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Sample records for affect long-term survival

  1. Early organ dysfunction affects long-term survival in acute pancreatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Skouras, Christos; Hayes, Alastair J; Williams, Linda; Garden, O James; Parks, Rowan W; Mole, Damian J

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of early organ dysfunction on long-term survival in acute pancreatitis (AP) patients is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to ascertain whether early organ dysfunction impacts on long-term survival after an episode of AP. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed using survival data sourced from a prospectively maintained database of patients with AP admitted to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh during a 5-year period commencing January 2000. A multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) score of ≥ 2 during the first week of admission was used to define early organ dysfunction. After accounting for in-hospital deaths, long-term survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier test. The prognostic significance of patient characteristics was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses using Cox's proportional hazards methods. Results A total of 694 patients were studied (median follow-up: 8.8 years). Patients with early organ dysfunction (MODS group) were found to have died prematurely [mean survival: 10.0 years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.4–10.6 years] in comparison with the non-MODS group (mean survival: 11.6 years, 95% CI 11.2–11.9 years) (log-rank test, P = 0.001) after the exclusion of in-hospital deaths. Multivariate analysis confirmed MODS as an independent predictor of long-term survival [hazard ratio (HR): 1.528, 95% CI 1.72–2.176; P = 0.019] along with age (HR: 1.062; P < 0.001), alcohol-related aetiology (HR: 2.027; P = 0.001) and idiopathic aetiology (HR: 1.548; P = 0.048). Conclusions Early organ dysfunction in AP is an independent predictor of long-term survival even when in-hospital deaths are accounted for. Negative predictors also include age, and idiopathic and alcohol-related aetiologies. PMID:24712663

  2. [Long-term survival after severe trauma].

    PubMed

    Mutschler, W; Mutschler, M; Graw, M; Lefering, R

    2016-07-01

    Long-term survival after severe trauma is rarely addressed in German trauma journals although knowledge of life expectancy and identification of factors contributing to increased mortality are important for lifetime care management, development of service models, and targeting health promotion and prevention interventions. As reliable data in Germany are lacking, we compiled data mainly from the USA and Australia to describe life expectancy, risk factors, and predictors of outcome in patients experiencing traumatic spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma. Two years after trauma, life expectancy in all three categories was significantly lower than that of the general population. It depends strongly on severity of disability, age, and gender and is quantifiable. Whereas improvements in medical care have led to a marked decline in short-term mortality, surprisingly long-term survival in severe trauma has not changed over the past 30 years. Therefore, there is need to intensify long-term trauma patient care and to find new strategies to limit primary damage. PMID:27342106

  3. The Cumulative Cisplatin Dose Affects the Long-Term Survival Outcomes of Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Chen, Lei; Li, Wen-Fei; Guo, Rui; Mao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Li-Zhi; Tian, Li; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic value of the cumulative cisplatin dose (CCD) remains controversial for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) receiving only concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). We retrospectively reviewed 549 consecutive patients with non-metastatic, histologically-proven NPC treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at Sun Yat-sen university cancer center. Patient survival between different CCD groups were compared. The cut-off value of pre-treatment plasma EBV DNA (pre-DNA) and CCD based on disease-free survival (DFS) were 1460 copies/ml (AUC, 0.691; sensitivity, 0.717; specificity, 0.635) and 240 mg/m2 (AUC, 0.506; sensitivity, 0.526; specificity, 0.538), respectively. Of the entire cohort, 92/549 (16.8%) patients received a CCD ≥ 240 mg/m2 and 457 (83.2%) patients, <240 mg/m2. For CCD ≥ 240 mg/m2 vs. < 240 mg/m2, the estimated 4-year DFS, overall survival (OS), locoregional-free survival (LRFFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 89.1% vs. 81.3% (P = 0.097), 92.4% vs. 90.0% (P = 0.369), 95.6% vs. 91.2% (P = 0.156), and 91.3% vs. 88.4% (P = 0.375), respectively. For the whole cohort, multivariate analysis identified the CCD was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR, 0.515; 95% CI, 0.267–0.995; P = 0.048). However, CCD (≥240 mg/m2) had no prognostic value in subgroup analysis with stratification by the cut-off value of pre-DNA (P > 0.05 for all rates). PMID:27071833

  4. Long-term survival following emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Milner, Q J; Burchett, K R

    2000-05-01

    Survival following emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm remains poor and is in stark contrast to that for elective repair. We have carried out a 5-year retrospective observational study to determine the long-term (5-year) survival of patients following emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm at a district general hospital in East Anglia. A total of 99 patients presented to the operating theatre for emergency repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in this 5-year study period. In-hospital mortality was 70% and was unchanged over the 5 years. Overall long-term survival in those patients discharged from hospital was good. The ICU cost per long-term survivor was calculated to be pound sterling 36750. PMID:10792133

  5. Skin self-examination and long-term melanoma survival.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Lisa E; Lu, Shou En; Bandera, Elisa V; Rhoads, George G; Fine, Judith; Paine, Susan; Barnhill, Raymond; Berwick, Marianne

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of skin self-examination (SSE) on melanoma mortality, we estimated the survival for individuals performing SSE compared with those who did not. Participants were from a previously carried out case-control study, who were newly diagnosed melanoma cases in 1987-1989. A 20-year survival analysis was carried out using death (event) and other causes of death (competing). Cumulative incidence functions were evaluated using Gray's test and proportional subdistribution hazards regression models were fitted to study the effect of SSE and other covariates on melanoma survival. Forty-five percent of patients died, with 48.4% melanoma deaths. Individuals who did not perform SSE experienced a continuous increase in the risk of melanoma death trending toward significance for nearly 20 years after diagnosis, whereas melanoma deaths in skin self-examiners plateaued before 10 years after diagnosis (P=0.32). Univariate analyses suggested a 25% lower risk of melanoma death for those who performed SSE [hazard ratio (HR)=0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.43-1.32, P=0.32]. After adjusting for competing risks, the multivariate risk estimate was above one (HR=1.12, 95% CI=0.61-2.06, P=0.71). Skin awareness (HR=0.46, 95% CI=0.28-0.75, P≤0.01) was associated independently with a decreased risk of melanoma death. Although we did not find a significant association between melanoma mortality and SSE when adjusting for competing mortality and other covariates, we extended previous findings that increased skin awareness and tumor thickness are strongly inversely related to survival. Research is needed to continue developing best practices for melanoma screening and to further explore the components of SSE and long-term melanoma survival. PMID:26990272

  6. Risk Factors of Anastomotic Leakage and Long-Term Survival After Colorectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Seob; Huh, Jung Wook; Park, Yoon Ah; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong

    2016-02-01

    Anastomotic leakage (AL) is one of the most serious complications of colorectal surgery. It can affect long-term oncologic outcomes, but the impact on long-term survival remains uncertain. The aim of this study is to evaluate the operative characteristics of leakage and no leakage groups and to analyze long-term oncologic outcomes.We prospectively enrolled 10,477 patients from 2000 to 2011 and retrospectively reviewed the data.Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 3.90; P < 0.001), intraoperative transfusion (OR, 2.31; P = 0.042), and operative time (OR, 1.73; P = 0.032) were independent risk factors of AL in the colon. In the rectum, male sex (OR, 2.37; P < 0.001), neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (OR, 2.26; P < 0.001), and regional lymph node metastasis (OR, 1.43; P = 0.012) were independent risk factors of AL, and diverting stoma (OR, 0.24; P < 0.001) was associated with a deceased risk of AL. AL in the rectum without a diverting stoma was associated with disease-free survival (DFS, OR, 1.47; P = 0.037). Colonic leakage was not associated with 5-year DFS (leakage group vs nonleakage group, 72.4% vs 80.9%, P = 0.084); however, in patients undergoing rectal resection, there was a significant difference in 5-year DFS (67.0% vs 76.6%, P = 0.005, respectively).AL in the rectum is associated with worse long-term DFS and overall survival. A diverting stoma was shown to protect against this effect and was associated with long-term survival in rectal surgery. Therefore, creating a diverting stoma should be considered in high-risk patients undergoing rectal surgery. PMID:26937928

  7. Risk Factors of Anastomotic Leakage and Long-Term Survival After Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Seob; Huh, Jung Wook; Park, Yoon Ah; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Anastomotic leakage (AL) is one of the most serious complications of colorectal surgery. It can affect long-term oncologic outcomes, but the impact on long-term survival remains uncertain. The aim of this study is to evaluate the operative characteristics of leakage and no leakage groups and to analyze long-term oncologic outcomes. We prospectively enrolled 10,477 patients from 2000 to 2011 and retrospectively reviewed the data. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 3.90; P < 0.001), intraoperative transfusion (OR, 2.31; P = 0.042), and operative time (OR, 1.73; P = 0.032) were independent risk factors of AL in the colon. In the rectum, male sex (OR, 2.37; P < 0.001), neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (OR, 2.26; P < 0.001), and regional lymph node metastasis (OR, 1.43; P = 0.012) were independent risk factors of AL, and diverting stoma (OR, 0.24; P < 0.001) was associated with a deceased risk of AL. AL in the rectum without a diverting stoma was associated with disease-free survival (DFS, OR, 1.47; P = 0.037). Colonic leakage was not associated with 5-year DFS (leakage group vs nonleakage group, 72.4% vs 80.9%, P = 0.084); however, in patients undergoing rectal resection, there was a significant difference in 5-year DFS (67.0% vs 76.6%, P = 0.005, respectively). AL in the rectum is associated with worse long-term DFS and overall survival. A diverting stoma was shown to protect against this effect and was associated with long-term survival in rectal surgery. Therefore, creating a diverting stoma should be considered in high-risk patients undergoing rectal surgery. PMID:26937928

  8. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  9. Impact of Combination Epidural and General Anesthesia on the Long-Term Survival of Gastric Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiangling; Guo, Wenjing; Wu, Qicheng; Zhang, Runze; Fang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether regional anesthesia is associated with tumor-free and long-term survival is controversial. Here, we focused on whether epidural anesthesia affects the long-term survival of gastric cancer patients after surgery. Material/Methods We obtained the records of 273 patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery between August 2006 and December 2010. All patients received elective surgery, and the end-point was death. The general anesthesia group comprised 116 patients and the epidural-supplemented group comprised 157 patients. The results were analyzed using a multivariable model to determine the relationship between epidural use and long-term survival. Results No obvious association was detected between epidural use and long-term survival according to the Cox model (P=0.522); the adjusted estimated hazard ratio was 0.919 (95% CI 0.71–1.19). However, according to Kaplan-Meier analysis, epidural anesthesia was associated with long-term survival among younger patients (age up to 64) (p=0.042, log-rank) (but not among older patients (p=0.203, log-rank). A lower American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class and less chemoradiotherapy exposure were also associated with a longer survival. However, advanced tumor stage still has a significant negative impact on survival. Conclusions No obvious difference was detected between the 2 anesthesia groups, but younger patients may benefit from epidural anesthesia. PMID:27386842

  10. Long-term survival of bacterial spores in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horneck, G.; Bucker, H.; Reitz, G.

    1994-01-01

    On board of the NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), spores of Bacillus subtilis in monolayers (10(exp 6)/sample) or multilayers (10(exp 8)/sample) were exposed to the space environment for nearly six years and their survival was analyzed after retrieval. The response to space parameters, such as vacuum (10(exp -6) Pa), solar electromagnetic radiation up to the highly energetic vacuum-ultraviolet range 10(exp 9) J/sq m) and/or cosmic radiation (4.8 Gy), was studied and compared to the results of a simultaneously running ground control experiment. If shielded against solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation, up to 80% of spores in multilayers survive in space. Solar UV-radiation, being the most deleterious parameter of space, reduces survival by 4 orders of magnitude or more. However, up to 10(exp 4) viable spores were still recovered, even in completely unprotected samples. Substances, such as glucose or buffer salts serve as chemical protectants. With this 6 year study in space, experimental data are provided to the discussion on the likelihood of 'Panspermia'.

  11. Foraminiferal survival after long term experimentally induced anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlet, D.; Geslin, E.; Baal, C.; Metzger, E.; Lejzerowicz, F.; Riedel, B.; Zuschin, M.; Pawlowski, J.; Stachowitsch, M.; Jorissen, F. J.

    2013-06-01

    Anoxia has been successfully induced in four benthic chambers installed on the Northern Adriatic seafloor from 1 week to 10 months. To accurately determine whether benthic foraminifera can survive experimentally induced prolonged anoxia, the CellTrackerGreen method has been applied. Numerous individuals have been found living at all sampling times and at all sampling depths, showing that benthic foraminifera can survive up to 10 months of anoxia with co-occurring hydrogen sulphides. However, foraminiferal standing stocks decrease with sampling time in an irregular way. A large difference in standing stock between two cores samples in initial conditions indicates the presence of a large spatial heterogeneity of the foraminiferal faunas. An unexpected increase in standing stocks after 1 month is tentatively interpreted as a reaction to increased food availability due to the massive mortality of infaunal macrofaunal organisms. After this, standing stocks decrease again in a core sampled after 2 months of anoxia, to attain a minimum in the cores sampled after 10 months. We speculate that the trend of overall decrease of standing stocks is not due to the adverse effects of anoxia and hydrogen sulphides, but rather due to a continuous diminution of labile organic matter.

  12. Phenotypic abnormalities in long-term surviving cystic fibrosis mice.

    PubMed

    Kent, G; Oliver, M; Foskett, J K; Frndova, H; Durie, P; Forstner, J; Forstner, G G; Riordan, J R; Percy, D; Buchwald, M

    1996-08-01

    Mouse models for cystic fibrosis (CF) with no CFTR function (Cftr-/-) have the disadvantage that most animals die of intestinal obstruction shortly after weaning. The objective of this research was to extend the lifespan of CF mice and characterize their phenotype. Weanlings were placed on a nutrient liquid diet, and histologic and functional aspects of organs implicated in the disease were subsequently examined. Approximately 90% of Cftr-/- mice survived to 60 d, the majority beyond 100 d. Cftr-/- mice were underweight and had markedly abnormal intestinal histology. The intestinal epithelia did not respond to challenges with agents that raised intracellular cAMP, consistent with the absence of functional CFTR. No lesions or functional abnormalities were evident in the lungs. Liquid-fed Cftr-/- mice were infertile, although some males weaned to a solid diet were fertile before they died. Thus, we have succeeded in using dietary means to prolong the lives of Cftr-/- mice. PMID:8827771

  13. Long-term survival after resection of pancreatic cancer: A single-center retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takehito; Yagi, Shintaro; Kinoshita, Hiromitsu; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Okada, Kazuyuki; Uryuhara, Kenji; Morimoto, Takeshi; Kaihara, Satoshi; Hosotani, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively analyze factors affecting the long-term survival of patients with pancreatic cancer who underwent pancreatic resection. METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2011, 195 patients underwent pancreatic resection in our hospital. The prognostic factors after pancreatic resection were analyzed in all 195 patients. After excluding the censored cases within an observational period, the clinicopathological characteristics of 20 patients who survived ≥ 5 (n = 20) and < 5 (n = 76) years were compared. For this comparison, we analyzed the patients who underwent surgery before June 2008 and were observed for more than 5 years. For statistical analyses, the log-rank test was used to compare the cumulative survival rates, and the χ2 and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the two groups. The Cox-Hazard model was used for a multivariate analysis, and P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. A multivariate analysis was conducted on the factors that were significant in the univariate analysis. RESULTS: The median survival for all patients was 27.1 months, and the 5-year actuarial survival rate was 34.5%. The median observational period was 595 d. With the univariate analysis, the UICC stage was significantly associated with survival time, and the CA19-9 ≤ 200 U/mL, DUPAN-2 ≤ 180 U/mL, tumor size ≤ 20 mm, R0 resection, absence of lymph node metastasis, absence of extrapancreatic neural invasion, and absence of portal invasion were favorable prognostic factors. The multivariate analysis showed that tumor size ≤ 20 mm (HR = 0.40; 95%CI: 0.17-0.83, P = 0.012) and negative surgical margins (R0 resection) (HR = 0.48; 95%CI: 0.30-0.77, P = 0.003) were independent favorable prognostic factors. Among the 96 patients, 20 patients survived for 5 years or more, and 76 patients died within 5 years after operation. Comparison of the 20 5-year survivors with the 76 non-survivors showed that lower concentrations of DUPAN-2 (79.5 vs 312.5 U/mL, P

  14. Long-Term Outcomes in Patients Surviving Large Burns: The Musculoskeletal System.

    PubMed

    Holavanahalli, Radha K; Helm, Phala A; Kowalske, Karen J

    2016-01-01

    The authors have previously described long-term outcomes related to the skin in patients surviving large burns. The objective of this study was to describe the long-term musculoskeletal complications following major burn injury. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study that includes a one-time evaluation of 98 burn survivors (mean age = 47 years; mean TBSA = 57%; and mean time from injury = 17 years), who consented to participate in the study. A comprehensive history and physical examination was conducted by a senior and experienced Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation physician. In addition to completing a Medical Problem Checklist, subjects also completed the Burn-Specific Health Scale (Abbreviated 80 item), a self-report measure used to review the level of functional adaptation. Joint pain, joint stiffness, problems walking or running, fatigue, and weak arms and hands are conditions that continue to be reported at an average of 17 years from the time of burn injury. Seventy-three percent (68 of 93) of the study sample were found to have a limitation of motion and areas most affected were the neck (47%), hands (45%), and axilla (38%). The global (Burn-Specific Health Scale-total) score for the overall sample was 0.78. Subjects with limitation of motion had significant difficulty in areas of mobility, self-care, hand function, and role activities. This study underscores the importance of long-term follow-up care and therapeutic interventions for survivors of major burn injury, as they continue to have significant and persistent burn-related impairments even several years following injury. PMID:26056761

  15. Long-term survival after emergency portacaval shunting for bleeding varices in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Orloff, M J; Bell, R H

    1986-01-01

    Since 1963, a prospective evaluation of the emergency portacaval shunt procedure has been conducted in 264 unselected patients with cirrhosis and bleeding varices who underwent operation within 8 hours of admission to the emergency department. Of 153 patients who underwent operation 10 or more years ago, 45 (29 percent) have survived from 10 to 22 years and their current status is known. On admission, 40 percent of the long-term survivors had jaundice, 44 percent had ascites, 13 percent had encephalopathy (with an additional 9 percent with a history of encephalopathy), 29 percent had severe muscle wasting, and 82 percent had a hyperdynamic state. There were 9 Child's class A patients, 33 Child's class B patients, and 3 Child's class C patients. At operation, all patients had portal hypertension which was reduced by the shunt to a mean corrected free portal pressure of 18 mm saline solution. The emergency portacaval shunt procedure permanently controlled variceal bleeding. None of the patients bled again from varices, and the shunt remained patent throughout life in every patient. Encephalopathy did not affect 91 percent of the patients, but was a recurrent problem in 9 percent, usually related to the use of alcohol. Lifelong abstinence from alcohol occurred in 58 percent of the long-term survivors, but 11 percent resumed regular drinking and 31 percent consumed alcohol occasionally. Liver function declined compared with preoperative function in only 18 percent of the patients, almost always because of alcohol use. Ten years after operation, 73 percent of the patients were in excellent or good condition, and 68 percent were gainfully employed or engaged in full-time housework. Comparison of the 10 to 22 year survivors with our early group of 180 patients reported previously and our recent group of 84 patients showed no significant differences in preoperative or operative data. The single factor that appeared to influence long-term survival was resumption of regular

  16. Clinical review: Beyond immediate survival from resuscitation – long-term outcome considerations after cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, Dilshan; Brett, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    A substantial body of literature concerning resuscitation from cardiac arrest now exists. However, not surprisingly, the greater part concerns the cardiac arrest event itself and optimising survival and outcome at relatively proximal time points. The aim of this review is to present the evidence base for interventions and therapeutic strategies that might be offered to patients surviving the immediate aftermath of a cardiac arrest, excluding components of resuscitation itself that may lead to benefits in long-term survival. In addition, this paper reviews the data on long-term impact, physical and neuropsychological, on patients and their families, revealing a burden that is often underestimated and underappreciated. As greater numbers of patients survive cardiac arrest, outcome measures more sophisticated than simple survival are required. PMID:18177512

  17. Oligometastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Lung: A Therapeutic Opportunity for Long-Term Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Michael; Brahmer, Julie R; Ettinger, David

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of oligometastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a 60-year-old male that was treated with both local and systemic therapies with an exceptional response to therapy. This case provides evidence that oligometastatic lung cancer, when treated with curative intent, may be an opportunity for long-term survival in select patients. PMID:26824009

  18. How Do Observer's Responses Affect Visual Long-Term Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    How does responding to an object affect explicit memory for visual information? The close theoretical relationship between action and perception suggests that items that require a response should be better remembered than items that require no response. However, conclusive evidence for this claim is lacking, as semantic coherence, category size,…

  19. Highly Survivable Avionics Systems for Long-Term Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalai, L.; Chau, S.; Tai, A. T.

    2001-01-01

    The design of highly survivable avionics systems for long-term (> 10 years) exploration of space is an essential technology for all current and future missions in the Outer Planets roadmap. Long-term exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as high radiation and low-temperatures make survivability in space a major challenge. Moreover, current and future missions are increasingly using commercial technology such as deep sub-micron (0.25 microns) fabrication processes with specialized circuit designs, commercial interfaces, processors, memory, and other commercial off the shelf components that were not designed for long-term survivability in space. Therefore, the design of highly reliable, and available systems for the exploration of Europa, Pluto and other destinations in deep-space require a comprehensive and fresh approach to this problem. This paper summarizes work in progress in three different areas: a framework for the design of highly reliable and highly available space avionics systems, distributed reliable computing architecture, and Guarded Software Upgrading (GSU) techniques for software upgrading during long-term missions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Long-term survival following in-hospital cardiac arrest: A matched cohort study☆

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, Paul; Mina, Michael J.; Burke, Rachel M.; Hashimoto, Barry; Gregg, Sara; Martin, Greg S.; Leeper, Kenneth; Buchman, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background Each year, 200,000 patients undergo an in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA), with approximately 15–20% surviving to discharge. Little is known, however, about the long-term prognosis of these patients after discharge. Previous efforts to describe out-of-hospital survival of IHCA patients have been limited by small sample sizes and narrow patient populations Methods A single institution matched cohort study was undertaken to describe mortality following IHCA. Patients surviving to discharge following an IHCA between 2008 and 2010 were matched on age, sex, race and hospital admission criteria with non-IHCA hospital controls and follow-up between 9 and 45 months. Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox PH models assessed differences in survival. Results Of the 1262 IHCAs, 20% survived to hospital discharge. Of those discharged, survival at 1 year post-discharge was 59% for IHCA patients and 82% for controls (p < 0.0001). Hazard ratios (IHCA vs. controls) for mortality were greatest within the 90 days following discharge (HR = 2.90, p < 0.0001) and decreased linearly thereafter, with those surviving to one year post-discharge having an HR for mortality below 1.0. Survival after discharge varied amongst IHCA survivors. When grouped by discharge destination, out of hospital survival varied; in fact, IHCA patients discharged home without services demonstrated no survival difference compared to their non-IHCA controls (HR 1.10, p = 0.72). IHCA patients discharged to long-term hospital care or hospice, however, had a significantly higher mortality compared to matched controls (HR 3.91 and 20.3, respectively; p < 0.0001). Conclusion Among IHCA patients who survive to hospital discharge, the highest risk of death is within the first 90 days after discharge. Additionally, IHCA survivors overall have increased long-term mortality vs. controls. Survival rates were varied widely with different discharge destinations, and those discharged to home, skilled nursing facilities or to

  1. Desiccation as a Long-Term Survival Mechanism for the Archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kimberly L.; Apolinario, Ethel E.

    2012-01-01

    Viable methanogens have been detected in dry, aerobic environments such as dry reservoir sediment, dry rice paddies and aerobic desert soils, which suggests that methanogens have mechanisms for long-term survival in a desiccated state. In this study, we quantified the survival rates of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri after desiccation under conditions equivalent to the driest environments on Earth and subsequent exposure to different stress factors. There was no significant loss of viability after desiccation for 28 days for cells grown with either hydrogen or the methylotrophic substrates, but recovery was affected by growth phase, with cells desiccated during the stationary phase of growth having a higher rate of recovery after desiccation. Synthesis of methanosarcinal extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) significantly increased the viability of desiccated cells under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions compared with that of non-EPS-synthesizing cells. Desiccated M. barkeri exposed to air at room temperature did not lose significant viability after 28 days, and exposure of M. barkeri to air after desiccation appeared to improve the recovery of viable cells compared with that of desiccated cells that were never exposed to air. Desiccated M. barkeri was more resistant to higher temperatures, and although resistance to oxidative conditions such as ozone and ionizing radiation was not as robust as in other desiccation-resistant microorganisms, the protection mechanisms are likely adequate to maintain cell viability during periodic exposure events. The results of this study demonstrate that after desiccation M. barkeri has the innate capability to survive extended periods of exposure to air and lethal temperatures. PMID:22194299

  2. Family effects on early survival and variance in long-term reproductive success of female cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Durant, Sarah M

    2007-09-01

    1. While it is generally accepted that the survival of offspring within families may be correlated, the extent of correlation has been largely untested. Furthermore, the impact of such correlation on the estimated variance in females' reproductive success has rarely been quantified. 2. Here we use an exceptional data set from a long-term study of individually recognized cheetahs from the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania to formally quantify family effects in carnivores. 3. We show (i) that cubs from the same litter exhibit more similar fates than unrelated cubs when it comes to first-year survival; and (ii) that the observed variance of the long-term reproductive success of females is twice the variance expected under the assumption of complete independence of fates between cubs. 4. We suggest that family effects are likely to be widespread in vertebrates with average litter sizes > 1, and could have important consequences for population dynamics and population viability analyses. PMID:17714269

  3. Single sternal metastasis due to malignant melanoma with unexpected long-term survival: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Gogakos, Apostolos S; Paliouras, Dimitrios; Asteriou, Christos; Rallis, Thomas; Lazopoulos, Achilleas; Chatzinikolaou, Fotios; Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Tsavlis, Drosos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Pitsiou, Georgia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Sachpekidis, Nikos; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Barbetakis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Metastases from melanoma have a very poor prognosis for the patient. Single metastatic lesions in the sternum due to melanoma are extremely rare. A rare case of a presternal mass in a 56-year-old patient who had undergone excision for malignant melanoma is presented. Review of the patient’s history and surgical resection of a single metastatic soft tissue lesion offer the best chance of long-term survival. PMID:26848270

  4. Comparison of Long-term Survival of Implants and Endodontically Treated Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Setzer, F.C.; Kim, S.

    2014-01-01

    The outcomes of both dental implants and endodontically treated teeth have been extensively studied. However, there is still a great controversy over when to keep a natural tooth and when to extract it for a dental implant. This article reviews the benefits and disadvantages of both treatment options and discusses success vs. survival outcomes, as well as the impact of technical advances for modern endodontics and endodontic microsurgery on the long-term prognosis of tooth retention. PMID:24065635

  5. Characterization of Ancient DNA Supports Long-Term Survival of Haloarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.; Schubert, Brian A.; Lum, J. Koji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bacteria and archaea isolated from crystals of halite 104 to 108 years old suggest long-term survival of halophilic microorganisms, but the results are controversial. Independent verification of the authenticity of reputed living prokaryotes in ancient salt is required because of the high potential for environmental and laboratory contamination. Low success rates of prokaryote cultivation from ancient halite, however, hamper direct replication experiments. In such cases, culture-independent approaches that use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA are a robust alternative. Here, we use amplification, cloning, and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA to investigate the authenticity of halophilic archaea cultured from subsurface halite, Death Valley, California, 22,000 to 34,000 years old. We recovered 16S ribosomal DNA sequences that are identical, or nearly so (>99%), to two strains, Natronomonas DV462A and Halorubrum DV427, which were previously isolated from the same halite interval. These results provide the best independent support to date for the long-term survival of halophilic archaea in ancient halite. PCR-based approaches are sensitive to small amounts of DNA and could allow investigation of even older halites, 106 to 108 years old, from which microbial cultures have been reported. Such studies of microbial life in ancient salt are particularly important as we search for microbial signatures in similar deposits on Mars and elsewhere in the Solar System. Key Words: Ancient DNA—Halite—Haloarchaea—Long-term survival. Astrobiology 14, 553–560. PMID:24977469

  6. Listeria monocytogenes adapts to long-term stationary phase survival without compromising bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Joseph C; Freitag, Nancy E

    2011-10-01

    Bacteria withstand starvation during long-term stationary phase through the acquisition of mutations that increase bacterial fitness. The evolution of the growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) phenotype results in the ability of bacteria from an aged culture to outcompete bacteria from a younger culture when the two are mixed together. The GASP phenotype was first described for Escherichia coli, but has not been examined for an environmental bacterial pathogen, which must balance long-term survival strategies that promote fitness in the outside environment with those that promote fitness within the host. Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental bacterium that lives as a saprophyte in soil, but is capable of replicating within the cytosol of mammalian cells. Herein, we demonstrate the ability of L. monocytogenes to express GASP via the acquisition of mutations during long-term stationary growth. Listeria monocytogenes GASP occurred through mechanisms that were both dependent and independent of the stress-responsive alternative sigma factor SigB. Constitutive activation of the central virulence transcriptional regulator PrfA interfered with the development of GASP; however, L. monocytogenes GASP cultures retained full virulence in mice. These results indicate that L. monocytogenes can accrue mutations that optimize fitness during long-term stationary growth without negatively impacting virulence. PMID:22092717

  7. Physiological predictors of long-term survival in juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Shuert, C.; Mellish, J.; Horning, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study builds on a continued effort to document potential long-term research impacts on the individual, as well as to identify potential markers of survival for use in a field framework. The Transient Juvenile Steller sea lion (TJ) project was developed as a novel framework to gain access to wild individuals. We used three analyses to evaluate and predict long-term survival in temporarily captive sea lions (n = 45) through Cormack–Jolly–Seber open population modelling techniques. The first analysis investigated survival in relation to the observed responses to handling stress through changes in six principal blood parameters over the duration of captivity. The second analysis evaluated survival compared with body condition and mass at entry and exit from captivity. Finally, the third analysis sought to evaluate the efficacy of single-point sampling to project similar survival trends for use in field sampling operations. Results from a priori models ranked through Akaike information criterion model selection methods indicated that mass gains (4.2 ± 12%) over captivity and increases in leucocytes (WBC, 1.01 ± 3.54 × 103/mm3) resulted in a higher average survival rate (>3 years). Minor support was identified for the single-point measures of exit mass and entry WBC. A higher exit mass predicted a higher survival rate, whereas a higher WBC predicted a lower survival rate. While changes in mass and WBC appear to be the best predictors of survival when measured as a change over time, single-point sampling may still be an effective way to improve estimates of population health. PMID:27293728

  8. Biochemical Mechanisms and Energy Strategies of Geobacter sulfurreducens for Long- Term Survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmus, R. A.; Liermann, L. J.; Brantley, S. L.; Tien, M.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous species of bacteria have been observed to exhibit a growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) phenotype, indicating that microorganisms starved of an energy source may adapt to allow for long-term survival. Understanding how Geobacter sulfurreducens persists using various metal forms as energy sources and whether a GASP phenotype develops during long-term growth are important for efficient application of this bacterium to sites requiring engineered bioremediation of soluble metals. Thus, we investigated the growth kinetics and survival of G. sulfurreducens. The growth rate of G. sulfurreducens was highest when cultured with soluble iron and generally higher on iron oxide than manganese oxide, suggesting that soluble metal forms are more readily utilized as energy sources by G. sulfurreducens. By monitoring the abundance of G. sulfurreducens in batch cultures for >6 months, distinct growth, stationary, and prolonged starvation phases were observed and a cell density of 105- 106 cells/mL persisted under long-term starvation conditions. The outgrowth of an aged G. sulfurreducens strain co-cultured with a young strain was monitored as a measure of the existence of the GASP phenotype. As the strains aged, the rpoS gene was cloned and sequenced at different stages of growth to identify mutations corresponding to a growth advantage. The results of these studies provide insight into the use of various metal forms for growth by G. sulfurreducens and its ability to persist when starved of energy sources.

  9. Long-term survival of a semi-constrained implant following revision for infection.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Benjamin; Wagner, Eric; Trousdale, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in prosthetic joint infections (PJI) is a challenging problem. We evaluated our institutional experience with a semi-constrained implant placed in a PJI setting. Seventy-eight TKAs in 75 patients with a history of a PJI were identified. The average follow-up was 7.5 years. Twenty-three (29%) underwent repeat revision surgery. Five and 10 year survivals were 71% and 64%, respectively. The most common reason for repeat revision surgery was recurrent infection (78%). Smoking and elevated BMI increased the risk of repeat revision surgery. Significant improvements were maintained long term in pain and range of motion (P < 0.01 and P = 0.02). In the absence of repeat infection, long term pain relief and improved function may be expected with the semi-constrained implant. PMID:25769740

  10. Conditional long-term survival following minimally invasive robotic mitral valve repair: a health services perspective

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, William F.; Gudimella, Preeti; O’Neal, Wesley T.; Davies, Stephen W.; Crane, Patricia B.; Anderson, Ethan J.; Kindell, Linda C.; Landrine, Hope; O’Neal, Jason B.; Alwair, Hazaim; Kypson, Alan P.; Nifong, Wiley L.; Chitwood, W. Randolph

    2015-01-01

    Background Conditional survival is defined as the probability of surviving an additional number of years beyond that already survived. The aim of this study was to compute conditional survival in patients who received a robotically assisted, minimally invasive mitral valve repair procedure (RMVP). Methods Patients who received RMVP with annuloplasty band from May 2000 through April 2011 were included. A 5- and 10-year conditional survival model was computed using a multivariable product-limit method. Results Non-smoking men (≤65 years) who presented in sinus rhythm had a 96% probability of surviving at least 10 years if they survived their first year following surgery. In contrast, recent female smokers (>65 years) with preoperative atrial fibrillation only had an 11% probability of surviving beyond 10 years if alive after one year post-surgery. Conclusions In the context of an increasingly managed healthcare environment, conditional survival provides useful information for patients needing to make important treatment decisions, physicians seeking to select patients most likely to benefit long-term following RMVP, and hospital administrators needing to comparatively assess the life-course economic value of high-tech surgical procedures. PMID:26539348

  11. Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen is related to tumour stage and long-term survival in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, M. A.; Buckley, D.; Henson, D. B.; Armitage, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Evidence as to the value of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in guiding treatment for patients with colorectal cancer is conflicting. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the value of preoperative CEA in predicting tumour factors of proven prognostic value and long-term survival in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer. Preoperative serum CEA, tumour ploidy, stage and grade were ascertained in 277 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. This cohort of patients were followed up for a minimum of 5 years, or until death, in a dedicated colorectal clinic. Patients with an elevated CEA had a 5 year survival of 39%. This increased to 57% if the CEA was normal (P=0.001). The proportion of patients with a raised CEA increased with a more advanced tumour stage (P < 0.000001) and a poorly differentiated tumour grade (P < 0.005). Once stage had been controlled for, CEA was not a predictor of survival. No relationship between tumour ploidy and CEA was found. In conclusion, a raised preoperative serum CEA is likely to be associated with advanced tumour stage and poor long-term survival, compared with patients with a normal value. PMID:9823977

  12. Clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and long-term survival in large breed dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, I; Volk, H A; De Decker, S

    2016-08-01

    Although several studies indicate that meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology (MUA) might affect every dog breed at every age, little is known about clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and long-term survival in large breed dogs. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and long-term survival between large and small/medium breed dogs diagnosed with MUA. One hundred and eleven dogs met the inclusion criteria. 28 (25 per cent) dogs were considered large breed dogs compared with 83 (75 per cent) small/medium breed dogs. Large breed dogs presented significantly more often with a decreased mentation. Age, gender, duration of clinical signs prior to diagnosis, presence of seizures or cluster seizures, variables on complete blood count and cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and all variables on MRI were not significantly different between small/medium and large breed dogs. Median survival time was 281 and 106 days for the large and small/medium breed dogs, respectively, with no significant difference in survival curves for both groups. Although considered not typically affected by MUA, 25 per cent of dogs included in this study were considered large breed dogs. Therefore, MUA should be included in the differential diagnosis for large breed dogs presenting with intracranial neurological signs. If diagnosed with MUA, large breed dogs also carried a guarded prognosis. PMID:27165997

  13. Prognostic factors for long term survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moumtzi, Despoina; Lampaki, Sofia; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Lagoudi, Kalliopi; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pataka, Athanasia; Tsiouda, Theodora; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Lazaridis, George; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Timotheadou, Helen; Barbetakis, Nikolaos; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents 85% of all lung cancers. It is estimated that 60% of patients with NSCLC at time of diagnosis have advanced disease. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and demographic prognostic factors of long term survival in patients with unresectable NSCLC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed data of 1,156 patients with NSCLC stage IIIB or IV who survived more than 60 days from the time of diagnosis and treated from August 1987 until March 2013 in the Oncology Department of Pulmonary Clinic of the General Hospital Papanikolaou. Initially univariate analysis using the log-rank test was conducted and then multivariate analysis using the proportional hazards model of Cox. Also Kaplan Meier curves were used to describe the distribution of survival times of patients. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results The mean age at diagnosis was 62 years. About 11.9% of patients were women and 88.1% were male. The majority of cases were adenocarcinomas (42.2%), followed squamous (33%) and finally the large cell (6%). Unlike men, most common histological type among women was adenocarcinoma rather than squamous (63% vs. 10.9%). In univariate analysis statistically significant factors in the progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were: weight loss ≥5%, histological type, line 1 drugs, line 1 combination, line 1 cycles and radio lung. Specifically radio lung gives clear survival benefit in the PFS and OS in stage IIIB (P=0.002) and IV (P<0.001). On the other hand, the number of distant metastases in stage IV patients did not affect OS, neither PFS. In addition patients who received platinum and taxane had better PFS (P=0.001) and OS (P<0.001) than those who received platinum without taxane. Also the third drug administration proved futile, since survival (682.06±34.9) (P=0.023) and PFS (434.93±26.93) (P=0.012) of patients who received less than three drugs was significantly larger. Finally

  14. Stromal galectin-1 expression is associated with long-term survival in resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ru; Pan, Sheng; Ottenhof, NIki A.; de Wilde, Roeland F.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Lane, Zhaoli; Post, Jane; Bronner, Mary P.; Willmann, Jürgen K.; Maitra, Anirban; Brentnall, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    The overall 5 year survival rate for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (i.e., PDAC) is a dismal 5%, although patients that have undergone surgical resection have a somewhat better survival rate of up to 20%. Very long-term survivors of PDAC (defined as patients with ≥ 10 year survival following apparently curative resection), on the other hand, are considerably less frequent. The molecular characteristics of very long-term survivors (VLTS) are poorly understood, but might provide novel insights into prognostication for this disease. In this study, a panel of five VLTS and stage-matched short-term survivors (STS, defined as disease-specific mortality within 14 months of resection) were identified, and quantitative proteomics was applied to comparatively profile tumor tissues from both cohorts. Differentially expressed proteins were identified in cancers from VLTS vs. STS patients. Specifically, the expression of galectin-1 was 2-fold lower in VLTS compared with STS tumors. Validation studies were performed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in two additional cohorts of resected PDAC, including: 1) an independent cohort of VLTS and 2) a panel of sporadic PDAC with a considerable range of overall survival following surgery. Immunolabeling analysis confirmed that significantly lower expression of stromal galectin-1 was associated with VLTS (p = 0.02) and also correlated with longer survival in sporadic, surgically-treated PDAC cases (hazard ratio = 4.9, p = 0.002). The results from this study provide new insights to better understand the role of galectin-1 in PDAC survival, and might be useful for rendering prognostic information, and developing more effective therapeutic strategies aimed at improving survival. PMID:22785208

  15. Survival after acute kidney injury requiring dialysis: long-term follow up.

    PubMed

    Duran, Paula A; Concepcion, Luis A

    2014-10-01

    than the ones who did not recover (59.7 vs. 16 m, P < 0.05). By Cox regression, the factors significant for survival were peak creatinine and status at discharge. During follow up (data up to 54 months), the percentage of patients with eGFR < 60 mL/minute decreased from 90.9% at discharge to 63.6% at 24 months, then increased to 81.8% at 30 months and longer. The percentage of patients with eGFR < 30 mL/minute decreased from 45.4% at discharge to 18.2% at 24 months to increase at a later date (27-36%). The percentage of patients with eGFR < 15 mL/minute decreased from 45.45% at discharge to 18% until 24 months of follow up (to increase to 27.7% at later dates). AKI requiring dialysis has a significant effect on GFR with almost 80% of the survivors having chronic kidney disease stage 3 or worse. Furthermore, progression was observed on the long-term follow up. Factors affecting the survival included peak creatinine and status of recovery of kidney function at discharge. PMID:25330825

  16. Long-term survival following intensive care: subgroup analysis and comparison with the general population.

    PubMed

    Wright, J C; Plenderleith, L; Ridley, S A

    2003-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the very long-term survival of critically ill patients with that of the general population, and examine the association among age, sex, admission diagnosis, APACHE II score and mortality. In a retrospective observational cohort study of prospectively gathered data, 2104 adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a teaching hospital in Glasgow from 1985 to 1992, were followed until 1997. Vital status at five years was compared with that of an age- and sex-matched Scottish population. Five-year mortality for the ICU patients was 47.1%, 3.4 times higher than that of the general population. For those surviving intensive care the five-year mortality was 33.4%. Mortality was greater than that of the general population for four years following intensive care unit admission (95% confidence interval included 1.0 at four years). Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for mortality in those admitted to ICU were age, APACHE II score on admission and diagnostic category. Mortality was higher for those admitted with haematological (87.5%) and neurological diseases (61.7%) and septic shock (62.9%). A risk score was produced: Risk Score = 10 (age hazard ratio + APACHE II hazard ratio + diagnosis hazard ratio). None of the patients with a risk score > 100 survived more than five years and for those who survived to five years the mean risk score was 57. Long-term survival following intensive care is not only related to age and severity of illness but also diagnostic category. The risk of mortality in survivors of critical illness matches that of the normal population after four years. Age, severity of illness and diagnosis can be combined to provide an estimate of five-year survival. PMID:12790812

  17. Extremely halophilic archaea from ancient salt sediments and their long term survival.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Fendrihan, Sergiu; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion

    Halophilic archaebacteria (haloarchaea) thrive in environments with salt concentrations approaching saturation, such as natural brines, marine solar salterns and alkaline salt lakes; they have also been isolated from rock salt of great geological age (195-250 million years) and some of those strains were described as novel species (1). The cells survived perhaps while being enclosed within small fluid inclusions in the halite. When simulating the embedding process of haloarchaea in laboratory-grown salt crystals, cells accumulated preferentially in fluid inclusions, as could be demonstrated by pre-staining with fluorescent dyes. The issue of extreme long term microbial survival in rock salt has considerable implications for the search for extraterrestrial life. Halite has been found in Martian meteorites, salts are present on the Martian surface and there is good evidence for a salty ocean on the Jovian moon Europa. Therefore the search for halophilic prokaryotic life in such environments appears plausible. The development of detection methods for subsurface haloarchaea, which might also be applicable to samples from future missions to space, is important and some examples such as fluorescence microscopy methods with novel dyes will be described. (1) Fendrihan, S., Legat, A., Gruber, C., Pfaffenhuemer, M., Weidler, G., Gerbl, F., Stan- Lotter, H. (2006) Extremely halophilic archaea and the issue of long term microbial survival. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/technology 5, 1569-1605.

  18. Long-term Survival, Organ Function, and Malignancy after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Fanconi Anemia.

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Carmem; Ribeiro, Lisandro; Nichele, Samantha; Bitencourt, Marco; Loth, Gisele; Koliski, Adriana; Funke, Vaneuza A M; Pilonetto, Daniela V; Pereira, Noemi F; Flowers, Mary E D; Velleuer, Eunike; Dietrich, Ralf; Fasth, Anders; Torres-Pereira, Cassius C; Pedruzzi, Paola; Eapen, Mary; Pasquini, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    We report on long-term survival in 157 patients with Fanconi anemia (FA) who survived 2 years or longer after their first transplantation with a median follow-up of 9 years. Marrow failure (80%) was the most common indication for transplantation. There were 20 deaths beyond 2 years after transplantation, with 12 of the deaths occurring beyond 5 years after transplantation. Donor chimerism was available for 149 patients: 112 (76%) reported > 95% chimerism, 27 (18%) reported 90% to 95% chimerism, and 8 (5%) reported 20% to 89% donor chimerism. Two patients have < 20% donor chimerism. The 10- and 15-year probabilities of survival were 90% and 79%, respectively. Results of multivariate analysis showed higher mortality risks for transplantations before 2003 (hazard ratio [HR], 7.87; P = .001), chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR, 3.80; P = .004) and squamous cell carcinoma after transplantation (HR, 38.17; P < .0001). The predominant cause of late mortality was squamous cell carcinoma, with an incidence of 8% and 14% at 10 and 15 years after transplantation, respectively, and was more likely to occur in those with chronic GVHD. Other causes of late mortality included chronic GVHD, infection, graft failure, other cancers, and hemorrhage. Although most patients are disease free and functional long term, our data support aggressive surveillance for long periods to identify those at risk for late mortality. PMID:26976241

  19. Molecular Predictors of Long-Term Survival in Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cowperthwaite, Matthew C.; Burnett, Mark G.; Shpak, Max

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive adult primary brain cancer, with <10% of patients surviving for more than 3 years. Demographic and clinical factors (e.g. age) and individual molecular biomarkers have been associated with prolonged survival in GBM patients. However, comprehensive systems-level analyses of molecular profiles associated with long-term survival (LTS) in GBM patients are still lacking. We present an integrative study of molecular data and clinical variables in these long-term survivors (LTSs, patients surviving >3 years) to identify biomarkers associated with prolonged survival, and to assess the possible similarity of molecular characteristics between LGG and LTS GBM. We analyzed the relationship between multivariable molecular data and LTS in GBM patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), including germline and somatic point mutation, gene expression, DNA methylation, copy number variation (CNV) and microRNA (miRNA) expression using logistic regression models. The molecular relationship between GBM LTS and LGG tumors was examined through cluster analysis. We identified 13, 94, 43, 29, and 1 significant predictors of LTS using Lasso logistic regression from the somatic point mutation, gene expression, DNA methylation, CNV, and miRNA expression data sets, respectively. Individually, DNA methylation provided the best prediction performance (AUC = 0.84). Combining multiple classes of molecular data into joint regression models did not improve prediction accuracy, but did identify additional genes that were not significantly predictive in individual models. PCA and clustering analyses showed that GBM LTS typically had gene expression profiles similar to non-LTS GBM. Furthermore, cluster analysis did not identify a close affinity between LTS GBM and LGG, nor did we find a significant association between LTS and secondary GBM. The absence of unique LTS profiles and the lack of similarity between LTS GBM and LGG, indicates

  20. Long-Term Survival of an Urban Fruit Bat Seropositive for Ebola and Lagos Bat Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, David T. S.; Emmerich, Petra; Yu, Meng; Wang, Lin-Fa; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L. N.

    2010-01-01

    Ebolaviruses (EBOV) (family Filoviridae) cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates when they spill over from their wildlife reservoir hosts with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Fruit bats may act as reservoirs of the Filoviridae. The migratory fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is common across sub-Saharan Africa and lives in large colonies, often situated in cities. We screened sera from 262 E. helvum using indirect fluorescent tests for antibodies against EBOV subtype Zaire. We detected a seropositive bat from Accra, Ghana, and confirmed this using western blot analysis. The bat was also seropositive for Lagos bat virus, a Lyssavirus, by virus neutralization test. The bat was fitted with a radio transmitter and was last detected in Accra 13 months after release post-sampling, demonstrating long-term survival. Antibodies to filoviruses have not been previously demonstrated in E. helvum. Radio-telemetry data demonstrates long-term survival of an individual bat following exposure to viruses of families that can be highly pathogenic to other mammal species. Because E. helvum typically lives in large urban colonies and is a source of bushmeat in some regions, further studies should determine if this species forms a reservoir for EBOV from which spillover infections into the human population may occur. PMID:20694141

  1. Characterization of ancient DNA supports long-term survival of Haloarchaea.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Lowenstein, Tim K; Timofeeff, Michael N; Schubert, Brian A; Lum, J Koji

    2014-07-01

    Bacteria and archaea isolated from crystals of halite 10(4) to 10(8) years old suggest long-term survival of halophilic microorganisms, but the results are controversial. Independent verification of the authenticity of reputed living prokaryotes in ancient salt is required because of the high potential for environmental and laboratory contamination. Low success rates of prokaryote cultivation from ancient halite, however, hamper direct replication experiments. In such cases, culture-independent approaches that use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA are a robust alternative. Here, we use amplification, cloning, and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA to investigate the authenticity of halophilic archaea cultured from subsurface halite, Death Valley, California, 22,000 to 34,000 years old. We recovered 16S ribosomal DNA sequences that are identical, or nearly so (>99%), to two strains, Natronomonas DV462A and Halorubrum DV427, which were previously isolated from the same halite interval. These results provide the best independent support to date for the long-term survival of halophilic archaea in ancient halite. PCR-based approaches are sensitive to small amounts of DNA and could allow investigation of even older halites, 10(6) to 10(8) years old, from which microbial cultures have been reported. Such studies of microbial life in ancient salt are particularly important as we search for microbial signatures in similar deposits on Mars and elsewhere in the Solar System. PMID:24977469

  2. Progression-Free Survival: An Important Prognostic Marker for Long-Term Survival of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Myoung-Rin; Park, Yeon-Hee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Dong-Il; Chung, Chae-Uk; Moon, Jae-Young; Park, Hee-Sun; Jung, Sung-Soo; Kim, Ju-Ock; Kim, Sun-Young

    2014-01-01

    Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an extremely aggressive tumor with a poor clinical course. Although many efforts have been made to improve patients' survival rates, patients who survive longer than 2 years after chemotherapy are still very rare. We examined the baseline characteristics of patients with long-term survival rates in order to identify the prognostic factors for overall survivals. Methods A total of 242 patients with cytologically or histologically diagnosed SCLC were enrolled into this study. The patients were categorized into long- and short-term survival groups by using a survival cut-off of 2 years after diagnosis. Cox's analyses were performed to identify the independent factors. Results The mean patient age was 65.66 years, and 85.5% were males; among the patients, 61 of them (25.2%) survived longer than 2 years. In the multivariate analyses, CRP (hazard ratio [HR], 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-6.06; p=0.012), TNM staging (HR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.59-6.80; p=0.001), and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR, 11.14; 95% CI, 2.98-41.73; p<0.001) were independent prognostic markers for poor survival rates. Conclusion In addition to other well-known prognostic factors, this study discovered relationships between the long-term survival rates and serum CRP levels, TNM staging, and PFS. In situations with unfavorable conditions, the PFS would be particularly helpful for managing SCLC patients. PMID:24920948

  3. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on Long-Term Survival after Distal Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Il; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jong Yeul; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Young-Woo; Choi, Il Ju

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Negative Helicobacter pylori status has been identified as a poor prognostic factor for survival in gastric cancer (GC) patients who underwent surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of H. pylori eradication on long-term outcomes after distal gastrectomy for GC. Materials and Methods We analyzed the survival of 169 distal GC patients enrolled in a prospective randomized trial evaluating histologic changes of gastric mucosa after H. pylori eradication in the remnant stomach. The outcomes measured were overall survival (OS) and GC recurrence rates. Results The median follow-up duration was 9.4 years. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis including patients who underwent H. pylori treatment (n=87) or placebo (n=82), 5-year OS rates were 98.9% in the treatment group and 91.5% in the placebo group, and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no significant difference in OS (p=0.957) between groups. In multivariate analysis, no difference in overall mortality was observed between groups (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] for H. pylori treatment, 0.75; p=0.495) or H. pylori-eradicated status (aHR for positive H. pylori status, 1.16; p=0.715), while old age, male sex, and advanced stage ≥ IIIa were independent risk factors. Six patients in the treatment group (6.9%) and seven patients in the placebo group (8.5%) had GC recurrences, and GC recurrence rates were not different according to H. pylori treatment (5-year GC recurrence rates, 4.6% in the treatment group vs. 8.5% in the placebo group; p=0.652). Conclusion H. pylori eradication for GC patients who underwent distal gastrectomy did not compromise long-term survival after surgery.

  4. Glycated Albumin Predicts Long-term Survival in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chien-Lin; Ma, Wen-Ya; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Shyu, Jia-Fwu; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Liu, Yueh-Min; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: In patients with advanced renal dysfunction undergoing maintenance hemodialysis, glycated albumin (GA) levels may be more representative of blood glucose levels than hemoglobin A1C levels. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive power of GA levels on long-term survival in hemodialysis patients. Methods: A total of 176 patients with a mean age of 68.2 years were enrolled. The median duration of follow-up was 51.0 months. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was utilized to determine the optimal cutoff value. We examined the cumulative survival rate by Kaplan-Meier estimates and the influence of known survival factors with the multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression model. Results: In the whole patient group, cumulative survival in the low GA group was better than in the high GA group (p=0.030), with more prominence in those aged <70 years (p=0.029). In subgroup analysis, both diabetic (DM) and non-DM patients with low GA had a better cumulative survival compared with those with high GA. The risk of mortality increased by 3.0% for each 1% increase in serum GA level in all patients undergoing hemodialysis. Conclusions: In addition to serving as a glycemic control marker, GA levels may be useful for evaluating the risk of death in both DM and non-DM patients on hemodialysis. PMID:27226780

  5. Long-term survival after chest-wall reconstruction with musculocutaneous flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, S.S.; Schusterman, M.A.; Larson, D.L.; Fender, A. )

    1990-10-01

    Reconstruction of chest-wall defects with musculocutaneous flaps permits resection of advanced chest-wall tumors and of tissues severely damaged by radiotherapy in patients who in a previous era were not surgically treatable. To determine the long-term outcome from this surgery, the records of 96 patients who had undergone chest-wall resection with musculocutaneous flap reconstruction were reviewed. Median survival for the entire group was 20.5 months, but a more accurate prediction of outcome could be obtained by dividing the patients into three groups. In group I, patients free of known malignancy and undergoing resection of radionecrotic tissues, median survival was 60.0 months. In group II, patients with resectable disease and free of tumor following surgery, median survival was 31.1 months. In group III, patients incompletely resected or known to have metastatic disease following surgery, median survival was only 12.5 months. Even in group III, however, some individuals achieved prolonged survival and lasting benefits from the surgery, so these data should not be used to exclude patients from undergoing necessary palliative procedures.

  6. Long-term survival and prognosis for primary clear cell carcinoma of the liver after hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zu-Shun; Zhu, Shao-Liang; Qi, Lu-Nan; Li, Le-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term survival and prognosis for primary clear cell carcinoma of the liver (PCCCL) of the liver after hepatectomy. Methods Our study retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological data of 64 patients with PCCCL (PCCCL group) and 247 with nonclear cell hepatocellular carcinoma (NHCC group) after hepatectomy between January 1996 and December 2006. The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival of the two groups was compared using the Kaplan–Meier method. Prognostic factors of survival were identified by multivariate analysis. Results The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS (P=0.016) and disease-free survival (P<0.001) of the PCCCL group were significantly higher than that of the NHCC group. In mutivariate analysis, tumor size >5 cm, presence of portal vein tumor thrombosis and proportion of clear cells ≤70% were risk factors for OS of the PCCCL group. The prognosis of a subgroup with higher proportion of clear cells was markedly better than that of the subgroup with a lower proportion of clear cells. Conclusion Our results suggested that the prognosis of patients with PCCCL was better than that of the patients with NHCC. The higher the proportion of clear cells, the better the prognosis. PMID:27462167

  7. Contrasting long-term survival of two outplanted Mojave Desert perennials for post-fire revegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoles-Sciulla, Sara J.; Defalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Post-fire recovery of arid shrublands is typically slow, and planting greenhouse-raised seedlings may be a means of jump-starting this process. Recovery can be further accelerated by understanding the factors controlling post-planting survival. In fall 2007 and 2009, we outplanted seedlings of two contrasting native evergreen shrubs—fast-growing Nevada jointfir and slow-growing blackbrush—across five burned sites in the Mojave Desert. To increase soil moisture and optimize seedling survival, we experimentally applied and evaluated soil amendments and supplemental watering. We also evaluated two herbicides that reduce competitive invasive annual grasses and two types of herbivore protection. Survival of jointfir outplanted in 2007 was 61% after 43 months, and site largely influenced survival, while herbicide containing imazapic applied more than one year after outplanting reduced survival. Reduced survival of jointfir outplanted in 2009 coincided with delayed seasonal precipitation that intensified foliar damage by small mammals. In contrast, blackbrush survival was 4% after 43 months, and was influenced by site, type of herbivore protection, and greenhouse during the 2007 outplanting, and soil amendment during 2009. Counter to expectations, we found that supplemental watering and soil amendments did not influence long-term survival of either blackbrush or jointfir. Shrub species with rapid growth rates and broad environmental tolerances, such as jointfir, make ideal candidates for outplanting, provided that seedlings are protected from herbivores. Re-introduction of species with slow growth rates and narrow environmental tolerances, such as blackbrush, requires careful consideration to optimize pre- and post-planting conditions.

  8. ''Minimizing tacrolimus'' strategy and long-term survival after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jun-Jun; Lin, Bin-Yi; He, Jiang-Juan; Geng, Lei; Kadel, Dhruba; Wang, Li; Yu, Dong-Dong; Shen, Tian; Yang, Zhe; Ye, Yu-Fu; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of the ‘‘minimizing tacrolimus’’ strategy on long-term survival of patients after liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 319 patients who received LT between January 2009 and December 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. Following elimination of ineligible patients, 235 patients were included in the study. The relationship between early tacrolimus (TAC) exposure and survival period was analyzed by Kaplan Meier curves. Adverse effects related to TAC were evaluated by the χ2 test. Routine monitoring of blood TAC concentration (TC) was performed using the PRO-TracTM II Tacrolimus Elisa Kit (Diasorin, United States). RESULTS: Of 235 subjects enrolled in the study, 124 (52.8%) experienced adverse effects due to TAC. When evaluating mean TC, the survival time of patients with a mean TC < 5 ng/mL was significantly shorter than that in the other groups (911.3 ± 131.6 d vs 1381.1 ± 66.1 d, 911.3 ± 131.6 d vs 1327.3 ± 47.8 d, 911.3 ± 131.6 d vs 1343.2 ± 83.1 d, P < 0.05), while the survival times of patients with a mean TC of 5-7, 7-10 and 10-15 ng/mL were comparable. Adverse effects due to TAC in all four groups were not significantly different. When comparing the standard deviation (SD) of TC among the groups, the survival time of patients with a SD of 2-4 was significantly longer than that in the other groups (1388.8 ± 45.4 d vs 1029.6 ± 131.3 d, 1388.8 ± 45.4 d vs 1274.9 ± 57.0 d, P < 0.05), while in patients with a SD < 2 and SD > 4, the survival time was not statistically different. Adverse effects experienced in all three groups were not statistically different. In Cox regression analysis, male patients and those with a primary diagnosis of benign disease, mean TC > 5 ng/mL and TC SD 2-4 had better outcomes. CONCLUSION: The early ‘‘minimizing tacrolimus’’ strategy with a mean TC of 5-10 ng/mL and SD of 2-4 was beneficial in terms of

  9. Nuclear localisation of LASP-1 correlates with poor long-term survival in female breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Frietsch, J J; Grunewald, T G P; Jasper, S; Kammerer, U; Herterich, S; Kapp, M; Honig, A; Butt, E

    2010-01-01

    Background: LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP-1) is a nucleo-cytoplasmatic signalling protein involved in cell proliferation and migration and is upregulated in breast cancer in vitro studies have shown that LASP-1 might be regulated by prostate-derived ETS factor (PDEF), p53 and/or LASP1 gene amplification. This current study analysed the prognostic significance of LASP-1 on overall survival (OS) in 177 breast cancer patients and addressed the suggested mechanisms of LASP-1-regulation. Methods: Nucleo-cytoplasmatic LASP-1-positivity of breast carcinoma samples was correlated with long-term survival, clinicopathological parameters, Ki67-positivity and PDEF expression. Rate of LASP1 amplification was determined in micro-dissected primary breast cancer cells using quantitative RT–PCR. Cell-phase dependency of nuclear LASP-1-localisation was studied in synchronised cells. In addition, LASP-1, PDEF and p53 expression was compared in cell lines of different tumour entities to define principles for LASP-1-regulation. Results: We showed that LASP-1 overexpression is not due to LASP1 gene amplification. Moreover, no correlation between p53-mutations or PDEF-expression and LASP-1-status was observed. However, nuclear LASP-1-localisation in breast carcinomas is increased during proliferation with peak in G2/M-phase and correlated significantly with Ki67-positivity and poor OS. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that nuclear LASP-1-positivity may serve as a negative prognostic indicator for long-term survival of breast cancer patients. PMID:20461080

  10. The Relationship of Echocardiographic Dyssynchrony to Long-Term Survival Following Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gorcsan, John; Oyenuga, Olusegun; Habib, Phillip J.; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Adelstein, Evan C.; Hara, Hideyuki; McNamara, Dennis M.; Saba, Samir

    2010-01-01

    Background The ability of echocardiographic dyssynchrony to predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been unclear. Methods and Results A prospective, longitudinal study was designed with pre-defined dyssynchrony indices and outcome variables to test the hypothesis that baseline dyssynchrony is associated with long term survival following CRT. We studied 229 consecutive Class III–IV heart failure patients, with ejection fraction (EF) ≤35%, and QRS duration ≥120ms for CRT. Dyssynchrony before CRT was defined as: tissue Doppler velocity opposing wall delay ≥ 65 ms, 12-site standard deviation (Yu Index) ≥32ms; speckle tracking radial strain anteroseptal to posterior wall delay ≥130ms; or pulsed Doppler interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD) ≥ 40 ms. Outcome was defined as freedom from death, heart transplant or left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Of 210 patients (89%) with dyssynchrony data available, there were 62 events: 47 deaths, 9 transplants, and 6 LVADs over 4 years. Event-free survival was associated with: Yu Index (p=0.003), speckle tracking radial strain (p=0.003), and IVMD (p=0.019). When adjusted for confounding baseline variables of ischemic etiology and QRS duration, Yu Index and radial strain dyssynchrony remained independently associated with outcome (p<0.05). Lack of radial dyssynchrony was particularly associated with unfavorable outcome in those with QRS duration 120–150 ms (p=0.002). Conclusions The absence of echocardiographic dyssynchrony was associated with significantly less favorable event-free survival following CRT. Patients with narrower QRS duration who lacked dyssynchrony had the least favorable long term outcome. These observations support the relationship of dyssynchrony to CRT response. PMID:20975000

  11. Is Long-Term Structural Priming Affected by Patterns of Experience with Individual Verbs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these…

  12. Vasoreactivity to inhaled nitric oxide with oxygen predicts long-term survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rajeev; Hess, Dean; Lewis, Gregory D; Bloch, Kenneth D; Waxman, Aaron B; Semigran, Marc J

    2011-04-01

    Pulmonary vasodilator testing is currently used to guide management of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the utility of the pulmonary vascular response to inhaled nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen in predicting survival has not been established. Eighty patients with WHO Group I PAH underwent vasodilator testing with inhaled NO (80 ppm with 90% O(2) for 10 minutes) at the time of diagnosis. Changes in right atrial (RA) pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, Fick cardiac output, and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were tested for associations to long-term survival (median follow-up 2.4 years). Five-year survival was 56%. Baseline PVR (mean±SD 850±580 dyne-sec/cm(5)) and mPAP (49±14 mmHg) did not predict survival, whereas the change in either PVR or mPAP while breathing NO and O(2) was predictive. Patients with a ≥30% reduction in PVR with inhaled NO and O(2) had a 53% relative reduction in mortality (Cox hazard ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.99, P=0.047), and those with a ≥12% reduction in mPAP with inhaled NO and O(2) had a 55% relative reduction in mortality (hazard ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.22-0.96, P=0.038). The same vasoreactive thresholds predicted survival in the subset of patients who never were treated with calcium channel antagonists (n=66). Multivariate analysis showed that decreases in PVR and mPAP with inhaled NO and O(2) were independent predictors of survival. Reduction in PVR or mPAP during short-term administration of inhaled NO and O(2) predicts survival in PAH patients. PMID:22020367

  13. Laboratory and field evidence for long-term starvation survival of microorganisms in subsurface terrestrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Murphy, Ellyn M.; Amy, P. S.; Haldeman, D. L.; Ringelberg, David B.; White, David C.

    1997-07-01

    Biogeochemical modeling of groundwater flow and nutrient flux in subsurface environments indicates that inhabitant microorganisms experience severe nutrient limitation. Using laboratory and field methods, we have been testing starvation survival in subsurface microorganisms. In microcosm experiments, we have shown that strains of two commonly isolated subsurface genera, Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas, are able to maintain viability in low-nutrient, natural subsurface sediments for over one year. These non- spore-forming bacteria undergo rapid initial miniaturization followed by a stabilization of cell size. Membrane lipid phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of the Pseudomonas are consistent with adaptation to nutrient stress; Arthrobacter apparently responds to nutrient deprivation without altering membrane PLFAs. To test survivability of microorganisms over a geologic time scale, we characterized microbial communities in a sequence of unsaturated sediments ranging in age from modern to > 780,000 years. Sediments were relatively uniform silts in eastern Washington State. Porewater ages at depth (measured by the chloride mass- balance approach) were as old as 3,600 years. Microbial abundance, biomass, and activities (measured by direct counts, culture counts, total PLFAs, and radiorespirometry) declined with sediment age. The pattern is consistent with laboratory microcosm studies of microbial survival: rapid short-term change followed by long-term survival of a proportion of cells. Even the oldest sediments evinced a small but viable microbial community. Microbial survival appeared to be a function of sediment age. Porewater age appeared to influence the makeup of surviving communities, as indicated by PLFA profiles. Sites with different porewater recharge rates and patterns of Pleistocene flooding had different communities. These and other studies provide evidence that microorganisms can survive nutrient limitation for geologic time periods.

  14. Long term survival of radiotherapy for esophageal cancer: analysis of 1136 patients surviving for more than 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z.Y.; Gu, X.; Zhao, S.

    1983-12-01

    One thousand one hundred and thirty-six patients surviving for more than five years after radiotherapy were studied. The important prognostic factors are: lesion less than 5 cm in length, lesion located in the upper-third segment and lesion that is radiosensitive. The radiation dose given to long term survivors varies greatly, i.e., 2700 to 9300 rad. Yet, for the sensitive type of lesion, doses lower than 5000 rad could also effect a cure. The delivery of an optimum dose determined by serial examinations during radiotherapy could improve the result of treatment. For local recurrent lesions, the value of a second course of radiation is extremely limited and surgery is the only means to offer a cure. For metastasis in the lymph nodes, radiation offers some hope of cure, although the long term outcome may not be satisfactory. For second primary cancer of the esophagus, aggressive radiation still gives encouraging results.

  15. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.; Tanaka, S.

    2014-03-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime -200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a "regolith mound". Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  16. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K; Iijima, Y; Sakatani, N; Otake, H; Tanaka, S

    2014-03-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime -200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a "regolith mound". Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system. PMID:24689621

  17. Poor biofilm-forming ability and long-term survival of invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Girish; Aheto, Komi; Shirtliff, Mark E; Tennant, Sharon M

    2016-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, an enteric pathogen that causes a self-limiting gastroenteritis, forms biofilms on different surfaces. In sub-Saharan Africa, Salmonella Typhimurium of a novel sequence type (ST) 313 was identified and produces septicemia in the absence of gastroenteritis. No animal reservoir has been identified, and it is hypothesized that transmission occurs via human to human. In this study, we show that invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 strains from Mali are poor biofilm producers compared to Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 strains, which are found worldwide and are known to be associated with gastroenteritis. We evaluated biofilms using crystal violet staining, examination of the red, dry and rough morphotype, pellicle formation and a continuous flow system. One month-old Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 colonies survived in the absence of exogenous nutrients and were highly resistant to sodium hypochlorite treatment compared to Salmonella Typhimurium ST313. This study for the first time demonstrates the comparative biofilm-forming ability and long-term survival of clinical Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 and ST313 isolates. Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 strains are strong biofilm producers and can survive desiccation compared to Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 that form weak biofilms and survive poorly following desiccation. Our data suggest that like Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 lack mechanisms that allow it to persist in the environment. PMID:27222487

  18. Survival Response and Rearrangement of Plasmid DNA of Lactococcus lactis during Long-Term Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woojin S.; Park, Ji Hyeon; Ren, Jun; Su, Ping; Dunn, Noel W.

    2001-01-01

    The survival response of Lactococcus lactis during long-term starvation was investigated. The cells were cultured with different levels of glucose (the sole energy source) and either were kept in the resultant spent medium or transferred to fresh medium (without glucose) for up to 2 years. The survival of the cells during starvation was not dependent on the nature of transition phase, as expected, but on the nature of medium in which the cells were kept. The proliferation of cells, despite the apparent lack of glucose, could have been due to some cells being able to utilize the small amounts of peptides still present in the spent medium or to use energy sources provided by the breakup of dead cells. The 1- and 2-year-old cultures contained cells with vastly changed morphotypes. When these isolates were examined, it was revealed that the original plasmids present in the parent were rearranged in a certain way, and an entirely new plasmid was generated. Changes were also evident in the chromosomal DNA and in gene expression. Furthermore, all of the isolates exhibited a growth advantage relative to the parent cells when grown in energy-limiting media. When they were tested against different types of stresses, they exhibited a higher resistance against the bile salt and hydrogen peroxide stresses compared to the parent. Because of the similar changes observed in the 2-year-old isolates, a similar survival strategy may be operational in those cells that survive for that length of time. PMID:11571161

  19. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.

    2014-03-15

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime −200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a “regolith mound”. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  20. Early renal function recovery and long-term graft survival in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Susan S; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Mucsi, Istvan; Baran, Dana; Paraskevas, Steven; Tchervenkov, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Following kidney transplantation (KTx), renal function improves gradually until a baseline eGFR is achieved. Whether or not a recipient achieves the best-predicted eGFR after KTx may have important implications for immediate patient management, as well as for long-term graft survival. The aim of this cohort study was to calculate the renal function recovery (RFR) based on recipient and donor eGFR and to evaluate the association between RFR and long-term death-censored graft failure (DCGF). We studied 790 KTx recipients between January 1990 and August 2014. The last donor SCr prior to organ procurement was used to estimate donor GFR. Recipient eGFR was calculated using the average of the best three SCr values observed during the first 3 months post-KTx. RFR was defined as the ratio of recipient eGFR to half the donor eGFR. 53% of recipients had an RFR ≥1. There were 127 death-censored graft failures (16%). Recipients with an RFR ≥1 had less DCGF compared with those with an RFR <1 (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.85; P = 0.006). Transplant era, acute rejection, ECD and DGF were also significant determinants of graft failure. Early recovery of predicted eGFR based on donor eGFR is associated with less DCGF after KTx. PMID:26988072

  1. Predicting long-term risk for relationship dissolution using nonparametric conditional survival trees.

    PubMed

    Kliem, Sören; Weusthoff, Sarah; Hahlweg, Kurt; Baucom, Katherine J W; Baucom, Brian R

    2015-12-01

    Identifying risk factors for divorce or separation is an important step in the prevention of negative individual outcomes and societal costs associated with relationship dissolution. Programs that aim to prevent relationship distress and dissolution typically focus on changing processes that occur during couple conflict, although the predictive ability of conflict-specific variables has not been examined in the context of other factors related to relationship dissolution. The authors examine whether emotional responding and communication during couple conflict predict relationship dissolution after controlling for overall relationship quality and individual well-being. Using nonparametric conditional survival trees, the study at hand simultaneously examined the predictive abilities of physiological (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, cortisol) and behavioral (fundamental frequency; f0) indices of emotional responding, as well as observationally coded positive and negative communication behavior, on long-term relationship stability after controlling for relationship satisfaction and symptoms of depression. One hundred thirty-six spouses were assessed after participating in a randomized clinical trial of a relationship distress prevention program as well as 11 years thereafter; 32.5% of the couples' relationships had dissolved by follow up. For men, the only significant predictor of relationship dissolution was cortisol change score (p = .012). For women, only f0 range was a significant predictor of relationship dissolution (p = .034). These findings highlight the importance of emotional responding during couple conflict for long-term relationship stability. PMID:26192131

  2. Survival of dormant organisms after long-term exposure to the space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, N.; Gusev, O.; Polikarpov, N.; Deshevaya, E.; Levinskikh, M.; Alekseev, V.; Okuda, T.; Sugimoto, M.; Sychev, V.; Grigoriev, А.

