land-use change confirm earlier work, indicating that further changes to intensive oil palm agriculture in South East Asia, and the tropics in general, could have important impacts on air quality, with the biggest factor being the concomitant changes in NO(x) emissions. With the model scenarios used here, local increases in ozone of around 50 per cent could occur. We also report measurements of short-lived brominated compounds around Sabah suggesting that oceanic (and, especially, coastal) emission sources dominate locally. The concentration of bromine in short-lived halocarbons measured at the surface during OP3 amounted to about 7 ppt, setting an upper limit on the amount of these species that can reach the lower stratosphere. PMID:22006963

  1. Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase localizes to the Golgi complex and its expression levels affect the sensitivity to anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Hozumi, Yasukazu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Matsui, Hirooki; Nasu, Takashi; Koike, Shuji; Kakehata, Seiji; Ito, Tsukasa; Goto, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) is engaged in de novo pyrimidine synthesis. It catalyzes oronitine to uridine monophosphate (UMP), which is used for RNA synthesis. De novo pyrimidine synthesis has long been known to play an important role in providing DNA/RNA precursors for rapid proliferative activity of cancer cells. Furthermore, chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is taken up into cancer cells and is converted to 5-fluoro-UMP (FUMP) by OPRT or to 5-fluoro-dUMP (FdUMP) through intermediary molecules by thymidine phosphorylase. These 5-FU metabolites are misincorporated into DNA/RNA, thereby producing dysfunction of these information processing. However, it remains unclear how the subcellular localization of OPRT and how its variable expression levels affect the response to 5-FU at the cellular level. In this study, immunocytochemical analysis reveals that OPRT localizes to the Golgi complex. Results also show that not only overexpression but also downregulation of OPRT render cells susceptible to 5-FU exposure, but it has no effect on DNA damaging agent doxorubicin. This study provides clues to elucidate the cellular response to 5-FU chemotherapy in relation to the OPRT expression level. PMID:26700594

  2. Mutation of light-dependent phosphorylation sites of the Drosophila transient receptor potential-like (TRPL) ion channel affects its subcellular localization and stability.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Alexander C; Oberacker, Tina; Pfannstiel, Jens; Weigold, Sebastian; Will, Carina; Huber, Armin

    2013-05-31

    The Drosophila phototransduction cascade terminates in the opening of the ion channel transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL). Contrary to TRP, TRPL undergoes light-dependent subcellular trafficking between rhabdomeric photoreceptor membranes and an intracellular storage compartment, resulting in long term light adaptation. Here, we identified in vivo phosphorylation sites of TRPL that affect TRPL stability and localization. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed a light-dependent change in the TRPL phosphorylation pattern. Mutation of eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites neither affected multimerization of the channels nor the electrophysiological response of flies expressing the mutated channels. However, these mutations resulted in mislocalization and enhanced degradation of TRPL after prolonged dark-adaptation. Mutation of subsets of the eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites also led to a reduction of TRPL content and partial mislocalization in the dark. This suggests that a light-dependent switch in the phosphorylation pattern of the TRPL channel mediates stable expression of TRPL in the rhabdomeres upon prolonged dark-adaptation. PMID:23592784

  3. Mutation of Light-dependent Phosphorylation Sites of the Drosophila Transient Receptor Potential-like (TRPL) Ion Channel Affects Its Subcellular Localization and Stability*

    PubMed Central

    Cerny, Alexander C.; Oberacker, Tina; Pfannstiel, Jens; Weigold, Sebastian; Will, Carina; Huber, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila phototransduction cascade terminates in the opening of the ion channel transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL). Contrary to TRP, TRPL undergoes light-dependent subcellular trafficking between rhabdomeric photoreceptor membranes and an intracellular storage compartment, resulting in long term light adaptation. Here, we identified in vivo phosphorylation sites of TRPL that affect TRPL stability and localization. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed a light-dependent change in the TRPL phosphorylation pattern. Mutation of eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites neither affected multimerization of the channels nor the electrophysiological response of flies expressing the mutated channels. However, these mutations resulted in mislocalization and enhanced degradation of TRPL after prolonged dark-adaptation. Mutation of subsets of the eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites also led to a reduction of TRPL content and partial mislocalization in the dark. This suggests that a light-dependent switch in the phosphorylation pattern of the TRPL channel mediates stable expression of TRPL in the rhabdomeres upon prolonged dark-adaptation. PMID:23592784

  4. Air quality and social deprivation in four French metropolitan areas – A localized spatiotemporal environmental inequality analysis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Cindy M; Kihal-Talantikite, Wahida; Vieira, Verónica. M; Rosselo, Philippe; LeNir, Geraldine; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Severine

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented that more deprived populations tend to live in areas characterized by higher levels of environmental pollution. Yet, time trends and geographic patterns of this disproportionate distribution of environmental burden remain poorly assessed, especially in Europe. We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship between ambient air nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and socioeconomic and demographic data in four French Metropolitan Areas (Lille in the north, Lyon in the center, Marseille in the south, and Paris) during two different time periods. The geographical unit used was the census block. The dependent variable was the NO2 annual average concentration (µg/m3) per census block, and the explanatory variables were a neighborhood deprivation index and socioeconomic and demographic data derived from the national census. Generalized additive models were used to account for spatial autocorrelation. We found that the strength and direction of the association between deprivation and NO2 estimates varied between cities. In Paris, census blocks with the higher social categories are exposed to higher mean concentrations of NO2. However, in Lille and Marseille, the most deprived census blocks are the most exposed to NO2. In Lyon, the census blocks in the middle social categories were more likely to have higher concentrations than in the lower social categories. Despite a general reduction in NO2 concentrations over the study period in the four metropolitan areas, we found contrasting results in the temporal trend of environmental inequalities. There is clear evidence of city-specific spatial and temporal environmental inequalities that relate to the historical socioeconomic make-up of the cities and its evolution. Hence, general statements about environmental and social inequalities may not properly characterize situations where people of higher social status find the benefits of living in a specific city outweigh the detriment of

  5. Work of Breathing into Snow in the Presence versus Absence of an Artificial Air Pocket Affects Hypoxia and Hypercapnia of a Victim Covered with Avalanche Snow: A Randomized Double Blind Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Roubík, Karel; Sieger, Ladislav; Sykora, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Presence of an air pocket and its size play an important role in survival of victims buried in the avalanche snow. Even small air pockets facilitate breathing. We hypothesize that the size of the air pocket significantly affects the airflow resistance and work of breathing. The aims of the study are (1) to investigate the effect of the presence of an air pocket on gas exchange and work of breathing in subjects breathing into the simulated avalanche snow and (2) to test whether it is possible to breathe with no air pocket. The prospective interventional double-blinded study involved 12 male volunteers, from which 10 completed the whole protocol. Each volunteer underwent two phases of the experiment in a random order: phase "AP"--breathing into the snow with a one-liter air pocket, and phase "NP"--breathing into the snow with no air pocket. Physiological parameters, fractions of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the airways and work of breathing expressed as pressure-time product were recorded continuously. The main finding of the study is that it is possible to breath in the avalanche snow even with no air pocket (0 L volume), but breathing under this condition is associated with significantly increased work of breathing. The significant differences were initially observed for end-tidal values of the respiratory gases (EtO2 and EtCO2) and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) between AP and NP phases, whereas significant differences in inspiratory fractions occurred much later (for FIO2) or never (for FICO2). The limiting factor in no air pocket conditions is excessive increase in work of breathing that induces increase in metabolism accompanied by higher oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. The presence of even a small air pocket reduces significantly the work of breathing. PMID:26666523

  6. Work of Breathing into Snow in the Presence versus Absence of an Artificial Air Pocket Affects Hypoxia and Hypercapnia of a Victim Covered with Avalanche Snow: A Randomized Double Blind Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Presence of an air pocket and its size play an important role in survival of victims buried in the avalanche snow. Even small air pockets facilitate breathing. We hypothesize that the size of the air pocket significantly affects the airflow resistance and work of breathing. The aims of the study are (1) to investigate the effect of the presence of an air pocket on gas exchange and work of breathing in subjects breathing into the simulated avalanche snow and (2) to test whether it is possible to breathe with no air pocket. The prospective interventional double-blinded study involved 12 male volunteers, from which 10 completed the whole protocol. Each volunteer underwent two phases of the experiment in a random order: phase “AP”—breathing into the snow with a one-liter air pocket, and phase “NP”—breathing into the snow with no air pocket. Physiological parameters, fractions of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the airways and work of breathing expressed as pressure-time product were recorded continuously. The main finding of the study is that it is possible to breath in the avalanche snow even with no air pocket (0 L volume), but breathing under this condition is associated with significantly increased work of breathing. The significant differences were initially observed for end-tidal values of the respiratory gases (EtO2 and EtCO2) and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) between AP and NP phases, whereas significant differences in inspiratory fractions occurred much later (for FIO2) or never (for FICO2). The limiting factor in no air pocket conditions is excessive increase in work of breathing that induces increase in metabolism accompanied by higher oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. The presence of even a small air pocket reduces significantly the work of breathing. PMID:26666523

  7. Regional air quality: local and interstate impacts of NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions on ozone and fine particulate matter in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Michelle S. Bergin; Jhih-Shyang Shih; Alan J. Krupnick; James W. Boylan; James G. Wilkinson; M. Talat Odman; Armistead G. Russell

    2007-07-01

    While the U.S. air quality management system is largely designed and managed on a state level, many critical air quality problems are now recognized as regional. In particular, concentrations of two secondary pollutants, ozone and particulate matter, are often above regulated levels and can be dependent on emissions from upwind states. Here, impacts of statewide emissions on concentrations of local and downwind states' ozone and fine particulate matter are simulated for three seasonal periods in the eastern United States using a regional Eulerian photochemical model. Impacts of ground level NOx (e.g., mobile and area sources), elevated NOx (e.g., power plants and large industrial sources), and SO{sub 2} emissions are examined. An average of 77% of each state's ozone and PM2.5 concentrations that are sensitive to the emissions evaluated here are found to be caused by emissions from other states. Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia are shown to have high concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 caused by interstate emissions. When weighted by population, New York receives increased interstate contributions to these pollutants and contributions to ozone from local emissions are generally higher. When accounting for emission rates, combined states from the western side of the modeling domain and individual states such as Illinois, Tennessee, Indiana, Kentucky, and Georgia are major contributors to interstate ozone. Ohio, Indiana, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Illinois are the major contributors to interstate PM2.5. When accounting for an equivalent mass of emissions, Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia, and Alabama contribute large fractions of these pollutants to other states. 46 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Building long-term and high spatio-temporal resolution precipitation and air temperature reanalyses by mixing local observations and global atmospheric reanalyses: the ANATEM method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuentz, A.; Mathevet, T.; Gailhard, J.; Hingray, B.

    2015-01-01

    Improving the understanding of past climatic or hydrologic variability has received a large attention in different fields of geosciences, such as glaciology, dendrochronology, sedimentology or hydrology. Based on different proxies, each research community produces different kind of climatic or hydrologic reanalyses, at different spatio-temporal scales and resolution. When considering climate or hydrology, numerous studies aim at characterising variability, trends or breaks using observed time-series of different regions or climate of world. However, in hydrology, these studies are usually limited to reduced temporal scale (mainly few decades, seldomly a century) because they are limited to observed time-series, that suffers from a limited spatio-temporal density. This paper introduces a new model, ANATEM, based on a combination of local observations and large scale climatic informations (such as 20CR Reanalysis). This model allow to build long-term air temperature and precipitation time-series, with a high spatio-temporal resolution (daily time-step, few km2). ANATEM was tested on the air temperature and precipitation time-series of 22 watersheds situated on the Durance watershed, in the french Alps. Based on a multi-criteria and multi-scale diagnostic, the results show that ANATEM improves the performances of classical statistical models. ANATEM model have been validated on a regional level, improving spatial homogeneity of performances and on independent long-term time-series, being able to capture the regional low-frequency variabilities over more than a century (1883-2010).

  9. Influence of local air pollution on the deposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate to a nutrient-poor natural grassland ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravek, A.; Stella, P.; Foken, T.; Trebs, I.

    2015-01-01

    Dry deposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is known to have a phytotoxic impact on plants under photochemical smog conditions, but it may also lead to higher productivity and threaten species richness of vulnerable ecosystems in remote regions. However, underlying mechanisms or controlling factors for PAN deposition are not well understood and studies on dry deposition of PAN are limited. In this study, we investigate the impact of PAN deposition on a nutrient-poor natural grassland ecosystem situated at the edge of an urban and industrialized region in Germany. PAN mixing ratios were measured within a 3.5 months summer to early autumn period. In addition, PAN fluxes were determined with the modified Bowen ratio technique for a selected period. The evaluation of both stomatal and non-stomatal deposition pathways was used to model PAN deposition over the entire summer-autumn period. We found that air masses at the site were influenced by two contrasting pollution regimes, which led to median diurnal PAN mixing ratios ranging between 50 and 300 ppt during unpolluted and between 200 and 600 ppt during polluted episodes. The measured PAN fluxes showed a clear diurnal cycle with maximal deposition fluxes of ~-0.1 nmol m-2 s-1 (corresponding to a deposition velocity of 0.3 cm s-1) during daytime and a significant non-stomatal contribution was found. The ratio of PAN to ozone deposition velocities was found to be ~0.1, which is much larger than assumed by current deposition models. The modelled PAN flux over the entire period revealed that PAN deposition over an entire day was 333 μg m-2 d-1 under unpolluted and 518 μg m-2 d-1 under polluted episodes. Additionally, thermochemical decomposition PAN deposition accounted for 32% under unpolluted episodes and 22% under polluted episodes of the total atmospheric PAN loss. However, the impact of PAN deposition as a nitrogen source to the nutrient-poor grassland was estimated to be only minor, under both unpolluted and

  10. Similarity analysis of the momentum field of a subsonic, plane air jet with varying jet-exit and local Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, Ravinesh C.; Nathan, Graham J.; Mi, Jianchun

    2013-01-01

    A similarity analysis is presented of the momentum field of a subsonic, plane air jet over the range of the jet-exit Reynolds number Reh (≡ Ubh/υ where Ub is the area-averaged exit velocity, h the slot height, and υ the kinematic viscosity) = 1500 - 16 500. In accordance with similarity principles, the mass flow rates, shear-layer momentum thicknesses, and integral length scales corresponding to the size of large-scale coherent eddy structures are found to increase linearly with the downstream distance from the nozzle exit (x) for all Reh. The autocorrelation measurements performed in the near jet confirmed reduced scale of the larger coherent eddies for increased Reh. The mean local Reynolds number, measured on the centerline and turbulent local Reynolds number measured in the shear-layer increases non-linearly following x1/2, and so does the Taylor microscale local Reynolds number that scales as x1/4. Consequently, the comparatively larger local Reynolds number for jets produced at higher Reh causes self-preservation of the fluctuating velocity closer to the nozzle exit plane. The near-field region characterized by over-shoots in turbulent kinetic energy spectra confirms the presence of large-scale eddy structures in the energy production zone. However, the faster rate of increase of the local Reynolds number with increasing x for jets measured at larger Reh is found to be associated with a wider inertial sub-range of the compensated energy spectra, where the -5/3 power law is noted. The downstream region corresponding to the production zone persists for longer x/h for jets measured at lower Reh. As Reh is increased, the larger width of the sub-range confirms the narrower dissipative range within the energy spectra. The variations of the dissipation rate (ɛ) of turbulent kinetic energy and the Kolmogorov (η) and Taylor (λ) microscales all obey similarity relationships, \\varepsilon h/U_b^3 ˜ Re_h^3, η/h ˜ Reh-3/4, and λ/h ˜ Reh-1/2. Finally, the

  11. Lipid phosphate phosphatase inhibitors locally amplify lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor signalling in rat brain cryosections without affecting global LPA degradation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a signalling phospholipid with multiple biological functions, mainly mediated through specific G protein-coupled receptors. Aberrant LPA signalling is being increasingly implicated in the pathology of common human diseases, such as arteriosclerosis and cancer. The lifetime of the signalling pool of LPA is controlled by the equilibrium between synthesizing and degradative enzymatic activity. In the current study, we have characterized these enzymatic pathways in rat brain by pharmacologically manipulating the enzymatic machinery required for LPA degradation. Results In rat brain cryosections, the lifetime of bioactive LPA was found to be controlled by Mg2+-independent, N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive phosphatase activity, attributed to lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). Pharmacological inhibition of this LPP activity amplified LPA1 receptor signalling, as revealed using functional autoradiography. Although two LPP inhibitors, sodium orthovanadate and propranolol, locally amplified receptor responses, they did not affect global brain LPA phosphatase activity (also attributed to Mg2+-independent, N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive phosphatases), as confirmed by Pi determination and by LC/MS/MS. Interestingly, the phosphate analog, aluminium fluoride (AlFx-) not only irreversibly inhibited LPP activity thereby potentiating LPA1 receptor responses, but also totally prevented LPA degradation, however this latter effect was not essential in order to observe AlFx--dependent potentiation of receptor signalling. Conclusions We conclude that vanadate- and propranolol-sensitive LPP activity locally guards the signalling pool of LPA whereas the majority of brain LPA phosphatase activity is attributed to LPP-like enzymatic activity which, like LPP activity, is sensitive to AlFx- but resistant to the LPP inhibitors, vanadate and propranolol. PMID:22686545

  12. Creating Locally-Resolved Mobile-Source Emissions Inputs for Air Quality Modeling in Support of an Exposure Study in Detroit, Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Michelle; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Isakov, Vlad; Talgo, Kevin; Naess, Brian; Valencia, Alejandro; Omary, Mohammad; Davis, Neil; Cook, Rich; Hanna, Adel

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a methodology for modeling the impact of traffic-generated air pollutants in an urban area. This methodology presented here utilizes road network geometry, traffic volume, temporal allocation factors, fleet mixes, and emission factors to provide critical modeling inputs. These inputs, assembled from a variety of sources, are combined with meteorological inputs to generate link-based emissions for use in dispersion modeling to estimate pollutant concentration levels due to traffic. A case study implementing this methodology for a large health study is presented, including a sensitivity analysis of the modeling results reinforcing the importance of model inputs and identify those having greater relative impact, such as fleet mix. In addition, an example use of local measurements of fleet activity to supplement model inputs is described, and its impacts to the model outputs are discussed. We conclude that with detailed model inputs supported by local traffic measurements and meteorology, it is possible to capture the spatial and temporal patterns needed to accurately estimate exposure from traffic-related pollutants. PMID:25501000

  13. Creating locally-resolved mobile-source emissions inputs for air quality modeling in support of an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Michelle; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Isakov, Vlad; Talgo, Kevin; Naess, Brian; Valencia, Alejandro; Omary, Mohammad; Davis, Neil; Cook, Rich; Hanna, Adel

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a methodology for modeling the impact of traffic-generated air pollutants in an urban area. This methodology presented here utilizes road network geometry, traffic volume, temporal allocation factors, fleet mixes, and emission factors to provide critical modeling inputs. These inputs, assembled from a variety of sources,are combined with meteorological inputs to generate link-based emissions for use in dispersion modeling to estimate pollutant concentration levels due to traffic. A case study implementing this methodology for a large health study is presented, including a sensitivity analysis of the modeling results reinforcing the importance of model inputs and identify those having greater relative impact, such as fleet mix. In addition, an example use of local measurements of fleet activity to supplement model inputs is described, and its impacts to the model outputs are discussed. We conclude that with detailed model inputs supported by local traffic measurements and meteorology, it is possible to capture the spatial and temporal patterns needed to accurately estimate exposure from traffic-related pollutants. PMID:25587603

  14. Creating locally-resolved mobile-source emissions inputs for air quality modeling in support of an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Michelle; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Isakov, Vlad; Talgo, Kevin; Naess, Brian; Valencia, Alejandro; Omary, Mohammad; Davis, Neil; Cook, Rich; Hanna, Adel

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a methodology for modeling the impact of traffic-generated air pollutants in an urban area. This methodology presented here utilizes road network geometry, traffic volume, temporal allocation factors, fleet mixes, and emission factors to provide critical modeling inputs. These inputs, assembled from a variety of sources, are combined with meteorological inputs to generate link-based emissions for use in dispersion modeling to estimate pollutant concentration levels due to traffic. A case study implementing this methodology for a large health study is presented, including a sensitivity analysis of the modeling results reinforcing the importance of model inputs and identify those having greater relative impact, such as fleet mix. In addition, an example use of local measurements of fleet activity to supplement model inputs is described, and its impacts to the model outputs are discussed. We conclude that with detailed model inputs supported by local traffic measurements and meteorology, it is possible to capture the spatial and temporal patterns needed to accurately estimate exposure from traffic-related pollutants. PMID:25501000

  15. The Contribution of Trans-Pacific Submicron Aerosols and Local Particle Nucleation Bursts to California's Air Quality as Seen from the Pacific Coast Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, E. C. C.; Christensen, J. N.; Post, A.; Faloona, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    The long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols to the Western US has received considerable attention due to the growing disparity between North American and Asian air quality. Using MODIS and space-borne LIDAR measurements some have argued that the transcontinental transport of dust from Asia, Africa, and Europe outweighs that of locally produced combustion aerosols (Yu et al. 2012). This study seeks to compare the aerosol composition, number, and size distribution of locally derived submicron aerosols (including particle nucleation events) vs. long-range transported aerosols observed at a remote mountain site near the Pacific Coast. Toward this aim, rotating drum impactor (RDI) and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements of size-segregated elemental compositions and size spectra were collected from February to November of 2012 at Chews Ridge (elevation 1450 m) in Monterey County, California. This mountaintop site experiences two main wind modes. The main mode is ohshore-directed winds from the southwest, which are most likely to bring trans-Pacific aerosols to the site; and offshore-directed, northeasterly winds that bring continental aerosols to the site from the interior of California. Elemental ratios (normalized to Al), matrix factorization, and a k-cluster analysis of these data suggest distinct crustal, combustion, and marine sources with considerable seasonal as well as short-term variability. HYSPLIT model back trajectories support the hypothesized sources of these submicron aerosols. Locally, SMPS data reveal consistent nucleation bursts and subsequent growth in the 20-60 nm range during the afternoons. A distinct but weaker diel cycle was observed in the 70 - 100 nm range, corresponding to the smallest RDI impactor stage. Finally, the Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) of aerosol samples from selected dates will be measured by MC-ICPMS to further identify aerosol origins (e.g. Ewing et al. 2010).

