Science.gov

Sample records for affect marine life

  1. Dangerous marine life.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L J

    1992-09-01

    All physicians must be educated in treating injuries incurred when a diver comes into contact with any dangerous marine life. Stinging invertebrates are the most commonly encountered dangerous marine animals. Venomous vertebrate marine animals are less common than stinging invertebrates and easier to recognize. However, they may be much more deadly. Sharks pose the greatest danger to divers. However, bites from other marine animals can be painful, become infected and require extensive medical treatment. PMID:1358999

  2. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  3. Marine Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    As a result of widespread ocean dumping and other pollution problems, marine scientists at Morgan State University are studying the populations of various marine organisms to determine the effects of pollution. They are also compiling data on the aging of marine organisms. There now exists a new method of determining the age of the surf clam. They are applying digital image processing to clam aging investigations. Computer creates digitized images of clam sections with annual rings. The image is enhanced -- manipulated to emphasize certain features in order to improve and amplify the information that can be extracted from the image. Also useful in other marine organisms that have growth bands making it easier to get an accurate count.

  4. Climate change and marine life

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Brander, Keith; Bruno, John F.; Buckley, Lauren; Burrows, Michael T.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Holding, Johnna; Kappel, Carrie V.; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Moore, Pippa J.; O'Connor, Mary I.; Pandolfi, John M.; Parmesan, Camille; Schoeman, David S.; Schwing, Frank; Sydeman, William J.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.

    2012-01-01

    A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:22791706

  5. The impact of debris on marine life.

    PubMed

    Gall, S C; Thompson, R C

    2015-03-15

    Marine debris is listed among the major perceived threats to biodiversity, and is cause for particular concern due to its abundance, durability and persistence in the marine environment. An extensive literature search reviewed the current state of knowledge on the effects of marine debris on marine organisms. 340 original publications reported encounters between organisms and marine debris and 693 species. Plastic debris accounted for 92% of encounters between debris and individuals. Numerous direct and indirect consequences were recorded, with the potential for sublethal effects of ingestion an area of considerable uncertainty and concern. Comparison to the IUCN Red List highlighted that at least 17% of species affected by entanglement and ingestion were listed as threatened or near threatened. Hence where marine debris combines with other anthropogenic stressors it may affect populations, trophic interactions and assemblages. PMID:25680883

  6. How life affects the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of life on the atmosphere is examined through a discussion of the budgets of important atmospheric constituents and the processes that control their concentrations. Life profoundly influences oxygen and a number of minor atmospheric constituents, but many important gases, including those with the greatest effect on global climate, appear to be little altered by biological processes, at least in the steady state.

  7. [Marine life envenomations: example in New Caledonia].

    PubMed

    Rual, F

    1999-01-01

    Marine life in the waters of New Caledonia is extraordinarily rich. However some of the animals inhabiting this wonderland are dangerous including a number of venomous species. A retrospective study conducted at the Territorial Hospital in Noumea for the three-year period between 1995 and 1998 showed that nearly 200 people/year were victims of envenomation by marine animals. Findings also indicated that the incidence of envenomation was rising as the practice of marine activities by the local population and tourists increased. Venomous species can be classified into 4 categories according to the mechanism of envenomation, i.e., biting animals such as sea snakes, cephalopoda, and eels; stinging animals including not only fish such as scorpion fish (Pterois, stonefish), sting-rays, saltwater catfish, surgeon fish, and flatfish but also cones and crown of thorns (Acanthaster planci); animals with contact venoms such as cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and men-of-war), glaucus, sea cucumbers (holothurioidae), and sponges; and animals with more than one envenomation apparatus such as sea urchins and sea worms which can bite and sting. Study focused on the characteristics of each species including biology, envenomation apparatus, and chemical composition and action of the venom; pharmacological and clinical aspects of envenomation; and management and prevention of accidents. PMID:10701210