    2011-05-01

    The RF SRC—Institute of Biomedical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, developed Biorisk hardware to study the effects of long-term exposure of dormant forms of various organisms to outer space and used it to complete a series of experiments on the Russian Module (RM) of the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments were performed using prokaryotes ( Bacillus bacteria) and eukaryotes ( Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium fungi), as well as spores, dormant forms of higher plants, insects, lower crustaceans, and vertebrates. The biological samples were housed in two containers that were exposed to outer space for 13 or 18 months. The results of the 18-month experiment showed that, in spite of harsher temperature than in the first study, most specimens remained viable. These experiments provided evidence that not only bacterial and fungal spores but also dormant forms of organisms that reached higher levels of evolutionary development had the capability to survive a long-term exposure to outer space. This observation suggests that they can be transferred on outer walls of space platforms during interplanetary missions.

  3. Long-Term Survival in Older Critically Ill Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Jinn-Ing; Smith, Maureen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare survival in older patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to intensive care units (ICU) with those not requiring ICU care and to assess the impact of mechanical ventilation (MV) and percutaneous gastrostomy tubes (PEG) on long-term mortality. Design Multi-center retrospective cohort study. Setting Administrative data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services covering 93 metropolitan counties primarily in the Eastern half of the United States. Patients 31,301 patients discharged with acute ischemic stroke in 2000. Interventions None Measurements Mortality from the time of index hospitalization up to the end of the follow-up period of 12 months. Information was also gathered on use of mechanical ventilation, percutaneous gastrostomy, sociodemographic variables and a host of comorbid conditions. Main Results 26% of all patients with acute ischemic stroke required ICU admission. The crude death rate for ICU stroke patients was 21% at 30 days and 40% at 1-year follow-up. At 30 days, after adjustment of sociodemographic variables and comorbidities, ICU patients had a 29% higher mortality hazard compared to non-ICU patients. Mechanical ventilation was associated with a five-fold higher mortality hazard (hazard ratio 5.59, confidence interval 4.93–6.34). The use of PEG was not associated with mortality at 30 days. By contrast, at 1-year follow up in 30-day survivors, ICU admission was not associated with mortality hazard (hazard ratio 1.01; 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.09). Mechanical ventilation still had a higher risk of death (hazard ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.57–2.25), and PEG patients had a 2.59 fold greater mortality hazard (95% confidence interval 2.38–2.82). Conclusions Both short-term and long-term mortality in older patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to ICUs is lower than previously reported. The need for MV and PEG are markers for poor long-term outcome. Future research should focus on the

  4. Laboratory and Field Evidence for Long-Term Starvation Survival of Microorganisms in Subsurface Terrestrial Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T.L.; Murphy, E.M.; Amy, P.S.; Haldeman, D.L.; Ringelberg, D. B. |

    1997-12-31

    BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODELING OF GROUNDWATER FLOW AND NUTRIENT FLUX IN SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS INDICATES THAT INHABITANT MICROORGANISMS EXPERIENCE SEVERE NUTRIENT LIMITATION. USING LABORATORY AND FIELD METHODS, WE HAVE BEEN TESTING STARVATION SURVIVAL IN SUBSURFACE MICROORGANISMS. IN MICROCOSM EXPERIMENTS, WE HAVE SHOWN THAT STRAINS OF TWO COMMONLY ISOLATED SUBSURFACE GENERA, ARTHROBACTER AND PSEUDOMONAS, ARE ABLE TO MAINTAIN VIABILITY IN LOW-NUTRIENT, NATURAL SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FOR OVER ONE YEAR. THESE NON-SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA UNDERGO RAPID INITIAL MINIATURIZATION FOLLOWED BY A STABILIZATION OF CELL SIZE. MEMBRANE LIPID PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID (PLFA) PROFILES OF THE PSEUDOMONAS ARE CONSISTENT WITH ADAPTATION TO NUTRIENT STRESS; ARTHROBACTER APPARENTLY RESPONDS TO NUTRIENT DEPRIVATION WITHOUT ALTERING MEMBRANE PLFA. TO TEST SURVIVABILITY OF MICROORGANISMS OVER A GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE, WE CHARACTERIZED MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN A SEQUENCE OF UNSATURATED SEDIMENTS RANGING IN AGE FROM MODEM TO {gt}780,000 years. Sediments were relatively uniform silts in Eastern Washington State. Porewater ages at depth (measured by the chloride mass-balance approach) were as old as 3,600 years. Microbial abundance, biomass, and activities (measured by direct counts, culture counts, total PLFAs, and radiorespirometry) declined with sediment age. The pattern is consistent with laboratory microcosm studies of Microbial survival: rapid short-term change followed by long-term survival of a proportion of cells. Even the oldest sediments evinced a small but viable Microbial community. Microbial survival appeared to be a function of sediment age. Porewater age appeared to influence the markup of surviving communities, as indicated by PLFA profiles. Sites with different Porewater recharge rates and patterns of Pleistocene flooding had different communities.

  5. Extremely halophilic archaea and the issue of long-term microbial survival

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Halophilic archaebacteria (haloarchaea) thrive in environments with salt concentrations approaching saturation, such as natural brines, the Dead Sea, alkaline salt lakes and marine solar salterns; they have also been isolated from rock salt of great geological age (195–250 million years). An overview of their taxonomy, including novel isolates from rock salt, is presented here; in addition, some of their unique characteristics and physiological adaptations to environments of low water activity are reviewed. The issue of extreme long-term microbial survival is considered and its implications for the search for extraterrestrial life. The development of detection methods for subterranean haloarchaea, which might also be applicable to samples from future missions to space, is presented. PMID:21984879

  6. The Power of Renal Function Estimation Equations for Predicting Long-Term Kidney Graft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon Young; Joo, Dong Jin; Song, Mi Kyung; Kim, Myoung Soo; Park, Hyeong Cheon; Kim, Yu Seun; Kim, Beom Seok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Evaluation of renal function using an accurate estimation equation is important for predicting long-term graft survival. We designed this retrospective cohort study to evaluate the predictive power of renal function estimation by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equations for graft survival. We reviewed data of 3290 adult kidney transplant recipients who underwent transplantation at a single center between April 1979 and September 2012. The reliability and agreement of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as calculated by the CKD-EPI and MDRD equations were evaluated using Bland–Altman plots and Cohen weighted kappa analyses. The predictive power of CKD stages as classified by each equation for graft survival was investigated using Cox regression models. Additionally, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to reveal the relationship between graft survival and eGFR equations. Of 3290 kidney transplant recipients, 3040 were included in the analysis. The mean follow-up duration was 128.08 ± 83.54 months, and 29.8% of participants were reclassified to higher eGFR categories by the CKD-EPI equation compared to the category classification by the MDRD equation. eGFR calculated using the MDRD equation was underestimated compared to that calculated using the CKD-EPI equation, based on the Bland–Altman plot. In Cohen weighted kappa analysis, agreement across CKD stages classified using the 2 equations was reliable, but all CKD stages classified using the MDRD equation appeared to be in lower eGFR categories than those classified using the CKD-EPI equation. Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses indicated that the CKD stage as classified by the CKD-EPI equation, but not the MDRD equation, was significantly correlated with the risk of graft failure. In multivariable Cox regression analysis for

  7. Long-term management of AAR-affected structures - An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Charlwood, R.G.; Solymar, Z.V.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the paper is to review international practice and comment on progress made in the long-term management of existing AAR-affected dams and hydroelectric plants. A updated detailed worldwide listing which now includes 104 AAR-affected structures constructed since 1900 will be presented. The listing gives summary data on the year of construction, the year that significant problems were noted, aggregate and cement types, measured expansion rates, test data, time to initial deterioration, duration of reaction, damage to the structures and effects on equipment, and repairs or replacement. A comprehensive bibliography will also be given. Analysis of the database and significant case histories will be used to identify issues affecting dam safety, plant operations, remedial measures and long-term performance of AAR-affected structures. The presentation will be illustrated by several case histories where remedial measures have been implemented.

  8. Fitness predicts long-term survival after a cardiovascular event: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Barons, Martine J; Turner, Sally; Parsons, Nicholas; Griffiths, Frances; Bethell, Hugh; Weich, Scott; Thorogood, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the role of fitness, fitness change, body mass index and other factors in predicting long-term (>5 years) survival in patients with coronary heart disease. Design Cohort study of patients with coronary heart disease recruited from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2002, followed up to March 2011 (1 day to 18 years 3 months, mean 10.7 years). Setting A community-based National Health Service (NHS) cardiac rehabilitation programme serving the Basingstoke and Alton area in Hampshire, UK. Participants An unselected cohort of NHS patients, 2167 men and 547 women aged 28–88 years, who attended the rehabilitation programme following acute myocardial infarction, an episode of angina or revascularisation, and had a baseline fitness test. Main outcome measures Cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Results A high level of fitness (VO2≥22 mL/kg/min for men, VO2≥19 mL/kg/min for women) at completion of the programme was associated with decreased all-cause death, as was a prescription for statins or aspirin, and female gender. Increase in all-cause mortality was associated with higher age and ACE inhibitors prescription. Higher risk of cardiovascular mortality was associated with increasing age, prescriptions for ACE inhibitor, and diagnosis of myocardial infarction or angina as compared with the other diagnoses. Conclusions Prior fitness and fitness improvement are strong predictors of long-term survival in patients who have experienced a cardiac event or procedure. Some secondary prevention medications make a significant contribution to reducing all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in these patients. This study supports public health messages promoting fitness for life. PMID:26493455

  9. Long-Term Survival and Late Deaths After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wingard, John R.; Majhail, Navneet S.; Brazauskas, Ruta; Wang, Zhiwei; Sobocinski, Kathleen A.; Jacobsohn, David; Sorror, Mohamed L.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Bolwell, Brian; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Socié, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative but is associated with life-threatening complications. Most deaths occur within the first 2 years after transplantation. In this report, we examine long-term survival in 2-year survivors in the largest cohort ever studied. Patients and Methods Records of 10,632 patients worldwide reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who were alive and disease free 2 years after receiving a myeloablative allogeneic HCT before 2004 for acute myelogenous or lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, lymphoma, or severe aplastic anemia were reviewed. Results Median follow-up was 9 years, and 3,788 patients had been observed for 10 or more years. The probability of being alive 10 years after HCT was 85%. The chief risk factors for late death included older age and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). For patients who underwent transplantation for malignancy, relapse was the most common cause of death. The greatest risk factor for late relapse was advanced disease at transplantation. Principal risk factors for nonrelapse deaths were older age and GVHD. When compared with age, sex, and nationality-matched general population, late deaths remained higher than expected for each disease, with the possible exception of lymphoma, although the relative risk generally receded over time. Conclusion The prospect for long-term survival is excellent for 2-year survivors of allogeneic HCT. However, life expectancy remains lower than expected. Performance of HCT earlier in the course of disease, control of GVHD, enhancement of immune reconstitution, less toxic regimens, and prevention and early treatment of late complications are needed. PMID:21464398

  10. Commercial kidney transplantation is an important risk factor in long-term kidney allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Ananth, Sailesh; Palepu, Sneha; Huang, Michael; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Transplant tourism, a form of transplant commercialization, has resulted in serious short-term adverse outcomes that explain reduced short-term kidney allograft survival. However, the nature of longer-term outcomes in commercial kidney transplant recipients is less clear. To study this further, we identified 69 Canadian commercial transplant recipients of 72 kidney allografts transplanted during 1998 to 2013 who reported to our transplant center for follow-up care. Their outcomes to 8 years post-transplant were compared with 702 domestic living donor and 827 deceased donor transplant recipients during this period using Kaplan-Meier survival plots and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Among many complications, notable specific events included hepatitis B or C seroconversion (7 patients), active hepatitis and/or fulminant hepatic failure (4 patients), pulmonary tuberculosis (2 patients), and a type A dissecting aortic aneurysm. Commercial transplantation was independently associated with significantly reduced death-censored kidney allograft survival (hazard ratio 3.69, 95% confidence interval 1.88-7.25) along with significantly delayed graft function and eGFR 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or less at 3 months post-transplant. Thus, commercial transplantation represents an important risk factor for long-term kidney allograft loss. Concerted arguments and efforts using adverse recipient outcomes among the main premises are still required in order to eradicate transplant commercialization. PMID:27083285

  11. Modeling the long-term kinetics of Salmonella survival on dry pet food.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Mishra, Abhinav; Guo, Miao; Cao, Huilin; Buchanan, Robert L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-09-01

    Due to multiple outbreaks and large-scale product recalls, Salmonella has emerged as a priority pathogen in dry pet food and treats. However, little data are available to quantify risks posed by these classes of products to both pets and their owners. Specifically, the kinetics of Salmonella survival on complex pet food matrices are not available. This study measured the long-term kinetics of Salmonella survival on a dry pet food under storage conditions commonly encountered during production, retail, and in households (aw < 0.60, 23 °C). A Salmonella enterica cocktail of 12 strains isolated from dry pet foods and treats was used to inoculate commercial dry dog food. Salmonella was enumerated on non-selective (BHI) and selective (XLD and BS) media. Results at 570 days indicated an initial relatively rapid decline (up to 54 days), followed by a much slower extended decline phase. The Weibull model provided a satisfactory fit for time series of Log-transformed Salmonella counts from all three media (δ: mean 4.65 day/Log (CFU/g); p: mean 0.364 on BHI). This study provides a survival model that can be applied in quantitative risk assessment models. PMID:27217351

  12. Long Term Non-Invasive Ventilation in Children: Impact on Survival and Transition to Adult Care

    PubMed Central

    Chatwin, Michelle; Tan, Hui-Leng; Bush, Andrew; Rosenthal, Mark; Simonds, Anita Kay

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of children receiving domiciliary ventilatory support has grown over the last few decades driven largely by the introduction and widening applications of non-invasive ventilation. Ventilatory support may be used with the intention of increasing survival, or to facilitate discharge home and/or to palliate symptoms. However, the outcome of this intervention and the number of children transitioning to adult care as a consequence of longer survival is not yet clear. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we analysed the outcome in children (<17 years) started on home NIV at Royal Brompton Hospital over an 18 year period 1993-2011. The aim was to establish for different diagnostic groups: survival rate, likelihood of early death depending on diagnosis or discontinuation of ventilation, and the proportion transitioning to adult care. Results 496 children were commenced on home non invasive ventilation; follow-up data were available in 449 (91%). Fifty six per cent (n=254) had neuromuscular disease. Ventilation was started at a median age (IQR) 10 (3-15) years. Thirteen percent (n=59) were less than 1 year old. Forty percent (n=181) have transitioned to adult care. Twenty four percent (n=109) of patients have died, and nine percent (n=42) were able to discontinue ventilatory support. Conclusion Long term ventilation is associated with an increase in survival in a range of conditions leading to ventilatory failure in children, resulting in increasing numbers surviving to adulthood. This has significant implications for planning transition and adult care facilities. PMID:25933065

  13. Long-Term Survival of Photoreceptors Transplanted into the Adult Murine Neural Retina Requires Immune Modulation

    PubMed Central

    West, Emma L.; Pearson, Rachael A.; Barker, Susie E.; Luhmann, Ulrich F. O.; Maclaren, Robert E.; Barber, Amanda C.; Duran, Yanai; Smith, Alexander J.; Sowden, Jane C.; Ali, Robin R.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell therapy presents an opportunity to replace photoreceptors that are lost as a result of inherited and age-related degenerative disease. We have previously shown that murine postmitotic rod photoreceptor precursor cells, identified by expression of the rod-specific transcription factor Nrl, are able to migrate into and integrate within the adult murine neural retina. However, their long-term survival has yet to be determined. Here, we found that integrated Nrl.gfp+ve photoreceptors were present up to 12 months post-transplantation, albeit in significantly reduced numbers. Surviving cells had rod-like morphology, including inner/outer segments and spherule synapses. In a minority of eyes, we observed an early, marked reduction in integrated photoreceptors within 1 month post-transplantation, which correlated with increased numbers of amoeboid macrophages, indicating acute loss of transplanted cells due to an inflammatory response. In the majority of transplants, similar numbers of integrated cells were observed between 1 and 2 months post-transplantation. By 4 months, however, we observed a significant decrease in integrated cell survival. Macrophages and T cells were present around the transplantation site, indicating a chronic immune response. Immune suppression of recipients significantly increased transplanted photoreceptor survival, indicating that the loss observed in unsuppressed recipients resulted from T cell-mediated host immune responses. Thus, if immune responses are modulated, correctly integrated transplanted photoreceptors can survive for extended periods of time in hosts with partially mismatched H-2 haplotypes. These findings suggest that autologous donor cells are optimal for therapeutic approaches to repair the neural retina, though with immune suppression nonautologous donors may be effective. PMID:20857496

  14. Implications of subzero metabolism on long-term microbial survival in ice (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christner, B. C.; Amato, P.; Battista, J. R.; Doyle, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    For a microorganism to remain viable over an extended period of frozen dormancy, the macromolecular damage incurred by the cell must not exceed a level where effective repair is no longer possible. Hence, survival over extended timeframes in the absence of metabolism is likely to be limited by chemical (e.g., hydrolysis and oxidation of nucleic acids; racemization of L-amino acids) and ionizing radiation-induced damage to cellular macromolecules. In freshwater and saline ice, various studies have shown that microbial cells are physically located in the aqueous interstitial veins that exist at ice grain boundaries and remain metabolically active under frozen conditions. In an effort to improve estimates for the long term limits of microbial survival in ice, we determined rates of macromolecular synthesis in cold-adapted bacteria at temperatures down to -15°C and examined their sensitivity to controlled doses of ionizing radiation (0 to 450 Gy). The purpose of this experiment was to simulate the damage which would accumulate in a cell population due to ionizing radiation in the absence of metabolic activity, allowing a prediction of cellular survival over extended dormancy versus subsistence in a metabolically active state. In experiments conducted over ≈400 days at -15°C, the rates of bacterial protein and DNA synthesis ranged from < 1 to 16 proteins cell-1 d-1 and 20 to 1600 bp cell-1 d-1, respectively, under the conditions tested. Based on the amount of bulk DNA synthesis needed to repair a known quantity of DNA damage (i.e., single- and double-stranded breaks, spontaneous hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds, and depurination), we estimate that the viability of a dormant population of radiosensitive bacteria would be reduced by 99% after at least 600,000 years in ice. On the other hand, if microorganisms in natural ices are capable of synthesizing DNA at the lowest rates observed in the subzero laboratory experiments, our calculations imply that ionizing

  15. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice.

    PubMed

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Hao, Qin; Hugenholtz, Floor; Sonne, Si Brask; Derrien, Muriel; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Mortensen, Alicja; Licht, Tine Rask; Rømer, Maria Unni; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Waagbø, Linn Jeanette; Giallourou, Natasa; Feng, Qiang; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Chuan; Liaset, Bjørn; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-06-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low protein/sucrose ratio precipitated obesity and reduced survival relative to mice fed a low-fat diet. By contrast, intake of a high-fat diet with a high protein/sucrose ratio attenuated lifelong weight gain and adipose tissue expansion, and survival was not significantly altered relative to low-fat-fed mice. Our findings support the notion that reduced survival in response to high-fat/high-sucrose feeding is linked to obesity development. Digital gene expression analyses, further validated by qPCR, demonstrated that the protein/sucrose ratio modulated global gene expression over time in liver and adipose tissue, affecting pathways related to metabolism and inflammation. Analysis of fecal bacterial DNA using the Mouse Intestinal Tract Chip revealed significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in relation to host age and dietary fat content, but not the protein/sucrose ratio. Accordingly, dietary fat rather than the protein/sucrose ratio or adiposity is a major driver shaping the gut microbiota, whereas the effect of a high-fat diet on survival is dependent on the protein/sucrose ratio. PMID:27026084

  16. The Effect of Novel Research Activities on Long-term Survival of Temporarily Captive Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    Shuert, Courtney; Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Two novel research approaches were developed to facilitate controlled access to, and long-term monitoring of, juvenile Steller sea lions for periods longer than typically afforded by traditional fieldwork. The Transient Juvenile Steller sea lion Project at the Alaska SeaLife Center facilitated nutritional, physiological, and behavioral studies on the platform of temporary captivity. Temporarily captive sea lions (TJs, n = 35) were studied, and were intraperitoneally implanted with Life History Transmitters (LHX tags) to determine causes of mortality post-release. Our goal was to evaluate the potential for long-term impacts of temporary captivity and telemetry implants on the survival of study individuals. A simple open-population Cormack-Jolly-Seber mark-recapture model was built in program MARK, incorporating resightings of uniquely branded study individuals gathered by several contributing institutions. A priori models were developed to weigh the evidence of effects of experimental treatment on survival with covariates of sex, age, capture age, cohort, and age class. We compared survival of experimental treatment to a control group of n = 27 free-ranging animals (FRs) that were sampled during capture events and immediately released. Sex has previously been show to differentially affect juvenile survival in Steller sea lions. Therefore, sex was included in all models to account for unbalanced sex ratios within the experimental group. Considerable support was identified for the effects of sex, accounting for over 71% of total weight for all a priori models with delta AICc <5, and over 91% of model weight after removal of pretending variables. Overall, most support was found for the most parsimonious model based on sex and excluding experimental treatment. Models including experimental treatment were not supported after post-hoc considerations of model selection criteria. However, given the limited sample size, alternate models including effects of experimental

  17. The Effect of Novel Research Activities on Long-term Survival of Temporarily Captive Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Shuert, Courtney; Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Two novel research approaches were developed to facilitate controlled access to, and long-term monitoring of, juvenile Steller sea lions for periods longer than typically afforded by traditional fieldwork. The Transient Juvenile Steller sea lion Project at the Alaska SeaLife Center facilitated nutritional, physiological, and behavioral studies on the platform of temporary captivity. Temporarily captive sea lions (TJs, n = 35) were studied, and were intraperitoneally implanted with Life History Transmitters (LHX tags) to determine causes of mortality post-release. Our goal was to evaluate the potential for long-term impacts of temporary captivity and telemetry implants on the survival of study individuals. A simple open-population Cormack-Jolly-Seber mark-recapture model was built in program MARK, incorporating resightings of uniquely branded study individuals gathered by several contributing institutions. A priori models were developed to weigh the evidence of effects of experimental treatment on survival with covariates of sex, age, capture age, cohort, and age class. We compared survival of experimental treatment to a control group of n = 27 free-ranging animals (FRs) that were sampled during capture events and immediately released. Sex has previously been show to differentially affect juvenile survival in Steller sea lions. Therefore, sex was included in all models to account for unbalanced sex ratios within the experimental group. Considerable support was identified for the effects of sex, accounting for over 71% of total weight for all a priori models with delta AICc <5, and over 91% of model weight after removal of pretending variables. Overall, most support was found for the most parsimonious model based on sex and excluding experimental treatment. Models including experimental treatment were not supported after post-hoc considerations of model selection criteria. However, given the limited sample size, alternate models including effects of experimental

  18. Long-term survival in a dog with meningoencephalitis and epidural abscessation due to Actinomyces species.

    PubMed

    Song, Rachel B; Vitullo, Carina A; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Daniels, Joshua B

    2015-07-01

    A 2-year-old, female spayed Golden Retriever dog was presented to The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center for evaluation of ataxia, cervical pain, 1 episode of acute collapse, dull mentation, and inappetence. Physical examination revealed an elevated temperature of 39.7°C and severe cervical pain. Blood work revealed a mature neutrophilia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed nondegenerative neutrophilic pleocytosis with no infectious agents. A presumptive diagnosis of steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis was made, and corticosteroid therapy was started. The patient improved initially but experienced a vestibular episode characterized by falling and vertical nystagmus. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed an epidural abscess in the cervical vertebral canal and diffuse meningeal enhancement in the brain and cranial cervical spine. Abscess drainage revealed degenerate neutrophils and several filamentous, branching organisms. Culture of the initial CSF using an enrichment broth revealed growth of a Gram-positive organism 5 days after fluid collection. The isolate was identified by partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing as Actinomyces spp. The patient was successfully treated with long-term antibiotics. Our study reports the long-term survival after medical treatment of bacterial meningoencephalitis and epidural abscessation due to Actinomyces sp. infection in a dog. Bacterial meningoencephalitis should be included as a differential diagnosis in patients with cervical pain and fever, even when a nondegenerative neutrophilic pleocytosis is found on CSF analysis. Culture of the CSF with use of an enrichment broth should be considered in all cases of neutrophilic pleocytosis to rule out infections of the central nervous system. PMID:26069224

  19. Ablate and pace revisited: long term survival and predictors of permanent atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Queiroga, A; Marshall, H J; Clune, M; Gammage, M D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess long term mortality and identify factors associated with the development of permanent atrial fibrillation after atrioventricular (AV) node ablation for drug refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: UK tertiary centre teaching hospital. Patients: Patients admitted to the University Hospital Birmingham between January 1995 and December 2000. Interventions: AV node ablation and dual chamber mode switching pacing. Main outcome measures: Long term mortality and predictors of permanent atrial fibrillation, assessed through Kaplan-Meier curves and logistic regression. Results: 114 patients (1995–2000) were included: age (mean (SD)), 65 (9) years; 55 (48%) male; left atrial diameter 4 (1) cm; left ventricular end diastolic diameter 5 (1) cm; ejection fraction 54 (17)%. Indications for AV node ablation were paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in 95 (83%) and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation/flutter in 19 (17%). The survival curve showed a low overall mortality after 72 months (10.5%). Fifty two per cent of patients progressed to permanent atrial fibrillation within 72 months. There was no difference in progression to permanency between paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation/flutter (log rank 0.06, p = 0.8). Logistic regression did not show any association between the variables collected and the development of permanent atrial fibrillation, although age over 80 years showed a trend (p = 0.07). Conclusions: Ablate and pace is associated with a low overall mortality. No predictors of permanent atrial fibrillation were identified, but 48% of patients were still in sinus rhythm at 72 months. These results support the use of dual chamber pacing for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients after ablate and pace. PMID:12923021

  20. Light Enhances Survival of Dinoroseobacter shibae during Long-Term Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Soora, Maya; Cypionka, Heribert

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) as being photoheterotrophs require organic substrates for growth and use light as a supplementary energy source under oxic conditions. We hypothesized that AAPs benefit from light particularly under carbon and electron donor limitation. The effect of light was determined in long-term starvation experiments with Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL 12T in both complex marine broth and defined minimal medium with succinate as the sole carbon source. The cells were starved over six months under three conditions: continuous darkness (DD), continuous light (LL), and light/dark cycle (LD, 12 h/12 h, 12 µmol photons m−2 s−1). LD starvation at low light intensity resulted in 10-fold higher total cell and viable counts, and higher bacteriochlorophyll a and polyhydroxyalkanoate contents. This coincided with better physiological fitness as determined by respiration rates, proton translocation and ATP concentrations. In contrast, LD starvation at high light intensity (>22 µmol photons m−2 s−1, LD conditions) resulted in decreasing cell survival rates but increasing carotenoid concentrations, indicating a photo-protective response. Cells grown in complex medium survived longer starvation (more than 20 weeks) than those grown in minimal medium. Our experiments show that D. shibae benefits from the light and dark cycle, particularly during starvation. PMID:24386315

  1. Increased cortical surface area and gyrification following long-term survival from early monocular enucleation

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Krista R.; DeSimone, Kevin D.; Gallie, Brenda L.; Steeves, Jennifer K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Retinoblastoma is typically diagnosed before 5 years of age and is often treated by enucleation (surgical removal) of the cancerous eye. Here, we sought to characterize morphological changes of the cortex following long-term survival from early monocular enucleation. Methods Nine adults with early right-eye enucleation (≤48 months of age) due to retinoblastoma were compared to 18 binocularly intact controls. Surface area, cortical thickness, and gyrification estimates were obtained from T1 weighted images and group differences were examined. Results Early monocular enucleation was associated with increased surface area and/or gyrification in visual (i.e., V1, inferior temporal), auditory (i.e., supramarginal), and multisensory (i.e., superior temporal, inferior parietal, superior parietal) cortices compared with controls. Visual cortex increases were restricted to the right hemisphere contralateral to the remaining eye, consistent with previous subcortical data showing asymmetrical lateral geniculate nucleus volume following early monocular enucleation. Conclusions Altered morphological development of visual, auditory, and multisensory regions occurs subsequent to long-time survival from early eye loss. PMID:25610793

  2. Life within a community: benefit to yeast long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Palková, Zdena; Váchová, Libuse

    2006-09-01

    Traditionally, living organisms have often been classified into two main categories: unicellular and multicellular. In recent years, however, the boundary between these two groups has become less strict and clear than was previously presumed. Studies on the communities formed by unicellular microorganisms have revealed that various properties and processes so far mainly associated with metazoa are also important for the proper development, survival and behaviour of muticellular microbial populations. In this review, we present various examples of this, using a yeast colony as representative of a structured organized microbial community. Among other things, we will show how the differentiation of yeast cells within a colony can be important for the long-term survival of a community under conditions of nutrient shortage, how colony development and physiology can be influenced by the environment, and how a group of colonies can synchronize their developmental changes. In the last section, we introduce examples of molecular mechanisms that can participate in some aspects of the behaviour of yeast populations. PMID:16911045

  3. Long-Term Survival of Individuals Born Small and Large for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Wennerström, E. Christina M.; Simonsen, Jacob; Melbye, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known on long-term survival and causes of death among individuals born small or large for gestational age. This study investigates birth weight in relation to survival and causes of death over time. Methods A national cohort of 1.7 million live-born singletons in Denmark was followed during 1979–2011, using the Danish Civil Registration System, the Medical Birth Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards were estimated for the impact of small (SGA) and large (LGA) gestation weight and mortality overall, by age group and birth cohort. Results Compared to normal weight children, SGA children were associated with increased risk of dying over time. Though most of the deaths occurred during the first year of life, the cumulative mortality risk was increased until 30 years of age. The hazard ratios [HR] for dying among SGA children ages <2 years were: 3.47 (95% CI, 3.30–3.64) and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.60–1.87) in 30 years and older. HR for dying among SGA adults (20–29 years) were: 1.20 (95% CI, 0.99–1.46) in years 1979–1982 and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.04–2.51) in years 1989–1994. The SGA born had increased risk of dying from infection, heart disease, respiratory disease, digestive disease, congenital malformation, perinatal conditions, and accidents, suicide, and homicide. Individuals born LGA were associated with decreased mortality risk, but with increased risk of dying from malignant neoplasm. Conclusions Survival has improved independently of birth weight the past 30 years. However, children born SGA remain at significantly increased risk of dying up till they turn 30 years of age. Individuals born LGA have lower mortality risk but only in the first two years of life. PMID:26390219

  4. Long-Term Survival of Hydrated Resting Eggs from Brachionus plicatilis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Melody S.; Denekamp, Nadav Y.; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Reinhardt, Richard; Drungowski, Mario; Albrecht, Marcus W.; Klages, Sven; Beck, Alfred; Kube, Michael; Lubzens, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Background Several organisms display dormancy and developmental arrest at embryonic stages. Long-term survival in the dormant form is usually associated with desiccation, orthodox plant seeds and Artemia cysts being well documented examples. Several aquatic invertebrates display dormancy during embryonic development and survive for tens or even hundreds of years in a hydrated form, raising the question of whether survival in the non-desiccated form of embryonic development depends on pathways similar to those occurring in desiccation tolerant forms. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this question, Illumina short read sequencing was used to generate transcription profiles from the resting and amictic eggs of an aquatic invertebrate, the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis. These two types of egg have very different life histories, with the dormant or diapausing resting eggs, the result of the sexual cycle and amictic eggs, the non-dormant products of the asexual cycle. Significant transcriptional differences were found between the two types of egg, with amictic eggs rich in genes involved in the morphological development into a juvenile rotifer. In contrast, representatives of classical “stress” proteins: a small heat shock protein, ferritin and Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins were identified in resting eggs. More importantly however, was the identification of transcripts for messenger ribonucleoprotein particles which stabilise RNA. These inhibit translation and provide a valuable source of useful RNAs which can be rapidly activated on the exit from dormancy. Apoptotic genes were also present. Although apoptosis is inconsistent with maintenance of prolonged dormancy, an altered apoptotic pathway has been proposed for Artemia, and this may be the case with the rotifer. Conclusions These data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with dormancy in a non-desiccated form and indicate important similarities in

  5. Central Versus Peripheral Pulmonary Embolism: Analysis of the Impact on the Physiological Parameters and Long-term Survival

    PubMed Central

    Alonso Martinez, José Luis; Anniccherico Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Urbieta Echezarreta, Miren Aranzazu; García, Ione Villar; Álvaro, Jorge Rojo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies aimed at assessing whether the emboli lodged in the central pulmonary arteries carry a worse prognosis than more peripheral emboli have yielded controversial results. Aims: To explore the impact on survival and long-term prognosis of central pulmonary embolism. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients diagnosed with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism by means of computed tomography (CT) angiography were evaluated at episode index and traced through the computed system of clinical recording and following-up. Central pulmonary embolism was diagnosed when thrombi were seen in the trunk or in the main pulmonary arteries and peripheral pulmonary embolism when segmental or subsegmental arteries were affected. Results: A total of 530 consecutive patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism were evaluated; 255 patients had central pulmonary embolism and 275 patients had segmental or subsegmental pulmonary embolism. Patients with central pulmonary embolism were older, had higher plasma levels of N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP), troponin I, D-dimer, alveolar-arterial gradient, and shock index (P < .001 for each one). Patients with central pulmonary embolism had an all-cause mortality of 40% while patients with segmental or subsegmental pulmonary embolism (PE) had an overall mortality of 27% and odds ratio of 1.81 [confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.16-1.9]. Survival was lower in patients with central PE than in patients with segmental or subsegmental pulmonary embolism, even after avoiding confounders (P = .018). Conclusions: Apart from a greater impact on hemodynamics, gas exchange, and right ventricular dysfunction, central pulmonary embolism associates a shorter survival and an increased long-term mortality. PMID:27114970

  6. Psychological Well-Being, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Long-Term Survival

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Francisco B; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Baruth, Meghan; Castillo, Manuel J; Blair, Steven N

    2010-01-01

    Background Psychological well-being is associated with mortality/survival. Although cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is one of the strongest predictors of mortality, studies examining the relationship between well-being and survival seldom account for the possible effects of CRF. Purpose This study examined the independent associations of psychological well-being components (low level of negative emotion and high level of positive emotion) and CRF, as well as their combined effects, with survival. Methods Participants (N=4888) were examined in 1988–1997 and followed up for a median period of ~15 years (212 deaths, 4.3%). CRF was assessed by a maximal exercise test on a treadmill. Low-level negative emotion was defined as the minimum score of the negative emotion subscale of the CES-D scale, and high-level positive emotion as the maximum score of positive emotion subscale. Results are presented as hazard ratios (95% CIs). Data were analyzed in 2009. Results After adjustment for a set of established risk factors, men and women with low levels of negative emotion had lower risk of death than those with higher levels of negative emotion, 0.66 (0.50, 0.87). The association persisted after additional adjustment for CRF and positive emotion. High level of positive emotion was not associated with survival. A high level of CRF independently predicted lower risk of death, 0.54 (0.37, 0.79), compared to a low level of CRF. The risk of death in participants with both a low level of negative emotion and a high level of CRF was 0.37 (0.22, 0.63), compared to their peers with higher levels of negative emotion/low levels of CRF. Conclusions Low levels of negative emotion and high levels of CRF are independent predictors of long-term survival in men and women. A strong combined effect was observed, as individuals with both a low level of negative emotion and a high level of CRF had a 63% lower risk of death than those with higher levels of negative emotion and a low level of CRF

  7. Long-term survival and virulence of Mycobacterium leprae in amoebal cysts.

    PubMed

    Wheat, William H; Casali, Amy L; Thomas, Vincent; Spencer, John S; Lahiri, Ramanuj; Williams, Diana L; McDonnell, Gerald E; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Brennan, Patrick J; Jackson, Mary

    2014-12-01

    Leprosy is a curable neglected disease of humans caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects the skin and peripheral nerves and manifests clinically in various forms ranging from self-resolving, tuberculoid leprosy to lepromatous leprosy having significant pathology with ensuing disfiguration disability and social stigma. Despite the global success of multi-drug therapy (MDT), incidences of clinical leprosy have been observed in individuals with no apparent exposure to other cases, suggestive of possible non-human sources of the bacteria. In this study we show that common free-living amoebae (FLA) can phagocytose M. leprae, and allow the bacillus to remain viable for up to 8 months within amoebic cysts. Viable bacilli were extracted from separate encysted cocultures comprising three common Acanthamoeba spp.: A. lenticulata, A. castellanii, and A. polyphaga and two strains of Hartmannella vermiformis. Trophozoites of these common FLA take up M. leprae by phagocytosis. M. leprae from infected trophozoites induced to encyst for long-term storage of the bacilli emerged viable by assessment of membrane integrity. The majority (80%) of mice that were injected with bacilli extracted from 35 day cocultures of encysted/excysted A. castellanii and A. polyphaga showed lesion development that was similar to mice challenged with fresh M. leprae from passage mice albeit at a slower initial rate. Mice challenged with coculture-extracted bacilli showed evidence of acid-fast bacteria and positive PCR signal for M. leprae. These data support the conclusion that M. leprae can remain viable long-term in environmentally ubiquitous FLA and retain virulence as assessed in the nu/nu mouse model. Additionally, this work supports the idea that M. leprae might be sustained in the environment between hosts in FLA and such residence in FLA may provide a macrophage-like niche contributing to the higher-than-expected rate of leprosy transmission despite a significant decrease in human reservoirs

  8. Long-term Survival and Virulence of Mycobacterium leprae in Amoebal Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, William H.; Casali, Amy L.; Thomas, Vincent; Spencer, John S.; Lahiri, Ramanuj; Williams, Diana L.; McDonnell, Gerald E.; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Brennan, Patrick J.; Jackson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy is a curable neglected disease of humans caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects the skin and peripheral nerves and manifests clinically in various forms ranging from self-resolving, tuberculoid leprosy to lepromatous leprosy having significant pathology with ensuing disfiguration disability and social stigma. Despite the global success of multi-drug therapy (MDT), incidences of clinical leprosy have been observed in individuals with no apparent exposure to other cases, suggestive of possible non-human sources of the bacteria. In this study we show that common free-living amoebae (FLA) can phagocytose M. leprae, and allow the bacillus to remain viable for up to 8 months within amoebic cysts. Viable bacilli were extracted from separate encysted cocultures comprising three common Acanthamoeba spp.: A. lenticulata, A. castellanii, and A. polyphaga and two strains of Hartmannella vermiformis. Trophozoites of these common FLA take up M. leprae by phagocytosis. M. leprae from infected trophozoites induced to encyst for long-term storage of the bacilli emerged viable by assessment of membrane integrity. The majority (80%) of mice that were injected with bacilli extracted from 35 day cocultures of encysted/excysted A. castellanii and A. polyphaga showed lesion development that was similar to mice challenged with fresh M. leprae from passage mice albeit at a slower initial rate. Mice challenged with coculture-extracted bacilli showed evidence of acid-fast bacteria and positive PCR signal for M. leprae. These data support the conclusion that M. leprae can remain viable long-term in environmentally ubiquitous FLA and retain virulence as assessed in the nu/nu mouse model. Additionally, this work supports the idea that M. leprae might be sustained in the environment between hosts in FLA and such residence in FLA may provide a macrophage-like niche contributing to the higher-than-expected rate of leprosy transmission despite a significant decrease in human reservoirs

  9. Long-Term Exposure to High Altitude Affects Conflict Control in the Conflict-Resolving Stage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianhui; Wang, Baoxi; Guo, Shichun; Luo, Ping; Han, Buxin

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive basis of the effect of long-term high altitude exposure on conflict control is unclear. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a flanker task to investigate the influence of high altitude on conflict control in the high-altitude group (who had lived at high altitude for three years but were born at low altitude) and the low-altitude group (living in low altitude only). Although altitude effect was not significant at the behavioral level, ERPs showed cognitive conflict modulation. The interaction between group and trial type was significant: P3 amplitude was greater in the low-altitude group than in the high-altitude group in the incongruent trial. This result suggests that long-term exposure to high altitude affects conflict control in the conflict-resolving stage, and that attentional resources are decreased to resist the conflict control in the high-altitude group. PMID:26671280

  10. Review of uncertainty sources affecting the long-term predictions of space debris evolutionary models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolado-Perez, J. C.; Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2015-08-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik-I in 1957, the amount of space debris in Earth's orbit has increased continuously. Historically, besides abandoned intact objects (spacecraft and orbital stages), the primary sources of space debris in Earth's orbit were (i) accidental and intentional break-ups which produced long-lasting debris and (ii) debris released intentionally during the operation of launch vehicle orbital stages and spacecraft. In the future, fragments generated by collisions are expected to become a significant source as well. In this context, and from a purely mathematical point of view, the orbital debris population in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) should be intrinsically unstable, due to the physics of mutual collisions and the relative ineffectiveness of natural sink mechanisms above~700 km. Therefore, the real question should not be "if", but "when" the exponential growth of the space debris population is supposed to start. From a practical point of view, and in order to answer the previous question, since the end of the 1980's several sophisticated long-term debris evolutionary models have been developed. Unfortunately, the predictions performed with such models, in particular beyond a few decades, are affected by considerable uncertainty. Such uncertainty comes from a relative important number of variables that being either under the partial control or completely out of the control of modellers, introduce a variability on the long-term simulation of the space debris population which cannot be captured with standard Monte Carlo statistics. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss many of the uncertainty sources affecting the long-term predictions done with evolutionary models, in order to serve as a roadmap for the uncertainty and the statistical robustness analysis of the long-term evolution of the space debris population.

  11. Hepatoblastoma in childhood, long term survival achieved: 2 case reports and literature review

    PubMed Central

    El Asmar, Antoine; El Rassi, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary liver tumor for children under 5 years of age. It usually presents as an abdominal mass, symptomatic only when large enough to cause mass effect on nearby organs. Symptoms such as early satiety, anorexia, abdominal pain or weight loss are the most common. Diagnosis depends on imaging studies, AFP levels and percutaneous biopsy. Treatment modality is usually surgical with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Cases In this article, we present 2 cases of hepatoblastoma treated 15 years ago by neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery, and are presenting for long term follow-up with complete disease remission. Discussion Complete resection and remission can be achieved as demonstrated below by our 2 cases of hepatoblastoma, especially when performing a true anatomical hepatectomy, along with a neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen. Although one of the cases did not respond to chemotherapy very well a complete resection was achieved and therefore a disease free survival of 15 years. Conclusion Hepatoblastoma are rare tumors of the pediatric age group. Management depends highly on combined surgical and pediatric oncological knowledge. A complete disease remission can be achieved when both modalities are treatment are optimal. Therefore, hepatoblastoma cases should be referred to specialized centers for management. PMID:26942331

  12. Transcriptomic response of Listeria monocytogenes during the transition to the long-term-survival phase.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jia; Deng, Xiangyu; Li, Zengxin; Dudley, Edward G; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C; Knabel, Stephen J; Zhang, Wei

    2011-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can change its cellular morphology from bacilli to cocci during the transition to the long-term-survival (LTS) phase. The LTS cells demonstrated increased baro- and thermotolerance compared to their vegetative counterparts. So far, the underlying mechanisms that trigger this morphological and physiological transition remain largely unknown. In this study, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strain F2365 at different growth stages in tryptic soy broth with yeast extract (TSBYE) using a whole-genome DNA chip approach. We identified a total of 225 differentially expressed genes (≥4-fold; P < 0.05) during the transition to the LTS phase in TSBYE. Genes related to cell envelope structure, energy metabolism, and transport were most significantly upregulated in the LTS phase. The upregulation of compatible solute transporters may lead to the accumulation of cellular solutes, lowering intracellular water activity and thus increasing bacterial stress resistance during the transition to the LTS phase. The downregulation of genes associated with protein synthesis may indicate a status of metabolic dormancy of the LTS cells. The transcriptomic profiles of resuscitated LTS cells in fresh TSBYE resembled those of log-phase cells (r=0.94), as the LTS cells rapidly resume metabolic activities and transit back to log phase with decreased baro- and thermotolerance. PMID:21764970

  13. A Carboniferous non-onychophoran lobopodian reveals long-term survival of a Cambrian morphotype.

    PubMed

    Haug, Joachim T; Mayer, Georg; Haug, Carolin; Briggs, Derek E G

    2012-09-25

    Lobopodians, a nonmonophyletic assemblage of worm-shaped soft-bodied animals most closely related to arthropods, show two major morphotypes: long-legged and short-legged forms. The morphotype with stubby, conical legs has a long evolutionary history, from the early Cambrian through the Carboniferous, including the living onychophorans and tardigrades. Species with tubular lobopods exceeding the body diameter have been reported exclusively from the Cambrian; the three-dimensionally preserved Orstenotubulus evamuellerae from the uppermost middle Cambrian "Orsten" (Sweden) is the youngest long-legged lobopodian reported thus far. Here we describe a new long-legged lobopodian, Carbotubulus waloszeki gen. et sp. nov., from Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA (∼296 million years ago). This first post-Cambrian long-legged lobopodian extends the range of this morphotype by about 200 million years. The three-dimensionally preserved specimen differs significantly from the associated short-legged form Ilyodes inopinata, of which we also present new head details. The discovery of a Carboniferous long-legged lobopodian provides a more striking example of the long-term survival of Cambrian morphotypes than, for example, the occurrence of a Burgess Shale-type biota in the Ordovician of Morocco and dampens the effect of any major extinction of taxa at the end of the middle Cambrian. PMID:22885062

  14. [A Case of Long-Term Survival of Advanced Esophageal Basaloid Squamous Carcinoma Invading the Trachea].

    PubMed

    Tokura, Michiyo; Yoshimura, Tetsunori; Murata, Tomohiro; Matsuyama, Takatoshi; Hoshino, Mayumi; Goto, Hiroshi; Kakimoto, Masaki; Koshiishi, Haruya

    2015-11-01

    A woman in her 50s complained of dysphagia and was diagnosed with locally advanced esophageal cancer in the middle and upper thoracic esophagus, invading the tracheal bronchus. The biopsy indicated esophageal basaloid squamous carcinoma. The pretreatment diagnosis was cT4N2M0, cStage Ⅳa. She was treated with systemic chemotherapy consisting of FAP (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], doxorubicin [DXR] and cisplatin[CDDP]), which resulted in significant tumor shrinkage. One year later, the tumor regrew, and nedaplatin (CDGP) plus docetaxel (DOC) was administered as second-line chemotherapy. The patient complained of dysphagia during the course of chemotherapy, and received radiation therapy for the residual tumor, which again significantly shrunk. Four years after the first round of chemotherapy, the patient can take oral nutrition, and is continuing to undergo chemotherapy. This is a case of long-term survival of locally advanced esophageal cancer of basaloid squamous carcinoma. Effective chemotherapy and radiation can improve the treatment outcome. PMID:26805208

  15. Activated mTORC1 promotes long-term cone survival in retinitis pigmentosa mice

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Aditya; Ma, Shan; Le, Yun Z.; Hall, Michael N.; Rüegg, Markus A.; Punzo, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited photoreceptor degenerative disorder that results in blindness. The disease is often caused by mutations in genes that are specific to rod photoreceptors; however, blindness results from the secondary loss of cones by a still unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrated that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is required to slow the progression of cone death during disease and that constitutive activation of mTORC1 in cones is sufficient to maintain cone function and promote long-term cone survival. Activation of mTORC1 in cones enhanced glucose uptake, retention, and utilization, leading to increased levels of the key metabolite NADPH. Moreover, cone death was delayed in the absence of the NADPH-sensitive cell death protease caspase 2, supporting the contribution of reduced NADPH in promoting cone death. Constitutive activation of mTORC1 preserved cones in 2 mouse models of RP, suggesting that the secondary loss of cones is caused mainly by metabolic deficits and is independent of a specific rod-associated mutation. Together, the results of this study address a longstanding question in the field and suggest that activating mTORC1 in cones has therapeutic potential to prolong vision in RP. PMID:25798619

  16. [A Case of Long-Term Survival after Surgeries for Gastric Cancer and Metachronous Ovarian Metastasis].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tatsuya; Wajima, Naoki; Akasaka, Harue; Sakuraba, Shingo; Muroya, Takahiro; Kubo, Norihito; Okano, Kensuke; Uchida, Chiaki; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2015-11-01

    The patient was a 57-year-old woman. In October 2011, she underwent distal gastrectomy, D2 lymphadenectomy, and Roux-en-Y reconstruction for gastric cancer (pT4a, pN3b, Stage ⅢC [JCGC 14th Edition]). She then received S-1 plus CDDP combination therapy and S-1 monotherapy as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapies for 1 year, and was followed up as an outpatient. In April 2013, a significant increase in the CA19-9 level was noted, and CT indicated a right ovarian tumor. Ovarian metastasis from the gastric cancer was diagnosed, and the response to 3 courses of weekly PTX was stable disease. No findings indicated metastasis to other organs. In July 2013, a salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, after which her CA19-9 level returned to the normal range. Follow-up was adopted as the postoperative strategy in part due to the desires of the patient. Presently, 3 years and 6 months after the initial surgery and 1 year and 9 months after the last surgery, no recurrence has been detected. Generally, ovarian metastasis from gastric cancer is considered to be associated with a poor prognosis. However, our patient showed long-term survival after surgeries for gastric cancer and asynchronous ovarian metastasis. Here, we report the details of our case and review the relevant literature. PMID:26805246

  17. Long-term Survival after Resection of HER2+ Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma Metastasis to the Brainstem.

    PubMed

    Awad, Al-Wala; Zaidi, Hasan A; Awad, Al-Homam; Spetzler, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system is a common site of metastatic spread from neoplasms in distant organs, including breast, bone, and lung. The decision to surgically treat these metastatic lesions is often challenging, especially in the setting of systemic disease or when eloquent brain regions are involved. Treating metastatic disease in the brainstem can be technically difficult, and in many institutions, considered a contraindication to surgical intervention, given the relatively high risk of new postoperative neurological deficits. Herein, we report a case of metastatic ductal carcinoma of the breast with spread to the pontine-medullary junction that was treated with aggressive surgical resection and chronic hormonal therapy. After surgical excision of the brainstem lesion, the patient remained asymptomatic and was maintained on trastuzumab therapy over a 10-year follow-up period, with no radiographic or clinical evidence of recurrent disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient treated for a solitary metastasis to the brainstem with long-term survival. PMID:26929889

  18. Spiritually Based Resources in Adaptation to Long-Term Prostate Cancer Survival: Perspectives of Elderly Wives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Boehm, Patricia S.

    2007-01-01

    Spiritually based resources (SBR) generally have a salutary effect on coping with cancer diagnosis and treatment. Few studies address this relationship in long-term cancer survivorship, however. As part of a study on long-term prostate cancer survivorship, wives' ways of coping with cancer-related issues were explored through longitudinal…

  19. Long-Term Survival of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Estuarine Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, A. S.; Layton, A.; Culligan, P. J.; Kenna, T. C.; Mailloux, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    Fecal contamination of marine and freshwater environments can negatively impact water quality, leading to contaminated drinking water as well as the closure of recreational beaches and waterways. Fecal contamination is routinely assessed using fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and even though the potential for their long-term survival or proliferation in sediments exist, information linking deposition of FIB with sediment age is scarce. We evaluate sediments as a reservoir for culturable FIB, by examining dated sediments from the lower Hudson River estuary for Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococcus, and Bacteroides. Sediment cores were collected from in the vicinity of the George Washington (GWB) and Tappan Zee (TZB) Bridges NY. Sediment deposition ages were constrained using gamma emitting radionuclides and pollution chronology. Culturable E. coli and enterococcus were quantified using a culture-based most probable number method (ColilertTM, Idexx Laboratories). Molecular based methods were used to quantify E. coli and Bacteroides. In the GWB core, viable enterococcus or E. coli were consistently detected in sediment younger than the 1960s with maximum concentrations of 39 and 171 cells/g, respectively. In the TZB core, only enterococcus was sporadically detected in sediment younger than 1950 with a maximum concentration of 79 cells/g. Molecular Bacteroides and E. coli were detected in all core samples with a geometric mean of 4.2x104 and 1.2x105 copies/g, respectively. Results indicate that fecal bacteria can survive within estuarine sediments for decades, suggesting that sediments could be a significant and persistent source of bacterial pollution.

  20. Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass Adaptations for Long-Term Survival of Baboons Undergoing Pulmonary Artery Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Carrie; Grist, Gary; Bert, Arthur; Brasky, Kathleen; Neighbors, Stacy; McFall, Christopher; Hilbert, Stephen L.; Drake, William B.; Cromwell, Michael; Mueller, Barbara; Lofland, Gary K.; Hopkins, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) protocols of the baboon (Papio cynocephalus anubis) are limited to obtaining experimental data without concern for long-term survival. In the evaluation of pulmonary artery tissue engineered heart valves (TEHVs), pediatric CPB methods are adapted to accommodate the animals’ unique physiology enabling survival up to 6 months until elective sacrifice. Aortic access was by a 14F arterial cannula and atrial access by a single 24F venous cannula. The CPB circuit includes a 3.3 L/min flow rated oxygenator, ¼″ × ⅜″ arterial-venous loop, ⅜″ raceway, and bubble trap. The prime contains 700 mL Plasma-Lyte, 700 units heparin, 5 mL of 50% dextrose, and 20 mg amiodarone. Heparinization (200 u/kg) targets an activated clotting time of 350 seconds. Normothermic CPB was initiated at a 2.5 L/m2/min cardiac index with a mean arterial pressure of 55–80 mmHg. Weaning was monitored with transesophageal echocardiogram. Post-CPB circuit blood was re-infused. Chest tubes were removed with cessation of bleeding. Extubation was performed upon spontaneous breathing. The animals were conscious and upright 3 hours post-CPB. Bioprosthetic valves or TEHVs were implanted as pulmonary replacements in 20 baboons: weight = 27.5 ± 5.6 kg, height = 73 ± 7 cm, body surface area = 0.77 m2 ± 0.08, mean blood flow = 1.973 ± .254 L/min, core temperature = 37.1 ± .1°C, and CPB time = 60 ± 40 minutes. No acidosis accompanied CPB. Sixteen animals survived, four expired. Three died of right ventricular failure and one of an anaphylactoid reaction. Surviving animals had normally functioning replacement valves and ventricles. Baboon CPB requires modifications to include high systemic blood pressure for adequate perfusion into small coronary arteries, careful CPB weaning to prevent ventricular distention, and drug and fluid interventions to abate variable venous return related to a muscularized spleno-splanchnic venous capacity. PMID:21114226

  1. Trastuzumab use during pregnancy: long-term survival after locally advanced breast cancer and long-term infant follow-up.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Jurandyr M de; Brito, Luiz G O; Moises, Elaine C D; Amorim, Andréa C; Rapatoni, Liane; Carrara, Hélio H A; Tiezzi, Daniel G

    2016-04-01

    Here, we describe the case of a patient diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer 8 years ago. Her treatment course was neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by mastectomy and then adjuvant radiotherapy and trastuzumab (TTZ). During the use of adjuvant targeted therapy, an incidental pregnancy was diagnosed. Four years later, she developed bone and cerebral metastases, and since then, she has received courses of TTZ, capecitabine, lapatinib, and radiotherapy with intermittent control of the disease. Her 7-year-old son presents a normal physical and long-term neurological developmental curve according to specialized evaluation. This case is unique for several reasons: the patient received the highest dose of TTZ yet described during pregnancy (4400 mg); there has been a long period of disease-free survival after treatment for locally advanced breast cancer and long overall survival despite successive disease progressions during the metastatic phase of the disease (97 months), and there was a monitored pediatric follow-up period (7 years). PMID:26825868

  2. Survival, growth and pathogenicity of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis with different methods of long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Elliott, M L

    2005-01-01

    The fungal plant pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis was preserved with 12 different storage methods. Five strains, each with unique morphological and pathological characteristics, were used for comparison of the methods. The storage treatments included potato-dextrose agar slants, with or without mineral oil, stored at either 4 C, 28 C or ambient temperature; colonized agar plugs placed in glycerol solution at either -75 C or -20 C; colonized agar plugs placed in sterile deionized water at either 4 C or ambient temperature; and mycelial growth on intact or precut pieces of filter paper, desiccated and stored at ambient temperature. Survival was evaluated at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 120 mo. The three best treatments for survival were PDA slants, with or without mineral oil, and colonized agar plugs stored in water, all at ambient temperature. All five fungal strains were recovered from all four replicates at each sampling date for agar plugs stored in water at ambient temperature. The worst treatments were agar slants and agar plugs in water stored at 4 C and agar plugs stored in glycerol at -20 C. Morphological characteristics were not affected by storage treatments. In general, there were minimal or no effects on growth and pathogenicity for all strains for all storage treatments with survival. Colonized agar plugs stored in water at ambient temperature provides an economical storage method (materials and labor) that does not need an electrical power for long-term maintenance. PMID:16457359

  3. Old divergences in a boreal bird supports long-term survival through the Ice Ages

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Unlike northern Europe and most of northern North America, the Eastern Palearctic and the northwesternmost tip of North America are believed to have been almost unglaciated during the Quarternary glacial periods. This could have facilitated long-term survival of many organisms in that area. To evaluate this, we studied the phylogeography in east Asia and Alaska of a boreal migratory passerine bird, the Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis, and compared our results with published data on especially North American species. Results In a sample of 113 individuals from 18 populations we identified 42 haplotypes of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, which separated into three clades: A - Alaska and mainland Eurasia (except Kamchatka); B - Kamchatka, Sakhalin and Hokkaido; and C - Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu (i.e. Japan except Hokkaido). The oldest split among these clades, between A/B and C, is estimated to have taken place sometime between the mid Pliocene and early Pleistocene, and the second divergence, between clades A and B, in the early to mid Pleistocene. Within all of the three main clades, there are signs of population expansion. Conclusions The Arctic Warbler separated into three main clades in close succession around the Pliocene/Pleistocene border, with the two northern clades diverging last. All three clades probably experienced population bottlenecks during the Pleistocene as a result of range shifts and contractions, but nevertheless survived and maintained their integrities. Several other clades of Northeastern Palearctic birds are noted to have diversified during the Pliocene. In contrast, avian species or phylogroups presently occupying formerly glaciated North American ground are generally younger. The differences between these regions could be due to slower speciation rates in the Eastern Palearctic due to less fragmentation of forest habitats during glacial periods, or to longer survival of Eastern Palearctic clades as a result of less

  4. Sporulation and Germination patterns - hedging a bet on long term microbial survivability in dry soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claes, N.; Or, D.

    2012-04-01

    Soil hosts unparalleled diversity of microbial life that is constantly challenged by the vagaries of fluctuating ambient conditions. Desiccation stresses play a key role not only by directly affecting individual bacterial cells, but also by shaping diffusion pathways and cell dispersion. The gradual thinning and fragmentation of the aqueous environment during drying have led to different survival mechanisms including dormancy and sporulation, resulting in a highly resistive state capable of surviving extreme and prolonged environmental stresses until conditions improve in the future. Our aim is to investigate how temporal changes in hydration status shape microbial communities over time, based on simple survival strategy rules for each individual bacterium. The two survival strategies considered are dormancy and sporulation. Dormancy is the state in which bacterial cells significantly reduce their metabolism with minor morphological adaptations. The required energy and time for attaining this state are low relative to sporulation costs. Sporulation involves several morphological and biochemical changes that result in a resistive capsule that endures extreme stresses over long periods of time. The working hypothesis is that different micro-ecological conditions and community compositions would result from temporal patterns and magnitude of desiccation stresses. An Individual Based Model (IBM) considering habitats on rough soil surfaces and local effects of micro-hydrological conditions on dispersion and nutrient diffusion would enable systematic study of emerging communities over extended periods. Different population compositions are expected to emerge based on low and high frequency, duration and amplitudes of wetting-drying cycles reflecting relative success or failure of survival strategy.

  5. Adaptation to Long-Term Prostate Cancer Survival: The Perspective of Elderly Asian/Pacific Islander Wives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Hannum, Meghan; Bunghanoy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly evident is the important role of partners in patients' adaptation to diagnosis, treatment, and recovery. Yet, little is known about partners' adaptation when patients reach the benchmark known as long-term survival. This study describes elderly wives of prostate cancer survivors' perspectives of adaptation to the enduring challenges…

  6. Long-Term Effects of Outpatient Geriatric Evaluation and Management on Health Care Utilization, Cost, and Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Joseph B.; Toseland, Ronald W.; Gao, Jian; Banks, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The long-term effectiveness and efficiency of an outpatient geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) program was compared to usual primary care (UPC). Design and Method: A randomized controlled group design was used. Health care utilization, cost of care, and survival were assessed during a 48-month period among a sample of 160 male…

  7. Long term, continuous exposure to panobinostat induces terminal differentiation and long term survival in the TH-MYCN neuroblastoma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Waldeck, Kelly; Cullinane, Carleen; Ardley, Kerry; Shortt, Jake; Martin, Ben; Tothill, Richard W; Li, Jason; Johnstone, Ricky W; McArthur, Grant A; Hicks, Rodney J; Wood, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial malignancy in childhood and accounts for ∼15% of childhood cancer deaths. Amplification of MYCN in neuroblastoma is associated with aggressive disease and predicts for poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic approaches are therefore essential to improving patient outcomes in this setting. The histone deacetylases are known to interact with N-Myc and regulate numerous cellular processes via epigenetic modulation, including differentiation. In this study, we used the TH-MYCN mouse model of neuroblastoma to investigate the antitumor activity of the pan-HDAC inhibitor, panobinostat. In particular we sought to explore the impact of long term, continuous panobinostat exposure on the epigenetically driven differentiation process. Continuous treatment of tumor bearing TH-MYCN transgenic mice with panobinostat for nine weeks led to a significant improvement in survival as compared with mice treated with panobinostat for a three-week period. Panobinostat induced rapid tumor regression with no regrowth observed following a nine-week treatment period. Initial tumor response was associated with apoptosis mediated via upregulation of BMF and BIM. The process of terminal differentiation of neuroblastoma into benign ganglioneuroma, with a characteristic increase in S100 expression and reduction of N-Myc expression, occurred following prolonged exposure to the drug. RNA-sequencing analysis of tumors from treated animals confirmed significant upregulation of gene pathways associated with apoptosis and differentiation. Together our data demonstrate the potential of panobinostat as a novel therapeutic strategy for high-risk neuroblastoma patients. PMID:26914605

  8. Schwann cell mitochondrial metabolism supports long-term axonal survival and peripheral nerve function

    PubMed Central

    Viader, Andreu; Golden, Judith P.; Baloh, Robert H.; Schmidt, Robert E.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common cause of peripheral neuropathies. While the role of neuron and axonal mitochondria in peripheral nerve disease is well appreciated, whether Schwann cell (SC) mitochondrial deficits contribute to peripheral neuropathies is unclear. Here we examine how SC mitochondrial dysfunction affects axonal survival and contributes to the decline of peripheral nerve function by generating mice with SC-specific mitochondrial deficits. These mice (Tfam-SCKOs) were produced through the tissue-specific deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor A gene (Tfam), which is essential for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transcription and maintenance. Tfam-SCKOs were viable but, as they aged, they developed a progressive peripheral neuropathy characterized by nerve conduction abnormalities as well as extensive muscle denervation. Morphological examination of Tfam-SCKO nerves revealed early preferential loss of small unmyelinated fibers followed by prominent demyelination and degeneration of larger-caliber axons. Tfam-SCKOs displayed sensory and motor deficits consistent with this pathology. Remarkably, the severe mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain abnormalities in Tfam-SCKO mice did not affect SC proliferation or survival. Mitochondrial function in SCs is therefore essential for maintenance of axonal survival and normal peripheral nerve function, suggesting that SC mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to human peripheral neuropathies. PMID:21752989

  9. Long-term survival after surgical aortic valve replacement among patients over 65 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Sharabiani, Mansour T A; Fiorentino, Francesca; Angelini, Gianni D; Patel, Nishith N

    2016-01-01

    Objective Surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) remains the gold standard therapy for severe aortic stenosis. Long-term survival data following AVR is required. Our objective was to provide a detailed contemporary benchmark of long-term survival following AVR among elderly patients (≥65 years) in the UK. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1815 adult patients undergoing surgical AVR± coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery at a single UK centre between 1996 and 2011. Our main outcome was patient survival, which was assessed by linkage to census records at the Office for National Statistics. Results The mean age of the cohort was 75 (±5.6) years. Patients in the AVR alone group had a slightly higher median survival of 10.9 (95% CI 10.5 to 11.8) years than the AVR+CABG group which had a median survival of 9.6 (95% CI 8.7 to 10.1) years (p=0.001 of log-rank test (LRT) for equality of survivor functions). The presence of chronic kidney disease, severely impaired left ventricular function or being a current smoker were each associated with a ≥50% increased risk of long-term mortality. Comparison of our study cohort patients and the reference (operation year, age and gender matched) UK population suggested no difference in survival probability up to 8 years (p=0.55). However, for longer periods of follow-up, the difference became increasingly significant (p<0.0001). Conclusions Long-term survival following surgical AVR in patients over 65 years of age is excellent and up to 8 years is comparable to the matched general population. PMID:27042318

  10. Is long-term structural priming affected by patterns of experience with individual verbs?

    PubMed Central

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these long-term priming effects are modulated by the participants’ patterns of experience with particular verbs within the double object and prepositional object constructions. The results of three experiments show that patterns of experience with particular verbs using the double object or prepositional object constructions do not have much effect on the shape of the longterm structural priming effects reported elsewhere in the literature. These findings lend support to the claim that structural priming is the result of adaptations to the language production system that occur on an abstract, structural level of representation that is separate from representations regarding the behavior of particular lexical items in particular constructions [e.g., Chang, F., Dell, G. S., & Bock, K. (2006). Becoming syntactic. Psychological Review, 113, 234–272]. 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID:26500391

  11. Factors Affecting Antioxidant Response in Fish from a Long-term Mercury-Contaminated Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Sevcikova, M; Modra, H; Blahova, J; Dobsikova, R; Kalina, J; Zitka, O; Kizek, R; Svobodova, Z

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate antioxidant defence and oxidative damage in organs (liver, gills, kidney, and brain) of five fish species (Aspius aspius, Esox lucius, Sander lucioperca, Abramis brama, Rutilus rutilus) from the long-term mercury-contaminated Skalka Reservoir in the Czech Republic. Special emphasis was placed on a comprehensive assessment of the factors that may affect the antioxidant response to mercury in fish. Antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) did not significantly respond to mercury contamination. Levels of the analysed enzymes and oxidative damage to lipids were predominantly determined by a separate organ factor or species factor, or by the combination of both (p < 0.001). Levels of total glutathione and the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio were influenced by mercury contamination in combination with their specific organ distribution (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that species and type of organ alone or in combination are more important factors than chronic exposure to mercury contamination with respect to effects on antioxidant defence in fish under field conditions. Our findings suggest that the main antioxidant defensive mechanism in fish from the studied long-term mercury contaminated site was the inter-tissue distribution of glutathione. PMID:26276034

  12. Predictors of long term survival after hepatic resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma: A retrospective study of 5-year survivors

    PubMed Central

    Abd ElWahab, Mohamed; El Nakeeb, Ayman; El Hanafy, Ehab; Sultan, Ahmad M; Elghawalby, Ahmed; Askr, Waleed; Ali, Mahmoud; Abd El Gawad, Mohamed; Salah, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine predictors of long term survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) by comparing patients surviving > 5 years with those who survived < 5 years. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with pathologically proven HC who underwent surgical resection at the Gastroenterology Surgical Center, Mansoura University, Egypt between January 2002 and April 2013. All data of the patients were collected from the medical records. Patients were divided into two groups according to their survival: Patients surviving less than 5 years and those who survived > 5 years. RESULTS: There were 34 (14%) long term survivors (5 year survivors) among the 243 patients. Five-year survivors were younger at diagnosis than those surviving less than 5 years (mean age, 50.47 ± 4.45 vs 54.59 ± 4.98, P = 0.001). Gender, clinical presentation, preoperative drainage, preoperative serum bilirubin, albumin and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were similar between the two groups. The level of CA 19-9 was significantly higher in patients surviving < 5 years (395.71 ± 31.43 vs 254.06 ± 42.19, P = 0.0001). Univariate analysis demonstrated nine variables to be significantly associated with survival > 5 year, including young age (P = 0.001), serum CA19-9 (P = 0.0001), non-cirrhotic liver (P = 0.02), major hepatic resection (P = 0.001), caudate lobe resection (P = 0.006), well differentiated tumour (P = 0.03), lymph node status (0.008), R0 resection margin (P = 0.0001) and early postoperative liver cell failure (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Liver status, resection of caudate lobe, lymph node status, R0 resection and CA19-9 were demonstrated to be independent risk factors for long term survival. PMID:27358676

  13. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Changing the focus from glycemic control to improving the long-term survival

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cecilia C. Low; Reusch, Jane EB

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and contributes to leading causes of death, cancer and cardiovascular disease including coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease and other vascular disease. While glycemic management remains a cornerstone of diabetes care, the co-management of hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular risk reduction and prevention of long-term consequences associated with diabetes are now well recognized as essential to improve long-term survival. Clinical trial evidence substantiates the importance of glycemic control, LDL-cholesterol lowering therapy, blood-pressure lowering, control of albuminuria, and comprehensive approaches targeting multiple risk factors to reduce cardiovascular risk. This article presents a review of the role of diabetes in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction, recent evidence regarding degree of glycemic control and mortality, and available evidence for a multi-faceted approach to improve long-term outcomes for patients. PMID:23062569

  14. Surviving the Holocaust: A Meta-Analysis of the Long-Term Sequelae of a Genocide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barel, Efrat; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2010-01-01

    The current set of meta-analyses elucidates the long-term psychiatric, psychosocial, and physical consequences of the Holocaust for survivors. In 71 samples with 12,746 participants Holocaust survivors were compared with their counterparts (with no Holocaust background) on physical health, psychological well-being, posttraumatic stress symptoms,…

  15. Nomograms to estimate long-term overall survival and breast cancer-specific survival of patients with luminal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Yi-Rong; Ma, Ding; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2016-04-12

    Luminal breast cancer constitutes a group of highly heterogeneous diseases with a sustained high risk of late recurrence. We aimed to develop comprehensive and practical nomograms to better estimate the long-term survival of luminal breast cancer.Patients with luminal breast cancer diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and randomly divided into the training (n = 87,867) and validation (n = 88,215) cohorts. The cumulative incidence function (CIF) and a competing-risks model were used to estimate the probability of breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and death from other causes. We integrated significant prognostic factors to build nomograms and subjected the nomograms to bootstrap internal validation and to external validation.We screened 176,082 luminal breast cancer cases. The 5- and 10-year probabilities of overall death were 0.089 and 0.202, respectively. The 5- and 10-year probabilities of breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) were 0.053 and 0.112, respectively. Nine independent prognostic factors for both OS and BCSS were integrated to construct the nomograms. The calibration curves for the probabilities of 5- and 10-year OS and BCSS showed excellent agreement between the nomogram prediction and actual observation. The C-indexes of the nomograms were high in both internal validation (0.732 for OS and 0.800 for BCSS) and external validation (0.731 for OS and 0.794 for BCSS).We established nomograms that accurately predict OS and BCSS for patients with luminal breast cancer. The nomograms can identify patients with higher risk of late overall mortality and BCSM, helping physicians in facilitating individualized treatment. PMID:26967253

  16. Nomograms to estimate long-term overall survival and breast cancer-specific survival of patients with luminal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ding; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Luminal breast cancer constitutes a group of highly heterogeneous diseases with a sustained high risk of late recurrence. We aimed to develop comprehensive and practical nomograms to better estimate the long-term survival of luminal breast cancer. Patients with luminal breast cancer diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and randomly divided into the training (n = 87,867) and validation (n = 88,215) cohorts. The cumulative incidence function (CIF) and a competing-risks model were used to estimate the probability of breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and death from other causes. We integrated significant prognostic factors to build nomograms and subjected the nomograms to bootstrap internal validation and to external validation. We screened 176,082 luminal breast cancer cases. The 5- and 10-year probabilities of overall death were 0.089 and 0.202, respectively. The 5- and 10-year probabilities of breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) were 0.053 and 0.112, respectively. Nine independent prognostic factors for both OS and BCSS were integrated to construct the nomograms. The calibration curves for the probabilities of 5- and 10-year OS and BCSS showed excellent agreement between the nomogram prediction and actual observation. The C-indexes of the nomograms were high in both internal validation (0.732 for OS and 0.800 for BCSS) and external validation (0.731 for OS and 0.794 for BCSS). We established nomograms that accurately predict OS and BCSS for patients with luminal breast cancer. The nomograms can identify patients with higher risk of late overall mortality and BCSM, helping physicians in facilitating individualized treatment. PMID:26967253

  17. Therapeutic control of plasma concentrations and long-term effect of nortriptyline in recurrent affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Kragh-Sørensen; Hansen, C E; Baastrup, P C; Hvidberg, E F

    1976-07-01

    Based on the evidence that therapeutic plasma concentration range in fact exists for the tricyclic antidepressant drug, Nortriptyline (range 50-150 ng/ml), three different investigations were under taken in order to clarify some clinical pharmacological problems during long-term treatment with this drug. The possible prophlactic effect of the drug in recurrent affective disorders was specially examined in a group of patients with a high risk of episodes in their unipolar manic-depressive disease. The results highly demonstrate the value of monitoring plasma levels in achieving therapeutic control. Depressive relapses during treatment, for months and years, were only related to therapeutic insufficient plasma levels of the drug. PMID:981330

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate: long-term survival after combined chemo-radiation

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Fernando; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Ciammella, Patrizia; Clerico, Mario; Giudici, Mauro; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto

    2007-01-01

    Background Carcinoma of the prostate gland is the most frequent malignant tumour affecting male population. While the large majority of tumours is represented by adenocarcinoma, pure squamous cell carcinoma comprises only 0,5–1% of all prostate neoplastic lesions. It is characterised by a high degree of malignancy, commonly metastasising to the bone (mainly with osteolytic lesions), liver and lungs with a median survival time of 14 months. Several therapeutic approaches have been employed in the effort to treat prostate pure squamous cell carcinoma, including radical surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. All of them mostly failed to gain a significant survival benefit. Case report We herein report on a case of pure squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate approached with combined-modality treatment, with the administration of 3 courses of cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 and continous infusion 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m2 on day 1 to 5 and, subsequently, radiotherapy, with the delivery of a total dose of 46 Gy to the whole pelvis, with additional boost doses of 20 Gy to the prostatic bed and adjunctive 6 Gy to the prostate gland (72 Gy in total). The patient remained free of disease for 5 years, finally experiencing local relapse and, subsequently, dying of acute renal failure due to bilateral uretero-hydro-nephrosis. In addition, we provide a complete overview of all reported cases available within the medical literature. Conclusion Since it remains questionable which should be the most appropriate therapeutic approach towards prostate pure squamous cell carcinoma, our report demonstrates that a prolonged disease control, with a consistent survival time, may be achieved by the combination of an effective local treatment such as radiotherapy with systemic infusion of chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:17407588

  19. Impact of obesity on long-term survival after aortic valve replacement with a small prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Biao; Yang, Hongyang; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Xiquan; Zhu, Wenjie; Cao, Guangqing; Wu, Shuming

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Although many studies have evaluated the impact of obesity on various medical treatments, it is not known whether obesity is related to late mortality with implantation of small aortic prostheses. This study evaluated the effect of obesity on the late survival of patients after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with implantation of a small aortic prosthesis (size ≤21 mm). METHODS From January 1998 to December 2008, 307 patients in our institution who underwent primary AVR with smaller prostheses survived 30 days after surgery. Patients were categorized as normal weight if body mass index (BMI) was <24 kg/m2, overweight if BMI 24–27.9 kg/m2 and obese if BMI ≥28 kg/m2. Data of the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), effective orifice area index (EOAI) and left ventricular mass index of the patients were collected at the third month, sixth month, first year, third year, fifth year and eighth year after operation. RESULTS By multivariable analysis, obesity was a significant independent factor of late mortality (hazard ratio: 1.62; P = 0.01). The obese and overweight groups of patients exhibited lower survival (P < 0.001) and a higher proportion in NYHA Class III/IV (P < 0.01) compared with the normal group. A lower EOAI and higher left ventricular mass index were found in the obese and overweight groups, but we saw no significant variance in LVEF among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS Obesity is associated with increased late mortality of patients after AVR with implantation of small aortic prosthesis. Obesity or/and overweight may also affect the NYHA classification, even in the longer term. EOAI should be improved where possible, as it may reduce late mortality and improve quality of life in obese or overweight patients. PMID:23529754

  20. Divine Love and Deep Connections: A Long-Term Followup of Patients Surviving Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Amy L.; Hall, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined experiencing divine love as an indicator of affective spiritual growth in a prospective cohort of 200 patients surviving cardiac surgery. These patients previously completed two-wave preoperative interviews when standardized cardiac surgery data were also collected. The information included left ventricular ejection fraction, New York Heart Association Classification, baseline health (physical and mental), optimism, hope, religiousness, prayer coping, religious/spiritual coping, and demographics. We then measured divine love at 900 days postoperatively. Hierarchical linear regression indicated the direct effect of positive religious coping on experiences of divine love, controlling for other key variables. Postoperatively perceived spiritual support was entered at the final step as an explanatory factor, which appeared to mediate the coping effect. None of the other faith factors predicted divine love. Further research regarding divine love and spiritual support may eventually guide clinical attempts to support patients' spiritual growth as an independently relevant outcome of cardiac surgery. PMID:21748012

  1. Cerebral performance category at hospital discharge predicts long-term survival of cardiac arrest survivors receiving targeted temperature management

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Cindy H.; Li, Jiaqi; Cinousis, Marisa J.; Sheak, Kelsey R.; Gaieski, David F.; Abella, Benjamin S.; Leary, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite recent advancements in post-cardiac arrest resuscitation, the optimal measurement of post-arrest outcome remains unclear. We hypothesized that cerebral performance category (CPC) score can predict the long-term outcome of post- arrest survivors who received targeted temperature management (TTM) during their post-arrest hospital care. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Two academic medical centers from May, 2005 to December, 2012. Patients The medical records of 2,417 out-of-hospital and in-hospital post-cardiac arrest patients were reviewed to identify 140 out of 582 survivors who received TTM. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results The CPC scores at hospital discharge were determined by three independent abstractors. The 1-month, 6-month, and 12-month survival of these patients were determined by reviewing hospital records, querying the Social Security Death Index, and follow-up telephone calls. The unadjusted long-term survival and adjusted survival association with CPC were calculated. Of the 2,417 identified cardiac arrest patients, 24.1% (582/2417) were successfully resuscitated, of whom 24.1% (140/582) received post-arrest TTM. Overall, 42.9% (60/140) were discharged with CPC 1, 27.1% (38/140) with CPC 2, 18.6% (26/140) with CPC 3, and 11.4% (16/140) with CPC 4. CPC 1 survivors had the highest long-term survival followed by CPC 2 and 3, with CPC 4 having the lowest long-term survival (p < 0.001, log-rank test). We found that CPC 3 (hazard ratio = 3.62, p < 0.05) and CPC 4 (hazard ratio = 12.73, p <0.001) remained associated with worse survival after adjusting for age, gender, race, shockable rhythm, time to TTM initiation, total duration of resuscitation, withdrawal of care, and location of arrest. Conclusion Patients with different CPC scores at discharge have significantly different survival trajectories. Favorable CPC at hospital discharge predicts better long-term outcomes of cardiac arrest survivors who received TTM

  2. Predicting Short-term Mortality and Long-term Survival of Hospitalized U.S. Patients with Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Jennifer A.; Arslanlar, Sami; Yepuri, Jay; Montrose, Marc; Ahn, Chul W.; Shah, Jessica P.