  16. Building long-term and high spatio-temporal resolution precipitation and air temperature reanalyses by mixing local observations and global atmospheric reanalyses: the ANATEM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuentz, A.; Mathevet, T.; Gailhard, J.; Hingray, B.

    2015-06-01

    Efforts to improve the understanding of past climatic or hydrologic variability have received a great deal of attention in various fields of geosciences such as glaciology, dendrochronology, sedimentology and hydrology. Based on different proxies, each research community produces different kinds of climatic or hydrologic reanalyses at different spatio-temporal scales and resolutions. When considering climate or hydrology, many studies have been devoted to characterising variability, trends or breaks using observed time series representing different regions or climates of the world. However, in hydrology, these studies have usually been limited to short temporal scales (mainly a few decades and more rarely a century) because they require observed time series (which suffer from a limited spatio-temporal density). This paper introduces ANATEM, a method that combines local observations and large-scale climatic information (such as the 20CR Reanalysis) to build long-term probabilistic air temperature and precipitation time series with a high spatio-temporal resolution (1 day and a few km2). ANATEM was tested on the reconstruction of air temperature and precipitation time series of 22 watersheds situated in the Durance River basin, in the French Alps. Based on a multi-criteria and multi-scale diagnosis, the results show that ANATEM improves the performance of classical statistical models - especially concerning spatial homogeneity - while providing an original representation of uncertainties which are conditioned by atmospheric circulation patterns. The ANATEM model has been also evaluated for the regional scale against independent long-term time series and was able to capture regional low-frequency variability over more than a century (1883-2010).

  17. Bad Air Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... children living near busy roadways—surrounded by particulate air pollution—are more likely to develop asthma and other ... found that genes may affect your response to air pollution. At least one gene seems to protect against ...

  18. A Naturally Occurring Single-Residue Mutation in the Translocator Domain of Neisseria meningitidis NhhA Affects Trimerization, Surface Localization, and Adhesive Capabilities▿†

    PubMed Central

    Echenique-Rivera, Hebert; Brunelli, Brunella; Scarselli, Maria; Taddei, Anna Rita; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Aricò, Beatrice; Serruto, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis NhhA (Neisseria hia/hsf homologue A) is an oligomeric outer membrane protein belonging to the family of trimeric autotransporter adhesins. NhhA mediates the interaction of N. meningitidis with human epithelial cells and components of the extracellular matrix. The recombinant protein is able to induce bactericidal antibodies and hence has also been considered a potential vaccine candidate. In this study, we analyzed the production of NhhA in a large panel of N. meningitidis strains belonging to different serogroups and clonal complexes. We found that trimeric NhhA was produced at different levels by the various strains tested. In some strains belonging to the clonal complex ST41/44, the protein is detectable only as a monomer. Sequencing of the nhhA gene and generation of complementing strains in different genetic backgrounds have proved that a single mutation (Gly to Asp) in the translocator domain affected both trimerization and surface localization of NhhA. In vitro infection assays showed that this mutation impairs meningococcal NhhA-mediated adhesion, suggesting that strains carrying the mutation may rely on different strategies or molecules to mediate interaction with host cells. Finally, we demonstrated that N. meningitidis ST41/44 strains producing the mutated form did not induce killing mediated by NhhA-specific bactericidal antibodies. Our data help to elucidate the secretion mechanisms of trimeric autotransporters and to understand the contribution of NhhA in the evolutionary process of host-Neisseria interactions. Also, they might have important implications for the evaluation of NhhA as a vaccine candidate. PMID:21844231

  19. How the presence of a gas giant affects the formation of mean-motion resonances between two low-mass planets in a locally isothermal gaseous disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlewska-Gaca, E.; Szuszkiewicz, E.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of a migration-induced resonance locking in systems containing three planets, namely an Earth analogue (1 M⊕), a super-Earth (4 M⊕) and a gas giant (one Jupiter mass). The planets have been listed in order of increasing orbital periods. All three bodies are embedded in a locally isothermal gaseous disc and orbit around a solar mass star. We are interested in answering the following questions: will the low-mass planets form the same resonant structures with each other in the vicinity of the gas giant as in the case when the gas giant is absent? More in general, how will the presence of the gas giant affect the evolution of the two low-mass planets? When there is no gas giant in the system, it has been already shown that if the two low-mass planets undergo a convergent differential migration, they will capture each other in a mean-motion resonance. For the choices of disc parameters and planet masses made in this paper, the formation of the 5:4 resonance in the absence of the Jupiter has been observed in a previous investigation and confirmed here. In this work we add a gas giant on the most external orbit of the system in such a way that its differential migration is convergent with the low-mass planets. We show that the result of this set-up is the speeding up of the migration of the super-Earth and, after that, all three planets become locked in a triple mean-motion resonance. However, this resonance is not maintained due to the low-mass planet eccentricity excitation, a fact that leads to close encounters between planets and eventually to the ejection from the internal orbits of one or both low-mass planets. We have observed that the ejected low-mass planets can leave the system, fall into a star or become the external planet relative to the gas giant. In our simulations the latter situation has been observed for the super-Earth. It follows from the results presented here that the presence of a Jupiter-like planet

  20. Data Assimilation of AIRS Water Vapor Profiles: Impact on Precipitation Forecasts for Atmospheric River Cases Affecting the Western of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary; Wick, Gary; Neiman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric rivers are transient, narrow regions in the atmosphere responsible for the transport of large amounts of water vapor. These phenomena can have a large impact on precipitation. In particular, they can be responsible for intense rain events on the western coast of North America during the winter season. This paper focuses on attempts to improve forecasts of heavy precipitation events in the Western US due to atmospheric rivers. Profiles of water vapor derived from from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations are combined with GFS forecasts by a three-dimensional variational data assimilation in the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI). Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) forecasts initialized from the combined field are compared to forecasts initialized from the GFS forecast only for 3 test cases in the winter of 2011. Results will be presented showing the impact of the AIRS profile data on water vapor and temperature fields, and on the resultant precipitation forecasts.

  1. Air quality and radiative impacts of Arctic shipping emissions in the summertime in northern Norway: from the local to the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marelle, L.; Thomas, J. L.; Raut, J.-C.; Law, K. S.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Weinzierl, B.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we quantify the impacts of shipping pollution on air quality and shortwave radiative effect in northern Norway, using WRF-Chem simulations combined with high resolution, real-time STEAM2 shipping emissions. STEAM2 emissions are evaluated using airborne measurements from the ACCESS campaign, which was conducted in summer 2012, in two ways. First, emissions of NOx and SO2 are derived for specific ships from in-situ measurements in ship plumes and FLEXPART-WRF plume dispersion modeling, and these values are compared to STEAM2 emissions for the same ships. Second, regional WRF-Chem runs with and without ship emissions are performed at two different resolutions, 3 km × 3 km and 15 km × 15km, and evaluated against measurements along flight tracks and average campaign profiles in the marine boundary layer and lower troposphere. These comparisons show that differences between STEAM2 emissions and calculated emissions can be quite large (-57 to +148 %) for individual ships, but that WRF-Chem simulations using STEAM2 emissions reproduce well the average NOx, SO2 and O3 measured during ACCESS flights. The same WRF-Chem simulations show that the magnitude of NOx and O3 production from ship emissions at the surface is not very sensitive (< 5 %) to the horizontal grid resolution (15 or 3 km), while surface PM10 enhancements due to ships are moderately sensitive (15 %) to resolution. The 15 km resolution WRF-Chem simulations are used to estimate the local and regional impacts of shipping pollution in northern Norway. Our results indicate that ship emissions are an important local source of pollution, enhancing 15 day averaged surface concentrations of NOx (∼ +80 %), O3 (∼ +5 %), black carbon (∼ +40 %) and PM2.5 (∼ +10 %) along the Norwegian coast. Over the same period ship emissions in northern Norway have a shortwave (direct + semi-direct + indirect) radiative effect of -9.3 m W m-2 at the global scale.

  2. Aerosol particle and trace gas emissions from earthworks, road construction, and asphalt paving in Germany: Emission factors and influence on local air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Peter; Drewnick, Frank; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol emissions from construction sites have a strong impact on local air quality. The chemical and physical characteristics of particles and trace gases emitted by earthworks (excavation and loading of soil as well as traffic on unpaved roads) and road works (asphalt sawing, smashing, soil compacting, asphalt paving) have therefore been addressed in this study by using a mobile set-up of numerous modern online aerosol and trace gas instruments including a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer. Fuel-based emission factors for several variables have been determined, showing that earthwork activities and compacting by use of a plate compactor revealed the highest median emission factors for PM10 (up to 54 g l-1). Construction activities were assigned to contribute about 17% (36 000 t a-1) to total PM10 emissions and 3% (13 500 t a-1) to total traffic-related NOx emissions in Germany. In particular, calculated PM10 emissions by earthworks are about 15 800 t a-1 corresponding to 44% of total PM10 emissions by construction activities in Germany. Mechanical processes such as asphalt sawing (PM1/PM10 = 18 ± 31%), soil compacting by a plate compactor (PM1/PM10 = 5 ± 6%) and earthworks (PM1/PM10 = 2 ± 5%) emit predominantly coarse mineral dust particles. Contrary to that, particle emissions by thermal construction processes (asphalt paving: PM1/PM10 = 62 ± 14%) and by the internal combustion engines of heavy machinery (e.g. road roller PM1/PM10 = 94 ± 9%) are mostly in the submicron range. These particles were mainly composed of organics containing non-polar saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons (e.g. asphalting: O:C < 0.01, H:C = 2.01). Besides construction activities, mineral dust is also emitted over cleared land by wind-driven resuspension depending on wind speed. PM10 emissions by construction activities often result in local concentrations > 100 μg m-3 and can easily breach the European limit level of PM10. This study also shows that particulate mineral

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides in background air in central Europe - investigating parameters affecting wet scavenging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahpoury, P.; Lammel, G.; Holubová Šmejkalová, A.; Klánová, J.; Přibylová, P.; Váňa, M.

    2014-10-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides (CPs) were measured in air and precipitation at a background site in central Europe. Σ PAH concentrations in air and rainwater ranged from 0.7 to 327.9 ng m-3 and below analytical method detection limit (< MDL) to 2.1 × 103 ng L-1. The concentrations of PCBs and CPs in rainwater were < MDL. Σ PCB and Σ CP concentrations in air ranged from < MDL to 44.6 and < MDL to 351.7 pg m-3, respectively. The potential relationships between PAH wet scavenging and particulate matter and rainwater properties were investigated. The concentrations of ionic species in particulate matter and rainwater were significantly correlated, highlighting the importance of particle scavenging process. Overall, higher scavenging efficiencies were found for relatively less volatile PAHs, underlining the effect of analyte gas-particle partitioning on scavenging process. The PAH wet scavenging was more effective when the concentrations of ionic species were high. In addition, the elemental and organic carbon contents of the particulate matter were found to influence the PAH scavenging.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides in background air in central Europe - investigating parameters affecting wet scavenging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahpoury, P.; Lammel, G.; Holubová Šmejkalová, A.; Klánová, J.; Přibylová, P.; Váňa, M.

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides (CPs) were measured in air and precipitation at a background site in central Europe. ∑ PAH concentrations in air and rainwater ranged from 0.7 to 327.9 ng m-3 and below limit of quantification (< LOQ) to 2.1 × 103 ng L-1. The concentrations of PCBs and CPs in rainwater were < LOQ. ∑ PCB and ∑ CP concentrations in air ranged from < LOQ to 44.6 and < LOQ to 351.7 pg m-3, respectively. The potential relationships between PAH wet scavenging and particulate matter and rainwater properties were investigated. The concentrations of ionic species in particulate matter and rainwater were significantly correlated, highlighting the importance of particle scavenging process. Overall, higher scavenging efficiencies were found for relatively less volatile PAHs, underlining the effect of analyte gas-particle partitioning on scavenging process. The particulate matter removal by rain, and consequently PAH wet scavenging, was more effective when the concentrations of ionic species were high. In addition, the elemental and organic carbon contents of the particulate matter were found to influence the PAH scavenging.

  5. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  6. The dynamics of Persistent Cold-Air Pool breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lareau, Neil P.

    The wind-induced disruption and breakup of multiday cold-air pools are investigated using observational analyses and idealized numerical simulations. The observations are from the Persistent Cold-Air Pool (CAP) Study, which provides modern measurement of the meteorological processes affecting the duration of cold-air pools in the Salt Lake Valley of Utah. In general, the observations indicate that synoptic-scale processes control cold-air pool duration while local processes affect near-surface stratification and mixing. The most common form of CAP breakup is due to cold-air advection aloft. However, analyses reveal that some cold-air pools are destroyed or disrupted by strong winds penetrating into the valley. The resulting wind-CAP interactions are complex, involving sequential CAP displacements, internal oscillations, dynamic instabilities, and terrain-flow interactions. Large Eddy Simulations of multiday cold-air pools in idealized valley topography further demonstrate that cold-air pool removal is affected by the interplay of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and warm air advection. This dynamic instability generates breaking waves in the stratified shear flow that mix cold-air into the warmer flow aloft. Variations in the initial cold pool stratification and valley terrain affect the timescale for cold-air pool removal. Despite these variations, a basic relationship between the magnitude of the flow aloft and the strength of the underlying cold-air pool can be expressed in terms of the "CAP Froude number." This dimensionless quantity is useful for diagnosing the onset and amplification of turbulent mixing, as well as the complete removal of cold-air pools.

  7. Seasonal and interannual variability of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the tropical Atlantic affected by the Amazon River plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibánhez, J. Severino P.; Diverrès, Denis; Araujo, Moacyr; Lefèvre, Nathalie

    2015-10-01

    CO2 fugacities obtained from a merchant ship sailing from France to French Guyana were used to explore the seasonal and interannual variability of the sea-air CO2 exchange in the western tropical North Atlantic (TNA; 5-14°N, 41-52°W). Two distinct oceanic water masses were identified in the area associated to the main surface currents, i.e., the North Brazil Current (NBC) and the North Equatorial Current (NEC). The NBC was characterized by permanent CO2 oversaturation throughout the studied period, contrasting with the seasonal pattern identified in the NEC. The NBC retroflection was the main contributor to the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC), thus spreading into the central TNA, the Amazon River plume, and the CO2-rich waters probably originated from the equatorial upwelling. Strong CO2 undersaturation was associated to the Amazon River plume. Total inorganic carbon drawdown due to biological activity was estimated to be 154 µmol kg-1 within the river plume. As a consequence, the studied area acted as a net sink of atmospheric CO2 (from -72.2 ± 10.2 mmol m-2 month-1 in February to 14.3 ± 4.5 mmol m-2 month-1 in May). This contrasted with the net CO2 efflux estimated by the main global sea-air CO2 flux climatologies. Interannual sea surface temperature changes in the TNA caused by large-scale climatic events could determine the direction and intensity of the sea-air CO2 fluxes in the NEC. Positive temperature anomalies observed in the TNA led to an almost permanent CO2 outgassing in the NEC in 2010.

  8. Some factors affecting the use of lighter than air systems. [economic and performance estimates for dirigibles and semi-buoyant hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havill, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    The uses of lighter-than-air vehicles are examined in the present day transportation environment. Conventional dirigibles were found to indicate an undesirable economic risk due to their low speeds and to uncertainties concerning their operational use. Semi-buoyant hybrid vehicles are suggested as an alternative which does not have many of the inferior characteristics of conventional dirigibles. Economic and performance estimates for hybrid vehicles indicate that they are competitive with other transportation systems in many applications, and unique in their ability to perform some highly desirable emergency missions.

  9. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  10. Photosynthesis, productivity, and yield of maize are not affected by open-air elevation of CO2 concentration in the absence of drought.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Uribelarrea, Martin; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Naidu, Shawna L; Rogers, Alistair; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2006-02-01

    While increasing temperatures and altered soil moisture arising from climate change in the next 50 years are projected to decrease yield of food crops, elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is predicted to enhance yield and offset these detrimental factors. However, C4 photosynthesis is usually saturated at current [CO2] and theoretically should not be stimulated under elevated [CO2]. Nevertheless, some controlled environment studies have reported direct stimulation of C4 photosynthesis and productivity, as well as physiological acclimation, under elevated [CO2]. To test if these effects occur in the open air and within the Corn Belt, maize (Zea mays) was grown in ambient [CO2] (376 micromol mol(-1)) and elevated [CO2] (550 micromol mol(-1)) using Free-Air Concentration Enrichment technology. The 2004 season had ideal growing conditions in which the crop did not experience water stress. In the absence of water stress, growth at elevated [CO2] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield. Nor was there any CO2 effect on the activity of key photosynthetic enzymes, or metabolic markers of carbon and nitrogen status. Stomatal conductance was lower (-34%) and soil moisture was higher (up to 31%), consistent with reduced crop water use. The results provide unique field evidence that photosynthesis and production of maize may be unaffected by rising [CO2] in the absence of drought. This suggests that rising [CO2] may not provide the full dividend to North American maize production anticipated in projections of future global food supply. PMID:16407441

  11. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  12. A theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. I - The origin of typical 1 AU velocity distribution functions - Steady state theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Olbert, S.

    1979-01-01

    A kinetic theory for the velocity distribution of solar wind electrons which illustrates the global and local properties of the solar wind expansion is proposed. By means of the Boltzmann equation with the Krook collision operator accounting for Coulomb collisions, it is found that Coulomb collisions determine the population and shape of the electron distribution function in both the thermal and suprathermal energy regimes. For suprathermal electrons, the cumulative effects of Coulomb interactions are shown to take place on the scale of the heliosphere itself, whereas the Coulomb interactions of thermal electrons occur on a local scale near the point of observation (1 AU). The bifurcation of the electron distribution between thermal and suprathermal electrons is localized to the deep solar corona (1 to 10 solar radii).

  13. A theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. 1: The origin of typical 1 AU velocity distribution functions: Steady state theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed first principle kinetic theory for electrons which is neither a classical fluid treatment nor an exospheric calculation is presented. This theory illustrates the global and local properties of the solar wind expansion that shape the observed features of the electron distribution function, such as its bifurcation, its skewness and the differential temperatures of the thermal and suprathermal subpopulations. Coulomb collisions are substantial mediators of the interplanetary electron velocity distribution function and they place a zone for a bifurcation of the electron distribution function deep in the corona. The local cause and effect precept which permeates the physics of denser media is modified for electrons in the solar wind. The local form of transport laws and equations of state which apply to collision dominated plasmas are replaced with global relations that explicitly depend on the relative position of the observer to the boundaries of the system.

  14. Air-quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from regional to local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; Perrussel, O.; Honore, C.; Vautard, R.; Klimont, Z.; Rao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10 yr control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present time levels over Paris is modeled under the "business as usual" scenario (+7 ppb) while a more optimistic mitigation scenario leads to moderate ozone decrease (-3.5 ppb) in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current, urban scale study, is driven by VOC-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer time-scale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under "business as usual" and "mitigation" scenarios respectively compared to present time period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions resulting in the smoothing of the large urban increment

  15. Air quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from the regional to local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; Perrussel, O.; Honore, C.; Vautard, R.; Klimont, Z.; Rao, S.