  8. Oceanography for Divers: Hazardous Marine Life. Diver Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Lee H.

    Most people find that the life of the marine environment is beautiful and fascinating. Of the thousands of marine animals and plants, relatively few constitute a real hazard to the diver. Although some species are dangerous and may, in some instances, inflict serious wounds, with a few exceptions marine animals are not aggressive. Most…

  9. Life stages affect method use.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B

    1995-03-01

    When it comes to family planning, women want choice. They want different types of methods, both permanent and temporary, available upon demand at the clinic of their choosing. The availability of a broad selection of methods is so important because age, marital status, desired family size, frequency of sexual intercourse, health concerns, and exposure to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) all can influence a woman's contraceptive use and choice of methods. Family planning programs often target their services to young married women in the midst of their childbearing years who want to space births. A woman's reproductive life, however, lasts almost four decades. Family planning programs therefore need to consider adolescents, unmarried women, and women over age 40 since they may also be at high risk for unwanted pregnancy. Family planning programs should offer a variety of safe, effective, acceptable, affordable contraceptive methods to help women prevent unwanted pregnancies and STDs, and to help them achieve their childbearing goals. PMID:12288748

  10. Marine Toxins Potently Affecting Neurotransmitter Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Frédéric A.; Mattei, César; Molgó, Jordi

    Synapses are specialised structures where interneuronal communication takes place. Not only brain function is absolutely dependent on synaptic activity, but also most of our organs are intimately controlled by synaptic activity. Synapses re therefore an ideal target to act upon and poisonous species have evolved fascinating neurotoxins capable of shutting down neuronal communication by blocking or activating essential components of the synapse. By hijacking key proteins of the communication machinery, neurotoxins are therefore extremely valuable tools that have, in turn, greatly helped our understanding of synaptic biology. Moreover, analysis and understanding of the molecular strategy used by certain neurotoxins has allowed the design of entirely new classes of drugs acting on specific targets with high selectivity and efficacy. This chapter will discuss the different classes of marine neurotoxins, their effects on neurotransmitter release and how they act to incapacitate key steps in the process leading to synaptic vesicle fusion.

  11. Affect, Meaning and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Research on quality of life in sociology is largely focused on a narrow range of dimensions including affect, happiness and satisfaction. It largely avoids a concern with the meanings that provide people with the purpose, significance, validity and coherence that are a basis of social relationships and social integration. Evidence is presented…

  12. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'. PMID:23342119

  13. Effects of Pollutants on Marine Life Probed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research activities conducted by scientists from the United State of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom to determine the long-term effects on natural marine ecosystems, especially plankton communities, of such pollutants as heavy metals, synthetic hydrocarbons, and petroleum hydrocarbons. (CC)

  14. From Darwin to the Census of Marine Life: Marine Biology as Big Science

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming ‘big science’. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international ‘Census of Marine Life’ (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration – including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication – I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different ‘collective ways of knowing’. PMID:23342119

  15. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  16. The life aquatic: advances in marine vertebrate genomics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Joanna L; Brown, Anthony P; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Foote, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    The ocean is hypothesized to be where life on earth originated, and subsequent evolutionary transitions between marine and terrestrial environments have been key events in the origin of contemporary biodiversity. Here, we review how comparative genomic approaches are an increasingly important aspect of understanding evolutionary processes, such as physiological and morphological adaptation to the diverse habitats within the marine environment. In addition, we highlight how population genomics has provided unprecedented resolution for population structuring, speciation and adaptation in marine environments, which can have a low cost of dispersal and few physical barriers to gene flow, and can thus support large populations. Building upon this work, we outline the applications of genomics tools to conservation and their relevance to assessing the wide-ranging impact of fisheries and climate change on marine species. PMID:27376488

  17. A Census of marine life: unknowable or just unknown?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dor, Ron; Decker, Cynthia J.