    2014-01-01

    Background No study has evaluated current scoring systems for their accuracy in predicting short- and long-term outcome of alcoholic hepatitis in a U.S. population. Methods We reviewed electronic records for patients with ALD admitted to Parkland Memorial Hospital between January 2002 and August 2005. Data and outcomes for 148 of 1761 admissions meeting pre-defined criteria were collected. The discriminant function (DF) was revised (INRdf) to account for changes in prothrombin time reagents that could potentially affect identification of risk using the prior DF threshold of > 32. Admission and theoretical peak scores using the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) were calculated. Analysis models compared 5 different scoring systems. Results INRdf was closely correlated with the old DF (r2 = 0.95). Multivariate analysis of data showed that survival at 28 days was significantly associated with admission values for white blood cell count (p = 0.006), a scoring system using a combination of age, bilirubin, coagulation status and creatinine (p < 0.001) as well as an elevated ammonia result within 2 days of admission (p = 0.006). When peak values for MELD were included, they were the most significant predictor of short-term mortality (p < 0.001) followed by INRdf (p = 0.006 Conclusion On admission, 2 scoring systems that identify a subset of patients with severe alcoholic liver disease are able to predict > 50% mortality at 4 weeks as well as > 80% mortality at 6 months without specific treatment. PMID:24445730

  3. SOIL AGGREGATE STABILITY AS AFFECTED BY LONG-TERM TILLAGE AND CLAY TYPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil aggregate stability and dispersivity depend on clay mineralogy. However, little is known about the effect of soil mineralogy on soil crustability for long-term cultivated soil. The effect of long-term tillage on aggregate stability was the objective of our study. More than 20 soil samples chara...

  4. Meningiomas occurring during long-term survival after treatment for childhood cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Aliki; Pretorius, Pieter; Kennedy, Colin; Bhangoo, Ranj

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cancer is rare but improvements in treatment over the past five decades have resulted in a cohort of more than 30,000 long-term survivors of childhood cancer in the UK with more added annually. These long-term survivors are at risk of late effects of cancer treatment which replace original tumour recurrence as the leading cause of premature death. Second neoplasms are a particular risk and in the central nervous system meningiomas occur increasingly with increased radiation dose to central nervous system tissue and length of time after exposure, resulting in a 500-fold increase above that expected in the normal population by 40 years of follow up. This multidisciplinary author group and others met to discuss the issue. Our pooled information, and consensus that screening should only follow symptoms, was published online by the Royal College of Radiologists in 2013. We outline here the current knowledge and management of these neoplasms secondary to childhood cancer treatment. PMID:25057388

  5. Histopathological analysis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cases with long-term survival: A report from the Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Research Consortium of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Sugitani, Iwao; Kakudo, Kennichi; Sakamoto, Atsuhiko; Higashiyama, Takuya; Sugino, Kiminori; Toda, Kazuhisa; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Imai, Tsuneo; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Orita, Yorihisa; Kammori, Makoto; Fujimori, Keisei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-31

    The aim of this study was to clarify the histopathological features of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in patients who achieved long-term survival. We reviewed 88 anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cases in which the patient survived less than 3 months (short-term survival), and 68 anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cases in which the patient survived more than one year (long-term survival) from the database of the Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Research Consortium of Japan. We examined these cases both histologically and immunohistochemically. Six (6.8%) short-term survival cases and 27 (39.7%) long-term survival cases were considered not to be anaplastic thyroid carcinoma after central review. Of these, 12 were revised to papillary carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma. In cases without chemotherapy, long-term survival was significantly more common if there was a pre-existing tumor, epithelial growth, or lymphocytic infiltration, and short-term survival was more common if neutrophilic infiltration was present. In cases with chemotherapy, long-term survival was significantly more common if epithelial growth or a squamous cell carcinoma component was present, whereas short-term survival was more common in cases with rhabdoid cells. Immunohistochemical results were not related to survival. Some long-term survival cases showed histological findings other than those typically associated with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. The presence of a pre-existing tumor, epithelial growth, a squamous cell carcinoma component, no neutrophilic infiltration and lymphocytic infiltration may therefore be favorable prognostic factors in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. PMID:26842589

  6. Pulmonary sarcoid-like granulomatosis after multiple vaccinations of a long-term surviving patient with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bordry, Natacha; Costa-Nunes, Carla-Marisa; Cagnon, Laurène; Gannon, Philippe O; Abed-Maillard, Samia; Baumgaertner, Petra; Murray, Timothy; Letovanec, Igor; Lazor, Romain; Bouchaab, Hasna; Rufer, Nathalie; Romano, Emanuela; Michielin, Olivier; Speiser, Daniel E

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune side effects are frequent in patients with cancer treated with immune checkpoint-targeting antibodies, but are rare with cancer vaccines. Here, we present a case report on a patient with metastatic melanoma who developed pulmonary sarcoid-like granulomatosis following repetitive vaccinations with peptides and CpG. Despite multiple metastases, including one lesion in the brain, the patient is alive and well more than 13 years after the diagnosis of metastatic disease. The strongly activated tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells showed robust long-term memory and effector functions. It is possible that long-term survival and adverse autoimmune events may become more common for vaccines inducing robust anticancer immune responses as were present in this patient. PMID:25277238

  7. Retinal Microvasculature Is Associated With Long-Term Survival in the General Adult Dutch Population.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Unal; Ikram, M Kamran; Wolters, Frank J; Hofman, Albert; Klaver, Caroline C W; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-02-01

    Retinal vascular diameters are associated with (sub)clinical cardiovascular disease and short-term cardiovascular mortality, but their association with long-term mortality is uncertain. We studied the association of retinal vascular diameters with cause-specific mortality in the general adult Dutch population during 25 years of follow-up. From 1990 to 1993, arteriolar and venular diameters were measured semiautomatically on digitized images in 5674 persons (mean age 68.0 years, 59% women) from the population-based Rotterdam study. Follow-up for mortality was complete till March 2015. Associations between vascular diameters and mortality were examined using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and the fellow vessel diameter. During 85 770 person-years (mean±SD: 15.1±6.67), 3794 (66.8%) persons died, of whom 1034 due to cardiovascular causes. We found that narrower arterioles and wider venules were associated with higher risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] per SD decrease 1.04 [1.00-1.08] and increase 1.07 [1.03-1.12], respectively). For arterioles, these associations were strongest for cardiovascular mortality, whereas venules showed consistent associations for cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality. Importantly, these associations remained unchanged after excluding the first 10 years of follow-up as immortal person-time. We found evidence for effect modification with stronger associations in persons <70 years (venules only) and smokers (P value for interaction<0.01). We replicated our findings in another independent cohort from the Rotterdam Study of 3106 persons with 19 880 person-years of follow-up and 144 deaths (hazard ratio for venules 1.22 [1.00-1.49]). Markers of retinal microvasculature are associated with long-term mortality in the general adult Dutch population. PMID:26628677

  8. Long-term survival outcomes of video-assisted thoracic surgery for patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wenlong; Xiong, Xinguo; Chen, Hanzhang; Liu, Jun; Yin, Weiqiang; Li, Shuben; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Background Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been shown to be a safe alternative to conventional thoracotomy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, popularization of this relatively novel technique has been slow, partly due to concerns about its long-term outcomes. The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term survival outcomes of patients with NSCLC after VATS, and to determine the significant prognostic factors on overall survival. Methods Consecutive patients diagnosed with NSCLC referred to one institution for VATS were identified from a central database. Patients were treated by either complete-VATS or assisted-VATS, as described in previous studies. A number of baseline patient characteristics, clinicopathologic data and treatment-related factors were analyzed as potential prognostic factors on overall survival. Results Between January 2000 and December 2007, 1,139 patients with NSCLC who underwent VATS and fulfilled a set of predetermined inclusion criteria were included for analysis. The median age of the entire group was 60 years, with 791 male patients (69%). The median 5-year overall survival for Stage I, II, III and IV disease according to the recently updated TNM classification system were 72.2%, 47.5%, 29.8% and 28.6%, respectively. Female gender, TNM stage, pT status, and type of resection were found to be significant prognostic factors on multivariate analysis. Conclusions VATS offers a viable alternative to conventional open thoracotomy for selected patients with clinically resectable NSCLC. PMID:25232210

  9. Do prostatic biopsies 12 months or more after external irradiation for adenocarcinoma, stage III, predict long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.D.; Kline, R.W.

    1983-03-01

    Serial biopsies of the prostate after high dose external irradiation for adenocarcinoma show a gradual disappearance of the neoplastic cells. With such treatment, results of the biopsies do not have any short term prognostic significance. However, positive biopsies 12 months or more after treatment are reputed to be an unfavorable sign for long-term survival. From August, 1970 through February, 1974, 45 consecutive patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent external irradiation with 2 MV X rays or cobalt-60 teletherapy. The center of the prostate received a total dose of 70 Gy in 30-37 fractions in 43 to 56 days. With a median follow-up of 8 years, the actuarial survival rates, uncorrected for death from intercurrent disease, are 69% at 5 years and 49% at 10 years. Biopsies of the prostate 12 months or more after treatment were available from 31 patients; 19 had one or more positive biopsies. Prostatic biopsies obtained 24 months or more after treatment were available from 21 patients: 10 had positive and 11 had negative biopsies; the survival curves are identical for those with and without residual cancer cells. Following adequate irradiation of patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate, the results of biopsies obtained one or two years after treatment do not predict long-term survival.

  10. Long-term Survival of Allograft Murine Islets Coated via Covalently Stabilized Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Rengifo, Hernán R.; Giraldo, Jaime A.; Labrada, Irayme; Stabler, Cherie L.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical islet transplantation (CIT) has emerged as a promising treatment option for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM); however, the anti-rejection drug regimen necessary to mitigate allograft islet rejection is undesirable. The use of polymeric coatings to immunocamouflage the transplant from host immune attack has great potential. We have recently developed alginate and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based polymers, functionalized with azide and phosphine, respectively, which form spontaneous and chemoselective crosslinks via the bioorthogonal Staudinger ligation scheme. Herein, we explored the utility of these polymers to form immunoprotective, ultrathin coatings on murine primary pancreatic islets. Resulting coatings were nontoxic, with unimpaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Transplantation of coated BALB/c (H-2d) islets into streptozotozin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 (H-2b) resulted in prompt achievement of normoglycemia, at a rate comparable to controls. A significant subset of animals receiving coated islets (57%) exhibited long-term (> 100 d) function, with robust islets observed upon explantation. Control islets rejected after 15 d (+/− 9 d). Results illustrate the capacity of chemoselectively functionalized polymers to form coatings on islets, imparting no detrimental effect to the underlying cells, with resulting coatings exhibiting significant protective effects in an allograft murine model. PMID:24497465

  11. Sarcopenia is an Independent Predictor of Severe Postoperative Complications and Long-Term Survival After Radical Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Huang, Dong-Dong; Pang, Wen-Yang; Zhou, Chong-Jun; Wang, Su-Lin; Lou, Neng; Ma, Liang-Liang; Yu, Zhen; Shen, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the association between sarcopenia and long-term prognosis after gastric cancer surgery has not been investigated. Moreover, the association between sarcopenia and postoperative complications remains controversial. This large-scale retrospective study aims to ascertain the prevalence of sarcopenia and assess its impact on postoperative complications and long-term survival in patients undergoing radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. From December 2008 to April 2013, the clinical data of all patients who underwent elective radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer were collected prospectively. Only patients with available preoperative abdominal CT scan within 30 days of surgery were considered for analysis. Skeletal muscle mass was determined by abdominal (computed tomography) CT scan, and sarcopenia was diagnosed by the cut-off values obtained by means of optimum stratification. Univariate and multivariate analyses evaluating risk factors of postoperative complications and long-term survival were performed. A total of 937 patients were included in this study, and 389 (41.5%) patients were sarcopenic based on the diagnostic cut-off values (34.9 cm2/m2 for women and 40.8 cm2/m2 for men). Sarcopenia was an independent risk factor for severe postoperative complications (OR = 3.010, P < 0.001), but not for total complications. However, sarcopenia did not show significant association with operative mortality. Moreover, sarcopenia was an independent predictor for poorer overall survival (HR = 1.653, P < 0.001) and disease-free survival (HR = 1.620, P < 0.001). Under the adjusted tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, sarcopenia remained an independent risk factor for overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with TNM stage II and III, but not in patients with TNM stage I. Sarcopenia is an independent predictive factor of severe postoperative complications after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Moreover

  12. Long-term cognitive enrichment affects opioid receptor expression in the amygdala of domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Kalbe, C; Puppe, B

    2010-02-01

    Enriching the housing environment by stimuli that challenge both reward and cognitive mechanisms may enhance behavioural experiences and can improve animal welfare, particularly in farm animals. A newly developed experimental feeding system for domestic pigs using food-rewarded learning of discriminatory and instrumental tasks enabled the animals to successfully master a cognitive challenge and to be rewarded ca. 30 times per day with small food portions. Reward-related behaviour is expected to be modulated by endogenous opioid systems. Furthermore, recent evidence supports a role for the amygdala in processing positive affects by stimulus-reward learning. Hence, the present study investigates mRNA expression of cerebral receptors, which are involved in these processes. In an initial step, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provided the first evidence that transcripts of three different opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, KOR), as well as the neuropeptide Y 5 receptor (NPY5R), leptin receptor (LEPR) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), are expressed in both the porcine amygdala and hypothalamus. Using real-time PCR we could show that the expression of two receptors of the opioid system (amygdala: KOR, DOR), in addition to the expression of NPY5R (hypothalamus) in eight enriched housed pigs was markedly downregulated compared to that of conventionally housed and fed pigs. Focusing on opioid receptors in the amygdala, the present study shows that long-term cognitive enrichment acts as a biologically relevant stimulus that causes modifications of gene expression of reward-sensitive cerebral receptors in domestic pigs. PMID:19804558

  13. Optimization of 15 parameters influencing the long-term survival of bacteria in aquatic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obenhuber, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    NASA is presently engaged in the design and development of a water reclamation system for the future space station. A major concern in processing water is the control of microbial contamination. As a means of developing an optimal microbial control strategy, studies were undertaken to determine the type and amount of contamination which could be expected in these systems under a variety of changing environmental conditions. A laboratory-based Taguchi optimization experiment was conducted to determine the ideal settings for 15 parameters which influence the survival of six bacterial species in aquatic systems. The experiment demonstrated that the bacterial survival period could be decreased significantly by optimizing environmental conditions.

  14. Long-term survival of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis according to treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Nakwon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2016-07-01

    Survival times of 219 patients diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were calculated and treatment outcomes compared. Mean survival of 20 patients who failed to be cured was 109.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.4-132.1), shorter than that of 150 patients who were cured (140.4 months; 95% CI, 136.1-144.7; P < .01) and that of 28 patients classified as treatment completed (138.5 months; 95% CI, 131.0-146.1; P = .02). The results demonstrate that patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis with poor treatment outcomes live 9 years, on average. PMID:26922891

  15. Soil physical and hydrological properties as affected by long-term addition of various organic amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Marie; Völkel, Jörg; Mercier, Vincent; Labat, Christophe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    The use of organic residues as soil amendments in agriculture not only reduces the amount of waste needing to be disposed of; it may also lead to improvements in soil properties, including physical and hydrological ones. The present study examines a long-term experiment called "Qualiagro", run jointly by INRA and Veolia Environment in Feucherolles, France (near Paris). It was initiated in 1998 on a loess-derived silt loam (787 g/kg silt, 152 g/kg clay) and includes ten treatments: four types of organic amendments and a control (CNT) each at two levels of mineral nitrogen (N) addition: minimal (Nmin) and optimal (Nopt). The amendments include three types of compost and farmyard manure (FYM), which were applied every other year at a rate of ca. 4 t carbon ha-1. The composts include municipal solid waste compost (MSW), co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (GWS), and biowaste compost (BIO). The plots are arranged in a randomized block design and have a size of 450 m²; each treatment is replicated four times (total of 40 plots). Ca. 15 years after the start of the experiment soil organic carbon (OC) had continuously increased in the amended plots, while it remained stable or decreased in the control plots. This compost- or manure-induced increase in OC plays a key role, affecting numerous dependant soil properties like bulk density, porosity and water retention. The water holding capacity (WHC) of a soil is of particular interest to farmers in terms of water supply for plants, but also indicates soil quality and functionality. Addition of OC may affect WHC in different ways: carbon-induced aggregation may increase larger-pore volume and hence WHC at the wet end while increased surface areas may lead to an increased retention of water at the dry end. Consequently it is difficult to predict (e.g. with pedotransfer functions) the impact on the amount of water available for plants (PAW), which was experimentally determined for the soils, along with the entire range

  16. Treatment of leptomeningeal dissemination of medulloblastoma. Report of a case with a long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Stevering, C J; Gabreëls, F J; Lippens, R J; Renier, W O; Thijssen, H O; ter Laak, H J

    1985-01-01

    A case report is presented of a boy suffering from medulloblastoma with grade IV spinal cord involvement and a survival of almost 3 years after the occurrence of spinal metastases. A review is given of the literature, with special attention to diagnostic procedures (CSF determinations, myelography) and therapeutic regimens. PMID:4092411

  17. Long-Term Progression-Free Survival in a Patient with Locally Advanced, Unresectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Leonel A; Matin, Mahan; Bold, Richard J; Tanaka, Michael I; Monjazeb, Arta M

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is amongst the most lethal malignancies with dismal five-year survival rates. Surgical excision is the mainstay of therapy and unresectable disease is considered incurable. Herein, we describe a patient with unresectable, advanced stage pancreatic adenocarcinoma with a remarkable clinical course following definitive chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26824007

  18. LONG-TERM SURVIVAL AND PLASMID MAINTENANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI IN MARINE MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival pattern and plasmid maintenance of Escherichia con was examined in an artificial seawater microcosm. t was found that the three strain, of E. coli (EK3C, H10407 and 34309) included in the study were able to maintain a portion of cells in the culturable phase for at l...

  19. Lower limb amputations: differences between the genders and long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, M; Saarinen, J; Suominen, V P; Virkkunen, J; Salenius, J

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate possible differences between genders in amputation incidence, revascularization activity before and survival after amputation. This population-based study was carried out in a well-defined geographical area, where all vascular surgical consultations and reconstructions are performed in one university hospital. All amputations performed in the region during 1990 - 1999 were identified from the hospital central registers. According to patient's identity codes, the Cause of Death Registry of Statistics Finland provided death data. Amputation data were cross-linked with the local vascular registry using identity codes. Women were found to be 8 years older than men (p < 0.0001). Major amputations comprised 73.4% in males and 77.7% in females. The age-standardized amputation incidence among males was 338 and among females 226 (per 10(6) inhabitants/year) (p < 0.001). The most prominent difference was seen in amputations due to trauma, where the age-adjusted major amputation incidence was over three-fold among males compared to females. The proportion of patients who had undergone vascular procedure before amputation was 23% in both genders. Median survival after amputation was 943 days in men and 716 in women (p = 0.01). When the higher age of women was considered, there was no significant difference between the genders. Survival was poorer among diabetics in both genders and the difference was significant in males. The amputation incidence was found to be higher in men compared to women in all etiologic subgroups except malignant tumour. Almost one in 4 patients had undergone vascular surgical reconstruction before amputation in both genders. There was no significant difference between the genders in survival after amputation. Subjects with diabetes had a poorer survival after major amputation than those without diabetes. PMID:17979013

  20. Cell contact as an independent factor modulating cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and survival in long-term primary culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, W. A.; Decker, M. L.; Behnke-Barclay, M.; Janes, D. M.; Decker, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    Cardiac myocytes maintained in cell culture develop hypertrophy both in response to mechanical loading as well as to receptor-mediated signaling mechanisms. However, it has been shown that the hypertrophic response to these stimuli may be modulated through effects of intercellular contact achieved by maintaining cells at different plating densities. In this study, we show that the myocyte plating density affects not only the hypertrophic response and features of the differentiated phenotype of isolated adult myocytes, but also plays a significant role influencing myocyte survival in vitro. The native rod-shaped phenotype of freshly isolated adult myocytes persists in an environment which minimizes myocyte attachment and spreading on the substratum. However, these conditions are not optimal for long-term maintenance of cultured adult cardiac myocytes. Conditions which promote myocyte attachment and spreading on the substratum, on the other hand, also promote the re-establishment of new intercellular contacts between myocytes. These contacts appear to play a significant role in the development of spontaneous activity, which enhances the redevelopment of highly differentiated contractile, junctional, and sarcoplasmic reticulum structures in the cultured adult cardiomyocyte. Although it has previously been shown that adult cardiac myocytes are typically quiescent in culture, the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists stimulates beating and myocyte hypertrophy, and thereby serves to increase the level of intercellular contact as well. However, in densely-plated cultures with intrinsically high levels of intercellular contact, spontaneous contractile activity develops without the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists. In this study, we compare the function, morphology, and natural history of adult feline cardiomyocytes which have been maintained in cultures with different levels of intercellular contact, with and without the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists

  1. Long-term survival and integration of porcine expanded neural precursor cell grafts in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Harrower, T P; Tyers, P; Hooks, Y; Barker, R A

    2006-01-01

    Porcine fetal neural tissue has been considered as an alternative source to human allografts for transplantation in neurodegenerative disorders by virtue of the fact that it can overcome the ethical and practical difficulties using human fetal neural tissue. However, primary porcine neural xenografts are rejected while porcine expanded neural precursor neural cells (PNPCs) seem to be less immunogenic and thus survive better [Armstrong, R.J., Harrower, T.P., Hurelbrink, C.B., McLaughin, M., Ratcliffe, E.L., Tyers, P., Richards, A., Dunnett, S.B., Rosser, A.E., Barker, R.A., 2001a. Porcine neural xenografts in the immunocompetent rat: immune response following grafting of expanded neural precursor cells. Neuroscience 106, 201-216]. In this study, we extended these observations to investigate the long-term survival of such transplants in immunosuppressed rats. Unilateral 6 OHDA lesioned rats received grafts into the dopamine denervated striatum of either primary porcine fetal neural tissue dissected from the E26 cortex or cortically derived neural stem cells which had been derived from the same source but expanded in vitro for 21 days. All cortically derived neural stem cell grafts survived up to 5 months in contrast to the poor survival of primary porcine xenografts. Histological analysis demonstrated good graft integration with fibers extending into the surrounding host tissue including white matter with synapse formation, and in addition there was evidence of host vascularization and myelinated fibers within the graft area. This study has therefore shown for the first time the reliable long-term survival of grafts derived from porcine expanded neural precursors in a rat model of PD, with maturation and integration into the host brain. This demonstrates that such xenografted cells may be able to recreate the damaged circuitry in PD although strategies for dopaminergic differentiation of the porcine neural precursor cell remain to be refined. PMID:16246328

  2. Epidemiology and Long-Term Survival in HIV-Infected Patients With Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in the HAART Era

    PubMed Central

    López-Sánchez, Cristina; Falcó, Vicenç; Burgos, Joaquin; Navarro, Jordi; Martín, María Teresa; Curran, Adrià; Miguel, Lucía; Ocaña, Inma; Ribera, Esteve; Crespo, Manel; Almirante, Benito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is widely available, the incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) has decreased significantly but still represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. We analyzed all the cases with PJP in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients from 2000 to 2013 in a university hospital in Barcelona, Spain, and conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate data regarding incidence, mortality, and long-term survival after PJP in developed settings. One hundred thirty-six episodes of PJP were analyzed. During the study period, the incidence decreased significantly (from 13.4 cases/1000 patients-year to 3.3 cases/1000 patients-year, P < 0.001). Oppositely, median age of the patients increased from 34 years in 2000 to 45 in 2013 (P = 0.024). PJP preceded HIV diagnosis in nearly 50% of the cases. Fifteen (11%) patients died during the PJP episode. The main risk factor for in-hospital mortality in our cohort was age >50 years (odds ratio 4.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–15.14). Patients who survived were followed-up during a mean time of 44 months. Overall 5-year survival of patients after hospital discharge was 73%. Survival likelihood was 54% higher (88% [95% CI 81–96]) among HAART-adherent patients. Mean age and the proportion of patients with unknown HIV infection at the time of PJP diagnosis have increased in developed countries in the HAART era. Although the incidence has decreased, in-hospital mortality remains stable in this setting. Long-term survival is very high among HAART-adherent patients. PMID:25816039

  3. Long-Term Biochemical and Survival Outcome of 921 Patients Treated With I-125 Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinnen, Karel A.; Battermann, Jan J.; Roermund, Joep G.H. van; Moerland, Marinus A.; Juergenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Frank, Steven J.; Vulpen, Marco van

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To assess long-term biochemical and survival outcome after permanent prostate brachytherapy (BT). Methods and Materials: Data on 921 patients, treated with permanent interstitial BT monotherapy between 1989 and 2004 for <=T2c Nx/0 Mx/0 prostate cancer were evaluated. All patients were treated with I-125 seeds (prescription dose 144 Gy). Eighty-five patients with a gland volume >=50cc received 6 months of antiandrogen therapy before treatment. Patients were classified into risk groups with 232 defined as low-, 369 intermediate-, and 320 high-risk disease. The median follow-up was 69 months (range, 4-186 months); mean age was 67 years. Results: Average 5- and 10-year biochemical no evidence of disease (bNED) rates were 79% and 57%. Average 10-year bNED rates by risk group were 88% for low-risk, 61% for intermediate-risk, and 30% for high-risk disease. The average 10-year overall and disease-specific survival rates were 59% and 82%. Ten-year overall and disease-specific survival rates by risk group were, respectively, 68% and 96% for low-risk, and 64% 87% for intermediate-risk, and 49% and 69% for high-risk disease. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, both risk group and treatment era were independent predictors of bNED and survival. Conclusions: These data on long-term survival continue to support the use of I-125 monotherapy for prostate cancer in low-risk patients and, in particular, demonstrate its efficacy in intermediate-risk patients.

  4. Survival of some photoreceptor cells in albino rats following long-term exposure to continuous light.

    PubMed

    La Vail, M M

    1976-01-01

    Fischer albino rats, seven weeks of age, were exposed to continuous light at 65 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 264 days. Other Fischer rats, seven months of age, were exposed to continuous light at 140 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 147 days. In all cases, a small percentage of the photoreceptors survived. The identification of the surviving cells as photoreceptors was made by light microscopy on the basis of nuclear heterochromatin pattern and staining and by electron microscopy by the presence of ribbon synapses and ciliary basal bodies with ciliary filaments. No outer segment membranes were observed. The percentage of cones progressively increased from the normal 1.5 per cent to about 60 per cent with increasing exposure time, indicating that cone cells are more resistant than rods to destruction by constant light. PMID:1245384

  5. From Exit to Entry: Long-term Survival and Transmission of Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Waldner, Landon L.; MacKenzie, Keith D.; Köster,, Wolfgang; White, Aaron P.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of human infectious disease worldwide and pose a serious health concern. While we have an improving understanding of pathogenesis and the host-pathogen interactions underlying the infection process, comparatively little is known about the survival of pathogenic Salmonella outside their hosts. This review focuses on three areas: (1) in vitro evidence that Salmonella spp. can survive for long periods of time under harsh conditions; (2) observations and conclusions about Salmonella persistence obtained from human outbreaks; and (3) new information revealed by genomic- and population-based studies of Salmonella and related enteric pathogens. We highlight the mechanisms of Salmonella persistence and transmission as an essential part of their lifecycle and a prerequisite for their evolutionary success as human pathogens. PMID:25436767

  6. Is H(2) the Universal Energy Source for Long-Term Survival?

    PubMed

    Morita

    1999-11-01

    This review revisits anabiosis (cryptobiosis or latent life); but more specifically with the discrepancy (time factor) between the finding of viable bacteria in ancient material and the racemization of amino acids and depurination of DNA that would have contributed to their death. The omnipresence of H(2) in the biosphere since life began, its ability to penetrate the microbial cell, its low energy of activation, its ability to form protons and electrons in the presence of Fe(II), and its (including electrons and protons) role in many biochemical reactions make H(2) the best candidate as the energy of survival for microbial cells. Although the concentration of H(2) in most environments is below the threshold level for microbial growth, the surviving cells have a long period of time to carry out the necessary metabolism to offset the racemization and depurination processes. This paper explores a hypothesis that explains this discrepancy. PMID:10758178

  7. An unusual response with long term survival using erlotinib in NSCLC lung with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Madhup; Nanda, Sambit Swarup; Prakash, Chandra; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a middle-aged woman with adenocarcinoma of the lung and metastatic brain lesions. In view of her poor general condition and poor compliance to first-line chemotherapy, the patient was kept on tablet erlotinib after whole brain radiotherapy. This novel treatment resulted in a dramatic response with radiological regression in both the primary lung lesion and metastatic intracranial lesions translating in unexpected and ongoing 24-month survival. PMID:26729829

  8. Dryland soil chemical properties and crop yields affected by long-term tillage and cropping sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on the effect of long-term management on soil nutrients and chemical properties is scanty. We examined the 30-yr effect of tillage frequency and cropping sequence combination on dryland soil Olsen-P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, SO4-S, and Zn concentrations, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and catio...

  9. GEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL REACTIONS AFFECTING THE LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF IN SITU 'IRON BARRIERS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The in situ application of granular iron (Fe0) has become popular for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds for the immobilization of specific metals in groundwater. However, a knowledge gap exists concerning the long-term performance of the Fe0-barriers. The corrosi...

  10. Factors Affecting Long-Term-Care Residents' Decision-Making Processes as They Formulate Advance Directives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Heather C.; McColl, Mary Ann; Gilbert, Julie; Wong, Jiahui; Murray, Gale; Shortt, Samuel E. D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe factors contributing to the decision-making processes of elderly persons as they formulate advance directives in long-term care. Design and Methods: This study was qualitative, based on grounded theory. Recruitment was purposive and continued until saturation was reached. Nine residents of a…

  11. Long-term survival of intestinal allografts induced by costimulation blockade, busulfan and donor bone marrow infusion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhong; Wang, Jun; Dong, Ying; Adams, Andrew B; Shirasugi, Nozomu; Kim, Oliver; Hart, John; Newton-West, Marvin; Pearson, Thomas C; Larsen, Christian P; Newell, Kenneth A

    2003-09-01

    Tolerance-inducing strategies that infuse donor bone marrow cells in conjunction with costimulation blockade have not been applied to intestinal transplantation. Intestines from BALB/c mice were transplanted into C57BL/6 recipients treated with anti-CD40L mAb, CTLA4-Ig, donor bone marrow, and busulfan. The majority of mice transplanted after completion of this regimen developed hematopoietic macrochimerism, although the degree of chimerism varied widely between recipients, and experienced long-term allograft survival. T cells from these mice demonstrated donor-specific hyporesponsiveness in vitro. However, T cells from chimeric mice proliferated to donor alloantigen in vivo. Furthermore, chimeric mice bearing intestinal allografts were capable of rejecting subsequently placed donor-strain skin grafts. These data suggest that although long-term allograft survival occurs in the absence of acute or chronic rejection, recipient mice are not completely unresponsive to donor alloantigens. When intestinal transplantation was performed at the time of initial bone marrow infusion (initiation of the chimerism protocol), most recipients failed to develop chimerism and promptly rejected the intestinal allograft. Although this is the most effective protocol that we have tested using this stringent model of transplantation, our observations suggest that modifications will be necessary before it can be reliably applied to the transplantation of highly immunogeneic organs like the intestine. PMID:12919088

  12. Effects of Long-Term Rice Bran Extract Supplementation on Survival, Cognition and Brain Mitochondrial Function in Aged NMRI Mice.

    PubMed

    Hagl, Stephanie; Asseburg, Heike; Heinrich, Martina; Sus, Nadine; Blumrich, Eva-Maria; Dringen, Ralf; Frank, Jan; Eckert, Gunter P

    2016-09-01

    Aging represents a major risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). As mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in brain aging and occurs early in the development of AD, the prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction might help to slow brain aging and the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Rice bran extract (RBE) contains high concentrations of vitamin E congeners and γ-oryzanol. We have previously shown that RBE increased mitochondrial function and protected from mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro and in short-term in vivo feeding studies. To mimic the use of RBE as food additive, we have now investigated the effects of a long-term (6 months) feeding of RBE on survival, behavior and brain mitochondrial function in aged NMRI mice. RBE administration significantly increased survival and performance of aged NMRI mice in the passive avoidance and Y-maze test. Brain mitochondrial dysfunction found in aged mice was ameliorated after RBE administration. Furthermore, data from mRNA and protein expression studies revealed an up-regulation of mitochondrial proteins in RBE-fed mice, suggesting an increase in mitochondrial content which is mediated by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α)-dependent mechanism. Our findings suggest that a long-term treatment with a nutraceutical containing RBE could be useful for slowing down brain aging and thereby delaying or even preventing AD. PMID:27350374

  13. Intraperitoneal gene therapy by rAAV provides long-term survival against epithelial ovarian cancer independently of survivin pathway.

    PubMed

    Isayeva, T; Ren, C; Ponnazhagan, S

    2007-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. Owing to the lack of an effective screening method, insidious onset, and non-specific symptoms, a majority of women present with advanced stage disease. Despite improvements from cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy, recurrent disease remains a formidable challenge. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that stable intra-abdominal genetic transfer of endostatin and angiostatin (E+A) by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) provides sustained antitumor effects on the growth and dissemination of epithelial ovarian cancer in a mouse model. Further, when combined with paclitaxel (taxol), the effect of this therapy was dramatically increased and resulted in long-term tumor-free survival overcoming prior limitations of chemotherapy and gene therapy. The combined effects of angiosuppressive therapy and chemotherapy were found to be independently of survivin pathway. Evidence for the superior effects of the combination therapy was indicated by significantly lower ascites volume with less hemorrhage and tumor conglomerates, lower ascites vascular endothelial growth factor, higher tumor cell apoptosis and decreased blood vasculature, and long-term disease-free survival. Histopathology of visceral organs and liver enzyme assays indicated no toxicity or pathology. PMID:16943851

  14. Long-term survival of full trisomy 13 in a 14 year old male: a case report.

    PubMed

    Imataka, G; Hagisawa, S; Nitta, A; Hirabayashi, H; Suzumura, H; Arisaka, O

    2016-03-01

    Long term survival for the cases of trisomy 13 into over a first decade is very rare. We reported here the case of a 14-year-old male karyotype with full type of trisomy 13. In this clinical phenomenon, the case had typical facial, finger and limb anomalies for trisomy 13. Arterial septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus were recognized using ultrasonography after birth. Major cerebral malformation such as holoprosencephaly or cerebellar hypoplasia were also not revealed. After 5 months of his age, artificial ventilation therapy for dyspnea associated with laryngomalacia was required. A tracheotomy was performed at 6 months of his age. After 12 years old, intractable partial epilepsy was recognized. For his partial seizures, a treatment with a combination of two anti-epileptic drugs, valproic acid and levetiracetam, were advised. Now he is alive for 14-years-old and he is the 4th longest surviving patient with full karyotype of trisomy 13. PMID:27010151

  15. Long-term survival of a breast cancer patient with extensive liver metastases upon immune and virotherapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Schirrmacher, Volker; Stücker, Wilfried; Lulei, Maria; Bihari, Akos-Sigmund; Sprenger, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Liver metastases in breast cancer are associated with a poor prognosis. We report long-term survival of a patient with breast cancer and liver metastases. After operation the patient declined further standard therapy. Instead, she was treated with local hyperthermia, Newcastle disease virus and dendritic cell vaccination at the Immunological and Oncological Center Cologne (IOZK), Germany. A continuous high quality of life was reported and the patient survived more than 66 months after initial diagnosis. No recurrence or further metastases developed under treatment. Following treatment, a long-lasting tumor-reactive memory T-cell responsiveness could be documented. This possibly explains the favorable course of disease. Since this combination of therapies is not restricted to a particular tumor type, further exploration is warranted. PMID:26020523

  16. Intramedullary PNET of the spine: long-term survival after combined modality therapy and subsequent relapse.

    PubMed

    Gollard, Russell P; Rosen, Larry; Anson, John; Mason, James; Khoury, Joe

    2011-03-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) originating within the spinal cord are extraordinarily rare. We report a female who presented at age 21 with diffuse involvement of the lower spinal cord. After biopsy and successful treatment with radiation and chemotherapy, she recurred 10 years later with disease in her cerebellum. She was reinduced with chemotherapy and subsequently received high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support. She is alive and free of disease 11 years after her initial presentation. This represents the longest survival ever documented for a primary spinal PNET. PMID:21228722

  17. Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L.

    2012-10-25

    Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 {micro}m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 {micro}m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 {micro}m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 {micro}m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of

  18. Long-term survival of Legionella pneumophila in the viable but nonculturable state after monochloramine treatment.

    PubMed

    Alleron, Laëtitia; Merlet, Nicole; Lacombe, Christian; Frère, Jacques

    2008-11-01

    Legionella pneumophila, a facultative intracellular human pathogen, can persist for long periods in natural and artificial aquatic environments. Eradication of this bacterium from plumbing systems is often difficult. We tested L. pneumophila survival after monochloramine treatment. Survival was monitored using the BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit (Molecular Probes), ChemChrome V6 Kit (Chemunex), quantitative polymerase chain reaction and culturability on buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar. In nonculturable samples, regain of culturability was obtained after addition of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii, and esterase activity and membrane integrity were observed after >4 months after treatment. These results demonstrate for the first time that L. pneumophila could persist for long periods in biofilms into the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. Monitoring L. pneumophila in water networks is generally done by enumeration on standard solid medium. This method does not take into account VBNC bacteria. VBNC L. pneumophila could persist for long periods and should be resuscitated by amoeba. These cells constitute potential sources of contamination and should be taken into account in monitoring water networks. PMID:18839249

  19. Foraminiferal survival after long-term in situ experimentally induced anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlet, D.; Geslin, E.; Baal, C.; Metzger, E.; Lejzerowicz, F.; Riedel, B.; Zuschin, M.; Pawlowski, J.; Stachowitsch, M.; Jorissen, F. J.

    2013-11-01

    Anoxia was successfully induced in four benthic chambers installed at 24 m depth on the northern Adriatic seafloor from 9 days to 10 months. To accurately determine whether benthic foraminifera can survive experimentally induced prolonged anoxia, the CellTrackerTM Green method was applied and calcareous and agglutinated foraminifera were analyzed. Numerous individuals were found living at all sampling times and at all sampling depths (to 5 cm), supported by a ribosomal RNA analysis that revealed that certain benthic foraminifera were active after 10 months of anoxia. The results show that benthic foraminifera can survive up to 10 months of anoxia with co-occurring hydrogen sulfides. However, foraminiferal standing stocks decrease with sampling time in an irregular manner. A large difference in standing stock between two cores sampled under initial conditions indicates the presence of a large spatial heterogeneity of the foraminiferal faunas. An unexpected increase in standing stocks after one month is tentatively interpreted as a reaction to increased food availability due to the massive mortality of infaunal macrofaunal organisms. After this, standing stocks decrease again in cores sampled after 2 months of anoxia to then attain a minimum in the cores sampled after 10 months. We speculate that the trend of overall decrease of standing stocks is not due to the adverse effects of anoxia and hydrogen sulfides but rather due to a continuous diminution of labile organic matter.

  20. Long-term survival of salivary streptococci on dental devices made of ethylene vinyl acetate

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Taiji; Yamasaki, Sayaka; Honda, Mariko; Terao, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shigetada; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infection associated with the use of medical or dental devices is a serious concern. Although devices made of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) are often used in the oral cavity, there are no established standards for their storage. We investigated bacterial survival on EVA sheets under various storage conditions to establish a standard for hygienic storage of such dental devices. Bacterial counts were evaluated, which showed a significant decrease after washing with sterilized water, mechanical brushing and rinsing, and using Mouthguard Cleaner as compared to untreated samples. In addition, no bacteria were detected on samples stored 2 days or longer in a ventilated environment, whereas they were detected for up to 14 days on samples without any cleaning stored in a closed environment. Bacterial counts for the untreated samples gradually declined, while surviving bacteria on samples treated with sterilized water and mechanical brushing showed a rapid decrease. Additionally, bacterial identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that Streptococcus oralis was dominantly detected on salivary samples after 14 days of storage among both two subjects. For effective hygienic storage of dental devices made of EVA, washing with sterilized water is important to remove absorbed salivary compounds along with storage in a ventilated environment. PMID:22422084

  1. Long-term analysis of survival, fertility, and population growth rate of black bears in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brongo, L.L.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated survival, fertility, and realized and asymptotic population growth rates from 1981 to 2002 for a protected population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We used Akaike's information criterion to assess the time interval for averaging observations that was best for estimating vital rates for our study, given our yearly sample sizes. The temporal symmetry approach allowed us to directly assess population growth and to address all losses and gains to the population by using only capture data, offering an alternative to the logistically intensive collection of reproductive data. Models that averaged survival and fertility across 5- and 7-year time intervals were best supported by our data. Studies of black bear populations with annual sample sizes similar to ours should be of at least 5 years in duration to estimate vital rates reliably, and at least 10 years in duration to evaluate changes in population growth rate (??). We also hypothesized that survival would not track changes in ?? because ?? is influenced by both survival and fertility. The 5-year model supported our hypothesis, but the 7-year model did not. Where long-term dynamics of large, relatively stable bear populations are of interest, monitoring survival is likely to be sufficient for evaluating trends in ??. For rapidly changing, small populations, however, failure to incorporate fertility into assessments of ?? could be misleading. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  2. Sex Differences in Long-Term Survival after a First Stroke with Intravenous Thrombolysis: Ebrictus Study

    PubMed Central

    Clua-Espuny, José Luis; Ripolles-Vicente, Rosa; Forcadell-Arenas, Teresa; Gil-Guillen, Vicente Francisco; Queralt-Tomas, Maria Lluïsa; González-Henares, María Antonia; Panisello-Tafalla, Anna; López-Pablo, Carlos; Lucas-Noll, Jorgina

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of large trials have confirmed the benefits of thrombolysis in acute stroke, but there are gender differences. We sought to examine the relationship between sex and outcome after thrombolysis. Methods This was a prospective cohort study including 1,272 incident ischemic strokes (597 in women) from April 1, 2006 to December 31, 2014. Statistical approaches were used for analyzing survival outcomes and their relationship with thrombolysis therapy. Results The death rates were lower (p = 0.003) in the thrombolysis therapy group with an incidence ratio of 0.57 (95% CI 0.39-0.83). 113 (8.8%) patients (53 women) received thrombolysis. They were significantly younger (69.2 ± 12.7 vs. 73.9 ± 12.5 years; p < 0.001), had higher NIHSS score (12.7 ± 6.3 vs. 7.3 ± 7.0; p < 0.001), spent more days in hospital (10.4 ± 8.3 vs. 8.3 ± 7.9; p < 0.001), and had a higher average Barthel score at discharge (85.5 ± 24.4 vs. 79.2 ± 28.6; p = 0.023). The male/female incidence ratio showed a significant decrease (p = 0.01) in the incidence of mortality in women and a better Barthel score. The thrombolysis improved the survival in the overall group with thrombolysis versus without thrombolysis (p = 0.028), in women versus in men with thrombolysis (p = 0.023), and in women with thrombolysis versus in those without thrombolysis (p < 0.001) but not in men with thrombolysis versus in those without thrombolysis (p = 0.743). The protective factors as regards mortality were thrombolysis therapy (95% CI 0.37-0.80; p = 0.002), Barthel score ≥60 (95% CI 0.81-0.94; p = 0.002), and cardiovascular secondary prevention 1 year after stroke (0.13, 95% CI 0.06-0.28). Conclusions The stroke death rates were lower in women after thrombolysis treatment and suggest significant benefit for women in this setting. The overall benefit on survival of the patients treated with thrombolysis might be explained by the beneficial effect of the thrombolysis on the women. PMID:26648964

  3. Facilitating Long-Term Recovery from Natural Disasters: Psychosocial Programming for Tsunami-Affected Schools of Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…

  4. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in malignant pleural mesothelioma: a possible guardian for long-term survival

    PubMed Central

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Mavroudi, Maria; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Domvri, Kalliopi; Sakkas, Antonios; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Tsiotsios, Anastasios; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive malignancy of the pleura correlated with exposure to asbestos, with a medium survival of 11–12 months after diagnosis. A case of a 67-year-old male who had previously worked in the asbestos industry and is a current smoker is reported. The computed tomography evaluation revealed a right pleural mass with pleural thickening, and the pleural biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma. He was treated with chemotherapy consisting of etoposide, paclitaxel, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride. After completion of chemotherapy, radiologic evaluation confirmed a reduction of pleural thickening and improvement in his symptoms. A complete presentation of each drug formulation and characteristics are also included in this paper. The patient’s follow-up is continuing, and computed tomography reveals stable disease 9 years after initial examination. PMID:23055748

  5. [Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the middle ear: description of a case with long-term survival].

    PubMed

    Artesi, L; Sbrocca, M

    1990-01-01

    A case is described of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (E.R.) of the middle ear in a 4-year-old child; survival has been over 9 years. R.E. is the most common malignant tumor of the auricular region in children and is most often fatal due to locoregional extensions or secondary metastases carried through the bloodstream and lymphatic systems. The basis for treatment is a multidisciplinary approach to the disease: surgery with as broad an exeresis as possible; radiotherapy with tumor-killing doses of 5,500/6,000 rads; and polychemotherapy (Vincristina, Endoxan, Methotrexate). Such "aggressive" treatment often results in a high rate of morbidity with complications involving the blood, bones, eyes and meninx often requiring temporary suspension of treatment and prolonged hospitalization. PMID:2260443

  6. Long-term survival in uterine clear cell carcinoma and uterine papillary serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Bengt; Persson, Jan; Ranstam, Jonas; Willén, Roger

    2010-09-01

    Uterine clear cell carcinoma (UCC) and uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) are rare entities that differ in clinical behavior from endometrial adenocarcinoma. Compared with endometrioid adenocarcinoma, they more often metastasize early and more commonly in the upper abdomen including the omentum. Treatment programs of UCC and UPSC at different stages vary and range from no adjuvant therapy in stage Ia to a wide variety of chemotherapies and radiotherapies in more advanced stages. This study presents the outcome of 109 patients with UCC or UPSC treated according to essentially the same treatment program from May 1993 to December 2004. Most patients were treated with a simple hysterectomy with no further adjuvant treatment. In stage Ia, 2/46 patients died of their disease and amongst all the stages, 30/109 patients died of their disease. These survival outcomes are comparable to or better than those presented previously. PMID:20944161

  7. Superinfection exclusion and the long-term survival of honey bees in Varroa-infested colonies.

    PubMed

    Mordecai, Gideon J; Brettell, Laura E; Martin, Stephen J; Dixon, David; Jones, Ian M; Schroeder, Declan C

    2016-05-01

    Over the past 50 years, many millions of European honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies have died as the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has spread around the world. Subsequent studies have indicated that the mite's association with a group of RNA viral pathogens (Deformed Wing Virus, DWV) correlates with colony death. Here, we propose a phenomenon known as superinfection exclusion that provides an explanation of how certain A. mellifera populations have survived, despite Varroa infestation and high DWV loads. Next-generation sequencing has shown that a non-lethal DWV variant 'type B' has become established in these colonies and that the lethal 'type A' DWV variant fails to persist in the bee population. We propose that this novel stable host-pathogen relationship prevents the accumulation of lethal variants, suggesting that this interaction could be exploited for the development of an effective treatment that minimises colony losses in the future. PMID:26505829

  8. Clinical experience in pancreas transplantation in Lyon: long-term survival of duct injected pancreatic grafts.

    PubMed

    Melandri, M; Lefrancois, N; La Rocca, E; Martin, X; Sanseverino, R; Camozzi, L; Faure, J L; Secchi, A; Gelet, A; Bottani, G

    1988-01-01

    Ninety-seven pancreatic grafts in 92 insulin-dependent diabetic patients were performed during the last 11 years. Eighty-three of these grafts were carried out after neoprene duct injection, the other patients underwent pancreato-duodenal transplantation. In 80 cases, a double pancreas and kidney graft was performed. Five different immunosuppressive protocols were subsequently applied. Actuarial survival of patients and pancreata was 75.1% and 47%, after one year and 54.6% and 22.1%, respectively, 4 years after transplantation. Slightly better results were observed in double pancreas and kidney transplantation. The survival of both patients and pancreas improved when the most recent immunosuppressive protocols including cyclosporin A and only small doses of steroids were applied. The main causes of loss of the pancreatic graft were rejection, vascular thrombosis and death of the patient with functioning organ. Metabolic studies showed good insulin secretion with normal or impaired glucose tolerance as well as good short and half-term glycemic control. Whole pancreas grafts with enteric diversion yielded prompter and higher insulin secretion but the incidence of surgical complications was increased. In comparison to the data recorded at 6 months after pancreas transplantation, 5 patients of our series with still functioning organ showed an equally satisfactory and unchanged glycemic control after more than 4 years from surgery. In these patients, the previously high insulinemic values decreased to normal levels. However, 3 of these patients showed a decrease in post-prandial peaks as confirmed also by OGTT. However, mean blood glucose level was not altered. In our series the suppression of exocrine pancreatic secretion by neoprene duct injection did not appear to represent a relevant cause of decrease in endocrine function. The results obtained do not yet allow us to draw definite conclusions as to the efficacy of pancreas transplantation in the treatment of

  9. Long-Term Survival and Risk of Second Cancers After Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Tatsuya; Kato, Shingo; Sato, Shinichiro; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Nakano, Takashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Arai, Tatsuo

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk of second cancers after cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy for Asian populations. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 2,167 patients with cervical cancer undergoing radiotherapy between 1961 and 1986. Intracavitary brachytherapy was performed with high-dose rate source (82%) or low-dose rate source (12%). Relative risk (RR), absolute excess risk (AR), and cumulative risk of second cancer were calculated using the Japanese disease expectancy table. For 1,031 patients, the impact of smoking habit on the increasing risk of second cancer was also evaluated. Results: The total number of person-years of follow-up was 25,771, with 60 patients being lost to follow-up. Among the 2,167 patients, 1,063 (49%) survived more than 10 years. Second cancers were observed in 210 patients, representing a significant 1.2-fold risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.4) of developing second cancer compared with the general population, 1.6% excess risk per person per decade of follow-up, and elevating cumulative risk up to 23.8% (95% CI, 20.3-27.3) at 30 years after radiotherapy. The RR of second cancer was 1.6-fold for patients with the smoking habit and 1.4-fold for those without. Conclusions: Small but significant increased risk of second cancer was observed among Japanese women with cervical cancer mainly treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy. Considering the fact that about half of the patients survived more than 10 years, the benefit of radiotherapy outweighs the risk of developing second cancer.

  10. Influence of donor–recipient sex mismatch on long-term survival of pancreatic grafts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwei; Mei, Shengmin; Xiang, Jie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Qijun; Yan, Sheng; Zhou, Lin; Hu, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    To assess the role of sex mismatch on graft survival after pancreas transplantation. We evaluated 24,195 pancreas-transplant recipients reported in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients over a 25-year period. Pancreatic graft survival (PGS) was analyzed according to donor–recipient sex pairing using Kaplan–Meier estimations. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 14,187 male and 10,008 female recipients were included in final analyses. Mean follow-up was 8.3 ± 5.7 years. In multivariate analyses, neither recipient sex nor donor sex was associated with pancreatic graft failure (PGF), but donor–recipient sex mismatch (regardless of recipient sex) was an independent predictor of PGS (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04–1.14; p < 0.001). Compared with M → M sex-matched recipients in univariate analyses, M → F and F → M sex mismatches were associated with an increased risk of PGF. Adjustment for significant recipient and donor factors eliminated the association between F → M sex mismatch and PGF (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.93–1.10; p = 0.752), but not M → F (1.09; 1.02–1.17; 0.020). Stratified analyses suggested that the negative effect of donor–recipient sex mismatch could be neutralized in older patients. These findings suggest that donor–recipient sex pairing should be taken into consideration in organ-allocation strategies. PMID:27403718

  11. Influence of donor-recipient sex mismatch on long-term survival of pancreatic grafts.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwei; Mei, Shengmin; Xiang, Jie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Qijun; Yan, Sheng; Zhou, Lin; Hu, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    To assess the role of sex mismatch on graft survival after pancreas transplantation. We evaluated 24,195 pancreas-transplant recipients reported in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients over a 25-year period. Pancreatic graft survival (PGS) was analyzed according to donor-recipient sex pairing using Kaplan-Meier estimations. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 14,187 male and 10,008 female recipients were included in final analyses. Mean follow-up was 8.3 ± 5.7 years. In multivariate analyses, neither recipient sex nor donor sex was associated with pancreatic graft failure (PGF), but donor-recipient sex mismatch (regardless of recipient sex) was an independent predictor of PGS (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14; p < 0.001). Compared with M → M sex-matched recipients in univariate analyses, M → F and F → M sex mismatches were associated with an increased risk of PGF. Adjustment for significant recipient and donor factors eliminated the association between F → M sex mismatch and PGF (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.93-1.10; p = 0.752), but not M → F (1.09; 1.02-1.17; 0.020). Stratified analyses suggested that the negative effect of donor-recipient sex mismatch could be neutralized in older patients. These findings suggest that donor-recipient sex pairing should be taken into consideration in organ-allocation strategies. PMID:27403718

  12. Predictive Factors Affecting Long-Term Outcome of Unilateral Lateral Rectus Recession

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Mi-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few long-term outcome reports of unilateral lateral rectus (LR) recession for exotropia including a large number of subjects. Previous reports on unilateral LR recession commonly show extremely low rates of initial overcorrection and large exodrifts after surgery suggesting that the surgical dose may be increased. However, little is known of the long-term outcome of a large unilateral LR recession for exotropia. Objectives To determine long-term outcomes and predictive factors of recurrence after a large unilateral LR recession in patients with exotropia. Data Extraction Retrospective analysis was performed on 92 patients aged 3 to 17 years who underwent 10 mm unilateral LR recession for exotropia of ≤ 25 prism diopters (Δ) with prism and alternate cover testing and were followed up for more than 2 years after surgery. Final success rates within 10Δ of exophoria/tropia and 5Δ of esophoria/tropia at distance in the primary position, improvement in stereopsis and the predictive factors for recurrence were evaluated. Results At 24 months after surgery, 54% of patients had ocular alignment meeting the defined criteria of success, 45% had recurrence and 1% had overcorrection. After a mean follow-up of 39 months, 36% showed success, 63% showed recurrence and 1% resulted in overcorrection. The average time of recurrence was 23.4±14.7 months (range, 1–60 months) and the rate of recurrence per person-year was 23% after unilateral LR recession. Predictive factors of recurrence were a larger preoperative near angle of deviation (>16Δ) and larger initial postoperative exodeviation (>5Δ) at distance. Conclusions Long-term outcome of unilateral LR recession for exotropia showed low success rates with high recurrence, thus should be reserved for patients with a small preoperative near angle of exodeviation. PMID:26418819

  13. Using electrophysiology to demonstrate that cueing affects long-term memory storage over the short term.

    PubMed

    Maxcey, Ashleigh M; Fukuda, Keisuke; Song, Won S; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2015-10-01

    As researchers who study working memory, we often assume that participants keep a representation of an object in working memory when we present a cue that indicates that the object will be tested in a couple of seconds. This intuitively accounts for how well people can remember a cued object, relative to their memory for that same object presented without a cue. However, it is possible that this superior memory does not purely reflect storage of the cued object in working memory. We tested the hypothesis that cues presented during a stream of objects, followed by a short retention interval and immediate memory test, can change how information is handled by long-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by using a family of frontal event-related potentials believed to reflect long-term memory storage. We found that these frontal indices of long-term memory were sensitive to the task relevance of objects signaled by auditory cues, even when the objects repeated frequently, such that proactive interference was high. Our findings indicate the problematic nature of assuming process purity in the study of working memory, and demonstrate that frequent stimulus repetitions fail to isolate the role of working memory mechanisms. PMID:25604772

  14. Using electrophysiology to demonstrate that cuing affects long-term memory storage over the short term

    PubMed Central

    Maxcey, Ashleigh M.; Fukuda, Keisuke; Song, Won S.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    As researchers who study working memory, we often assume that participants keep a representation of an object in working memory when we present a cue that indicates that object will be tested in a couple of seconds. This intuitively accounts for how well people can remember a cued object relative to their memory for that same object presented without a cue. However, it is possible that this superior memory does not purely reflect storage of the cued object in working memory. We tested the hypothesis that cued presented during a stream of objects, followed by a short retention interval and immediate memory test, change how information is handled by long-term memory. We tested this hypothesis using a family of frontal event-related potentials (ERPs) believed to reflect long-term memory storage. We found that these frontal indices of long-term memory were sensitive to the task relevance of objects signaled by auditory cues, even when objects repeat frequently such that proactive interference was high. Our findings indicate the problematic nature of assuming process purity in the study of working memory, and demonstrate how frequent stimulus repetitions fail to isolate the role of working memory mechanisms. PMID:25604772

  15. Long-term survival in a patient with brain metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Guelho, Daniela; Ribeiro, Cristina; Melo, Miguel; Carrilho, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old woman who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral lymphadenectomy for a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), solid variant (T4bN1bMx), with V600E BRAF mutation. After ablative therapy, she presented undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg) but progressively increasing anti-Tg antibodies (TgAbs). During follow-up, nodal, lung and brain metastases were identified. She was submitted to surgical excision of lung lesions, radiosurgery of brain metastases and five radioiodine treatments. The latest brain MRI showed no lesions, pulmonary CT showed stable micronodules and there was progressive reduction in TgAbs. This is a peculiar case of a PTC with lung and brain metastatic lesions detected through TgAbs. Initial histological and molecular study suggested a more aggressive clinical behaviour, which was eventually confirmed. Although PTC brain metastases are extremely rare and present poor prognosis, our patient presented a good response to treatment and longer survival than usually reported for similar cases. PMID:26961557

  16. Perioperative treatment options in resectable pancreatic cancer - how to improve long-term survival

    PubMed Central

    Sinn, Marianne; Bahra, Marcus; Denecke, Timm; Travis, Sue; Pelzer, Uwe; Riess, Hanno

    2016-01-01

    Surgery remains the only chance of cure for pancreatic cancer, but only 15%-25% of patients present with resectable disease at the time of primary diagnosis. Important goals in clinical research must therefore be to allow early detection with suitable diagnostic procedures, to further broaden operation techniques and to determine the most effective perioperative treatment of either chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. More extensive operations involving extended pancreatectomy, portal vein resection and pancreatic resection in resectable pancreatic cancer with limited liver metastasis, performed in specialized centers seem to be the surgical procedures with a possible impact on survival. After many years of stagnation in pharmacological clinical research on advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) - since the approval of gemcitabine in 1997 - more effective cytotoxic substances (nab-paclitaxel) and combinations (FOLFIRINOX) are now available for perioperative treatment. Additionally, therapies with a broader mechanism of action are emerging (stroma depletion, immunotherapy, anti-inflammation), raising hopes for more effective adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment concepts, especially in the context of “borderline resectability”. Only multidisciplinary approaches including radiology, surgery, medical and radiation oncology as the backbones of the treatment of potentially resectable PDAC may be able to further improve the rate of cure in the future. PMID:26989460

  17. Ewing's sarcoma. Radiographic pattern of healing and bony complications in patients with long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Ehara, S.; Kattapuram, S.V.; Egglin, T.K. )

    1991-10-01

    The radiographic appearance of Ewing's sarcoma was studied retrospectively in 22 patients who survived 5 years or longer after diagnosis and treatment. Expected changes from treatment, including regression of the extraosseous soft tissue mass, periostitis, and reconstitution of the cortex, occurred in all patients. Local recurrence occurred in one patient 10 years after complete remission whereas secondary osteosarcoma occurred more than 5 years after complete remission in two other cases. Both recurrent and secondary tumors presented as new lytic foci at the site of the original primary lesion. Lytic changes from radiation (radiation osteitis) may develop more than 2 years after treatment and in this sample; such findings were widely distributed in the radiation port. The authors conclude that bone remodeling and postradiation changes occur slowly over 2 years after treatment, and that any localized lysis at the primary site is suspicious for recurrence or secondary neoplasm. Knowledge of the expected changes and patterns of local recurrence and secondary neoplasms helps one to detect any significant change in its early phase.

  18. Clarithromycin Leads to Long-Term Survival and Cost Benefit in Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia and Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Tsaganos, Thomas; Raftogiannis, Maria; Pratikaki, Maria; Christodoulou, Sofia; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Papadomichelakis, Evangelos; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Routsi, Christina; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2016-06-01

    Increasing numbers of admissions for sepsis impose a heavy burden on health care systems worldwide, while novel therapies have proven both expensive and ineffective. We explored the long-term mortality and hospitalization costs after adjunctive therapy with intravenous clarithromycin in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Two hundred patients with sepsis and VAP were enrolled in a published randomized clinical trial; 100 were allocated to blind treatment with a placebo and another 100 to clarithromycin at 1 g daily for three consecutive days. Long-term mortality was recorded. The hospitalization cost was calculated by direct quantitation of imaging tests, medical interventions, laboratory tests, nonantibiotic drugs and antibiotics, intravenous fluids, and parenteral and enteral nutrition. Quantities were priced by the respective prices defined by the Greek government in 2002. The primary endpoint was 90-day mortality; cumulative hospitalization cost was the secondary endpoint. All-cause mortality rates on day 90 were 60% in the placebo arm and 43% in the clarithromycin arm (P = 0.023); 141 patients were alive on day 28, and mortality rates between days 29 and 90 were 44.4% and 17.4%, respectively (P = 0.001). The mean cumulative costs on day 25 in the placebo group and in the clarithromycin group were €14,701.10 and €13,100.50 per patient staying alive, respectively (P = 0.048). Respective values on day 45 were €26,249.50 and €19,303.10 per patient staying alive (P = 0.011); this was associated with the savings from drugs other than antimicrobials. It is concluded that intravenous clarithromycin for three consecutive days as an adjunctive treatment in VAP and sepsis offers long-term survival benefit along with a considerable reduction in the hospitalization cost. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00297674.). PMID:27044546

  19. Early Significant Tumor Volume Reduction After Radiosurgery in Brain Metastases From Renal Cell Carcinoma Results in Long-Term Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Wook Ha; Kim, Dong Gyu; Han, Jung Ho; Paek, Sun Ha; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Chae-Yong; Kim, Yong Hwy; Kim, Jin Wook; Jung, Hee-Won

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate survival of patients with brain metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after radiosurgery. Patients and Methods: Between 1998 and 2010, 46 patients were treated with radiosurgery, and the total number of lesions was 99. The mean age was 58.9 years (range, 33-78 years). Twenty-six patients (56.5%) had a single brain metastasis. The mean tumor volume was 3.0 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.01-35.1 cm{sup 3}), and the mean marginal dose prescribed was 20.8 Gy (range, 12-25 Gy) at the 50% isodose line. A patient was classified into the good-response group when the sum of the volume of the brain metastases decreased to less than 75% of the original volume at a 1-month follow-up evaluation using MRI. Results: As of December 28, 2010, 39 patients (84.8%) had died, and 7 (15.2%) survived. The overall median survival time was 10.0 {+-} 0.4 months (95% confidence interval, 9.1-10.8). After treatment, local tumor control was achieved in 72 (84.7%) of the 85 tumors assessed using MRI after radiosurgery. The good-response group survived significantly longer than the poor-response group (median survival times of 18.0 and 9.0 months, respectively; p = 0.025). In a multivariate analysis, classification in the good-response group was the only independent prognostic factor for longer survival (p = 0.037; hazard ratio = 0.447; 95% confidence interval, 0.209-0.953). Conclusions: Radiosurgery seems to be an effective treatment modality for patients with brain metastases from RCC. The early significant tumor volume reduction observed after radiosurgery seems to result in long-term survival in RCC patients with brain metastases.