    2014-07-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. A high-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional-scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10-year control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present-day levels over Paris is modeled under the "business-as-usual" scenario (+7 ppb) while a more optimistic "mitigation" scenario leads to a moderate ozone decrease (-3.5 ppb) in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional-scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current urban-scale study is driven by volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional-scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas, projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer timescale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under business-as-usual and mitigation scenarios, respectively, compared to the present-day period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions resulting in the

  16. Photosynthesis, Productivity, and Yield of Maize Are Not Affected by Open-Air Elevation of CO2 Concentration in the Absence of Drought1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Uribelarrea, Martin; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.; Naidu, Shawna L.; Rogers, Alistair; Ort, Donald R.; Long, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    While increasing temperatures and altered soil moisture arising from climate change in the next 50 years are projected to decrease yield of food crops, elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is predicted to enhance yield and offset these detrimental factors. However, C4 photosynthesis is usually saturated at current [CO2] and theoretically should not be stimulated under elevated [CO2]. Nevertheless, some controlled environment studies have reported direct stimulation of C4 photosynthesis and productivity, as well as physiological acclimation, under elevated [CO2]. To test if these effects occur in the open air and within the Corn Belt, maize (Zea mays) was grown in ambient [CO2] (376 μmol mol−1) and elevated [CO2] (550 μmol mol−1) using Free-Air Concentration Enrichment technology. The 2004 season had ideal growing conditions in which the crop did not experience water stress. In the absence of water stress, growth at elevated [CO2] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield. Nor was there any CO2 effect on the activity of key photosynthetic enzymes, or metabolic markers of carbon and nitrogen status. Stomatal conductance was lower (−34%) and soil moisture was higher (up to 31%), consistent with reduced crop water use. The results provide unique field evidence that photosynthesis and production of maize may be unaffected by rising [CO2] in the absence of drought. This suggests that rising [CO2] may not provide the full dividend to North American maize production anticipated in projections of future global food supply. PMID:16407441

  17. A Corporate Responsibility? The Constitution of Fly-in, Fly-out Mining Companies as Governance Partners in Remote, Mine-Affected Localities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshire, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    In some remote parts of Australia, mining companies have positioned themselves as central actors in governing nearby affected communities by espousing notions of "voluntary partnerships for sustainability" between business, government and community. It is argued in this paper that the nature and extent of mining company interventions in nearby…

  18. A study of the cognitive and affective impact of the Cockpit Physics curriculum on students at the United States Air Force Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Heidi Mauk

    The standard introductory college physics course has remained stagnant for over thirty years. Course texts have had few significant revisions, and the course has typically been taught in a lecture, laboratory, and recitation format. Studies show, however, that the majority of students do not learn physics well in this environment. Cockpit Physics at the United States Air Force Academy is an innovative computer-centered introductory physics course which abandons the traditional lecture-lab format in an effort to improve the standard introductory course. Cockpit Physics uses small cooperative learning groups, the computer as an integrated learning tool, and the context of flight and Air Force applications. The purpose of this study was a control group comparison to determine if an interactive student-centered environment provides the social context and community for learning needed by students who do not traditionally purse a career in science. In light of the under-representation of women in physics, this study examines whether Cockpit Physics results in a more positive attitude toward physics for female students. Considered also are the experiences of the instructors. To address these issues research questions related to student attitudes and academic performance were formulated. Answers to the attitudinal questions were sought with survey instruments, classroom observations, analysis of journals and individual interviews. Student learning of physics was assessed through class examinations and an inventory widely used in the physics community. A comparison is made to similar innovative curricula at other universities. This study concludes that Cockpit Physics provided more peer interaction and a more hands-on environment for learning than the control classes but provided less one-on-one student teacher interaction. This lack of interaction with the teacher was a significant source of frustration for nontraditional students. Female students in particular struggled

  19. How much do tides affect the circulation of the Mediterranean Sea? From local processes in the Strait of Gibraltar to basin-scale effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, C.; Garcia-Lafuente, J.; Sannino, G.; Sanchez-Garrido, J. C.

    2014-09-01

    The effects of tidal forcing on the exchange flow through the Strait of Gibraltar and the circulation in the near-field region are revisited with a regional numerical model. Also a basin-scale model run is conducted in a first attempt to assess the impact of these local processes on the Western Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. In the Strait of Gibraltar, tides are found to (1) increase the exchange flow volume transport, (2) modify the hydrological properties of Atlantic inflowing waters through the enhancement of mixing, and (3) facilitate the drainage of Mediterranean deep water. In the far-field, the model reveals that these local processes can favor deep convection in the Gulf of Lion. Some thoughts are provided offering possible explanations.

  20. Intracellular localization of sphingosine kinase 1 alters access to substrate pools but does not affect the degradative fate of sphingosine-1-phosphate[S

    PubMed Central

    Siow, Deanna L.; Anderson, Charles D.; Berdyshev, Evgeny V.; Skobeleva, Anastasia; Pitson, Stuart M.; Wattenberg, Binks W.

    2010-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) produces sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a potent signaling lipid. The subcellular localization of SK1 can dictate its signaling function. Here, we use artificial targeting of SK1 to either the plasma membrane (PM) or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to test the effects of compartmentalization of SK1 on substrate utilization and downstream metabolism of S1P. Expression of untargeted or ER-targeted SK1, but surprisingly not PM-targeted SK1, results in a dramatic increase in the phosphorylation of dihydrosphingosine, a metabolic precursor in de novo ceramide synthesis. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous SK1 diminishes both dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate and S1P levels. We tested the effects of SK1 localization on degradation of S1P by depletion of the ER-localized S1P phosphatases and lyase. Remarkably, S1P produced at the PM was degraded to the same extent as that produced in the ER. This indicates that there is an efficient mechanism for the transport of S1P from the PM to the ER. In acute labeling experiments, we find that S1P degradation is primarily driven by lyase cleavage of S1P. Counterintuitively, when S1P-specific phosphatases are depleted, acute labeling of S1P is significantly reduced, indicative of a phosphatase-dependent recycling process. We conclude that the localization of SK1 influences the substrate pools that it has access to and that S1P can rapidly translocate from the site where it is synthesized to other intracellular sites.51: 2546–2559. PMID:20386061

  1. Local nitric oxide release does not affect tachyphylaxis to angiotensin II in dorsal hand veins in man in the presence of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, S L; Wilkinson, I B; Boyd, J L; Webb, D J

    2002-01-01

    Aims Local prostaglandin (PG) production contributes to tachyphylaxis to angiotensin II (ANGII) in veins. Our aim was to assess the hypothesis that local nitric oxide (NO) generation is also, in part, responsible for tachyphylaxis to ANGII in veins, using the Aellig dorsal hand vein technique. Methods Eight healthy male volunteers received 600 mg of aspirin (orally) to inhibit PG production. The venoconstrictor effects of ANGII and noradrenaline (NA) were then compared in dorsal hand veins during co-infusion of the NO synthase inhibitor L-NMMA or saline, on separate occasions. Results ANGII and NA produced a similar degree of initial venoconstriction. However, the response to ANGII was significantly attenuated by 12 min compared with NA (AUC 147 ± 38 vs 196 ± 40, respectively; [95% confidence interval for difference: 7, 92], P = 0.02). Infusion of L-NMMA did not influence the response to ANGII or NA (P = 0.2 and P = 0.3, respectively). Conclusions Tachyphylaxis to ANGII in dorsal hand veins is not dependent on local NO release. PMID:11851644

  2. An Observational and modeling strategy to investigate the impact of remote sources on local air quality: A Houston, Texas case study from the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS II)

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, W. W.; Pierce, R.; Sparling, L. C.; Osterman, G.; McCann, K.; Fischer, M. L.; Rappengluck, B.; Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.; Kittaka, C.; Evans, K.; Biraud, S.; Lefer, Barry; Andrews, A.; Oltmans, S.

    2010-01-05

    Quantifying the impacts of remote sources on individual air quality exceedances remains a significant challenge for air quality forecasting. One goal of the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS II) was to assess the impact of distant sources on air quality in east Texas. From 23-30 August 2006, retrievals of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) from NASA’s Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) reveal the transport of CO from fires in the United States Pacific Northwest to Houston, Texas. This transport occurred behind a cold front and contributed to the worst ozone exceedance period of the summer in the Houston area. We present supporting satellite observations from the NASA A-Train constellation of the vertical distribution of smoke aerosols and CO. Ground-based in situ CO measurements in Oklahoma and Texas track the CO plume as it moves south and indicate mixing of the aloft plume to the surface by turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer and convection during the day. Ground-based aerosol speciation and lidar observations do not find appreciable smoke aerosol transport for this case. However, MODIS aerosol optical depths and model simulations indicate some smoke aerosols were transported from the Pacific Northwest through Texas to the Gulf of Mexico. Chemical transport and forward trajectory models confirm the three major observations: (1) the AIRS envisioned CO transport, (2) the satellite determined smoke plume height, and (3) the timing of the observed surface CO increases. Further, the forward trajectory simulations find two of the largest Pacific Northwest fires likely had the most significant impact.

  3. Sequencing of Local Therapy Affects the Pattern of Treatment Failure and Survival in Children With Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors of the Central Nervous System

    SciTech Connect

    Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Beltran, Chris; Wu, Shengjie; Sharma, Shelly; Boop, Frederick A.; Jenkins, Jesse J.; Helton, Kathleen J.; Wright, Karen D.; Broniscer, Alberto; Kun, Larry E.; Gajjar, Amar

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the pattern of treatment failure associated with current therapeutic paradigms for childhood atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT). Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with AT/RT of the central nervous system treated at our institution between 1987 and 2007 were retrospectively evaluated. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and cumulative incidence of local failure were correlated with age, sex, tumor location, extent of disease, and extent of surgical resection. Radiotherapy (RT) sequencing, chemotherapy, dose, timing, and volume administered after resection were also evaluated. Results: Thirty-one patients at a median age of 2.3 years at diagnosis (range, 0.45-16.87 years) were enrolled into protocols that included risk- and age-stratified RT. Craniospinal irradiation with focal tumor bed boost (median dose, 54 Gy) was administered to 18 patients. Gross total resection was achieved in 16. Ten patients presented with metastases at diagnosis. RT was delayed more than 3 months in 20 patients and between 1 and 3 months in 4; 7 patients received immediate postoperative irradiation preceding high-dose alkylator-based chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 48 months, the cumulative incidence of local treatment failure was 37.5% {+-} 9%; progression-free survival was 33.2% {+-} 10%; and OS was 53.5% {+-} 10%. Children receiving delayed RT ({>=}1 month postoperatively) were more likely to experience local failure (hazard ratio [HR] 1.23, p = 0.007); the development of distant metastases before RT increased the risk of progression (HR 3.49, p = 0.006); and any evidence of disease progressionbefore RT decreased OS (HR 20.78, p = 0.004). Disease progression occurred in 52% (11/21) of children with initially localized tumors who underwent gross total resection, and the progression rate increased proportionally with increasing delay from surgery to RT. Conclusions: Delayed RT is associated with a higher rate of local and metastatic

  4. Modeling the Transport and Chemical Evolution of Onshore and Offshore Emissions and their Impact on Local and Regional Air Quality Using a Variable-Grid-Resolution Air Quality Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran Alapaty; Adel Hanna

    2006-10-16

    This research project has two primary objectives: (1) to further develop and refine the Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform-Variable Grid Resolution (MAQSIP-VGR) model, an advanced variable-grid-resolution air quality model, to provide detailed, accurate representation of the dynamical and chemical processes governing the fate of anthropogenic emissions in coastal environments; and (2) to improve current understanding of the potential impact of onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) emissions on O{sub 3} and particulate matter nonattainment in the Gulf of Mexico and surrounding states.

  5. Does free-air carbon dioxide enrichment affect photochemical energy use by evergreen trees in different seasons? A chlorophyll fluorescence study of mature loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    Hymus, G.J.; Ellsworth, D.S.; Baker, N.R.; Long, S.P.

    1999-08-01

    Previous studies of the effects of growth at elevated CO{sup 2} on energy partitioning in the photosynthetic apparatus have produced conflicting results. The hypothesis was developed and tested that elevated CO{sub 2} increases photochemical energy use when there is a high demand for assimilates and decreases usage when demand is low. Modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence and leaf gas exchange were measured on needles at the tope of a mature, 12-m loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.l) forest. Trees were exposed to ambient CO{sub 2} or ambient plus 20 Pa CO{sub 2} using free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment. During April and August, periods of shoot growth, light-saturated photo-synthesis and linear electron transport were increased by elevated CO{sub 2}. In November, when growth had ceased but temperatures were still moderate, CO{sub 2} treatment had no significant effect on linear electron transport. In February, when low temperatures were likely to inhibit translocation, CO{sub 2} treatment caused a significant decrease in linear electron transport. This coincided with a slower recovery of the maximum photosystem II efficiency on transfer of needles to the shade, indicating that growth in elevated CO{sub 2} induced a more persistent photoinhibition. Both the summer increase and the winter decrease in linear electron transport in elevated CO{sub 2} resulted from a change in photochemical quenching, not in the efficiency of energy transfer within the photosystem II antenna. There was no evidence of any effect of CO{sub 2} on photochemical energy sinks other than carbon metabolism. Their results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2} may increase the effects of winter stress on evergreen foliage.

  6. Nuclear localization of CPI-17, a protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, affects histone H3 phosphorylation and corresponds to proliferation of cancer and smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Masumi; Kirkbride, Jason A.; Chugh, Rishika; Karikari, Nana Kofi; Kim, Jee In

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Non-canonical roles of the myosin phosphatase inhibitor (CPI-17) were studied. •CPI-17 is localized in the nucleus of hyperplastic cancer and smooth muscle cells. •CPI-17 Ser12 phosphorylation may regulate the nuclear import. •CPI-17 regulates histone H3 phosphorylation and cell proliferation. •The nuclear CPI-17-PP1 axis plays a proliferative role in cells. -- Abstract: CPI-17 (C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor, 17 kDa) is a cytoplasmic protein predominantly expressed in mature smooth muscle (SM) that regulates the myosin-associated PP1 holoenzyme (MLCP). Here, we show CPI-17 expression in proliferating cells, such as pancreatic cancer and hyperplastic SM cells. Immunofluorescence showed that CPI-17 was concentrated in nuclei of human pancreatic cancer (Panc1) cells. Nuclear accumulation of CPI-17 was also detected in the proliferating vascular SM cell culture and cells at neointima of rat vascular injury model. The N-terminal 21-residue tail domain of CPI-17 was necessary for the nuclear localization. Phospho-mimetic Asp-substitution of CPI-17 at Ser12 attenuated the nuclear import. CPI-17 phosphorylated at Ser12 was not localized at nuclei, suggesting a suppressive role of Ser12 phosphorylation in the nuclear import. Activated CPI-17 bound to all three isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit in Panc1 nuclear extracts. CPI-17 knockdown in Panc1 resulted in dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3, Ser10 and Thr11, whereas it had no effects on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain and merlin, the known targets of MLCP. In parallel, CPI-17 knockdown suppressed Panc1 proliferation. We propose that CPI-17 accumulated in the nucleus through the N-terminal tail targets multiple PP1 signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation.

  7. *Combining regional - and local-scale air quality models with exposure models for use in environmental health studies - Title changed from Linking air quality and exposure models for use in environmental health studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based human exposure models predict the distribution of personal exposures to pollutants of outdoor origin using a variety of inputs, including air pollution concentrations; human activity patterns, such as the amount of time spent outdoors versus indoors, commuting, w...

  8. MODELING THE TRANSPORT AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE EMISSIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON LOCAL AND REGIONAL AIR QUALITY USING A VARIABLE-GRID-RESOLUTION AIR QUALITY MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran Alapaty

    2003-12-01

    This document, the project's first semiannual report, summarizes the research performed from 04/17/2003 through 10/16/2003. Portions of the research in several of the project's eight tasks were completed, and results obtained are briefly presented. We have tested the applicability of two different atmospheric boundary layer schemes for use in air quality model simulations. Preliminary analysis indicates that a scheme that uses sophisticated atmospheric boundary physics resulted in better simulation of atmospheric circulations. We have further developed and tested a new surface data assimilation technique to improve meteorological simulations, which will also result in improved air quality model simulations. Preliminary analysis of results indicates that using the new data assimilation technique results in reduced modeling errors in temperature and moisture. Ingestion of satellite-derived sea surface temperatures into the mesoscale meteorological model led to significant improvements in simulated clouds and precipitation compared to that obtained using traditional analyzed sea surface temperatures. To enhance the capabilities of an emissions processing system so that it can be used with our variable-grid-resolution air quality model, we have identified potential areas for improvements. Also for use in the variable-grid-resolution air quality model, we have tested a cloud module offline for its functionality, and have implemented and tested an efficient horizontal diffusion algorithm within the model.

  9. Effect of long-term aging on microstructure and local behavior in the heat-affected zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–V steel welded joint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Ming-Liang Wang, De-Qiang; Xuan, Fu-Zhen

    2014-01-15

    Evolution of microstructure, micro-hardness and micro-tensile strength behavior was investigated in the heat-affected zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–V steel welded joint after the artificial aging at 350 °C for 3000 h. After detailed characterization of microstructures in optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, it is revealed that the change of martensite–bainite constituent promotes more homogeneous microstructure distribution. The aging treatment facilitates redistribution of carbon and chromium elements along the welded joint, and the micro-hardness is increased slightly through the welds due to enrichment of carbon. The types of precipitates in the weldment mainly include M{sub 3}C, MC, M{sub 2}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. The carbides in base metal, weld metal and coarse-grained heat-affected zone are prone to change from ellipsoidal to platelet form whereas more uniform spherical carbides are observed in the fine-grained zone. Precipitation and coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} near the fusion line, and formation of MC and M{sub 2}C, are responsible for the tensile strength decrease and its smooth distribution in the aged heat-affected zone. This implies that the thermal aging can relieve strength mismatch in the weldments. - Highlights: • Microstructure homogeneity improved in HAZ after long-term aging. • Tensile strength decreased in HAZ due to precipitation and coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. • Strength mismatch in NiCrMoV steel welds was relieved after aging at 350 °C × 3000 h.

  10. Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) phosphorylation at serine-269 is HIPK2-dependent and affects PDX1 subnuclear localization.

    PubMed

    An, Rong; da Silva Xavier, Gabriela; Semplici, Francesca; Vakhshouri, Saharnaz; Hao, Huai-Xiang; Rutter, Jared; Pagano, Mario A; Meggio, Flavio; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Rutter, Guy A

    2010-08-20

    Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) regulates pancreatic development and mature beta-cell function. We demonstrate by mass spectrometry that serine residue at position 269 in the C-terminal domain of PDX1 is phosphorylated in beta-cells. Besides we show that the degree of phosphorylation, assessed with a phospho-Ser-269-specific antibody, is decreased by elevated glucose concentrations in both MIN6 beta-cells and primary mouse pancreatic islets. Homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) phosphorylates PDX1 in vitro; phosphate incorporation substantially decreases in PDX1 S269A mutant. Silencing of HIPK2 led to a 51+/-0.2% decrease in Ser-269 phosphorylation in MIN6 beta-cells. Mutation of Ser-269 to phosphomimetic residue glutamic acid (S269E) or de-phosphomimetic residue alanine (S269A) exerted no effect on PDX1 half-life. Instead, PDX1 S269E mutant displayed abnormal changes in subnuclear localization in response to high glucose. Our results suggest that HIPK2-mediated phosphorylation of PDX1 at Ser-269 might be a regulatory mechanism connecting signals generated by changes in extracellular glucose concentration to downstream effectors via changes in subnuclear localization of PDX1, thereby influencing islet cell differentiation and function. PMID:20637728

  11. ELEVATED CO{sub 2} IN A PROTOTYPE FREE-AIR CO{sub 2} ENRICHMENT FACILITY AFFECTS PHOTOSYNTHETIC NITROGEN RELATIONS IN A MATURING PINE FOREST

    SciTech Connect

    ELLSWORTH,D.S.; LA ROCHE,J.; HENDREY,G.R.