    2002-01-01

    As an introduction to the entire volume, this article outlines the relationships among the five elements of the Census of Marine Life (CoML) that create new knowledge: (1) The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), a marine component of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, links marine databases around the world to provide an Internet accessible, dynamic interface for comparing species-level, geo-referenced biodiversity data in relation to ocean habitats. The entire CoML field project data will be managed in and accessible through OBIS. (2) The History of Marine Animal Populations (HMAP) is a unique new synthesis of historical and biological research that will document marine biodiversity, globally, up to 500 years ago, before significant human impact, and store it in formats compatible with modern data in OBIS. (3) The Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research Working Group 118 monitors and recommends advanced marine technologies, ready to be routinely used in CoML field projects. (4) CoML Initial Field Projects develop and calibrate these technologies in selected regions to facilitate and accelerate global biodiversity research. As calibrated technologies and protocols are adopted in many regions, qualitative and quantitative biodiversity discoveries accumulate. (5) The Future of Marine Animal Populations (FMAP) program will insure that the data in OBIS are suitable for modeling and predicting changes in global biodiversity in response to fishing, pollution, and climate change challenges. It will make datasets available for hindcasting and forecasting analyses linked to physical ocean observations and assist in documenting the impacts of conservation efforts on sustainability.

  18. Measuring Coastal Boating Noise to Assess Potential Impacts on Marine Life

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Shari; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-07-01

    Article requested for submission in Sea Technology Magazine describing the Underwater Noise From Small Boats. An Overlooked Component of the Acoustic Environment in Coastal Areas. Underwater noise and its effects on marine life deserve attention as human activity in the marine environment increases. Noise can affect fish and marine mammals in ways that are physiological, as in auditory threshold shifts, and behavioral, as in changes in foraging habits. One anthropogenic source of underwater noise that has received little attention to date is recreational boating. Coastal areas and archipelago regions, which play a crucial role in the marine ecosystem, are often subject to high levels of boat traffic. In order to better understand the noise produced by a small powerboat, a test was conducted in Sequim Bay, Washington, using an instrumented research vessel and multiple acoustic sensors. The broadband noise and narrowband peak levels were observed from two different locations while the boat was operated under various conditions. The results, combined with background noise levels, sound propagation and local boat traffic patterns, can provide a picture of the total boating noise to which marine life may be subjected.

  19. Deconstructing environmental predictability: seasonality, environmental colour and the biogeography of marine life histories.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Dustin J; Burgess, Scott C

    2015-02-01

    Environmental predictability is predicted to shape the evolution of life histories. Two key types of environmental predictability, seasonality and environmental colour, may influence life-history evolution independently but formal considerations of both and how they relate to life history are exceedingly rare. Here, in a global biogeographical analysis of over 800 marine invertebrates, we explore the relationships between both forms of environmental predictability and three fundamental life-history traits: location of larval development (aplanktonic vs. planktonic), larval developmental mode (feeding vs. non-feeding) and offspring size. We found that both dispersal potential and offspring size related to environmental predictability, but the relationships depended on both the environmental factor as well as the type of predictability. Environments that were more seasonal in food availability had a higher prevalence of species with a planktonic larval stage. Future studies should consider both types of environmental predictability as each can strongly affect life-history evolution. PMID:25534504

  20. Spatial factors affecting statistical power in testing marine fauna displacement.

    PubMed

    Pérez Lapeña, B; Wijnberg, K M; Stein, A; Hulscher, S J M H

    2011-10-01

    Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved. PMID:22073657

  1. Effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, J.; Jin, F.; Wang, J.; Zheng, N.; Cong, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The potential effects of high CO2 and associated ocean acidification (OA) in marine fishes and other non-calcified organisms are less well understood. In this study, we investigated the responses of early life stages (ELS) of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed to a series of experimental manipulation of CO2 levels. Results showed that CO2-driven seawater acidification (pH 7.6 and pH 7.2) had no detectable effect on hatching time, hatching rate, or heart rate of embryos. However, the deformity rate of larvae in the pH 7.2 treatment was significantly higher than that in the control treatment. There is no significant difference between the left and right otolith areas in each treatment. However, the average otolith area of larvae in the pH 7.6 treatment was significantly smaller than that in the control. Such alterations in the developmental abnormalities and otolith size of marine medaka larvae due to elevated-CO2 levels suggests that this species will be increasingly challenged by future OA. Further studies of the impacts of OA on marine fish to assess whether or not the environmental influence in one generation can affect the later life history and the phenotype of subsequent generations are needed.