  20. Long-term survival correlates with immunological responses in renal cell carcinoma patients treated with mRNA-based immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rittig, Susanne M.; Haentschel, Maik; Weimer, Katrin J.; Heine, Annkristin; Müller, Martin R.; Brugger, Wolfram; Horger, Marius S.; Maksimovic, Olga; Stenzl, Arnulf; Hoerr, Ingmar; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Holderried, Tobias A.; Kanz, Lothar; Pascolo, Steve; Brossart, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an immunogenic tumor for which immunotherapeutic approaches could be associated with clinically relevant responses. It was recently shown, that induction of T-cell responses against multiple tumor-associated antigen (TAA) epitopes results in prolonged overall survival in RCC patients. In 2003–2005, we performed a phase I/II trial testing an mRNA-based vaccine formulation consisting of a mixture of in vitro transcribed RNA coding for six different TAAs (MUC1, CEA, Her2/neu, telomerase, survivin, MAGE-A1) in 30 metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients. In the first 14 patients, vaccinations were applied i.d. on days 0, 14, 28, and 42. In the consecutive 16 patients, an intensified protocol consisting of i.d. injections (daily on days 0–3, 7–10, 28, and 42) was used. After the respective induction periods, patients in both cohorts were vaccinated monthly until tumor progression. At survival update performed in July 2015, one of the 30 patients was still alive. One patient was lost to follow-up. Median survival of 24.5 mo (all patients) and 89 mo (favorable risk patients) exceeded predicted survival according to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk score. Impressively, long-term survivors displayed immunological responses to the applied antigens while vice versa no patient without detectable immune response had survived more than 33 mo. The current survival update shows a clear correlation between survival and immunological responses to TAAs encoded by the naked mRNA vaccine. This is one of the first vaccination studies and the only RNA trial that reports on safety and efficacy after a follow-up of more than 10 y.

  1. Long-term survival correlates with immunological responses in renal cell carcinoma patients treated with mRNA-based immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rittig, Susanne M; Haentschel, Maik; Weimer, Katrin J; Heine, Annkristin; Müller, Martin R; Brugger, Wolfram; Horger, Marius S; Maksimovic, Olga; Stenzl, Arnulf; Hoerr, Ingmar; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Holderried, Tobias A; Kanz, Lothar; Pascolo, Steve; Brossart, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an immunogenic tumor for which immunotherapeutic approaches could be associated with clinically relevant responses. It was recently shown, that induction of T-cell responses against multiple tumor-associated antigen (TAA) epitopes results in prolonged overall survival in RCC patients. In 2003-2005, we performed a phase I/II trial testing an mRNA-based vaccine formulation consisting of a mixture of in vitro transcribed RNA coding for six different TAAs (MUC1, CEA, Her2/neu, telomerase, survivin, MAGE-A1) in 30 metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients. In the first 14 patients, vaccinations were applied i.d. on days 0, 14, 28, and 42. In the consecutive 16 patients, an intensified protocol consisting of i.d. injections (daily on days 0-3, 7-10, 28, and 42) was used. After the respective induction periods, patients in both cohorts were vaccinated monthly until tumor progression. At survival update performed in July 2015, one of the 30 patients was still alive. One patient was lost to follow-up. Median survival of 24.5 mo (all patients) and 89 mo (favorable risk patients) exceeded predicted survival according to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk score. Impressively, long-term survivors displayed immunological responses to the applied antigens while vice versa no patient without detectable immune response had survived more than 33 mo. The current survival update shows a clear correlation between survival and immunological responses to TAAs encoded by the naked mRNA vaccine. This is one of the first vaccination studies and the only RNA trial that reports on safety and efficacy after a follow-up of more than 10 y. PMID:27467913

  2. Association between urinary sodium, creatinine, albumin, and long-term survival in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Traynor, Jamie P; Taylor, Alison H; Freel, E Marie; Fox, Jonathan G; Jardine, Alan G; Mark, Patrick B

    2014-07-01

    Dietary sodium intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular risk in the general population. In patients with chronic kidney disease, sodium intake has been associated with progressive renal disease, but not independently of proteinuria. We studied the relationship between urinary sodium (UNa) excretion and UNa to creatinine ratio and mortality or requirement for renal replacement therapy in chronic kidney disease. Adult patients attending a renal clinic who had ≥1 24-hour UNa measurement were identified. Twenty-four-hour UNa measures were collected and UNa to creatinine ratio calculated. Time to renal replacement therapy or death was recorded. Four hundred twenty-three patients were identified with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 48 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Ninety patients required renal replacement therapy and 102 patients died. Mean slope decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate was -2.8 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) per year. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. Patients who died or required renal replacement therapy had significantly higher UNa excretion and UNa to creatinine ratio, but the association with these parameters and poor outcome was not independent of renal function, age, and albuminuria. When stratified by albuminuria, UNa to creatinine ratio was a significant cumulative additional risk for mortality, even in patients with low-level albuminuria. There was no association between low UNa and risk, as observed in some studies. This study demonstrates an association between UNa excretion and mortality in chronic kidney disease, with a cumulative relationship between sodium excretion, albuminuria, and reduced survival. These data support reducing dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease, but additional study is required to determine the target sodium intake. PMID:24732890

  3. LONG-TERM SURVIVAL AND LATE DEATHS AFTER HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION FOR PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES AND INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Mary; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Orchard, Paul J.; Cowan, Morton J.; Davies, Stella M.; Fasth, Anders; Hassebroek, Anna; Ayas, Mouhab; Bonfim, Carmem; O’Brien, Tracey A.; Gross, Thomas G.; Horwitz, Mitchell; Horwitz, Edwin; Kapoor, Neena; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Majhail, Navneet; Ringden, Olle; Szabolcs, Paul; Veys, Paul; Baker, K. Scott

    2012-01-01

    It is uncertain whether late mortality rates after hematopoietic cell transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), non-SCID primary immunodeficiency diseases (non-SCID PIDD) and inborn error of metabolism (IEM) return to rates observed in the general population, matched for age, sex and nationality. We studied patients with SCID (n=201), non-SCID PIDD (n=405) and IEM (n=348) who survived for at least two years after transplantation with normal T-cell function (SCID) or >95% donor chimerism (non-SCID PIDD and IEM). Importantly, mortality rates were significantly higher than for the general population for several years after transplantation. This decreases towards normal rates in patients with SCID and non-SCID PIDD beyond 6 years after transplantation but not for IEM. Active chronic graft-versus-host disease at 2-years was associated with higher risks of late mortality for all diseases (HR 1.87, p=0.05). Additionally, for non-SCID PIDD, late mortality was higher in recipients of T-cell depleted grafts (HR 4.16, p=0.007) and for IEM, after unrelated donor (HR 2.72, p=0.03) and mismatched related donor (HR 3.76, p=0.01) transplants. The higher mortality rates in these long-term survivors for many years after transplantation confirm the need for long-term surveillance. PMID:22430083

  4. Neutron star natal kicks and the long-term survival of star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contenta, Filippo; Varri, Anna Lisa; Heggie, Douglas C.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of a star cluster in an external tidal field by using N-body simulations, with focus on the effects of the presence or absence of neutron star natal velocity kicks. We show that, even if neutron stars typically represent less than 2 per cent of the total bound mass of a star cluster, their primordial kinematic properties may affect the lifetime of the system by up to almost a factor of 4. We interpret this result in the light of two known modes of star cluster dissolution, dominated by either early stellar evolution mass-loss or two-body relaxation. The competition between these effects shapes the mass-loss profile of star clusters, which may either dissolve abruptly (`jumping'), in the pre-core-collapse phase, or gradually (`skiing'), after having reached core collapse.

  5. Promoting Long-Term Survival of Insulin-Producing Cell Grafts That Differentiate from Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells to Cure Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuzi; Dai, Hehua; Wan, Ni; Moore, Yolonda; Dai, Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    Background Insulin-producing cell clusters (IPCCs) have recently been generated in vitro from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) to circumvent islet shortage. However, it is unknown how long they can survive upon transplantation, whether they are eventually rejected by recipients, and how their long-term survival can be induced to permanently cure type 1 diabetes. IPCC graft survival is critical for their clinical application and this issue must be systematically addressed prior to their in-depth clinical trials. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we found that IPCC grafts that differentiated from murine ASCs in vitro, unlike their freshly isolated islet counterparts, did not survive long-term in syngeneic mice, suggesting that ASC-derived IPCCs have intrinsic survival disadvantage over freshly isolated islets. Indeed, β cells retrieved from IPCC syngrafts underwent faster apoptosis than their islet counterparts. However, blocking both Fas and TNF receptor death pathways inhibited their apoptosis and restored their long-term survival in syngeneic recipients. Furthermore, blocking CD40-CD154 costimulation and Fas/TNF signaling induced long-term IPCC allograft survival in overwhelming majority of recipients. Importantly, Fas-deficient IPCC allografts exhibited certain immune privilege and enjoyed long-term survival in diabetic NOD mice in the presence of CD28/CD40 joint blockade while their islet counterparts failed to do so. Conclusions/Significance Long-term survival of ASC-derived IPCC syngeneic grafts requires blocking Fas and TNF death pathways, whereas blocking both death pathways and CD28/CD40 costimulation is needed for long-term IPCC allograft survival in diabetic NOD mice. Our studies have important clinical implications for treating type 1 diabetes via ASC-derived IPCC transplantation. PMID:22216347

  6. Factors affecting short- and long-term outcomes of manipulation under anaesthesia in patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Owen, John M; Sayers, Adrian E; Woods, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to evaluate and determine the factors that affect short- and long-term outcome following manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) of patients with adhesive capsulitis. Methods Patients recruited from January 1999 to January 2010 were retrospectively analyzed and classified as having primary or secondary adhesive capsulitis. All patients were assessed for range of movement (ROM) and Oxford Shoulder Scores (OSS) before and immediately postoperatively, as well as for OSS more than 1 year post MUA. Results In total, 295 patients (315 shoulders) were sequentially recruited, and information was collected at baseline, as well as at a mean follow-up of 28 days and 3.6 years. A significant improvement in OSS and ROM was noted 1 month post MUA (p < 0.0001) with females benefiting more than males (p < 0.0025). Long-term follow-up revealed that the improvement in OSS was maintained (p < 0.0001). Secondary adhesive capsulitis significantly reduced the efficacy of MUA as assessed by ROM (p < 0.0001). Other factors (age, initial ROM and OSS, and length of symptoms prior to MUA) did not significantly affect the outcome over the short- or long-term. Conclusions The findings of the present study show that all patient groups had a significantly improved ROM and OSS in the short-term with long-term maintenance of improved OSS.

  7. A Long-Term Psychological Observation in an Adolescent Affected with Gardner Diamond Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bizzi, Fabiola; Sciarretta, Lucia; D’Alessandro, Matteo; Picco, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Gardner-Diamond syndrome (GDS) is an uncommon disease clinically characterized by a wide spectrum of psycho-emotive symptoms associated with painful ecchymoses/purpuric lesions and positivity of auto-erythrocyte sensitization skin test. Herein, a perspective clinical and psychological observation of an adolescent GDS is firstly reported focusing on her psychological features long-term monitored for a 1-year period. The administration of a standardized tools battery allowed us to define psychological features of the young patient over time and to monitored clinical course and response to treatment. PMID:27011410

  8. Biochemical Response to Androgen Deprivation Therapy Before External Beam Radiation Therapy Predicts Long-term Prostate Cancer Survival Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Gomez, Daniel R.; Polkinghorn, William R.; Pei, Xin; Kollmeier, Marisa

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the response to neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) defined by a decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to nadir values is associated with improved survival outcomes after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: One thousand forty-five patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with definitive EBRT in conjunction with neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT. A 6-month course of ADT was used (3 months during the neoadjuvant phase and 2 to 3 months concurrently with EBRT). The median EBRT prescription dose was 81 Gy using a conformal-based technique. The median follow-up time was 8.5 years. Results: The 10-year PSA relapse-free survival outcome among patients with pre-radiation therapy PSA nadirs of ≤0.3 ng/mL was 74.3%, compared with 57.7% for patients with higher PSA nadir values (P<.001). The 10-year distant metastases-free survival outcome among patients with pre-radiation therapy PSA nadirs of ≤0.3 ng/mL was 86.1%, compared with 78.6% for patients with higher PSA nadir values (P=.004). In a competing-risk analysis, prostate cancer-related deaths were also significantly reduced among patients with pre-radiation therapy PSA nadirs of <0.3 ng/mL compared with higher values (7.8% compared with 13.7%; P=.009). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the pre-EBRT PSA nadir value was a significant predictor of long-term biochemical tumor control, distant metastases-free survival, and cause-specific survival outcomes. Conclusions: Pre-radiation therapy nadir PSA values of ≤0.3 ng/mL after neoadjuvant ADT were associated with improved long-term biochemical tumor control, reduction in distant metastases, and prostate cancer-related death. Patients with higher nadir values may require alternative adjuvant therapies to improve outcomes.

  9. Anti-PD-1 Blockade and Stereotactic Radiation Produce Long-Term Survival in Mice With Intracranial Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Jing; See, Alfred P.; Phallen, Jillian; Jackson, Christopher M.; Belcaid, Zineb; Ruzevick, Jacob; Durham, Nicholas; Meyer, Christian; Harris, Timothy J.; Albesiano, Emilia; Pradilla, Gustavo; Ford, Eric; Wong, John; Hammers, Hans-Joerg; Mathios, Dimitris; Tyler, Betty; Brem, Henry; Tran, Phuoc T.; Pardoll, Drew; Drake, Charles G.; and others

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults, and radiation is one of the main treatment modalities. However, cure rates remain low despite best available therapies. Immunotherapy is a promising modality that could work synergistically with radiation, which has been shown to increase antigen presentation and promote a proinflammatory tumor microenvironment. Programmed-death-1 (PD-1) is a surface receptor expressed on activated and exhausted T cells, which mediate T cell inhibition upon binding with its ligand PD-L1, expressed on many tumor types including human GBMs. We tested the combination of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy with stereotactic radiosurgery in a mouse orthotopic GBM model. Methods and Materials: We performed intracranial implantation of mouse glioma cell line GL261 transfected with luciferase into C57BL/6 mice. Mice were stratified into 4 treatment groups: (1) control; (2) radiation only; (3) anti-PD-1 antibody only; and (4) radiation plus anti-PD-1 antibody. Overall survival was quantified. The mice were killed on day 21 after implantation to assess immunologic parameters in the brain/tumor, cervical lymph nodes, and spleen. Results: Improved survival was demonstrated with combination anti-PD-1 therapy plus radiation compared with either modality alone: median survival was 25 days in the control arm, 27 days in the anti-PD-1 antibody arm, 28 days in the radiation arm, and 53 days in the radiation plus anti-PD-1 therapy arm (P<.05 by log-rank Mantle-Cox). Long-term survival was seen only in the combined treatment arm, with a fraction (15%-40%) of animals alive at day 180+ after treatment. Immunologic data on day 21 after implantation showed increased tumor infiltration by cytotoxic T cells (CD8+/interferon-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α+) and decreased regulatory T cells (CD4+/FOXP3) in the combined treatment group compared with the single modality arms. Conclusions: The combination of PD-1 blockade and localized

  10. Long-term survival and patient satisfaction with inflatable penile prosthesis for the treatment of erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yoon Seob; Ko, Young Hwii; Song, Phil Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the long-term survival and patient satisfaction with an inflatable penile prosthesis as a treatment for refractory erectile dysfunction (ED). Materials and Methods Between July 1997 and September 2014, a total of 74 patients underwent implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis. The present mechanical status of the prosthesis was ascertained by telephone interview and review of medical records, and related clinical factors were analyzed by using Cox proportional hazard regression model. To investigate current status and satisfaction with the devices, novel questionnaires consisting of eight items were administered. Results The mean (±standard deviation) age and follow-up period were 57.0±12.2 years and 105.5±64.0 months, respectively. Sixteen patients (21.6%) experienced a mechanical failure and 4 patients (5.4%) experienced a nonmechanical failure at a median follow-up of 98.0 months. Mechanical and overall survival rates of the inflatable penile prosthesis at 5, 10, and 15 years were 93.3%, 76.5%, and 64.8% and 89.1%, 71.4%, and 60.5%, respectively, without a statistically significant correlation with host factors including age, cause of ED, and presence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Overall, 53 patients (71.6%) completed the questionnaires. The overall patient satisfaction rate was 86.8%, and 83.0% of the patients replied that they intended to repeat the same procedure. Among the 8 items asked, satisfaction with the rigidity of the device received the highest score (90.6%). In contrast, only 60.4% of subjects experienced orgasm. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that excellent long-term reliability and high patient satisfaction rates make the implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis a recommendable surgical treatment for refractory ED. PMID:26078844

  11. Long-term survival outcomes of reduced-intensity allogeneic or autologous transplantation in relapsed grade 3 follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Klyuchnikov, Evgeny; Bacher, Ulrike; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Carreras, Jeanette; Kröger, Nicolaus M.; Hari, Parameswaran N.; Ku, Grace H.; Ayala, Ernesto; Chen, Andy I.; Chen, Yi-Bin; Cohen, Jonathon B.; Freytes, César O.; Gale, Robert Peter; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Martino, Rodrigo; Mussetti, Alberto; Savani, Bipin N.; Schouten, Harry C.; Usmani, Saad Z.; Wiernik, Peter H.; Wirk, Baldeep; Smith, Sonali M.; Sureda, Anna; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Grade-3 follicular lymphoma (FL) has aggressive clinical behavior. To evaluate the optimal first transplantation approach in relapsed/refractory grade-3 FL patients, we compared the long-term outcomes after allogeneic (allo-) vs. autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) in the rituximab-era. A total of 197 patients undergoing first RIC allo-HCT or first auto-HCT during 2000-2012 were included. Rituximab-naïve patients were excluded. Allo-HCT recipients were younger; more heavily pretreated, and had a longer interval between diagnosis and HCT. The 5-year probabilities of non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for auto-HCT vs. allo-HCT groups were 4% vs. 27% (p<0.001); 61% vs. 20% (p<0.001); 36% vs. 51% (p=0.07) and 59% vs. 54% (p=0.7), respectively. On multivariate analysis auto-HCT was associated with reduced risk of NRM (RR=0.20; p=0.001). Within the first 11months post-HCT auto- and allo-HCT had similar risks of relapse/progression and PFS. Beyond 11months, auto-HCT was associated with higher risk of relapse/progression (RR=21.3; p=0.003) and inferior PFS (RR=3.2; p=0.005). In the first 24 months post-HCT, auto-HCT was associated with improved OS (RR=0.42; p=0.005), but in long-time survivors (beyond 24 months) it was associated with inferior OS (RR=3.6; p=0.04). RIC allo-HCT as the first transplant approach can provide improved PFS and OS, in long-term survivors. PMID:26437062

  12. Does Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Negatively Impact Long-Term Survival and Freedom from Reintervention?

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Shahzad G.; Husain, Mubassher; Popescu, Florentina L.; Chudasama, Dimple; Daley, Siobhan; Amrani, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Recently published evidence has raised concerns about worse late mortality and increasing need for reintervention after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. We undertook this study to assess the impact of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting on survival and freedom from reintervention at 10 years. From January 2002 to December 2002, 307 consecutive patients who had isolated multivessel off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting at our institution were compared to a control group of 397 patients that underwent multivessel on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting during the same period. In addition, univariate and risk-adjusted comparisons between the two groups were performed at 10 years. Kaplan-Meier survival was similar for the two cohorts. After adjusting for clinical covariates, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting did not emerge as a significant independent predictor of long-term mortality (Hazard Ratio 0.91; 95% Confidence Interval 0.70–1.12), readmission to hospital for cardiac cause (Hazard Ratio 0.96; 95% Confidence Interval 0.78–1.10), or the need for reintervention (Hazard Ratio 0.93; 95% Confidence Interval 0.87–1.05). Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting does not adversely impact survival or freedom from reintervention at a 10-year follow-up. PMID:24106710

  13. An ATP-driven potassium pump promotes long-term survival of Halobacterium salinarum within salt crystals.

    PubMed

    Kixmüller, Dorthe; Greie, Jörg-Christian

    2012-04-01

    Many extremely halophilic archaea belonging to the Halobacteriales have remarkable longevity. They are even known to persist for millions of years within fluid inclusions of salt crystals. However, the key systems responsible for this remarkable ability and the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been deciphered. This study revealed that the ATP-dependent K(+) uptake system KdpFABC of Halobacterium salinarum is essential for survival under desiccation and salt crystal inclusion and, thus, can be identified as at least one of these systems in this organism. The presence of the kdp genes promoted survival of H. salinarum entombed in halite, compared with cells in which these genes were deleted. Expression of the kdp operon was found to be induced already under desiccating conditions without halite entombment. The morphology of cells included in halite resembled that of cells grown under potassium limitation. Therefore, a steady potassium supply, even under unfavourable energetic conditions, plays a key role in long-term survival and desiccation tolerance. PMID:23757278

  14. Short-Term and Long-Term Survival and Virulence of Legionella pneumophila in the Defined Freshwater Medium Fraquil

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Nilmini; McBride, Peter; Faucher, Sébastien P.

    2015-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila (Lp) is the etiological agent responsible for Legionnaires’ disease, a potentially fatal pulmonary infection. Lp lives and multiplies inside protozoa in a variety of natural and man-made water systems prior to human infection. Fraquil, a defined freshwater medium, was used as a highly reproducible medium to study the behaviour of Lp in water. Adopting a reductionist approach, Fraquil was used to study the impact of temperature, pH and trace metal levels on the survival and subsequent intracellular multiplication of Lp in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a freshwater protozoan and a natural host of Legionella. We show that temperature has a significant impact on the short- and long-term survival of Lp, but that the bacterium retains intracellular multiplication potential for over six months in Fraquil. Moreover, incubation in Fraquil at pH 4.0 resulted in a rapid decline in colony forming units, but was not detrimental to intracellular multiplication. In contrast, variations in trace metal concentrations had no impact on either survival or intracellular multiplication in amoeba. Our data show that Lp is a resilient bacterium in the water environment, remaining infectious to host cells after six months under the nutrient-deprived conditions of Fraquil. PMID:26406895

  15. Cell-based neurotrophin treatment supports long-term auditory neuron survival in the deaf guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Lisa N; Zanin, Mark P; Shepherd, Robert K

    2015-01-28

    The cochlear implant provides auditory cues to profoundly deaf patients by electrically stimulating the primary auditory neurons (ANs) of the cochlea. However, ANs degenerate in deafness; the preservation of a robust AN target population, in combination with advances in cochlear implant technology, may provide improved hearing outcomes for cochlear implant patients. The exogenous delivery of neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 is well known to support AN survival in deafness, and cell-based therapies provide a potential clinically viable option for delivering neurotrophins into the deaf cochlea. This study utilized cells that were genetically modified to express BDNF and encapsulated in alginate microspheres, and investigated AN survival in the deaf guinea pig following (a) cell-based neurotrophin treatment in conjunction with chronic electrical stimulation from a cochlear implant, and (b) long-term cell-based neurotrophin delivery. In comparison to deafened controls, there was significantly greater AN survival following the cell-based neurotrophin treatment, and there were ongoing survival effects for at least six months. In addition, functional benefits were observed following cell-based neurotrophin treatment and chronic electrical stimulation, with a statistically significant decrease in electrically evoked auditory brainstem response thresholds observed during the experimental period. This study demonstrates that cell-based therapies, in conjunction with a cochlear implant, shows potential as a clinically transferable means of providing neurotrophin treatment to support AN survival in deafness. This technology also has the potential to deliver other therapeutic agents, and to be used in conjunction with other biomedical devices for the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:25481440

  16. Factors affecting electronic health record adoption in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Barbara; Carter, Michael; Owen, Donna; Lockhart, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) hold the potential to significantly improve the quality of care in long-term care (LTC) facilities, yet limited research has been done on how facilities decide to adopt these records. This study was conducted to identify factors that hinder and facilitate EHR adoption in LTC facilities. Study participants were LTC nurses, administrators, and corporate executives. Primary barriers identified were costs, the need for training, and the culture change required to embrace technology. Primary facilitators were training programs, well-defined implementation plans, government assistance with implementation costs, evidence that EHRs will improve care outcomes, and support from state regulatory agencies. These results offer a framework of action for policy makers, LTC Leaders, and researchers. PMID:18411891

  17. Dryland soil chemical properties and crop yields affected by long-term tillage and cropping sequence.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Allen, Brett L; Caesar-TonThat, Thecan; Lenssen, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effect of long-term management on soil nutrients and chemical properties is scanty. We examined the 30-year effect of tillage frequency and cropping sequence combination on dryland soil Olsen-P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, SO4-S, and Zn concentrations, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) at the 0-120 cm depth and annualized crop yield in the northern Great Plains, USA. Treatments were no-till continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (NTCW), spring till continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall and spring till continuous spring wheat (FSTCW), fall and spring till spring wheat-barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 1984-1999) followed by spring wheat-pea (Pisum sativum L., 2000-2013) (FSTW-B/P), and spring till spring wheat-fallow (STW-F, traditional system). At 0-7.5 cm, P, K, Zn, Na, and CEC were 23-60% were greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Ca were 6-31% lower in NTCW, STCW, and FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 7.5-15 cm, K was 23-52% greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Mg were 3-21% lower in NTCW, STCW, FSTCW, FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 60-120 cm, soil chemical properties varied with treatments. Annualized crop yield was 23-30% lower in STW-F than the other treatments. Continuous N fertilization probably reduced soil pH, Ca, and Mg, but greater crop residue returned to the soil increased P, K, Na, Zn, and CEC in NTCW and STCW compared to STW-F. Reduced tillage with continuous cropping may be adopted for maintaining long-term soil fertility and crop yields compared with the traditional system. PMID:26171303

  18. Long-Term Fluoride Release from Dental Resins Affects STRO-1+ Cell Behavior.

    PubMed

    Calarco, A; Di Salle, A; Tammaro, L; De Luca, I; Mucerino, S; Petillo, O; Riccitiello, F; Vittoria, V; Peluso, G

    2015-08-01

    Fluoride-releasing restorative dental materials can be beneficial to remineralize dentin and help prevent secondary caries. However, the effects of fluoride release from dental materials on the activity of dental pulp stem cells are not known. Here we investigate whether different fluoride release kinetics from dental resins supplemented with modified hydrotalcite (RK-F10) or fluoride-glass filler (RK-FG10) could influence the behavior of a human dental pulp stem cell subpopulation (STRO-1(+) cells) known for its ability to differentiate toward an odontoblast-like phenotype. The 2 resins, characterized by similar physicochemical properties and fluoride content, exhibited different long-term fluoride release kinetics. Our data demonstrate that long-term exposure of STRO-1(+) cells to a continuous release of a low amount of fluoride by RK-F10 increases their migratory response to transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), both important promoters of pulp stem cell recruitment. Moreover, the expression patterns of dentin sialoprotein (dspp), dentin matrix protein 1 (dmp1), osteocalcin (ocn), and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (mepe) indicate a complete odontoblast-like cell differentiation only when STRO-1(+) cells were cultured on RK-F10. On the contrary, RK-FG10, characterized by an initial fluoride release burst and reduced lifetime of the delivery, did not elicit any significant effect on both STRO-1(+) cell migration and differentiation. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of taking into account fluoride release kinetics in addition to fluoride concentration when designing new fluoride-restorative materials. PMID:25924857

  19. Excellent long term patient and renal allograft survival after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation: Experience of one center

    PubMed Central

    Melexopoulou, Christina; Marinaki, Smaragdi; Liapis, George; Skalioti, Chrysanthi; Gavalaki, Maria; Zavos, George; Boletis, John N

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the long-term results of ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation in a single center in Greece. METHODS: Thirty consecutive ABOi kidney transplantations were performed from June 2005 to December 2013. All patients received rituximab one month prior to transplantation. Immunoadsorption therapy was performed for the removal of anti-A/B IgG antibodies until the titer was ≤ 1:16. Additional apheresis sessions were performed post-operatively. Intravenous immunoglobulin and oral immunosuppression consisting of tacrolimus (TAC) in combination with either everolimus or mycophenolate acid was administered. We compared the long term results of our ABOi group to those of a matched group of 30 ABO compatible (ABOc) living kidney recipients with similar baseline characteristics. The ABOc recipients received an immunosuppressive regimen consisting of TAC and mycophenolate acid. All patients in both groups received induction therapy with Basiliximab or Daclizumab, whereas corticosteroids were instituted on the day of surgery. During the follow-up period, indication biopsies were performed and interpreted by an experienced nephropathologist. The parameters we analyzed included the following: Donor/recipient age, gender, blood type, human leukocyte antigen mismatches, panel reactive antibodies, primary cause of renal failure, mean time on dialysis, immunosuppressive regimen, patient survival, graft outcome, incidence of rejections, surgical and infectious complications. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 6 years (range 1 to 9 years). A mean of 5.0 ± 3.0 (range 0-14) pre-transplant immunoadsorptions were required in order to reach the target titer. Patient survival in ABOi group in comparison to ABOc group at 1, 3, 5 and 8 years did not differ significantly (100% vs 100%, 96% vs 100%, 92% vs 100% and 92% vs 100%, P = ns). Additionally, graft survival was similar in the two groups at the same time points (100% vs 100%, 96% vs 96%, 92% vs 96% and 81

  20. Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab treatment achieves long-term disease-free survival in IGHV-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Philip A.; Tam, Constantine S.; O’Brien, Susan M.; Wierda, William G.; Stingo, Francesco; Plunkett, William; Smith, Susan C.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Freireich, Emil J.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification of patients likely to achieve long-progression-free survival (PFS) after chemoimmunotherapy is essential given the availability of less toxic alternatives, such as ibrutinib. Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) achieved a high response rate, but continued relapses were seen in initial reports. We reviewed the original 300 patient phase 2 FCR study to identify long-term disease-free survivors. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was assessed posttreatment by a polymerase chain reaction-based ligase chain reaction assay (sensitivity 0.01%). At the median follow-up of 12.8 years, PFS was 30.9% (median PFS, 6.4 years). The 12.8-year PFS was 53.9% for patients with mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) gene (IGHV-M) and 8.7% for patients with unmutated IGHV (IGHV-UM). 50.7% of patients with IGHV-M achieved MRD-negativity posttreatment; of these, PFS was 79.8% at 12.8 years. A plateau was seen on the PFS curve in patients with IGHV-M, with no relapses beyond 10.4 years in 42 patients (total follow-up 105.4 patient-years). On multivariable analysis, IGHV-UM (hazard ratio, 3.37 [2.18-5.21]; P < .001) and del(17p) by conventional karyotyping (hazard ratio, 7.96 [1.02-61.92]; P = .048) were significantly associated with inferior PFS. Fifteen patients with IGHV-M had 4-color MRD flow cytometry (sensitivity 0.01%) performed in peripheral blood, at a median of 12.8 years posttreatment (range, 9.5-14.7). All were MRD-negative. The high rate of very long-term PFS in patients with IGHV-M after FCR argues for the continued use of chemoimmunotherapy in this patient subgroup outside clinical trials; alternative strategies may be preferred in patients with IGHV-UM, to limit long-term toxicity. PMID:26492934

  1. Long-term survival outcomes of reduced-intensity allogeneic or autologous transplantation in relapsed grade 3 follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Klyuchnikov, E; Bacher, U; Woo Ahn, K; Carreras, J; Kröger, N M; Hari, P N; Ku, G H; Ayala, E; Chen, A I; Chen, Y-B; Cohen, J B; Freytes, C O; Gale, R P; Kamble, R T; Kharfan-Dabaja, M A; Lazarus, H M; Martino, R; Mussetti, A; Savani, B N; Schouten, H C; Usmani, S Z; Wiernik, P H; Wirk, B; Smith, S M; Sureda, A; Hamadani, M

    2016-01-01

    Grade 3 follicular lymphoma (FL) has aggressive clinical behavior. To evaluate the optimal first transplantation approach in relapsed/refractory grade 3 FL patients, we compared the long-term outcomes after allogeneic (allo-) vs autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) in the rituximab era. A total of 197 patients undergoing first reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allo-HCT or first auto-HCT during 2000-2012 were included. Rituximab-naive patients were excluded. Allo-HCT recipients were younger, more heavily pretreated and had a longer interval between diagnosis and HCT. The 5-year probabilities of non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression, PFS and overall survival (OS) for auto-HCT vs allo-HCT groups were 4% vs 27% (P<0.001), 61% vs 20% (P<0.001), 36% vs 51% (P=0.07) and 59% vs 54% (P=0.7), respectively. On multivariate analysis, auto-HCT was associated with reduced risk of NRM (relative risk (RR)=0.20; P=0.001). Within the first 11 months post HCT, auto- and allo-HCT had similar risks of relapse/progression and PFS. Beyond 11 months, auto-HCT was associated with higher risk of relapse/progression (RR=21.3; P=0.003) and inferior PFS (RR=3.2; P=0.005). In the first 24 months post HCT, auto-HCT was associated with improved OS (RR=0.42; P=0.005), but in long-time survivors (beyond 24 months) it was associated with inferior OS (RR=3.6; P=0.04). RIC allo-HCT as the first transplant approach can provide improved PFS and OS, in long-term survivors. PMID:26437062

  2. G-CSF and Exenatide Might Be Associated with Increased Long-Term Survival of Allogeneic Pancreatic Islet Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Eduardo; Messinger, Shari; Mantero, Alejandro; Padilla-Téllez, Nathalia D.; Baidal, David A.; Alejandro, Rodolfo; Ricordi, Camillo; Inverardi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background Allogeneic human islet transplantation is an effective therapy for the treatment of patients with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). The low number of islet transplants performed worldwide and the different transplantation protocols used limit the identification of the most effective therapeutic options to improve the efficacy of this approach. Methods We present a retrospective analysis on the data collected from 44 patients with T1D who underwent islet transplantation at our institute between 2000 and 2007. Several variables were included: recipient demographics and immunological characteristics, donor and transplant characteristics, induction protocols, and additional medical treatment received. Immunosuppression was induced with anti-CD25 (Daclizumab), alone or in association with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) treatments (Etanercept or Infliximab), or with anti-CD52 (Alemtuzumab) in association with anti-TNF-α treatments (Etanercept or Infliximab). Subsets of patients were treated with Filgrastim for moderate/severe neutropenia and/or Exenatide for post prandial hyperglycemia. Results The analysis performed indicates a negative association between graft survival (c-peptide level ≥ 0.3 ng/ml) and islet infusion volume, with the caveat that, the progressive reduction of infusion volumes over the years has been paralleled by improved immunosuppressive protocols. A positive association is instead suggested between graft survival and administration of Exenatide and Filgrastim, alone or in combination. Conclusion This retrospective analysis may be of assistance to further improve long-term outcomes of protocols for transplant of islets and other organs. PMID:27285580

  3. The relationship of quantitative epidermal growth factor receptor expression in non-small cell lung cancer to long term survival.

    PubMed Central

    Veale, D.; Kerr, N.; Gibson, G. J.; Kelly, P. J.; Harris, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    Increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) has been reported in non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) when compared to normal lung. We have examined post-operative survival in 19 surgically treated patients with NSCLC who had full characterisation of EGFr on primary tumour membrane preparations from resection specimens. There were ten squamous, seven adeno and two large cell carcinomas. The median concentration of high affinity sites was 31 fmol per mg of protein (4-1532) and the median dissociation constant (Kd) of these high affinity sites was 2.3 x 10(-10) per mol (1.2-30 x 10(-10)). Seven patients survived over 5 years. Twelve patients died between 8.5 and 55 months from the time of surgery. When > 5 year survivors were compared to non-survivors there was no difference as regards tumour size or stage, or as regards age or sex. The survivors had a median concentration of high affinity EGFr sites of 16.1 fmol mg-1 protein compared to a median concentration of 68.6 fmol mg-1 protein in the non-survivors (P = 0.01 Wilcoxon test). No long term survivor had > 35 fmol mg-1 protein of receptor. Thus EGFr quantitation may give independent prognostic information in NSCLC and help to select patients for adjuvant therapy after surgery. These results need confirmation in a larger prospective study. PMID:8391303

  4. Long-term survival of dopamine neurons derived from parthenogenetic primate embryonic stem cells (cyno-1) after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pernaute, Rosario; Studer, Lorenz; Ferrari, Daniela; Perrier, Anselme; Lee, Hyojin; Viñuela, Angel; Isacson, Ole

    2005-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurons can be derived from human and primate embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro. An ES cell-based replacement therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease requires that in vitro-generated neurons maintain their phenotype in vivo. Other critical issues relate to their proliferative capacity and risk of tumor formation, and the capability of migration and integration in the adult mammalian brain. Neural induction was achieved by coculture of primate parthenogenetic ES cells (Cyno-1) with stromal cells, followed by sequential exposure to midbrain patterning and differentiation factors to favor DA phenotypic specification. Differentiated ES cells were treated with mitomycin C and transplanted into adult immunosuppressed rodents and into a primate (allograft) with out immunosuppression. A small percentage of DA neurons survived in both rodent and primate hosts for the entire term of the study (4 and 7 months, respectively). Other neuronal and glial populations derived from Cyno-1 ES cells showed, in vivo, phenotypic characteristics and growth and migration patterns similar to fetal primate transplants, and a majority of cells (>80%) expressed the forebrain transcription factor brain factor 1. No teratoma formation was observed. In this study, we demonstrate long-term survival of DA neurons obtained in vitro from primate ES cells. Optimization of differentiation, cell selection, and cell transfer is required for functional studies of ES-derived DA neurons for future therapeutic applications. PMID:15941857

  5. Long-term affects of experimental flows on riverine biota below a reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Chris; Ortlepp, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    Large dams have altered the flow regime of most rivers on the globe with consequent effects on riverine biota. Experimental flows (multiple floods per year) have been used on the regulated Spöl River below Livigno Reservoir for over 9 years to enhance the ecological condition of the river. The flow program has improved the brown trout fishery in the river as indicated by an increased number of redds. Floods have reset periphyton assemblages from a moss-dominated streambed to one dominated by diatoms and patches of filamentous algae. Zoobenthic assemblages have shown dramatic shifts in benthic structure in line with predictions from altered state models. Ecosystem regime shifts have been characterized with increases in parameter variances followed by periods of stable states. The system appears to be entering a second zoobenthic regime shift after year 8, perhaps in response to biotic interactions due to changes in the fishery. The response patterns clearly show that a long-term perspective must be in place when assessing biotic responses to changes in physical habitat properties resulting from flow experiments.

  6. Estimation of the Long-Term Care Needs of Stroke Patients by Integrating Functional Disability and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Mei-Chuan; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Hwang, Jing-Shiang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to estimate the dynamic changes of different physical functional disabilities and life-time care needs for patients with stroke. Data Sources and Study Design We examined a hospital-based cohort including 16,043 patients who had their first stroke during 1995–2010. The Barthel Index (BI) was used to measure disability levels in 1,162 consecutive patients, with a total of 1,294 measurements at the stroke clinics and the rehabilitation wards, and a cross-sectional design. Extraction Methods The survival function was extrapolated to lifetime by a semi-parametric method and multiplied with proportions of different disabilities over time to obtain the long-term care needs for different stroke subtypes. Principal Findings On average, stroke patients would suffer at least 0.86 years with mild disability, 1.24 years with moderate disability and 1.39 years with severe disability, as measured by the BI. Among these, patients with a cardio-embolic infarct or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) suffered more than 2 years of severe disability. Assistance in bathing was the most common need for care in stroke patients. Conclusions Among different subtypes of stroke, cardio-embolic infarct and ICH lead to the longest durations of severe physical functional disability. The method presented in this work may also be applied to other chronic diseases and different functional disabilities. PMID:24124500

  7. Nitrogen Addition as a Result of Long-Term Root Removal Affects Soil Organic Matter Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, S. E.; Lajtha, K.

    2004-12-01

    A long-term field litter manipulation site was established in a mature coniferous forest stand at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, OR, USA in 1997 in order to address how detrital inputs influence soil organic matter formation and accumulation. Soils at this site are Andisols and are characterized by high carbon (C) and low nitrogen (N) contents, due largely to the legacy of woody debris and extremely low atmospheric N deposition. Detrital treatments include trenching to remove roots, doubling wood and needle litter, and removing aboveground litter. In order to determine whether five years of detrital manipulation had altered organic matter quantity and lability at this site, soil from the top 0-5 cm of the A horizon was density fractionated to separate the labile light fraction (LF) from the more recalcitrant mineral soil in the heavy fraction (HF). Both density fractions and whole soils were incubated for one year in chambers designed such that repeated measurements of soil respiration and leachate chemistry could be made. Trenching resulted in the removal of labile root inputs from root exudates and turnover of fine roots and active mycorrhizal communities as well as an increase of available N by removing plant uptake. Since 1999, soil solution chemistry from tension lysimeters has shown greater total N and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) flux and less dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux to stream flow in the trenched plots relative to the other detrital treatments. C/N ratio and C content of both light and heavy fractions from the trenched plots were greater than other detrital treatments. In the lab incubation, over the course of a year C mineralization from these soils was suppressed. Cumulative DOC losses and CO2 efflux both were significantly less in soils from trenched plots than in other detrital treatments including controls. After day 150 of the incubation, leachates from the HF of plots with trenched treatments had a DOC/DON ratio significantly

  8. Long-Term Tillage Affects on Soil Aggregation and Carbon Sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous cultivation affects soil structure due to the destruction of soil aggregates and the lost of soil organic carbon (SOC). Different management practices, such as different tillage applications, affect the formation and the stabilization of soil aggregates through management effects on SOC l...

  9. Long-term Survival (>13 Years) in a Child With Recurrent Diffuse Pontine Gliosarcoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Burzynski, Stanislaw R.; Janicki, Tomasz J.; Marszalek, Ania

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric gliosarcoma (GS) is a rare variant of glioblastoma multiforme. The authors describe the case of an unusual pontine location of GS in a 9-year-old boy who was initially diagnosed with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) that was successfully controlled for 4 years. Subsequently, his brain tumor transformed into a GS. Prior treatment of his LGA included subtotal tumor resection 3 times, standard radiation therapy, and Gamma Knife procedure twice. His LGA was also treated with a standard chemotherapy regimen of carboplatin and vincristine, and his GS with subtotal resection, high-dose cyclophosphamide, and thiotepa with stem cell rescue and temozolomide. Unfortunately, he developed disseminated disease with multiple lesions and leptomeningeal involvement including a tumor occupying 80% of the pons. Upon presentation at our clinic, he had rapidly progressing disease. He received treatment with antineoplastons (ANP) A10 and AS2-1 for 6 years and 10 months under special exception to our phase II protocol BT-22. During his treatment with ANP his tumor stabilized, then decreased, and, ultimately, did not show any metabolic activity. The patient’s response was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography scans. His pathology diagnosis was confirmed by external neuropathologists, and his response to the treatment was determined by central radiology review. He experienced the following treatment-related, reversible toxicities with ANP: fatigue, xerostomia and urinary frequency (grade 1), diarrhea, incontinence and urine color change (grade 2), and grade 4 hypernatremia. His condition continued to improve after treatment with ANP and, currently, he complains only of residual neurological deficit from his previous surgery. He achieved a complete response, and his overall and progression-free survival is in excess of 13 years. This report indicates that it is possible to obtain long-term survival of a child with a highly aggressive recurrent GS

  10. Proteinuria during Follow-Up Period and Long-Term Renal Survival of Childhood IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kamei, Koichi; Harada, Ryoko; Hamada, Riku; Sakai, Tomoyuki; Hamasaki, Yuko; Hataya, Hiroshi; Ito, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Proteinuria is the most important risk factor for IgA nephropathy progression. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term outcome and risk factors for poor prognosis in childhood IgA nephropathy. Methods Patients who were diagnosed with IgA nephropathy between 1972 and 1992 at the Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children’s Hospital were included. We analyzed risk factors for progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) using Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate analyses of Cox proportional hazard model. Results One hundred patients were included and the median observation period was 11.8 years. Twelve and 17 patients progressed to ESKD and CRI, respectively. The survival probabilities were 90.0% at 10 years and 79.8% at 20 years for ESKD, and 86.1% at 10 years and 72.3% at 20 years for CRI. Notably, patients with heavy proteinuria with hypoalbuminemia during follow-up period showed extremely poor prognosis. In this group, the survival rate at 10 years from ESKD and CRI was 40.6% and 20.8%, respectively. By multivariate analysis, proteinuria at diagnosis and proteinuria during follow-up period were risk factors for ESKD, whereas glomeruli showing mesangial proliferation ≥50% and proteinuria during follow-up period were risk factors for CRI. Patients without heavy proteinuria during follow-up period did not develop CRI and 63% of patients with mild proteinuria during follow-up period showed no proteinuria at the last observation. Conclusions The degree of proteinuria during follow-up period is the strongest risk factor for ESKD and CRI. PMID:26978656

  11. Survival outcome of radioiodine therapy in post thyroidectomy thyroid carcinoma patients: Outcome of long term follow up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, F.; Nahar, N.; Sultana, S.; Nasreen, F.; Jabin, Z.; Alam, A. S. M. M.

    2016-03-01

    The overall prognosis of patients with thyroid carcinoma is excellent whenever managed following best practice guidelines. Objective: To calculate sex and age group affected by thyroid cancer; to compare between single or multiple dose of radio ablation needed after thyroidectomy and to determine the percentage of patients become disease free during their follow up. Methods: This was a retrospective study done in NINMAS, Bangladesh on 687 patients from 1984 to 2004. In all cases total or near total thyroidectomy was done before commencing radioiodine therapy. Patients TG level, neck ultrasonography, thyroid scan, whole body I131 scans, neck examination were done every six monthly/yearly. Results: Among 687 patients, female were more sufferers (68.1%) and female to male ratio was 2:1. Age group 19-40 years was mostly affected (57.8%). Most common type seen was papillary carcinoma (81.8%). After ablation 100 patients did not follow-up. Total 237 patients discontinued within 4 years. Remaining 450 patients undergone regular follow-up for 5 years and more, 394 were disease free (87.6%). Total recurrence of metastasis was 23 and 12 patients expired at different times. Conclusions: Long-term regular follow-up is necessary after radioiodine ablation to become free of disease.

  12. Early Experiences Can Alter Gene Expression and Affect Long-Term Development. Working Paper #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010

    2010-01-01

    New scientific research shows that environmental influences can actually affect whether and how genes are expressed. Thus, the old ideas that genes are "set in stone" or that they alone determine development have been disproven. In fact, scientists have discovered that early experiences can determine how genes are turned on and off and even…

  13. Soil Aggregation and Carbon Sequestration as affected by Long-Term Tillage Practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agricultural systems, soil structure is an important property that mediates many soil physical and biological processes and controls soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Cultivation affects soil structure due to the destruction of soil aggregates and the lost of SOC. Different management practices...

  14. Long-term perspectives for 46,XY patients affected by complete androgen insensitivity syndrome or congenital micropenis.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Amy B; Migeon, Claude J

    2002-08-01

    Controversy concerning optimal treatment for individuals affected by syndromes of abnormal sex differentiation can best be resolved with knowledge about long-term medical, surgical, and psychosexual outcomes of patients. Follow-up information has recently been gathered on older cohorts of the following patient groups: (1) those affected by complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) raised female and (2) those affected by congenital micropenis raised male or female. As a group, women with CAIS were satisfied with their female gender and sexual function. However, a need for better patient education was identified for this specific population. Most patients with congenital micropenis, whether raised male or female, were satisfied with their gender. Regardless of sex of rearing, dissatisfaction with the appearance and function of the genitalia as judged by both physicians and subjects was evident. For patients with congenital micropenis, male sex of rearing was concluded to be optimal because genital reconstructive surgery is not required with this choice. PMID:12428209

  15. Inactivation of Drosophila Huntingtin affects long-term adult functioning and the pathogenesis of a Huntington’s disease model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Feany, Mel B.; Saraswati, Sudipta; Littleton, J. Troy; Perrimon, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY A polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene causes neurodegeneration in Huntington’s disease (HD), but the in vivo function of the native protein (Htt) is largely unknown. Numerous biochemical and in vitro studies have suggested a role for Htt in neuronal development, synaptic function and axonal trafficking. To test these models, we generated a null mutant in the putative Drosophila HTT homolog (htt, hereafter referred to asdhtt) and, surprisingly, found that dhtt mutant animals are viable with no obvious developmental defects. Instead, dhtt is required for maintaining the mobility and long-term survival of adult animals, and for modulating axonal terminal complexity in the adult brain. Furthermore, removing endogenous dhtt significantly accelerates the neurodegenerative phenotype associated with a Drosophila model of polyglutamine Htt toxicity (HD-Q93), providing in vivo evidence that disrupting the normal function of Htt might contribute to HD pathogenesis. PMID:19380309

  16. Long-Term Survival of Human Neural Stem Cells in the Ischemic Rat Brain upon Transient Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Rota Nodari, Laura; Ferrari, Daniela; Giani, Fabrizio; Bossi, Mario; Rodriguez-Menendez, Virginia; Tredici, Giovanni; Delia, Domenico; Vescovi, Angelo Luigi; De Filippis, Lidia

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the physiology of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) in the context of cell therapy for neurodegenerative disorders is of paramount importance, yet large-scale studies are hampered by the slow-expansion rate of these cells. To overcome this issue, we previously established immortal, non-transformed, telencephalic-diencephalic hNSCs (IhNSCs) from the fetal brain. Here, we investigated the fate of these IhNSC's immediate progeny (i.e. neural progenitors; IhNSC-Ps) upon unilateral implantation into the corpus callosum or the hippocampal fissure of adult rat brain, 3 days after global ischemic injury. One month after grafting, approximately one fifth of the IhNSC-Ps had survived and migrated through the corpus callosum, into the cortex or throughout the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. By the fourth month, they had reached the ipsilateral subventricular zone, CA1-3 hippocampal layers and the controlateral hemisphere. Notably, these results could be accomplished using transient immunosuppression, i.e administering cyclosporine for 15 days following the ischemic event. Furthermore, a concomitant reduction of reactive microglia (Iba1+ cells) and of glial, GFAP+ cells was also observed in the ipsilateral hemisphere as compared to the controlateral one. IhNSC-Ps were not tumorigenic and, upon in vivo engraftment, underwent differentiation into GFAP+ astrocytes, and β-tubulinIII+ or MAP2+ neurons, which displayed GABAergic and GLUTAmatergic markers. Electron microscopy analysis pointed to the formation of mature synaptic contacts between host and donor-derived neurons, showing the full maturation of the IhNSC-P-derived neurons and their likely functional integration into the host tissue. Thus, IhNSC-Ps possess long-term survival and engraftment capacity upon transplantation into the globally injured ischemic brain, into which they can integrate and mature into neurons, even under mild, transient immunosuppressive conditions. Most notably, transplanted Ih

  17. Long-term contamination in a recovered area affected by a mining spill.

    PubMed

    Martín Peinado, F J; Romero-Freire, A; García Fernández, I; Sierra Aragón, M; Ortiz-Bernad, I; Simón Torres, M

    2015-05-01

    Soil pollution from the spill of Aznalcóllar mine (S Spain) was monitored by analysing polluted soils in 1998, 1999, and 2004. Following the methodology used in previous studies, in 2013 we conducted a new sampling and analysis of the soils affected by the spill and the data were compared with those of 2004. The results confirm that the pH tended to rise and concentration of pollutants tended to diminish over time. In 2013, the total concentration of pollutants was within the normal range for uncontaminated soils and close to the background concentration of the soils prior to the spill; while the soluble concentration of pollutants was clearly below the toxic level. These results indicate that remediation measures implemented have been effective. However, the removal of tailings (first remediation measure applied) was deficient and in many places the tailings were mixed with the soil. The high concentration of sulphides and metal(loid)s in the tailings gave rise to spots with very acidic and highly polluted soils devoid of vegetation. In 2013, fifteen years after the spill, these spots of bare soils remain a major source of pollution from which pollutants are scattered through the solid and liquid phases of runoff water, requiring action to immobilize pollutants and encourage the restoration of vegetation on these soils. In this type of pollution in a Mediterranean environment, the complete removal of tailings is more important than the speed at which they are removed. PMID:25666282

  18. Long-Term Exposure to High Altitude Affects Response Inhibition in the Conflict-monitoring Stage

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hailin; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jianhui; Luo, Ping; Han, Buxin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of high-altitude exposure on response inhibition, event-related potential (ERP) components N2 and P3 were measured in Go/NoGo task. The participants included an ‘immigrant’ high-altitude group (who had lived at high altitude for three years but born at low altitude) and a low-altitude group (living in low altitude only). Although the behavioural data showed no significant differences between the two groups, a delayed latency of NoGo-N2 was found in the high-altitude group compared to the low-altitude group. Moreover, larger N2 and smaller P3 amplitudes were found in the high-altitude group compared to the low-altitude group, for both the Go and NoGo conditions. These findings suggest that high-altitude exposure affects response inhibition with regard to processing speed during the conflict monitoring stage. In addition, high altitude generally increases the neural activity in the matching step of information processing and attentional resources. These results may provide some insights into the neurocognitive basis of the effects on high-altitude exposure on response inhibition. PMID:26324166

  19. Thermophilic treatment of acidified and partially acidified wastewater using an anaerobic submerged MBR: Factors affecting long-term operational flux.

    PubMed

    Jeison, D; van Lier, J B

    2007-09-01

    The long-term operation of two thermophilic anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactors (AnSMBRs) was studied using acidified and partially acidified synthetic wastewaters. In both reactors, cake formation was identified as the key factor governing critical flux. Even though cake formation was observed to be mostly reversible, particle deposition proceeds fast once the critical flux is exceeded. Very little irreversible fouling was observed during long-term operation, irrespective of the substrate. Critical flux values at the end of the reactors operation were 7 and 3L/m(2)h for the AnSMBRs fed with acidified and partially acidified wastewaters, respectively, at a gas superficial velocity of 70m/h. Small particle size was identified as the responsible parameter for the low observed critical flux values. The degree of wastewater acidification significantly affected the physical properties of the sludge, determining the attainable flux. Based on the fluxes observed in this research, the membrane costs would be in the range of 0.5euro/m(3) of treated wastewater. Gas sparging was ineffective in increasing the critical flux values. However, preliminary tests showed that cross-flow operation may be a feasible alternative to reduce particle deposition. PMID:17644148

  20. Long-term survival of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak strain on fenugreek seeds.

    PubMed

    Knödler, Michael; Berger, Michael; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    A major outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 occurred in Germany in 2011. The epidemiological investigation revealed that a contaminated batch of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum) was the most probable source of the pathogen. It was suggested that the most probable point of contamination was prior to leaving the importer, meaning that the seed contamination with STEC O104:H4 should have happened more than one year before the seeds were used for sprout production. Here, we investigated the capacity of STEC O104:H4 and closely related pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strains for long-term survival on dry fenugreek seeds. We did not observe a superior survival capacity of STEC O104:H4 on dry seeds. For none of the strains tested cultivatable cells were found without enrichment on contaminated seeds after more than 24 weeks of storage. Our findings suggest that contamination previous to the distribution from the importer may be less likely than previously assumed. We show that seeds contaminated with E. coli in extremely high numbers can be completely sterilized by a short treatment with bleach. This simple and cheap procedure does not affect the germination capacity of the seeds and could significantly improve safety in sprout production. PMID:27375259

  1. Long-Term Survival of Dental Implants Placed in the Grafted Maxillary Sinus: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Treatment Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Duttenhoefer, Fabian; Souren, Cyriel; Menne, Dieter; Emmerich, Dominik; Schön, Ralf; Sauerbier, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Background A prevalent modality to increase the amount of available bone prior to implantation is grafting of the maxillary sinus. Multiple factors such as the surgical technique, moment of implant placement as well as grafting materials and membranes are known to affect implant survival. However, the role of different factor combinations and associated reciprocal effects remain unclear. Conventional statistical methods do not consider inconsistency of study designs and do not take covariables into account. Hence, a systematic research and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of various treatment modalities on implant survival in the grafted maxillary sinus. Materials and Methods A meta-analysis was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Articles published from 1980 through January 2013 were electronically and manually searched in MEDLINE (Ovid), the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, the Database of Abstracts of Effects, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Clinical reports on single intervention sinus augmentation with root-form implants, a minimum of 10 patients and 6 months of loading were eligible for inclusion if implant survival was stated or calculable. Results were calculated by non-parametric univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis and Bayesian multivariate interval-censored Cox regression. Results A total of 122 publications on 16268 endosseous implants placed in grafted maxillary sinus were included. The treatment parameters surgical approach, grafting material and implant type showed no selective preference. However, application of membranes showed a significantly reduced hazard-ratio, independent of other co-factors. Conclusions The use of membranes is the most significant factor to achieve long-term implant survival in sinus augmentation procedures. More data exceeding 3 years follow-up are needed to address prospective confounding and improve clinical evidence. PMID:24058679

  2. A metabolic strategy to enhance long-term survival by Phx1 through stationary phase-specific pyruvate decarboxylases in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lopez-Maury, Luis; Bähler, Jürg; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2014-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the stationary phase-specific transcription factor Phx1 contributes to long-term survival, stress tolerance, and meiosis. We identified Phx1-dependent genes through transcriptome analysis, and further analyzed those related with carbohydrate and thiamine metabolism, whose expression decreased in Δphx1. Consistent with mRNA changes, the level of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and TPP-utilizing pyruvate decarboxylase activity that converts pyruvate to acetaldehyde were also reduced in the mutant. Therefore, Phx1 appears to shift metabolic flux by diverting pyruvate from the TCA cycle and respiration to ethanol fermentation. Among the four predicted genes for pyruvate decarboxylase, only the Phx1-dependent genes (pdc201+ and pdc202+) contributed to long-term survival as judged by mutation and overexpression studies. These findings indicate that the Phx1-mediated long-term survival is achieved primarily through increasing the synthesis and activity of pyruvate decarboxylase. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that Phx1 curtailed respiration when cells entered stationary phase. Introduction of Δphx1 mutation compromised the long-lived phenotypes of Δpka1 and Δsck2 mutants that are devoid of pro-aging kinases of nutrient-signalling pathways, and of the Δpyp1 mutant with constitutively activated stress-responsive kinase Sty1. Therefore, achievement of long-term viability through both nutrient limitation and anti-stress response appears to be dependent on Phx1. PMID:25102102

  3. A metabolic strategy to enhance long-term survival by Phx1 through stationary phase-specific pyruvate decarboxylases in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lopez-Maury, Luis; Bähler, Jürg; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2014-07-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the stationary phase-specific transcription factor Phx1 contributes to long-term survival, stress tolerance, and meiosis. We identified Phx1-dependent genes through transcriptome analysis, and further analyzed those related with carbohydrate and thiamine metabolism, whose expression decreased in ∆phx1. Consistent with mRNA changes, the level of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and TPP-utilizing pyruvate decarboxylase activity that converts pyruvate to acetaldehyde were also reduced in the mutant. Therefore, Phx1 appears to shift metabolic flux by diverting pyruvate from the TCA cycle and respiration to ethanol fermentation. Among the four predicted genes for pyruvate decarboxylase, only the Phx1-dependent genes (pdc201+ and pdc202+) contributed to long-term survival as judged by mutation and overexpression studies. These findings indicate that the Phx1-mediated long-term survival is achieved primarily through increasing the synthesis and activity of pyruvate decarboxylase. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that Phx1 curtailed respiration when cells entered stationary phase. Introduction of Δphx1 mutation compromised the long-lived phenotypes of Δpka1 and Δsck2 mutants that are devoid of pro-aging kinases of nutrient-signalling pathways, and of the Δpyp1 mutant with constitutively activated stress-responsive kinase Sty1. Therefore, achievement of long-term viability through both nutrient limitation and anti-stress response appears to be dependent on Phx1. PMID:25102102

  4. Rho-Signaling-Directed YAP/TAZ Activity Underlies the Long-Term Survival and Expansion of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ohgushi, Masatoshi; Minaguchi, Maki; Sasai, Yoshiki

    2015-10-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can survive and proliferate for an extended period of time in culture, but unlike that of tumor-derived cells, this form of cellular immortality does not depend on genomic aberrations. In this study, we sought to elucidate the molecular basis of this long-term growth property of hESCs. We found that the survival of hESCs depends on the small GTPase Rho and its activator AKAP-Lbc. We show that AKAP-Lbc/Rho signaling sustains the nuclear function of the transcriptional cofactors YAP and TAZ by modulating actin microfilament organization. By inducing reprogramming and differentiation, we found that dependency on this Rho signaling pathway is associated with the pluripotent state. Thus, our findings show that the capacity of hESCs to undergo long-term expansion in vitro is intrinsically coupled to their cellular identity through interconnected molecular circuits that link cell survival to pluripotency. PMID:26321201

  5. An exploration of factors affecting the long term psychological impact and deterioration of mental health in flooded households.

    PubMed

    Lamond, Jessica Elizabeth; Joseph, Rotimi D; Proverbs, David G

    2015-07-01

    The long term psychological effect of the distress and trauma caused by the memory of damage and losses associated with flooding of communities remains an under researched impact of flooding. This is particularly important for communities that are likely to be repeatedly flooded where levels of mental health disorder will damage long term resilience to future flooding. There are a variety of factors that affect the prevalence of mental health disorders in the aftermath of flooding including pre-existing mental health, socio-economic factors and flood severity. However previous research has tended to focus on the short term impacts immediately following the flood event and much less focus has been given to the longer terms effects of flooding. Understanding of factors affecting the longer term mental health outcomes for flooded households is critical in order to support communities in improving social resilience. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics associated with psychological distress and mental health deterioration over the longer term. The research examined responses from a postal survey of households flooded during the 2007 flood event across England. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and binomial logistic regression were applied to data representing household characteristics, flood event characteristics and post-flood stressors and coping strategies. These factors were related to reported measures of stress, anxiety, depression and mental health deterioration. The results showed that household income, depth of flooding; having to move out during reinstatement and mitigating actions are related to the prevalence of psycho-social symptoms in previously flooded households. In particular relocation and household income were the most predictive factors. The practical implication of these findings for recovery after flooding are: to consider the preferences of households in terms of the need to move out during restorative

  6. Long-term survival and T-cell kinetics in relapsed/refractory ALL patients who achieved MRD response after blinatumomab treatment.

    PubMed

    Zugmaier, Gerhard; Gökbuget, Nicola; Klinger, Matthias; Viardot, Andreas; Stelljes, Matthias; Neumann, Svenja; Horst, Heinz-A; Marks, Reinhard; Faul, Christoph; Diedrich, Helmut; Reichle, Albrecht; Brüggemann, Monika; Holland, Chris; Schmidt, Margit; Einsele, Hermann; Bargou, Ralf C; Topp, Max S

    2015-12-10

    This long-term follow-up analysis evaluated overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in a phase 2 study of the bispecific T-cell engager antibody construct blinatumomab in 36 adults with relapsed/refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the primary analysis, 25 (69%) patients with relapsed/refractory ALL achieved complete remission with full (CR) or partial (CRh) hematologic recovery of peripheral blood counts within the first 2 cycles. Twenty-five patients (69%) had a minimal residual disease (MRD) response (<10(-4) blasts), including 22 CR/CRh responders, 2 patients with hypocellular bone marrow, and 1 patient with normocellular bone marrow but low peripheral counts. Ten of the 36 patients (28%) were long-term survivors (OS ≥30 months). Median OS was 13.0 months (median follow-up, 32.6 months). MRD response was associated with significantly longer OS (Mantel-Byar P = .009). All 10 long-term survivors had an MRD response. Median RFS was 8.8 months (median follow-up, 28.9 months). A plateau for RFS was reached after ∼18 months. Six of the 10 long-term survivors remained relapse-free, including 4 who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) as consolidation for blinatumomab and 2 who received 3 additional cycles of blinatumomab instead of allo-SCT. Three long-term survivors had neurologic events or cytokine release syndrome, resulting in temporary blinatumomab discontinuation; all restarted blinatumomab successfully. Long-term survivors had more pronounced T-cell expansion than patients with OS <30 months. PMID:26480933

  7. Long-term survival and T-cell kinetics in relapsed/refractory ALL patients who achieved MRD response after blinatumomab treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gökbuget, Nicola; Klinger, Matthias; Viardot, Andreas; Stelljes, Matthias; Neumann, Svenja; Horst, Heinz-A.; Marks, Reinhard; Faul, Christoph; Diedrich, Helmut; Reichle, Albrecht; Brüggemann, Monika; Holland, Chris; Schmidt, Margit; Einsele, Hermann; Bargou, Ralf C.; Topp, Max S.

    2015-01-01

    This long-term follow-up analysis evaluated overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in a phase 2 study of the bispecific T-cell engager antibody construct blinatumomab in 36 adults with relapsed/refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the primary analysis, 25 (69%) patients with relapsed/refractory ALL achieved complete remission with full (CR) or partial (CRh) hematologic recovery of peripheral blood counts within the first 2 cycles. Twenty-five patients (69%) had a minimal residual disease (MRD) response (<10−4 blasts), including 22 CR/CRh responders, 2 patients with hypocellular bone marrow, and 1 patient with normocellular bone marrow but low peripheral counts. Ten of the 36 patients (28%) were long-term survivors (OS ≥30 months). Median OS was 13.0 months (median follow-up, 32.6 months). MRD response was associated with significantly longer OS (Mantel-Byar P = .009). All 10 long-term survivors had an MRD response. Median RFS was 8.8 months (median follow-up, 28.9 months). A plateau for RFS was reached after ∼18 months. Six of the 10 long-term survivors remained relapse-free, including 4 who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) as consolidation for blinatumomab and 2 who received 3 additional cycles of blinatumomab instead of allo-SCT. Three long-term survivors had neurologic events or cytokine release syndrome, resulting in temporary blinatumomab discontinuation; all restarted blinatumomab successfully. Long-term survivors had more pronounced T-cell expansion than patients with OS <30 months. PMID:26480933

  8. Effect of DISC1 polymorphisms on the long-term course of neurocognitive deficits in non-affective psychosis.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Bourgon, J; Ayesa-Arriola, R; Fatjó-Vilas, M; Roiz-Santiañez, R; Fañanás, L; Crespo-Facorro, B

    2015-10-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are core symptoms of schizophrenia that determine a poorer outcome. High variability in the progression of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia has been described. It is still unknown whether genetic variations can affect the course of cognitive deficits. Variations in the Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene have previously been associated with neurocognitive deficits. This study investigated the association between 3 DISC1 polymorphisms (rs6675281 (Leu607Phe), rs1000731, and rs821616 (Ser704Cys)) and long-term (3 years) cognitive performance. One-hundred-thirty-three Caucasian drug-naive patients experiencing a first episode of non-affective psychosis were genotyped. Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and after 3 years of initiating treatment. Other clinical and socio-demographic variables were recorded to eliminate potential confounding effects. Patients carrying the A allele of rs1000731 exhibited a significant improvement in Working Memory and Attention domains, and the homozygosity of the A allele of rs821616 showed a significant improvement in Motor Dexterity performance over 3 years of follow-up. In conclusion, DISC1 gene variations may affect the course of cognitive deficits found in patients suffering from the first episode of non-affective psychosis. PMID:26443054

  9. The long-term effects of acute exposure to ionising radiation on survival and fertility in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Sarapultseva, Elena I; Dubrova, Yuri E

    2016-10-01

    The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionising radiation and chemical mutagens. However, the transgenerational effects of parental exposure on survival and fertility remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their offspring, crustacean Daphnia magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000mGy of acute γ-rays. Exposure to 1000 and 10,000mGy significantly compromised the viability of irradiated Daphnia and their first-generation progeny, but did not affect the second-generation progeny. The fertility of F0 and F1Daphnia gradually declined with the dose of parental exposure and significantly decreased at dose of 100mGy and at higher doses. The effects of parental irradiation on the number of broods were only observed among the F0Daphnia exposed to 1000 and 10,000mGy, whereas the brood size was equally affected in the two consecutive generations. In contrast, the F2 total fertility was compromised only among progeny of parents that received the highest dose of 10,000mGy. We propose that the decreased fertility observed among the F2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000mGy is attributed to transgenerational effects of parental irradiation. Our results also indicate a substantial recovery of the F2 progeny of irradiated F0Daphnia exposed to the lower doses of acute γ-rays. PMID:27288911

  10. Long-term sediment yield from small catchment in southern Brazil affected by land use and soil management changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Merten, Gustavo; Alessandra Peixoto de Barros, Claudia; Dalbianco, Leandro; Ramon, Rafael; Schlesner, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are the main cause of soil degradation in Brazil. Despite this, there is a lack of information about the effects of the soil management on the hydrology and sediment yield at catchment scale. This study aimed to investigate the long-term relationship between the land use and sediment yield in a small catchment with significant changes in soil management, and its impacts on soil erosion and sediment yield. To account the anthropogenic and climatic effects on sediment yield were monitored precipitation, stream flow and suspended sediment concentration during thirteen years (2002 and 2014) at 10 minutes interval and the changes that occurred each year in the land use and soil management. Despite the influence of climate on the sediment yield, the results clearly show three distinct periods affected by the land use and soil management changes during this this period. In the first four years (2002-2004) the predominant land use was the tobacco with traditional soil management, where the soils are plough every year and without winter cover crop. In this period the sediment yield reached the order of 160 t.ha-1.y-1. In the period of 2005-2009, a soil conservation program introduced the adoption of minimum tillage in the catchment and the sediment yield decrease to 70 t.ha-1.y-1. In the last period (2010-2014) there was a partial return to the traditional soil management practices with an increase trend in sediment yield. However, there was also an increase in reforestation areas with positive effect in reducing erosion and sediment yield. The magnitude order of sediment yield in this period was 100 t.ha-1.y-1. The long term sediment yield data was able to demonstrate the impact of the improved management practices in reducing soil erosion and sediment yield. The results allowed a good understanding of the changing sediment dynamics and soil erosion at catchment scale.

  11. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    PubMed

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. PMID:20471819

  12. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Muenster, M.; Meibom, P.

    2010-12-15

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO{sub 2} quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO{sub 2} quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected.

  13. Immobilization and cold stress affect sympatho-adrenomedullary system and pituitary-adrenocortical axis of rats exposed to long-term isolation and crowding.