    1998-03-01

    A maturing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest was exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} in the natural environment in a perturbation study conducted over three seasons using the free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) technique. At the time measurements were begun in this study, the pine canopy was comprised entirely of foliage which had developed under elevated CO{sub 2} conditions (atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] {approx} 550 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}). Measurements of leaf photosynthetic responses to CO{sub 2} were taken to examine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on photosynthetic N nutrition in a pine canopy under elevated CO{sub 2}. Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} response curves (A-c{sub i} curves) were similar in FACE trees under elevated CO{sub 2} compared with counterpart trees in ambient plots for the first foliage cohort produced in the second season of CO{sub 2} exposure, with changes in curve form detected in the foliage cohorts subsequently produced under elevated CO{sub 2}. Differences in the functional relationship between carboxylation rate and N{sub a} suggest that for a given N{sub a} allocated among successive cohorts of foliage in the upper canopy, V{sub c max} was 17% lower in FACE versus Ambient trees. The authors also found that foliar Rubisco content per unit total protein derived from Western blot analysis was lower in late-season foliage in FACE foliage compared with ambient-grown foliage. The results illustrate a potentially important mode of physiological adjustment to growth conditions that may operate in forest canopies. Their findings suggest that mature loblolly pine trees growing in the field may have the capacity for shifts in intrinsic nitrogen utilization for photosynthesis under elevated CO{sub 2} that are not dependent on changes in leaf N. While carboxylation efficiency per unit N apparently decreased under elevated CO{sub 2}, photosynthetic rates in trees at elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations {approx} 550 pmol mol{sub {minus}1} are still

  12. Elevated CO{sub 2} in a prototype free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment facility affects photosynthetic nitrogen relations in a maturing pine forest

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, D.S.; LaRoche, J.; Hendrey, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    A maturing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest was exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} in the natural environment in a perturbation study conducted over three seasons using the free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) technique. At the time measurements were begun in this study, the pine canopy was comprised entirely of foliage which had developed under elevated CO{sub 2} conditions (atmospheric CO{sub 2} {approx} 550 {micro}mol/mol{sup {minus}1}). Measurements of leaf photosynthetic responses to CO{sub 2} were taken to examine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on photosynthetic N nutrition in a pine canopy under elevated CO{sub 2}. Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} response curves (A-c{sub i} curves) were similar in FACE trees under elevated CO{sub 2} compared with counterpart trees in ambient plots for the first foliage cohort produced in the second season of CO{sub 2} exposure, with changes in curve form detected in the foliage cohorts subsequently produced under elevated CO{sub 2}. Differences in the functional relationship between carboxylation rate and N{sub a} suggest that for a given N{sub a} allocated among successive cohorts of foliage in the upper canopy, V{sub c max} was 17% lower in FACE versus Ambient trees. The authors also found that foliar Rubisco content per unit total protein derived from Western blot analysis was lower in late-season foliage in FACE foliage compared with ambient-grown foliage. The results illustrate a potentially important mode of physiological adjustment to growth conditions that may operate in forest canopies. Findings suggest that mature loblolly pine trees growing in the field may have the capacity for shifts in intrinsic nitrogen utilization for photosynthesis under elevated CO{sub 2} that are not dependent on changes in leaf N. Findings suggest a need for continued examination of internal feedbacks at the whole-tree and ecosystem level in forests that may influence long-term photosynthetic responses to elevated CO{sub 2}.

  13. Global Air Quality and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  14. Missense mutations in Desmocollin-2 N-terminus, associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, affect intracellular localization of desmocollin-2 in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Beffagna, Giorgia; De Bortoli, Marzia; Nava, Andrea; Salamon, Michela; Lorenzon, Alessandra; Zaccolo, Manuela; Mancuso, Luisa; Sigalotti, Luca; Bauce, Barbara; Occhi, Gianluca; Basso, Cristina; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Thiene, Gaetano; Danieli, Gian Antonio; Rampazzo, Alessandra

    2007-01-01

    Background Mutations in genes encoding desmosomal proteins have been reported to cause arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), an autosomal dominant disease characterised by progressive myocardial atrophy with fibro-fatty replacement. We screened 54 ARVC probands for mutations in desmocollin-2 (DSC2), the only desmocollin isoform expressed in cardiac tissue. Methods Mutation screening was performed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. To evaluate the pathogenic potentials of the DSC2 mutations detected in patients affected with ARVC, full-length wild-type and mutated cDNAs were cloned in eukaryotic expression vectors to obtain a fusion protein with green fluorescence protein (GFP); constructs were transfected in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and in HL-1 cells. Results We identified two heterozygous mutations (c.304G>A (p.E102K) and c.1034T>C (p.I345T)) in two probands and in four family members. The two mutations p.E102K and p.I345T map to the N-terminal region, relevant to adhesive interactions. In vitro functional studies demonstrated that, unlike wild-type DSC2, the two N-terminal mutants are predominantly localised in the cytoplasm. Conclusion The two missense mutations in the N-terminal domain affect the normal localisation of DSC2, thus suggesting the potential pathogenic effect of the reported mutations. Identification of additional DSC2 mutations associated with ARVC may result in increased diagnostic accuracy with implications for genetic counseling. PMID:17963498

  15. Dust in the western U.S.: how biological, physical and human activities at the local scale interact to affect hydrologic function at the landscape scale (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belnap, J.; Reheis, M. C.; Munson, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Dryland regions constitute over 35% of terrestrial lands around the globe. Limited rainfall in these regions restricts plant growth and the spaces between vascular plants are often large. Most interspace soils are protected from wind erosion by the cover of rocks, physical crusts, and biological crusts (cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses). However, disturbance of the soil surface in dryland regions (e.g., recreation, livestock, mining and energy exploration, military exercises, fire) reduces or eliminates the protective cover of the soils. Rising temperatures will reduce soil moisture and thus plant cover. Wind tunnel data show that most desert surfaces produce little sediment under typical wind speeds. However, disturbing the soil surface with vehicles, humans, or animals resulted in much higher sediment production from all surfaces tested, regardless of parent material, texture, or age of the soil surface. Synergist effects, such as surface disturbance occurring during drought periods in annualized plant communities, can create very large dust events. As surface disturbance, invasion, and drought are expected to increase in the future, an increase in dust production can be expected as well. Increased particulates in the air threaten human well-being through disease, highway accidents, and economic losses. Where dust losses are greater than the inputs, the source areas lose carbon and nutrients. These compounds are transferred to high elevation regions, where such fertilization likely impacts ecosystem function. Deposition of dust on the snowpack darkens the surface, increasing snowmelt by 30 days or more and exposing soils to evaporation, all of which decrease the quantity and quality of water in major streams and rivers. As increases occur in temperature, pumping of shallow aquifers, human activities, and invasion of exotic annual plants in dryland regions, the frequency, severity, and negative impact of dust storms is expected to increase as well. The

  16. Improving Hiroshima Air-Over-Ground Thermal/Epithermal Activation Calculations Using a MUSH Model to Show the Importance of Local Shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, J.V.

    2002-02-14

    Achieving agreement between measured and calculated neutron activation data resulting from Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb detonations has been a major problem since the early 1980's. This has been particularly true for the materials that are activated by thermal and epithermal neutrons. Since thermal and epithermal neutrons are not transported very far from the weapon, the local shielding environment around the measurement location can be very important. A set of calculations incorporating an average density local-environment material (mush) has been made to demonstrate that the local environment plays an important role in the calculation-measurement agreement process. The optimum solution would be to include the local environment in all thermal neutron response calculations.

  17. Inhibition of local blood flow control systems in the mammary glands of lactating cows affects uptakes of energy metabolites from blood.

    PubMed

    Madsen, T G; Cieslar, S R L; Trout, D R; Nielsen, M O; Cant, J P

    2015-05-01

    To test the effect of mammary blood flow on net uptakes of milk precursors by the mammary glands, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) were infused into the mammary circulation of 4 lactating cows. Inhibitors were infused in a 4×4 Latin square design, where treatments were infusion for 1 h of saline, NOS inhibitor (Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride), COX inhibitor (indomethacin), or both NOS + COX inhibitors into one external iliac artery. Para-aminohippuric acid was also infused to allow for estimation of iliac plasma flow (IPF), of which approximately 80% flows to the mammary glands. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after inhibitor infusion from the contralateral external iliac artery and ipsilateral mammary vein. Inhibition of COX and NOS each produced a decrease in IPF, although the NOS effect was smaller and IPF continued to be depressed throughout the recovery period. The combination of COX and NOS inhibition produced a 50% depression in IPF and there was no carryover into the recovery period. Treatments that depressed IPF also increased arterial concentrations of acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and glucose. Similarly, arteriovenous differences of acetate, BHBA, and glucose were all increased during IPF depression. To correct for a potential effect of arterial concentration, arteriovenous differences were normalized to arterial concentration, producing an extraction percentage. Inhibition of COX increased glucose extraction and tended to increase acetate and BHBA extraction. Dual inhibition only increased BHBA extraction and had no effect on mammary extraction of other metabolites. These extractions did not increase because clearances of glucose and TAG decreased as IPF decreased, and clearances of acetate and BHBA tended to decrease. Net uptake of TAG was depressed by dual NOS/COX inhibition, whereas uptakes of acetate, BHBA, and glucose were not affected by any of the treatments. To separate

  18. High-resolution genetic localization of a modifying locus affecting disease severity in the juvenile cystic kidneys (jck) mouse model of polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Beier, David R

    2016-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a locus on proximal Chr 4 modifies disease severity in the juvenile cystic kidney (jck) mouse, a model of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) that carries a mutation of the Nek8 serine-threonine kinase. In this study, we used QTL analysis of independently constructed B6.D2 congenic lines to confirm this and showed that this locus has a highly significant effect. We constructed sub-congenic lines to more specifically localize the modifier and have determined it resides in a 3.2 Mb interval containing 28 genes. These include Invs and Anks6, which are both excellent candidates for the modifier as mutations in these genes result in PKD and both genes are known to genetically and physically interact with Nek8. However, examination of strain-specific DNA sequence and kidney expression did not reveal clear differences that might implicate either gene as a modifier of PKD severity. The fact that our high-resolution analysis did not yield an unambiguous result highlights the challenge of establishing the causality of strain-specific variants as genetic modifiers, and suggests that alternative strategies be considered. PMID:27114383

  19. Prion protein localizes at the ciliary base during neural and cardiovascular development, and its depletion affects α-tubulin post-translational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Halliez, Sophie; Martin-Lannerée, Séverine; Passet, Bruno; Hernandez-Rapp, Julia; Castille, Johan; Urien, Céline; Chat, Sophie; Laude, Hubert; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Mouillet-Richard, Sophie; Béringue, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Although conversion of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrPC) into a misfolded isoform is the underlying cause of prion diseases, understanding PrPC physiological functions has remained challenging. PrPC depletion or overexpression alters the proliferation and differentiation properties of various types of stem and progenitor cells in vitro by unknown mechanisms. Such involvement remains uncertain in vivo in the absence of any drastic phenotype of mice lacking PrPC. Here, we report PrPC enrichment at the base of the primary cilium in stem and progenitor cells from the central nervous system and cardiovascular system of developing mouse embryos. PrPC depletion in a neuroepithelial cell line dramatically altered key cilium-dependent processes, such as Sonic hedgehog signalling and α-tubulin post-translational modifications. These processes were also affected over a limited time window in PrPC–ablated embryos. Thus, our study reveals PrPC as a potential actor in the developmental regulation of microtubule dynamics and ciliary functions. PMID:26679898

  20. Cognitive and affective theory of mind share the same local patterns of activity in posterior temporal but not medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Hofstetter, Christoph; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-08-01

    Understanding emotions in others engages specific brain regions in temporal and medial prefrontal cortices. These activations are often attributed to more general cognitive 'mentalizing' functions, associated with theory of mind and also necessary to represent people's non-emotional mental states, such as beliefs or intentions. Here, we directly investigated whether understanding emotional feelings recruit similar or specific brain systems, relative to other non-emotional mental states. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivoxel pattern analysis in 46 volunteers to compare activation patterns in theory-of-mind tasks for emotions, relative to beliefs or somatic states accompanied with pain. We found a striking dissociation between the temporoparietal cortex, that exhibited a remarkable voxel-by-voxel pattern overlap between emotions and beliefs (but not pain), and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, that exhibited distinct (and yet nearby) patterns of activity during the judgment of beliefs and emotions in others. Pain judgment was instead associated with activity in the supramarginal gyrus, middle cingulate cortex and middle insular cortex. Our data reveal for the first time a functional dissociation within brain networks sub-serving theory of mind for different mental contents, with a common recruitment for cognitive and affective states in temporal regions, and distinct recruitment in prefrontal areas. PMID:23770622

  1. Cognitive and affective theory of mind share the same local patterns of activity in posterior temporal but not medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Understanding emotions in others engages specific brain regions in temporal and medial prefrontal cortices. These activations are often attributed to more general cognitive ‘mentalizing’ functions, associated with theory of mind and also necessary to represent people’s non-emotional mental states, such as beliefs or intentions. Here, we directly investigated whether understanding emotional feelings recruit similar or specific brain systems, relative to other non-emotional mental states. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivoxel pattern analysis in 46 volunteers to compare activation patterns in theory-of-mind tasks for emotions, relative to beliefs or somatic states accompanied with pain. We found a striking dissociation between the temporoparietal cortex, that exhibited a remarkable voxel-by-voxel pattern overlap between emotions and beliefs (but not pain), and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, that exhibited distinct (and yet nearby) patterns of activity during the judgment of beliefs and emotions in others. Pain judgment was instead associated with activity in the supramarginal gyrus, middle cingulate cortex and middle insular cortex. Our data reveal for the first time a functional dissociation within brain networks sub-serving theory of mind for different mental contents, with a common recruitment for cognitive and affective states in temporal regions, and distinct recruitment in prefrontal areas. PMID:23770622

  2. Tyrosine phosphorylation of β-catenin affects its subcellular localization and transcriptional activity of β-catenin in Hela and Bcap-37 cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, He-Ya; Zhang, Ding-Guo; Wang, Hong-Wei; Pei, Dong-Sheng; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2014-06-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between tyrosine phosphorylation of β-catenin and transcriptional activity of β-catenin in Hela and Bcap-37 cells, genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor) was used to inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation in cells. Our results showed the total β-catenin protein levels were mainly equal in Hela, Bcap-37 and HK-2 cells, β-catenin was mainly present in nucleus in Hela and Bcap-37cells, while in HK-2 cell β-catenin was mainly located in cytoplasm. Genistein could inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of β-catenin and downregulate nuclear β-catenin expression in Hela and Bcap-37 cells. In addition, genistein suppressed Ki-67 promoter activity and Ki-67 protein level, thus promoted cell apoptosis. Furthermore, β-catenin could increase the Ki-67 promoter activity in Hela and Bcap-37 cells. From these findings we conclude that tyrosine phosphorylation of β-catenin can regulate the cellular distribution of β-catenin and affect the transcriptional activity of β-catenin. PMID:24759800

  3. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  4. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  5. Mycobiome of the Bat White Nose Syndrome Affected Caves and Mines Reveals Diversity of Fungi and Local Adaptation by the Fungal Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Sunanda S.; Li, Xiaojiang; Okoniewski, Joseph C.; Hicks, Alan C.; Davis, April D.; Broussard, Kelly; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS) and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans (Pd) are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010–2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD) and culture-independent (CI) methods to catalogue all fungi (‘mycobiome’). CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS). The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture) even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR) suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS. PMID:25264864

  6. Mycobiome of the bat white nose syndrome affected caves and mines reveals diversity of fungi and local adaptation by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Victor, Tanya R; Rajkumar, Sunanda S; Li, Xiaojiang; Okoniewski, Joseph C; Hicks, Alan C; Davis, April D; Broussard, Kelly; LaDeau, Shannon L; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS) and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans (Pd) are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010-2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD) and culture-independent (CI) methods to catalogue all fungi ('mycobiome'). CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS). The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture) even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR) suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS. PMID:25264864

  7. Initial Stage Affects Survival Even After Complete Pathologic Remission is Achieved in Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer: Analysis of 70 Patients With Pathologic Major Response After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Park, Seung-Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Jong Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Jung, Hwoon Yong; Lee, Gin Hyug; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Kim, Sung-Bae

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes and factors predictive for recurrence and survival in patients with operable esophageal carcinoma who achieved pathologic complete response (PCR) or microscopic residual disease (MRD) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Materials and Methods: Outcomes were assessed in 70 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who achieved pathologic major response (53 with PCR and 17 with MRD) after preoperative CRT. Results: At a median follow-up of 38.6 months for surviving patients, 17 of 70 patients (24.3%) experienced disease recurrence and 31 (44.3%) died. Clinical stage (II vs III; p = 0.013) and pathologic response (PCR vs. MRD; p = 0.014) were independent predictors of disease recurrence. Median overall survival (OS) was 99.6 months (95% CI, 44.1-155.1 months) and the 5-year OS rate was 57%. Median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 71.5 months (95% CI, 39.5-103.6 months) and the 5-year RFS rate was 51.3%. Median OS of patients with Stage II and Stage III disease was 108.8 months and 39.9 months, respectively, and the 5-year OS rates were 68.2% and 27.0%, respectively (p = 0.0003). In a subgroup of patients with PCR, median OS and RFS were also significantly different according to clinical stage. Multivariate analysis showed that clinical stage was an independent predictor of RFS (p = 0.01) and OS (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Even though patients achieved major response after preoperative CRT, pretreatment clinical stage is an important prognostic marker for recurrence and survival. Patients with MRD have an increased recurrence risk but similar survival compared with patients achieved PCR.

  8. Local activation of uterine Toll-like receptor 2 and 2/6 decreases embryo implantation and affects uterine receptivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier Arturo; Caballero, Ignacio; Montazeri, Mehrnaz; Maslehat, Nasim; Elliott, Sarah; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Raul; Calle, Alexandra; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Fazeli, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    Embryo implantation is a complex interaction between maternal endometrium and embryonic structures. Failure to implant is highly recurrent and impossible to diagnose. Inflammation and infections in the female reproductive tract are common causes of infertility, embryo loss, and preterm labor. The current work describes how the activation of endometrial Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 2/6 reduces embryo implantation chances. We developed a morphometric index to evaluate the effects of the TLR 2/6 activation along the uterine horn (UH). TLR 2/6 ligation reduced the endometrial myometrial and glandular indexes and increased the luminal index. Furthermore, TLR 2/6 activation increased the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in UH lavages in the preimplantation day and IL-1 receptor antagonist in the implantation day. The engagement of TLR 2/6 with its ligand in the UH during embryo transfer severely affected the rate of embryonic implantation (45.00% ± 6.49% vs. 16.69% ± 5.01%, P < 0.05, control vs. test, respectively). Furthermore, this interference with the embryo implantation process was verified using an in vitro model of human embryo implantation where trophoblast spheroids failed to adhere to a monolayer of TLR 2- and TLR 2/6-activated endometrial cells. The inhibition of TLR receptors 2 and 6 in the presence of their specific ligands restored the ability of the spheroids to bind to the endometrial cells. In conclusion, the activation of the innate immune system in the uterus at the time of implantation interfered with the endometrial receptivity and reduced the chances of implantation success. PMID:24621922

  9. Compensation of CH₄ emissions during tunneling works in Asturias: a proposal with benefits both for local councils and for the affected population.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rafael; Díaz-Aguado, María B; Lombardía, Cristobal

    2012-08-15

    The appearance of methane during the excavation of tunnels through Carboniferous strata has always been a significantly frequent event. The occurrence of methane in tunnels poses a twofold problem. On the one hand, there are the associated hazards for the safety of personnel: methane is both an inflammable and an explosive gas. It therefore becomes very important to estimate the methane flow reaching the tunnel as it advances in order to minimize risks and the negative effects of methane-related incidents. A number of calculation methods have been developed to estimate methane emissions in these specific underground workings. At the same time, methane is a potent greenhouse gas, with environmentally harmful effects and a pollutant potential more than 20 times that of carbon dioxide. The immediate consequence is that the aforementioned calculations methods should enable methane emissions to be predicted and allow the environmental impact of these methane emissions into the atmosphere to be assessed using the values thus estimated. In the present paper, a research study into CH(4) emissions in the Variante de Pajares tunnels has been used to estimate the equivalent emission of CO(2) to the atmosphere. Some significant compensatory actions are accordingly proposed to mitigate the environmental effects of tunnels excavated through methane-prone coalbeds and to contribute to the sustainable development of the affected areas. The results obtained would apply directly to the strata where they have been validated; however, it is not difficult to extrapolate the proposed methodology to other coal basins and other tunnels in similar conditions. PMID:22531677

  10. The Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor BH3I-2' affects the dynamics and subcellular localization of sumoylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Plourde, Mélodie B; Morchid, Aïda; Iranezereza, Lolita; Berthoux, Lionel

    2013-04-01

    Sumoylation modulates many proteins implicated in apoptosis such as Fas, TNFR1, Daxx, p53 and its regulator MDM2. Some of these proteins, such as DRP-1, are involved in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. The intrinsic pathway is regulated at the mitochondrial level by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. The small-molecule inhibitor BH3I-2' binds to the hydrophobic groove of the BH3 domain of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Following treatment with this inhibitor in various experimental conditions, we observed decreased levels of detergent-soluble SUMO-1, an increase in the relative levels of detergent-insoluble sumoylated proteins, or both. Accordingly, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the relative numbers and intensities of endogenously or exogenously expressed SUMO-1 foci in the nucleus were increased following BH3I-2' treatment. MG132 caused a large increase in steady-state levels of SUMO-1 and of sumoylated proteins, and this was especially true for detergent-insoluble proteins. The conjugation-incompetent GG-to-AA SUMO-1 mutant, which did not form nuclear foci, was only present in the detergent-soluble lysate fraction and was insensitive to BH3I-2', implying that BH3I-2' specifically affects SUMO in its conjugated form. Finally, BH3I-2' had similar effects on SUMO-2 and SUMO-3 as it had on SUMO-1. In conclusion, BH3I-2' causes an intracellular redistribution of sumoylated proteins, more specifically their targeting to PML and non-PML nuclear bodies in which they may be degraded by the proteasome. Interestingly, knocking down Bcl-2 also altered levels of sumoylated proteins and their presence in detergent-insoluble compartments, confirming the role of Bcl-2 as a modulator of the sumoylation pathway. PMID:23375957

  11. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  12. Modeling the Transport and Chemical Evolution of Onshore and Offshore Emissions and their Impact on Local and Regional Air Quality Using a Variable-Grid-Resolution Air Quality Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran Alapaty

    2006-04-16

    This Annual report summarizes the research performed from 17 April 2005 through 16 April 2006. Major portions of the research in several of the project's current eight tasks have been completed. We have successfully developed the meteorological inputs using the best possible modeling configurations, resulting in improved representation of atmospheric processes. The development of the variable-grid-resolution emissions model, SMOKE-VGR, is also completed. The development of the MAQSIP-VGR has been completed and a test run was performed to ensure the functionality of this air quality model. We have incorporated new emission data base to update the offshore emissions. However, we have faced some bottleneck problems in the testing the integrity of the new database. For this reason, we have asked for a no cost extension of this project to tackle these scientific problems. Thus, the project is on a one-year delay schedule. During the reporting period, we solved all problems related to the new emission database. We are ready to move to developing the final product, implementation and testing of the variable grid technology into the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to develop the CMAQ-VGR. During the upcoming months we will perform the first CMAQ-VGR simulations over the Houston-Galveston region to study the roles of the meteorology, offshore emissions, and chemistry-transport interactions that determine the temporal and spatial evolution of ozone and its precursors.