  2. Life sciences issues affecting space exploration.

    PubMed

    White, R J; Leonard, J I; Leveton, L; Gaiser, K; Teeter, R

    1990-12-01

    The U.S. space program is undertaking a serious examination of new initiatives in human space exploration involving permanent colonies on the Moon and an outpost on Mars. Life scientists have major responsibilities to the crew, to assure their health, productivity, and safety throughout the mission and the postflight rehabilitation period; to the mission, to provide a productive working environment; and to the scientific community, to advance knowledge and understanding of human adaptation to the space environment. Critical areas essential to the support of human exploration include protection from the radiation hazards of the space environment, reduced gravity countermeasures, artificial gravity, medical care, life support systems, and behavior, performance, and human factors in an extraterrestrial environment. Developing solutions to these concerns is at the heart of the NASA Life Sciences ground-based and flight research programs. Facilities analogous to planetary outposts are being considered in Antarctica and other remote settings. Closed ecological life support systems will be tested on Earth and Space Station. For short-duration simulations and tests, the Space Shuttle and Spacelab will be used. Space Station Freedom will provide the essential scientific and technological research in areas that require long exposures to reduced gravity conditions. In preparation for Mars missions, research on the Moon will be vital. As the challenges of sustaining humans on space are resolved, advances in fundamental science, medicine and technology will follow. PMID:11541483

  3. Mesoscale Eddies Are Oases for Higher Trophic Marine Life

    PubMed Central

    Godø, Olav R.; Samuelsen, Annette; Macaulay, Gavin J.; Patel, Ruben; Hjøllo, Solfrid Sætre; Horne, John; Kaartvedt, Stein; Johannessen, Johnny A.

    2012-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies stimulate biological production in the ocean, but knowledge of energy transfers to higher trophic levels within eddies remains fragmented and not quantified. Increasing the knowledge base is constrained by the inability of traditional sampling methods to adequately sample biological processes at the spatio-temporal scales at which they occur. By combining satellite and acoustic observations over spatial scales of 10 s of km horizontally and 100 s of m vertically, supported by hydrographical and biological sampling we show that anticyclonic eddies shape distribution and density of marine life from the surface to bathyal depths. Fish feed along density structures of eddies, demonstrating that eddies catalyze energy transfer across trophic levels. Eddies create attractive pelagic habitats, analogous to oases in the desert, for higher trophic level aquatic organisms through enhanced 3-D motion that accumulates and redistributes biomass, contributing to overall bioproduction in the ocean. Integrating multidisciplinary observation methodologies promoted a new understanding of biophysical interaction in mesoscale eddies. Our findings emphasize the impact of eddies on the patchiness of biomass in the sea and demonstrate that they provide rich feeding habitat for higher trophic marine life. PMID:22272294

  4. Diagnosis and management of injuries from dangerous marine life.

    PubMed

    Brown, Thomas P

    2005-01-01

    Injuries from marine life encompass a wide spectrum, from mild stings to severe bites. Fortunately most of the injuries are mild, although some may be significant, resulting in death. Most of these injuries can be treated by family physicians with a knowledge of the cause of the pathology. Over the years, there have been many treatment options. Some have actually caused an increase in severity. An important rule in treating these injuries is to inactivate the venom, treat the local reaction or injury, and treat the systemic sequelae. Jellyfish stings are the most common type of marine injury. The tentacles possess nematocysts, which are stinging units that are inactivated by the application of vinegar. Sea urchin and stingray injuries require the removal of the imbedded spines after the wound is soaked in hot water. Coral, sea bathers eruption, and swimmer's itch require thorough scrubbing and irrigation. Sea snakes, cone shells, and venomous fish possess a neurotoxin that requires close monitoring in the event of cardiopulmonary collapse. All of these injuries require tetanus status monitoring and consideration of coverage for infectious sequelae. PMID:16369231