    PubMed

    Dronjak, Sladjana; Gavrilović, Ljubica; Filipović, Dragana; Radojcić, Marija B

    2004-05-01

    Changes in plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT), as well as in cytosol glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70) in hippocampus of adult rat males exposed to two long-term types of psychosocial stress, both under basal conditions and in response to immobilization and cold as heterotypic additional stressor were studied. Long-term isolation produced a significant elevation of basal plasma ACTH and CORT levels, but did not affect that of NA and A, while long-term crowding conditions did not elevate the basal plasma levels of these hormones. Long-term isolation of rats exposed to 2 h of immobilization or cold led to a significant elevation of plasma NA, A and CORT in comparison with the controls. Long-term crowding conditions and exposure of animals to immobilization or cold also resulted in an increased plasma NA, A and CORT levels, but to a lesser extent in comparison with the long-term isolation. At the same time, plasma ACTH was significantly more elevated in long-term crowded than in long-term isolated rats. Both kinds of long-term psychosocial stresses (isolation and crowding) had similar but less pronounced effects on cytosol GR and Hsp 70 concentrations in hippocampus comparing to acute immobilization and cold stress. It seems that long-term psychosocial stresses attenuate the effects of an additional stress on hippocampal GR and Hsp 70 concentrations. These data suggest that individual housing of rats appear to act as a stronger stressor than crowding conditions. When the animals suffering a long-term isolation were exposed to either acute immobilization or cold, a stronger activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system (SAS) was recorded in comparison with that found in the long-term crowded group subjected to short-term immobilization or cold. No significant differences in the activity of hypotalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were observed between long-term

  14. The effect of reverse remodeling on long-term survival in mildly symptomatic patients with heart failure receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy: Results of the REVERSE study

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Michael R.; Daubert, Claude; Abraham, William T.; Ghio, Stefano; Sutton, Martin St. John; Hudnall, John Harrison; Cerkvenik, Jeffrey; Linde, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces mortality, improves functional status, and induces reverse left ventricular remodeling in selected populations with heart failure (HF). The magnitude of reverse remodeling predicts survival with many HF medical therapies. However, there are few studies assessing the effect of remodeling on long-term survival with CRT. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of CRT-induced reverse remodeling on long-term survival in patients with mildly symptomatic heart failure. METHODS The REsynchronization reVErses Remodeling in Systolic Left vEntricular Dysfunction trial was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial of CRT in patients with mild HF. Long-term follow-up of 5 years was preplanned. The present analysis was restricted to the 353 patients who were randomized to the CRT ON group with paired echocardiographic studies at baseline and 6 months post-implantation. The left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVi) was measured in the core laboratory and was an independently powered end point of the REsynchronization reVErses Remodeling in Systolic Left vEntricular Dysfunction trial. RESULTS A 68% reduction in mortality was observed in patients with ≥15% decrease in LVESVi compared to the rest of the patients (P = .0004). Multivariable analysis showed that the change in LVESVi was a strong independent predictor (P = .0002), with a 14% reduction in mortality for every 10% decrease in LVESVi. Other remodeling parameters such as left ventricular enddiastolic volume index and ejection fraction had a similar association with mortality. CONCLUSION The change in left ventricular end-systolic volume after 6 months of CRT is a strong independent predictor of long-term survival in mild HF. PMID:25460860

  15. Barium uptake by maize plants as affected by sewage sludge in a long-term field study.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Thiago Assis Rodrigues; deMelo, Wanderley José; Fonseca, Ivana Machado; Marques, Marcos Omir; He, Zhenli

    2010-09-15

    A long-term experiment was carried out under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the concentration of Ba in soil and in maize plants grown in a soil treated with sewage sludge for nine consecutive years. During 2005/2006, maize was used as test plants and the experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with four treatments and five replicates. Treatments consisted of: 0.0, 45.0, 90.0 and 127.5 t ha(-1) sewage sludge (dry basis). Sewage sludge application increased soil Ba concentration. Barium accumulated in the parts of maize plants were generally affected by the successive applications of sewage sludge to the soil. However, the concentration of Ba in maize grain did not exceed the critical levels of Ba for human consumption. Sewage sludge applied to soil for a long time did not affect dry matter and grain production, nevertheless had the similar effect of mineral fertilization. PMID:20579810

  16. Perioperative outcomes and long-term survival in clinically early-stage thymic malignancies: video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy versus open approaches

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Gu, Zhitao; Tan, Lijie; Fu, Jianhua; Shen, Yi; Wei, Yucheng; Zhang, Peng; Han, Yongtao; Chen, Chun; Zhang, Renquan; Li, Yin; Chen, Keneng; Chen, Hezhong; Liu, Yongyu; Cui, Youbing; Wang, Yun; Pang, Liewen; Yu, Zhentao; Zhou, Xinming; Liu, Yangchun; Liu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) theoretically offers advantages over open thymectomy for clinically early-stage (Masaoka-Koga stage I and II) thymic malignancies. However, long-term outcomes have not been well studied. We compared the postoperative outcomes and survival from a cohort study based on the database of the Chinese Alliance for Research in Thymomas (ChART). Methods Between 1994 and 2012, data of 1,117 patients having surgery for clinically early-stage (Masaoka-Koga stage I and II) tumors were enrolled for the study. Among them, 241 cases underwent VATS thymectomy (VATS group), while 876 cases underwent open thymectomy (Open group). Univariate analyses were used to compare the clinical character and perioperative outcomes between the two groups. And multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent predictive factors for long-term survival. Results Compared with the Open group, the VATS group had higher percentage of total thymectomy (80.5% vs. 73.9%, P=0.028), resection rate (98.8% vs. 88.7%, P=0.000) and less recurrence (2.9% vs. 16.0%, P=0.000). Five-year overall survival was 92% after VATS and 92% after open thymectomy, with no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.15). However, 5-year disease free survival were 92% in VATS group and 83% in Open group (P=0.011). Cox proportional hazards model revealed that WHO classification, Masaoka-Koga stage and adjuvant therapy were independent predictive factors for overall survival, while surgical approach had no significant impact on long-term outcome. Conclusions This study suggests that VATS thymectomy is an effective approach for clinically early-stage thymic malignancies. And it may offer better perioperative outcomes, as well as equal oncological survival. PMID:27114834

  17. [A Case of Advanced Gastric Cancer with Long-Term Survival after Chemotherapy with Combined S-1 and CPT-11].

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Miyuki; Ishibashi, Yuji; Suematsu, Yuki; Suda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Miyuki; Saito, Hiroyuki; Omori, Keita; Morita, Akihiko; Wakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Ito, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    Here, we report a 54-year-old man diagnosed with type 3 advanced gastric cancer who underwent a total gastrectomy and splenectomy plus D2 lymphadenectomy. The pathologic diagnosis was Stage Ⅳ (T3N0H0P0CY1M1). Sixteen courses of combined S-1/CPT-11 chemotherapy were completed, at which time the CPT-11 was discontinued because of malaise, and S-1 alone was continued for a year. The patient is well and has been recurrence-free for 7 years. Thus, he is considered a long- term survivor who was treated with combination S-1/CPT-11 chemotherapy. PMID:26805264

  18. Long-term trends in survival of a declining population: the case of the little owl (Athene noctua) in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Le Gouar, Pascaline J; Schekkerman, Hans; van der Jeugd, Henk P; Boele, Arjan; van Harxen, Ronald; Fuchs, Piet; Stroeken, Pascal; van Noordwijk, Arie J

    2011-06-01

    The little owl (Athene noctua) has declined significantly in many parts of Europe, including the Netherlands. To understand the demographic mechanisms underlying their decline, we analysed all available Dutch little owl ringing data. The data set spanned 35 years, and included more than 24,000 ringed owls, allowing detailed estimation of survival rates through multi-state capture-recapture modelling taking dispersal into account. We investigated geographical and temporal variation in age-specific survival rates and linked annual survival estimates to population growth rate in corresponding years, as well as to environmental covariates. The best model for estimating survival assumed time effects on both juvenile and adult survival rates, with average annual survival estimated at 0.258 (SE = 0.047) and 0.753 (SE = 0.019), respectively. Juvenile survival rates decreased with time whereas adult survival rates fluctuated regularly among years, low survival occurring about every 4 years. Years when the population declined were associated with low juvenile survival. More than 60% of the variation in juvenile survival was explained by the increase in road traffic intensity or in average temperature in spring, but these correlations rather reflect a gradual decrease in juvenile survival coinciding with long-term global change than direct causal effects. Surprisingly, vole dynamics did not explain the cyclic dynamics of adult survival rate. Instead, dry and cold years led to low adult survival rates. Low juvenile survival rates, that limit recruitment of first-year breeders, and the regular occurrence of years with poor adult survival, were the most important determinants of the population decline of the little owl. PMID:21153739

  19. Genetic risk of subsequent esophageal cancer in lymphoma and breast cancer long-term survival patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, E; Rumiato, E; Fassan, M; Rugge, M; Cagol, M; Marino, D; Chiarion-Sileni, V; Ruol, A; Gusella, M; Pasini, F; Amadori, A; Saggioro, D

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of a second primary esophageal carcinoma (EC) in long-term cancer survivors may represent a late effect of previous radio-chemotherapeutic treatment. To identify the genetic factors that could increase this risk, we analyzed nine variants within ERCC1, XPD, XRCC1 and XRCC3 DNA repair pathway genes, and GSTP1, TP53 and MDM2 genes in 61 patients who received radio-chemotherapy for a prior lymphoma or breast cancer; 29 of them had a second primary EC. This cohort consists of 22 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 7 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) patients. A validation cohort of 154 patients with sporadic EC was also included. The XPD Asp312Asn (rs1799793) was found to be associated with the risk of developing second primary ESCC (P=0.015). The resultant variant was also involved in the onset of sporadic ESCC (P=0.0018). To know in advance who among long-term cancer survivors have an increased risk of EC could lead to a more appropriate follow-up strategy. PMID:26054330

  20. Changes in task-extrinsic context do not affect the persistence of long-term cumulative structural priming.

    PubMed

    Kutta, Timothy J; Kaschak, Michael P

    2012-11-01

    We present two experiments exploring the role of extrinsic memory factors (i.e., factors that are extrinsic to the primary task that is being performed) and intrinsic memory factors (i.e., factors that are intrinsic to the primary task being completed) in the persistence of cumulative structural priming effects. Participants completed a two-phase experiment, where the first phase established a bias toward producing either the double object or prepositional object construction, and the second phase assessed the effects of this bias. Extrinsic memory factors were manipulated by having participants complete the two phases of the study in the same or different locations (physical context change) or while watching the same or different videos (video context change). Participants completed the second phase of the study 10 min after the first phase of the study in Experiment 1, and after a delay of 1 week in Experiment 2. Results suggest that the observed structural priming effects were not affected by manipulations of extrinsic memory factors. These data suggest that explicit memory does not play a large role in the long-term persistence of cumulative structural priming effects. PMID:23103416

  1. Long-term survivability of riprap for armoring uranium-mill tailings and covers: a literature review. [203 references

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.G.; Long, L.W.; Begej, C.W.

    1982-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. Because the radon suppression cover and the tailings must remain intact for up to 1000 years or longer, the riprap must withstand natural weathering forces. This report is a review of information on rock weathering and riprap durability. Chemical and physical weathering processes, rock characteristics related to durability, climatic conditions affecting the degree and rate of weathering, and testing procedures used to measure weathering susceptibilities have been reviewed. Sampling and testing techniques, as well as analyses of physical and chemical weathering susceptibilities, are necessary to evaluate rock durability. Many potential riprap materials may not be able to survive 1000 years of weathering. Available techniques for durability testing cannot adequately predict rock durability for the 1000-year period because they do not consider the issue of time (i.e., how long must riprap remain stable). This report includes an Appendix, which discusses rock weathering, written by Dr. Richard Jahns of Stanford University.

  2. Effect of Warfarin Treatment on Survival of Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) in the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL)

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Ioana R.; Roberts, Kari E.; Miller, Dave P.; Sen, Ginny P.; Selej, Mona; Benton, Wade W.; Hill, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Long-term anticoagulation is recommended in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). In contrast, limited data support anticoagulation in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc-PAH). We assessed the effect of warfarin anticoagulation on survival in IPAH and SSc-PAH patients enrolled in Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL), a longitudinal registry of group I PAH. Methods and Results— Patients who initiated warfarin on study (n=187) were matched 1:1 with patients never on warfarin, by enrollment site, etiology, and diagnosis status. Descriptive analyses were conducted to compare warfarin users and nonusers by etiology. Survival analyses with and without risk adjustment were performed from the time of warfarin initiation or a corresponding quarterly update in matched pairs to avoid immortal time bias. Time-varying covariate models were used as sensitivity analyses. Mean warfarin treatment was 1 year; mean international normalized ratios were 1.9 (IPAH) and 2.0 (SSc-PAH). Two-thirds of patients initiating warfarin discontinued treatment before the last study assessment. There was no survival difference with warfarin in IPAH patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.37; P=0.21) or in SSc-PAH patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.60; P=0.15) in comparison with matched controls. However, SSc-PAH patients receiving warfarin within the previous year (hazard ratio, 1.57; P=0.031) or any time postbaseline (hazard ratio, 1.49; P=0.046) had increased mortality in comparison with warfarin-naïve patients. Conclusions— No significant survival advantage was observed in IPAH patients who started warfarin. In SSc-PAH patients, long-term warfarin was associated with poorer survival than in patients not receiving warfarin, even after adjusting for confounders. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00370214. PMID:26510696

  3. Chimeric Allografts Induced by Short-Term Treatment With Stem Cell Mobilizing Agents Result in Long-Term Kidney Transplant Survival Without Immunosuppression: II, Study in Miniature Swine.

    PubMed

    Cameron, A M; Wesson, R N; Ahmadi, A R; Singer, A L; Hu, X; Okabayashi, T; Wang, Y; Shigoka, M; Fu, Y; Gao, W; Raccusen, L C; Montgomery, R A; Williams, G M; Sun, Z

    2016-07-01

    Transplantation is now lifesaving therapy for patients with end-stage organ failure but requires lifelong immunosuppression with resultant morbidity. Current immunosuppressive strategies inhibit T cell activation and prevent donor-recipient engagement. Therefore, it is not surprising that few host cells are demonstrated in donor grafts. However, our recent small animal studies found large numbers of recipient stem cells present after transplantation and pharmacological mobilization, resulting in a chimeric, repopulated organ. We now confirm these findings in a well-characterized large animal preclinical model. Here, we show that AMD3100 and FK506 mobilization of endogenous stem cells immediately post kidney transplantation combined with repeat therapy at 1, 2, and 3 months led to drug-free long-term survival in maximally immunologically mismatched swine. Three long-term recipients have stable chimeric transplants, preserved antidonor skin graft responses, and normal serum creatinine levels despite withdrawal of all medication for 3 years. PMID:26748958

  4. Age-specific survival and philopatry in three species of European ducks: a long-term study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Mednis, A.; Bauga, I.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Capture-recapture and band recovery models were used to estimate age-specific survival probabilities for female Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata), Common Pochards (Aythya ferina), and Tufted Ducks (Aythya.fuligula) at Engure Marsh, Latvia, in 1964-1993. We banded more than 65,100 day-old ducklings of both sexes and captured 10,211 incubating females (3,713 new bandings and 6,498 recaptures). We developed a set of 3-age capture-recapture models to estimate annual survival rates for female ducklings, yearlings (SY), and adults (ASY) using programs SURGE and SURVIV and selected parsimonious models using a method developed bv Akaike (1973). Survival rates of SY and ASY females were highest-for Tufted Ducks intermediate for Common Pochards, and lowest for Northern Shovelers. Survival rates of SY and ASY females varied in parallel for shovelers and pochards. We believe that much of the difference in survival estimates between SY and ASY birds was caused by mortality rather than permanent emigration. Estimates of day-old duckling survival, reflecting both mortality and permanent emigration, were 0.12 for shoveler, 0.06 for pochard, and 0.03 for Tufted Duck. For all species, duckling survival varied over years, but the pattern of variation was not similar to that of the other age classes. Estimates of survival using band recovery data for SY + ASY female pochards and Tufted Ducks were similar to the capture-recapturee stimates, suggestingt hat surviving females returned to the breeding marsh with probabilities approaching 1.

  5. Microstructure and Mechanical Instability of Water-Quenched U-6wt% Nb Alloy Affected by Long-Term Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; Zhou, J

    2005-12-06

    A combinative approach of microhardness testing, tensile testing, and TEM microstructural analysis was employed to study the microstructure and mechanical instability of a water-quenched U-6wt.% Nb (WQ-U6Nb) alloy subjected to different aging schedules including artificial aging at 200 C, 15-year natural aging at ambient temperatures, and 15-year natural aging followed by accelerative aging at 200 C. The changes in mechanical property during and after the aging processes were examined using microhardness and tensile-testing methods. During the early stages of artificial aging at 200 C, the microhardness of WQ-U6Nb alloy increased, i.e., age hardening, as a result of the development of nanoscale modulation caused by spinodal decomposition. Coarsening of the modulated structure occurred after a prolonged aging at 200 C for 16 hours, and it led to a decrease of microhardness, i.e., age softening. Phase instability was also found to occur in WQ-U6Nb alloy that was subjected to a 15-year natural aging at ambient temperatures. The formation of partially ordered domains resulting from a spinodal modulation with an atomic-scale wavelength rendered the appearance of swirl-shape antiphase domain boundaries (APBs) observed in TEM images. Although it did not cause a significant change in microhardness, 15-year natural aging has dramatically affected the aging mechanisms of the alloy isothermally aged at 200 C. Microhardness values of the NA alloy continuously increased and no age softening was found after isothermal aging at 200 C for 96 hours as a result of the phase decomposition of partially ordered domains into Nb-depleted {alpha} phase and Nb-enriched U{sub 3}Nb ordered phase in the alloy. It is concluded that the long-term natural aging changes the transformation pathway of WQ-U6Nb, and it leads to order-disorder transformation, precipitation hardening, and ductility embrittlement of WQ-U6Nb alloy.

  6. Long-term nitrogen additions increase likelihood of climate stress and affect recovery from wildfire in a lowland heath.

    PubMed

    Southon, Georgina E; Green, Emma R; Jones, Alan G; Barker, Chris G; Power, Sally A

    2012-09-01

    Increases in the emissions and associated atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) have the potential to cause significant changes to the structure and function of N-limited ecosystems. Here, we present the results of a long-term (13 year) experiment assessing the impacts of N addition (30 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) on a UK lowland heathland under a wide range of environmental conditions, including the occurrence of prolonged natural drought episodes and a severe summer fire. Our findings indicate that elevated N deposition results in large, persistent effects on Calluna growth, phenology and chemistry, severe suppression of understorey lichen flora and changes in soil biogeochemistry. Growing season rainfall was found to be a strong driver of inter-annual variation in Calluna growth and, although interactions between N and rainfall for shoot growth were not significant until the later phase of the experiment, N addition exacerbated the extent of drought injury to Calluna shoots following naturally occurring droughts in 2003 and 2009. Following a severe wildfire at the experimental site in 2006, heathland regeneration dynamics were significantly affected by N, with a greater abundance of pioneering moss species and suppression of the lichen flora in plots receiving N additions. Significant interactions between climate and N were also apparent post fire, with the characteristic stimulation in Calluna growth in +N plots suppressed during dry years. Carbon (C) and N budgets demonstrate large increases in both above- and below-ground stocks of these elements in N-treated plots prior to the fire, despite higher levels of soil microbial activity and organic matter turnover. Although much of the organic material was removed during the fire, pre-existing treatment differences were still evident following the burn. Post fire accumulation of below-ground C and N stocks was increased rapidly in N-treated plots, highlighting the role of N deposition in ecosystem C sequestration

  7. [Long-term survival and prognostic factors in multiple myeloma treated with conventional chemotherapy. Report of 109 cases].

    PubMed

    Ben Abid, H; Meddeb, B; Ben Abdallah, M; Bel Hadj Ali, Z; Hafsia, R; Ben Lakhal, R; Gouider, E; Aissaoui, L; Landoulsi, I; ben Abdeladhim, A; Hafsia, A

    2000-12-01

    Our study is retrospective. We report the results of conventional chemotherapy ins previosly untreated patients with myeloma. Survival and prognostic factors were analysed in 109 patients diagnosed from 1983 to 1992. The median age was 65 years, 87 patients (80%) were including in the stage III according the Durie Salmon staging system. The median survival time was 27 months and 10 years survival rate is 3.66%. In the univariate analysis, two prognostic variables were retained namely the hemoglobin and creatinine level. The study suggest that conventional therapy is a good treatment for old patients. However, patients younger than 55 years, must benefit from intensive chemotherapy supported by autologous bone marrow, pheripheral blood stem cells, or allogenic bone marrow transplantation. A considerable encrace in duration of remission and survival is possible. PMID:11155374

  8. Survival of Prokaryotic- and Eukaryotic Symbiotic Rock Inhabiting Organisms in Short- and Long-Term Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, R.; Horneck, G.; Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Sancho, L. G.; Sanchez Iñigo, F. J.; Onofri, S.; Frias, M.; Mateo-Marti, E.; de Vera, J. P.; Cockell, C.; Olsson, K.; Demets, R.

    2010-04-01

    Three experiments allowed for the first time the demonstration and intercomparision of the high survival capacity of eukaryotic and prokaryotic symbiotic organisms in space: on a short mission (LICHENS and LITHOPANSPERMIA) and on a long mission (LIFE, EXPOSE-E).

  9. Long-term survival and functional status of patients with low-grade astrocytoma of spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Clifford G.; Prayson, Richard A.; Hahn, Joseph F.; Kalfas, Iain H.; Whitfield, Melvin D.; Lee, S.-Y.; Suh, John H. . E-mail: suhj@ccf.org

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: To determine survival and changes in neurologic function and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) in a series of patients treated for low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord during the past two decades. Methods: This study consisted of 14 patients with pathologically confirmed low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord who were treated between 1980 and 2003. All patients underwent decompressive laminectomy followed by biopsy (n = 7), subtotal resection (n = 6), or gross total resection (n = 1). Ten patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (median total dose 50 Gy in 28 fractions). The overall survival, progression-free survival, and changes in neurologic function and KPS were measured. Results: The overall survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 100%, 75%, and 60%, respectively. The progression-free survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 93%, 80%, and 60%, respectively. Neither overall survival nor progression-free survival was clearly correlated with any patient, tumor, or treatment factors. Neurologic function and KPS worsened after surgery in 8 (57%) of 14 and 9 (69%) of 13 patients, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, neurologic function had stabilized or improved in 8 (73%) of 11 remaining patients, but the KPS had worsened in 5 (50%) of 10. Most patients who were employed before surgery were working at last follow-up. Conclusion: Patients who undergo gross total resection of their tumor may be followed closely. Patients who undergo limited resection should continue to receive postoperative RT (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). The functional measures should be routinely evaluated to appreciate the treatment outcomes.

  10. Long-term survival of Borrelia burgdorferi lacking the hibernation promotion factor homolog in the unfed tick vector.

    PubMed

    Fazzino, Lisa; Tilly, Kit; Dulebohn, Daniel P; Rosa, Patricia A

    2015-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is a zoonotic pathogen that survives in nutrient-limited environments within a tick, prior to transmission to its mammalian host. Survival under these prolonged nutrient-limited conditions is thought to be similar to survival during stationary phase, which is characterized by growth cessation and decreased protein production. Multiple ribosome-associated proteins are implicated in stationary-phase survival of Escherichia coli. These proteins include hibernation-promoting factor (HPF), which dimerizes ribosomes and prevents translation of mRNA. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that B. burgdorferi harbors an hpf homolog, the bb0449 gene. BB0449 protein secondary structure modeling also predicted HPF-like structure and function. However, BB0449 protein was not localized in the ribosome-associated protein fraction of in vitro-grown B. burgdorferi. In wild-type B. burgdorferi, bb0449 transcript and BB0449 protein levels are low during various growth phases. These results are inconsistent with patterns of synthesis of HPF-like proteins in other bacterial species. In addition, two independently derived bb0449 mutants successfully completed the mouse-tick infectious cycle, indicating that bb0449 is not required for prolonged survival in the nutrient-limited environment in the unfed tick or any other stage of infection by B. burgdorferi. We suggest either that BB0449 is associated with ribosomes under specific conditions not yet identified or that BB0449 of B. burgdorferi has a function other than ribosome conformation modulation. PMID:26438790

  11. Long-term survival of Escherichia coli in lightweight aggregate filter media of constructed wastewater treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Paruch, A M

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory scale experiment on the survival of Escherichia coli in samples of filter media from a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treating domestic wastewater was performed. A concentration of E. coli was examined in samples collected from a wetland filter filled with lightweight aggregates (LWA). All samples testing positive for E. coli contamination were used to examine the effect of storage time on the survival of E. coli at three temperature regimes: cold (4°C), mild (10°C) and warm (22°C). It was found that the mild storage condition favoured the growth and survival of E. coli in the tested LWA media. The growth in samples of the uppermost layer of the media lasted for 5.5 months, during which E. coli reached a maximum concentration of 6.4×10(3) MPN/100 g dry matter in the media. It was also observed that E. coli had a greater capacity to survive for extended periods of time in samples collected from the upper layer of the LWA filter compared to samples taken from the deeper layers. The survival of E. coli in the shallowest samples of the wetland filter was remarkably long and unexpected, lasting for a period of over 14 months. PMID:21278480

  12. Long-Term Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi Lacking the Hibernation Promotion Factor Homolog in the Unfed Tick Vector

    PubMed Central

    Fazzino, Lisa; Dulebohn, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is a zoonotic pathogen that survives in nutrient-limited environments within a tick, prior to transmission to its mammalian host. Survival under these prolonged nutrient-limited conditions is thought to be similar to survival during stationary phase, which is characterized by growth cessation and decreased protein production. Multiple ribosome-associated proteins are implicated in stationary-phase survival of Escherichia coli. These proteins include hibernation-promoting factor (HPF), which dimerizes ribosomes and prevents translation of mRNA. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that B. burgdorferi harbors an hpf homolog, the bb0449 gene. BB0449 protein secondary structure modeling also predicted HPF-like structure and function. However, BB0449 protein was not localized in the ribosome-associated protein fraction of in vitro-grown B. burgdorferi. In wild-type B. burgdorferi, bb0449 transcript and BB0449 protein levels are low during various growth phases. These results are inconsistent with patterns of synthesis of HPF-like proteins in other bacterial species. In addition, two independently derived bb0449 mutants successfully completed the mouse-tick infectious cycle, indicating that bb0449 is not required for prolonged survival in the nutrient-limited environment in the unfed tick or any other stage of infection by B. burgdorferi. We suggest either that BB0449 is associated with ribosomes under specific conditions not yet identified or that BB0449 of B. burgdorferi has a function other than ribosome conformation modulation. PMID:26438790

  13. Comparison of long-term survival between temozolomide-based chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy alone for patients with low-grade gliomas after surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    Gai, Xiu-juan; Wei, Yu-mei; Tao, Heng-min; An, Dian-zheng; Sun, Jia-teng; Li, Bao-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to compare the survival outcomes of temozolomide-based chemoradiotherapy (TMZ + RT) vs radiotherapy alone (RT-alone) for low-grade gliomas (LGGs) after surgical resection. Patients and methods In this retrospective analysis, we reviewed postoperative records of 69 patients with LGGs treated with TMZ + RT (n=31) and RT-alone (n=38) at the Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University between June 2011 and December 2013. Patients in the TMZ + RT group were administered 50–100 mg oral TMZ every day until the radiotherapy regimen was completed. Results The median follow-up since surgery was 33 months and showed no significant intergroup differences (P=0.06). There were statistically significant intergroup differences in the progression-free survival rate (P=0.037), with 83.9% for TMZ-RT group and 60.5% for RT-alone group. The overall 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 89.86%. Age distribution (≥45 years and <45 years) and resection margin (complete resection or not) were significantly associated with OS (P=0.03 and P=0.004, respectively). Conclusion Although no differences were found in the 2-year OS between the TMZ + RT and RT-alone groups, there was a trend toward increased 2-year progression-free survival in the TMZ + RT group. With better tolerability, concurrent TMZ chemoradiotherapy may be beneficial for postoperative patients with LGGs. Age distribution and surgical margin are likely potential indicators of disease prognosis. The possible differences in long-term survival between the two groups and the links between prognostic factors and long-term survival may be worthy of further investigation. PMID:27574452

  14. Long-term survival in laparoscopic vs open resection for colorectal liver metastases: inverse probability of treatment weighting using propensity scores

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Joel W.; O'Rourke, Nicholas A.; Chiow, Adrian K.H.; Bryant, Richard; Martin, Ian; Nathanson, Leslie K.; Cavallucci, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares long-term outcomes between intention-to-treat laparoscopic and open approaches to colorectal liver metastases (CLM), using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on propensity scores to control for selection bias. Method Patients undergoing liver resection for CLM by 5 surgeons at 3 institutions from 2000 to early 2014 were analysed. IPTW based on propensity scores were generated and used to assess the marginal treatment effect of the laparoscopic approach via a weighted Cox proportional hazards model. Results A total of 298 operations were performed in 256 patients. 7 patients with planned two-stage resections were excluded leaving 284 operations in 249 patients for analysis. After IPTW, the population was well balanced. With a median follow up of 36 months, 5-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) for the cohort were 59% and 38%. 146 laparoscopic procedures were performed in 140 patients, with weighted 5-year OS and RFS of 54% and 36% respectively. In the open group, 138 procedures were performed in 122 patients, with a weighted 5-year OS and RFS of 63% and 38% respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of OS or RFS. Conclusion In the Brisbane experience, after accounting for bias in treatment assignment, long term survival after LLR for CLM is equivalent to outcomes in open surgery. PMID:26902138

  15. HIGH PROBABILITY OF LONG-TERM SURVIVAL IN 2-YEAR SURVIVORS OF AUTOLOGOUS HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION FOR ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA IN FIRST OR SECOND COMPLETE REMISSION

    PubMed Central

    Majhail, Navneet S.; Bajorunaite, Ruta; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Wang, Zhiwei; Klein, John P.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Rizzo, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    We describe long-term outcomes of autologous hematopoietic-cell transplantation (HCT) for 315 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients in first or second complete remission (CR). All patients were in continuous CR for ≥2-years post-HCT. Patients were predominantly transplanted in CR1 (78%) and had good or intermediate cytogenetic risk disease (74%). Median followup of survivors was 106 (range, 24-192) months. Overall survival at 10-years post-HCT was 94% (95% confidence intervals, 89-97%) and 80% (67-91%) for patients receiving HCT in CR1 and CR2, respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse at 10-years post-HCT was 6% (3-10%) and 10% (3-20%) and that of non-relapse mortality was 5% (2-9%) and 11% (4-21%), respectively. On multivariate analysis, HCT in CR2 (vs. CR1), older age at transplantation and poor cytogenetic risk disease were independent predictors of late mortality and adverse disease-free survival. The use of growth factors to promote engraftment following HCT was the only risk factor for relapse. Relative-mortality of these 2-year survivors was comparable to that of age-, race- and gender-matched normal population. Patients who receive an autologous HCT for AML in CR1 or CR2 and remain in remission for ≥2-years have very favorable long-term survival. Their mortality rates are similar to that of the general population. PMID:20479710

  16. Efficient long-term survival of cell grafts after myocardial infarction with thick viable cardiac tissue entirely from pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Takehiko; Masumoto, Hidetoshi; Tajima, Shuhei; Ikuno, Takeshi; Katayama, Shiori; Minakata, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadashi; Yamamizu, Kohei; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sakata, Ryuzo; Yamashita, Jun K.

    2015-01-01

    Poor engraftment of cells after transplantation to the heart is a common and unresolved problem in the cardiac cell therapies. We previously generated cardiovascular cell sheets entirely from pluripotent stem cells with cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and vascular mural cells. Though sheet transplantation showed a better engraftment and improved cardiac function after myocardial infarction, stacking limitation (up to 3 sheets) by hypoxia hampered larger structure formation and long-term survival of the grafts. Here we report an efficient method to overcome the stacking limitation. Insertion of gelatin hydrogel microspheres (GHMs) between each cardiovascular cell sheet broke the viable limitation via appropriate spacing and fluid impregnation with GHMs. Fifteen sheets with GHMs (15-GHM construct; >1 mm thickness) were stacked within several hours and viable after 1 week in vitro. Transplantation of 5-GHM constructs (≈2 × 106 of total cells) to a rat myocardial infarction model showed rapid and sustained functional improvements. The grafts were efficiently engrafted as multiple layered cardiovascular cells accompanied by functional capillary networks. Large engrafted cardiac tissues (0.8 mm thickness with 40 cell layers) successfully survived 3 months after TX. We developed an efficient method to generate thicker viable tissue structures and achieve long-term survival of the cell graft to the heart. PMID:26585309

  17. Sarcopenia is an Independent Predictor of Severe Postoperative Complications and Long-Term Survival After Radical Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer: Analysis from a Large-Scale Cohort.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Huang, Dong-Dong; Pang, Wen-Yang; Zhou, Chong-Jun; Wang, Su-Lin; Lou, Neng; Ma, Liang-Liang; Yu, Zhen; Shen, Xian

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the association between sarcopenia and long-term prognosis after gastric cancer surgery has not been investigated. Moreover, the association between sarcopenia and postoperative complications remains controversial. This large-scale retrospective study aims to ascertain the prevalence of sarcopenia and assess its impact on postoperative complications and long-term survival in patients undergoing radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. From December 2008 to April 2013, the clinical data of all patients who underwent elective radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer were collected prospectively. Only patients with available preoperative abdominal CT scan within 30 days of surgery were considered for analysis. Skeletal muscle mass was determined by abdominal (computed tomography) CT scan, and sarcopenia was diagnosed by the cut-off values obtained by means of optimum stratification. Univariate and multivariate analyses evaluating risk factors of postoperative complications and long-term survival were performed. A total of 937 patients were included in this study, and 389 (41.5%) patients were sarcopenic based on the diagnostic cut-off values (34.9 cm²/m² for women and 40.8 cm²/m² for men). Sarcopenia was an independent risk factor for severe postoperative complications (OR = 3.010, P < 0.001), but not for total complications. However, sarcopenia did not show significant association with operative mortality. Moreover, sarcopenia was an independent predictor for poorer overall survival (HR = 1.653, P < 0.001) and disease-free survival (HR = 1.620, P < 0.001). Under the adjusted tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, sarcopenia remained an independent risk factor for overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with TNM stage II and III, but not in patients with TNM stage I. Sarcopenia is an independent predictive factor of severe postoperative complications after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Moreover, sarcopenia

  18. Factors associated with long-term survival in dogs undergoing liver lobectomy as treatment for liver tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, Jessica R.; Gilson, Stephen D.; Hauptman, Joe; Mehler, Steve J.; May, Lauren R.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe clinicopathologic findings in dogs that underwent surgical treatment of liver tumors and to define outcome-associated variables in this canine population. Medical records of 118 dogs that underwent liver lobectomy were reviewed. Variables were assessed via univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Hazard ratios, median survival times (MSTs), and Kaplan-Meier Survival curves (KMSCs) were created for significant variables. Of the dogs with surgically addressed hepatic tumors, 93% survived to discharge. The MST was not reached. Lethargic dogs had a mortality risk 10.2 times that of non-lethargic dogs. Non-tachypneic dogs had a mortality risk 4.3 times that of tachypneic dogs. Dogs that experienced anesthetic complications had a mortality risk 100 times that of dogs that did not. We conclude that the prognosis associated with liver tumors is good. Lethargy, respiratory rate, and anesthetic complications were associated with outcome. PMID:26028682

  19. A Case of Long-term Survival of Advanced Paratesticular Rhabdomyosarcoma Treated With a Multimodal Therapy Including a Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Doxorubicin and Dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Isono, Makoto; Sato, Akinori; Asano, Tomohiko

    2016-07-01

    There is no established treatment for advanced rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) with metastases at the time of diagnosis. A 17-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of a right scrotal mass. Computed tomography showed multiple lung metastases with pleural effusion and retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis, and bone scintigraphy revealed multiple bone metastases. Right high orchiectomy was performed and the tumor was diagnosed as paratesticular embryonal RMS. He was treated with a multimodal therapy including 17 cycles of combination chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dacarbazine (CYVADIC) and achieved a long-term survival of 4 years. PMID:27335778

  20. Long-term graft outcomes and patient survival are lower posttransplant in patients with a primary renal diagnosis of glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Rishi; McClure, Mark; Casula, Anna; Roderick, Paul J; Fogarty, Damian; Harber, Mark; Ravanan, Rommel

    2016-04-01

    Glomerulonephritis (GN) is the primary diagnosis in 20% to 40% of patients receiving a renal transplant. Here we studied patient survival and graft outcomes in patients with GN transplanted in the UK. UK Renal Registry data were used to analyze patient survival and graft failure in incident transplant patients between 1997 to 2009 who had a diagnosis of primary GN, in comparison to patients transplanted with adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) or diabetes. Multivariable regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, donor type, ethnicity, donor age, time on dialysis, human leukocyte antigen mismatch, cold ischemic time, and graft failure (for patient survival). Patients were followed up through December 2012. Of 4750 patients analyzed, 2975 had GN and 1775 APKD. Graft failure was significantly higher in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) type II (hazard ratio: 3.5, confidence interval: 1.9-6.6), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (2.4, 1.8-3.2), MPGN type I (2.3, 1.6-3.3), membranous nephropathy (2.0, 1.4-2.9), and IgA nephropathy (1.6, 1.3-2.0) compared to APKD. Survival was significantly reduced in patients with MPGN type II (4.7, 2.0-10.8), and those with lupus nephritis (1.8, 1.1-2.9). Overall graft failure for patients with GN was similar to those with diabetes. Thus, in comparison to outcomes in APKD, graft survival is significantly lower in most GNs, with variation in outcomes between different GNs. This information should assist in pretransplant counseling of patients. Further study is required to understand the reduced survival seen in lupus nephritis and MPGN type II, and to improve overall graft outcomes. PMID:26924061

  1. Predicting Long-term Soil Organic Matter Dynamics as affected by Agricultural Management Practice Using the CQESTR Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of soil organic matter (SOM) is important for soil productivity and responsible utilization of crop residues. Carbon (C) models are needed to predict long-term effects of management practices on C storage in soils and to estimate the benefits when considering alternative management practi...

  2. Percutaneous Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Refractory Cardiogenic Shock Is Associated with Improved Short- and Long-Term Survival.

    PubMed

    Hryniewicz, Katarzyna; Sandoval, Yader; Samara, Michael; Bennett, Mosi; Cabuay, Barry; Chavez, Ivan J; Seatter, Susan; Eckman, Peter; Zimbwa, Peter; Dunn, Aaron; Sun, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Mortality due to refractory cardiogenic shock (RCS) exceeds 50%. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) has become an accepted therapy for RCS. The aim of our study was to evaluate outcomes of patients with RCS treated with percutaneous VA-ECMO (pVA-ECMO). Retrospective review of patients supported with VA-ECMO at our institution in 2012-2013. Clinical characteristics, bleeding, vascular complications, and outcomes including survival were assessed. A total of 37 patients were supported with VA-ECMO for RCS. The majority of VA-ECMO (76%) was placed in the catheterization laboratory. Nearly half (49%) of the patients presented with acute myocardial infarction. Seven patients (19%) underwent insertion of pVA-ECMO in the setting of cardiopulmonary resuscitation with mechanical chest compression device. Median duration of support was 5 days. Index hospitalization, 30-day, and 1-year survival were 65%, 65%, and 57%, respectively. Survival rate for discharged patients was 87.5% with a median follow-up of 450 days. Refractory cardiogenic shock supported with pVA-ECMO is associated with an improved survival in patients with a traditionally poor prognosis. PMID:27045967

  3. [Gastrocolonic excision of cancer. Retrospective analysis of the immediate postoperative course and long-term survival in 18 patients].

    PubMed

    Delpero, J R; Le Treut, Y P; Pol, B; Houvenaeghel, G; Brandone, J M; Guérinel, G; Bricot, R

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen patients underwent gastrocolic resection for cancer. Thirteen had primary gastric cancer and 5 had primary colon cancer (two of these 5 patients had local-regional recurrence after right hemicolectomy). Twelve resections were curative and 6 palliative. Twelve patients had more than 2 organs resected. Involvement of adjacent tissues or organs was present in 15 patients (11/13 gastric cancer and 4/5 colon cancer: 83%). All patients had immediate colonic anastomosis. The mean duration of postoperative stay was 22 +/- 8 days (SD). Mortality was 5.6% (1/18). Seven patients had post-operative complications (41%; 7/17); 3 of these 7 patients had anastomotic leakage (one colonic and two pancreatic fistulae; 3/17: 17.6%); the mean duration of postoperative stay for these three patients was 27 +/- 4 jours, (p less than 0.004). One colonic fistula complicated the 18 colonic anastomoses (5.5%). There was no reoperation in this series. The estimated 2-year survival for the entire group was 20%. The median survival was 9.5 mois; the median survival was 13.5 months after curative resections and 5 months after palliative procedure (p less than 0.01). The median survival was 8 months for gastric adenocarcinoma and 36 months for colon adenocarcinoma (p less than 0.05). Despite the poor results in gastric cancer extending to adjacent organs, complete excision is still recommended whenever feasible. Complete excision of advanced colon cancer may lead to prolonged disease-free survival depending on the lymph node status. With an acceptably low mortality, resection remains a better procedure than palliative diversion or exclusion for these advanced tumours. PMID:2619220

  4. Long term survival in persons with hemophilia and chronic hepatitis C: 40 year outcomes of a large single center cohort.

    PubMed

    Eyster, M Elaine; Kong, Lan; Li, Menghan; Schreibman, Ian R

    2016-09-01

    We studied the course of chronic HCV infections in a cohort of 222 persons with hemophilia (PWH) and von Willebrand disease followed at our center since 1973. Twenty two (10%) developed end stage liver disease (ESLD). Forty years after HCV infection, cumulative incidence of ESLD was 12.3% and overall survival was 45.5%. Those who were infected with HCV only (n = 100) had a survival of 75.2%, while those infected with HIV (n = 122) had a survival of 24% (P < 0.001). Survivals were significantly longer for those infected with HCV at younger age (< 15 years) compared to those infected over age 30 years (P = 0.014). Cause specific deaths for ESLD and bleeding were 8.8% and 8.3% respectively. For HIV negative subjects, the annual hazard of death from ESLD and bleeding was near zero for the first 10 years, and then rose slowly over the next 20 years to 0.4/100py for ESLD and 0.2/100py for bleeding. Sixty subjects completed 79 treatment episodes. Sustained viral response rates increased from 7/21 (33%) between 1990 and 2001, to 17/29 (58%) between 2002 and 2011, and to 27/29 (93%), since 2012 with the advent of the directly acting antiviral agents. These results confirm the very slow ESLD progression rate in HIV negative PWH. However, the risk of death from both ESLD and bleeding increases steadily with longer duration of HCV infection. More aggressive surveillance to detect those with early fibrosis is needed now that curative treatment is possible in >95% of individuals. Am. J. Hematol. 91:E335-E340, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27214557

  5. In vivo vascularization of cell sheets provided better long-term tissue survival than injection of cell suspension.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Ryohei; Kuruma, Yosuke; Sekine, Hidekazu; Dobashi, Izumi; Yamato, Masayuki; Umezu, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo

    2016-08-01

    Cell sheets have shown a remarkable ability for repairing damaged myocardium in clinical and preclinical studies. Although they demonstrate a high degree of viability as engrafted cells in vivo, the reason behind their survivability is unclear. In this study, the survival and vascularization of rat cardiac cell sheets transplanted in the subcutaneous tissue of athymic rats were investigated temporally. The cell sheets showed significantly higher survival than cell suspensions for up to 12 months, using an in vivo bioluminescence imaging system to detect luciferase-positive transplanted cells. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay also showed a smaller number of apoptotic cells in the cell sheets than in the cell suspensions at 1 day. Rapid vascular formation and maturation were observed inside the cell sheets using an in vivo imaging system. Leaky vessels appeared at 6 h, red blood cells flowing through functional vessels appeared at 12 h, and morphologically matured vessels appeared at 7 days. In addition, immunostaining of cell sheets with nerve/glial antigen-2 (NG2) showed that vessel maturity increased over time. Interestingly, these results correlated with the dynamics of cell sheet mRNA expression. Genes related to endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation, migration and vessel sprouting were highly expressed within 1 day, and genes related to pericyte recruitment and vessel maturation were highly expressed at 3 days or later. This suggested that the cell sheets could secrete appropriate angiogenic factors in a timely way after transplantation, and this ability might be a key reason for their high survival. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24470393

  6. Long-term survival after resection of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; A Pacilè, Maria; Palumbo, Piero; Vietri, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein is a rare but usually lethal disease. We report the case of a 50-year-old woman, undergoing a curative resection of the tumor. She is alive and free of disease at 88-month follow-up. Surgical excision remains the current optimal treatment able to provide a chance of cure. KEY WORDS: Late survival, Venous leiomyosarcoma. PMID:23132461

  7. Long-term vascular access ports as a means of sedative administration in a rodent fMRI survival model

    PubMed Central

    Hettinger, Patrick C.; Li, Rupeng; Yan, Ji-Geng; Matloub, Hani S.; Cho, Younghoon R.; Pawela, Christopher P.; Rowe, Daniel B.; Hyde, James S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a rodent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) survival model with the use of heparin-coated vascular access devices. Such a model would ease the administration of sedative agents, reduce the number of animals required in a survival experiment, and eliminate animal-to-animal variability seen in previous designs. Seven male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgical placement of an MRI-compatible vascular access port, followed by implantable electrode placement on the right median nerve. Functional MRI during nerve stimulation and resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) were performed at times 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively using a 9.4 T scanner. Anesthesia was maintained using intravenous dexmedetomidine and reversed using atipamezole. There were no fatalities or infectious complications during this study. All vascular access ports remained patent. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation by electrical stimulation of the median nerve using implanted electrodes was seen within the forelimb sensory region (S1FL) for all animals at all time points. The number of activated voxels decreased at time points 4 and 8 weeks, returning to a normal level at 12 weeks, which is attributed to scar tissue formation and resolution around the embedded electrode. The applications of this experiment extend far beyond the scope of peripheral nerve experimentation. These vascular access ports can be applied to any survival MRI study requiring repeated medication administration, intravenous contrast, or blood sampling. PMID:21726581

  8. Pulseless electrical activity and successful out-of-hospital resuscitation – long-term survival and quality of life: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of patients successfully resuscitated from pre-hospital cardiac arrest with initial pulseless electrical activity (PEA), because the long-term outcome of these patients is unknown. Survival, neurological status one year after cardiac arrest and self-perceived quality of life after five years were assessed. Methods This retrospective study included adult patients resuscitated from PEA between August 2001 and March 2003 in three urban areas in southern Finland. A validated questionnaire was sent to patients while neurological status according to the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) -classification was assessed based on medical database notes recorded during follow-up evaluations. Results Out of 99 included patients in whom resuscitation was attempted, 41 (41%) were successfully resuscitated and admitted to hospital. Ten (10%) patients were discharged from hospital. Seven were alive after one year and six after five years following cardiac arrest. Five of the seven patients alive one year after resuscitation presented with the same functional level as prior to cardiac arrest. Conclusions Patients with initial PEA have been considered to have poor prognosis, but in our material, half of those who survived to hospital discharge were still alive after 5 years. Their self-assessed quality of life seems to be good with only mild to moderate impairments in activities of daily life. PMID:23110711

  9. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase Ugp1 is involved in oxidative stress response and long-term survival during stationary phase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dae-Gwan; Huh, Won-Ki

    2015-11-27

    Ugp1, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism because it provides UDP-glucose that is a pivotal metabolite in several metabolic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we show that a considerable reduction of glycogen and trehalose content in ugp1 knockdown cells is rescued by complementing the expression of Ugp1, indicating that Ugp1 is required for the production of storage carbohydrates. Because of the specific function of trehalose as a stress protectant, Ugp1 expression contributed to oxidative stress response and long-term cell survival during stationary phase. Furthermore, the modulation of Ugp1 level readjusted glycogen and trehalose accumulation in the protein kinase A (PKA)-related gene mutants. The PKA-dependent phenotypes of oxidative stress resistance and long-term cell survival were also alleviated via adjustment of Ugp1 level. Collectively, our data suggest that the regulation of UPG1 influences several PKA-dependent processes by adjusting the levels of various carbohydrates. PMID:26498530

  10. Effect of mu Agonists on Long-Term Survival and Recurrence in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Qu, Xiao; Wang, Ying; Shen, Hongchang; Liu, Qi; Du, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Opioids are widely used for postoperative analgesia. Morphine may have an effect on cell replication, migration, and cancer recurrence. However, the association of postoperative mu agonists with outcome of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients has not been fully investigated. We retrospectively evaluated the impact of postoperative mu agonists on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in early stage NSCLC patients. Patients and relevant medical information were selected from the Bio-Bank of Shandong Provincial Hospital. Difference of clinicopathologic information in postoperative mu agonists group and no mu agonists group was analyzed by χ2 test. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were conducted and represented as hazards ratio and 95% confidence interval form. The primary endpoint was OS and secondary endpoint was DFS. This retrospective study included 984 consecutive NSCLC patients who underwent surgery between January 2006 and December 2011. No significant difference existed between postoperative mu agonists usage group and no mu agonists usage group in clinicopathologic information except operation type (P = 0.041). Postoperative mu agonists usage was related to shorter OS (HR 1.514, 95% CI 1.197–1.916, P = 0.001) and shorter DFS (HR 1.415, 95% CI 1.123–1.781, P = 0.003) in the multivariate Cox regression model. For the patients who received postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy postoperative mu agonists also predict shorter survival (HR 1.437, 95% CI 1.041–1.982, P = 0.027). Subgroup analysis showed that administration of postoperative mu agonists was related to shorter OS, especially in males, more smoking, poor differential degree, bilobectomy or pneumonectomy, and stage III subgroup, respectively. Administration of postoperative mu agonists was related to shorter OS and DFS for the NSCLC patients who underwent surgery. PMID:26287418

  11. Impact on long-term survival of the number of lymph nodes resected in patients with pT1N0 gastric cancer after R0 resection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiuda; Du, Feng; Zhang, Yu; Kan, Jie; Dong, Li; Shen, Guoshuang; Zheng, Fangchao; Chen, Hui; Zhao, Junhui; Ji, Faxiang; Luo, Yang; Ma, Fei; Wang, Ziyi; Xu, Binghe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although studies on the association between the number of lymph nodes resected and prognosis in patients with pT2–4N0 stages of gastric cancer have reported consistent results, there is no consensus on the optimal number of lymph nodes to be examined for pT1N0 stage gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of the number of lymph nodes removed on the outcomes of patients with pT1N0 stage gastric cancer after R0 resection. From December 2009 to December 2011, 227 patients undergoing R0 resection of pT1N0 stage gastric cancer at 4 Chinese centers were enrolled in this study. Patients were assigned to 2 groups according to the number of lymph nodes dissected (≤15 or > 15). Standard survival methods and restricted multivariable Cox regression models were applied. More women (P = 0.031) were in the ≤15 group than in the >15 group. The mean number of lymph nodes removed from women was greater than that from men (P = 0.007). The 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in the >15 lymph nodes resected group than the ≤15 group. The number of lymph nodes resected was identified as an independent prognostic factor and was significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). A lymphadenectomy with dissection of more than 15 lymph nodes improved the long-term survival of patients with pT1N0 gastric cancer after R0 resection. Therefore, it is necessary to consider removing more than 15 lymph nodes among such patients. PMID:27495062

  12. Cell Adhesion and Long-Term Survival of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Prerequisite for Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seahyoung; Choi, Eunhyun; Cha, Min-Ji; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The literature provides abundant evidence that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive resource for therapeutics and have beneficial effects in regenerating injured tissues due to their self-renewal ability and broad differentiation potential. Although the therapeutic potential of MSCs has been proven in both preclinical and clinical studies, several questions have not yet been addressed. A major limitation to the use of MSCs in clinical applications is their poor viability at the site of injury due to the harsh microenvironment and to anoikis driven by the loss of cell adhesion. To improve the survival of the transplanted MSCs, strategies to regulate apoptotic signaling and enhance cell adhesion have been developed, such as pretreatment with cytokines, growth factors, and antiapoptotic molecules, genetic modifications, and hypoxic preconditioning. More appropriate animal models and a greater understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of MSCs will be required for their successful clinical application. Nevertheless, the development of stem cell therapies using MSCs has the potential to treat degenerative diseases. This review discusses various approaches to improving MSC survival by inhibiting anoikis. PMID:25722795

  13. Long-Term Prophylactic Antibiotic Treatment: Effects on Survival, Immunocompetence and Reproduction Success of Parasemia plantaginis (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dickel, Franziska; Freitak, Dalial; Mappes, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of insect species are nowadays reared under laboratory conditions. Rearing of insects always implicates the risk of diseases, among which microbial infections are the most frequent and difficult problems. Although there are effective prophylactic treatments, the side effects of applied antibiotics are not well understood. We examined the effect of prophylactic antibiotic treatment on the overwintering success of wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) larvae, and the postdiapause effect on their life-history traits. Four weeks before hibernation larvae were treated with a widely used antibiotic (fumagillin). We monitored moths’ survival and life-history traits during the following 10 mo, and compared them to those of untreated control larvae. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment had no effect on survival but we show effects on some life-history traits by decreasing the developmental time of treated larvae. However, we also revealed relevant negative effects, as antibiotic treated individuals show a decreased number of laid eggs and also furthermore a suppressed immunocompetence. These results implicate, that a prophylactic medication can also lead to negative effects on life-history traits and reproductive success, which should be seriously taken in consideration when applying a prophylactic treatment to laboratory reared insect populations. PMID:27271967

  14. Long-Term Prophylactic Antibiotic Treatment: Effects on Survival, Immunocompetence and Reproduction Success of Parasemia plantaginis (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Dickel, Franziska; Freitak, Dalial; Mappes, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of insect species are nowadays reared under laboratory conditions. Rearing of insects always implicates the risk of diseases, among which microbial infections are the most frequent and difficult problems. Although there are effective prophylactic treatments, the side effects of applied antibiotics are not well understood. We examined the effect of prophylactic antibiotic treatment on the overwintering success of wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) larvae, and the postdiapause effect on their life-history traits. Four weeks before hibernation larvae were treated with a widely used antibiotic (fumagillin). We monitored moths' survival and life-history traits during the following 10 mo, and compared them to those of untreated control larvae. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment had no effect on survival but we show effects on some life-history traits by decreasing the developmental time of treated larvae. However, we also revealed relevant negative effects, as antibiotic treated individuals show a decreased number of laid eggs and also furthermore a suppressed immunocompetence. These results implicate, that a prophylactic medication can also lead to negative effects on life-history traits and reproductive success, which should be seriously taken in consideration when applying a prophylactic treatment to laboratory reared insect populations. PMID:27271967

  15. [Two long-term survival cases of unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma treated with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy and radiation therapy].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Hisateru; Kanazawa, Akishige; Tsukamoto, Tadashi; Shimizu, Sadatoshi; Ishikawa, Akira; Mori, Yoshihiro; Nakajima, Takayoshi; Ohira, Go; Kodai, Shintaro; Morimoto, Junya; Yamazoe, Sadaaki; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshito; Nishiguchi, Yukio; Ikehara, Teruyuki; Taira, Koichi; Horii, Katsuhiko; Yamazaki, Osamu

    2012-11-01

    The prognosis for patients with unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma(ICC) is extremely poor. Case 1 was a 65- year-old woman who had an ICC of 9 cm in diameter (mass-forming type) in the right lobe with portal trunk invasion. She was treated with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy[cisplatin(CDDP)/5-fluorouracil(5-FU)/l-leucovorin(l-LV)] and radiation therapy (total dose, 50 Gy). After 6 months, abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed that the tumor had regressed. She survived for 7 years without recurrence of the ICC; subsequently, she died of peritoneal cancer. Case 2 was a 59-year-old woman who had an ICC of 8 cm in diameter (mass-forming type) in the left lobe with lymph node metastasis in the hepatoduodenal ligament; the right hepatic artery was involved by the metastatic lymph nodes. She was treated with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy(CDDP/5-FU/l-LV) and radiation therapy(total dose, 30 Gy). After 10 months, abdominal CT revealed that the tumor had disappeared, but paraaortic and mediastinal lymph node metastases were detected. She was therefore treated with systemic chemotherapy. Treatment with systematic chemotherapy enabled her to survive for over 5 years with a good performance status. PMID:23267958

  16. The predicting value of postoperative body temperature on long-term survival in patients with rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huichuan; Luo, Yanxin; Peng, Hui; Kang, Liang; Huang, Meijin; Luo, Shuangling; Chen, Wenhao; Yang, Zihuan; Wang, Jianping

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between postoperative body temperature and prognosis in patients with rectal cancer. Five hundred and seven patients with stage I to III rectal cancers were enrolled in the current study. Basal body temperature (BBT, measured at 6 am) and maximal body temperature (MBT) on each day after surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two equal groups according to the median of BBT and MBT at each day. The primary end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that patients with low D0-MBT (<37.4 °C) had lower 3-year DFS [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.56 (95 % CI 1.08-2.24, P = 0.017)] as well as OS [adjusted HR 1.72 (95 % CI 1.05-2.82, P = 0.032)] rate as compared to those with high D0-MBT (>37.4 °C). In the subset of 318 patients with T3 stage tumor and the subgroup of 458 patients without blood transfusion as well, low D0-MBT continues to be an independent predictor of DFS/OS with an adjusted HR equal to 1.48 (95 % CI 1.02-2.24, P = 0.046)/1.68 (95 % CI 1.04-2.99, P = 0.048) and 1.45 (95 % CI 1.02-2.13, P = 0.048)/1.59 (95 % CI 1.01-2.74, P = 0.049), respectively. In addition, we found that patients have higher risk of 1-year recurrence if those were exhibiting low preoperative BBT (<36.6 °C) (17 vs. 10 %, P = 0.034). Low body temperature (D0-MBT < 37.4 °C) after surgery was an independent predictor of poor survival outcomes in patients with rectal cancer. PMID:25976505

  17. [Long-Term Disease-Free Survival through Postoperative Chemotherapy in a Case of Gastric Cancer with Peritoneal Dissemination].

    PubMed

    Nakade, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Sohei; Wakatsuki, Kohei; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Migita, Kazuhiro; Ito, Masahiro; Kunishige, Tomohiro; Kitano, Mutsuko; Nakatani, Mitsuhiro; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    An 80-year-old man with type 4 gastric cancer in the mid-gastric region underwent total gastrectomy and D2-No.10 lymph-node dissection (cT4a, N0, M0, cStageⅡB). Several nodules were detected under the left diaphragm, some of which were biopsied. Pathological findings indicated a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, pT4a (SE), pN3b, pM1 (P1, CY1), pStage Ⅳ. Systemic chemotherapy was initiated, using a regimen of S-1/docetaxel (DOC). After 6 courses of combination therapy, we switched to S-1 alone, which was continued for 1 year. Eighteen months after the surgery the patient discontinued S-1 treatment and has since survived for 5 years with no obvious cancer recurrence. PMID:26805262

  18. Long-term survival of murine allogeneic bone marrow chimeras: effect of anti-lymphocyte serum and bone marrow dose

    SciTech Connect

    Norin, A.J.; Emeson, E.E.; Veith, F.J.

    1981-02-01

    Graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) and failure of donor stem cells to engraft permanently are two major obstacles to successful bone marrow transplantation. The effect of a single large dose of anti-lymphocyte serum (ALS) on mice receiving various numbers of H-2 incompatible bone marrow cells was evaluated. Most animals receiving lethal total body irradiation (TBI) and allogeneic marrow died within 45 days due to GVHD. Mice that were given ALS 6 to 24 h before TBI and bone marrow 24 h after irradiation survived in good health for more than 200 days. These cell preparations caused lethal GVHD in third party mice indicating that the lack of alloreactivity was specific to the strain in which the unresponsiveness was originally induced.

  19. Long-term cumulative survival and mechanical complications of single-tooth Ankylos Implants: focus on the abutment neck fractures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the cumulative survival rate (CSR) and mechanical complications of single-tooth Ankylos® implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a retrospective clinical study that analyzed 450 single Ankylos® implants installed in 275 patients between December 2005 and December 2012. The main outcomes were survival results CSR and implant failure) and mechanical complications (screw loosening, fracture, and cumulative fracture rate [CFR]). The main outcomes were analyzed according to age, sex, implant length or diameter, bone graft, arch, and position. RESULTS The 8-year CSR was 96.9%. Thirteen (2.9%) implants failed because of early osseointegration failure in 3, marginal bone loss in 6, and abutment fracture in 4. Screw loosening occurred in 10 implants (2.2%), and 10 abutment fractures occurred. All abutment fractures were located in the neck, and concurrent screw fractures were observed. The CSR and rate of screw loosening did not differ significantly according to factors. The CFR was higher in middle-aged patients (5.3% vs 0.0% in younger and older patients); for teeth in a molar position (5.8% vs 0.0% for premolar or 1.1% for anterior position); and for larger-diameter implants (4.5% for 4.5 mm and 6.7% for 5.5 mm diameter vs 0.5% for 3.5 mm diameter) (all P<.05). CONCLUSION The Ankylos® implant is suitable for single-tooth restoration in Koreans. However, relatively frequent abutment fractures (2.2%) were observed and some fractures resulted in implant failures. Middle-aged patients, the molar position, and a large implant diameter were associated with a high incidence of abutment fracture. PMID:26813443

  20. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  1. Investigating molecular alterations to profile short- and long-term recurrence-free survival in patients with primary glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    FRANCESCHI, SARA; MAZZANTI, CHIARA M.; LESSI, FRANCESCA; ARETINI, PAOLO; CARBONE, FRANCESCO G.; LA FERLA, MARCO; SCATENA, CRISTIAN; ORTENZI, VALERIO; VANNOZZI, RICCARDO; FANELLI, GIOVANNI; PASQUALETTI, FRANCESCO; BEVILACQUA, GENEROSO; ZAVAGLIA, KATIA; NACCARATO, ANTONIO G.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most aggressive type of primary brain tumor. Despite the progress in recent years regarding the diagnosis and treatment of GB, the recurrence rate remains high, due to the infiltrative and dispersive nature of the tumor, which typically results in poor patient prognosis. In the present study, 19 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded GB samples were selected from patients with GB tumors. The samples were classified into a short or long recurrence-free survival (RFS) group, based on the time of first recurrence of the disease in the patients. The 19 samples were molecularly characterized for mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene, amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, presence of the EGFR variant III, and methylation of the promoter region of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene. Then, the expression of 84 genes involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and that of 84 microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with brain cancer, was profiled. In addition, a copy number variation analysis of 23 genes reported to undergo frequent genomic alterations in human glioma was also performed. Differences in the expression levels of a number of genes were detected across the short and long RFS groups. Among these genes, 5 in particular were selected, and a 5-genes combination approach was developed, which was able to differentiate between patients with short and long RFS outcome. The high levels of sensitivity and precision displayed by this 5-genes combination approach, which were confirmed with a cross-validation method, provide a strong foundation for further validation of the involvement of the aforementioned genes in GB in a larger patient population. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated how the expression pattern of miRNAs and mRNAs in patients with GB defines a particular molecular hallmark that may increase or reduce the aggressive behavior of GB tumors, thus influencing the

  2. Long-term survival in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion: a model of malignant stroke in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shanbhag, Nagesh C.; Henning, Robert H.; Schilling, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) by an intraluminal filament is widely used to study focal brain ischemia in male Sprague-Dawley rats. However, permanent occlusion goes along with a high fatality. To overcome this drawback we designed a new filament carrying a bowling pin-shaped tip (BP-tip) and compared this with three conventionally tipped filaments. Follow-up periods were 24 h (all groups) and 72 and 120 h in BP-tip group. Ischemic damage and swelling were quantified using silver nitrate staining. Collateral flow via the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) was assessed using selective dye perfusion of the internal carotid artery. Despite a comparable decrease of brain perfusion in all groups, ischemic damage was significantly smaller in BP-tips (p < 0.05). Moreover, BP-tip significantly reduced mortality from 60% to 12.5% and widely spared the occipital region and hypothalamus from ischemic damage. Conventional but not BP-tip filaments induced vascular distortion, measured as gross displacement of the MCA origin, which correlated with occipital infarction size. Accordingly, BP-tip occluded rats showed a significantly better collateral filling of the PCA territory. Ischemic volume significantly increased in BP-tip occlusion at 72 h follow-up. BP-tip filaments offer superior survival in permanent MCA occlusion, while mimicking the course of a malignant stroke in patients. PMID:27329690

  3. Long-term survival in a child with severe encephalopathy, multiple respiratory chain deficiency and GFM1 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Sara; Thompson, Kyle; Campistol, Jaume; Colomer, Jaime; Hardy, Steven A.; He, Langping; Fernández-Marmiesse, Ana; Palacios, Lourdes; Jou, Cristina; Jiménez-Mallebrera, Cecilia; Armstrong, Judith; Montero, Raquel; Artuch, Rafael; Tischner, Christin; Wenz, Tina; McFarland, Robert; Taylor, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mitochondrial diseases due to deficiencies in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) can be associated with nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial translation, causing heterogeneous early onset and often fatal phenotypes. Case report: The authors describe the clinical features and diagnostic workup of an infant who presented with an early onset severe encephalopathy, spastic-dystonic tetraparesis, failure to thrive, seizures and persistent lactic acidemia. Brain imaging revealed thinning of the corpus callosum and diffuse alteration of white matter signal. Genetic investigation confirmed two novel mutations in the GFM1 gene, encoding the mitochondrial translation elongation factor G1 (mtEFG1), resulting in combined deficiencies of OXPHOS. Discussion: The patient shares multiple clinical, laboratory and radiological similarities with the 11 reported patients with mutations involving this gene, but presents with a stable clinical course without metabolic decompensations, rather than a rapidly progressive fatal course. Defects in GFM1 gene confer high susceptibility to neurologic or hepatic dysfunction and this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first described patient who has survived beyond early childhood. Reporting of such cases is essential so as to delineate the key clinical and neuroradiological features of this disease and provide a more comprehensive view of its prognosis. PMID:25852744

  4. Multidimensional Geriatric Prognostic Index, Based on a Geriatric Assessment, for Long-Term Survival in Older Adults in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Kim, Jin Won; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Kayoung; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Il; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Ki Woong

    2016-01-01

    The patient´s survival estimate is important for clinical decision-making, especially in frail patients with multimorbidities. We aimed to develop a multidimensional geriatric prognosis index (GPI) for 3- and 5-year mortality in community-dwelling elderly and to validate the GPI in a separate hospital-based population. The GPI was constructed using data for 988 participants in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA) and cross-validated with 1109 patients who underwent a geriatric assessment at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH). The GPI, with a total possible score of 8, included age, gender, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, comorbidities, mood, cognitive function, and nutritional status. During the 5-year observation period, 179 KLoSHA participants (18.1%) and 340 SNUBH patients (30.7%) died. The c-indices for 3- and 5-year mortality were 0.78 and 0.80, respectively, in the KLoSHA group and 0.73 and 0.80, respectively, in the SNUBH group. Positive linear trends were observed for GPI scores and both 3- and 5-year mortality in both groups. In conclusions, using common components of a geriatric assessment, the GPI can stratify the risk of 3- and 5-year mortality in Korean elderly people both in the community and hospital. PMID:26771562

  5. Multidimensional Geriatric Prognostic Index, Based on a Geriatric Assessment, for Long-Term Survival in Older Adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hee-Won; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Kayoung; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Il; Kim, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The patient´s survival estimate is important for clinical decision-making, especially in frail patients with multimorbidities. We aimed to develop a multidimensional geriatric prognosis index (GPI) for 3- and 5-year mortality in community-dwelling elderly and to validate the GPI in a separate hospital-based population. The GPI was constructed using data for 988 participants in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA) and cross-validated with 1109 patients who underwent a geriatric assessment at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH). The GPI, with a total possible score of 8, included age, gender, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, comorbidities, mood, cognitive function, and nutritional status. During the 5-year observation period, 179 KLoSHA participants (18.1%) and 340 SNUBH patients (30.7%) died. The c-indices for 3- and 5-year mortality were 0.78 and 0.80, respectively, in the KLoSHA group and 0.73 and 0.80, respectively, in the SNUBH group. Positive linear trends were observed for GPI scores and both 3- and 5-year mortality in both groups. In conclusions, using common components of a geriatric assessment, the GPI can stratify the risk of 3- and 5-year mortality in Korean elderly people both in the community and hospital. PMID:26771562

  6. Parenteral adenoviral boost enhances BCG induced protection, but not long term survival in a murine model of bovine TB.

    PubMed

    Kaveh, Daryan A; Garcia-Pelayo, M Carmen; Webb, Paul R; Wooff, Esen E; Bachy, Véronique S; Hogarth, Philip J

    2016-07-25

    Boosting BCG using heterologous prime-boost represents a promising strategy for improved tuberculosis (TB) vaccines, and adenovirus (Ad) delivery is established as an efficacious boosting vehicle. Although studies demonstrate that intranasal administration of Ad boost to BCG offers optimal protection, this is not currently possible in cattle. Using Ad vaccine expressing the mycobacterial antigen TB10.4 (BCG/Ad-TB10.4), we demonstrate, parenteral boost of BCG immunised mice to induce specific CD8(+) IFN-γ producing T cells via synergistic priming of new epitopes. This induces significant improvement in pulmonary protection against Mycobacterium bovis over that provided by BCG when assessed in a standard 4week challenge model. However, in a stringent, year-long survival study, BCG/Ad-TB10.4 did not improve outcome over BCG, which we suggest may be due to the lack of additional memory cells (IL-2(+)) induced by boosting. These data indicate BCG-prime/parenteral-Ad-TB10.4-boost to be a promising candidate, but also highlight the need for further understanding of the mechanisms of T cell priming and associated memory using Ad delivery systems. That we were able to generate significant improvement in pulmonary protection above BCG with parenteral, rather than mucosal administration of boost vaccine is critical; suggesting that the generation of effective mucosal immunity is possible, without the risks and challenges of mucosal administration, but that further work to specifically enhance sustained protective immunity is required. PMID:27317453

  7. NGF and anti-transferrin receptor antibody conjugate: short and long-term effects on survival of cholinergic neurons in intraocular septal transplants.