  13. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  14. Synoptically driven down-slope winds and their effects on local nocturnal-drainage air flow in The Geysers Geothermal Resource Area

    SciTech Connect

    Orgill, M.M.; Schreck, R.I.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1981-07-01

    Some of the possible synoptic to local sale interactions are identified and discussed that may have an important influence on the development and persistence of nocturnal drainage (katabatic) winds in the eastern portion of The Geysers geothermal development area. On the basis of the July 1979 ASCOT field data at The Geysers, the interactions identified are summarized.

  15. Distributing College Budgets: A Study of Local Education Authority (LEA) Planning and Formulae-Funding Mechanisms in England. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Derek W.; Spencer, Anne C.

    The Education Reform Act 1988 provides for the reform of the funding and governance of colleges of further education in England and Wales, comprising about 400 colleges (equivalent to community colleges and vocational schools) across 104 local education authorities (LEAs). The process and formula for budget-setting is described, and a number of…

  16. Modelin the Transport and Chemical Evolution of Onshore and Offshore Emissions and Their Impact on Local and Regional Air Quality Using a Variable-Grid-Resolution Air Quality Model

    SciTech Connect

    Adel Hanna

    2008-10-16

    The overall objective of this research project was to develop an innovative modeling technique to adequately model the offshore/onshore transport of pollutants. The variable-grid modeling approach that was developed alleviates many of the shortcomings of the traditionally used nested regular-grid modeling approach, in particular related to biases near boundaries and the excessive computational requirements when using nested grids. The Gulf of Mexico region contiguous to the Houston-Galveston area and southern Louisiana was chosen as a test bed for the variable-grid modeling approach. In addition to the onshore high pollution emissions from various sources in those areas, emissions from on-shore and off-shore oil and gas exploration and production are additional sources of air pollution. We identified case studies for which to perform meteorological and air quality model simulations. Our approach included developing and evaluating the meteorological, emissions, and chemistry-transport modeling components for the variable-grid applications, with special focus on the geographic areas where the finest grid resolution was used. We evaluated the performance of two atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) schemes, and identified the best-performing scheme for simulating mesoscale circulations for different grid resolutions. Use of a newly developed surface data assimilation scheme resulted in improved meteorological model simulations. We also successfully ingested satellite-derived sea surface temperatures (SSTs) into the meteorological model simulations, leading to further improvements in simulated wind, temperature, and moisture fields. These improved meteorological fields were important for variable-grid simulations, especially related to capturing the land-sea breeze circulations that are critical for modeling offshore/onshore transport of pollutants in the Gulf region. We developed SMOKE-VGR, the variable-grid version of the SMOKE emissions processing model, and tested and

  17. MODELING THE TRANSPORT AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE EMISSIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON LOCAL AND REGIONAL AIR QUALITY USING A VARIABLE-GRID-RESOLUTION AIR QUALITY MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran Alapaty

    2005-05-13

    This second annual report summarizes the research performed from 17 April 2004 through 16 April 2005. Major portions of the research in several of the project's current eight tasks have been completed. We have successfully developed the meteorological inputs using the best possible modeling configurations, resulting in improved representation of atmospheric processes. The development of the variable-grid-resolution emissions model, SMOKE-VGR, is also completed. The development of the MAQSIP-VGR has been completed and a test run was performed to ensure the functionality of this air quality model. Thus, the project is on schedule as planned. During the upcoming reporting period, we expect to perform the first MAQSIP-VGR simulations over the Houston-Galveston region to study the roles of the meteorology, offshore emissions, and chemistry-transport interactions that determine the temporal and spatial evolution of ozone and its precursors.

  18. Simulating Tree and Topography Effects on Urban Air temperature and Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Endreny, T. A.; Nowak, D. J.; Kroll, C.; Heisler, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Microclimate, especially air temperature and humidity, significantly affect human thermal comfort, ecosystem services, and building energy use. Air temperature and humidity measurements are generally recorded at fixed-location meteorology stations, which do not represent the spatial variations encountered in these parameters across the landscape. We developed a spatial air temperature and humidity model to simulate local air temperature and humidity over a region where the mesoscale climate is presumed homogeneous. The model assumes that under the same mesoscale climate, microclimate is modified by local topography and land cover, which are two critical factors determining the absorbed solar radiation and the partitioning of sensible and latent heat. Therefore, the difference in microclimates among local clusters can be determined by the differences in local topography and land cover. Given a reference site where the meteorological data are collected, the microclimate of any other local cluster can be obtained by comparing the topography and land cover of the reference site and the local cluster. The model was tested at 11 locations in Syracuse, NY, where the hourly air temperature and humidity were measured from July 15, 2010 through September 15, 2010. The simulation results showed the model has high efficiency in estimating local cluster air temperature and humidity. The model can be applied on strategic urban reforestation designs, urban heat island mitigation, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and ecosystem interaction research.

  19. Localized ageing in the heat affected zone of welded X5CrNiCuNbl6-4 and X4CrNiSiTi14-7 sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhawat, S.; Falahati, A.; Degischer, H. P.; Spiradek, K.; Dománková, M.

    2014-06-01

    Localized ageing and corresponding microstructural developments as a result of welding heat in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of two different precipitation-hardened Cr-Steels (X5CrNiCuNb16-4 and X4CrNiSiTi14-7) have been studied. The X5CrNiCuNb16-4 sheet was in solution annealed condition and X4CrNiSiTi14-7 sheet was in peak aged condition. The results showed that despite of initial heat treated condition, the fusion zone formed in both welded sheets has typical cast structure. The HAZ has different microstructure compared to fusion zone and base metal. The HAZ is found to be sensitive to the welding heat and was aged locally due to thermal effects of welding. This localized ageing forms regions in HAZ varying from over-aged to under aged, depending upon the initial ageing condition of the base sheet.

  20. You Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day! Air pollution can affect your health and the environment. There ... every one of us can take to reduce air pollution and keep the air cleaner, and precautionary measures ...

  1. 59 FR- Indoor Air Quality

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-09-16

    ... 5, 1994, OSHA issued a notice of proposed rulemaking addressing indoor air quality issues, including... to clarify that it is not proposing to regulate smoking or indoor air quality in private homes, and... which a final standard would preempt state and local regulation of smoking and other indoor air...

  2. In Search of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckendorf, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

  3. Seasonal variation of local atmospheric circulations and boundary layer structure in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and implications for air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yucong; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Shuhua; Qian, Tingting; Xue, Ming; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu

    2015-12-01

    The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region experiences frequent heavy haze pollution in fall and winter. Pollution was often exacerbated by unfavorable atmospheric boundary layer (BL) conditions. The topography in this region impacts the BL processes in complex ways. Such impacts and implications on air quality are not yet clearly understood. The BL processes in all four seasons in BTH are thus investigated in this study using idealized simulations with the WRF-Chem model. Results suggest that seasonal variation of thermal conditions and synoptic patterns significantly modulates BL processes. In fall, with a relatively weak northwesterly synoptic forcing, thermal contrast between the mountains and the plain leads to a prominent mountain-plain breeze circulation (MPC). In the afternoon, the downward branch of the MPC, in addition to northwesterly warm advection, suppresses BL development over the western side of BTH. In the eastern coastal area, a sea-breeze circulation develops late in the morning and intensifies during the afternoon. In summer, southeasterly BL winds allow the see-breeze front to penetrate farther inland (˜150 km from the coast), and the MPC is less prominent. In spring and winter, with strong northwesterly synoptic winds, the sea-breeze circulation is confined in the coastal area, and the MPC is suppressed. The BL height is low in winter due to strong near-surface stability, while BL heights are large in spring due to strong mechanical forcing. The relatively low BL height in fall and winter may have exacerbated the air pollution, thus contributing to the frequent severe haze events in the BTH region.

  4. Localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Localized scleroderma (also called morphea) is a term encompassing a spectrum of sclerotic autoimmune diseases that primarily affect the skin, but also might involve underlying structures such as the fat, fascia, muscle, and bones. Its exact pathogenesis is still unknown, but several trigger factors in genetically predisposed individuals might initially lead to an immunologically triggered release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, resulting in a profound dysregulation of the connective tissue metabolism and ultimately to induction of fibrosis. To date, there are no specific serological markers available for localized scleroderma. Within the last years, several validated clinical scores have been introduced as potential outcome measures for the disease. Given the rarity of localized scleroderma, only few evidence-based therapeutical treatment options exist. So far, the most robust data is available for ultraviolet A1 phototherapy in disease that is restricted to the skin, and methotrexate alone or in combination with systemic corticosteroids in more severe disease that additionally affects extracutaneous structures. This practical review summarizes relevant information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical subtypes and classifications, differential diagnoses, clinical scores and outcome measures, and current treatment strategies of localized scleroderma. PMID:22741933

  5. Increased Air Temperature during Simulated Autumn Conditions Does Not Increase Photosynthetic Carbon Gain But Affects the Dissipation of Excess Energy in Seedlings of the Evergreen Conifer Jack Pine1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P.A.; Ensminger, Ingo

    2007-01-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in controlled environments during a simulated summer-autumn transition under natural conditions and conditions with altered air temperature and photoperiod. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of daylength and temperature. Control plants were grown at either warm summer conditions with 16-h photoperiod and 22°C or conditions representing a cool autumn with 8 h/7°C. To assess the impact of photoperiod and temperature on photosynthesis and energy dissipation, plants were also grown under either cold summer (16-h photoperiod/7°C) or warm autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/22°C). Photosynthetic gas exchange was affected by both daylength and temperature. Assimilation and respiration rates under warm autumn conditions were only about one-half of the summer values but were similar to values obtained for cold summer and natural autumn treatments. In contrast, photosynthetic efficiency was largely determined by temperature but not by daylength. Plants of different treatments followed different strategies for dissipating excess energy. Whereas in the warm summer treatment safe dissipation of excess energy was facilitated via zeaxanthin, in all other treatments dissipation of excess energy was facilitated predominantly via increased aggregation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. These differences were accompanied by a lower deepoxidation state and larger amounts of β-carotene in the warm autumn treatment as well as by changes in

  6. Contrast of local air-sea relationships between 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillations during May-September over the South China Sea and western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Kunhui; Wu, Renguang

    2015-12-01

    Present study compares local air-sea relationship of 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) over the South China Sea (SCS) and western North Pacific (WNP) during May through September for the period 1998-2010. It is shown that sea surface temperature (SST) has a larger intraseasonal variance in the North Indian Ocean, the SCS, and subtropical WNP on the 30-60-day time scale, but in tropical WNP on the 10-20-day time scale. The local correlation of SST with rain, surface shortwave radiation (SWR) and latent heat flux (LHF) displays a southwest-northeast tilted structure on the 10-20-day time scale, but a broad west-east pattern with a larger correlation on the 30-60-day time scale. The time of SST leading rain is larger in off-equatorial regions than in near-equatorial regions for both types of ISOs, whereas the time of rain leading SST is larger in near-equatorial regions than in off-equatorial regions. A similar feature is seen for SWR, but an opposite feature for LHF. The atmospheric ISOs induce intraseasonal SST variations through cloud-radiation and wind-evaporation changes. The intraseasonal SST variations feedback on the atmosphere through modulation of atmospheric stability over off-equatorial regions on both timescales. The SST impacts on the atmosphere appear larger on the 30-60-day time scale than on the 10-20-day time scale. The distinct spatial patterns of local air-sea relationship on the two types of ISOs are associated with different spatial structures in both atmospheric ISO-associated SWR and LHF anomalies and SST-induced atmospheric stability anomalies.

  7. Modeling the Transport and Chemical Evolution of Onshore and Offshore Emissions and their Impact on Local and Regional Air Quality Using a Variable-Grid-Resolution Air Quality Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran Alapaty

    2004-10-16

    This semiannual report summarizes the research performed from 17 April through 16 October 2004. Major portions of the research in several of the project's current eight tasks have been completed, and the results obtained are briefly presented. We have successfully developed the meteorological inputs using the best possible modeling configurations, resulting in improved representation of atmospheric processes. Ingestion of satellite-derived sea surface temperatures in conjunction with the use of our new surface data assimilation technique have resulted in largely improved meteorological inputs to drive the MAQSIP-VGR. The development of the variable-grid-resolution emissions model, SMOKE-VGR, is also largely complete. We expect to develop the final configuration of the SMOKE-VGR during the upcoming reporting period. We are in the process of acquiring the newly released emissions database and offshore emissions data sets to update our archives. The development of the MAQSIP-VGR has been completed and a test run was performed to ensure the functionality of this air quality model. During the upcoming reporting period, we expect to perform the first MAQSIP-VGR simulations over the Houston-Galveston region to study the roles of the meteorology, offshore emissions, and chemistry-transport interactions that determine the temporal and spatial evolution of ozone and its precursors.

  8. The Air up There

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    To engage students in a real-world issue (Bransford, Brown, and Cocking 2000) that affects their communities, the author designed an entire unit to investigate air pollution in their home state, Connecticut. The unit's goal is to understand how the use of resources, such as fossil fuels, might affect their quality of life. Through this unit,…

  9. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  10. Does leaf position within a canopy affect acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO{sub 2}? Analysis of a wheat crop under free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, C.P.; LaRoche, J.; Hendrey, G.R.; Garcia, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.; Wall, G.W.; Pinter, P.J. Jr.; LaMorte, R.L.; Long, S.P. |

    1998-07-01

    Previous studies of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO{sub 2} have focused on the most recently expanded, sunlit leaves in the canopy. The authors examined acclimation in a vertical profile of leaves through a canopy of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The crop was grown at an elevated CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 55 Pa within a replicated field experiment using free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment. Gas exchange was used to estimate in vivo carboxylation capacity and the maximum rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-limited photosynthesis. Net photosynthetic CO{sub 2} uptake was measured for leaves in situ within the canopy. Leaf contents of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), light-harvesting-complex (LHC) proteins, and total N were determined. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not affect carboxylation capacity in the most recently expanded leaves but led to a decrease in lower, shaded leaves during grain development. Despite this acclimation, in situ photosynthetic CO{sub 2} uptake remained higher under elevated CO{sub 2}. Acclimation at elevated CO{sub 2} was accompanied by decreases in both Rubisco and total leaf N contents and an increase in LHC content. Elevated CO{sub 2} led to a larger increase in LHC/Rubisco in lower canopy leaves than in the uppermost leaf. Acclimation of leaf photosynthesis to elevated CO{sub 2} therefore depended on both vertical position within the canopy and the developmental stage.

  11. Monitoring strategy to assessment the air pollution level in Salamanca (México)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Adame, J. M.; Cortina-Januchs, M. G.; Andina, D.; Vega-Corona, A.

    2009-04-01

    Air pollution affects not only the quality of life and the health of the urban population but also forests and agriculture. Agricultural crops can be injured when exposed to high concentrations of various air pollutants. Air pollutants can generally be classed as either local or widespread. Local pollutants are those emitted from a specific stationary source and result in a well-defined zone of vegetation injury or contamination. Most common among the local pollutants are sulphur dioxide, fluorides, ammonia and particulate matter. The paper presents an air monitoring strategy based on data fusion and Artificial Neural Networks. The main objective is to classify automatically the air pollution level as a proposal to assessment the air pollution level affecting the agriculture in Salamanca (Mexico). Salamanca is catalogued as one of the most polluted cities in Mexico. Pollutant concentrations and meteorological variables have been consider in data fusion process in order to build a Representative Pollution Vector (RPV). Meteorological variables (Wind Direction and Wind Speed) are taken as a decision factor in the air pollutant concentration level. RPV is used to train an Artificial Neural Network in order to classify new pollutant events. In the experiments, real time series gathered from the Automatic Environmental Monitoring Network (AEMN) in Salamanca have been used.

  12. Air quality and radiative impacts of Arctic shipping emissions in the summertime in northern Norway: from the local to the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marelle, Louis; Thomas, Jennie L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, Kathy S.; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Johansson, Lasse; Roiger, Anke; Schlager, Hans; Kim, Jin; Reiter, Anja; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we quantify the impacts of shipping pollution on air quality and shortwave radiative effect in northern Norway, using WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with chemistry) simulations combined with high-resolution, real-time STEAM2 (Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model version 2) shipping emissions. STEAM2 emissions are evaluated using airborne measurements from the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society) aircraft campaign, which was conducted in the summer 2012, in two ways. First, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are derived for specific ships by combining in situ measurements in ship plumes and FLEXPART-WRF plume dispersion modeling, and these values are compared to STEAM2 emissions for the same ships. Second, regional WRF-Chem runs with and without STEAM2 ship emissions are performed at two different resolutions, 3 km × 3 km and 15 km × 15 km, and evaluated against measurements along flight tracks and average campaign profiles in the marine boundary layer and lower troposphere. These comparisons show that differences between STEAM2 emissions and calculated emissions can be quite large (-57 to +148 %) for individual ships, but that WRF-Chem simulations using STEAM2 emissions reproduce well the average NOx, SO2 and O3 measured during ACCESS flights. The same WRF-Chem simulations show that the magnitude of NOx and ozone (O3) production from ship emissions at the surface is not very sensitive (< 5 %) to the horizontal grid resolution (15 or 3 km), while surface PM10 particulate matter enhancements due to ships are moderately sensitive (15 %) to resolution. The 15 km resolution WRF-Chem simulations are used to estimate the regional impacts of shipping pollution in northern Norway. Our results indicate that ship emissions are an important source of pollution along the Norwegian coast, enhancing 15-day-averaged surface concentrations of NOx ( ˜ +80 %), SO2 ( ˜ +80 %), O3 ( ˜ +5 %), black carbon (

  13. Guess-Work and Reasonings on Centennial Evolution of Surface Air Temperature in Russia. Part II: Is it Possible to Research Both Local Peculiarities and Regional Tendencies from the Bifurcation Analysis Viewpoint?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokolov, Yury; Monovskaya, Anna

    This paper is devoted to the development of the experimental bifurcation analysis in the research of local climate dynamics. In particular, we consider the dynamics of the land surface air temperature in the centennial timescale. The experimental bifurcation analysis supposes the choice of a conceptual model to demonstrate how the observable kinds of dynamical processes can be realized on the whole. We worked on the conceptual model with a variable structure (HDS-model), where the dynamics is determined by the competition between the amplitude quantization and the time quantization. The model originates from the hysteresis regulator with double synchronization (HDS-regulator) proposed in 1970’s to achieve the extreme combination of both efficiency and reliability of energy conversion processes. The HDS-model allows to consider the interplay between several periodical processes instead of chaos and quasi-periodicity in order to excuse the variety of the behaviors observed in the local climate dynamics. In particular, the intermittency seems to be the typical behavior of a local climate system from such viewpoint. Here we continue to verify the HDS-model and continue to develop the idea of the modified bifurcation diagrams to reveal the regularities within the intermittency. In particular, we first build the spatial diagram to summarize the results of the bifurcation analysis of the local climate dynamics in the centennial timescale. We assume that each effect of the regional temperature oscillations (RTO-effect) appears as a certain combination of several effects of the local temperature oscillations (LTO-effects), where each LTO-effect can be revealed by the bifurcation analysis. The possibility to build the modified bifurcation diagrams is provided by the SUC-logic aimed for the synthesis of experimental bifurcation analysis, symbolical analysis, and multidimensional data visualization under the assumption that an annual warming-cooling cycle is the unit to

  14. [Analysis of the impact of two typical air pollution events on the air quality of Nanjing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Bin; Kang, Han-Qing; Gao, Jin-Hui; Wang, Yin; Jiang, Qi

    2012-10-01

    Nanjing and the surrounding area have experienced two consecutive serious air pollution events from late October to early November in 2009. The first event was long-lasting haze pollution, and the second event was resulted from the mixed impact of crop residue burning and local transportation. The effects of regional transport and local sources on the two events were discussed by cluster analysis, using surface meteorological observations, air pollution index, satellite remote sensing of fire hot spots data and back trajectory model. The results showed that the accumulation-mode aerosol number concentrations were higher than those of any other aerosol modes in the two pollution processes. The peak value of aerosol particle number concentrations shifted to large particle size compare with the previous studies in this area. The ratio of SO4(2-)/NO3(-) was 1.30 and 0.99, indicating that stationary sources were more important than traffic sources in the first event and the reverse in the second event. Affected by the local sources from east and south, the particle counts below 0.1 microm gradually accumulated in the first event. The second event was mainly affected by a short-distance transport from northeast and local sources from southwest, especially south, the concentration of aerosol particles was higher than those in other directions, indicating that the sources of crop residue burning were mainly in this direction. PMID:23234001

  15. DESTRUCTION OF AIR EMISSIONS USING CATALYTIC OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses key emission stream characteristics and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) characteristics that affect the applicability of catalytic oxidation as an air pollution control technique in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and vapor-phase air toxics in an air emi...