  5. Identifying sexual differentiation genes that affect Drosophila life span

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Sexual differentiation often has significant effects on life span and aging phenotypes. For example, males and females of several species have different life spans, and genetic and environmental manipulations that affect life span often have different magnitude of effect in males versus females. Moreover, the presence of a differentiated germ-line has been shown to affect life span in several species, including Drosophila and C. elegans. Methods Experiments were conducted to determine how alterations in sexual differentiation gene activity might affect the life span of Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila females heterozygous for the tudor[1] mutation produce normal offspring, while their homozygous sisters produce offspring that lack a germ line. To identify additional sexual differentiation genes that might affect life span, the conditional transgenic system Geneswitch was employed, whereby feeding adult flies or developing larvae the drug RU486 causes the over-expression of selected UAS-transgenes. Results In this study germ-line ablation caused by the maternal tudor[1] mutation was examined in a long-lived genetic background, and was found to increase life span in males but not in females, consistent with previous reports. Fitting the data to a Gompertz-Makeham model indicated that the maternal tudor[1] mutation increases the life span of male progeny by decreasing age-independent mortality. The Geneswitch system was used to screen through several UAS-type and EP-type P element mutations in genes that regulate sexual differentiation, to determine if additional sex-specific effects on life span would be obtained. Conditional over-expression of transformer female isoform (traF) during development produced male adults with inhibited sexual differentiation, however this caused no significant change in life span. Over-expression of doublesex female isoform (dsxF) during development was lethal to males, and produced a limited number of female escapers

  6. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    PubMed Central

    García-Márquez, I.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Cambero, M. I.; Cabeza, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse) has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing. PMID:23227053

  7. Use of e-beam for shelf-life extension and sanitizing of marinated pork loin.

    PubMed

    García-Márquez, I; Ordóñez, J A; Cambero, M I; Cabeza, M C

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse) has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing. PMID:23227053

  8. Complex life cycles and offspring provisioning in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Dustin J; Keough, Michael J

    2006-10-01

    Offspring size can have pervasive effects throughout an organism's life history. Mothers can make either a few large or many small offspring, and the balance between these extremes is determined by the relationship between offspring size and performance. This relationship in turn is thought to be determined by the offspring's environment. Recently, it has become clear that events in one life-history stage can strongly affect performance in another. Given these strong carryover effects, we asked whether events in the larval phase can change the relationship between offspring size and performance in the adult phase. We manipulated the length of the larval period in the bryozoan Bugula neritina and then examined the relationship between offspring size and various parameters of adult performance under field conditions. We found that despite the adult stage being outplanted into identical conditions, different offspring sizes were predicted to be optimal, depending on the experience of those adults as larvae. This work highlights the fact that the strong phenotypic links between life-history stages may result in optimal offspring size being highly unpredictable for organisms with complex life cycles. PMID:21672775

  9. Materialism, affective states, and life satisfaction: case of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lipovčan, Ljiljana Kaliterna; Prizmić-Larsen, Zvjezdana; Brkljačić, Tihana

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have used Material Values Scale (MVS) to assess beliefs about importance to own material things. The aims of this study were to validate the MVS scale and to explore the relationships between materialistic values and well-being of Croatian citizens. The study was carried out on a representative sample of N = 1129 Croatian citizens. We used the short 9-item version of the MVS, life satisfaction rating, ratings of two positive (Positive affect) and four negative emotions (Negative affect) over the past month, and demographic variables (age, gender, income). The original dimensionality of the MVS was not confirmed; confirmatory factor analyses yielded two instead of three factors, Happiness and Centrality/Success. When controlled for income, gender and age, the Happiness dimension predicted Life satisfaction and both Positive and Negative affect, indicating that people who believed that the material goods in ones life leads to happiness reported to have lower life satisfaction, lower level of positive affect and higher level of negative affect over the past month. The Centrality/Success dimension was positively related to Positive affect, indicating that the belief that possessions play a central role in enjoyment leads to more frequent experiences of happiness and satisfaction over the past month. PMID:26587367