    PubMed

    Granholm, A C; Bäckman, C; Bloom, F; Ebendal, T; Gerhardt, G A; Hoffer, B; Mackerlova, L; Olson, L; Söderström, S; Walus, L R

    1994-01-01

    We describe a new molecular carrier system that allows for the transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), as assessed by trophic effects on intraocular forebrain transplants that contain central cholinergic neurons. The carrier system involves monoclonal antibodies (OX-26) directed against the transferrin receptor, to which NGF molecules are covalently linked. Transferrin receptors are highly concentrated on brain blood vessels and participate in the transport of iron across the BBB. Host rats with septal transplants were divided into four groups, which received OX-26-NGF, OX-26, NGF or saline intravenously at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after grafting. Half of the animals were killed directly after the final injection, whereas the other half were allowed to survive for an additional 5 months. Control experiments revealed that blood vessels in mature brain grafts in oculo contained large amounts of transferrin receptors. Covalent binding of NGF to the OX-26 antibodies did not impede OX-26 binding to CNS transferrin receptors, nor did conjugation affect the bioactivity of NGF. A time-dependent increase in host brain NGF levels was found after injection of OX-26-NGF into the tail vein. Host serum contained some NGF antibodies in the short-term OX-26-NGF group that had disappeared in the long-term group; host adrenals showed no differences in wet weight or norepinephrine or epinephrine whole tissue levels in any of the groups. As previously reported, the overall growth of intraocular septal transplants was approximately twice as great in the OX-26-NGF group relative to all other groups. This difference in final size persisted unabated for at least 5 months after the last injection. Furthermore, the significantly higher numbers of choline acetyl transferase immunoreactive neurons in transplants of OX-26-NGF-treated hosts also persisted during the 5-month postinjection interval. Taken together, the data suggest that the OX-26 conjugate may be a

  8. Predictors of the short- and long-term survival of HIV-infected patients admitted to a Brazilian intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Amâncio, F F; Lambertucci, J R; Cota, G F; Antunes, C M

    2012-10-01

    The outcomes of HIV-infected patients requiring critical care have improved. However, in developing countries, information about HIV-infected patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) is scarce. We describe the prognosis of HIV-infected patients admitted to a Brazilian ICU and the factors predictive of short- and long-term survival. A historical cohort study, including HIV-infected patients admitted to a Brazilian ICU at an HIV/AIDS reference hospital, was conducted. Survivors were followed up for 24 months after ICU discharge. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, disease severity scores and mortality were evaluated. Data were analysed using survival and regression models. One hundred and twenty-five patients were studied. In-ICU and in-hospital mortality rates were 46.4% and 68.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the in-ICU mortality was significantly associated with APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II scores (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.11), mechanical ventilation (OR, 6.39; 95% CI, 1.29-31.76), tuberculosis treatment (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.03-6.71), use of antiretroviral therapy (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05-0.77) and septic shock (OR, 4.38; 95% CI, 1.78-10.76). Septic shock was also associated with long-term survival (hazard ratio, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.31-6.90). In-hospital and in-ICU mortality were higher than those reported for developed countries. ICU admission mostly due to AIDS-related diseases may explain these differences. PMID:23104742

  9. Impact of coexisting multivessel coronary artery disease on short-term outcomes and long-term survival of patients treated with carotid stenting

    PubMed Central

    Špaček, Miloslav; Horváth, Martin; Štěchovský, Cyril; Homolová, Ingrid; Zimolová, Petra; Hájek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Systemic atherosclerosis can result in both coronary artery disease (CAD) and carotid artery disease. Recently it has been shown that patients with CAD have a higher incidence of microembolization during carotid artery stenting (CAS), and it has been hypothesized that they could be at higher risk in this intervention. Material and methods We retrospectively evaluated an institutional registry with 437 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography and CAS to evaluate their short-term outcomes and long-term survival with regard to the presence of coexisting multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD). Results We performed 220 CAS procedures in MVD patients and 318 CAS procedures in non-MVD patients. The incidence of in-hospital CAS-related adverse events was 2.7% and 2.5% in the MVD and non-MVD groups, respectively (p = 0.88). At 30 days, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the number of patients with adverse events (hierarchically death/stroke/myocardial infarction; 8.8% vs. 5.5%; p = 0.18). The median duration of follow-up was 4.23 years. Survival free of all-cause mortality at 1, 3 and 5 years was 90% (95% CI: 86–94%), 79% (95% CI: 73–85%) and 70% (95% CI: 64–77%), and 92% (95% CI: 89–95%), 85% (95% CI: 80–90%) and 76% (95% CI: 70–82%) for the MVD and non-MVD groups (p = 0.02), respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that patients with MVD combined with carotid artery disease are probably not at higher risk of early post-CAS adverse clinical events, but they have significantly worse long-term survival rates. PMID:27478456

  10. Longer waiting times for early stage cervical cancer patients undergoing radical hysterectomy are associated with diminished long-term overall survival

    PubMed Central

    Nanthamongkolkul, Kulisara

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of surgical waiting time on clinical outcome in early stage cervical cancer. Methods The cohort consisted of 441 patients diagnosed with stages IA2-IB1cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic node dissection. The patients were divided into two groups based on surgical waiting time. The associations between waiting time and other potential prognostic factors with clinical outcome were evaluated. Results The median surgical waiting time was 43 days. Deep stromal invasion (hazard ratio [HR], 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 4.6; p=0.003) and lymph node metastasis (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.7; p=0.026) were identified as independent prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival while no prognostic significance of surgical waiting time was found (p=0.677). On multivariate analysis of overall survival (OS), only deep stromal invasion (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 5.0; p=0.009) and lymph node metastasis (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.5 to 8.6; p=0.009) were identified as independent prognostic factors for OS. Although OS showed no significant difference between short (≤8 weeks) and long (>8 weeks) waiting times, multivariate analysis of OS with time-varying effects revealed that a waiting time longer than 8 weeks was associated with poorer long-term survival (after 5 years; HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.3 to 9.2; p=0.021). Conclusion A longer surgical waiting time was associated with diminished long-term OS of early stage cervical cancer patients. PMID:26404122

  11. Leukemia prevention and long-term survival of AKR mice transplanted with MHC-matched or MHC-mismatched bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Longley, R.E.; Good, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    The current studies were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of marrow transplantation within and outside the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the long-term survival and occurrence of spontaneous leukemia in AKR mice. AKR mice, which were lethally irradiated and received MHC-matched marrow from CBA/J mice (CBA----AKR), never developed leukemia and were alive and remained healthy for up to 280 days post-transplant. These long-term surviving chimeras possessed substantial immune vigor when both cell-mediated and humoral responses were tested. Lethally irradiated AKR mice, which had received MHC-mismatched marrow (anti-Thy-1.2 treated or nontreated) from C57BL/6J mice (B6----AKR), never developed leukemia and survived up to 170 days post-transplant. However, both groups of these chimeras began dying 180 to 270 days post-transplant due to a disease process which could not be readily identified. Histological analysis of B6----AKR chimeras revealed severe lymphoid cell depletion in thymus and spleen; however, none of these chimeras exhibited classical features of acute graft versus host disease. Concanavalin A mitogenesis, primary antibody responses to sheep red blood cells and the production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) were suppressed in B6----AKR chimeras. IL-2 treatment of B6----AKR chimeras was shown to partially correct these deficiencies without stimulating mixed lymphocyte responsiveness to donor or host lymphocytes. These studies indicate that the use of MHC-mismatched marrow for the prevention of spontaneous AKR leukemia may rely on augmentative IL-2 therapy for complete immune reconstitution of leukemia-free chimeras.

  12. Long-term asymmetric hearing affects cochlear implantation outcomes differently in adults with pre- and postlingual hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Isabelle; McMahon, Catherine M; Dowell, Richard C; Lyxell, Björn

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, a single cochlear implant is offered as a treatment for a bilateral hearing loss. In cases where there is asymmetry in the amount of sound deprivation between the ears, there is a dilemma in choosing which ear should be implanted. In many clinics, the choice of ear has been guided by an assumption that the reorganisation of the auditory pathways caused by longer duration of deafness in one ear is associated with poorer implantation outcomes for that ear. This assumption, however, is mainly derived from studies of early childhood deafness. This study compared outcomes following implantation of the better or poorer ear in cases of long-term hearing asymmetries. Audiological records of 146 adults with bilateral hearing loss using a single hearing aid were reviewed. The unaided ear had 15 to 72 years of unaided severe to profound hearing loss before unilateral cochlear implantation. 98 received the implant in their long-term sound-deprived ear. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the relative contribution of potential predictors to speech recognition performance after implantation. Duration of bilateral significant hearing loss and the presence of a prelingual hearing loss explained the majority of variance in speech recognition performance following cochlear implantation. For participants with postlingual hearing loss, similar outcomes were obtained by implanting either ear. With prelingual hearing loss, poorer outcomes were obtained when implanting the long-term sound-deprived ear, but the duration of the sound deprivation in the implanted ear did not reliably predict outcomes. Contrary to an apparent clinical consensus, duration of sound deprivation in one ear has limited value in predicting speech recognition outcomes of cochlear implantation in that ear. Outcomes of cochlear implantation are more closely related to the period of time for which the brain is deprived of auditory stimulation from both ears. PMID:26043227

  13. Long-Term Asymmetric Hearing Affects Cochlear Implantation Outcomes Differently in Adults with Pre- and Postlingual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Boisvert, Isabelle; McMahon, Catherine M.; Dowell, Richard C.; Lyxell, Björn

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, a single cochlear implant is offered as a treatment for a bilateral hearing loss. In cases where there is asymmetry in the amount of sound deprivation between the ears, there is a dilemma in choosing which ear should be implanted. In many clinics, the choice of ear has been guided by an assumption that the reorganisation of the auditory pathways caused by longer duration of deafness in one ear is associated with poorer implantation outcomes for that ear. This assumption, however, is mainly derived from studies of early childhood deafness. This study compared outcomes following implantation of the better or poorer ear in cases of long-term hearing asymmetries. Audiological records of 146 adults with bilateral hearing loss using a single hearing aid were reviewed. The unaided ear had 15 to 72 years of unaided severe to profound hearing loss before unilateral cochlear implantation. 98 received the implant in their long-term sound-deprived ear. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the relative contribution of potential predictors to speech recognition performance after implantation. Duration of bilateral significant hearing loss and the presence of a prelingual hearing loss explained the majority of variance in speech recognition performance following cochlear implantation. For participants with postlingual hearing loss, similar outcomes were obtained by implanting either ear. With prelingual hearing loss, poorer outcomes were obtained when implanting the long-term sound-deprived ear, but the duration of the sound deprivation in the implanted ear did not reliably predict outcomes. Contrary to an apparent clinical consensus, duration of sound deprivation in one ear has limited value in predicting speech recognition outcomes of cochlear implantation in that ear. Outcomes of cochlear implantation are more closely related to the period of time for which the brain is deprived of auditory stimulation from both ears. PMID:26043227

  14. Montessori-based activities for long-term care residents with advanced dementia: effects on engagement and affect.

    PubMed

    Orsulic-Jeras, S; Judge, K S; Camp, C J

    2000-02-01

    Sixteen residents in long-term care with advanced dementia (14 women; average age = 88) showed significantly more constructive engagement (defined as motor or verbal behaviors in response to an activity), less passive engagement (defined as passively observing an activity), and more pleasure while participating in Montessori-based programming than in regularly scheduled activities programming. Principles of Montessori-based programming, along with examples of such programming, are presented. Implications of the study and methods for expanding the use of Montessori-based dementia programming are discussed. PMID:10750318

  15. Long-Term Survival and Local Relapse Following Surgery Without Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Upper Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Seok; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Simon, NG Siu Man; Law, Wai Lun; Kim, Hyeong Rok; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shan, Hester Cheung Yui; Kwak, Sang Gyu; Choi, Gyu-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Controversy remains regarding whether preoperative chemoradiation protocol should be applied uniformly to all rectal cancer patients regardless of tumor height. This pooled analysis was designed to evaluate whether preoperative chemoradiation can be safely omitted in higher rectal cancer. An international consortium of 7 institutions was established. A review of the database that was collected from January 2004 to May 2008 identified a series of 2102 patients with stage II/III rectal or sigmoid cancer (control arm) without concurrent chemoradiation. Data regarding patient demographics, recurrence pattern, and oncological outcomes were analyzed. The primary end point was the 5-year local recurrence rate. The local relapse rate of the sigmoid colon cancer (SC) and upper rectal cancer (UR) cohorts was significantly lower than that of the mid/low rectal cancer group (M-LR), with 5-year estimates of 2.5% for the SC group, 3.5% for the UR group, and 11.1% for the M-LR group, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed that tumor depth, nodal metastasis, venous invasion, and lower tumor level were strongly associated with local recurrence. The cumulative incidence rate of local failure was 90.6%, 92.5%, and 94.4% for tumors located within 5, 7, and 9 cm from the anal verge, respectively. Routine use of preoperative chemoradiation for stage II/III rectal tumors located more than 8 to 9 cm above the anal verge would be excessive. The integration of a more individualized approach focused on systemic control is warranted to improve survival in patients with upper rectal cancer. PMID:27258487

  16. Long-term survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in seawater and in experimentally infected mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Tamburrini, A; Pozio, E

    1999-05-01

    Transmission of infectious oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum via surface- and drinking-water supplies has been reported and many surface waters flow into the sea, potentially causing runoff of animal-infected faeces. Eating raw mussels is a common practice in many countries, increasing the public's risk of acquiring enteric pathogens. The aims of the present study were to estimate how long C. parvum oocysts remain infectious in artificial seawater, to determine if the oocysts are retained in mussel tissues (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and how long they maintain their infectivity. Oocysts were incubated in artificial seawater at 6-8 degrees C under moderate oxygenation and the infectivity of oocysts was tested five times, over a 12 month period after incubation in seawater, in BALB/c mice. Each pup was inoculated per os with 10(5) oocysts and killed 5 days p.i. Oocysts remained infectious for 1 year. Forty mussels held in an aquarium containing artificial seawater filtered out more than 4 x 10(8) oocysts in a 24 h period. Oocysts were detected in the gill washing up to 3 days p.i., in the haemolymph up to 7 days p.i., and in the intestinal tract up to 14 days p.i. Oocysts collected from the gut of mussels 7 and 14 days p.i. were observed to have infected mice. These results suggest that C. parvum oocysts can survive in seawater for at least 1 year and can be filtered out by benthic mussels, retaining their infectivity up to 14 days, so seawater and molluscs are a potential source of C. parvum infection for humans. PMID:10404265

  17. High-sensitive Troponin T measurements early after heart transplantation predict short- and long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Erbel, Christian; Taskin, Rukiye; Doesch, Andreas; Dengler, Thomas J; Wangler, Susanne; Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A; Gleissner, Christian A

    2013-03-01

    Following heart transplantation, cardiac biomarkers remain elevated for several weeks eventually as a result of membrane leakage of the donor organ. We now test the predictive power of blood levels of troponin T (TNT) measured by the new hsTNT assay (Roche Diagnostics, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) early after heart transplantation. TNT was determined in 141 cardiac allograft recipients and 40 controls. Our findings demonstrate that patients who died within the first year after transplantation had significantly higher median hsTNT serum levels 6 weeks after transplantation (156 ng/l ± 203 vs. 29 ng/l ± 21, P = 0.0002). Using ROC analysis, a serum hsTNT concentration of 33.55 ng/l 6 weeks after transplantation was found to be the best cutoff to predict death at 1 year (HR 0.16, 95%CI:0.05-0.46, P = 0.001) with a sensitivity of 90.91% and a specificity of 70.97%. In addition, survival at 5 years (HR 0.15, 95% CI 0.06-0.35, P < 0.0001) was significantly better among patients below that cutoff value. In multivariate analysis, hsTNT serum level 6 weeks after transplantation emerged as an independent predictor for first-year mortality (hsTNT-HR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.81-1.00, P = 0.03). Cardiac troponin T concentrations early after transplantation as measured with a highly sensitive assay represent a strong and independent risk predictor of death after heart transplantation. PMID:23252662

  18. Trends in clinical features, postoperative outcomes, and long-term survival for gastric cancer: a Western experience with 1,278 patients over 30 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify temporal trends in long-term survival and postoperative outcomes and to analyze prognostic factors influencing the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer (GC) treated in a 30-year interval in a tertiary referral Western institution. Methods Between January 1980 and December 2010, 1,278 patients who were diagnosed with GC at the Digestive Surgery Department, Catholic University of Rome, Italy, were identified. Among them, 936 patients underwent surgical resection and were included in the analysis. Results Over time there was a significant improvement in postoperative outcomes. Morbidity and mortality rates decreased to 19.4% and 1.6%, respectively, in the last decade. By contrast, the multivisceral resection rate steadily increased from 12.7% to 29.6%. The overall five-year survival rate steadily increased over time, reaching 51% in the last decade, and 64.5% for R0 resections. Multivariate analysis showed a higher probability of overall survival for early stages (I and II), extended lymphadenectomy, and R0 resections. Conclusions Over three decades there was a significant improvement in perioperative and postoperative care and a steady increase in overall survival. PMID:25030691

  19. [Impact of acute respiratory failure on survival of COPD patients managed with long-term non-invasive ventilation and oxygen therapy].

    PubMed

    Perrin, C; Vandenbos, F; Tamisier, R; Lemoigne, F; Blaive, B

    2000-02-01

    Our study aimed to assess the impact of acute respiratory failure (ARF) on survival of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) receiving long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) plus nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). Survival was analysed retrospectively in 24 patients with severe COPD initiated to NIPPV in addition to LTOT. Fourteen patients were established on NIPPV following exacerbation of acute respiratory failure which has required mechanical ventilation (group 1). Ten patients (group 2) have never been hospitalized for ARF. Comparison of clinical details at baseline, 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years for the two groups failed to reveal any difference with the exception of prior episodes of ARF. The probability of survival at 3 years was 65% (95% confidence interval [CI] 43-86) for the overall population, 46% (95% CI 15-77) in group 1, and 74% (95% CI 42-105) in group 2. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. We show that ARF requiring mechanical ventilation appears to be a factor that is negatively correlated with survival for patients treated by LTOT plus NIPPV. This data suggests that NIPPV should be tried before ARF arising in COPD patients who present a deterioration in chronic respiratory failure with hypercapnia. PMID:10756560

  20. Formation of resting cells by non-spore-forming microorganisms as a strategy of long-term survival in the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyukin, Andrei L.; Soina, Vera S.; Demkina, Elena V.; Kozlova, Alla N.; Suzina, Natalia E.; Dmitriev, Vladimir V.; Duda, Vitalii I.; El'-Registan, Galina I.

    2003-01-01

    Non-spore-forming bacteria of the genera Micrococcus and Arthrobacter, including the isolates from permafrost sediments, were found to be able to form cystlike cells under special conditions. Cystlike cells maintained the viability during long-term storage (for up to several years), had undetectable respiratory activity and the elevated resistance to heating and other unfavorable conditions, possessed the specific fine structure and morphology, and were formed in the life cycles of the microorganism. These properties allow cystlike cells to be attributed to a new type of resting microbial forms. Furthermore, the distinctive feature of resting cystlike cells was their low P/S ratios and high Ca/K ratios in comparison to vegetative cells as shown by X-ray microanalysis. The experimentally obtained bacterial cystlike cells with thickened and laminated cell walls and altered texture of the cytoplasm were similar to the cells abundant in native microbial populations isolated from permafrost sediments and ancient soils of the Kolyma lowland (Siberia, Russia). Due to the inherent elevated resistance to adverse conditions and maintenance of viability for prolonged periods, resting cystlike cells are likely to ensure long-term survival of non-spore-forming bacteria in cold environments.

  1. Ischemic preconditioning affects long-term cell fate through DNA damage-related molecular signaling and altered proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Sorabh; Berishvili, Ekaterine; Bandi, Sriram; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2014-10-01

    Despite the potential of ischemic preconditioning for organ protection, long-term effects in terms of molecular processes and cell fates are ill defined. We determined consequences of hepatic ischemic preconditioning in rats, including cell transplantation assays. Ischemic preconditioning induced persistent alterations; for example, after 5 days liver histology was normal, but γ-glutamyl transpeptidase expression was observed, with altered antioxidant enzyme content, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative DNA adducts. Nonetheless, ischemic preconditioning partially protected from toxic liver injury. Similarly, primary hepatocytes from donor livers preconditioned with ischemia exhibited undesirably altered antioxidant enzyme content and lipid peroxidation, but better withstood insults. However, donor hepatocytes from livers preconditioned with ischemia did not engraft better than hepatocytes from control livers. Moreover, proliferation of hepatocytes from donor livers preconditioned with ischemia decreased under liver repopulation conditions. Hepatocytes from donor livers preconditioned with ischemia showed oxidative DNA damage with expression of genes involved in MAPK signaling that impose G1/S and G2/M checkpoint restrictions, including p38 MAPK-regulated or ERK-1/2-regulated cell-cycle genes such as FOS, MAPK8, MYC, various cyclins, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, TP53, and RB1. Thus, although ischemic preconditioning allowed hepatocytes to better withstand secondary insults, accompanying DNA damage and molecular events simultaneously impaired their proliferation capacity over the long term. Mitigation of ischemic preconditioning-induced DNA damage and deleterious molecular perturbations holds promise for advancing clinical applications. PMID:25128377

  2. Potential of Baseline Computed Tomography to Predict Long-Term Survival of Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer Treated With Preoperative Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Long; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiao-Ting; Chen, Ke-Neng; Sun, Ying-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of baseline computed tomography (CT) signs and postoperative TN stages on survival of patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with preoperative chemotherapy. Consecutive patients (n = 130) with preoperative chemotherapy and radical esophagectomy from January 2006 to December 2011 were enrolled in this study retrospectively. Pathological T and N stages were confirmed by surgery. Baseline CT signs of tumor length, tumor thickness, outer membrane features, total number of lymph node (tLN), short diameter of the largest lymph node (SDL), and clinical T and N stages were measured. Eight-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated using Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to determine associations between baseline CT signs and survival outcomes. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that tLN number, largest LN short axis diameter, pT, and pN stages all correlated with OS significantly. And the total tLN number, SDL and pN stages significantly correlated with DFS. In Cox analyses, total tLN number (>6) and pN stage were significantly associated with OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.55 [95% CI, 1.13–2.11, P = 0.006] and HR: 1.49 [95% CI, 1.17–1.90, P = 0.001], respectively). Cox regression analysis showed that OS index was predictive of 1- to 3-year survival. Total number of lymph node in baseline CT provides equal efficiency compared to pN stages in the prediction of 8-year long-term survival outcomes for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients with preoperative chemotherapy. PMID:27149488

  3. Potential of Baseline Computed Tomography to Predict Long-Term Survival of Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer Treated With Preoperative Chemotherapy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Long; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiao-Ting; Chen, Ke-Neng; Sun, Ying-Shi

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of baseline computed tomography (CT) signs and postoperative TN stages on survival of patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with preoperative chemotherapy. Consecutive patients (n = 130) with preoperative chemotherapy and radical esophagectomy from January 2006 to December 2011 were enrolled in this study retrospectively. Pathological T and N stages were confirmed by surgery. Baseline CT signs of tumor length, tumor thickness, outer membrane features, total number of lymph node (tLN), short diameter of the largest lymph node (SDL), and clinical T and N stages were measured. Eight-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to determine associations between baseline CT signs and survival outcomes. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that tLN number, largest LN short axis diameter, pT, and pN stages all correlated with OS significantly. And the total tLN number, SDL and pN stages significantly correlated with DFS. In Cox analyses, total tLN number (>6) and pN stage were significantly associated with OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.55 [95% CI, 1.13-2.11, P = 0.006] and HR: 1.49 [95% CI, 1.17-1.90, P = 0.001], respectively). Cox regression analysis showed that OS index was predictive of 1- to 3-year survival. Total number of lymph node in baseline CT provides equal efficiency compared to pN stages in the prediction of 8-year long-term survival outcomes for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients with preoperative chemotherapy. PMID:27149488

  4. Long-Term Survival Advantage and Prognostic Factors Associated With Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Treatment in Advanced Ovarian Cancer: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Devansu; Java, James J.; Salani, Ritu; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Markman, Maurie; Herzog, Thomas; Monk, Bradley J.; Chan, John K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine long-term survival and associated prognostic factors after intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Patients and Methods Data from Gynecologic Oncology Group protocols 114 and 172 were retrospectively analyzed. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for statistical analyses. Results In 876 patients, median follow-up was 10.7 years. Median survival with IP therapy was 61.8 months (95% CI, 55.5 to 69.5), compared with 51.4 months (95% CI, 46.0 to 58.2) for intravenous therapy. IP therapy was associated with a 23% decreased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.90; P = .002). IP therapy improved survival of those with gross residual (≤ 1 cm) disease (AHR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.92; P = .006). Risk of death decreased by 12% for each cycle of IP chemotherapy completed (AHR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.94; P < .001). Factors associated with poorer survival included: clear/mucinous versus serous histology (AHR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.83 to 4.24; P < .001), gross residual versus no visible disease (AHR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.48 to 2.43; P < .001), and fewer versus more cycles of IP chemotherapy (AHR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.94; P < .001). Younger patients were more likely to complete the IP regimen, with a 5% decrease in probability of completion with each year of age (odds ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93 to 0.96; P < .001). Conclusion The advantage of IP over intravenous chemotherapy extends beyond 10 years. IP therapy enhanced survival of those with gross residual disease. Survival improved with increasing number of IP cycles. PMID:25800756

  5. [A case of gastric adenosquamous carcinoma with peritoneal dissemination in which treatment with S-1 plus paclitaxel therapy resulted in improved long-term survival].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masamitsu; Ozamoto, Yuki; Ichinose, Masumi; Togawa, Takeshi; Takao, Nobuyuki; Mizumoto, Akiyoshi; Tatsuno, Manami; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yonemura, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    Gastric adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. We recently performed palliative gastrectomy for a gastric adenosquamous carcinoma with peritoneal dissemination and provided a course of systemic chemotherapy with S-1 plus paclitaxel(PTX)after the surgery. No serious adverse events were observed, and treatment with S-1 plus PTX was continued for 1 year before being switched to adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 alone for another year. The tumor maker levels normalized within 2 months of the initial treatment, and the peritoneal dissemination could no longer be detected by abdominal computed tomography(CT). The patient remained in clinical remission and maintained long-term survival of over 8 years. PMID:25131877

  6. The roles of flowering, overwinter survival and sea surface temperature in the long-term population dynamics of Zostera marina around the Isles of Scilly, UK.

    PubMed

    Potouroglou, Maria; Kenyon, Emma J; Gall, Angie; Cook, Kevan J; Bull, James C

    2014-06-30

    Interaction between biotic and abiotic drivers of dynamics is an important topic in ecology. Despite numerous short-term studies, there is a paucity of evidence about how environmental structure modifies dynamics in marine systems. We quantified Zostera marina flowering and non-flowering shoot density annually from 1996 to 2012 around the Isles of Scilly, UK, parameterizing a population dynamic model. Flowering is structured in time and space, with temperature and flowering positively associated at some locations only. We found no evidence that flower production contributes to seagrass density but 'patchiness' was positively associated with flowering in the previous year. With evidence of substantial overwinter survival, findings support the hypothesis that local populations are maintained largely through vegetative reproduction but sexual reproduction may contribute to colonisation of vacant habitat. This long-term study (1) tests validity of shorter-term investigations, (2) quantifies interaction between biotic and abiotic factors and (3) promotes seagrass as a model ecosystem. PMID:24731880

  7. Hydrogeochemical and biological processes affecting the long-term performance of an iron-based permeable reactive barrier.

    PubMed

    Zolla, Valerio; Freyria, Francesca Stefania; Sethi, Rajandrea; Di Molfetta, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Despite the wide diffusion of zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), there is still a great uncertainty about their longevity and long-term performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological and the hydrogeochemical processes that take place at a Fe(0) installation located in Avigliana, Italy, and to derive some general considerations about long-term performance of PRBs.The examined PRB was installed in November 2004 to remediate a chlorinated solvents plume (mainly trichloroethene and 1,2-dichloroethene). The investigation was performed during the third year of operation and included: (1) groundwater sampling and analysis for chlorinated solvents, dissolved CH(4), dissolved H(2) and major inorganic constituents; (2) Fe(0) core sampling and analysis by SEM-EDS, XRD, and FTIR spectroscopy for the organic fraction; (3) in situ permeability tests and flow field monitoring by water level measurements.The study revealed that iron passivation is negligible, as the PRB is still able to effectively treat the contaminants and to reduce their concentrations below target values. Precipitation of several inorganic compounds inside the PRB was evidenced by SEM-EDS and XRD analysis conducted on iron samples. Groundwater sampling evidenced heavy sulfate depletion and the highest reported CH(4) concentration (>5,000 microg/L) at zero-valent iron PRB sites. These are due to the intense microbial activity of sulfate-reducers and methanogens, whose proliferation was most likely stimulated by the use of a biopolymer (i.e. guar gum) as shoring fluid during the excavation of the barrier. Slug tests within the barrier evidenced an apparent hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude lower than the predicted value. This occurrence can be ascribed to biofouling and/or accumulation of CH(4)(g) inside the iron filings.This experience suggests that when biopolymer shoring is planned to be used, long-term column tests should be performed beforehand

  8. Long-Term Survival And Late Relapse In 2-Year Survivors Of Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation For Hodgkin And Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Majhail, Navneet S.; Bajorunaite, Ruta; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Wang, Zhiwei; Klein, John P.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Rizzo, J. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Summary This study described long-term outcomes of autologous hematopoietic-cell transplantation (HCT) for advanced Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The study included recipients of autologous HCT for HL (N=407) and NHL (N=960) from 1990–98 who were in continuous complete remission for at least 2 years post-HCT. Median follow-up was 104 months for HL and 107 months for NHL. Overall survival at 10-years was 77% (72–82%) for HL, 78% (73–82%) for diffuse large-cell NHL, 77% (71–83%) for follicular NHL, 85% (75–93%) for lymphoblastic/Burkitt NHL, 52% (37–67%) for mantle-cell NHL and 77% (67–85%) for other NHL. On multivariate analysis, mantle-cell NHL had the highest relative-risk for late mortality (2.87 (1.70–4.87)), while the risks of death for other histologies were comparable. Relapse was the most common cause of death. Relative mortality compared to age, race and gender adjusted normal population remained significantly elevated and was 14.8 (6.3–23.3) for HL and 5.9 (3.6–8.2) for NHL at 10-years post-HCT. Recipients of autologous HCT for HL and NHL who remain in remission for at least 2-years have favorable subsequent long-term survival but remain at risk for late relapse. Compared to the general population, mortality rates continue to remain elevated at 10-years post-transplantation. PMID:19573079

  9. KINET: a social marketing programme of treated nets and net treatment for malaria control in Tanzania, with evaluation of child health and long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, J R; Abdulla, S; Minja, H; Nathan, R; Mukasa, O; Marchant, T; Mponda, H; Kikumbih, N; Lyimo, E; Manchester, T; Tanner, M; Lengeler, C

    1999-01-01

    We present a large-scale social marketing programme of insecticide-treated nets in 2 rural districts in southwestern Tanzania (population 350,000) and describe how the long-term child health and survival impact will be assessed. Formative and market research were conducted in order to understand community perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and practice with respect to the products to be socially marketed. We identified Zuia Mbu (Kiswahili for 'prevent mosquitoes') as a suitable brand name for both treated nets and single-dose insecticide treatment sachets. A mix of public and private sales outlets is used for distribution. In the first stage of a stepped introduction 31 net agents were appointed and trained in 18 villages: 15 were shop owners, 14 were village leaders, 1 was a parish priest and 1 a health worker. For net treatment 37 young people were appointed in the same villages and trained as agents. Further institutions in both districts such as hospitals, development projects and employers were also involved in distribution. Promotion for both products was intense and used a variety of channels. A total of 22,410 nets and 8072 treatments were sold during the first year: 18 months after launching, 46% of 312 families with children aged under 5 years reported that their children were sleeping under treated nets. A strong evaluation component in over 50,000 people allows assessment of the long-term effects of insecticide-treated nets on child health and survival, anaemia in pregnancy, and the costs of the intervention. This evaluation is based on cross-sectional surveys, and case-control and cohort studies. PMID:10492745

  10. A stable bioluminescent construct of Escherichia coli O157:H7 for hazard assessments of long-term survival in the environment.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Jennifer M; Campbell, Graeme R; Shepherd, Jill; Beaton, Yvonne; Jones, Davey; Killham, Ken; Artz, Rebekka R E

    2003-06-01

    A chromosomally lux-marked (Tn5 luxCDABE) strain of nontoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 was constructed by transposon mutagenesis and shown to have retained the O157, H7, and intimin phenotypes. The survival characteristics of this strain in the experiments performed (soil at -5, -100, and -1,500 kPa matric potential and artificial groundwater) were indistinguishable from the wild-type strain. Evaluation of potential luminescence was found to be a rapid, cheap, and quantitative measure of viable E. coli O157:H7 Tn5 luxCDABE populations in environmental samples. In the survival studies, bioluminescence of the starved populations of E. coli O157:H7 Tn5 luxCDABE could be reactivated to the original levels of light emission, suggesting that these populations remain viable and potentially infective to humans. The attributes of the construct offer a cheap and low-risk substitute to the use of verocytotoxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 in long-term survival studies. PMID:12788737

  11. IL-1RAcPb signaling regulates adaptive mechanisms in neurons that promote their long-term survival following excitotoxic insults.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, David; Bellavance, Marc-André; Rivest, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Excitotoxicity is a major component of neurodegenerative diseases and is typically accompanied by an inflammatory response. Cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-1beta are key regulators of this inflammatory response and modulate the activity of numerous cell types, including neurons. IL-1RAcPb is an isoform of IL-1RAcP expressed specifically in neurons and promotes their survival during acute inflammation. Here, we investigated in vivo whether IL-1RAcPb also promotes neuronal survival in a model of excitotoxicity. Intrastriatal injection of kainic acid (KA) in mice caused a strong induction of IL-1 cytokines mRNA in the brain. The stress response of cortical neurons at 12 h post-injection, as measured by expression of Atf3, FoxO3a, and Bdnf mRNAs, was similar in WT and AcPb-deficient mice. Importantly however, a delayed upregulation in the transcription of calpastatin was significantly higher in WT than in AcPb-deficient mice. Finally, although absence of AcPb signaling had no effect on damage to neurons in the cortex at early time points, it significantly impaired their long-term survival. These data suggest that in a context of excitotoxicity, stimulation of IL-1RAcPb signaling may promote the activity of a key neuroprotective mechanism. PMID:23423359

  12. Pre-transplant antibody screening and anti-CD154 costimulation blockade promote long-term xenograft survival in a pig-to-primate kidney transplant model

    PubMed Central

    Higginbotham, Laura; Mathews, Dave; Breeden, Cynthia A.; Song, Mingqing; Farris, Alton Brad; Larsen, Christian P.; Ford, Mandy L.; Lutz, Andrew J.; Tector, Matthew; Newell, Kenneth A.; Tector, A. Joseph; Adams, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    Xenotransplantation has the potential to alleviate the organ shortage that prevents many patients with end-stage renal disease from enjoying the benefits of kidney transplantation. Despite significant advances in other models, pig-to-primate kidney xenotransplantation has met limited success. Preformed anti-pig antibodies are an important component of the xenogeneic immune response. To address this, we screened a cohort of 34 rhesus macaques for anti-pig antibody levels. We then selected animals with both low and high titers of anti-pig antibodies to proceed with kidney transplant from galactose-α1,3-galactose knockout/CD55 transgenic pig donors. All animals received T-cell depletion followed by maintenance therapy with costimulation blockade (either anti-CD154 mAb or belatacept), mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid. The animal with the high titer of anti-pig antibody rejected the kidney xenograft within the first week. Low-titer animals treated with anti-CD154 antibody, but not belatacept exhibited prolonged kidney xenograft survival (>133 and >126 vs. 14 and 21 days, respectively). Long-term surviving animals treated with the anti-CD154-based regimen continue to have normal kidney function and preserved renal architecture without evidence of rejection on biopsies sampled at day 100. This description of the longest reported survival of pig-to-non-human primate kidney xenotransplantation, now >125 days, provides promise for further study and potential clinical translation. PMID:25847130

  13. The Tumour Response to Induction Chemotherapy has Prognostic Value for Long-Term Survival Outcomes after Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Wen-Fei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Rui; Liu, Li-Zhi; Tian, Li; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic value of the tumour response to induction chemotherapy (IC) for long-term survival outcomes after intensity-modulated radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unknown. We retrospectively reviewed 1811 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed NPC treated using IMRT, and 399 eligible patients with pre- and post-induction chemotherapy magnetic resonance images were recruited. The clinicopathological features of patients with different tumour responses were compared using the Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test. Prognostic value was assessed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. After IC, 101/399 (25.3%) patients had a complete tumour response overall (CR), 262 (65.7%) had a partial response (PR) and 36 (9.0%) had stable disease (SD). The 4-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) rates for CR vs. PR vs. SD were 90.0% vs. 79.0% vs. 58.2% (CR vs. PR: P1 = 0.007; CR vs. SD: P2 < 0.001; PR vs. SD: P3 = 0.004), 95.7% vs. 88.7% vs. 70.2% (P1 = 0.017, P2 < 0.001, P3 = 0.005), 92.0% vs. 87.4% vs. 74.3% (P1 = 0.162, P2 = 0.005, P3 = 0.029) and 95.9% vs. 88.8% vs. 81.8% (P1 = 0.024, P2 = 0.006, P3 = 0.268), respectively. Multivariate analysis identified that the tumour response to IC was an independent prognostic factor for DFS, OS and LRRFS. PMID:27099096

  14. Methodology to predict long-term cancer survival from short-term data using Tobacco Cancer Risk and Absolute Cancer Cure models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mould, R. F.; Lederman, M.; Tai, P.; Wong, J. K. M.

    2002-11-01

    Three parametric statistical models have been fully validated for cancer of the larynx for the prediction of long-term 15, 20 and 25 year cancer-specific survival fractions when short-term follow-up data was available for just 1-2 years after the end of treatment of the last patient. In all groups of cases the treatment period was only 5 years. Three disease stage groups were studied, T1N0, T2N0 and T3N0. The models are the Standard Lognormal (SLN) first proposed by Boag (1949 J. R. Stat. Soc. Series B 11 15-53) but only ever fully validated for cancer of the cervix, Mould and Boag (1975 Br. J. Cancer 32 529-50), and two new models which have been termed Tobacco Cancer Risk (TCR) and Absolute Cancer Cure (ACC). In each, the frequency distribution of survival times of defined groups of cancer deaths is lognormally distributed: larynx only (SLN), larynx and lung (TCR) and all cancers (ACC). All models each have three unknown parameters but it was possible to estimate a value for the lognormal parameter S a priori. By reduction to two unknown parameters the model stability has been improved. The material used to validate the methodology consisted of case histories of 965 patients, all treated during the period 1944-1968 by Dr Manuel Lederman of the Royal Marsden Hospital, London, with follow-up to 1988. This provided a follow-up range of 20- 44 years and enabled predicted long-term survival fractions to be compared with the actual survival fractions, calculated by the Kaplan and Meier (1958 J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 53 457-82) method. The TCR and ACC models are better than the SLN model and for a maximum short-term follow-up of 6 years, the 20 and 25 year survival fractions could be predicted. Therefore the numbers of follow-up years saved are respectively 14 years and 19 years. Clinical trial results using the TCR and ACC models can thus be analysed much earlier than currently possible. Absolute cure from cancer was also studied, using not only the prediction models which

  15. Long-term follow-up of myelodysplastic syndrome patients with moderate/severe anaemia receiving human recombinant erythropoietin + 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3: independent positive impact of erythroid response on survival.

    PubMed

    Crisà, Elena; Foli, Cristina; Passera, Roberto; Darbesio, Antonella; Garvey, Kimberly B; Boccadoro, Mario; Ferrero, Dario

    2012-07-01

    We previously reported a 60% erythroid response rate with recombinant erythropoietin + 13-cis retinoic acid + dihydroxylated vitamin D3 in 63 elderly myelodysplastic patients (median age 75 years) with unfavourable features for response to erythropoietin alone [70% transfusion-dependent, 35% refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts/refractory anaemia with excess of blasts type 1 (RAEB1), 70% with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) Intermediate-1 or -2]. This report updates that case study at a 7-year follow-up, and compared the impact on overall survival of erythroid response to known prognostic factors. The erythroid response duration (median 17 months; 22 in non-RAEB patients, with 20% patients in response after 6 years of therapy) was longer than in most studies with erythropoietin alone. Overall survival (median 55 months in non-RAEB, 15 in RAEB1 patients) was negatively affected by RAEB1 diagnosis, IPSS and WPSS intermediate scores and transfusion-dependence. In the multivariate analysis, erythroid response maintained an independent positive impact on survival, particularly in non-RAEB patients in the first 3 years from diagnosis (90% survival compared to 50% of non-responders). In conclusion, the long-term follow-up confirmed the achievement, by our combined treatment, of fairly long-lasting erythroid response in the majority of MDS patients with unfavourable prognostic features for response to erythropoietin: this translated in a survival benefit that was independent from other prognostic features. PMID:22571649

  16. Forced migration and mortality in the very long term: did perestroika affect death rates also in Finland?

    PubMed

    Saarela, Jan; Finnäs, Fjalar

    2009-08-01

    In this article, we analyze mortality rates of Finns born in areas that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II and from which the entire population was evacuated. These internally displaced persons are observed during the period 1971-2004 and compared with people born in the same region but on the adjacent side of the new border. We find that in the 1970s and 1980s, the forced migrants had mortality rates that were on par with those of people in the comparison group. In the late 1980s, the mortality risk of internally displaced men increased by 20% in relation to the expected time trend. This deviation, which manifests particularly in cardiovascular mortality, coincides with perestroika and the demise of the Soviet Union, which were events that resulted in an intense debate in civil society about restitution of the ceded areas. Because state actors were reluctant to engage, the debate declined after some few years, and after the mid-1990s, the death risk again approached the long-term trend. Our findings indicate that when internally displaced persons must adjust to situations for which appropriate coping behaviors are unknown, psychosocial stress might arise several decades after their evacuation. PMID:19771945

  17. Forced Migration and Mortality in the Very Long Term: Did Perestroika Affect Death Rates Also in Finland?

    PubMed Central

    SAARELA, JAN; FINNÄS, FJALAR

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we analyze mortality rates of Finns born in areas that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II and from which the entire population was evacuated. These internally displaced persons are observed during the period 1971–2004 and compared with people born in the same region but on the adjacent side of the new border. We find that in the 1970s and 1980s, the forced migrants had mortality rates that were on par with those of people in the comparison group. In the late 1980s, the mortality risk of internally displaced men increased by 20% in relation to the expected time trend. This deviation, which manifests particularly in cardiovascular mortality, coincides with perestroika and the demise of the Soviet Union, which were events that resulted in an intense debate in civil society about restitution of the ceded areas. Because state actors were reluctant to engage, the debate declined after some few years, and after the mid-1990s, the death risk again approached the long-term trend. Our findings indicate that when internally displaced persons must adjust to situations for which appropriate coping behaviors are unknown, psychosocial stress might arise several decades after their evacuation. PMID:19771945

  18. Long-term survival and transmission of INI1-mutation via nonpenetrant males in a family with rhabdoid tumour predisposition syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ammerlaan, A C J; Ararou, A; Houben, M P W A; Baas, F; Tijssen, C C; Teepen, J L J M; Wesseling, P; Hulsebos, T J M

    2007-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumour predisposition syndrome (RTPS) is a rare syndrome caused by inheritance of a mutated INI1 gene for which only two multigeneration families have been reported. To further characterise the genotype and phenotype of RTPS, we present a third family in which at least three cousins developed an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour (AT/RT) at a young age. Two of these patients showed unusual long survival, and one of these developed an intracranial meningioma and a myoepithelioma of the lip in adulthood. Mutation analysis of INI1 revealed a germline G>A mutation in the donor splice site of exon 4 (c.500+1G>A) in the patients and in their unaffected fathers. This mutation prevents normal splicing and concomitantly generates a stop codon, resulting in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Biallelic inactivation of INI1 in the tumours, except for the meningioma, was confirmed by absence of nuclear INI1-protein staining. The myoepithelioma of one of the patients carried an identical somatic rearrangement in the NF2 gene as the AT/RT, indicating that both tumours originated from a common precursor cell. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time transmission of a germline INI1-mutation in a RTPS family via nonpenetrant males, long-term survival of two members of this family with an AT/RT, and involvement of INI1 in the pathogenesis of myoepithelioma. PMID:18087273

  19. Long-term changes in food availability mediate the effects of temperature on growth, development and survival in striped marsh frog larvae: implications for captive breeding programmes

    PubMed Central

    Courtney Jones, Stephanie K.; Munn, Adam J.; Penman, Trent D.; Byrne, Phillip G.

    2015-01-01

    Food availability and temperature are known to trigger phenotypic change, but the interactive effects between these factors are only beginning to be considered. The aim of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of long-term stochastic food availability and water temperature on larval survivorship, growth and development of the striped marsh frog, Limnodynastes peronii. Larval L. peronii were reared in conditions of either constant or stochastic food availability and in water at three different temperatures (18, 22 and 26°C), and effects on survival, growth and development were quantified. Over the experimental period, larval growth rate was highest and survivorship lowest at the warmest temperature. However, changes in food availability mediated the effects of temperature, with slower larval growth and higher survivorship in stochastic food availability treatments. Tadpoles in the stochastic food availability treatments did not reach metamorphosis during the experimental period, suggesting that developmental stasis may have been induced by food restriction. Overall, these results demonstrate that changes in food availability alter the effects of water temperature on survival, growth and development. From an applied perspective, understanding how environmental factors interact to cause phenotypic change may assist with amphibian conservation by improving the number of tadpoles generated in captive breeding programmes. PMID:27293714

  20. Do Long-Term Changes in Organic Matter Inputs to Forest Soils Affect Dissolved Organic Matter Chemistry and Export?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajtha, K.; Strid, A.; Lee, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) production and transport play an important role in regulating organic matter (OM) distribution through a soil profile and ultimately, OM stabilization or export to aquatic systems. The contributions of varying OM inputs to the quality and amount of DOM as it passes through a soil profile remain relatively unknown. The Detrital Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) site at the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon has undergone 17 years of litter, wood and root input manipulations and allows us to guage shifts in DOM chemistry induced by long-term changes to aboveground and belowground OM additions and exclusions. Using fluorescence and UV spectroscopy to characterize fluorescent properties, extent of decomposition, and sources of DOM in streams and soil solutions collected with lysimeters and soil extractions, we have assessed the importance of fresh OM inputs to DOM chemistry. Soil extracts from DIRT plots had a higher fluorescence index (FI) than lysimeter solutions or stream water. A high FI in surface water is generally interpreted as indicative of a high proportion of microbially-derived DOM. However, we suspect that the high FI in soil extracts is due to a higher proportion of non-aromatic DOM from fresh soil that microorganisms consume in transit through the soil profile to lysimeters or to streams. High redox index (RI) values were observed in lysimeters from the April 2014 sampling compared with the November 2013 sampling. These RI values show evidence of more reducing conditions at the end of the rainy season in the spring compared to the onset of the rainy season in the fall. Lysimeter water collected in No Input, No Litter, and No Root treatments contained high proportions of protein, suggesting the absence of carbon inputs changes activities of the microbial community. Observed variations reflect the viability of using fluorescent properties to explore the terrestrial-aquatic interface.

  1. Long-term androgen deprivation therapy improves survival in prostate cancer patients presenting with prostate-specific antigen levels >20 ng/mL

    SciTech Connect

    Berthelet, Eric . E-mail: eberthel@bccancer.bc.ca; Pickles, Tom; Lee, Kenny Won Jae; Liu, Mitchell; Truong, Pauline T.

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the benefit of androgen deprivation (AD) and its optimal duration in patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy, who present with prostate-specific antigen levels >20 ng/mL. Methods and Materials: A total of 307 patients treated with external beam radiotherapy, AD, and presenting with a PSA level >20 ng/mL were identified from the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Initiative database of the British Columbia Cancer Agency. Androgen deprivation was defined as short term (ST-AD, <12 months) or long term (LT-AD, {>=}12 months). The endpoints analyzed were biochemical control (no evidence of disease) (bNED), overall survival, and cause-specific survival. Statistical analysis was conducted with Kaplan-Meier estimates, log-rank tests, and multivariate analyses with logistic and Cox regression models. Results: There were 151 patients in the ST-AD group and 156 in the LT-AD group. The distributions of Gleason score and stage were comparable in the two cohorts. Median follow-up times were 48 months for patients treated with ST-AD and 45 months for patients treated with LT-AD. The median durations of AD were 6 and 25.6 months for the ST-AD and LT-AD groups, respectively. The bNED rate was 37% for the ST-AD group and 62.5% for the LT-AD group (p < 0.0001). The 5-year overall survival rate was 75% in the ST-AD group vs. 87.5% for the LT-AD group (p = 0.0091). The 5-year cause-specific survival rate was 82% for the ST-AD group vs. 94% for the LT-AD group (p = 0.0072). Conclusions: Several randomized trials have demonstrated the benefit of LT-AD in high-risk patients with prostate cancer. In some reports, the survival advantage seems to be restricted to patients with high Gleason score. The present analysis supports the hypothesis that LT-AD improves bNED and survival rates in patients presenting with a PSA level >20, irrespective of Gleason score or T stage.

  2. Endocrine MPA enhances the effects of TAC chemotherapy on improvement of prognosis and increase in long-term survival rates for patients with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, XIUHONG; WANG, LU; XUE, JUAN; LI, LI; ZHANG, JING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of taxol, adriamycin and carboplatin (TAC) chemotherapy combined with endocrine medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) therapy for the treatment of patients with endometrial cancer. A retrospective analysis of 124 patients with endometrial cancer was performed by dividing the cohort into an experimental and control group. The 64 patients in the experimental group received TAC and MPA chemotherapy, whereas the 60 patients in the control group were treated with TAC chemotherapy only. Tissue samples scraped from the uterus were used to extract the total proteins and RNAs for the western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses, respectively. All the patients were followed up for 20–45 months, during which time prognostic data, and one- to three-year survival rates were recorded and compared. The rate of recurrence or metastasis was significantly lower in the experimental group compared with that in the control group (P<0.05) and the three-year survival rate of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the mean metastasis-associated 1 (MTA1) protein and RNA expression levels were significantly lower in the experimental group compared with the control group (P<0.05), exhibiting ~30 and ~15% of the levels in the control group, respectively. Therefore, a treatment strategy of TAC chemotherapy combined with endocrine MPA therapy appears to effectively improve the prognosis and increase the long-term survival rates of patients with endometrial cancer. Such an enhancing effect may be mediated by the transcriptional downregulation of MTA1 expression. PMID:26622772

  3. Long-term cardiovascular outcomes and overall survival of early-stage breast cancer patients with early discontinuation of trastuzumab: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Inna Y; Verma, Sunil; Yan, Andrew T; Ko, Dennis T; Earle, Craig C; Tomlinson, George A; Trudeau, Maureen E; Krahn, Murray D; Krzyzanowska, Monika K; Brezden-Masley, Christine B; Gavura, Scott; Peacock, Stuart; Chan, Kelvin K W

    2016-06-01

    We critically examined long-term cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and overall survival (OS) of breast cancer (BC) patients who had cardiotoxicity during adjuvant trastuzumab treatment requiring discontinuation in a population-based sample. This was a retrospective cohort of early-stage BC patients diagnosed before 2010 and treated with trastuzumab in Ontario. Patients were stratified based on trastuzumab doses received: 1-8, 9-15, ≥16 (therapy completion). Time-dependent multivariable Cox models were used to analyze primary endpoint OS, and the following composite endpoints: hospitalization/emergency room visit for heart failure (HF) or death; non-HF CV (myocardial infarction, stroke) or death; and clinically significant relapse (palliative systemic therapy initiation >90 days after last trastuzumab dose) or death. Of the 3134 women, 6, 10, and 85 % received 1-8, 9-15, and ≥16 doses, respectively. Over 5-year median follow-up, early trastuzumab discontinuation was associated with more HF/death [1-8 doses hazard ratio (HR) 4.0, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.7-6.0; 9-15 doses HR 2.97, 95 % CI 2.1-4.3], non-HF/death (1-8 doses HR 4.3, 95 % CI 3.0-6.1; 9-15 doses HR 3.1, 95 % CI 2.2-4.4), clinically significant relapse/death (1-8 doses HR 3.1, 95 % CI 2.2-4.4; 9-15 doses HR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.8-3.3), and importantly lower OS (77, 80, 93 %; P < 0.001). Early discontinuation (1-8 doses HR 2.41, 95 % CI 1.5-3.8; 9-15 doses HR 2.9, 95 % CI 2.0-4.1) and clinically significant relapse (HR 34.0, 95 % CI 24.9-46.6) were both independent predictors of mortality. Of note, early discontinuation remained a critical independent predictor of OS even after adjusting for incident HF. Early trastuzumab discontinuation is a powerful independent predictor of cardiac events and clinically significant relapse, and both may contribute to poor survival. Both adequate cancer control and optimal CV management are required to improve long-term outcomes. PMID:27271767

  4. Improvement over the years of long-term survival in high-risk lymphoma patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as consolidation or salvage therapy.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Cabrera, C; Márquez-Malaver, F J; de la Cruz-Vicente, F; Falantes, F; Carrillo, E; Parody, R; Montero, I; González Campos, J; Martino, M L; Carmona, M; Pérez-Simón, J A; Espigado, I

    2013-01-01

    The role of hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is not well established in certain types of lymphoma, such as those with a high relapse risk or relapsing after initial therapy. New chemotherapeutic schemes and immunotherapy have improved survival of these patients. Nevertheless, there is not enough evidence regarding whether transplantation is the best therapeutic approach. Moreover, published data on long-term follow-up of high-risk lymphoma patients treated with HSCT are scarce. We analyzed 177 consecutive patients diagnosed with a high risk of relapse or with relapsed lymphoma who underwent HSCT after induction with standard chemotherapy in a tertiary academic center from 1989 to 2013. The median age was 40 years. Diagnoses were Hodgkin disease (n = 56), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n = 44), follicular lymphoma (n = 29), mantle cell lymphoma (n = 15), T-cell lymphoma (n = 18), and others (n = 15). Patients received either an autologous graft (n = 154) in first complete remission (1CR; n = 59) or more advanced stages (AS; n = 95), or an allogeneic graft (n = 23) in 1CR (n = 4) or AS (n = 19). In the autologous group, overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 57% and 75% in the periods 1989-2001 and 2002-2013, respectively (P = .05). Patients receiving an allogeneic graft presented an OS of 25% and 43% in the 2 periods. With a mean follow-up of 5 years (95% confidence interval 3.5-6.6), for patients receiving a transplant in 1CR, OS at 5 years was 80%, and for those receiving a transplant in AS it was 59% (P = .003). Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 5 years was 3.1% in the autologous group and 27.9% in the allogeneic group (P < .001). The main cause of NRM was infection (44%) in the whole cohort. All this leads to the conclusion that transplantation, as a therapeutic strategy, has shown a high long-term OS in this subgroup of patients with such a poor prognosis. OS improved over the years and reaching 1CR was a good prognostic feature. Infections were the main

  5. Is photorespiration affected by long-term O{sub 3} fumigation and CO{sub 2} enrichment?

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, C.D.; Fiscus, E.L.; Booker, F.L.

    1995-06-01

    Photorespiration may be involved in photooxidative protection via dissipation of excess energy. Ozone, which induces oxidative protection, may increase photorespiration. In contrast long-term CO{sub 2} enrichment, which favors the carboxylase function of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), may decrease photorespiration. To determine the effects of O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} enrichment on photorespiration, soybean (Glycine max) plants were grown at 350 {mu}l l{sup -1} and 700 {mu}l l{sup -1} in charcoal-filtered air (CF) and 70 nl 1{sup -1} O{sub 3} for 12-hr day{sup -1} in open-top chambers for one growing season. At different developmental stages photorespiration, Rubisco carboxylation capacity estimated from A/C{sub i} curves, and Rubisco content were measured. For plants grown in elevated CO{sub 2}, absolute rates of photorespiration were not significantly different from control plants except during pod formation when they were significantly greater. Ozone reduced photorespiration at 350 ul 1{sup -1} (9.6 and 7.6 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} in CF and O{sub 3} respectively) but not in elevated CO{sub 2} (11.1 and 11.6 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} for CF and O{sub 3} respectively). However, relative to photosynthesis, elevated CO{sub 2} significantly reduced photorespiration from ca. 46% to 25% while O{sub 3} had little effect. Rubisco capacity for carboxylation was decreased with CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} although Rubisco content was similar. Significant interactions between CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} were found only at the end of the growing season for each parameter. These data suggest that increased photosynthesis at elevated CO{sub 2} may not reduce photorespiration and elevated CO{sub 2} may alter O{sub 3} effects on photorespiration.

  6. The long-term survival of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606(T) under nutrient-deprived conditions does not require the entry into the viable but non-culturable state.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Z; Orruño, M; Parada, C; Kaberdin, V R; Barcina, I; Arana, I

    2016-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii possesses a tremendous potential to thrive under hostile conditions. To learn more about its survival strategy and capacity to persist in the environment, we studied the effect of temperature, nutrient deprivation and dryness on the long-term survival of two A. baumannii strains (ATCC 19606(T) and a clinical isolate). Our results revealed that both strains show a great persistence under stress that appears to involve a bust-and-boom strategy. Bacterial survival was differentially affected by temperature and physical environment: Desiccation favored cell resistance to stress at 20 and 37 °C, while survival in aqueous environments was temperature dependent and led to changes in several cellular characteristics. In addition, we tested the ability of the A. baumannii ATCC 19606(T) strain to form biofilms by monitoring the expression of adhesion-/biofilm-related genes (ompA, bfmR and csuAB). The observed downregulation of these genes suggests that the potential difficulties to adhere to solid surfaces and form biofilms likely limit the capacity of starved cells to spread and colonize abiotic surfaces. PMID:26872882

  7. A case of long-term 24-month survival in pancreatic anaplastic carcinoma (giant cell type) after S1 postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, Toshikatsu; Fujii, Kensuke; Kataoka, Jun; Tominaga, Tomo; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We herein describe the case of a 70-year-old female patient diagnosed with pancreatic carcinoma. An abdominal enhanced computed tomography scan revealed a poorly enhanced mass (17 mm × 15 mm in size) in the pancreatic head. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed stenosis of the main pancreatic and common bile ducts caused by a mass-neighboring cyst. Based on these findings, we performed subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. The patient demonstrated a good postoperative course, and was discharged from our hospital in remission 49 days after the surgery. Pathological findings confirmed that it was anaplastic pancreas carcinoma (giant cell type). After the surgery, we performed S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy 100 mg/day for four weeks, repeated similarly every six weeks for a total of four courses. We have followed this case for over 2 years so far with adjuvant chemotherapy, and no recurrence or metastasis has been revealed. Adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 in patients with resected anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas is also recommended as a result of Japan Adjuvant Study Group of Pancreatic Cancer 01(JASPAC-01) like the ordinary pancreatic ductal carcinomas. There is a possibility to achieve long-term survival in cases in which multidisciplinary treatment such as a curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy are performed. PMID:27111877

  8. Therapeutic administration of IL-15 superagonist complex ALT-803 leads to long-term survival and durable antitumor immune response in a murine glioblastoma model.

    PubMed

    Mathios, Dimitrios; Park, Chul-Kee; Marcus, Warren D; Alter, Sarah; Rhode, Peter R; Jeng, Emily K; Wong, Hing C; Pardoll, Drew M; Lim, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous system malignancy with a poor prognosis in patients. Despite the need for better treatments against glioblastoma, very little progress has been made in discovering new therapies that exhibit superior survival benefit than the standard of care. Immunotherapy has been shown to be a promising treatment modality that could help improve clinical outcomes of glioblastoma patients by assisting the immune system to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor environment. Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a cytokine shown to activate several effector components of the immune system, may serve as an excellent immunotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of an IL-15 superagonist complex (IL-15N72D:IL-15RαSu-Fc; also known as ALT-803) in a murine GL261-luc glioblastoma model. We show that ALT-803, as a single treatment as well as in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody or stereotactic radiosurgery, exhibits a robust antitumor immune response resulting in a prolonged survival including complete remission in tumor bearing mice. In addition, ALT-803 treatment results in long-term immune memory against glioblastoma tumor rechallenge. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor infiltrating immune cells shows that ALT-803 leads to increased percentage of CD8+-cell infiltration, but not the NK cells, and IFN-γ production into the tumor microenvironment. Cell depletion studies, in accordance with the flow cytometric results, show that the ALT-803 therapeutic effect is dependent on CD4+ and CD8+ cells. These results provide a rationale for evaluating the therapeutic activity of ALT-803 against glioblastoma in the clinical setting. PMID:26174883

  9. Long-Term Survival in Patients With Synchronous, Solitary Brain Metastasis From Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Flannery, Todd W.; Suntharalingam, Mohan; Regine, William F.; Chin, Lawrence S.; Krasna, Mark J.; Shehata, Michael K.; Edelman, Martin J.; Kremer, Marnie; Patchell, Roy A.; Kwok, Young

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: To report the outcome of patients with synchronous, solitary brain metastasis from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). Patients and Methods: Forty-two patients diagnosed with synchronous, solitary brain metastasis from NSCLC were treated with GKSRS between 1993 and 2006. The median Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was 90. Patients had thoracic Stage I-III disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer 2002 guidelines). Definitive thoracic therapy was delivered to 26/42 (62%) patients; 9 patients underwent chemotherapy and radiation, 12 patients had surgical resection, and 5 patients underwent preoperative chemoradiation and surgical resection. Results: The median overall survival (OS) was 18 months. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year actuarial OS rates were 71.3%, 34.1%, and 21%, respectively. For patients who underwent definitive thoracic therapy, the median OS was 26.4 months compared with 13.1 months for those who had nondefinitive therapy, and the 5-year actuarial OS was 34.6% vs. 0% (p < 0.0001). Median OS was significantly longer for patients with a KPS {>=}90 vs. KPS < 90 (27.8 months vs. 13.1 months, p < 0.0001). The prognostic factors significant on multivariate analysis were definitive thoracic therapy (p = 0.020) and KPS (p = 0.001). Conclusions: This is one of the largest series of patients diagnosed with synchronous, solitary brain metastasis from NSCLC treated with GKSRS. Definitive thoracic therapy and KPS significantly impacted OS. The 5-year OS of 21% demonstrates the potential for long-term survival in patients treated with GKSRS; therefore, patients with good KPS should be considered for definitive thoracic therapy.

  10. Neonatal Desensitization Supports Long-Term Survival and Functional Integration of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Rat Joint Cartilage Without Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shufang; Jiang, Yang Zi; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Longkun; Tong, Tong; Liu, Wanlu; Mu, Qin; Liu, Hua; Ji, Junfeng; Ouyang, Hong Wei

    2013-01-01

    Immunological response hampers the investigation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or their derivates for tissue regeneration in vivo. Immunosuppression is often used after surgery, but exhibits side effects of significant weight loss and allows only short-term observation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether neonatal desensitization supports relative long-term survival of hESC-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hESC-MSCs) and promotes cartilage regeneration. hESC-MSCs were injected on the day of birth in rats. Six weeks after neonatal injection, a full-thickness cylindrical cartilage defect was created and transplanted with a hESC-MSC-seeded collagen bilayer scaffold (group d+s+c) or a collagen bilayer scaffold (group d+s). Rats without neonatal injection were transplanted with the hESC-MSC-seeded collagen bilayer scaffold to serve as controls (group s+c). Cartilage regeneration was evaluated by histological analysis, immunohistochemical staining, and biomechanical test. The role of hESC-MSCs in cartilage regeneration was analyzed by CD4 immunostaining, cell death detection, and visualization of human cells in regenerated tissues. hESC-MSCs expressed CD105, CD73, CD90, CD29, and CD44, but not CD45 and CD34, and possessed trilineage differentiation potential. Group d+s+c exhibited greater International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scores than group d+s or group s+c. Abundant collagen type II and improved mechanical properties were detected in group d+s+c. There were less CD4+ inflammatory cell infiltration and cell death at week 1, and hESC-MSCs were found to survive as long as 8 weeks after transplantation in group d+s+c. Our study suggests that neonatal desensitization before transplantation may be an efficient way to develop a powerful tool for preclinical study of human cell-based therapies in animal models. PMID:22788986

  11. Long-Term Failure Patterns and Survival in a Randomized Dose-Escalation Trial for Prostate Cancer. Who Dies of Disease?

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, Deborah A.; Levy, Lawrence B.; Cheung, M. Rex; Lee, Andrew K.; Choi, Seungtaek; Frank, Steven; Pollack, Alan

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To report long-term failure patterns and survival in a randomized radiotherapy dose escalation trial for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 301 patients with Stage T1b-T3 prostate cancer treated to 70 Gy versus 78 Gy now have a median follow-up of 9 years. Failure patterns and survival were compared between dose levels. The cumulative incidence of death from prostate cancer versus other causes was examined and regression analysis was used to establish predictive factors. Results: Patients with pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >10 ng/mL or high-risk disease had higher biochemical and clinical failures rates when treated to 70 Gy. These patients also had a significantly higher risk of dying of prostate cancer. Patients <70 years old at treatment died of prostate cancer nearly three times more frequently than of other causes when they were radiated to 70 Gy, whereas those treated to 78 Gy died of other causes more frequently. Patients age 70 or older treated to 70 Gy died of prostate cancer as often as other causes, and those receiving 78 Gy never died of prostate cancer within 10 years of follow-up. In regression analysis, factors predicting for death from prostate cancer were pretreatment PSA >10.5 ng/mL, Gleason score 9 and 10, recurrence within 2.6 years of radiation, and doubling time of <3.6 months at the time of recurrence. Conclusions: Moderate dose escalation (78 Gy) decreases biochemical and clinical failure as well as prostate cancer death in patients with pretreatment PSA >10 ng/mL or high-risk disease.

  12. Preoperative Mild-to-Moderate Coronary Artery Disease Does Not Affect Long-Term Outcomes of Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Giorgio; Hartwig, Matthew G.; Castleberry, Anthony W.; Martin, Jeremiah T.; Shaw, Linda K.; Williams, Judson B.; Lin, Shu S.; Davis, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease has a high prevalence among lung transplant recipients and has historically been a contraindication to transplant at many institutions. In patients with mild-to-moderate coronary artery disease (Mod-CAD) undergoing lung transplant, outcomes are not well defined. Methods All patients who underwent pulmonary transplantation from January 1996 through November 2010 with pretransplant coronary angiogram were included in our study. Recipients of multivisceral, redo, and lobar lung transplants and those who underwent pretransplant coronary revascularization were excluded. Patients were grouped into Mod-CAD or no-coronary artery disease group (No-CAD). Primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points were 30-day events and the need for posttransplant coronary revascularization. Results Approximately 539 patients were included in the study: 362 in the No-CAD, 177 in the Mod-CAD group. Patients with Mod-CAD were predominantly male, older, and had a higher body mass index. No difference in either perioperative morbidity and mortality (Mod-CAD, 4.2% vs. No-CAD 3.3%, P=0.705) or late overall mortality was shown between groups. Mod-CAD patients had a shorter hospitalization (median: 12 days vs. 14 days, P=0.009) and required a higher rate of late coronary revascularization procedures (PCI: Mod-CAD vs. No-CAD, 0.3% vs. 4.0%, P=0.0035; CABG: Mod-CAD vs. No-CAD, 0.3% vs. 2.3%, P=0.0411). Conclusions Mod-CAD does not appear to be associated with increased perioperative morbidity or decreased survival after transplant. Coronary artery disease may worsen and require coronary revascularization in patients with risk factors for disease progression. In these patients, close follow-up and screening for progression of coronary artery disease may help prevent late cardiac morbidity. PMID:24646771

  13. Stability, Survival, and Tolerability of an Auditory Osseointegrated Implant for Bone Conduction Hearing: Long-Term Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    den Besten, Christine A.; Stalfors, Joacim; Wigren, Stina; Blechert, Johan Ivarsson; Flynn, Mark; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns; Aggarwal, Rohini; Green, Kevin; Nelissen, Rik C.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Hol, Myrthe K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare implant stability, survival, and soft tissue reactions for a novel (test) and previous generation (control) percutaneous auditory osseointegrated implant for bone conduction hearing at long-term follow-up of 5 years. Study Design: Single follow-up visit of a previously completed multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Patients: Fifty-seven of the 77 participants of a completed randomized controlled trial on a new auditory osseointegrated implant underwent a single follow-up visit 5 years after implantation, which comprised implant stability measurements and collection of Holgers scores. Additionally, implant survival was recorded for all 77 patients from the original trial. Results: The test implant showed significantly higher implant stability quotient (ISQ) values compared with the control implant throughout the 5-year follow-up. Mean area under the curve of ISQ high from baseline to 5 years was 71.6 (standard deviation [SD] ±2.0) and 66.7 (SD ±3.4) for the test and control implant, respectively (p < 0.0001). For both implants, the mean ISQ value recorded at 5 years was higher compared with implantation (test group +2.03 [SD ±2.55, within group p < 0.0001] and control group +2.25 [SD ±4.95, within group p = 0.12]). No difference was noticed in increase from baseline between groups (p = 0.64). Furthermore, evaluation of soft tissue reactions continued to show superiority of the test implant. At the 5-year follow-up visit, one patient (2.5%) presented with a Holgers grade 2 in the test group, compared with four patients (23.5%) in the control group (p = 0.048); no patient presented with more severe soft tissue reactions. Excluding explantations, the survival rate was 95.8% for the test group and 95.0% for the control group. The corresponding rates including explantations were 93.9 and 90.0%. Conclusion: The test implant showed superiority in terms of higher mean ISQ values and less adverse soft tissue reactions, both

  14. Reader Response and Long-Term Recall for Journalistic Text: The Roles of Imagery, Affect, and Importance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoski, Mark; Quast, Zeba

    1990-01-01

    Examines recall of three feature articles by rating paragraphs according to degree of mental imagery evoked, affect evoked, and importance of the article as a whole. Finds that readers are more likely to remember content that is subjectively important than content viewed as objectively important. (KEH)

  15. Prostate-specific antigen nadir after high-dose-rate brachytherapy predicts long-term survival outcomes in high-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Takefumi; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Komori, Shouko; Sekiguchi, Akane; Ikeda, Masaomi; Kurosaka, Shinji; Fujita, Tetsuo; Kitano, Masashi; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen nadir (nPSA) after high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in clinically non-metastatic high-risk prostate cancer patients. Material and methods Data from 216 patients with high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer who underwent HDR brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) between 2003 and 2008 were analyzed. The median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at diagnosis was 24 ng/ml (range: 3-338 ng/ml). The clinical stage was T1c-2a in 55 cases (26%), T2b-2c in 48 (22%), T3a in 75 (35%), and T3b-4 in 38 (17%). The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After 5 fractions, external beam radiation therapy with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent neoadjuvant ADT for at least 6 months, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months. The median follow-up was 7 years from the start of radiotherapy. Results The 7-year PSA relapse-free rate among patients with a post-radiotherapy nPSA level of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was 94%, compared with 23% for patients with higher nPSA values (HR = 28.57; 95% CI: 12.04-66.66; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the nPSA value after radiotherapy was a significant independent predictor of biochemical failure, whereas pretreatment predictive values for worse biochemical control including higher level of initial PSA, Gleason score ≥ 8, positive biopsy core rate ≥ 67%, and T3b-T4, failed to reach independent predictor status. The 7-year cancer-specific survival rate among patients with a post-radiotherapy nPSA level of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was 99%, compared with 82% for patients with higher nPSA values (HR = 32.25; 95% CI: 3.401-333.3; p = 0.002). Conclusions A post-radiotherapy nPSA value of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was associated with better long-term biochemical tumor control even if patients had pretreatment predictive values for worse

  16. Predictive Factors Affecting the Short Term and Long Term Exodrift in Patients with Intermittent Exotropia after Bilateral Rectus Muscle Recession and Its Effect on Surgical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Jason C. S.; Chong, Gabriela S. L.; Wu, Patrick K. W.; Wong, Ursula S. F.; Chan, Clement W. N.; Ko, Simon T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the predictive factors that affect short term and long term postoperative drift in intermittent exotropia after bilateral lateral rectus recession and to evaluate its effect on surgical outcome. Methods. Retrospective review of 203 patients with diagnosis of intermittent exotropia, who had surgical corrections with more than 3 years of followup. Different preoperative parameters were obtained and evaluated using Pearson's correlation analysis. Results. The proportion of exodrift increased from 62% at 6 weeks to 84% at 3 years postoperatively. The postoperative drift was 4.3 ± 8.1 PD at 6 weeks, 5.8 ± 8.4 PD at 6 months, 7.2 ± 8.3 PD at 1 year, 7.4 ± 8.4 PD at 2 years, and 7.7 ± 8.5 PD at 3 years. Preoperative deviation and initial overcorrection were significant factors affecting the postoperative drift at 3 years (r = 0.177, P = 0.011, r = −0.349, and P < 0.001, resp.). Conclusions. Postoperative exodrift along three years occurs in a majority of patients after bilateral lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia. The long term surgical success is significantly affected by this postoperative exodrift. A larger preoperative deviation and a larger initial overcorrection are associated with a larger early and late postoperative exodrift. PMID:25093170

  17. Long-term Survival and Toxicity in Patients Treated With High-Dose Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Spratt, Daniel E.; Pei, Xin; Yamada, Josh; Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Cox, Brett; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report long-term survival and toxicity outcomes with the use of high-dose intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 86.4 Gy for patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between August 1997 and December 2008, 1002 patients were treated to a dose of 86.4 Gy using a 5-7 field IMRT technique. Patients were stratified by prognostic risk group based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk classification criteria. A total of 587 patients (59%) were treated with neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen deprivation therapy. The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 5.5 years (range, 1-14 years). Results: For low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, 7-year biochemical relapse-free survival outcomes were 98.8%, 85.6%, and 67.9%, respectively (P<.001), and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 99.4%, 94.1%, and 82.0% (P<.001), respectively. On multivariate analysis, T stage (P<.001), Gleason score (P<.001), and >50% of initial biopsy positive core (P=.001) were predictive for distant mestastases. No prostate cancer-related deaths were observed in the low-risk group. The 7-year prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) rates, using competing risk analysis for intermediate- and high-risk groups, were 3.3% and 8.1%, respectively (P=.008). On multivariate analysis, Gleason score (P=.004), percentage of biopsy core positivity (P=.003), and T-stage (P=.033) were predictive for PCSM. Actuarial 7-year grade 2 or higher late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities were 4.4% and 21.1%, respectively. Late grade 3 gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity was experienced by 7 patients (0.7%) and 22 patients (2.2%), respectively. Of the 427 men with full potency at baseline, 317 men (74%) retained sexual function at time of last follow-up. Conclusions: This study represents the largest cohort of patients treated with high-dose radiation to 86.4 Gy, using IMRT for localized prostate cancer, with the longest follow-up to date

  18. Clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis in Denmark 1948-1985: epidemiology, factors of significance for long-term survival, and causes of death in 179 patients.