  16. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  17. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor AirDistribution (UFAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Tom

    2004-06-01

    Recent trends in today's office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental preferences of individual officer workers using the standardized approach of providing a single uniform thermal and ventilation environment. Since its original introduction in West Germany during the 1950s, the open plan office containing modular workstation furniture and partitions is now the norm. Thermostatically controlled zones in open plan offices typically encompass relatively large numbers of workstations in which a diverse work population having a wide range of preferred temperatures must be accommodated. Modern office buildings are also being impacted by a large influx of heat-generating equipment (computers, printers, etc.) whose loads may vary considerably from workstation to workstation. Offices are often reconfigured during the building's lifetime to respond to changing tenant needs, affecting the distribution of within-space loads and the ventilation pathways among and over office partitions. Compounding this problem, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of the comfort, health, and productivity of individual office workers, giving rise to an increased demand among employers and employees for a high-quality work environment. During recent years an increasing amount of attention has been paid to air distribution systems that individually condition the immediate environments of office workers within their workstations to address the issues outlined above. As with task/ambient lighting systems, the controls for the ''task'' components of these systems are partially or entirely decentralized and under the control of the occupants. Typically, the occupant has control over the speed and direction, and in some cases the temperature, of the incoming air supply. Variously called ''task/ambient conditioning,'' ''localized thermal distribution,'' and ''personalized air conditioning'' systems, these

  18. The role of differences in individual and community attributes in perceived air quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myounghee; Yi, Okhee; Kim, Ho

    2012-05-15

    Most epidemiological studies on the adverse effects of air pollution on health have focused on scientific measurements of air quality provided by monitoring stations. However, many studies have indicated that self-reported health status, such as disease severity and depressive symptoms, are associated with perceived air pollution rather than measured air pollution. The main goal of this study was to investigate social factors that may affect perceived local air quality using a multilevel analysis among a Korean population. We used the Seoul Citizens Health Indicator Survey (SCHIS III) and five air pollutants. The total study population was 16,041. We considered individual-level and community-level variables that may affect perceived air quality, such as the percentage of college-educated individuals aged >20 years, satisfaction with public transportation, and the percentage of individuals below the poverty line. Measured air quality showed a negative or neutral relationship with perceived air quality. We found that the degree of perceived air pollution was associated with younger age (20-34 years; OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.18-1.65), married and divorced/separated/widowed people, a higher level of education (>17 years; OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.30-2.15), and lower household income. Communities that were more economically deprived were associated with poor perceived air quality. Differences in individual and community characteristics affected perceived air quality. Perception is a key factor influencing the public acceptance of environmental policy. This study may help policymakers understand the social distribution of environmental awareness. PMID:22483745

  19. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  20. Conditions for free-air laser communications in Buenos Aires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sica, D. S.; Castro, E. H.

    2005-08-01

    The wavelength, availability, range and power budget of an infrared free-space laser communication system critically depend on the atmospheric channel, which in turn is closely related to local weather conditions. As a result, the atmospheric propagation characteristics of the transmission medium must be taken into account from the beginning in the design of a free-space laser communication link. The most important linear effects that affect the attenuation of laser beam propagation through the atmosphere are absorption, scattering and turbulence. Weather parameters such as humidity, temperature and visibility are essential in determining the performance of a free-space laser communication system. Based on weather data recorded in Buenos Aires city (Argentina) at every hour during two years and made available to us by the Servicio Meteorologico Nacional (National Meteorological Service of the Argentinean Air Force), we calculate attenuation of laser radiation for an horizontal transmission path of 1 km for a near infrared direct detection optical communication system. Then, with these results, we estimate link availability and draw conclusions about when it is more convenient to transfer information.

  1. Detailed Comparison of Blast Effects in Air and Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, J W; Molitoris, J D; Garza, R G; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J D; Lauderbach, L M; Vincent, E R; Wong, B M

    2007-07-26

    Although blast mitigation is most often achieved with solid shielding, ambient gas pressure can also affect the coupling of shock waves to solid targets. In this work the role of air as an energy transfer medium was examined experimentally by subjecting identical large-area rectangular witness plates to short-range blast effects in air and vacuum ({approx}50 mtorr) at 25 C. The expanding reactant front of 3 kg C4 charges was observed by fast camera to be cylindrically symmetric in both air and vacuum. The horizontal component of the reactant cloud velocity (perpendicular to the witness plates) was constant in both cases, with values of 3.0 and 5.9 km/s for air and vacuum, respectively. As a result of the blast, witness plates were plastically deformed into a shallow dish geometry, with local maxima 30 and 20 mm deep for air and vacuum, respectively. The average plate deflection from the air blast was 11 mm, {approx}10% deeper than the average vacuum plate deflection. Shock pressure estimates were made with a simple impedance-matching model, and indicate peak values in the 30-50 MPa range are consistent with the reactant cloud density and velocity. However, more detailed analysis is necessary to definitely establish the mechanisms by which air couples shock energy to the plates.

  2. Air pollution and adverse cardiac remodeling: clinical effects and basic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yonggang; Goodson, Jamie M.; Zhang, Bo; Chin, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has long been known to trigger cardiovascular events, primarily through activation of local and systemic inflammatory pathways that affect the vasculature. Detrimental effects of air pollution exposure on heart failure and cardiac remodeling have also been described in human populations. Recent studies in both human subjects and animal models have provided insights into the basic physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms that play a role in adverse cardiac remodeling. This review will give a brief overview of the relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease, describe the clinical effects of air pollution exposure on cardiac remodeling, describe the basic mechanisms that affect remodeling as described in human and animal systems and will discuss future areas of investigation. PMID:26042051

  3. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. PMID:25461063

  4. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  5. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Location Map Center Forecast AQI Current AQI Current Ozone Current PM AQI Loop Ozone Loop PM Loop Action Day Maps by Monitor ... Partners Kids Movies NAQ Conferences NOAA Older Adults Ozone Particle Pollution (PM2.5, PM10) Publications Publicaciones (En ...

  6. Megacities, air quality and climate: Seamless prediction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research. Highlights • Climate, air quality and megacities interactions: gaps in knowledge, research needs. • Urban hazards: pollution episodes, storm surge, flooding, heat waves, public health. • Global climate change affects megacities' climate, environment and comfort. • Growing urbanization requires integrated weather, environment and climate monitoring systems. • New generation of multi-scale models and seamless integrated urban services are needed. Reference Baklanov, A., L.T. Molina, M. Gauss (2016) Megacities, air quality and climate. Atmospheric Environment, 126: 235-249. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.11.059

  7. Indoor Air Quality: Is Increased Ventilation the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley

    1989-01-01

    Explains how indoor air quality is affected by pollutants in the air and also by temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Increased ventilation alone seldom solves the "sick building syndrome." Lists ways to improve indoor air quality and optimize energy efficiency. (MLF)

  8. Incinerator air emissions: Inhalation exposure perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, H.W.

    1995-12-01

    Incineration is often proposed as the treatment of choice for processing diverse wastes, particularly hazardous wastes. Where such treatment is proposed, people are often fearful that it will adversely affect their health. Unfortunately, information presented to the public about incinerators often does not include any criteria or benchmarks for evaluating such facilities. This article describes a review of air emission data from regulatory trial burns in a large prototype incinerator, operated at design capacity by the US Army to destroy chemical warfare materials. It uses several sets of criteria to gauge the threat that these emissions pose to public health. Incinerator air emission levels are evaluated with respect to various toxicity screening levels and ambient air levels of the same pollutants. Also, emission levels of chlorinated dioxins and furans are compared with emission levels of two common combustion sources. Such comparisons can add to a community`s understanding of health risks associated with an incinerator. This article focuses only on the air exposure/inhalation pathway as related to human health. It does not address other potential human exposure pathways or the possible effects of emissions on the local ecology, both of which should also be examined during a complete analysis of any major new facility.

  9. Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles T.

    This paper addresses itself to the question, "What does feeling have to do with knowing?" Two movements in affective education are discussed which have come into focus in recent years and which attempt to define the relationship between knowing and feeling. The first, a conscious application of the role of arousal in learning, emphasizes arousal…

  10. PLANT RESPONSE TO AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. ince leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbo...

  11. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  12. Navajo coal and air quality in Shiprock, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, Joseph E.; Garcia, Linda V.

    2006-01-01

    Among the Navajo people, high levels of respiratory disease, such as asthma, exist in a population with low rates of cigarette smoking. Air quality outdoors and indoors affects respiratory health. Many Navajo Nation residents burn locally mined coal in their homes for heat, as coal is the most economical energy source. The U.S. Geological Survey and Dine College, in cooperation with the Navajo Division of Health, are conducting a study in the Shiprock, New Mexico, area to determine if indoor use of this coal might be contributing to some of the respiratory health problems experienced by the residents. Researchers in this study will (1) examine respiratory health data, (2) identify stove type and use, (3) analyze samples of coal that are used locally, and (4) measure and characterize air quality inside selected homes. This Fact Sheet summarizes the interim results of the study in both English and Navajo.

  13. Evaluation of air quality in Chengdu, Sichuan Basin, China: are China's air quality standards sufficient yet?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Jaffe, Daniel; Tang, Ya; Bresnahan, Meaghan; Song, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Air quality evaluation is important in order to inform the public about the risk level of air pollution to human health. To better assess air quality, China released its new national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS-2012) and the new method to classify air quality level (AQL) in 2012. In this study, we examined the performance of China's NAAQS-2012 and AQL classification method through applying them, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and the US AQL classification method to evaluate air quality in Chengdu, the largest city in southwestern China. The results show that annual mean concentrations of PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, SO₂, NO₂, and O₃ at the seven urban sites were in the ranges of 138-161, 87-98, 18-32, 54-70, and 42-57 μg/m(3), respectively, and the annual mean concentrations of CO were in the range of 1.09-1.28 mg/m(3). Chengdu is located in one of the four largest regions affected by haze in China, and PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were the top air pollutants, with annual concentrations over 2 times of their standards in NAAQS-2012 and over 7 times of the WHO guidelines. Annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were much lower at the background site (LYS) than at the urban sites, but the annual mean concentrations of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ at LYS were 3.5 and 5.7 times of the WHO guidelines, respectively. These suggest that severe air pollution in Chengdu was largely associated with local emissions but also related to regional air pollution. The compliance rates of PM₁₀ , PM₂.₅, SO₂, and O₃ met China's NAAQS-2012 standards four times more frequently than they met the WHO guidelines, as NAAQS-2012 uses the loosest interim target (IT) standards of WHO for these four pollutants. Air pollution in Chengdu was estimated and stated to be less severe using China's classification than using the US classification, as China uses weaker concentration breakpoints and benign descriptions of AQL. Furthermore, China's AQL classification method

  14. Perspectives on Localized Corrosion in Thin Layers of Particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Payer, Joe H.; Kelly, Robert G.

    2007-07-01

    The requirements for the initiation and propagation of localized corrosion are reviewed, and the stability criteria for sustained localized corrosion are discussed. A conceptual framework is applied to a specific scenario of a hot metal surface covered by a thin layer of particulate containing dissolvable salts in the presence of air of limited humidity. A number of processes are demonstrated to affect the crevice corrosion propagation, stifling and arrest. Contributions of the particulate layer properties, the anode, cathode and coupled processes are identified, showing that any of these can control localized corrosion propagation. Whether stifling or arrest occur will depend upon the material and environmental conditions for a given case. The findings add to the technical basis for the analysis of localized corrosion by a decision tree methodology. (authors)

  15. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  16. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  17. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  18. The particles in town air

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, J. McK.

    1965-01-01

    Particles constitute an important part of air pollution, and their behaviour when suspended in air is very different from that of gas molecules: in particular, the mechanisms by which they become deposited on surfaces are different, and consequently the methods normally used for removing particles from the air, either for sampling or for cleaning it, rely mainly on mechanisms that do not enter into the behaviour of gas molecules. These mechanisms are described, and the ways in which they affect the problems of air pollution and its measurement are discussed. ImagesFIG. 8 PMID:14315713

  19. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry. Task 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation`s air quality. The aspects of the President`s plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below.

  20. Impact of air pollution control costs on the cost and spatial arrangement of cellulosic biofuel production in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Colin W; Parker, Nathan C

    2014-02-18

    Air pollution emissions regulation can affect the location, size, and technology choice of potential biofuel production facilities. Difficulty in obtaining air pollutant emission permits and the cost of air pollution control devices have been cited by some fuel producers as barriers to development. This paper expands on the Geospatial Bioenergy Systems Model (GBSM) to evaluate the effect of air pollution control costs on the availability, cost, and distribution of U.S. biofuel production by subjecting potential facility locations within U.S. Clean Air Act nonattainment areas, which exceed thresholds for healthy air quality, to additional costs. This paper compares three scenarios: one with air quality costs included, one without air quality costs, and one in which conversion facilities were prohibited in Clean Air Act nonattainment areas. While air quality regulation may substantially affect local decisions regarding siting or technology choices, their effect on the system as a whole is small. Most biofuel facilities are expected to be sited near to feedstock supplies, which are seldom in nonattainment areas. The average cost per unit of produced energy is less than 1% higher in the scenarios with air quality compliance costs than in scenarios without such costs. When facility construction is prohibited in nonattainment areas, the costs increase by slightly over 1%, due to increases in the distance feedstock is transported to facilities in attainment areas. PMID:24467277

  1. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  2. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  3. Will joint regional air pollution control be more cost-effective? An empirical study of China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2015-02-01

    By following an empirical approach, this study proves that joint regional air pollution control (JRAPC) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region will save the expense on air pollution control compared with a locally-based pollution control strategy. The evidences below were found. (A) Local pollutant concentration in some of the cities is significantly affected by emissions from their surrounding areas. (B) There is heterogeneity in the marginal pollutant concentration reduction cost among various districts as a result of the cities' varying contribution of unit emission reduction to the pollutant concentration reduction, and their diverse unit cost of emission reduction brought about by their different industry composition. The results imply that the cost-efficiency of air pollution control will be improved in China if the conventional locally based regime of air pollution control can shift to a regionally based one. PMID:25463568

  4. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  5. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  6. Gasoline Composition Regulations Affecting LUST Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990 imposed requirements on gasoline composition in the United States. Impacts to ground water are affected by the provisions that required oxygenated additives and limited benzene concentration. Reformulated and oxygenated gasoline w...

  7. Application of meteorology-based methods to determine local and external contributions to particulate matter pollution: A case study in Venice (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    The air quality is influenced by the potential effects of meteorology at meso- and synoptic scales. While local weather and mixing layer dynamics mainly drive the dispersion of sources at small scales, long-range transports affect the movements of air masses over regional, transboundary and even continental scales. Long-range transport may advect polluted air masses from hot-spots by increasing the levels of pollution at nearby or remote locations or may further raise air pollution levels where external air masses originate from other hot-spots. Therefore, the knowledge of ground-wind circulation and potential long-range transports is fundamental not only to evaluate how local or external sources may affect the air quality at a receptor site but also to quantify it. This review is focussed on establishing the relationships among PM2.5 sources, meteorological condition and air mass origin in the Po Valley, which is one of the most polluted areas in Europe. We have chosen the results from a recent study carried out in Venice (Eastern Po Valley) and have analysed them using different statistical approaches to understand the influence of external and local contribution of PM2.5 sources. External contributions were evaluated by applying Trajectory Statistical Methods (TSMs) based on back-trajectory analysis including (i) back-trajectories cluster analysis, (ii) potential source contribution function (PSCF) and (iii) concentration weighted trajectory (CWT). Furthermore, the relationships between the source contributions and ground-wind circulation patterns were investigated by using (iv) cluster analysis on wind data and (v) conditional probability function (CPF). Finally, local source contribution have been estimated by applying the Lenschow' approach. In summary, the integrated approach of different techniques has successfully identified both local and external sources of particulate matter pollution in a European hot-spot affected by the worst air quality.

  8. An Exploration, for the Upper Indus Basin, of Elevation Dependency in the Relationships Between Locally Observed Near Surface Air Temperature (SAT) and Remotely-Sensed Land Surface Temperature (LST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, N. D.; Fowler, H. J.; Blenkinsop, S.; Kilsby, C. G.; Archer, D. R.; Hardy, A. J.; Holderness, T. D. C.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of ground-based observations of near-surface air temperature (SAT) is extremely skewed toward low elevation areas. Land surface temperature (LST) remote sensing data products -- from thermal and infrared wavelength satellite imagery -- provide spatial coverage independent of elevation, although they only provide values for "clear sky" conditions, the prevalence of which may be influenced by elevation-dependent factors. It is thus imperative for researchers studying EDW to characterise the relationship between observations of "all-sky" SAT and "clear-sky" thermal/infrared (TIR) LST in order to overcome the extreme sparseness of SAT observations at high elevations. Drawing on local SAT observation data from both manned meteorological stations and AWS units covering an elevation range from 1500 to 4700m asl in the Upper Indus Basin, coupled with cloud climatologies from MODIS and global reanalyses, this study develops "clear-sky" and "all-sky" comparative, site-based climatologies of: [a] ground-observed SAT [b] reanalysis SAT and LST (skin surface temperature) Relationships between these climatologies and corresponding clear-sky/TIR satellite-retrieved LST are quantitatively assessed in the context of elevation-dependency and cloud cover prevalence. The implications of these relationships are discussed in the context of efforts to develop a multi-decadal TIR LST data product. While multi-decadal and even centennial trends are calculated from station-based observations of SAT, the relatively short record lengths of satellite-borne instruments used to produce currently available TIR LST data products better lend themselves to characterisation of interannual variability than trend calculation. Thus progress is detailed on EDW-driven efforts to validate such an LST product for the Himalayan region using historical imagery from the second and third generation of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/2, AVHRR/3) instrument flown on NOAA

  9. Predictors of intra-community variation in air quality

    PubMed Central

    FRANKLIN, MEREDITH; VORA, HITA; AVOL, EDWARD; McCONNELL, ROB; LURMANN, FRED; LIU, FEIFEI; PENFOLD, BRYAN; BERHANE, KIROS; GILLILAND, FRANK; GAUDERMAN, W. JAMES

    2015-01-01

    Air quality has emerged as a key determinant of important health outcomes in children and adults. This study aims to identify factors that influence local, within-community air quality, and to build a model for traffic-related air pollution (TRP).We utilized concentrations of NO2, NO, and total oxides of nitrogen (NOx), which were measured at 942 locations in 12 southern California communities. For each location, population density, elevation, land-use, and several indicators of traffic were calculated. A spatial random effects model was used to study the relationship of these predictors to each TRP.Variation in TRP was strongly correlated with traffic on nearby freeways and other major roads, and also with population density and elevation. After accounting for traffic, categories of land-use were not associated with the pollutants. Traffic had a larger relative impact in small urban (low regional pollution) communities than in large urban (high regional pollution) communities. For example, our best fitting model explained 70% of the variation in NOx in large urban areas and 76% in small urban areas. Compared with living at least 1,500m from a freeway, living within 250m of a freeway was associated with up to a 41% increase in TRP in a large urban area, and up to a 75% increase in small urban areas.Thus, traffic strongly affects local air quality in large and small urban areas, which has implications for exposure assessment and estimation of health risks. PMID:22252279

  10. Sex ratios of births, mortality, and air pollution: can measuring the sex ratios of births help to identify health hazards from air pollution in industrial environments?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, F L; Ogston, S A; Lloyd, O L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the sex ratios of births and mortality in 12 Scottish localities with residential exposure to pollution from a variety of industrial sources with those in 12 nearby and comparable localities without such exposure. METHODS--24 localities were defined by postcode sectors. SMRs for lung cancer and for all causes of death and sex ratios of births were calculated for each locality for the years 1979-83. Log linear regression was used to assess the relation between exposure, sex ratios, and mortality. RESULTS--Mortalities from all causes were consistently and significantly higher in the residential areas exposed to air pollution than in the non-exposed areas. A similar, but less consistently significant, excess of mortality from lung cancer in the exposed areas was also found. The associations between exposure to the general air pollution and abnormal sex ratios, and between abnormal sex ratios and mortality, were negligible. CONCLUSIONS--Sex ratios were not consistently affected when the concentrations or components of the air pollution were insufficiently toxic to cause substantially increased death rates. Monitoring of the sex ratio does not provide a reliable screening measure for detecting cryptic health hazards from industrial air pollution in the general residential environment. PMID:7735388

  11. Study of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Low density air transport refers to air service to sparsely populated regions. There are two major objectives. The first is to examine those characteristics of sparsely populated areas which pertain to air transportation. This involves determination of geographical, commercial and population trends, as well as those traveler characteristics which affect the viability of air transport in the region. The second objective is to analyze the technical, economic and operational characteristics of low density air service. Two representative, but diverse arenas, West Virginia and Arizona, were selected for analysis: The results indicate that Arizona can support air service under certain assumptions whereas West Virginia cannot.