    PubMed

    Milman, N; Pedersen, P; á Steig, T; Byg, K E; Graudal, N; Fenger, K

    2001-12-01

    The object was to analyze, in a nationwide survey, the incidence and course of hereditary hemochromatosis in relation to the degree of iron overload and the presence of organ damage. The study included 179 Danish Caucasian patients with clinically overt hemochromatosis diagnosed between 1948 and 1985. A cohort of 158 patients was followed for a median of 8.5 years (range: 0.2-29.5). From 1951 to 1975, the yearly relative incidence rate was constant: 0.58/100,000 persons >20 years of age. From 1981 to 1985, the yearly relative incidence rate rose to 1.40/100,000 persons >20 years of age. Survival was reduced in the entire series when compared with a matched control population ( p<0.0001). There was a steady increase in survival from 1948 to 1985 ( p<0.002). Survival was significantly reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis and/or diabetes mellitus ( p<0.01). In contrast, survival in patients without cirrhosis or diabetes was similar to rates expected. Survival in patients with arthropathy was higher than in patients without joint affection ( p<0.004). Patients adequately treated with phlebotomy ( n=66) had a higher survival than inadequately treated patients ( n=62; p<0.0001). Adequately treated patients with cirrhosis and/or diabetes had better survival than inadequately treated patients with similar organ damage ( p<0.001). The main causes of death were hepatic failure due to cirrhosis (32.0%) and cirrhosis with liver cancer (23.1%). Sharpened diagnostic awareness has improved early diagnosis and increased the diagnostic frequency of clinical hemochromatosis. Adequate phlebotomy treatment was the major determinant of survival and markedly improved prognosis. Early detection and treatment of this common iron overload disorder is crucial and can completely prevent any excess mortality caused by hemochromatosis. PMID:11797115

  19. Temperature change affected groundwater quality in a confined marine aquifer during long-term heating and cooling.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takeshi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Ueki, Takashi; Ohkubo, Satoshi; Moldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2016-05-01

    Global warming and urbanization together with development of subsurface infrastructures (e.g. subways, shopping complexes, sewage systems, and Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) systems) will likely cause a rapid increase in the temperature of relatively shallow groundwater reservoirs (subsurface thermal pollution). However, potential effects of a subsurface temperature change on groundwater quality due to changed physical, chemical, and microbial processes have received little attention. We therefore investigated changes in 34 groundwater quality parameters during a 13-month enhanced-heating period, followed by 14 months of natural or enhanced cooling in a confined marine aquifer at around 17 m depth on the Saitama University campus, Japan. A full-scale GSHP test facility consisting of a 50 m deep U-tube for circulating the heat-carrying fluid and four monitoring wells at 1, 2, 5, and 10 m from the U-tube were installed, and groundwater quality was monitored every 1-2 weeks. Rapid changes in the groundwater level in the area, especially during the summer, prevented accurate analyses of temperature effects using a single-well time series. Instead, Dual-Well Analysis (DWA) was applied, comparing variations in subsurface temperature and groundwater chemical concentrations between the thermally-disturbed well and a non-affected reference well. Using the 1 m distant well (temperature increase up to 7 °C) and the 10 m distant well (non-temperature-affected), the DWA showed an approximately linear relationships for eight components (B, Si, Li, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Mg(2+), NH4(+), Na(+), and K(+)) during the combined 27 months of heating and cooling, suggesting changes in concentration between 4% and 31% for a temperature change of 7 °C. PMID:26938497

  20. Long-term feeding a plant-based diet devoid of marine ingredients strongly affects certain key metabolic enzymes in the rainbow trout liver.

    PubMed

    Véron, Vincent; Panserat, Stéphane; Le Boucher, Richard; Labbé, Laurent; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Incorporation of a plant blend in the diet can affect growth parameters and metabolism in carnivorous fish. We studied for the first time the long-term (1 year) metabolic response of rainbow trout fed from first feeding with a plant-based diet totally devoid of marine ingredients. Hepatic enzymes were analyzed at enzymatic and molecular levels, at 3, 8 and 24 h after the last meal to study both the short-term effects of the last meal and long-term effects of the diet. The results were compared with those of fish fed a control diet of fish meal and fish oil. Growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein retention were lower in the group fed the plant-based diet. Glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activity were lower in the livers of trout fed the plant-based diet which the proportion of starch was lower than in the control diet. Glutamate dehydrogenase was induced by the plant-based diet, suggesting an imbalance of amino acids and a possible link with the lower protein retention observed. Gene expression of delta 6 desaturase was higher in fish fed the plant-based diet, probably linked to a high dietary level of linolenic acid and the absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase expression was also induced by plant-based diet because of the low rate of cholesterol in the diet. Changes in regulation mechanisms already identified through short-term nutritional experiments (<12 weeks) suggest that metabolic responses are implemented at short term and remain in the long term. PMID:26746847

  1. Enhanced stable long-term operation of biotrickling filters treating VOCs by low-dose ozonation and its affecting mechanism on biofilm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingwei; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Jianmeng; Luo, Yong; Zou, Haikui; Sun, Baochang

    2016-11-01

    For long-term operation of highly loaded biotrickling filters (BTFs), the prevention of excess biomass accumulation was essential for avoiding BTF failure. In this study, we proposed low-dose ozonation as a biomass control strategy to maintain high removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over extended operation of BTFs. To obtain an optimized biomass control strategy, the relative performance of five parallel BTFs receiving different ozone doses was determined, and the affecting mechanism of ozonation on biofilm was elucidated. Experimental results showed that the decline in ozone-free BTF performance began from day 150, which was correlated with excess biomass accumulation, abundant excretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and a decline in metabolic activity of biofilm over extended operation. Ozone of 5-10 mg m(-3) was effective in preventing excessive growth and uneven distribution of biomass, and eventually maintaining long-term stable operations. Ozone of over 20 mg m(-3) possibly inhibited microorganism growth severely, thereby deteriorating the elimination performance instead. Comparison of the biofilm EPS indicated that the presence of ozone reduce EPS contents to different extents, which was possibly beneficial for mass transfer and metabolic activity. Comparative community analysis showed that ozonation resulted in different microbial communities in the BTFs. Dyella was found to be the most abundant bacterial genera in all BTFs regardless of ozonation, indicating strong resistance to ozonation. Chryseobacterium and Burkholderia members were markedly enriched in the ozone-added biofilm, implying good adaptation to ozone presence. These findings provided an improved understanding of low-dose ozonation in maintaining a stable long-term operation of BTF. PMID:27494314

  2. Modelling the long-term impacts on affected children of adult HIV: benefits, challenges and a possible approach.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Christopher; Bruce, Faikah; Tomlinson, M; Marlow, Marguerite B; Aber, J Lawrence; Ouifki, Rachid; Welte, Alex

    2014-07-01

    We outline the benefits, challenges and possible approaches to developing mathematical models that could be used to estimate the magnitude of negative consequences of adult HIV infection for children. Adult HIV infection can lead to numerous negative consequences for dependent children, including depression, anxiety, withdrawal from school and early sexual debut, among others. For advocacy and planning purposes, it is important to highlight and consider as many of these as possible. A focus solely on orphan numbers, which is the typical summary measure for children affected by HIV and AIDS, can be misleading. The complexity of child development that is characterized by the interaction of a multitude of proximal and distal factors, coupled with a significant lack of data on child development in the context of adult HIV infection make the development of models a challenging task. Although it may not be possible in the first attempt to develop a population-based model capable of examining family dynamics, the negative consequences together with the impact of interventions, steps in that direction can be taken. We propose approaches and assumptions that we believe will allow the development of a useful first set of models. We conclude with a brief discussion of the type of data that, if collected, would facilitate refinement and development of these models. PMID:24991900

  3. Pulmonary function changes after radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with long-term disease-free survival

    SciTech Connect

    Borst, Gerben R.; Jaeger, Katrien de; Belderbos, Jose; Burgers, Sjaak A.; Lebesque, Joos V. . E-mail: j.lebesque@nki.nl

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the changes in pulmonary function after high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer in patients with a long-term disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Pulmonary function was measured in 34 patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer before RT and at 3 and 18 months of follow-up. Thirteen of these patients had a pulmonary function test (PFT) 36 months after RT. The pulmonary function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV{sub 1}], diffusion capacity [T{sub lcoc}], forced vital capacity, and alveolar volume) were expressed as a percentage of normal values. Changes were expressed as relative to the pre-RT value. We evaluated the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, radiation pneumonitis, mean lung dose, and PFT results before RT on the changes in pulmonary function. Results: At 3, 18, and 36 months, a significant decrease was observed for the T{sub lcoc} (9.5%, 14.6%, and 22.0%, respectively) and the alveolar volume (5.8%, 6.6%, and 15.8%, respectively). The decrease in FEV{sub 1} was significant at 18 and 36 months (8.8% and 13.4%, respectively). No recovery of any of the parameters was observed. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was an important risk factor for larger PFT decreases. FEV{sub 1} and T{sub lcoc} decreases were dependent on the mean lung dose. Conclusion: A significant decrease in pulmonary function was observed 3 months after RT. No recovery in pulmonary function was seen at 18 and 36 months after RT. The decrease in pulmonary function was dependent on the mean lung dose, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had larger reductions in the PFTs.

  4. Survival and function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) depend on glucose to overcome exposure to long-term, severe and continuous hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Deschepper, M; Oudina, K; David, B; Myrtil, V; Collet, C; Bensidhoum, M; Logeart-Avramoglou, D; Petite, H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has emerged as a potential new treatment for various diseases but has generated marginally successful results. A consistent finding of most studies is massive death of transplanted cells. The present study examined the respective roles of glucose and continuous severe hypoxia on MSC viability and function with respect to bone tissue engineering. We hereby demonstrate for the first time that MSCs survive exposure to long-term (12 days), severe (pO2 < 1.5 mmHg) hypoxia, provided glucose is available. To this end, an in vitro model that mimics the hypoxic environment and cell-driven metabolic changes encountered by grafted sheep cells was established. In this model, the hallmarks of hypoxia (low pO2, hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression and anaerobic metabolism) were present. When conditions switched from hypoxic (low pO2) to ischemic (low pO2 and glucose depletion), MSCs exhibited shrinking, decreased cell viability and ATP content due to complete exhaustion of glucose at day 6; these results provided evidence that ischemia led to the observed massive cell death. Moreover, MSCs exposed to severe, continuous hypoxia, but without any glucose shortage, remained viable and maintained both their in vitro proliferative ability after simulation with blood reperfusion at day 12 and their in vivo osteogenic ability. These findings challenge the traditional view according to which severe hypoxia per se is responsible for the massive MSC death observed upon transplantation of these cells and provide evidence that MSCs are able to withstand exposure to severe, continuous hypoxia provided that a glucose supply is available. PMID:20716129

  5. Outcome of the HORIZONS-AMI trial: bivalirudin enhances long-term survival in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashish; Feldman, Dmitriy N

    2012-01-01

    setting of primary PCI for STEMI given that its benefits are maintained through long-term follow-up. PMID:22399856

  6. The long-term impact of infant rearing background on the affective state of adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Hayley; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life environment, including temporary family separation, can have a major influence on affective state. Using a battery of tests, the current study compared the performance of adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), reared as infants under 3 different conditions: family-reared twins, family-reared animals from triplet litters where only 2 remain (2stays) and supplementary fed triplets. No significant differences were found in latency to approach and obtain food from a human or a novel object between rearing conditions, suggesting no effect on neophobia. There were no differences in cognitive bias task acquisition time, or proportion of responses to each ambiguous probe. Very minor differences were found in response to the probes, with only supplementary fed marmosets making fewer responses to the middle probe, compared to the probe nearest the rewarded stimuli. Similarly, in a test for anhedonia, no difference was found between rearing conditions in consumption of milkshake at different concentrations. There was just one very small difference in reward motivation, with only supplementary fed triplets demonstrating a lack of preference for milkshake over water at the lowest concentration. This consistent pattern of results suggests that the supplementary feeding of large litters of marmosets at this facility did not have a major effect on welfare, and is unlikely to influence performance in reward-related scientific tasks. Therefore, while family separation is not recommended, this particular practice should be used if it is necessary, such as to reduce infant mortality. Regular positive interactions with humans are also encouraged, to reduce fear and improve welfare of marmosets kept in captivity. PMID:26912940

  7. Carbon dioxide emissions as affected by alternative long-term irrigation and tillage management practices in the lower Mississippi River Valley.

    PubMed

    Smith, S F; Brye, K R

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring the sustainability of cultivated soils is an ever-increasing priority for producers in the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMRV). As groundwater sources become depleted and environmental regulations become more strict, producers will look to alternative management practices that will ensure the sustainability and cost-effectiveness of their production systems. This study was conducted to assess the long-term (>7 years) effects of irrigation (i.e., irrigated and dryland production) and tillage (conventional and no-tillage) on estimated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil respiration during two soybean (Glycine max L.) growing seasons from a wheat- (Triticum aestivum L.-) soybean, double-cropped production system in the LMRV region of eastern Arkansas. Soil surface CO2 fluxes were measured approximately every two weeks during two soybean growing seasons. Estimated season-long CO2 emissions were unaffected by irrigation in 2011 (P > 0.05); however, during the unusually dry 2012 growing season, season-long CO2 emissions were 87.6% greater (P = 0.044) under irrigated (21.9 Mg CO2 ha(-1)) than under dryland management (11.7 Mg CO2 ha(-1)). Contrary to what was expected, there was no interactive effect of irrigation and tillage on estimated season-long CO2 emissions. Understanding how long-term agricultural management practices affect soil respiration can help improve policies for soil and environmental sustainability. PMID:25371912

  8. Long-term testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  9. Long-term testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000--10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  10. Wide versus narrow excision margins for high-risk, primary cutaneous melanomas: long-term follow-up of survival in a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Andrew J; Maynard, Lauren; Coombes, Gillian; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Timmons, Michael; Cook, Martin; Theaker, Jeffrey; Bliss, Judith M; Thomas, J Meirion

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The necessary margin of excision for cutaneous melanomas greater than 2 mm in thickness is controversial. At a median follow-up of 5 years, findings from our previously published randomised trial of narrow (1 cm) versus wide (3 cm) excision margins in patients with thick cutaneous melanomas showed that narrow margins were associated with an increased frequency of locoregional relapse, but no significant difference in overall survival was apparent. We now report a long-term survival analysis of that trial. Methods We did a randomised, open-label multicentre trial in 59 hospitals—57 in the UK, one in Poland, and one in South Africa. Patients with one primary localised cutaneous melanoma greater than 2 mm in Breslow thickness on the trunk or limbs (excluding palms or soles) were randomly assigned (1:1) centrally to receive surgery with either a 1 cm or 3 cm excision margin following an initial surgery. The randomisation lists were generated with random permuted blocks and stratified by centre and extent of initial surgery. The endpoints of this analysis were overall survival and melanoma-specific survival. Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This trial was not registered because it predated mandatory trial registration. Findings Between Dec 16, 1992, and May 22, 2001, we randomly assigned 900 patients to surgery with either a 1 cm excision margin (n=453) or a 3 cm excision margin (n=447). At a median follow-up of 8·8 years (106 months [IQR 76–135], 494 patients had died, with 359 of these deaths attributed to melanoma. 194 deaths were attributed to melanoma in the 1 cm group compared with 165 in the 3 cm group (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1·24 [95% CI 1·01–1·53]; p=0·041). Although a higher number of deaths overall occurred in the 1 cm group compared with the 3 cm group (253 vs 241), the difference was not significant (unadjusted HR 1·14 [95% CI 0·96–1·36]; p=0·14). Surgical complications were reported in 35 (8

  11. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  12. Effects of long-term exposure to two fungicides, pyrimethanil and tebuconazole, on survival and life history traits of Italian tree frog (Hyla intermedia).

    PubMed

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Guardia, Antonello; Macirella, Rachele; Sesti, Settimio; Crescente, Antonio; Brunelli, Elvira

    2016-03-01

    fungicides also caused a reduction in developmental rates just prior to the onset of metamorphic climax, which translated to a significant delay in timing of metamorphosis. We detected a drastic decrease in the success at metamorphosis in all exposed groups, compared to control group (86.25%). In fact, the percentage of survived larvae to GS 46, in the high and low concentrations, respectively, was only 22.5% and 36.25% in tebuconazole-exposed groups and 43.75% (50μg/L) and 56.25% (5μg/L) in pyrimethanil-exposed groups. Our findings underscore the hazardous properties of these two fungicides for non-target species in the context of ecotoxicological risk assessment. No published studies have addressed the long-term effects of tebuconazole and pyrimethanil on amphibians. To date, this is one of only a few studies documenting the effects of fungicide exposure over the whole larval development. PMID:26771902

  13. Leuconostoc bacteriophages from blue cheese manufacture: long-term survival, resistance to thermal treatments, high pressure homogenization and chemical biocides of industrial application.

    PubMed

    Pujato, Silvina A; Guglielmotti, Daniela M; Ackermann, Hans-W; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Nine Leuconostoc mesenteroides phages were isolated during blue cheese manufacture yielding faulty products with reduced eye formation. Their morphologies, restriction profiles, host ranges and long-term survival rates (25°C, 8°C, -20°C and -80°C) were analysed. Based on restriction analysis, six of them were further examined regarding resistance to physical (heat and high pressure homogenization, HPH) and chemical treatments (ethanol, sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid, biocides A, C, E and F). According to their morphology, L. mesenteroides phages studied in the present work belonged to the Caudovirales order and Siphoviridae family. Six distinct restriction patterns were obtained with EcoRV, HindIII, ClaI and XhoI enzymes, revealing interesting phage diversity in the dairy environment. No significant reductions in phage counts were observed after ten months of storage at -20°C and -80°C, while slightly and moderate decrease in phage numbers were noticed at 8°C and 25°C, respectively. The phages subjected to heat treatments generally showed high resistance at 63°C and moderate resistance at 72°C. However, 80°C for 30 min and 90°C for 2 min led to complete inactivation of viral particles. In general, the best ethanol concentration tested was 75%, as complete inactivation for most Leuconostoc phages within 30 min of incubation was achieved. Peracetic acid, and biocides A, C, E and F were highly effective when used at the same or at a moderately lower concentration as recommended by the producer. Usually, moderate or high concentrations (600-1,600 ppm) of sodium hypochlorite were necessary to completely inactivate phage particles. Leuconostoc phages were partially inactivated by HPH treatments as remaining viral particles were found even after 8 passes at 100 MPa. This is the first report of L. mesenteroides phages isolated from an Argentinean dairy cheese plant. The results of this work could be useful for establishing the most effective physical and

  14. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors.

  15. Pre-learning stress differentially affects long-term memory for emotional words, depending on temporal proximity to the learning experience.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Clark, Brianne; Warnecke, Ashlee; Smith, Lindsay; Tabar, Jennifer; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2011-07-01

    Stress exerts a profound, yet complex, influence on learning and memory and can enhance, impair or have no effect on these processes. Here, we have examined how the administration of stress at different times before learning affects long-term (24-hr) memory for neutral and emotional information. Participants submerged their dominant hand into a bath of ice cold water (Stress) or into a bath of warm water (No stress) for 3 min. Either immediately (Exp. 1) or 30 min (Exp. 2) after the water bath manipulation, participants were presented with a list of 30 words varying in emotional valence. The next day, participants' memory for the word list was assessed via free recall and recognition tests. In both experiments, stressed participants exhibited greater blood pressure, salivary cortisol levels, and subjective pain and stress ratings than non-stressed participants in response to the water bath manipulation. Stress applied immediately prior to learning (Exp. 1) enhanced the recognition of positive words, while stress applied 30 min prior to learning (Exp. 2) impaired free recall of negative words. Participants' recognition of positive words in Experiment 1 was positively associated with their heart rate responses to the water bath manipulation, while participants' free recall of negative words in Experiment 2 was negatively associated with their blood pressure and cortisol responses to the water bath manipulation. These findings indicate that the differential effects of pre-learning stress on long-term memory may depend on the temporal proximity of the stressor to the learning experience and the emotional nature of the to-be-learned information. PMID:21262248

  16. Long-Term Cold Acclimation Extends Survival Time at 0°C and Modifies the Metabolomic Profiles of the Larvae of the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Koštál, Vladimír; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Rozsypal, Jan; Zahradníčková, Helena; Cimlová, Jana; Tomčala, Aleš; Šimek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Background Drosophila melanogaster is a chill-susceptible insect. Previous studies on this fly focused on acute direct chilling injury during cold shock and showed that lower lethal temperature (LLT, approximately −5°C) exhibits relatively low plasticity and that acclimations, both rapid cold hardening (RCH) and long-term cold acclimation, shift the LLT by only a few degrees at the maximum. Principal Findings We found that long-term cold acclimation considerably improved cold tolerance in fully grown third-instar larvae of D. melanogaster. A comparison of the larvae acclimated at constant 25°C with those acclimated at constant 15°C followed by constant 6°C for 2 d (15°C→6°C) showed that long-term cold acclimation extended the lethal time for 50% of the population (Lt50) during exposure to constant 0°C as much as 630-fold (from 0.137 h to 86.658 h). Such marked physiological plasticity in Lt50 (in contrast to LLT) suggested that chronic indirect chilling injury at 0°C differs from that caused by cold shock. Long-term cold acclimation modified the metabolomic profiles of the larvae. Accumulations of proline (up to 17.7 mM) and trehalose (up to 36.5 mM) were the two most prominent responses. In addition, restructuring of the glycerophospholipid composition of biological membranes was observed. The relative proportion of glycerophosphoethanolamines (especially those with linoleic acid at the sn-2 position) increased at the expense of glycerophosphocholines. Conclusion Third-instar larvae of D. melanogaster improved their cold tolerance in response to long-term cold acclimation and showed metabolic potential for the accumulation of proline and trehalose and for membrane restructuring. PMID:21957472

  17. Depletion of Serotonin Selectively Impairs Short-Term Memory without Affecting Long-Term Memory in Odor Learning in the Terrestrial Slug "Limax Valentianus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa, Tomofumi; Kirino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Satoshi; Shirahata, Takaaki; Tsunoda, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial slug "Limax" is able to acquire short-term and long-term memories during aversive odor-taste associative learning. We investigated the effect of the selective serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on memory. Behavioral studies indicated that 5,7-DHT impaired short-term memory but not long-term memory. HPLC…

  18. Scedosporium apiospermum and S. prolificans mixed disseminated infection in a lung transplant recipient: An unusual case of long-term survival with combined systemic and local antifungal therapy in intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Balandin, Bárbara; Aguilar, Miriam; Sánchez, Isabel; Monzón, Araceli; Rivera, Isabel; Salas, Clara; Valdivia, Miguel; Alcántara, Sara; Pérez, Aris; Ussetti, Piedad

    2016-01-01

    Infections due Scedosporium spp. in lung transplant recipients are associated with disseminated disease with high mortality rates. The adjunctive local antifungal therapy may be a useful option when systemic treatment is insufficient and/or surgery is not feasible. We present a case of mixed disseminated infection due Scedosporium apiospermum and S. prolificans in a lung transplant recipient. Combined local and systemic antifungal therapy provided an unusual long-term survival in the intensive care unit. PMID:27222774

  19. Effectivity of a strategy in elderly AML patients to reach allogeneic stem cell transplantation using intensive chemotherapy: Long-term survival is dependent on complete remission after first induction therapy.

    PubMed

    von dem Borne, P A; de Wreede, L C; Halkes, C J M; Marijt, W A F; Falkenburg, J H F; Veelken, H

    2016-07-01

    Intensive chemotherapy followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) can cure AML. Most studies on alloSCT in elderly AML report results of highly selected patient cohorts. Hardly any data exist on the effectiveness of prospective strategies intended to bring as many patients as possible to transplant. Between 2006 and 2011 we implemented a treatment algorithm for all newly diagnosed AML patients aged 61-75 years, consisting of intensive chemotherapy cycles to induce complete remission, followed by alloSCT. 44 of 60 (73%) newly diagnosed elderly AML patients started with chemotherapy. By meticulously following our algorithm in almost all patients, we could induce complete remission (CR) in 66% of patients starting with chemotherapy, and transplant 32% of these patients in continuous CR. Main reasons for failure were early relapse (16%), early death (14%), primary refractory disease (9%), and patient or physician decision to stop treatment (16%). Patients in continuous CR after first induction benefit most with 36% long-term survival. Patients not in CR after first induction benefit less; although additional chemotherapy induces CR in 45% of these patients, only 23% are transplanted and no long-term survival is observed, mainly due to relapse. Long-term survival in the group of 44 patients is 9% (median 4.5 years after alloSCT). Considering that 27% of patients do not start with chemotherapy and 64% of patients starting with chemotherapy do not reach alloSCT, the reasons for failure presented here should be used as a guide to develop new treatment algorithms to improve long-term survival in elderly AML patients. PMID:27123833

  20. Scedosporium apiospermum and S. prolificans mixed disseminated infection in a lung transplant recipient: An unusual case of long-term survival with combined systemic and local antifungal therapy in intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Balandin, Bárbara; Aguilar, Miriam; Sánchez, Isabel; Monzón, Araceli; Rivera, Isabel; Salas, Clara; Valdivia, Miguel; Alcántara, Sara; Pérez, Aris; Ussetti, Piedad

    2016-03-01

    Infections due Scedosporium spp. in lung transplant recipients are associated with disseminated disease with high mortality rates. The adjunctive local antifungal therapy may be a useful option when systemic treatment is insufficient and/or surgery is not feasible. We present a case of mixed disseminated infection due Scedosporium apiospermum and S. prolificans in a lung transplant recipient. Combined local and systemic antifungal therapy provided an unusual long-term survival in the intensive care unit. PMID:27222774

  1. Developmental Associations between Short-Term Variability and Long-Term Changes: Intraindividual Correlation of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life and Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time within individuals, that it differs across individuals, and that a less negative iCorr is associated with better resilience and less vulnerability. However, little is known about how the iCorr of PA and NA relates to cognitive aging. This project examined how the association between PA and NA in everyday life is associated with long-term cognitive aging trajectories. To do so, we linked micro-longitudinal data on PA and NA obtained on up to 33 occasions over six consecutive days with macro-longitudinal data on fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities obtained over 15 years from a subsample of Berlin Aging Study participants (N = 81, mean age at the micro-longitudinal study = 81 years, range 73–98; 41% women). Over and above age, gender, education, overall levels of PA and NA, and number of health conditions, a less negative iCorr of PA and NA was associated with lower levels of cognitive ability and steeper cognitive declines, particularly for fluency and knowledge abilities. We discuss possible mechanisms for this finding and argue that a less negative iCorr of PA and NA may be indicative of deficits in emotional integration that are tied to changes in crystallized aspects of cognitive abilities. PMID:26010386

  2. Effect of long-term aging on microstructure and local behavior in the heat-affected zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–V steel welded joint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Ming-Liang Wang, De-Qiang; Xuan, Fu-Zhen

    2014-01-15

    Evolution of microstructure, micro-hardness and micro-tensile strength behavior was investigated in the heat-affected zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–V steel welded joint after the artificial aging at 350 °C for 3000 h. After detailed characterization of microstructures in optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, it is revealed that the change of martensite–bainite constituent promotes more homogeneous microstructure distribution. The aging treatment facilitates redistribution of carbon and chromium elements along the welded joint, and the micro-hardness is increased slightly through the welds due to enrichment of carbon. The types of precipitates in the weldment mainly include M{sub 3}C, MC, M{sub 2}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. The carbides in base metal, weld metal and coarse-grained heat-affected zone are prone to change from ellipsoidal to platelet form whereas more uniform spherical carbides are observed in the fine-grained zone. Precipitation and coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} near the fusion line, and formation of MC and M{sub 2}C, are responsible for the tensile strength decrease and its smooth distribution in the aged heat-affected zone. This implies that the thermal aging can relieve strength mismatch in the weldments. - Highlights: • Microstructure homogeneity improved in HAZ after long-term aging. • Tensile strength decreased in HAZ due to precipitation and coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. • Strength mismatch in NiCrMoV steel welds was relieved after aging at 350 °C × 3000 h.

  3. Long-term results of adrenalectomy in patients with aldosterone-producing adenomas: multivariate analysis of factors affecting unresolved hypertension and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lumachi, Franco; Ermani, Mario; Basso, Stefano M M; Armanini, Decio; Iacobone, Maurizio; Favia, Gennaro

    2005-10-01

    The long-term surgical cure rate of patients with primary aldosteronism varies widely, and causes of persistent hypertension are not completely established. We reviewed retrospectively charts from 98 patients (range, 19-70 years old) with aldosterone-producing adenomas who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy. At a median follow-up of 81 months (range, 18-186 months), the mean blood pressure values improved in 95 out of 98 (96.9%) patients, although hypertension was cured only in 71 out of 98 (72.4%) patients. Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model adjusted for duration of follow-up showed that only age of the patients and duration of the disease independently correlated with unresolved hypertension. The cumulative odds ratio (OR), obtained using the logistic regression function, was 5.38 (95% CI 1.78-16.22), and the OR of single variables were 1.32 (95% CI 0.36-19.83) and 4.56 (95% CI 1.41-14.78), respectively. By using discriminant analysis to derive a classification function for the prediction of unresolved hypertension, a maximum predictive power of 75 per cent was achieved. In conclusion, in patients with an aldosterone-producing adenoma undergoing surgery, the combination of age and duration of hypertension gave the best predictive power of a linear classification function and represented the main independent risk factors affecting hypertension cure rate. PMID:16468537

  4. Short- and long-term exposure to alternating magnetic field (50 Hz, 0.5 mT) affects rat pituitary ACTH cells: Stereological study.

    PubMed

    Rauš Balind, Snežana; Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica; Milošević, Verica; Todorović, Dajana; Nikolić, Ljiljana; Petković, Branka

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine does extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF, 50 Hz, 0.5 mT) affect pituitary adrenocorticotroph (ACTH) cells in adult animals. We performed two series of experiments: (1) short-term exposure of 3-month-old rats to ELF-MF for 1 and 7 days, and (2) long-term exposure of rats to ELF-MF from their conception to 3 months of age. Stereological study was performed on immunolabeled pituitary ACTH cells. The total number and volume of ACTH cells, the volume of their nuclei and pituitary volume were measured. ELF-MF exposure for 1 day significantly decreased total number and volume of ACTH cells, the volume of their nuclei, as well as pituitary volume. ELF-MF exposure for 7 days significantly reduced only the volume of ACTH cells. Life-long exposure to ELF-MF induced decrease in the volume of ACTH cells and pituitary volume. We can conclude that the applied ELF-MF has a strong influence on morphometrical parameters of the pituitary ACTH cells and could be considered as a stressogenic factor. PMID:25346405

  5. Long-Term Survival and Dialysis Dependency Following Acute Kidney Injury in Intensive Care: Extended Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Martin; Cass, Alan; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Finfer, Simon; Gattas, David; Lee, Joanne; Lo, Serigne; McGuinness, Shay; Myburgh, John; Parke, Rachael; Rajbhandari, Dorrilyn

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasing globally and it is much more common than end-stage kidney disease. AKI is associated with high mortality and cost of hospitalisation. Studies of treatments to reduce this high mortality have used differing renal replacement therapy (RRT) modalities and have not shown improvement in the short term. The reported long-term outcomes of AKI are variable and the effect of differing RRT modalities upon them is not clear. We used the prolonged follow-up of a large clinical trial to prospectively examine the long-term outcomes and effect of RRT dosing in patients with AKI. Methods and Findings We extended the follow-up of participants in the Randomised Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Levels of RRT (RENAL) study from 90 days to 4 years after randomization. Primary and secondary outcomes were mortality and requirement for maintenance dialysis, respectively, assessed in 1,464 (97%) patients at a median of 43.9 months (interquartile range [IQR] 30.0–48.6 months) post randomization. A total of 468/743 (63%) and 444/721 (62%) patients died in the lower and higher intensity groups, respectively (risk ratio [RR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.96–1.12, p = 0.49). Amongst survivors to day 90, 21 of 411 (5.1%) and 23 of 399 (5.8%) in the respective groups were treated with maintenance dialysis (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.63–2.00, p = 0.69). The prevalence of albuminuria among survivors was 40% and 44%, respectively (p = 0.48). Quality of life was not different between the two treatment groups. The generalizability of these findings to other populations with AKI requires further exploration. Conclusions Patients with AKI requiring RRT in intensive care have high long-term mortality but few require maintenance dialysis. Long-term survivors have a heavy burden of proteinuria. Increased intensity of RRT does not reduce mortality or subsequent treatment with dialysis. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00221013

  6. Response to long-term growth hormone therapy in patients affected by RASopathies and growth hormone deficiency: Patterns of growth, puberty and final height data.

    PubMed

    Tamburrino, Federica; Gibertoni, Dino; Rossi, Cesare; Scarano, Emanuela; Perri, Annamaria; Montanari, Francesca; Fantini, Maria Pia; Pession, Andrea; Tartaglia, Marco; Mazzanti, Laura

    2015-11-01

    RASopathies are developmental disorders caused by heterozygous germline mutations in genes encoding proteins in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Reduced growth is a common feature. Several studies generated data on growth, final height (FH), and height velocity (HV) after growth hormone (GH) treatment in patients with these disorders, particularly in Noonan syndrome, the most common RASopathy. These studies, however, refer to heterogeneous cohorts in terms of molecular information, GH status, age at start and length of therapy, and GH dosage. This work reports growth data in 88 patients affected by RASopathies with molecularly confirmed diagnosis, together with statistics on body proportions, pubertal pattern, and FH in 33, including 16 treated with GH therapy for proven GH deficiency. Thirty-three patients showed GH deficiency after pharmacological tests, and were GH-treated for an average period of 6.8 ± 4.8 years. Before starting therapy, HV was -2.6 ± 1.3 SDS, and mean basal IGF1 levels were -2.0 ± 1.1 SDS. Long-term GH therapy, starting early during childhood, resulted in a positive height response compared with untreated patients (1.3 SDS in terms of height-gain), normalizing FH for Ranke standards but not for general population and Target Height. Pubertal timing negatively affected pubertal growth spurt and FH, with IGF1 standardized score increased from -2.43 to -0.27 SDS. During GH treatment, no significant change in bone age velocity, body proportions, or cardiovascular function was observed. PMID:26227443

  7. Long-term feeding of Atlantic salmon in seawater with low dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids affects tissue status of the brain, retina and erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sissener, N H; Torstensen, B E; Stubhaug, I; Rosenlund, G

    2016-06-01

    In two long-term feeding trials in seawater, Atlantic salmon were fed EPA+DHA in graded levels, from 1·3 to 7·4 % of fatty acids (FA, 4-24 g/kg feed) combined with approximately 10 % 18 : 3n-3, at 6 and 12°C. Dietary EPA appeared to be sufficient in all diet groups, as no differences were seen in polar lipid tissue concentrations of either the brain, retina or erythrocytes. For DHA, a reduction in tissue levels was observed with low dietary supply. Effects on brain DHA at ≤1·4 % EPA+DHA of dietary FA and retina DHA at ≤2·7 % EPA+DHA of dietary FA were only observed in fish reared at 6°C, suggesting an effect of temperature, whereas tissue levels of n-6 FA increased as a response to increased dietary n-6 FA in both the brain and the retina at both temperatures. DHA levels in erythrocytes were affected by ≤2·7 % EPA+DHA at both temperatures. Therefore, DHA appears to be the limiting n-3 FA in diets where EPA and DHA are present in the ratios found in fishmeal and fish oil. To assess the physiological significance of FA differences in erythrocytes, the osmotic resistance was tested, but it did not vary between dietary groups. In conclusion, ≤2·7 % EPA+DHA of FA (≤9 g/kg feed) is not sufficient to maintain tissue DHA status in important tissues of Atlantic salmon throughout the seawater production cycle despite the presence of dietary 18 : 3n-3, and effects may be more severe at low water temperatures. PMID:27044510

  8. Archaeal dominated ammonia-oxidizing communities in Icelandic grassland soils are moderately affected by long-term N fertilization and geothermal heating

    PubMed Central

    Daebeler, Anne; Abell, Guy C. J.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Bodrossy, Levente; Frampton, Dion M. F.; Hefting, Mariet M.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively) to the net oxidation of ammonia varies greatly between terrestrial environments. To better understand, predict and possibly manage terrestrial nitrogen turnover, we need to develop a conceptual understanding of ammonia oxidation as a function of environmental conditions including the ecophysiology of associated organisms. We examined the discrete and combined effects of mineral nitrogen deposition and geothermal heating on ammonia-oxidizing communities by sampling soils from a long-term fertilization site along a temperature gradient in Icelandic grasslands. Microarray, clone library and quantitative PCR analyses of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene accompanied by physico-chemical measurements of the soil properties were conducted. In contrast to most other terrestrial environments, the ammonia-oxidizing communities consisted almost exclusively of archaea. Their bacterial counterparts proved to be undetectable by quantitative polymerase chain reaction suggesting AOB are only of minor relevance for ammonia oxidation in these soils. Our results show that fertilization and local, geothermal warming affected detectable ammonia-oxidizing communities, but not soil chemistry: only a subset of the detected AOA phylotypes was present in higher temperature soils and AOA abundance was increased in the fertilized soils, while soil physio-chemical properties remained unchanged. Differences in distribution and structure of AOA communities were best explained by soil pH and clay content irrespective of temperature or fertilizer treatment in these grassland soils, suggesting that these factors have a greater potential for ecological niche-differentiation of AOA in soil than temperature and N fertilization. PMID:23060870

  9. Chimeric 2C10R4 anti-CD40 antibody therapy is critical for long-term survival of GTKO.hCD46.hTBM pig-to-primate cardiac xenograft.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, Muhammad M; Singh, Avneesh K; Corcoran, Philip C; Thomas, Marvin L; Clark, Tannia; Lewis, Billeta G; Hoyt, Robert F; Eckhaus, Michael; Pierson, Richard N; Belli, Aaron J; Wolf, Eckhard; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Phelps, Carol; Reimann, Keith A; Ayares, David; Horvath, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Preventing xenograft rejection is one of the greatest challenges of transplantation medicine. Here, we describe a reproducible, long-term survival of cardiac xenografts from alpha 1-3 galactosyltransferase gene knockout pigs, which express human complement regulatory protein CD46 and human thrombomodulin (GTKO.hCD46.hTBM), that were transplanted into baboons. Our immunomodulatory drug regimen includes induction with anti-thymocyte globulin and αCD20 antibody, followed by maintenance with mycophenolate mofetil and an intensively dosed αCD40 (2C10R4) antibody. Median (298 days) and longest (945 days) graft survival in five consecutive recipients using this regimen is significantly prolonged over our recently established survival benchmarks (180 and 500 days, respectively). Remarkably, the reduction of αCD40 antibody dose on day 100 or after 1 year resulted in recrudescence of anti-pig antibody and graft failure. In conclusion, genetic modifications (GTKO.hCD46.hTBM) combined with the treatment regimen tested here consistently prevent humoral rejection and systemic coagulation pathway dysregulation, sustaining long-term cardiac xenograft survival beyond 900 days. PMID:27045379

  10. Chimeric 2C10R4 anti-CD40 antibody therapy is critical for long-term survival of GTKO.hCD46.hTBM pig-to-primate cardiac xenograft

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Muhammad M.; Singh, Avneesh K.; Corcoran, Philip C.; Thomas III, Marvin L.; Clark, Tannia; Lewis, Billeta G.; Hoyt, Robert F.; Eckhaus, Michael; Pierson III, Richard N.; Belli, Aaron J.; Wolf, Eckhard; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Phelps, Carol; Reimann, Keith A.; Ayares, David; Horvath, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Preventing xenograft rejection is one of the greatest challenges of transplantation medicine. Here, we describe a reproducible, long-term survival of cardiac xenografts from alpha 1-3 galactosyltransferase gene knockout pigs, which express human complement regulatory protein CD46 and human thrombomodulin (GTKO.hCD46.hTBM), that were transplanted into baboons. Our immunomodulatory drug regimen includes induction with anti-thymocyte globulin and αCD20 antibody, followed by maintenance with mycophenolate mofetil and an intensively dosed αCD40 (2C10R4) antibody. Median (298 days) and longest (945 days) graft survival in five consecutive recipients using this regimen is significantly prolonged over our recently established survival benchmarks (180 and 500 days, respectively). Remarkably, the reduction of αCD40 antibody dose on day 100 or after 1 year resulted in recrudescence of anti-pig antibody and graft failure. In conclusion, genetic modifications (GTKO.hCD46.hTBM) combined with the treatment regimen tested here consistently prevent humoral rejection and systemic coagulation pathway dysregulation, sustaining long-term cardiac xenograft survival beyond 900 days. PMID:27045379

  11. Soil microbial biomass and community structure affected by repeated additions of sewage sludge in four Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, G.; Kätterer, T.; Kirchmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic matter is a key attribute of soil fertility. The pool of soil organic C can be increased, either by mineral fertilisers or by adding organic amendments such as sewage sludge. Sewage sludge has positive effects on agricultural soils through the supply of organic matter and essential plant nutrients, but sludge may also contain unwanted heavy metals, xenobiotic substances and pathogens. One obvious effect of long-term sewage sludge addition is a decrease in soil pH, caused by N mineralisation followed by nitrification, sulphate formation and presence of organic acids with the organic matter added. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sewage sludge on the microbial biomass and community structure. Materials and methods We analysed soil samples from four sites where sewage sludge has been repeatedly applied in long-term field experiments situated in different parts of Sweden; Ultuna (59°49'N, 17°39'E, started 1956), Lanna (58°21'N, 13°06'E, started 1997-98), Petersborg (55°32'N, 13°00'E, started 1981) and Igelösa (55°45'N, 13°18'E, started 1981). In these four experiments, at least one sewage sludge treatment is included in the experimental design. In the Ultuna experiment, all organic fertilisers, including sewage sludge, are applied every second year, corresponding to 4 ton C ha-1. The Lanna experiment has a similar design, with 8 ton dry matter ha-1 applied every second year. Lanna also has an additional treatment in which metal salts (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) are added together with sewage sludge. At Petersborg and Igelösa, two levels of sewage sludge (4 or 12 ton dry matter ha-1 every 4th year) are compared with three levels of NPK fertiliser (0 N, ½ normal N and normal N). Topsoil samples (0-20 cm depth) from the four sites were analysed for total C, total N, pH and PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids). In addition, crop yields were recorded. Results At all four sites, sewage sludge has had a positive effect on crop yields

  12. Usefulness of plasma renin activity in predicting haemodynamic and clinical responses and survival during long term converting enzyme inhibition in severe chronic heart failure. Experience in 100 consecutive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Packer, M; Medina, N; Yushak, M; Lee, W H

    1985-01-01

    The relation between plasma renin activity before treatment and the haemodynamic and clinical responses to converting enzyme inhibition was determined in 100 consecutive patients with severe chronic heart failure who were treated with captopril or enalapril. Initial doses of captopril produced significant increases in cardiac index and decreases in left ventricular filling pressure, mean arterial pressure, mean right atrial pressure, heart rate, and systemic vascular resistance that varied linearly with the pretreatment value for plasma renin activity. In contrast, there was no relation between the pretreatment activity and the magnitude of haemodynamic improvement after 1-3 months of treatment with the converting enzyme inhibitors, and, consequently, a similar proportion of patients with a high (greater than 6 ng/ml/h; greater than 4.62 mmol/l/h), intermediate (2-6 ng/ml/h; 1.54-4.62 mmol/l/h), and low (less than 2 ng/ml/h; less than 1.54 mmol/l/h) pretreatment value improved clinically during long term treatment (64%, 60%, and 64% respectively). Long term survival after one, two, and three years was similar in the three groups. Estimating the degree of activation of the renin-angiotensin system by measuring pretreatment plasma renin activity fails to predict the long term haemodynamic or clinical responses to converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with severe chronic heart failure, and thus appears to be of limited value in selecting those patients likely to benefit from treatment with these drugs. PMID:2994697

  13. Long-term Survival From Muscleinvasive Bladder Cancer With Initial Presentation of Symptomatic Cerebellar Lesion: The Role of Selective Surgical Extirpation of the Primary and Metastatic Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Kartha, Ganesh K; Sanfrancesco, Joseph; Udoji, Esther; Chaparala, Hemant; Hansel, Donna; Jones, J. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    A 59-year-old man was diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma involving an isolated cerebellar metastasis after presenting to the emergency department for headache complaints. After selective surgical excision of the symptomatic brain lesion and delayed cystectomy due to intractable hematuria, he survived 11 years without evidence of recurrence or subsequent systemic chemotherapy. He eventually expired after delayed recurrence in the lung, supraclavicular lymph node, and brain. To our knowledge, this is the only case of prolonged survival from urothelial carcinoma after selective surgical extirpation of the primary and metastatic lesion without subsequent systemic chemotherapy.

  14. [Long term survival after Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report and review].

    PubMed

    Vladusić, Ivona; Krajinović, Vladimir; Begovac, Josip

    2006-06-01

    Before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has become available, antibiotic treatment was usually unable to eradicate Rhodococcus (R.) equi infection in HIV-infected patients, although some clinical improvement could be observed in most cases. There are limited data on the outcome of treatment of R. equi pneumonia in the HAART era. We report on a 52-year-old HIV-infected man who presented in poor general condition with an extensive lung cavitation lesion caused by R. equi. The patient recalled exposure to horses on several occasions. R. equi was cultured from the sputum and the isolate was sensitive to imipenem vancomycin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. The CD4+ lymphocyte count was 5 cells/mm3 (0.9%) and his plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load was 101000 copies/mL. The patient was successfully treated with a combination of antibiotics that included azithromycin both as part of an initial and suppressive regimen together with antiretroviral treatment. Surgery was not needed and the patient had no relapse for more than five years after the diagnosis and for more than 3 years of suppressive therapy discontinuation. Our literature search revealed 27 patients treated for R. equi infection in the HAART era. However, details on antimicrobial treatment were given in only 3 cases. The optimal drug regimen and duration of treatment for R. equi pneumonia have not yet been established. Because drug resistance may occur during single agent therapy, it has been suggested that at least two antibiotics to which R. equi is susceptible be given. The recommended choices usually include imipenem, antipseudomonal aminoglycosides, erythromycin or azithromycin, vancomycin, rifampin, and levofloxacin. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of long term remission of R. equi pneumonia in an HIV-infected man treated with azithromycin as part of his antibiotic regimen and HAART. PMID:16933840

  15. Medical Status of 219 Children with Biliary Atresia Surviving Long-Term with their Native Livers: Results from a North American Multicenter Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Vicky Lee; Haber, Barbara H.; Magee, John C.; Miethke, Alexander; Murray, Karen F.; Michail, Sonia; Karpen, Saul J.; Kerkar, Nanda; Molleston, JeanP.; Romero, Rene; Rosenthal, Philip; Schwarz, Kathleen B.; Shneider, Benjamin L.; P.Turmelle, Yumirle; Alonso, Estella M.; Sherker, Averell H.; Sokol, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the medical status of children with biliary atresia (BA) with their native livers after hepatic portoenterostomy (HPE) surgery. Study design The Childhood Liver Disease Research and Education Network (ChiLDREN) database was utilized to examine subjects with BA living with their native livers 5 or more years after HPE and to describe the prevalence of subjects with BA with an “ideal” outcome, defined as no clinical evidence of chronic liver disease, normal liver biochemical indices (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, platelet count, total bilirubin, International Normalized Ratio, and albumin) and normal Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) 5 or more years after HPE. Results Children with BA (n=219; 43% male) with median age 9.7 years were studied. Median age at HPE was 56 (range 7-125) days. Median age- and sex-adjusted height and weight Z-scores at 5 year follow-up were 0.487 (interquartile range [IQR]: -0.27 to 1.02) and 0.00 (IQR: -0.74 to 0.70), respectively. During the 12 preceding months, cholangitis and bone fractures occurred in 17% and 5.5%, respectively. HRQOL was reported normal by 53% of patients. However, only 1.8% met the study definition of “ideal” outcome. Individual tests of liver synthetic function (TB, Alb, and INR) were normal in 75%, 85% and 73% of the study cohort. Conclusion Cholangitis and fractures in long-term survivors underscore the importance of ongoing medical surveillance. Over 98% of this North American cohort of subjects with BA living with native livers 5 or more years after HPE have clinical or biochemical evidence of chronic liver disease. PMID:25015575

  16. Prognosis for long-term survival and renal recovery in critically ill patients with severe acute renal failure: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Sean M; Laupland, Kevin B; Doig, Christopher J; Mortis, Garth; Fick, Gordon H; Mucenski, Melissa; Godinez-Luna, Tomas; Svenson, Lawrence W; Rosenal, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Severe acute renal failure (sARF) is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality and use of healthcare resources; however, its precise epidemiology and long-term outcomes have not been well described in a non-specified population. Methods Population-based surveillance was conducted among all adult residents of the Calgary Health Region (population 1 million) admitted to multidisciplinary and cardiovascular surgical intensive care units between May 1 1999 and April 30 2002. Clinical records were reviewed and outcome at 1 year was assessed. Results sARF occurred in 240 patients (11.0 per 100,000 population/year). Rates were highest in males and older patients (≥65 years of age). Risk factors for development of sARF included previous heart disease, stroke, pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, connective tissue disease, chronic renal dysfunction, and alcoholism. The annual mortality rate was 7.3 per 100,000 population with rates highest in males and those ≥65 years. The 28-day, 90-day, and 1-year case-fatality rates were 51%, 60%, and 64%, respectively. Increased Charlson co-morbidity index, presence of liver disease, higher APACHE II score, septic shock, and need for continuous renal replacement therapy were independently associated with death at 1 year. Renal recovery occurred in 78% (68/87) of survivors at 1 year. Conclusion sARF is common and males, older patients, and those with underlying medical conditions are at greatest risk. Although the majority of patients with sARF will die, most survivors will become independent from renal replacement therapy within a year. PMID:16280066

  17. Long-term survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving intensified chemotherapy and stem cell rescue: data from the Italian registry.

    PubMed

    Martino, M; Ballestrero, A; Zambelli, A; Secondino, S; Aieta, M; Bengala, C; Liberati, A M; Zamagni, C; Musso, M; Aglietta, M; Schiavo, R; Castagna, L; Rosti, G; Bruno, B; Pedrazzoli, P

    2013-03-01

    The median survival of women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is 18-24 months, and fewer than 5% are alive and disease free at 5 years. We report toxicity and survival in a cohort of MBC patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) in Italy between 1990 and 2005. Data set for survival analysis has been obtained for 415 patients. Clinical parameters including probability of transplant-related mortality (TRM), PFS and OS. With a median follow-up of 27 months (range 0-172), OS and PFS at 5 and 10 years in the whole population were 47/23 and 32/14%, respectively. A total 239 patients are alive with a median follow-up of 33 months (range 2-174). Survival was significantly more pronounced in patients harboring hormone receptor positive tumors (P=0.028), without visceral metastases (P=0.009) and in women with chemosensitive disease (P<0.0001). Sixty eight patients (20.4%) who received HDC in partial response, stable or progressive disease underwent conversion to CR. TRM was 2.5% overall and 1.3% since 2000. Our findings suggest that could be a role for HDC and AHSCT in delaying disease progression and possibly cure a subset of MBC patient harboring chemosensitive tumors. PMID:22863724

  18. Cytogenetics and long-term survival of patients with refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma treated with pomalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Weisel, Katja C; Song, Kevin W; Delforge, Michel; Karlin, Lionel; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Moreau, Philippe; Banos, Anne; Oriol, Albert; Garderet, Laurent; Cavo, Michele; Ivanova, Valentina; Alegre, Adrian; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Chen, Christine; Spencer, Andrew; Knop, Stefan; Bahlis, Nizar J; Renner, Christoph; Yu, Xin; Hong, Kevin; Sternas, Lars; Jacques, Christian; Zaki, Mohamed H; San Miguel, Jesus F

    2015-10-01

    Patients with refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma who no longer receive benefit from novel agents have limited treatment options and short expected survival. del(17p) and t(4;14) are correlated with shortened survival. The phase 3 MM-003 trial demonstrated significant progression-free and overall survival benefits from treatment with pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone compared to high-dose dexamethasone among patients in whom bortezomib and lenalidomide treatment had failed. At an updated median follow-up of 15.4 months, the progression-free survival was 4.0 versus 1.9 months (HR, 0.50; P<0.001), and median overall survival was 13.1 versus 8.1 months (HR, 0.72; P=0.009). Pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone, compared with high-dose dexamethasone, improved progression-free survival in patients with del(17p) (4.6 versus 1.1 months; HR, 0.34; P <0.001), t(4;14) (2.8 versus 1.9 months; HR, 0.49; P=0.028), and in standard-risk patients (4.2 versus 2.3 months; HR, 0.55; P<0.001). Although the majority of patients treated with high-dose dexamethasone took pomalidomide after discontinuation, the overall survival of patients treated with pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone or high-dose dexamethasone was 12.6 versus 7.7 months (HR, 0.45; P=0.008) in patients with del(17p), 7.5 versus 4.9 months (HR, 1.12; P=0.761) in those with t(4;14), and 14.0 versus 9.0 months (HR, 0.85; P=0.380) in standard-risk subjects. The overall response rate was higher in patients treated with pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone than in those treated with high-dose dexamethasone both among standard-risk patients (35.2% versus 9.7%) and those with del(17p) (31.8% versus 4.3%), whereas it was similar in patients with t(4;14) (15.9% versus 13.3%). The safety of pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone was consistent with initial reports. In conclusion, pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone is efficacious in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma

  19. Long-Term Survival of Children Less than Six Years of Age Enrolled on the CCG-945 Phase III Trial for Newly-Diagnosed High-Grade Glioma: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Batra, V; Sands, S; Holmes, E; Geyer, JR; Yates, A; Becker, L; Burger, P; Gilles, F; Wisoff, J; Allen, J; Pollack, IF; Finlay, JL

    2015-01-01

    Background We analyzed the long-term survival of children under six years of age (<6 yo) enrolled upon the Children’s Cancer Group (CCG)-945 high-grade glioma (HGG) study to determine the impact of intrinsic biological characteristics as well as treatment upon both survival and quality of life (QOL) in this younger age population. Procedure Analyses were undertaken on patients <6 yo with institutionally diagnosed HGG enrolled on the CCG-945 trial. Comparisons of survival were performed for patients less than three years of age (<3 yo) (treated with intent to avoid irradiation) versus those between three to six years of age (3–6 yo) (treated with irradiation and chemotherapy) at diagnosis. Discordance between the institutional diagnoses of HGG and consensus-reviewed diagnoses led us to perform further survival analyses for both groups. We compared the two groups of patients for biological markers, and evaluated the neuropsychological and QOL outcomes of long-term survivors. Results Patients <3 yo (n=49,19.5% of all enrolled patients) at diagnosis had a 10-year EFS and OS of 29± 6.5% and 37.5 ± 7% respectively while for patients 3–6 yo (n=34,13.5% of all enrolled patients) 10-year EFS and OS were 35± 8% and 36 ± 8% respectively. Molecular marker analysis showed that a smaller proportion of patients <3 yo harbored TP53 mutations (p=0.05). Analysis of QOL outcomes with a median length of follow up of 15.1 years (9.5–19.2) showed comparable results. Conclusions QOL and survival data were similar for the two groups. A larger prospective study is justified to study the efficacy of chemotherapy only regimens in younger children. PMID:24038913

  20. Long-term survival in young and middle-aged Hodgkin lymphoma patients in Sweden 1992-2009-trends in cure proportions by clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Glimelius, Ingrid; Ekberg, Sara; Jerkeman, Mats; Chang, Ellen T; Björkholm, Magnus; Andersson, Therese M L; Smedby, Karin E; Eloranta, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Trends in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survival among patients treated outside of clinical trials provide real-world benchmark estimates of prognosis and help identify patient subgroups for targeted trials. In a Swedish population-based cohort of 1947 HL patients diagnosed in 1992-2009 at ages 18-59 years, we estimated relative survival (RS), cure proportions (CP), and median survival times using flexible parametric cure models. Overall, the CP was 89% (95% CI: 0.87-0.91) and median survival of the uncured was 4.6 years (95% CI: 3.0-6.3). For patients aged 18-50 years diagnosed after the year 2000, CP was high and stable, whereas for patients of 50-59 years, cure was not reached. The survival of relapse-free patients was similar to that of the general population (RS5-year : 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98-0.99, RS15-year : 0.95; 95% CI: 0.92-0.97). The excess mortality of relapsing patients was 19 times (95% CI: 12-31) that of relapse-free patients. Despite modern treatments, patients with adverse prognostic factors (e.g., advanced stage) still had markedly worse outcomes [CP stage: IIIB 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73-0.89); CP stage: IVB 0.72, (95% CI: 0.60-0.81)] and patients with international prognostic score (IPS) ≥3 had 2.7 times higher excess mortality (95% CI: 1.0-7.0, p = 0.04) than patients with IPS <3. High-risk patients selected for 6-8 courses of BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclofosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone)-chemotherapy had a 15-year relative survival of 87%, (95% CI: 0.80-0.92), whereas the corresponding estimate for patients selected for 6-8 courses of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) was 93% (95% CI: 0.88-0.97). These population-based results indicate limited fatal side-effects in the 15-year perspective with contemporary treatments, while the unmet need of effective relapse treatment remains of concern. BEACOPP-chemotherapy was still not sufficient in high-risk HL patients. PMID:26349012

  1. Macitentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, in combination with temozolomide leads to glioblastoma regression and long-term survival in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Jin; Lee, Ho Jeong; Kim, Mark Seungwook; Choi, Hyun Jin; He, Junqin; Wu, Qiuyu; Aldape, Kenneth; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Alfred Yung, W. K.; Conrad, Charles A.; Langley, Robert R.; Lehembre, François; Regenass, Urs; Fidler, Isaiah J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of the study was to determine whether astrocytes and brain endothelial cells protect glioma cells from temozolomide (TMZ) through an endothelin-dependent signaling mechanism and to examine the therapeutic efficacy of the dual endothelin receptor antagonist, macitentan, in orthotopic models of human glioblastoma. Experimental Design We evaluated several endothelin receptor antagonists for their ability to inhibit astrocyte- and brain endothelial cell-induced protection of glioma cells from TMZ in chemoprotection assays. We compared survival in nude mice bearing orthotopically implanted LN-229 glioblastomas or TMZ-resistant (LN-229Res and D54Res) glioblastomas that were treated with macitentan, TMZ, or both. Tumor burden was monitored weekly with bioluminescence imaging. The effect of therapy on cell division, apoptosis, tumor-associated vasculature, and pathways associated with cell survival was assessed by immunofluorescent microscopy. Results Only dual endothelin receptor antagonism abolished astrocyte- and brain endothelial cell-mediated protection of glioma cells from TMZ. In five independent survival studies, including TMZ-resistant glioblastomas, 46 of 48 (96%) mice treated with macitentan plus TMZ had no evidence of disease (P<0.0001), whereas all mice in other groups died. In another analysis, macitentan plus TMZ therapy was stopped in 16 mice after other groups had died. Only 3 of 16 mice eventually developed recurrent disease, 2 of which responded to additional cycles of macitentan plus TMZ. Macitentan downregulated proteins associated with cell division and survival in glioma cells and associated endothelial cells, which enhanced their sensitivity to TMZ. Conclusions Macitentan plus TMZ are well tolerated, produce durable responses, and warrant clinical evaluation in glioblastoma patients. PMID:26106074

  2. Air-dried cells from the anhydrobiotic insect, Polypedilum vanderplanki, can survive long term preservation at room temperature and retain proliferation potential after rehydration.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuyo; Imanishi, Shigeo; Akiduki, Gaku; Cornette, Richard; Okuda, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Pv11, a cell line derived from the anhydrobiotic insect, Polypedilum vanderplanki, was preserved in a dry form (only 6% residual moisture) at room temperature for up to 251 days and restarted proliferating after rehydration. A previous study already reported survival of Pv11 cells after desiccation, but without subsequent proliferation. Here, the protocol was improved to increase survival and achieve proliferation of Pv11 cells after dry storage. The method basically included preincubation, desiccation and rehydration processes and each step was investigated. So far, preincubation in a 600 mM trehalose solution for 48 h before dehydration was the most favourable preconditioning to achieve successful dry preservation of Pv11 cells, allowing about 16% of survival after rehydration and subsequent cell proliferation. Although the simple air-dry method established for Pv11 cells here was not applicable for successful dry-preservation of other insect cell lines, Pv11 is the first dry-preservable animal cell line and will surely contribute not only to basic but also applied sciences. PMID:27207249

  3. Nitrite survival and nitrous oxide production of denitrifying phosphorus removal sludges in long-term nitrite/nitrate-fed sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yayi; Zhou, Shuai; Ye, Liu; Wang, Hong; Stephenson, Tom; Jiang, Xuxin

    2014-12-15

    Nitrite-based phosphorus (P) removal could be useful for innovative biological P removal systems where energy and carbon savings are a priority. However, using nitrite for denitrification may cause nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation and emissions. A denitrifying nitrite-fed P removal system [Formula: see text] was successfully set up in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and was run for 210 days. The maximum pulse addition of nitrite to [Formula: see text] was 11 mg NO2(-)-N/L in the bulk, and a total of 34 mg NO2(-)-N/L of nitrite was added over three additions. Fluorescent in situ hybridization results indicated that the P-accumulating organisms (PAOs) abundance was 75 ± 1.1% in [Formula: see text] , approximately 13.6% higher than that in a parallel P removal SBR using nitrate [Formula: see text] . Type II Accumulibacter (PAOII) (unable to use nitrate as an electron acceptor) was the main PAOs species in [Formula: see text] , contributing 72% to total PAOs. Compared with [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] biomass had enhanced nitrite/free nitrous acid (FNA) endurance, as demonstrated by its higher nitrite denitrification and P uptake rates. N2O accumulated temporarily in [Formula: see text] after each pulse of nitrite. Peak N2O concentrations in the bulk for [Formula: see text] were generally 6-11 times higher than that in [Formula: see text] ; these accumulations were rapidly denitrified to nitrogen gases. N2O concentration increased rapidly in nitrate-cultivated biomass when 5 or 10 mg NO2(-)-N/L per pulse was added. Whereas, N2O accumulation did not occur in nitrite-cultivated biomass until up to 30 mg NO2(-)-N/L per pulse was added. Long-term acclimation to nitrite and pulse addition of nitrite in [Formula: see text] reduced the risk of nitrite accumulation, and mitigated N2O accumulation and emissions from denitrifying P removal by nitrite. PMID:25261626

  4. Long term survival with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) versus thoracoscopic sublobar lung resection in elderly people: national population based study with propensity matched comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Subroto; Lee, Paul C; Mao, Jialin; Isaacs, Abby J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare cancer specific survival after thoracoscopic sublobar lung resection and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for tumors ≤2 cm in size and thoracoscopic resection (sublobar resection or lobectomy) and SABR for tumors ≤5 cm in size. Design National population based retrospective cohort study with propensity matched comparative analysis. Setting Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry linked with Medicare database in the United States. Participants Patients aged ≥66 with lung cancer undergoing SABR or thoracoscopic lobectomy or sublobar resection from 1 Oct 2007 to 31 June 2012 and followed up to 31 December 2013. Main outcome measures Cancer specific survival after SABR or thoracoscopic surgery for lung cancer. Results 690 (275 (39.9%) SABR and 415 (60.1%) thoracoscopic sublobar lung resection) and 2967 (714 (24.1%) SABR and 2253 (75.9%) thoracoscopic resection) patients were included in primary and secondary analyses. The average age of the entire cohort was 76. Follow-up of the entire cohort ranged from 0 to 6.25 years, with an average of three years. In the primary analysis of patients with tumors sized ≤2 cm, 37 (13.5%) undergoing SABR and 44 (10.6%) undergoing thoracoscopic sublobar resection died from lung cancer, respectively. The cancer specific survival diverged after one year, but in the matched analysis (201 matched patients in each group) there was no significant difference between the groups (SABR v sublobar lung resection mortality: hazard ratio 1.32, 95% confidence interval 0.77 to 2.26; P=0.32). Estimated cancer specific survival at three years after SABR and thoracoscopic sublobar lung resection was 82.6% and 86.4%, respectively. The secondary analysis (643 matched patients in each group) showed that thoracoscopic resection was associated with improved cancer specific survival over SABR in patients with tumors sized ≤5 cm (SABR v resection mortality: hazard ratio 2.10, 1.52 to 2.89; P<0

  5. Long-term Outcomes after Severe Shock

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Cristina M.; Hirshberg, Eliotte L.; Jones, Jason P.; Kuttler, Kathryn G.; Lanspa, Michael J.; Wilson, Emily L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Brown, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Methods Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 mcg/kg/min of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured three-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. Results The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years: 82% (62/76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of five years after hospital admission. The patients’ Physical Functioning scores were below US population norms (p<0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full time. Conclusions Early survivors of severe shock had a high three-year survival rate. Patients’ long term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill ICU survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term

  6. Excellent long-term survival of 170 patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia treated in private oncology practices and a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Hensel, M; Brust, J; Plöger, C; Schuster, D; Memmer, M L; Franz-Werner, J; Feustel, H-P; Karcher, A; Fuxius, S; Mosthaf, F A; Rieger, M; Ho, A D; Witzens-Harig, M

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare treatment and outcome of patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) in four private oncology practices (PP) and a university hospital (UH) in southwest Germany. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients with WM of the last two decades of four PP in Mannheim, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, and Speyer and the Department of Hematology of the University of Heidelberg. One hundred seventy patients could be identified, 74 from PP, 96 from the UH. Median age was 63.3 years. Patients from PP were older (median 65.3 vs. 62.5 years, p = 0.01). Only 54 % of patients from PP have received treatment during the observation time, as compared to 78.1 % of the UH (p < 0.001). In PP, 35 % of treated patients have received rituximab, as compared to 62.6 % of the patients of the UH (p < 0.001). Sixty percent of treated patients of PP have received bendamustine, as compared to only 8 % of the patients of the UH (p < 0.001). Time to first treatment was significantly shorter in patients from the UH compared to PP (median 13.7 vs. 52.9 months, p = 0.05). A trend towards a better overall survival was observed for patients treated with a rituximab-containing first-line regimen. The International Prognostic Scoring System for WM had significant prognostic value. Median overall survival was 25.0 years and did not differ between PP and UH. Despite different treatment strategies between PP and UH today overall survival of patients with WM is excellent, and better than previously reported. PMID:22895554

  7. Decreased survival of glioma patients with astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) associated with long-term use of mobile and cordless phones.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, Michael; Hardell, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    On 31 May 2011 the WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorised radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phones, and from other devices that emit similar non-ionising electromagnetic fields, as a Group 2B, i.e., a "possible", human carcinogen. A causal association would be strengthened if it could be shown that the use of wireless phones has an impact on the survival of glioma patients. We analysed survival of 1678 glioma patients in our 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 case-control studies. Use of wireless phones in the >20 years latency group (time since first use) yielded an increased hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.3 for glioma. For astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme; n = 926) mobile phone use yielded HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4-2.9 and cordless phone use HR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.04-11 in the same latency category. The hazard ratio for astrocytoma grade IV increased statistically significant per year of latency for wireless phones, HR = 1.020, 95% CI = 1.007-1.033, but not per 100 h cumulative use, HR = 1.002, 95% CI = 0.999-1.005. HR was not statistically significant increased for other types of glioma. Due to the relationship with survival the classification of IARC is strengthened and RF-EMF should be regarded as human carcinogen requiring urgent revision of current exposure guidelines. PMID:25325361

  8. Expression levels of HER2 and MRP1 are not prognostic factors of long-term survival in 829 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YONG; ZHU, SHUANG-MEI; XU, XIAO-LING; ZHAO, AN; HU, JIN-LIN

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the eighth most frequent neoplasm in China. However, the expression levels of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) in patients with ESCC remain to be determined. In the present study, 829 ESCC cases were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The association between the expression levels of HER2 and MRP1 and the patient's clinicopathological factors was analyzed using Fisher's exact test or χ2 test. Univariate analysis was performed via Kaplan-Meier survival curves, while the Cox proportional hazard model was used for multivariate analysis. A significant correlation was observed between the expression levels of HER2 and the patient's gender (P<0.050), tumor size (P=0.013) and venous/lymphatic invasion (P=0.039). However, no significant correlation was identified between the expression levels of MRP1 and the clinicopathological factors of the patients. In univariate analysis, gender, differentiation, depth of invasion, clinical stage, adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy and lymph node metastasis were significantly correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with ESCC (P<0.050). The graphical representation of the Kaplan-Meier estimate curves suggested that the expression levels of HER2 or MRP1 did not exert any influence on prognosis (log-rank test, P>0.050). In multivariate analysis, tumor location, gender, clinical stage, differentiation and lymph node metastasis were identified as independent factors of prognosis in patients with ESCC (P<0.050). However, the expression levels of HER2 or MRP1 were not independently associated with PFS or OS in these patients. In conclusion, the present large-scale study demonstrates that the protein expression levels of HER2 and MRP1 does not exert any influence on the prognosis of ESCC. PMID:26870278

  9. Comparison of long-term survival and toxicity of simultaneous integrated boost vs conventional fractionation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hengmin; Wei, Yumei; Huang, Wei; Gai, Xiujuan; Li, Baosheng

    2016-01-01

    Aim In recent years, the intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy with conventional fractionation (IMRT-CF) have been involved in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the potential clinical effects and toxicities are still controversial. Methods Here, 107 patients with biopsy-proven locally advanced NPC between March 2004 and January 2011 were enrolled in the retrospective study. Among them, 54 patients received IMRT-SIB, and 53 patients received IMRT-CF. Subsequently, overall survival (OS), 5-year progression-free survival (PFS), 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and relevant toxicities were analyzed. Results In the present study, all patients completed the treatment, and the overall median follow-up time was 80 months (range: 8–126 months). The 5-year OS analysis revealed no significant difference between the IMRT-SIB and IMRT-CF groups (80.9% vs 80.5%, P=0.568). In addition, there were also no significant between-group differences in 5-year PFS (73.3% vs 74.4%, P=0.773) and 5-year LRFS (88.1% vs 90.8%, P=0.903). Notably, the dose to critical organs (spinal cord, brainstem, and parotid gland) in patients treated by IMRT-CF was significantly lower than that in patients treated by IMRT-SIB (all P<0.05). Conclusion Both IMRT-SIB and IMRT-CF techniques are effective in treating locally advanced NPC, with similar OS, PFS, and LRFS. However, IMRT-CF has more advantages than IMRT-SIB in protecting spinal cord, brainstem, and parotid gland from acute and late toxicities, such as xerostomia. Further prospective study is warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:27099518

  10. Survival in air of Mytilus trossulus following long-term exposure to spilled Exxon Valdez crude oil in Prince William Sound.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R E; Harris, P M; Rice, S D

    1999-01-01

    Mussels, Mytilus trossulus, were sampled in 1996 from beaches in Prince William Sound (PWS) which contained residual oil resulting from the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 1989, and from one beach which had been lightly oiled in 1989, but contained no residual oil in 1996. The latter mussels served as un-oiled references. Mussels were also collected from Tee Harbor, Southeast Alaska, to be used as an additional reference group. Where the size of the individuals in the resident population would permit, two size groups were sampled, 32-35 and 18-20 mm in length. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussel tissue, and air survival time were determined for each group of mussels. Total PAH concentrations were significantly greater in tissue of mussels from oiled beds (0.6-2.0 micrograms g-1) than from references (0.01-0.12 microgram g-1) (P < 0.01). Oil-exposed mussels had significantly lower LT50 values (P < 0.05) for air survival than reference groups. Tolerance of small mussels to air exposure was significantly greater (P < 0.01) than large mussels in both the unoiled reference and oil exposed groups. PMID:10190039

  11. Preoperative Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Long-term Survival in Patients Undergoing Total Laryngectomy With Advanced Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yan; Liu, Weiwei; OuYang, Dian; Yang, Ankui; Zhang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is increasing evidence that the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a stage-independent predictor of poor outcome in patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), and the preoperative NLR in patients with advanced laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) undergoing total laryngectomy (TL). All patients with a new diagnosis of advanced laryngeal cancer (stages III and IV) presenting at the Department of Head and Neck Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 1990 and July 2010 (n = 420) were included. To evaluate the independent prognostic relevance of the NLR, univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used. CSS and OS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Four-hundred twenty patients were enrolled in this study. Patients with an NLR ≥2.59 showed a significantly lower CSS (P = .014) and OS (P = .032) than patients with an NLR <2.59. The Cox proportional multivariate hazard model showed that a higher preoperative NLR was independently correlated with a poor CSS and OS, with hazard ratios of 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–1.91, P = .018) and 1.31 (95% CI 1.00–1.71, P = .046), respectively. The NLR may be an independent prognostic marker for CSS and OS in patients with advanced LSCC undergoing TL. PMID:26871799

  12. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-02-24

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R&D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality.

  13. Long-term survival and differentiation of retinal neurons derived from human embryonic stem cell lines in un-immunosuppressed mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Hambright, Dustin; Park, Kye-Yoon; Brooks, Matthew; McKay, Ron; Swaroop, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the potential of NIH-maintained human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines TE03 and UC06 to differentiate into retinal progenitor cells (hESC-RPCs) using the noggin/Dkk-1/IGF-1/FGF9 protocol. An additional goal is to examine the in vivo dynamics of maturation and retinal integration of subretinal and epiretinal (vitreous space) hESC-RPC grafts without immunosuppression. Methods hESCs were neuralized in vitro with noggin for 2 weeks and expanded to derive neuroepithelial cells (hESC-neural precursors, NPs). Wnt (Integration 1 and wingless) blocking morphogens Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) and Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were used to direct NPs to a rostral neural fate, and fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9)/fibroblast growth factor-basic (bFGF) were added to bias the differentiation of developing anterior neuroectoderm cells to neural retina (NR) rather than retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cells were dissociated and grafted into the subretinal and epiretinal space of young adult (4–6-week-old) mice (C57BL/6J x129/Sv mixed background). Remaining cells were replated for (i) immunocytochemical analysis and (ii) used for quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT–PCR) analysis. Mice were sacrificed 3 weeks or 3 months after grafting, and the grafts were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry for survival of hESC-RPCs, presence of mature neuronal and retinal markers, and the dynamics of in vivo maturation and integration into the host retina. Results At the time of grafting, hESC-RPCs exhibited immature neural/neuronal immunophenotypes represented by nestin and neuronal class III β-tubulin, with about half of the cells positive for cell proliferation marker Kiel University -raised antibody number 67 (Ki67), and no recoverin-positive (recoverin [+]) cells. The grafted cells expressed eye field markers paired box 6 (PAX6), retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (RAX), sine oculis homeobox homolog 6 (SIX6), LIM homeobox 2

  14. Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor: improved long-term survival with an intensive multimodal therapy and delayed radiotherapy. The Medical University of Vienna Experience 1992–2012

    PubMed Central

    Slavc, Irene; Chocholous, Monika; Leiss, Ulrike; Haberler, Christine; Peyrl, Andreas; Azizi, Amedeo A; Dieckmann, Karin; Woehrer, Adelheid; Peters, Christina; Widhalm, Georg; Dorfer, Christian; Czech, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) are recently defined highly aggressive embryonal central nervous system tumors with a poor prognosis and no definitive guidelines for treatment. We report on the importance of an initial correct diagnosis and disease-specific therapy on outcome in 22 consecutive patients and propose a new treatment strategy. From 1992 to 2012, nine patients initially diagnosed correctly as ATRT (cohort A, median age 24 months) were treated according to an intensive multimodal regimen (MUV-ATRT) consisting of three 9-week courses of a dose-dense regimen including doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, ifosfamide, cisplatin, etoposide, and methotrexate augmented with intrathecal therapy, followed by high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and completed with local radiotherapy. Thirteen patients were treated differently (cohort B, median age 30 months) most of whom according to protocols in use for their respective diagnoses. As of July 2013, 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) for all 22 consecutive patients was 56.3 ± 11.3% and 52.9 ± 11.0%, respectively. For MUV-ATRT regimen-treated patients (cohort A) 5-year OS was 100% and EFS was 88.9 ± 10.5%. For patients treated differently (cohort B) 5-year OS and EFS were 28.8 ± 13.1%. All nine MUV-ATRT regimen-treated patients are alive for a median of 76 months (range: 16–197), eight in first complete remission. Our results compare favorably to previously published data. The drug combination and sequence used in the proposed MUV-ATRT regimen appear to be efficacious in preventing early relapses also in young children with M1–M3 stage disease allowing postponement of radiotherapy until after HDCT. PMID:24402832

  15. Impact of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema on surgical complications and long-term survival in patients undergoing surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Atsushi; Sekine, Yasuo; Kota, Ohashi; Koh, Eitetsu; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The outcome of radical surgery for lung cancer was investigated in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). Methods A retrospective chart review involved 250 patients with lung cancer who underwent pulmonary resection at Tokyo Women’s Medical University Yachiyo Medical Center between 2008 and 2012. Based on the status of nontumor-bearing lung evaluated by preoperative computed tomography (CT), the patients were divided into normal, emphysema, interstitial pneumonia (IP), and CPFE groups, and their clinical characteristics and surgical outcome were analyzed. Results The normal, emphysema, IP, and CPFE groups comprised 124 (49.6%), 108 (43.2%), seven (2.8%), and eleven (4.4%) patients, respectively. The 5-year survival rate of the CPFE group (18.7%) was significantly lower than that of the normal (77.5%) and emphysema groups (67.1%) (P<0.0001 and P=0.0027, respectively) but equivalent to that of the IP group (44.4%) (P=0.2928). In a subset analysis of cancer stage, the 5-year overall survival rate of the CPFE group in stage I (n=8, 21.4%) was also lower than that of the normal group and emphysema group in stage I (n=91, 84.9% and n=70, 81.1%; P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively). During entire observation period, the CPFE group was more likely to die of respiratory failure (27.2%) compared with the normal and emphysema groups (P<0.0001). Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors using Cox proportional hazard model identified CPFE as an independent risk factor (P=0.009). Conclusion CPFE patients have a poorer prognosis than those with emphysema alone or with normal lung on CT finding. The intensive evaluation of preoperative CT images is important, and radical surgery for lung cancer should be decided carefully when patients concomitantly harbor CPFE, because of unfavorable prognosis. PMID:27354784

  16. Long-Term Data Reveal a Population Decline of the Tropical Lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a Negative Affect of El Nino Years on Population Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Stapley, Jessica; Garcia, Milton; Andrews, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change threatens biodiversity worldwide, however predicting how particular species will respond is difficult because climate varies spatially, complex factors regulate population abundance, and species vary in their susceptibility to climate change. Studies need to incorporate these factors with long-term data in order to link climate change to population abundance. We used 40 years of lizard abundance data and local climate data from Barro Colorado Island to ask how climate, total lizard abundance and cohort-specific abundance have changed over time, and how total and cohort-specific abundance relate to climate variables including those predicted to make the species vulnerable to climate change (i.e. temperatures exceeding preferred body temperature). We documented a decrease in lizard abundance over the last 40 years, and changes in the local climate. Population growth rate was related to the previous years’ southern oscillation index; increasing following cooler-wetter, la niña years, decreasing following warmer-drier, el nino years. Within-year recruitment was negatively related to rainfall and minimum temperature. This study simultaneously identified climatic factors driving long-term population fluctuations and climate variables influencing short-term annual recruitment, both of which may be contributing to the population decline and influence the population’s future persistence. PMID:25671423

  17. Long-term data reveal a population decline of the tropical lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a negative affect of el nino years on population growth rate.

    PubMed

    Stapley, Jessica; Garcia, Milton; Andrews, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Climate change threatens biodiversity worldwide, however predicting how particular species will respond is difficult because climate varies spatially, complex factors regulate population abundance, and species vary in their susceptibility to climate change. Studies need to incorporate these factors with long-term data in order to link climate change to population abundance. We used 40 years of lizard abundance data and local climate data from Barro Colorado Island to ask how climate, total lizard abundance and cohort-specific abundance have changed over time, and how total and cohort-specific abundance relate to climate variables including those predicted to make the species vulnerable to climate change (i.e. temperatures exceeding preferred body temperature). We documented a decrease in lizard abundance over the last 40 years, and changes in the local climate. Population growth rate was related to the previous years' southern oscillation index; increasing following cooler-wetter, la niña years, decreasing following warmer-drier, el nino years. Within-year recruitment was negatively related to rainfall and minimum temperature. This study simultaneously identified climatic factors driving long-term population fluctuations and climate variables influencing short-term annual recruitment, both of which may be contributing to the population decline and influence the population's future persistence. PMID:25671423

  18. Charlson Comorbidity Index Is an Important Prognostic Factor for Long-Term Survival Outcomes in Korean Men with Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo Yong; Lee, Dae Hun; Cho, Nam Hoon; Rha, Koon Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyze overall survival (OS), prostate cancer (PCa)-specific survival (PCaSS), and non-PCaSS according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for PCa. Materials and Methods Data from 336 patients who had RP for PCa between 1992 and 2005 were analyzed. Data included age, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, clinical stage, and pathologic stage. Pre-existing comorbidities were evaluated by the CCI, and patients were classified into two CCI score categories (0, ≥1). Results The mean age of patients was 64.31±6.12 years. The median PSA value (interquartile range, IQR) was 11.30 (7.35 and 21.02) ng/mL with a median follow-up period (IQR) of 96.0 (85.0 and 121.0) months. The mean CCI was 0.28 (0-4). Five-year OS, PCaSS, and non-PCaSS were 91.7%, 96.3%, and 95.2%, respectively. Ten-year OS, PCaSS, and non-PCaSS were 81.9%, 92.1%, and 88.9%, respectively. The CCI had a significant influence on OS (p=0.022) and non-PCaSS (p=0.008), but not on PCaSS (p=0.681), by log-rank test. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, OS was independently associated with the CCI [hazard ratio (HR)=1.907, p=0.025] and Gleason score (HR=2.656, p<0.001). PCaSS was independently associated with pathologic N stage (HR=2.857, p=0.031), pathologic T stage (HR=3.775, p=0.041), and Gleason score (HR=4.308, p=0.001). Non-PCaSS had a significant association only with the CCI (HR=2.540, p=0.009). Conclusion The CCI was independently associated with both OS and non-PCaSS after RP, but the CCI had no impact on PCaSS. The comorbidities of a patient should be considered before selecting RP as a curative modality for PCa. PMID:24532498

  19. Long-term field release of bioluminescent Sinorhizobium meliloti strains to assess the influence of a recA mutation on the strains' survival.

    PubMed

    Selbitschka, W; Keller, M; Miethling-Graff, R; Dresing, U; Schwieger, F; Krahn, I; Homann, I; Dammann-Kalinowski, T; Pühler, A; Tebbe, C C

    2006-10-01

    A field release experiment was carried out to study the fate of the isogenic, firefly luciferase (luc) gene-tagged Sinorhizobium meliloti strains L1 (RecA-) and L33 (RecA+) in the environment. Both strains were released at concentrations of approximately 10(6) cfu g(-1) soil in replicate and randomized field plots, which had been sown with alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The survival of both strains during the following 7 years could be subdivided into three phases: a sharp decline for more than two orders of magnitude within the first 4 months (phase I), followed by fluctuations around an average number of 10(4) cfu g(-1) soil for nearly 4 years (phase II), and a further decline to approximately 60 cfu g(-1) (phase III). At most sampling dates, no significant differences in the survival of both strains were detected, indicating that the recA gene function was dispensable under these environmental conditions. During the field inoculation, both strains were dispersed accidentally by wind in small numbers to noninoculated field plots. Strain L33 established at a concentration of more than 10(3) cfu g(-1) soil with subsequent seasonal fluctuations. Although strain L1 must have been disseminated to a similar extent, it could never be recovered from noninoculated field plots, indicating that the recA mutation interfered with the strain's capability to establish there. At the beginning of the field experiment, an indigenous alfalfa-nodulating population was below the limit of detection. In the following years, however, an indigenous population arose, which finally outcompeted both strains for saprophytic growth and alfalfa nodulation. RecA- strain L1 was outcompeted for alfalfa nodulation slightly faster than its RecA+ counterpart L33. The diversity of the indigenous population was characterized by employing the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus polymerase chain reaction fingerprint method. Typing of 2731 root nodule isolates revealed a total of 38 fingerprint

  20. Partial regeneration and long-term survival of rat retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush is accompanied by altered expression, phosphorylation and distribution of cytoskeletal proteins.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Daniela C; Trivedi, Niraj; Engelmann, Ralf; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Gordon-Weeks, Phillip R; Kreutz, Michael R

    2002-05-01

    In a screen to identify genes that are expressed differentially in the retina after partial optic nerve crush, we identified MAP1B as an up-regulated transcript. Western blot analysis of inner retina protein preparations confirmed changes in the protein composition of the microtubule-associated cytoskeleton of crushed vs. uncrushed nerve. MAP1B immunoreactivity and transcript levels were elevated for two weeks after crush. Immunostaining and Western blots with monoclonal antibodies directed against developmentally regulated phosphorylation sites on MAP1B revealed a gradient of MAP1B phosphorylation from the proximal optic nerve stump to the soma of retinal ganglion cells. Most interestingly, using antibodies directed against developmentally regulated phosphorylation sites on MAP1B, we observed that a significant number of crushed optic nerve axons develop MAP1B-immunopositive growth cones, which cross the crush site and migrate along the distal nerve fragment. In parallel, an abnormal distribution of highly phosphorylated neurofilament protein (pNF-H) in the cell soma and dendrites of presumably axotomized retinal ganglion cells was observed following partial nerve crush. This redistribution is present for the period between day 7 and 28 postcrush and is not seen in cells that stay connected to the superior colliculus. Axotomized ganglion cells, which contain pNF-H in soma and dendrites appear to have been disconnected from the colliculus at an early stage but survive axonal trauma for long periods. PMID:12028353

  1. Long-term survival of a patient with small cell carcinoma of the stomach with metachronous lung metastases treated by multimodal therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Akagi, Yoshito

    2015-12-01

    A 69-year-old man was referred to our institution for treatment of gastric cancer. Type 2 gastric cancer was found on the anterior wall of the lower body of the stomach.The patient underwent distal gastrectomy, D2 lymph node dissection, and Roux-en-Y reconstruction with curative resection. The tumor was diagnosed as a small cell carcinoma of the stomach. Recurrence occurred in the lung after surgery. The patient underwent several chemoradiation therapy regimens, including cisplatin + irinotecan + radiation, S-1 + paclitaxel, amrubicin, carboplatin + etoposide, nogitecan, and docetaxel for lung metastases and radiation for brain and bone metastases for 43 months. He finally died of brain metastases 74 months after surgery (47 months after recognition of the lung metastases). Long continuous multimodal treatment including surgery, regimens for small cell lung cancer, S-1, taxanes, and radiation was thought to prolong the survival of this man with small cell carcinoma of the stomach. PMID:26943449

  2. Long-term survival in a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after therapy with rituximab, fludarabine and cyclophosphamide for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Garrote, Heidys; de la Fuente, Adolfo; Oña, Raquel; Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Echevarría, Juan E; Sepúlveda, Juan M; García, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was treated with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab, which produced a complete remission. Eight months after the last dose of rituximab he had visual disturbance, diminished muscular strength in the right arm and vesicular-papular lesions in the left ophthalmic branch region of the V cranial nerve. These were initially interpreted as herpes virus encephalopathy (HVE), but brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed evidence of demyelination consistent with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was negative for varicella zoster virus (VZV) and John Cunningham virus (JCV) DNA. The clinical suggestion of PML prompted us to perform a brain biopsy and to start treatment with mefloquine. In the brain biopsy, histopathological features of demyelination were described and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified JCV, confirming the diagnosis of PML. Treatment with mefloquine (250 mg/week) and dexamethasone (4 mg/day) was started and maintained for 6 months. A year later there was an almost complete resolution of the MRI lesions and the patient achieved a stable clinical state with persisting motor impairment and severe epilepsy. The patient is alive 38 months after diagnosis of PML, which is the longest known survival to date. PMID:25767742

  3. Chimeric Allografts Induced by Short-Term Treatment With Stem Cell-Mobilizing Agents Result in Long-Term Kidney Transplant Survival Without Immunosuppression: A Study in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, X; Okabayashi, T; Cameron, A M; Wang, Y; Hisada, M; Li, J; Raccusen, L C; Zheng, Q; Montgomery, R A; Williams, G M; Sun, Z

    2016-07-01

    Transplant tolerance allowing the elimination of lifelong immunosuppression has been the goal of research for 60 years. The induction of mixed chimerism has shown promise and has been extended successfully to large animals and to the clinic; however, it remains cumbersome and requires heavy early immunosuppression. In this study, we reported that four injections of AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, plus eight injections of low-dose FK506 (0.05 mg/kg per day) in the first week after kidney transplantation extended survival, but death from renal failure occurred at 30-90 days. Repeating the same course of AMD3100 and FK506 at 1, 2 and 3 mo after transplant resulted in 92% allograft acceptance (n = 12) at 7 mo, normal kidney function and histology with no further treatment. Transplant acceptance was associated with the influx of host stem cells, resulting in a hybrid kidney and a modulated host immune response. Confirmation of these results could initiate a paradigm shift in posttransplant therapy. PMID:26749344

  4. Predicting future threats to the long-term survival of Gila Trout using a high-resolution simulation of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Thomas L.; Gutzler, David S.; Leung, Lai R.

    2008-11-20

    Regional climates are a major factor in determining the distribution of many species. Anthropogenic inputs of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere have been predicted to cause rapid climatic changes in the next 50-100 years. Species such as the Gila Trout (Onchorhynchus gilae) that have small ranges, limited dispersal capabilities, and narrow physiological tolerances will become increasingly susceptible to extinction as their climate envelope changes. This study uses a regional climate change simulation (Leung et al. 2004) to determine changes in the climate envelope for Gila Trout, which is sensitive to maximum temperature, associated with a plausible scenario for greenhouse gas increases. The model predicts approximately a 2° C increase in temperature and a doubling by the mid 21st Century in the annual number of days during which temperature exceeds 37°C, and a 25% increase in the number of days above 32°C, across the current geographical range of Gila Trout. At the same time summer rainfall decreases by more than 20%. These climate changes would reduce their available habitat by decreasing the size of their climate envelope. Warmer temperatures coupled with a decrease in summer precipitation would also tend to increase the intensity and frequency of forest fires that are a major threat to their survival. The climate envelope approach utilized here could be used to assess climate change threats to other rare species with limited ranges and dispersal capabilities.

  5. Anti-CD45 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy using Bismuth-213: High Rates of Complete Remission and Long-Term Survival in a Mouse Myeloid Leukemia Xenograft Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, John M; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Back, Tom; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D Scott; Fisher, Darrell R; Park, Steven I; Frayo, Shani; Axtman, Amanda; Orgun, Nural; Orozoco, Johnnie; Shenoi, Jaideep; Lin, Yukang; Gopal, Ajay K; Green, Damian J; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Press, Oliver W

    2011-07-21

    Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) using an anti-CD45 antibody (Ab)-streptavidin (SA) conjugate and DOTA-biotin labeled with β-emitting radionuclides has been explored as a strategy to decrease relapse and toxicity. α-emitting radionuclides exhibit high cytotoxicity coupled with a short path-length, potentially increasing the therapeutic index and making them an attractive alternative to β-emitting radionuclides for patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Accordingly, we have used 213Bi in mice with human leukemia xenografts. Results demonstrated excellent localization of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin to tumors with minimal uptake into normal organs. After 10 minutes, 4.5 ± 1.1% of the injected dose of 213Bi was delivered per gram of tumor. α imaging demonstrated uniform radionuclide distribution within tumor tissue 45 minutes after 213Bi-DOTA-biotin injection. Radiation absorbed doses were similar to those observed using a β-emitting radionuclide (90Y) in the same model. We conducted therapy experiments in a xenograft model using a single-dose of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin given 24 hours after anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate. Among mice treated with anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate followed by 800 μCi of 213Bi- or 90Y-DOTA-biotin, 80% and 20%, respectively, survived leukemia-free for >100 days with minimal toxicity. These data suggest that anti-CD45 PRIT using an α-emitting radionuclide may be highly effective and minimally toxic for treatment of AML.

  6. Comparative Long-term Study of a Large Series of Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma and Invasive Lobular Carcinoma. Loco-Regional Recurrence, Metastasis, and Survival.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Antonio; Lain, Josep María; Chabrera, Carol; García Font, Marc; Fraile, Manel; Barco, Israel; Torras, Merçe; Reñe, Asumpta; González, Sonia; González, Clarissa; Piqueras, Mercedes; Veloso, Enrique; Cirera, Lluís; Pessarrodona, Antoni; Giménez, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to compare histologic and immunohistochemical features, surgical treatment and clinical course, including disease recurrence, distant metastases, and mortality between patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) or invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). We included 1,745 patients operated for 1,789 breast tumors, with 1,639 IDC (1,600 patients) and 145 patients with ILC and 150 breast tumors. The median follow-up was 76 months. ILC was significantly more likely to be associated with a favorable phenotype. Prevalence of contralateral breast cancer was slightly higher for ILC patients than for IDC patients (4.0% versus 3.2%; p = n.s). ILC was more likely multifocal, estrogen receptor positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 (HER2) negative, and with lower proliferative index compared to IDC. Considering conservative surgery, ILC patients required more frequently re-excision and/or mastectomy. Prevalence of stage IIB and III stages were significantly more frequent in ILC patients than in IDC patients (37.4% versus 25.3%, p = 0.006). Positive nodes were significantly more frequent in the ILC patients (44.6% versus 37.0%, p = 0.04). After adjustment for tumor size and nodal status, frequencies of recurrence/metastasis, disease-free and specific survival were similar among patients with IDC and patients with ILC. In conclusion, women with ILC do not have worse clinical outcomes than their counterparts with IDC. Management decisions should be based on individual patient and tumor biologic characteristics rather than on lobular versus ductal histology. PMID:26190560

  7. Ultra-acute increase in blood glucose during prehospital phase is associated with worse short-term and long-term survival in ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study was to investigate the blood glucose changes in ultra-acute phase in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and its associations with patient outcome. Methods This study was a retrospective population-based observational study utilizing prospectively collected registry data complemented with laboratory data. All adult patients with STEMI treated by emergency medical services (EMS) in the city of Helsinki from January 2006 to December 2010 were included in the study. Both prehospital and hospital admission glucose values were available from 152 (32%) of all STEMI patients (n = 469). Results Change in blood glucose from prehospital phase to emergency department admission was significantly higher in non-survivors within 30 days compared to survivors (+1.2 ± 5.1 vs. -0.3 ± 2.4 mmol/l [mean ± SD], P = 0.03). Furthermore, the 3-year survival rate was significantly lower in patients with an evident (≥2 mmol/l) rise in blood glucose (P = 0.02). In patients with impaired left ventricle function (best ejection fraction < 40%), blood glucose increased more compared to patients without it (1.2 ± 2.9 vs. 0.4 ± 2.7 mmol/l, P = 0.01). Increase in glucose was correlated with peak myocardial creatinine kinase (r = 0.17, P = 0.04) as a marker of increased size of infarct, but not with glycosylated haemoglobin A1C as a marker of chronic hyperglycaemia (r = −0.12, P = 0.27). Conclusions In patients with STEMI, ultra-acute hyperglycaemia during prehospital phase is associated with increased mortality, impaired cardiac function and increased size of infarct. PMID:24886984

  8. Long-Term Survival and Local Relapse Following Surgery Without Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Upper Rectal Cancer: An International Multi-Institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Seok; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Simon, Ng Siu Man; Law, Wai Lun; Kim, Hyeong Rok; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shan, Hester Cheung Yui; Kwak, Sang Gyu; Choi, Gyu-Seog

    2016-05-01

    Controversy remains regarding whether preoperative chemoradiation protocol should be applied uniformly to all rectal cancer patients regardless of tumor height. This pooled analysis was designed to evaluate whether preoperative chemoradiation can be safely omitted in higher rectal cancer.An international consortium of 7 institutions was established. A review of the database that was collected from January 2004 to May 2008 identified a series of 2102 patients with stage II/III rectal or sigmoid cancer (control arm) without concurrent chemoradiation. Data regarding patient demographics, recurrence pattern, and oncological outcomes were analyzed. The primary end point was the 5-year local recurrence rate.The local relapse rate of the sigmoid colon cancer (SC) and upper rectal cancer (UR) cohorts was significantly lower than that of the mid/low rectal cancer group (M-LR), with 5-year estimates of 2.5% for the SC group, 3.5% for the UR group, and 11.1% for the M-LR group, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed that tumor depth, nodal metastasis, venous invasion, and lower tumor level were strongly associated with local recurrence. The cumulative incidence rate of local failure was 90.6%, 92.5%, and 94.4% for tumors located within 5, 7, and 9 cm from the anal verge, respectively.Routine use of preoperative chemoradiation for stage II/III rectal tumors located more than 8 to 9 cm above the anal verge would be excessive. The integration of a more individualized approach focused on systemic control is warranted to improve survival in patients with upper rectal cancer. PMID:27258487

  9. Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis of Survival and Psychosomatic Self-regulation from Published Prospective Controlled Cohort Studies for Long-term Therapy of Breast Cancer Patients with a Mistletoe Preparation (Iscador).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, R; Grossarth-Maticek, Ronald

    2010-06-01

    Mistletoe preparations such as Iscador are in common use as complementary/anthroposophic medications for many cancer indications, particularly for solid cancers. The efficacy is still discussed controversially. This paper presents an individual patient data meta-analysis of all published prospective matched-pair studies with breast cancer patients concerned with long-term application of a complementary/anthroposophic therapy with the mistletoe preparation Iscador. Six sets of data were available for individual patient meta-analysis of breast cancer patients, matched according to prognostic factors into pairs with and without mistletoe (Iscador) therapy. The main outcome measures were overall survival and psychosomatic self-regulation. Overall survival was almost significant in favor of the Iscador group in the combined data set of the randomized studies: estimate of the hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval 0.59 (0.34, 1.02). Overall survival was highly significant in the combined data set of the non-randomized studies: 0.43 (0.34, 0.56). In the combined analysis of the randomized studies, improvement of psychosomatic self-regulation, as a measure of autonomous coping with the disease, was highly significant in favor of the Iscador group: estimate of the median difference 0.45 (0.15, 0.80), P = 0.0051. The analyzed studies show that therapy with Iscador might prolong overall survival and improve psychosomatic self-regulation of breast cancer patients. PMID:18955332

  10. Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis of Survival and Psychosomatic Self-regulation from Published Prospective Controlled Cohort Studies for Long-term Therapy of Breast Cancer Patients with a Mistletoe Preparation (Iscador)

    PubMed Central

    Grossarth-Maticek, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Mistletoe preparations such as Iscador are in common use as complementary/anthroposophic medications for many cancer indications, particularly for solid cancers. The efficacy is still discussed controversially. This paper presents an individual patient data meta-analysis of all published prospective matched-pair studies with breast cancer patients concerned with long-term application of a complementary/anthroposophic therapy with the mistletoe preparation Iscador. Six sets of data were available for individual patient meta-analysis of breast cancer patients, matched according to prognostic factors into pairs with and without mistletoe (Iscador) therapy. The main outcome measures were overall survival and psychosomatic self-regulation. Overall survival was almost significant in favor of the Iscador group in the combined data set of the randomized studies: estimate of the hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval 0.59 (0.34, 1.02). Overall survival was highly significant in the combined data set of the non-randomized studies: 0.43 (0.34, 0.56). In the combined analysis of the randomized studies, improvement of psychosomatic self-regulation, as a measure of autonomous coping with the disease, was highly significant in favor of the Iscador group: estimate of the median difference 0.45 (0.15, 0.80), P = 0.0051. The analyzed studies show that therapy with Iscador might prolong overall survival and improve psychosomatic self-regulation of breast cancer patients. PMID:18955332

  11. Factors Affecting Long-term Myopic Regression after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis and Laser-assisted Subepithelial Keratectomy for Moderate Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung A; Park, Yooyeon; Cheong, Yu Jin; Na, Kyung Sun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose High myopia is known to be a risk factor for long-term regression after laser refractive surgery. There have been few studies about the correction of moderate myopias that did not need retreatment after long-term follow-up. We evaluated 10 years of change in visual acuity and refractive power in eyes with moderate myopia after laser refractive surgery. Methods We included patients that had undergone laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) to correct their myopia and that had at least 10 years of follow-up. We evaluated the stability of visual acuity in terms of safety, efficacy, and refractive changes at examinations 6 months and 1, 2, 5, 7, and 10 years after surgery. Results The study evaluated 62 eyes (36 eyes in LASIK patients and 26 eyes in LASEK patients). In both groups, the efficacy index tended to decrease, and it was consistently higher in the LASEK group compared to the LASIK group over the 10 years of follow-up. The safety index improved over 10 years and was always higher than 0.9 in both groups. The difference between the spherical equivalent at 6 months postoperatively and later periods was statistically significant after 5, 7, and 10 years in both groups (LASIK, p = 0.036, p = 0.003, and p < 0.001, respectively; LASEK, p = 0.006, p = 0.002, and p = 0.001, respectively). Ten years after surgery,26 eyes (66.7%) in the LASIK group and 19 eyes (73.1%) in the LASEK group had myopia greater than 1 diopter. In comparison with the thickness at 6 months postoperatively, central corneal thickness was significantly increased after 5, 7, and 10 years in both LASIK and LASEK groups (LASIK, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively; LASEK, p = 0.01, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Moderately myopic eyes showed progressive myopic shifting and corneal thickening after LASIK and LASEK during 10 years of follow-up. We also found that early refractive regression may indicate the long-term

  12. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas D; Sydes, Matthew R; Clarke, Noel W; Mason, Malcolm D; Dearnaley, David P; Spears, Melissa R; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Parker, Christopher C; Russell, J Martin; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann; Cross, William; Jones, Rob J; Thalmann, George; Amos, Claire; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison J; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Audrey; Elliott, Tony; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D; Hetherington, John; Hughes, Robert; Laing, Robert; McKinna, Fiona; McLaren, Duncan B; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Robinson, Angus J; Srihari, Narayanan; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John; Sundar, Santhanam; Tolan, Shaun; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term hormone therapy has been the standard of care for advanced prostate cancer since the 1940s. STAMPEDE is a randomised controlled trial using a multiarm, multistage platform design. It recruits men with high-risk, locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer who are starting first-line long-term hormone therapy. We report primary survival results for three research comparisons testing the addition of zoledronic acid, docetaxel, or their combination to standard of care versus standard of care alone. Methods Standard of care was hormone therapy for at least 2 years; radiotherapy was encouraged for men with N0M0 disease to November, 2011, then mandated; radiotherapy was optional for men with node-positive non-metastatic (N+M0) disease. Stratified randomisation (via minimisation) allocated men 2:1:1:1 to standard of care only (SOC-only; control), standard of care plus zoledronic acid (SOC + ZA), standard of care plus docetaxel (SOC + Doc), or standard of care with both zoledronic acid and docetaxel (SOC + ZA + Doc). Zoledronic acid (4 mg) was given for six 3-weekly cycles, then 4-weekly until 2 years, and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for six 3-weekly cycles with prednisolone 10 mg daily. There was no blinding to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Pairwise comparisons of research versus control had 90% power at 2·5% one-sided α for hazard ratio (HR) 0·75, requiring roughly 400 control arm deaths. Statistical analyses were undertaken with standard log-rank-type methods for time-to-event data, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00268476) and ControlledTrials.com (ISRCTN78818544). Findings 2962 men were randomly assigned to four groups between Oct 5, 2005, and March 31, 2013. Median age was 65 years (IQR 60–71). 1817 (61%) men had M+ disease, 448 (15%) had N+/X M0, and 697 (24%) had N0M0. 165 (6

  13. Factors affecting crystal precipitation from urine in individuals with long-term urinary catheters colonized with urease-positive bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Sunil; Suller, Marc T E; Stickler, David J; Feneley, Roger C L

    2006-06-01

    Weekly urinalysis was conducted for 12 weeks on a group of 21 long-term catheter users with confirmed catheter encrustation and urinary tract colonization with urease-positive bacteria, in order to explore the cause of considerable variation in the severity of encrustation between sufferers. The rapidity of catheter blockage correlated significantly with the pH above which crystals precipitated from urine (the nucleation pH) but not the pH of the voided urine itself. Linear regression showed the nucleation pH to be significantly predicted by a combination of urinary calcium and magnesium concentrations, with calcium being the more influential variable. Reducing the rate of catheter encrustation could be achieved by lowering the urinary concentration of calcium and magnesium, which may only require catheter users to increase their fluid intake. PMID:16453146

  14. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  15. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  16. Long-term treatment with L-DOPA or pramipexole affects adult neurogenesis and corresponding non-motor behavior in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chiu, W-H; Depboylu, C; Hermanns, G; Maurer, L; Windolph, A; Oertel, W H; Ries, V; Höglinger, G U

    2015-08-01

    Non-motor symptoms such as hyposmia and depression are often observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and can precede the onset of motor symptoms for years. The underlying pathological alterations in the brain are not fully understood so far. Dysregulation of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb has been recently suggested to be implicated in non-motor symptoms of PD. However, there is so far no direct evidence to support the relationship of non-motor symptoms and the modulation of adult neurogenesis following dopamine depletion and/or dopamine replacement. In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of l-DOPA and pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, in a mouse model of bilateral intranigral 6-OHDA lesion, in order to assess the impact of adult neurogenesis on non-motor behavior. We found that l-DOPA and pramipexole can normalize decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the periglomerular layer of the olfactory bulb caused by a 6-OHDA lesion. Interestingly, pramipexole showed an antidepressant and anxiolytic effect in the forced swim test and social interaction test. However, there was no significant change in learning and memory function after dopamine depletion and dopamine replacement, respectively. PMID:25839898

  17. Out of sight - Profiling soil characteristics, nutrients and microbial communities affected by organic amendments down to one meter in a long-term maize cultivation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo; Baumgarten, Andreas; Spiegel, Heide

    2016-04-01

    Soil characteristics, nutrients and microbial activity in the deeper soil layers are topics not of-ten covered in agricultural studies since the main interest lies within the most active topsoils and deep soils are more time-consuming to sample. Studies have shown that deep soil does matter, although biogeochemical cycles are not fully understood yet. The main aim of this study is to investigate the soil organic matter dynamics, nutrients and microbial community composition in the first meter of the soil profiles in the long-term maize cropping system ex-periment Tetto Frati, in the vicinity of the Po River in Northern Italy. The trial site lies on a deep, calcareous, free-draining soil with a loamy texture. The following treatments have been applied since 1992: 1) maize for silage with 250 kg mineral N ha-1 (crop residue removal, CRR), 2) maize for grain with 250 kg mineral N ha-1 (crop residue incorporation, CRI), 3) maize for silage with 250 kg bovine slurry N ha-1 (SLU), 4) maize for silage with 250 kg farm yard manure N ha-1 (FYM). Soil characteristics (pH, carbonate content, soil organic carbon (SOC), aggregate stability (WSA)), and nutrients (total nitrogen (Nt), CAL-extractable phos-phorous (P) and potassium (K), potential N mineralisation) were investigated. Bacteri-al community composition was investigated with Ion PGM high-throughput sequencing at the depth of 8000 sequences per sample. Soil pH was moderately alkaline in all soil samples, in-creasing with increasing soil depth, as the carbonate content increased. SOC was significantly higher in the treatments with organic amendments (CRI, SLU and FYM) compared to CRR in 0-25 cm (11.1, 11.6, 14.7 vs. 9.8 g kg-1, respectively), but not in the deeper soil. At 50-75 cm soil depth FYM treatment revealed higher WSA compared to CRR, as well as higher CAL-extractable K (25 and 15 mg kg-1, respectively) and potential N mineralisation (11.30 and 8.78 mg N kg-1 7d-1, respectively). At 75-100 cm soil depth, SLU and

  18. Developmental Associations between Short-Term Variability and Long-Term Changes: Intraindividual Correlation of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life and Cognitive Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time…

  19. Variable wind, pack ice, and prey dispersion affect the long-term adequacy of protected areas for an Arctic sea duck.

    PubMed

    Lovvorn, James R; Anderson, Eric M; Rocha, Aariel R; Larned, William W; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M; Cooper, Lee W; Kolts, Jason M; North, Christopher A

    2014-03-01

    With changing climate, delineation of protected areas for sensitive species must account for long-term variability and geographic shifts of key habitat elements. Projecting the future adequacy of protected areas requires knowing major factors that drive such changes, and how readily the animals adjust to altered resources. In the Arctic, the viability of habitats for marine birds and mammals often depends on sea ice to dissipate storm waves and provide platforms for resting. However, some wind conditions (including weak winds during extreme cold) can consolidate pack ice into cover so dense that air-breathing divers are excluded from the better feeding areas. Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) winter among leads (openings) in pack ice in areas where densities of their bivalve prey are quite high. During winter 2009, however, prevailing winds created a large region of continuous ice with inadequate leads to allow access to areas of dense preferred prey. Stable isotope and fatty acid biomarkers indicated that, under these conditions, the eiders did not diversify their diet to include abundant non-bivalve taxa but did add a smaller, less preferred, bivalve species. Consistent with a computer model of eider energy balance, the body fat of adult eiders in 2009 was 33-35% lower than on the same date (19 March) in 2001 when ice conditions allowed access to higher bivalve densities. Ice cover data suggest that the eiders were mostly excluded from areas of high bivalve density from January to March in about 30% of 14 winters from 1998 to 2011. Thus, even without change in total extent of ice, shifts in prevailing winds can alter the areal density of ice to reduce access to important habitats. Because changes in wind-driven currents can also rearrange the dispersion of prey, the potential for altered wind patterns should be an important concern in projecting effects of climate change on the adequacy of marine protected areas for diving endotherms in the Arctic. PMID

  20. Gene-environment interactions affect long-term depression (LTD) through changes in dopamine receptor affinity in Snap25 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Baca, Michael; Allan, Andrea M.; Partridge, L. Donald; Wilson, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Genes and environmental conditions interact in the development of cognitive capacities and each plays an important role in neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia. Multiple studies have indicated that the gene for the SNARE protein SNAP-25 is a candidate susceptibility gene for ADHD, as well as schizophrenia, while maternal smoking is a candidate environmental risk factor for ADHD. We utilized mice heterozygous for a Snap25 null allele and deficient in SNAP-25 expression to model genetic effects in combination with prenatal exposure to nicotine to explore genetic and environmental interactions in synaptic plasticity and behavior. We show that SNAP-25 deficient mice exposed to prenatal nicotine exhibit hyperactivity and deficits in social interaction. Using a high frequency stimulus electrophysiological paradigm for long-term depression (LTD) induction, we examined the roles of dopaminergic D2 receptors (D2Rs) and cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs), both critical for LTD induction in the striatum. We found that prenatal exposure to nicotine in Snap25 heterozygote null mice produced a deficit in the D2R-dependent induction of LTD, although CB1R regulation of plasticity was not impaired. We also show that prenatal nicotine exposure altered the affinity and/or receptor coupling of D2Rs, but not the number of these receptors in heterozygote null Snap25 mutants. These results refine the observations made in the coloboma mouse mutant, a proposed mouse model of ADHD, and illustrate how gene × environmental influences can interact to perturb neural functions that regulate behavior. PMID:23939223

  1. Long-Term Treatment with Losartan Attenuates Seizure Activity and Neuronal Damage Without Affecting Behavioral Changes in a Model of Co-morbid Hypertension and Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana D; Ivanova, Natasha; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Pechlivanova, Daniela M; Lazarov, Nikolai; Kortenska, Lidia; Mitreva, Rumiana; Lozanov, Valentin; Stoynev, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Over the last 10 years, accumulated experimental and clinical evidence has supported the idea that AT1 receptor subtype is involved in epilepsy. Recently, we have shown that the selective AT1 receptor antagonist losartan attenuates epileptogenesis and exerts neuroprotection in the CA1 area of the hippocampus in epileptic Wistar rats. This study aimed to verify the efficacy of long-term treatment with losartan (10 mg/kg) after kainate-induced status epilepticus (SE) on seizure activity, behavioral and biochemical changes, and neuronal damage in a model of co-morbid hypertension and epilepsy. Spontaneous seizures were video- and EEG-monitored in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) for a 16-week period after SE. The behavior was analyzed by open field, elevated plus maze, sugar preference test, and forced swim test. The levels of serotonin in the hippocampus and neuronal loss were estimated by HPLC and hematoxylin and eosin staining, respectively. The AT1 receptor antagonism delayed the onset of seizures and alleviated their frequency and duration during and after discontinuation of treatment. Losartan showed neuroprotection mostly in the CA3 area of the hippocampus and the septo-temporal hilus of the dentate gyrus in SHRs. However, the AT1 receptor antagonist did not exert a substantial influence on concomitant with epilepsy behavioral changes and decreased 5-HT levels in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that the antihypertensive therapy with an AT1 receptor blocker might be effective against seizure activity and neuronal damage in a co-morbid hypertension and epilepsy. PMID:26464042

  2. Long-term history and immediate preceding state affect EEG slow wave characteristics at NREM sleep onset in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, N; Mckillop, L E; Fisher, S P; Oliver, P L; Vyazovskiy, V V

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of cortical activity across the 24-h day and at vigilance state transitions is regulated by an interaction between global subcortical neuromodulatory influences and local shifts in network synchrony and excitability. To address the role of long-term and immediate preceding history in local and global cortical dynamics, we investigated cortical EEG recorded from both frontal and occipital regions during an undisturbed 24-h recording in mice. As expected, at the beginning of the light period, under physiologically increased sleep pressure, EEG slow waves were more frequent and had higher amplitude and slopes, compared to the rest of the light period. Within discrete NREM sleep episodes, the incidence, amplitude and slopes of individual slow waves increased progressively after episode onset in both derivations by approximately 10-30%. Interestingly, at the beginning of NREM sleep episodes slow waves in the frontal and occipital derivations frequently occurred in isolation, as quantified by longer latencies between consecutive slow waves in the two regions. Notably, slow waves during the initial period of NREM sleep following REM sleep episodes were significantly less frequent, lower in amplitude and exhibited shallower slopes, compared to those that occurred in NREM episodes after prolonged waking. Moreover, the latencies between consecutive frontal and occipital NREM slow waves were substantially longer when they occurred directly after REM sleep compared to following consolidated wakefulness. Overall these data reveal a complex picture, where both time of day and preceding state contribute to the characteristics and dynamics of slow waves within NREM sleep. These findings suggest that NREM sleep initiates in a more "local" fashion when it occurs following REM sleep episodes as opposed to sustained waking bouts. While the mechanisms and functional significance of such a re-setting of brain state after individual REM sleep episodes remains to be

  3. Prospective randomised study of intensive insulin treatment on long term survival after acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus. DIGAMI (Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction) Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Malmberg, K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that intensive metabolic treatment with insulin-glucose infusion followed by multidose insulin treatment in patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction improves the prognosis. DESIGN: Patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction were randomly allocated standard treatment plus insulin-glucose infusion for at least 24 hours followed by multidose insulin treatment or standard treatment (controls). SUBJECTS: 620 patients were recruited, of whom 306 received intensive insulin treatment and 314 served as controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Long term all cause mortality. RESULTS: The mean (range) follow up was 3.4 (1.6-5.6) years. There were 102 (33%) deaths in the treatment group compared with 138 (44%) deaths in the control group (relative risk (95% confidence interval) 0.72 (0.55 to 0.92); P = 0.011). The effect was most pronounced among the predefined group that included 272 patients without previous insulin treatment and at a low cardiovascular risk (0.49 (0.30 to 0.80); P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Insulin-glucose infusion followed by intensive subcutaneous insulin in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction improves long term survival, and the effect seen at one year continues for at least 3.5 years, with an absolute reduction in mortality of 11%. This means that one life was saved for nine treated patients. The effect was most apparent in patients who had not previously received insulin treatment and who were at a low cardiovascular risk. PMID:9169397

  4. Long term complications of diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long term complications of diabetes To use the sharing ... sores and infections. If it goes on too long, your toes, foot, or leg may need to ...

  5. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  6. Sexuality and Affection among Elderly German Men and Women in Long-Term Relationships: Results of a Prospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Britta; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Reis, Olaf; Kropp, Peter; Meyer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Satisfaction with sexual activity i.e. sexual satisfaction and the importance of sexuality and affection were analysed using data from the German “Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development” (ILSE). At three measurement points, 1993–1995, 1997–1998, and 2004–2006 i.e. subjects' ages of 63, 67, and 74 years, participants' reports about their affection and sexual activity were collected. The sample of completed records used for this study consisted of 194 urban non-institutionalised participants, 68% male, all living with partners. Median levels of sexual satisfaction were reported, fluctuating between the measurement points of ages 63 to 74. Between baseline, first and second follow-up no differences were found in levels of sexual satisfaction, though at measurement points age 63 and 67 women were more satisfied than men. When measured at age 74, affection was given a higher priority than sexual activity. Although men and women reported similar priorities, sexual activity and affection were more important for men than for women. Satisfaction within the relationship can be predicted by the importance of affection, but not by that of sexual activity. Our results confirm the thesis of the ‘second language of sexuality’: for humans in their later years affection seems to be more important than for younger individuals. PMID:25369193

  7. Sexuality and affection among elderly German men and women in long-term relationships: results of a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Müller, Britta; Nienaber, Christoph A; Reis, Olaf; Kropp, Peter; Meyer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Satisfaction with sexual activity i.e. sexual satisfaction and the importance of sexuality and affection were analysed using data from the German "Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development" (ILSE). At three measurement points, 1993-1995, 1997-1998, and 2004-2006 i.e. subjects' ages of 63, 67, and 74 years, participants' reports about their affection and sexual activity were collected. The sample of completed records used for this study consisted of 194 urban non-institutionalised participants, 68% male, all living with partners. Median levels of sexual satisfaction were reported, fluctuating between the measurement points of ages 63 to 74. Between baseline, first and second follow-up no differences were found in levels of sexual satisfaction, though at measurement points age 63 and 67 women were more satisfied than men. When measured at age 74, affection was given a higher priority than sexual activity. Although men and women reported similar priorities, sexual activity and affection were more important for men than for women. Satisfaction within the relationship can be predicted by the importance of affection, but not by that of sexual activity. Our results confirm the thesis of the 'second language of sexuality': for humans in their later years affection seems to be more important than for younger individuals. PMID:25369193

  8. [Taiwan long-term care insurance and the evolution of long-term care in Japan].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Wen; Liu, Shu-Hui; Pai, Yu-Chu

    2010-08-01

    The proportion of elderly (65 years of age and older) in Taiwan has exceeded 10% since 2008. With more elderly, the number of patients suffering from dementia and disabilities has also been rapidly increasing. Japan also has been facing increasing demand for long-term care due to an aging society. Prior to 2000, social welfare programs in Japan, working to cope with changing needs, typically provided insufficient services, and geriatric patients were hospitalized unnecessarily, wasting medical resources and causing undue patient hardship. In response, Japan launched its long-term care insurance program in April 2000. Under the program, city, town and village-based organizations should take responsibility for providing care to the elderly in their place of residence. The program significantly improved previous financial shortfalls and long-term care supply and demand has been met by existing social welfare organization resources. In Taiwan, the provision of long-term care by county / city authorities has proven inconsistent, with performance deemed poor after its first decade of long-term care operations. Service was found to be affected by differences in available resources and insufficient long-term care administration. The cultures of Taiwan and Japan are similar. The authors visited the Japan Long-Term Care Insurance Institute in August 2009. Main issues involved in the implementation and evolution of the Japan long-term Care Insurance are reported on in this paper. We hope such may be useful information to those working to develop long-term care programs in Taiwan. PMID:20661859

  9. Environmental and Genetic Preconditioning for Long-Term Anoxia Responses Requires AMPK in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    LaRue, Bobby L.; Padilla, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Preconditioning environments or therapeutics, to suppress the cellular damage associated with severe oxygen deprivation, is of interest to our understanding of diseases associated with oxygen deprivation. Wildtype C. elegans exposed to anoxia enter into a state of suspended animation in which energy-requiring processes reversibly arrest. C. elegans at all developmental stages survive 24-hours of anoxia exposure however, the ability of adult hermaphrodites to survive three days of anoxia significantly decreases. Mutations in the insulin-like signaling receptor (daf-2) and LIN-12/Notch (glp-1) lead to an enhanced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we show that the combined growth environment of 25°C and a diet of HT115 E. coli will precondition adult hermaphrodites to survive long-term anoxia; many of these survivors have normal movement after anoxia treatment. Animals fed the drug metformin, which induces a dietary-restriction like state in animals and activates AMPK in mammalian cell culture, have a higher survival rate when exposed to long-term anoxia. Mutations in genes encoding components of AMPK (aak-2, aakb-1, aakb-2, aakg-2) suppress the environmentally and genetically induced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. We further determine that there is a correlation between the animals that survive long-term anoxia and increased levels of carminic acid staining, which is a fluorescent dye that incorporates in with carbohydrates such as glycogen. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that small changes in growth conditions such as increased temperature and food source can influence the physiology of the animal thus affecting the responses to stress such as anoxia. Furthermore, this supports the idea that metformin should be further investigated as a therapeutic tool for treatment of oxygen-deprived tissues. Finally, the capacity for an animal to survive long bouts of severe oxygen deprivation is likely

  10. Characteristics of Long-Term Survivors of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Rosemary D.; Chen, Yingjia S.; Morris, Cyllene R.; Petersen, Megan; Leiserowitz, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with long-term survival forepithelial ovarian cancer patients using the California Cancer Registry. Methods A descriptive analysis of survival of all California residents diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 1994 and 2001 was conducted using patients identified through the cancer registry with follow up through 2011. Characteristics of the patients who survived more than 10 years (long-term survivors) were compared to three other cohorts: patients who survived less than 2 years, those who survived at least 2 but no more than 5 years, and those who survived at least 5 but no more than 10 years. Results A total of 3,582 out of 11,541 (31% CI=30.2%, 31.8%) of the patients survived more than 10 years. Younger age, early stage, low-grade, and non-serous histology were significant predictors of long-term survival, but long-term survivors also included women with high-risk cancer. Conclusion Long-term survival is not unusual in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, even in those with high-risk disease. Many of the prognostic factors are well known, but it remains to be determined why some patients with advanced stage high-grade cancers survive longer than others with the same histology. These findings are important for patient counseling. PMID:26244529

  11. Long-term evolution is surprisingly predictable in lattice proteins

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Michael E.; Moudgil, Arnav; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been debated whether natural selection acts primarily upon individual organisms, or whether it also commonly acts upon higher-level entities such as lineages. Two arguments against the effectiveness of long-term selection on lineages have been (i) that long-term evolutionary outcomes will not be sufficiently predictable to support a meaningful long-term fitness and (ii) that short-term selection on organisms will almost always overpower long-term selection. Here, we use a computational model of protein folding and binding called ‘lattice proteins’. We quantify the long-term evolutionary success of lineages with two metrics called the k-fitness and k-survivability. We show that long-term outcomes are surprisingly predictable in this model: only a small fraction of the possible outcomes are ever realized in multiple replicates. Furthermore, the long-term fitness of a lineage depends only partly on its short-term fitness; other factors are also important, including the ‘evolvability’ of a lineage—its capacity to produce adaptive variation. In a system with a distinct short-term and long-term fitness, evolution need not be ‘short-sighted’: lineages may be selected for their long-term properties, sometimes in opposition to short-term selection. Similar evolutionary basins of attraction have been observed in vivo, suggesting that natural biological lineages will also have a predictive long-term fitness. PMID:23466559

  12. Long-Term Treatment Outcomes of Patients Infected With Hepatitis C Virus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Survival Benefit of Achieving a Sustained Virological Response

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Bryony; Saleem, Jawaad; Heath, Katherine; Cooke, Graham S.; Hill, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background. Achievement of a sustained virologic response (SVR) after treatment for Hepatitis C infection is associated with improved outcomes. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the impact of SVR on long-term mortality risk compared with nonresponders in a range of populations. Methods. An electronic search identified all studies assessing all-cause mortality in SVR and non-SVR patients. Eligible articles were stratified into general, cirrhotic, and populations coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. The adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) for mortality in patients achieving SVR vs non-SVR, and pooled estimates for the 5-year mortality in each group were calculated. Results. 31 studies (n = 33 360) were identified as suitable for inclusion. Median follow-up time was 5.4 years (interquartile range, 4.9–7.5) across all studies. The adjusted hazard ratio of mortality for patients achieving SVR vs non-SVR was 0.50 (95% CI, .37–.67) in the general population, 0.26 (95% CI, .18–.74) in the cirrhotic group, and 0.21 (.10–.45) in the coinfected group. The pooled 5-year mortality rates were significantly lower for patients achieving SVR compared with non-SVR in all 3 populations. Conclusions. The results suggest that there is a significant survival benefit of achieving an SVR compared with unsuccessful treatment in a range of populations infected with hepatitis C virus. PMID:25987643

  13. A Case Report of Long-Term Survival following Hepatic Arterial Infusion of L-Folinic Acid Modulated 5-Fluorouracil Combined with Intravenous Irinotecan and Cetuximab Followed by Hepatectomy in a Patient with Initially Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Van Bael, Kobe; Jansen, Yanina; Seremet, Teofila; Engels, Benedikt; Delvaux, Georges

    2015-01-01

    A 43-year-old women admitted to our hospital for weight loss, anorexia, and abdominal pain was diagnosed with sigmoid neoplasm and multiple bilobar liver metastases. This patient received six cycles of systemic FOLFOX prior to a laparoscopically assisted anterior resection of the rectosigmoid for a poorly differentiated invasive adenocarcinoma T2N2M1, K-RAS negative (wild type). Hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of L-folinic acid modulated 5-fluorouracil (LV/5-FU) with intravenous (iv) irinotecan (FOLFIRI) and cetuximab as adjuvant therapy resulted in a complete metabolic response (CR) with CEA normalization. A right hepatectomy extended to segment IV was performed resulting in (FDG-)PET negative remission for 7 months. Solitary intrahepatic recurrence was effectively managed by local radiofrequent ablation following 6c FOLFIRI plus cetuximab iv. Multiple lung lesions and recurrence of pulmonary and local lymph node metastases were successfully treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (50 Gy) and iv LV/5-FU/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) plus cetuximab finally switched to panitumumab with CR as a result. At present the patient is in persistent complete remission of her stage IV colorectal cancer, more than 5 years after initial diagnosis of the advanced disease. Multidisciplinary treatment with HAI of chemotherapy (LV/5-FU + CPT-11) plus EGFR-inhibitor can achieve CR of complex unresectable LM and can even result in hepatectomy with possible long-term survival. PMID:26064730

  14. Pathologic factors affecting postsplenectomy survival in dogs.

    PubMed

    Spangler, W L; Kass, P H

    1997-01-01

    The apparently high prevalence of splenomegaly in dogs, along with the surgical accessibility of the spleen, results in a relatively large number of splenectomies in dogs in clinical veterinary practice. Splenic nodular lesions are widely considered to be indicative of hemangiosarcoma and thus a disease that is ultimately fatal. This study correlates the results of complete pathologic evaluation and classification of 500 spleens obtained by splenectomy with survival information for each dog. Among the spleens examined, 257 of 500 (51.4%) were classified nonneoplastic and 241 (48.2%) were neoplastic; 2 (0.4%) were unclassified. Miscellaneous non-nodular splenomegaly accounted for 46 of 257 (18%) of the nonneoplastic lesions; nodular splenomegaly accounted for 206 of 257 (79%) of nonneoplastic splenic lesions and was composed of lymphoid hyperplastic nodules and associated hematomas, hyperplastic lymphoid nodules alone, or hematomas with no apparent underlying cause. Nodular neoplastic diseases of the spleen were divided among benign tumors (11.5%) and a variety of primary sarcomas. Hemangiosarcoma made up 51% of splenic malignancies but accounted for less than 25% of the spleens evaluated. Survival of dogs with hematomas associated with nonneoplastic conditions of the spleen was markedly different from that in dogs with hemangiosarcoma-associated hematomas, even though most could not be effectively differentiated on gross inspection. Two month postoperative survival was 83% for dogs with nonneoplastic-related hematomas, whereas only 31% of dogs with hemangiosarcoma, with or without associated hematomas, were alive after 2 months. Twelve-month survival times were 64% and 7%, respectively. An overall postsplenectomy survival rate of 52% was based on the number of dogs surviving for a minimum of 6 months postoperatively. PMID:9183768

  15. Long-term Survival Outcomes Following Internal Mammary Node Irradiation in Stage II-III Breast Cancer: Results of a Large Retrospective Study With 12-Year Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jee Suk; Park, Won; Kim, Yong Bae; Lee, Ik Jae; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol; Choi, Doo Ho; Suh, Chang-Ok; Huh, Seung Jae

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of internal mammary node irradiation (IMNI) on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in breast cancer patients treated with modified radical mastectomy and postoperative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 2002, 396 patients with stage II-III breast cancer were treated with postmastectomy radiation therapy with (n=197) or without (n=199) IMNI. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. IMNI was administered at the clinical discretion of the treating physician. Median RT dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45.0-59.4 Gy) in 28 fractions, with inclusion of the supraclavicular fossa in 96% of patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 99.7% of the patients and endocrine therapy to 53%. Results: The median follow-up was 149 months (range, 124-202). IMNI patients had more advanced nodal stage and non-high grade tumors than those without IMNI (P<.001). Otherwise, disease and treatment characteristics were well balanced. The 10-year DFS with and without IMNI was 65% and 57%, respectively (P=.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that IMNI was an independent, positive predictor of DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; P=.02). Benefits of IMNI in DFS were seen most apparently in N2 patients (HR, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.74) and inner/central tumors (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.90). The 10-year OS with and without IMNI was 72% and 66%, respectively (P=.62). The 10-year DFS and OS were 61%, and 69%, respectively. Conclusions: Internal mammary node irradiation significantly improved DFS in postmastectomy breast cancer patients. Pending long-term results from randomized trials, treatment of internal mammary nodes should be considered in postmastectomy radiation therapy.

  16. Long-term maintenance combination chemotherapy with OPEC/MPEC (vincristine or methotrexate, prednisolone, etoposide and cyclophosphamide) or with daily oral etoposide and prednisolone can improve survival and quality of life in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, K; Matsumoto, T; Ohtsubo, H; Fujiwara, H; Imamura, N; Hidaka, S; Kukita, T; Tei, C; Matsumoto, M; Arima, N

    1999-12-01

    Acute leukemia and lymphoma varieties of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) usually carry a poor prognosis. While etoposide is generally useful for treating ATL, especially as a daily oral maintenance regimen, etoposide has not proven effective in severe types of ATL efficient in some patients. Of 87 ATL patients whom we have treated, 51 had acute leukemia, 22 lymphoma and 14 progressive chronic leukemia. Seventy-nine patients were treated with a long term maintenance combination protocol, OPEC/MPEC (weekly doses of vincristine, 0.7 mg/m2 or methotrexate, 14 mg/m2; prednisolone, 20 mg/m2; etoposide, 70 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide, 200 mg/m2). The other 8 patients, 3 with acute leukemia, 2 with lymphoma and 3 with progressive chronic leukemia, were treated with daily oral administration of 25 mg of etoposide and 10 mg of prednisolone (DOEP). The dose administered was modified in individual cases to maintain the granulocyte count and reduce the number of ATL cells. Considering both protocols, a complete response and a partial response were achieved in 31.0% and 58.6% patients, respectively. Median survival times (MST) of all patients and, acute leukemia, lymphoma and progressive chronic leukemia types were 7.5, 6.7, 9.6 and 12.4 months, respectively. Respective MST of patients treated with OPEC/MPEC or DOEP protocols were 7.1 and 18.0 months. Relatively normal WBC counts, lower lactate dehydrogenase concentration and normal calcium concentration, limited numbers of anatomic sites involved, good performance status and good response to chemotherapy were significantly associated with long survival time. Drug toxicity was not apparent, and about half of patients were treated in an outpatient setting. PMID:10613451

  17. Do governance, equity characteristics, and venture capital nvolvement affect long-term wealth creation in U.S. health care and biotechnology IPOs?

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Duncan, W Jack; Ginter, Peter M; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2006-01-01

    Agency theory remains the dominant means of examining governance issues and ownership characteristics related to large organizations. Research in these areas within large organizations has increased our understanding, yet little is known about the influence that these mechanisms and characteristics have had on IPO firm performance. This study tests an agency perspective that venture capital involvement, governance and equity characteristics affect health care and biotechnology IPO firm performance. Our results indicate that there is no correlation between these factors and health care and biotechnology IPO wealth creation. For these entrepreneurs, our findings suggest a contingent approach for the use of these mechanisms. PMID:21110493

  18. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  19. Risk factors affecting dental implant survival.

    PubMed

    Vehemente, Valerie A; Chuang, Sung-Kiang; Daher, Shadi; Muftu, Ali; Dodson, Thomas B

    2002-01-01

    Given the predictability of dental implant success, the attention of the scientific community is moving from descriptions of implant success toward a more detailed analysis of factors associated with implant failure. The purposes of this study were (1) to estimate the 1- and 5-year survival of Bicon dental implants and (2) to identify risk factors associated with implant failure in an objective, statistically valid manner. To address the research purposes, we used a retrospective cohort study design and a study sample composed of patients who had one or more implants placed. The predictor variables were grouped into the following categories: demographic, health status, anatomic, implant fixture-specific, prosthetic, perioperative, and ancillary variables. The major outcome variable of interest was implant failure defined as implant removal. Overall implant survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Risk factors for implant failure were identified using the Cox proportional hazard regression models. The study sample was composed of 677 patients who had 677 implants randomly selected for analysis. The overall 1- and 5-year survival of the Bicon implant system was 95.2% and 90.2%, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates in a multivariate model, both tobacco use (P = .0004) and single-stage implant placement (P = .01) were statistically associated with an increased risk for failure. The results of these analyses suggest that the overall survival of the Bicon dental implant is comparable with other current implant systems. In addition, after controlling for covariates, we identified 2 exposures associated with implant survival, tobacco use and implant staging. Of interest, both of these exposures are under the clinician's control. PMID:12498449

  20. Long Term Illness and Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

  1. Temperature affects long-term productivity and quality attributes of day-neutral strawberry for a space life-support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Chase, Elaine; Santini, Judith B.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2015-04-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa L.) is a promising candidate crop for space life-support systems with desirable sensory quality and health attributes. Day-neutral cultivars such as 'Seascape' are adaptable to a range of photoperiods, including short days that would save considerable energy for crop lighting without reductions in productivity or yield. Since photoperiod and temperature interact to affect strawberry growth and development, several diurnal temperature regimes were tested under a short photoperiod of 10 h per day for effects on yield and quality attributes of 'Seascape' strawberry during production cycles longer than 270 days. The coolest day/night temperature regime, 16°/8 °C, tended to produce smaller numbers of larger fruit than did the intermediate temperature range of 18°/10 °C or the warmest regime, 20°/12 °C, both of which produced similar larger numbers of smaller fruit. The intermediate temperature regime produced the highest total fresh mass of berries over an entire production cycle. Independent experiments examined either organoleptic or physicochemical quality attributes. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that fruit grown under the coolest temperature regime tended to score the highest for both hedonic preference and descriptive evaluation of sensory attributes related to sweetness, texture, aftertaste, and overall approval. The physicochemical quality attributes Brix, pH, and sugar/acid ratio were highest for fruits harvested from the coolest temperature regime and lower for those from the warmer temperature regimes. The cool-regime fruits also were lowest in titratable acidity. The yield parameters fruit number and size oscillated over the course of a production cycle, with a gradual decline in fruit size under all three temperature regimes. Brix and titratable acidity both decreased over time for all three temperature treatments, but sugar/acid ratio remained highest for the cool temperature regime over the entire production

  2. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  3. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals.

    PubMed

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-04-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  4. Long-term exposure to twice-ambient ozone (O3) affects carbon sink strength, allocation and stem growth in adult central European forest trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grams, T. E.; Matyssek, R.

    2009-12-01

    Amongst air pollutants, ground-level ozone (O3) is potentially the most detrimental to vegetation. Spreading globally, enhanced O3 levels are predicted to increase, in particular, in rapidly developing countries and, thus, O3 must now be considered in climate change scenarios and post-Kyoto policies. Here, we present an appraisal of a unique 8-year free-air O3 fumigation experiment on adult European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Noway spruce (Picea abies), ecologically and economically important, late-succession tree species in Central Europe. For the first time, whole-plant canopies of naturally grown, 60 to 70 years old forest trees were exposed to twice-ambient O3 levels for a total of eight years. Throughout the study period, enhanced O3 uptake in the elevated O3 treatment affected net C fixation and distinctly weakened the whole-stem growth in beech. In contrast, adult spruce at the same site did not display decline in stem biomass development. Those findings corroborate species-specific sensitivities to O3 reported from previous chamber studies on juvenile beech and spruce trees. Carbon allocation of adult trees, as a mechanistical basis of growth processes, was investigated through stable isotope tracer experiments using 13C depleted CO2 at the canopy level. To this end, a novel free-air CO2 exposure system, named tubeFACE, was developed, which employed micro-porous PVC tubes hanging through the canopy of adult trees. In a 19-day 13CO2/12CO2 labeling experiment, CO2 with a δ13C of -46.9 ‰ was continuously released into the canopy to increase [CO2] by 100 µmol mol-1, resulting in a reduction in δ13C of about 8 ‰. Subsequently, C allocation to respiratory pools of various tree organs was studied. Similar to the reduced stem growth in beech, elevated O3 significantly reduced allocation of labeled C to stem respiration, whereas in spruce such a reduction was not found. Hence, our study underlines the need to understand O3 risks by species, so that modeling

  5. Plasma nesfatin-1 is not affected by long-term food restriction and does not predict rematuration among iteroparous female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Lucius K; Pierce, Andrew L; Riley, Larry G; Duncan, Christine A; Nagler, James J

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic peptide hormone nesfatin-1 has been linked to the reproductive axis in fishes. The purpose of this study was to determine how energy availability after spawning affects plasma levels of nesfatin-1, the metabolic peptide hormone ghrelin, and sex steroid hormones in rematuring female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To limit reproductive maturation, a group of female trout was food-restricted after spawning and compared with a control group that was fed a standard broodstock ration. The experiment was conducted twice, once using two-year-old trout (second-time spawners) and once using three-year-old trout (third-time spawners). During monthly sampling, blood was collected from all fish, and a subset of fish from each treatment was sacrificed for pituitaries. Pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone-beta (fsh-β) mRNA expression was analyzed with q-RT-PCR; plasma hormone levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay (17β-estradiol and ghrelin) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (11-keto-testosterone and nesfatin-1). Although plasma nesfatin-1 levels increased significantly in the months immediately after spawning within both feeding treatments, plasma nesfatin-1 did not differ significantly between the two treatments at any point. Similarly, plasma ghrelin levels did not differ significantly between the two treatments at any point. Food restriction arrested ovarian development by 15-20 weeks after spawning, shown by significantly lower plasma E2 levels among restricted-ration fish. Pituitary fsh-β mRNA levels were higher among control-ration fish than restricted-ration fish starting at 20 weeks, but did not differ significantly between treatment groups until 30 weeks after spawning. Within both treatment groups, plasma 11-KT was elevated immediately after spawning and rapidly decreased to and persisted at low levels; starting between 20 and 25 weeks after spawning, plasma 11-KT was higher among control-ration fish than restricted-ration fish. The

  6. Carbohydrate restricted recovery from long term endurance exercise does not affect gene responses involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in highly trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Line; Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Jakob L; Bech, Rune D; Nygaard, Tobias; Sahlin, Kent; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine if the metabolic adaptations, particularly PGC-1α and downstream metabolic genes were affected by restricting CHO following an endurance exercise bout in trained endurance athletes. A second aim was to compare baseline expression level of these genes to untrained. Elite endurance athletes (VO2max 66 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1, n = 15) completed 4 h cycling at ∼56% VO2max. During the first 4 h recovery subjects were provided with either CHO or only H2O and thereafter both groups received CHO. Muscle biopsies were collected before, after, and 4 and 24 h after exercise. Also, resting biopsies were collected from untrained subjects (n = 8). Exercise decreased glycogen by 67.7 ± 4.0% (from 699 ± 26.1 to 239 ± 29.5 mmol·kg−1·dw−1) with no difference between groups. Whereas 4 h of recovery with CHO partly replenished glycogen, the H2O group remained at post exercise level; nevertheless, the gene expression was not different between groups. Glycogen and most gene expression levels returned to baseline by 24 h in both CHO and H2O. Baseline mRNA expression of NRF-1, COX-IV, GLUT4 and PPAR-α gene targets were higher in trained compared to untrained. Additionally, the proportion of type I muscle fibers positively correlated with baseline mRNA for PGC-1α, TFAM, NRF-1, COX-IV, PPAR-α, and GLUT4 for both trained and untrained. CHO restriction during recovery from glycogen depleting exercise does not improve the mRNA response of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Further, baseline gene expression of key metabolic pathways is higher in trained than untrained. PMID:25677542

  7. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  8. Retrospective Evaluation Reveals That Long-term Androgen Deprivation Therapy Improves Cause-Specific and Overall Survival in the Setting of Dose-Escalated Radiation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Felix Y.; Blas, Kevin; Olson, Karin;