  12. Anderson Localization of Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Müller, Cord A.; Delande, Dominique; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2009-11-01

    At low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with an attractive interaction forms a bright soliton. When exposed to a weak and smooth external potential, the shape of the soliton is hardly modified, but its center-of-mass motion is affected. We show that in a spatially correlated disordered potential, the quantum motion of a bright soliton displays Anderson localization. The localization length can be much larger than the soliton size and could be observed experimentally.

  13. Anderson Localization of Solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Mueller, Cord A.; Delande, Dominique

    2009-11-20

    At low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with an attractive interaction forms a bright soliton. When exposed to a weak and smooth external potential, the shape of the soliton is hardly modified, but its center-of-mass motion is affected. We show that in a spatially correlated disordered potential, the quantum motion of a bright soliton displays Anderson localization. The localization length can be much larger than the soliton size and could be observed experimentally.

  14. Mapping Emissions that Contribute to Air Pollution Using Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, L. A. J.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Brown, N. J.; Harley, R.

    2014-12-01

    The adjoint of the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) is used to map emissions that contribute to air pollution at receptors of interest. Adjoint tools provide an efficient way to calculate the sensitivity of a model response to a large number of model inputs, a task that would require thousands of simulations using a more traditional forward sensitivity approach. Initial applications of this technique, demonstrated here, are to benzene and directly-emitted diesel particulate matter, for which atmospheric reactions are neglected. Emissions of these pollutants are strongly influenced by light-duty gasoline vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks, respectively. We study air quality responses in three receptor areas where populations have been identified as especially susceptible to, and adversely affected by air pollution. Population-weighted air basin-wide responses for each pollutant are also evaluated for the entire San Francisco Bay area. High-resolution (1 km horizontal grid) emission inventories have been developed for on-road motor vehicle emission sources, based on observed traffic count data. Emission estimates represent diurnal, day of week, and seasonal variations of on-road vehicle activity, with separate descriptions for gasoline and diesel sources. Emissions that contribute to air pollution at each receptor have been mapped in space and time using the adjoint method. Effects on air quality of both relative (multiplicative) and absolute (additive) perturbations to underlying emission inventories are analyzed. The contributions of local versus upwind sources to air quality in each receptor area are quantified, and weekday/weekend and seasonal variations in the influence of emissions from upwind areas are investigated. The contribution of local sources to the total air pollution burden within the receptor areas increases from about 40% in the summer to about 50% in the winter due to increased atmospheric stagnation. The effectiveness of control

  15. Functional Domains of Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) Modulate INS-VNTR Transcription in Human Thymic Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Avis E; Chen, Chiachen; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S

    2016-05-20

    INS-VNTR (insulin-variable number of tandem repeats) and AIRE (autoimmune regulator) have been associated with the modulation of insulin gene expression in thymus, which is essential to induce either insulin tolerance or the development of insulin autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. We sought to analyze whether each functional domain of AIRE is critical for the activation of INS-VNTR in human thymic epithelial cells. Twelve missense or nonsense mutations in AIRE and two chimeric AIRE constructs were generated. A luciferase reporter assay and a pulldown assay using biotinylated INS-class I VNTR probe were performed to examine the transactivation and binding activities of WT, mutant, and chimeric AIREs on the INS-VNTR promoter. Confocal microscopy analysis was performed for WT or mutant AIRE cellular localization. We found that all of the AIRE mutations resulted in loss of transcriptional activation of INS-VNTR except mutant P252L. Using WT/mutant AIRE heterozygous forms to modulate the INS-VNTR target revealed five mutations (R257X, G228W, C311fsX376, L397fsX478, and R433fsX502) that functioned in a dominant negative fashion. The LXXLL-3 motif is identified for the first time to be essential for DNA binding to INS-VNTR, whereas the intact PHD1, PHD2, LXXLL-3, and LXXLL-4 motifs were important for successful transcriptional activation. AIRE nuclear localization in the human thymic epithelial cell line was disrupted by mutations in the homogenously staining region domain and the R257X mutation in the PHD1 domain. This study supports the notion that AIRE mutation could specifically affect human insulin gene expression in thymic epithelial cells through INS-VNTR and subsequently induce either insulin tolerance or autoimmunity. PMID:27048654

  16. Air emissions and control technology for leather tanning and finishing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsch, B.F.; Howie, R.H.; McClintock, S.C.

    1993-06-01

    The document provides information for use in assessing appropriate measures to control volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from leather tanning and finishing facilities. It also provides a general description of the industry; describes the key processes employed in manufacturing leather; characterizes the emissions of VOC's and HAPs from the industry; describes applicable emission reduction technologies; and finally, discusses current State and local air pollution regulations affecting the industry.

  17. Mobile Air Monitoring Data Processing Strategies and Effects on Spatial Air Pollution Trends

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection of real-time air quality measurements while in motion (i.e., mobile monitoring) is currently conducted worldwide to evaluate in situ emissions, local air quality trends, and air pollutant exposure. This measurement strategy pushes the limits of traditional data an...

  18. AIR QUALITY DATA FOR METALS 1977 THROUGH 1979 FROM THE NATIONAL AIR SURVEILLANCE NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Air Surveillance Network, which has existed for over 20 years, provides air quality information for many urban and nonurban locations within the United States. The data in this publication were collected with the generous support of the many state and local air pollu...

  19. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  20. Design of Solar Heat Sheet for Air Heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, S. Shanmuga; Premalatha, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, I.

    2011-12-01

    The technique of harnessing solar energy for drying offers significant potential to dry agricultural products such as food grains, fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants, thereby eliminating many of the problems experienced with open-sun drying and industrial drying, besides saving huge quantities of fossil fuels. A great deal of experimental work over the last few decades has already demonstrated that agricultural products can be satisfactorily dehydrated using solar energy. Various designs of small scale solar dryers have been developed in the recent past, mainly for drying agricultural products. Major problems experienced with solar dryers are their non-reliability as their operation largely depends on local weather conditions. While back-up heaters and hybrid dryers partly solved this issue, difficulties in controlling the drying air temperature and flow rate remains a problem, and affects the quality of the dried product. This study is aimed at eliminating the fluctuations in the quality of hot air supplied by simple solar air heaters used for drying fruits, vegetables and other applications. It is an attempt to analyse the applicability of the combination of an glazed transpired solar collector (tank), thermal storage and a intake fan(suction fan) to achieve a steady supply of air at a different atmospheric temperature and flow rate for drying fruits and vegetables. Development of an efficient, low-cost and reliable air heating system for drying applications is done.

  1. Effect of atomization air on droplet dynamics of spray flames

    SciTech Connect

    Presser, C.; Semerjian, H.G. . Center for Chemical Technology); Gupta, A.K. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1988-01-01

    Fuel spray combustions is an important part of a wide variety of propulsion and power systems such as furnaces and gas turbine combustors, afterburners, fuel-injection internal combustion engines, liquid rocket engines, etc. Recent studies using air-assist nozzles have shown that the design and fabrication of these nozzles can directly influence spray circumferential uniformity, i.e., the presence of asymmetrical fuel flux profiles in combustors. The practical implications of these fuel flux nonuniformities are that they seriously alter the spray structure, which subsequently affects droplet/air interactions, local fuel/air mixing, overall flame characteristics and combustor performance, and pollutant emission levels. In addition, the effect of aerodynamic factors on spray characteristics has been investigated. This paper discusses the effect of atomization air on the droplet dynamics of spray flames formed by an air-assist nozzle. Presented are spatial distributions of mean droplet velocity and their probability distributions, which provide quantitative information for examination of the observed spray flame features.

  2. Soil carbon storage and N{sub 2}O emissions from wheat agroecosystems as affected by free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) and nitrogen treatments. Final Report - February 12, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Leavitt; A. D. Matthias; T. L. Thompson; R. A. Rauschkolb

    1999-02-17

    Rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have prompted concern about response of plants and crops to future elevated CO{sub 2} levels, and particularly the extent to which ecosystems will sequester carbon and thus impact the rate of rise of CO{sub 2} concentrations. Free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) experimentation was used with wheat agroecosystems for two growing seasons to assess effects of CO{sub 2} and soil nitrogen. Over 20 researchers on this experiment variously examined plant production and grain yield, phenology, length of growing season, water-use efficiency ecosystem production, below ground processes (eg, root and microbial activity, carbon and nitrogen cycling), etc.

  3. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of

  4. The new Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabha, A.P. ); Olem, H. )

    1991-05-01

    This article is a title by title review of the new Clean Air Act and how it affects water quality and wastewater treatment. The bill provides for restoring and protecting lakes and rivers by reducing acid-rain-causing emissions and toxics from nonpoint-source runoff. Topics covered include urban smog, mobile sources, air toxics, acid rain, permits, ozone-depleting chemicals, enforcement, and the law's socio-economic impacts.

  5. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  6. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  7. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  8. Air Trafficco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasunic, Kevin

    1970-01-01

    The work of the 14,000 air traffic controllers can be both challenging and nerve-racking. Concentration, steady nerves, and a clear voice are required to remember the routing and identification of the maze of aircraft and to instruct each of them accurately. Controllers must have a high school diploma and three years work experience or a college…

  9. Nitrogen Starvation and TorC1 Inhibition Differentially Affect Nuclear Localization of the Gln3 and Gat1 Transcription Factors Through the Rare Glutamine tRNACUG in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jennifer J.; Rai, Rajendra; Cooper, Terrance G.

    2015-01-01

    A leucine, leucyl-tRNA synthetase–dependent pathway activates TorC1 kinase and its downstream stimulation of protein synthesis, a major nitrogen consumer. We previously demonstrated, however, that control of Gln3, a transcription activator of catabolic genes whose products generate the nitrogenous precursors for protein synthesis, is not subject to leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. This led us to conclude that excess nitrogen-dependent down-regulation of Gln3 occurs via a second mechanism that is independent of leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. A major site of Gln3 and Gat1 (another GATA-binding transcription activator) control occurs at their access to the nucleus. In excess nitrogen, Gln3 and Gat1 are sequestered in the cytoplasm in a Ure2-dependent manner. They become nuclear and activate transcription when nitrogen becomes limiting. Long-term nitrogen starvation and treatment of cells with the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (Msx) also elicit nuclear Gln3 localization. The sensitivity of Gln3 localization to glutamine and inhibition of glutamine synthesis prompted us to investigate the effects of a glutamine tRNA mutation (sup70-65) on nitrogen-responsive control of Gln3 and Gat1. We found that nuclear Gln3 localization elicited by short- and long-term nitrogen starvation; growth in a poor, derepressive medium; Msx or rapamycin treatment; or ure2Δ mutation is abolished in a sup70-65 mutant. However, nuclear Gat1 localization, which also exhibits a glutamine tRNACUG requirement for its response to short-term nitrogen starvation or growth in proline medium or a ure2Δ mutation, does not require tRNACUG for its response to rapamycin. Also, in contrast with Gln3, Gat1 localization does not respond to long-term nitrogen starvation. These observations demonstrate the existence of a specific nitrogen-responsive component participating in the control of Gln3 and Gat1 localization and their downstream production of nitrogenous precursors

  10. Nitrogen starvation and TorC1 inhibition differentially affect nuclear localization of the Gln3 and Gat1 transcription factors through the rare glutamine tRNACUG in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jennifer J; Rai, Rajendra; Cooper, Terrance G

    2015-02-01

    A leucine, leucyl-tRNA synthetase-dependent pathway activates TorC1 kinase and its downstream stimulation of protein synthesis, a major nitrogen consumer. We previously demonstrated, however, that control of Gln3, a transcription activator of catabolic genes whose products generate the nitrogenous precursors for protein synthesis, is not subject to leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. This led us to conclude that excess nitrogen-dependent down-regulation of Gln3 occurs via a second mechanism that is independent of leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. A major site of Gln3 and Gat1 (another GATA-binding transcription activator) control occurs at their access to the nucleus. In excess nitrogen, Gln3 and Gat1 are sequestered in the cytoplasm in a Ure2-dependent manner. They become nuclear and activate transcription when nitrogen becomes limiting. Long-term nitrogen starvation and treatment of cells with the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (Msx) also elicit nuclear Gln3 localization. The sensitivity of Gln3 localization to glutamine and inhibition of glutamine synthesis prompted us to investigate the effects of a glutamine tRNA mutation (sup70-65) on nitrogen-responsive control of Gln3 and Gat1. We found that nuclear Gln3 localization elicited by short- and long-term nitrogen starvation; growth in a poor, derepressive medium; Msx or rapamycin treatment; or ure2Δ mutation is abolished in a sup70-65 mutant. However, nuclear Gat1 localization, which also exhibits a glutamine tRNACUG requirement for its response to short-term nitrogen starvation or growth in proline medium or a ure2Δ mutation, does not require tRNACUG for its response to rapamycin. Also, in contrast with Gln3, Gat1 localization does not respond to long-term nitrogen starvation. These observations demonstrate the existence of a specific nitrogen-responsive component participating in the control of Gln3 and Gat1 localization and their downstream production of nitrogenous precursors. This

  11. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    PubMed Central

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

  12. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on air pollution-related health effects in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bernard, S M; Samet, J M; Grambsch, A; Ebi, K L; Romieu, I

    2001-05-01

    Climate change may affect exposures to air pollutants by affecting weather, anthropogenic emissions, and biogenic emissions and by changing the distribution and types of airborne allergens. Local temperature, precipitation, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, wind speed, and wind direction influence atmospheric chemical processes, and interactions occur between local and global-scale environments. If the climate becomes warmer and more variable, air quality is likely to be affected. However, the specific types of change (i.e., local, regional, or global), the direction of change in a particular location (i.e., positive or negative), and the magnitude of change in air quality that may be attributable to climate change are a matter of speculation, based on extrapolating present understanding to future scenarios. There is already extensive evidence on the health effects of air pollution. Ground-level ozone can exacerbate chronic respiratory diseases and cause short-term reductions in lung function. Exposure to particulate matter can aggravate chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, alter host defenses, damage lung tissue, lead to premature death, and possibly contribute to cancer. Health effects of exposures to carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide can include reduced work capacity, aggravation of existing cardiovascular diseases, effects on pulmonary function, respiratory illnesses, lung irritation, and alterations in the lung's defense systems. Adaptations to climate change should include ensuring responsiveness of air quality protection programs to changing pollution levels. Research needs include basic atmospheric science work on the association between weather and air pollutants; improving air pollution models and their linkage with climate change scenarios; and closing gaps in the understanding of exposure patterns and health effects. PMID:11359687

  13. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on air pollution-related health effects in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, S M; Samet, J M; Grambsch, A; Ebi, K L; Romieu, I

    2001-01-01

    Climate change may affect exposures to air pollutants by affecting weather, anthropogenic emissions, and biogenic emissions and by changing the distribution and types of airborne allergens. Local temperature, precipitation, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, wind speed, and wind direction influence atmospheric chemical processes, and interactions occur between local and global-scale environments. If the climate becomes warmer and more variable, air quality is likely to be affected. However, the specific types of change (i.e., local, regional, or global), the direction of change in a particular location (i.e., positive or negative), and the magnitude of change in air quality that may be attributable to climate change are a matter of speculation, based on extrapolating present understanding to future scenarios. There is already extensive evidence on the health effects of air pollution. Ground-level ozone can exacerbate chronic respiratory diseases and cause short-term reductions in lung function. Exposure to particulate matter can aggravate chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, alter host defenses, damage lung tissue, lead to premature death, and possibly contribute to cancer. Health effects of exposures to carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide can include reduced work capacity, aggravation of existing cardiovascular diseases, effects on pulmonary function, respiratory illnesses, lung irritation, and alterations in the lung's defense systems. Adaptations to climate change should include ensuring responsiveness of air quality protection programs to changing pollution levels. Research needs include basic atmospheric science work on the association between weather and air pollutants; improving air pollution models and their linkage with climate change scenarios; and closing gaps in the understanding of exposure patterns and health effects. PMID:11359687

  14. Loss of PDZ-adaptor protein NHERF2 affects membrane localization and cGMP- and [Ca2+]- but not cAMP-dependent regulation of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 in murine intestine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingmin; Sultan, Ayesha; Cinar, Ayhan; Yeruva, Sunil; Riederer, Brigitte; Singh, Anurag Kumar; Li, Junhua; Bonhagen, Janina; Chen, Gang; Yun, Chris; Donowitz, Mark; Hogema, Boris; deJonge, Hugo; Seidler, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Trafficking and regulation of the epithelial brush border membrane (BBM) Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) in the intestine involves interaction with four different members of the NHERF family in a signal-dependent and possibly segment-specific fashion. The aim of this research was to study the role of NHERF2 (E3KARP) in intestinal NHE3 BBM localization and second messenger-mediated and receptor-mediated inhibition of NHE3. Immunolocalization of NHE3 in WT mice revealed predominant microvillar localization in jejunum and colon, a mixed distribution in the proximal ileum but localization near the terminal web in the distal ileum. The terminal web localization of NHE3 in the distal ileum correlated with reduced acid-activated NHE3 activity (fluorometrically assessed). NHERF2 ablation resulted in a shift of NHE3 to the microvilli and higher basal fluid absorption rates in the ileum, but no change in overall NHE3 protein or mRNA expression. Forskolin-induced NHE3 inhibition was preserved in the absence of NHERF2, whereas Ca2+ ionophore- or carbachol-mediated inhibition was abolished. Likewise, Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin peptide (STp) lost its inhibitory effect on intestinal NHE3. It is concluded that in native murine intestine, the NHE3 adaptor protein NHERF2 plays important roles in tethering NHE3 to a position near the terminal web and in second messenger inhibition of NHE3 in a signal- and segment-specific fashion, and is therefore an important regulator of intestinal fluid transport. PMID:20962002

  15. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  16. Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

  17. Spatiotemporally‐Resolved Air Exchange Rate as a Modifier of Acute Air Pollution‐Related Morbidity in AtlantaMorbidity in Atlanta

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies frequently use central site concentrations as surrogates of exposure to air pollutants. Variability in air pollutant infiltration due to differential air exchange rates (AERs) is potentially a major factor affecting the relationship between central site c...

  18. Exposure Modeling of Residential Air Exchange Rates for NEXUS Participants.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) to improv...

  19. Exposure Modeling of Residential Air Exchange Rates for NEXUS Participants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) to improv...

  20. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  1. Microcontrolled air-mattress for ulcer by pressure prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasluosta, Cristian F.; Fontana, Juan M.; Beltramone, Diego A.; Taborda, Ricardo A. M.

    2007-11-01

    An ulcer by pressure is produced when a constant pressure is exerted over the skin. This generates the collapse of the blood vessels and, therefore, a lack in the contribution of the necessary nutrients for the affected zone. As a consequence, the skin deteriorates, eventually causing an ulcer. In order to prevent it, a protocol must be applied to the patient, which is reflected on time and cost of treatment. There are some air mattresses available for this purpose, but whose performance does not fulfill all requirements. The prototype designed in our laboratory is based on the principle of the air mattress. Its objective is to improve on existing technologies and, due to an increased automation, reduce time dedication for personnel in charge of the patient. A clinical experience was made in the local Emergencies Hospital and also in an institution dedicated to aged patients care. In both cases, the results obtained and the comments from the personnel involved were favorable.

  2. Air Quality Research and Applications Using AURA OMi Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P.K.; Gleason, J.F.; Torres, O.; Levelt, P.; Liu, X.; Ziemke, J.; Chandra, S.; Krotkov, N.

    2007-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS Aura is a new generation of satellite remote sensing instrument designed to measure trace gas and aerosol absorption at the UV and blue wavelengths. These measurements are made globally at urban scale resolution with no inter-orbital gaps that make them potentially very useful for air quality research, such as the determination of the sources and processes that affect global and regional air quality, and to develop applications such as air quality forecast. However, the use of satellite data for such applications is not as straight forward as satellite data have been for stratospheric research. There is a need for close interaction between the satellite product developers, in-situ measurement programs, and the air quality research community to overcome some of the inherent difficulties in interpreting data from satellite-based remote sensing instruments. In this talk we will discuss the challenges and opportunities in using OMI products for air quality research and applications. A key conclusion of this work is that to realize the full potential of OMI measurements it will be necessary to combine OMI data with data from instruments such as MLS, MODIS, AIRS, and CALIPSO that are currently flying in the "A-train" satellite constellation. In addition similar data taken by satellites crossing the earth at different local times than the A-train (e.g., the recently MetOp satellite) would need to be processed in a consistent manner to study diurnal variability, and to capture the effects on air quality of rapidly changing events such as wild fires.

  3. Statistical Analysis of the Impacts of Regional Transportation on the Air Quality in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Huiling; Tong, Lei; Xiao, Hang

    2016-04-01

    From October to December 2015, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had experienced several severe haze events. In order to assess the effects of the regional transportation on the air quality in Beijing, the air monitoring data (PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) from that period published by Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) was collected and analyzed with various statistical models. The cities within BTH area were clustered into three groups according to the geographical conditions, while the air pollutant concentrations of cities within a group sharing similar variation trends. The Granger causality test results indicate that significant causal relationships exist between the air pollutant data of Beijing and its surrounding cities (Baoding, Chengde, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou) for the reference period. Then, linear regression models were constructed to capture the interdependency among the multiple time series. It shows that the observed air pollutant concentrations in Beijing were well consistent with the model-fitted results. More importantly, further analysis suggests that the air pollutants in Beijing were strongly affected by regional transportation, as the local sources only contributed 17.88%, 27.12%, 14.63% and 31.36% of PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations, respectively. And the major foreign source for Beijing was from Southwest (Baoding) direction, account for more than 42% of all these air pollutants. Thus, by combining various statistical models, it may not only be able to quickly predict the air qualities of any cities on a regional scale, but also to evaluate the local and regional source contributions for a particular city. Key words: regional transportation, air pollution, Granger causality test, statistical models

  4. Overcoming a powerful tobacco lobby in enacting local smoking ordinances: the Contra Costa County experience.

    PubMed

    Ellis, G A; Hobart, R L; Reed, D F

    1996-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive tobacco education campaign, local health departments throughout California have been engaged in the process of enacting local clean indoor air ordinances to protect the public from the effects of secondhand smoke. This paper describes how a Northern California Bay Area health department worked with city and county governments to pass ordinances in the face of persistent tobacco industry opposition. The key strategies used by the health department included organizing broad-based coalitions, achieving effective use of the media, and educating the business community. Tobacco industry tactics included establishing local front groups that launched a massive misinformation campaign to frighten local businesses into believing that passage of an ordinance would adversely affect their business. Finally, the authors discuss how the tobacco industry has created a climate through state and national legislative activity to undermine the ability of local health departments to pursue effective tobacco control policies, most notably through preemptive legislation. PMID:8919958

  5. [Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  6. Mutations of amino acids in the DNA-recognition domain of Epstein-Barr virus ZEBRA protein alter its sub-nuclear localization and affect formation of replication compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Richard; Heston, Lee; Shedd, Duane; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Miller, George

    2008-12-20

    ZEBRA, a transcription factor and DNA replication protein encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1 gene, plays indispensable roles in the EBV lytic cycle. We recently described the phenotypes of 46 single amino acid substitutions introduced into the DNA-recognition region of ZEBRA [Heston, L., El-Guindy, A., Countryman, J., Dela Cruz, C., Delecluse, H.J., and Miller, G. 2006]. The 27 DNA-binding-proficient mutants exhibited distinct defects in their ability to activate expression of the kinetic classes of viral genes. Four phenotypic variants could be discerned: wild-type, defective at activating Rta, defective at activating early genes, and defective at activating late genes. Here we analyze the distribution of ZEBRA within the nucleus and the localization of EA-D (the viral DNA polymerase processivity factor), an indicator of the development of replication compartments, in representatives of each phenotypic group. Plasmids encoding wild-type (WT) and mutant ZEBRA were transfected into 293 cells containing EBV-bacmids. WT ZEBRA protein was diffusely and smoothly distributed throughout the nucleus, sparing nucleoli, and partially recruited to globular replication compartments. EA-D induced by WT ZEBRA was present diffusely in some cells and concentrated in globular replication compartments in other cells. The distribution of ZEBRA and EA-D proteins was identical to WT following transfection of K188R, a mutant with a conservative change. The distribution of S186A mutant ZEBRA protein, defective for activation of Rta and EA-D, was identical to WT, except that the mutant ZEBRA was never found in globular compartments. Co-expression of Rta with S186A mutant rescued diffuse EA-D but not globular replication compartments. The most striking observation was that several mutant ZEBRA proteins defective in activating EA-D (R179A, K181A and A185V) and defective in activating lytic viral DNA replication and late genes (Y180E and K188A) were localized to numerous punctate

  7. Global Distribution and Variability of Surface Skin and Surface Air Temperatures as Depicted in the AIRS Version-6 Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae N.; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will briefly describe the significant improvements made in the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm, especially as to how they affect retrieved surface skin and surface air temperatures. The global distribution of seasonal 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM local time 12 year climatologies of Ts,a will be presented for the first time. We will also present the spatial distribution of short term 12 year anomaly trends of Ts,a at 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM, as well as the spatial distribution of temporal correlations of Ts,a with the El Nino Index. It will be shown that there are significant differences between the behavior of 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM Ts,a anomalies in some arid land areas.

  8. Air filtering device

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, A.L.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a room air cleaning device. It comprises: a box housing having an air inlet and an air outlet provided therein; a vertical baffle coupled to the box housing opposite the air outlet and spaced form the box housing such that an air egress outlet is formed between the vertical baffle and the box housing; air cleansing means substantially disposed within the box housing and cleansing air passing into the inlet and out of the air egress outlet; a fan disposed within the box housing, the fan providing air movement through the air inlet and the air egress outlet; wherein air exits the room air cleaning device through the air egress outlet as a vertical plane of moving air; and wherein formation of the vertical plane of moving air contributes to the formation of a low pressure area drawing impure air toward the air inlet.

  9. Megacities, air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research.

  10. Air quality interventions and spatial dynamics of air pollution in Delhi and its surroundings

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Foster, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the spatial distribution of air pollution in response to recent air quality regulations in Delhi, India. Air pollution was monitored at 113 sites spread across Delhi and its surrounding areas from July–December 2003. From the analysis of these data three important findings emerge. First, air pollution levels in Delhi and its surroundings were significantly higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Second, air quality regulations in the city adversely affected the air quality of the areas surrounding Delhi. Third, industries and trucks were identified as the major contributors of both fine and coarse particles. PMID:23105916

  11. IAQ and air handling unit design

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns are affecting the design of air handlers currently being offered by the manufacturers of equipment in the marketplace. These design changes are being driven by increased awareness, code changes, literature, and lawsuits within the HVAC industry. The design professionals who apply the manufacturers` products are acutely aware of the need to improve the quality of air within buildings. With the new awareness of indoor air quality issues come more options, different construction techniques, and modularity in air handling unit design.

  12. Office Building Occupant's Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... building ventilation systems; moisture and humidity; and occupant perceptions and susceptibilities. In addition, there are many other factors that affect comfort or perception of indoor air quality. Controlling indoor air quality ...

  13. 76 FR 2904 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Air Stationary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Air Stationary Source Compliance and...: (202) 501-0411. Mail: Air Stationary Source Compliance and Enforcement Information, Environmental... this action are State, District, ] Local, and Commonwealth governments. Title: Air Stationary...

  14. Air-Coupled Vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, D.; Solodov, I.; Busse, G.

    Sound and ultrasound in air are the products of a multitude of different processes and thus can be favorable or undesirable phenomena. Development of experimental tools for non-invasive measurements and imaging of airborne sound fields is of importance for linear and nonlinear nondestructive material testing as well as noise control in industrial or civil engineering applications. One possible solution is based on acousto-optic interaction, like light diffraction imaging. The diffraction approach usually requires a sophisticated setup with fine optical alignment barely applicable in industrial environment. This paper focuses on the application of the robust experimental tool of scanning laser vibrometry, which utilizes commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The imaging technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is based on the modulation of the optical path length by the acoustic pressure of the sound wave. The theoretical considerations focus on the analysis of acousto-optical phase modulation. The sensitivity of the ACV in detecting vibration velocity was estimated as ~1 mm/s. The ACV applications to imaging of linear airborne fields are demonstrated for leaky wave propagation and measurements of ultrasonic air-coupled transducers. For higher-intensity ultrasound, the classical nonlinear effect of the second harmonic generation was measured in air. Another nonlinear application includes a direct observation of the nonlinear air-coupled emission (NACE) from the damaged areas in solid materials. The source of the NACE is shown to be strongly localized around the damage and proposed as a nonlinear "tag" to discern and image the defects.

  15. Gulf of Mexico Air Quality: CALIPSO Support for Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Relating to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Myngoc T.; Lapointe, Stephen; Jennings, Brittney; Zoumplis, Angela

    2011-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an oil platform belonging to BP exploded and leaked a huge volume of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. In an effort to control the spread of the oil, BP applied dispersants such as Corexit and conducted in-situ burnings of the oil. This catastrophe created a complex chain of events that affected not only the fragile water and land ecosystems, but the humans who breathe the air every day. Thousands of people were exposed to fumes associated with oil vapors from the spill, burning of the oil, and the toxic mixture of dispersants. While aiding in clean-up efforts, local fishermen were directly exposure to fumes when working on the Gulf. A notable amount of Gulf Coast residents were also exposed to the oil fumes as seasonal southeasterly winds blew vapors toward land. The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) found in oil vapors include: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, naphthalene, hydrogen sulfide and particulate matter (PM). Increases in water temperature and sunlight due to the summer season allow for these VOCs and PM to evaporate into the air more rapidly. Aside from the VOCs found in oil vapors, the dispersant being used to break up the oil is highly toxic and is thought to be even more toxic than the oil itself (EPA website, 2010). To protect human health, the environment, and to make informed policy decisions relevant to the spill, the EPA Region 6 has continuously monitored the affected areas carefully for levels of pollutants in the outdoor air that are associated with petroleum products and the burning of oil along the coast. In an effort to prevent, prepare for, and respond to future oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States, the EPA has been working with local, state, and federal response partners. Air quality measurements were collected by the EPA at five active monitoring systems stationed along the coast.

  16. Classroom Air Quality: Exploring the Indoor Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Describes a teacher's experiences with Global Lab, which is depicted as a real-world networked science laboratory connecting individuals investigating global and local environmental change. Focuses on techniques to monitor indoor air quality. (DDR)

  17. Unsafe Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A team of researchers who just finished analyzing 20 years of data from locales around Los Angeles said that particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter poses the greatest risk of causing early death as it can penetrate deep into the lungs and sometimes even enter the bloodstream. Such particles are often found in smoke, vehicle…

  18. Improving Regional Air Quality with Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-05-01

    This model documentation is designed to assist State and local governments in pursuing wind energy purchases as a control measure under regional air quality plans. It is intended to support efforts to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs), including wind energy purchases, to ensure compliance with the standard for ground-level ozone established under the Clean Air Act.

  19. Results of an investigation to determine local flow characteristics at the air data probe locations using an 0.030-scale model (45-0) of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter configuration 140A/B (modified) in the NASA Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel (OA161, A, B, C), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of wind tunnel test 0A161 of a 0.030-scale model 45-0 of the configuration 140A/B (modified) space shuttle vehicle orbiter in the NASA Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel facilities. The purpose of this test was to determine local total and static pressure environments for the air data probe locations and relative effectiveness of alternate flight-test probe configurations. Testing was done in the Mach number range from 0.30 to 3.5. Angle of attack was varied from -8 to 25 degrees while sideslip varied between -8 and 8 degrees.

  20. Air sampling in the workplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC`s Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ``Air sampling in the Workplace.`` That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC`s regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed.

  1. Air Quality Impact of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brioude, J.; Brock, C. A.; de Gouw, J. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Meinardi, S.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.; Perring, A.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Roberts, J. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Warneke, C.; Watts, L.

    2010-12-01

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion led to a rupture of the wellhead underneath the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling platform. In addition to impacts on marine life and coasts, the resulting oil spill and cleanup operations also affected air quality. We measured a wide range of gas and aerosol species in the air close to and downwind of the DWH site. Among all of the measured species, the most important air quality concern for populations along the Gulf coast and inland was aerosols in respirable sizes. Since the measured gas-phase hydrocarbons were distributed in a fairly narrow plume evaporating from fresh surface oil and organic aerosol was measured in a much broader plume, the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) evidently formed from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around the site. Older surface oil near the coasts of Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida had little effect on SOA formation. The SOA mass increased with distance downwind of the DWH site. Preliminary results indicate that at least a few percent by mass of the spilled oil is converted into SOA. From the flaring, surface recovery, and cleanup operations, initial calculations of emission ratios also indicate that a few percent by mass of oil burned on the surface was emitted as black carbon aerosols. These organic and black carbon aerosols from the DWH oil spill influence local visibility and radiation and have potential health effects. Furthermore, they likely occasionally reached populated areas at concentrations that were a significant fraction of air quality standards.

  2. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book addresses air pollution's sources and movement; biochemical, cellular, and whole-plant effects, impacts on agricultural and natural systems; and control. The effects of convective turbulence and atmospheric stability are well illustrated. The diagnosis of air pollution injury to plants and mimicking symptoms are discussed. The environmental and source variables that affect pollutant dispersion are explained by use of the Gaussian dispersion model. An overview is presented of the effects of sulfur dioxide, photochemical oxidants, and fluoride on stomatal function, photosynthesis, respiration, and metabolic processes and products. Information is discussed concerning combinations of air pollutants, impacts on lichens, and effects of trace metals on plants. The relationship between air pollutants and diseases or other stress factors is evaluated.

  3. ALTITUDE AS A FACTOR IN AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution is affected by change in altitude. Cities with surface elevations above 1500 meters have atmospheric pressures which are approximately fifteen percent (15%) below pressures at sea level. Consequently, mobile sources designed to operate at pressures of one atmosphere...

  4. Airplanes on Air Pollution: Discover-AQ

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's launching a new mission, summer 2011, designed to gather data on air pollution and help expand our understanding of how it affects us, and that could allow pollutants to be monitored more pr...

  5. Local Toolkit

    2007-05-31

    The LOCAL Toolkit contains tools and libraries developed under the LLNL LOCAL LDRD project for managing and processing large unstructured data sets primrily from parallel numerical simulations, such as triangular, tetrahedral, and hexahedral meshes, point sets, and graphs. The tools have three main functionalities: cache-coherent, linear ordering of multidimensional data; lossy and lossless data compression optimized for different data types; and an out-of-core streaming I/O library with simple processing modules for unstructed data.

  6. The air transportation/energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The changing pattern of transportation is discussed, and the energy intensiveness of various modes of transportation is also analyzed. Sociopsychological data affecting why people travel by air are presented, along with governmental regulation and air transportation economics. The aviation user tax structure is shown in tabular form.

  7. Topics in Air Pollution Control (SI: 428).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampacek, Anne; Chaput, Linda

    This course provides information about air pollution control efforts since the passage of the Clean Air Act and places in perspective various issues that have arisen since passage of the act--significant deterioration, maintenance of standards, indirect source review, and transportation controls. Court decisions affecting these issues are cited…

  8. Measurements of surface air temperatures in Lombok with low cost miniature data loggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudiarta, I. W.; Yadnya, M. S.; Mardiana, L.; Kuripan, I. N.

    2014-09-01

    The global warming and climate change are two of our major problems in this decade. Local impacts of global warming need to be investigated since it depends on local conditions. Understanding variability of local weather especially surface air temperature requires many observations, not only periodic but also covers large area. In this paper, we report our progress in developing low cost miniature data loggers for temperature measurements. The data loggers are based on microcontrollers ATMega8L and 10 kΩ thermistors. Calibration results in laboratory and in field have indicated that the temperature obtained by data loggers shows good agreement with thermometer readings. It is found that errors of temperature measurements are less than 0.3 °C. We have performed preliminary temperature measurements in Lombok Island using twenty data loggers for about one week duration. Temperature variation in Lombok shows localized temperature distribution that is affected by position and topography.

  9. Algal layer ratios as indicators of air pollutant effects in Permelia sulcata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Parmelia sulcata Taylor is generally believed to be fairly pollution tolerant, and consequently it is sometimes collected in urban and/or polluted localities. The condition of these specimens, however, is not always luxuriant and healthy. This study tested the hypothesis that total thallus and algal layer thickness, and the algal layer ratio would be thinner in polluted areas, thus allowing these characters to be used a indicators of air pollutant effects. Herbarium specimens were studied from 16 different localities varying in pollution level. The thallus and algal layers and ratio were not affected by year or locality of sampling, but decreased 11, 31 and 21% respectively between low and high pollution level localities. These results agreed with earlier studies using other species, but further work is needed to clarify the effects of geography and substrate on these phenomena.

  10. Air-sea interactions during strong winter extratropical storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Jill; He, Ruoying; Warner, John C.; Bane, John

    2014-09-01

    A high-resolution, regional coupled atmosphere-ocean model is used to investigate strong air-sea interactions during a rapidly developing extratropical cyclone (ETC) off the east coast of the USA. In this two-way coupled system, surface momentum and heat fluxes derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting model and sea surface temperature (SST) from the Regional Ocean Modeling System are exchanged via the Model Coupling Toolkit. Comparisons are made between the modeled and observed wind velocity, sea level pressure, 10 m air temperature, and sea surface temperature time series, as well as a comparison between the model and one glider transect. Vertical profiles of modeled air temperature and winds in the marine atmospheric boundary layer and temperature variations in the upper ocean during a 3-day storm period are examined at various cross-shelf transects along the eastern seaboard. It is found that the air-sea interactions near the Gulf Stream are important for generating and sustaining the ETC. In particular, locally enhanced winds over a warm sea (relative to the land temperature) induce large surface heat fluxes which cool the upper ocean by up to 2 °C, mainly during the cold air outbreak period after the storm passage. Detailed heat budget analyses show the ocean-to-atmosphere heat flux dominates the upper ocean heat content variations. Results clearly show that dynamic air-sea interactions affecting momentum and buoyancy flux exchanges in ETCs need to be resolved accurately in a coupled atmosphere-ocean modeling framework.

  11. Global versus local effects on climate change in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paeth, Heiko; Müller, Markus; Mannig, Birgit

    2015-10-01

    Regional climate change arises from two processes which, in the real climate system, cannot be separated from each other: local radiative forcing and advection of air masses from regions which themselves have been subject to climate change. In this study, we present an experimental design based on a regional climate model allowing for the assessment of global and local effects on future climate change in Asia. We carry out two runs which are characterized by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations within the model domain, but one (the control run) is one-way nested into a global control run at the lateral and oceanic boundaries while the other (the forced run) is one-way nested into a consistently forced global simulation. The aim is to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of climate change in a regional context. It turns out that temperature and precipitation changes in Asia are indeed mostly related to changes in the advected air masses which enter along the lateral boundaries. Regionally confined greenhouse forcing only affects the atmospheric heating rate while precipitation and atmospheric circulation features remain more or less unchanged. Temperature changes in the forced experiment are partly governed by warmer air masses penetrating the lateral boundaries and partly by a modification of atmospheric circulation processes, including a tendency towards a double-trough structure over Central Asia and changing temperature advection. The trend pattern of precipitation is much more heterogeneous in space but can partly be attributed to changes in horizontal wind divergence and vertical velocity.

  12. AIR CLEANING FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses air cleaning for acceptable indoor air quality. ir cleaning has performed an important role in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems for many years. raditionally, general ventilation air-filtration equipment has been used to protect cooling coils ...

  13. The 37/67kDa laminin receptor (LR) inhibitor, NSC47924, affects 37/67kDa LR cell surface localization and interaction with the cellular prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Sarnataro, Daniela; Pepe, Anna; Altamura, Gennaro; De Simone, Imma; Pesapane, Ada; Nitsch, Lucio; Montuori, Nunzia; Lavecchia, Antonio; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LR) is a non-integrin protein, which binds both laminin-1 of the extracellular matrix and prion proteins, that hold a central role in prion diseases. The 37/67 kDa LR has been identified as interactor for the prion protein (PrPC) and to be required for pathological PrP (PrPSc) propagation in scrapie-infected neuronal cells, leading to the possibility that 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction is related to the pathogenesis of prion diseases. A relationship between 37/67 kDa LR and PrPC in the presence of specific LR inhibitor compounds has not been investigated yet. We have characterized the trafficking of 37/67 kDa LR in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, finding the receptor on the cell surface and nuclei, and identified the 67 kDa LR as the almost exclusive isoform interacting with PrPC. Here, we show that the treatment with the 37/67 kDa LR inhibitor, NSC47924, affects both the direct 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction in vitro and the formation of the immunocomplex in live cells, inducing a progressive internalization of 37/67 kDa LR and stabilization of PrPC on the cell surface. These data reveal NSC47924 as a useful tool to regulate PrPC and 37/67 kDa LR trafficking and degradation, representing a novel small molecule to be tested against prion diseases. PMID:27071549

  14. Urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  15. Does consideration of GHG reductions change local decision making? A Case Study in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)