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

  11. Different carbon sources affect PCB accumulation by marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Laitano, M V; Silva Barni, M F; Costa, P G; Cledón, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B; Panarello, H O

    2016-02-01

    Pampean creeks were evaluated in the present study as potential land-based sources of PCB marine contamination. Different carbon and nitrogen sources from such creeks were analysed as boosters of PCB bioaccumulation by the filter feeder bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii and grazer limpet Siphonaria lessoni. Carbon of different source than marine and anthropogenic nitrogen assimilated by organisms were estimated through their C and N isotopic composition. PCB concentration in surface sediments and mollusc samples ranged from 2.68 to 6.46 ng g(-1) (wet weight) and from 1074 to 4583 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, reflecting a punctual source of PCB contamination related to a landfill area. Thus, despite the low flow of creeks, they should not be underestimated as contamination vectors to the marine environment. On the other hand, mussels PCB bioaccumulation was related with the carbon source uptake which highlights the importance to consider this factor when studying PCB distribution in organisms of coastal systems. PMID:26606107

  12. Emotions, affects and the production of social life.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nick J

    2015-06-01

    While many aspects of social life possess an emotional component, sociology needs to explore explicitly the part emotions play in producing the social world and human history. This paper turns away from individualistic and anthropocentric emphases upon the experience of feelings and emotions, attending instead to an exploration of flows of 'affect' (meaning simply a capacity to affect or be affected) between bodies, things, social institutions and abstractions. It establishes a materialist sociology of affects that acknowledges emotions as a part, but only a part, of a more generalized affective flow that produces bodies and the social world. From this perspective, emotions are not a peculiarly remarkable outcome of the confluence of biology and culture, but part of a continuum of affectivity that links human bodies to their physical and social environment. This enhances sociological understanding of the part emotions play in shaping actions and capacities in many settings of sociological concern. PMID:25788237

  13. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  14. Trophic Ecology of Benthic Marine Invertebrates with Bi-Phasic Life Cycles: What Are We Still Missing?

    PubMed

    Calado, Ricardo; Leal, Miguel Costa

    2015-01-01

    The study of trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles is critical to understand the mechanisms shaping population dynamics. Moreover, global climate change is impacting the marine environment at an unprecedented level, which promotes trophic mismatches that affect the phenology of these species and, ultimately, act as drivers of ecological and evolutionary change. Assessing the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates is critical to understanding maternal investment, larval survival to metamorphosis, post-metamorphic performance, resource partitioning and trophic cascades. Tools already available to assess the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates, including visual observation, gut content analysis, food concentration, trophic markers, stable isotopes and molecular genetics, are reviewed and their main advantages and disadvantages for qualitative and quantitative approaches are discussed. The challenges to perform the partitioning of ingestion, digestion and assimilation are discussed together with different approaches to address each of these processes for short- and long-term fingerprinting. Future directions for research on the trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles are discussed with emphasis on five guidelines that will allow for systematic study and comparative meta-analysis to address important unresolved questions. PMID:26320615

  15. Egg Size Effects across Multiple Life-History Stages in the Marine Annelid Hydroides diramphus

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Richard M.; Marshall, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    The optimal balance of reproductive effort between offspring size and number depends on the fitness of offspring size in a particular environment. The variable environments offspring experience, both among and within life-history stages, are likely to alter the offspring size/fitness relationship and favor different offspring sizes. Hence, the many environments experienced throughout complex life-histories present mothers with a significant challenge to optimally allocate their reproductive effort. In a marine annelid, we tested the relationship between egg size and performance across multiple life-history stages, including: fertilization, larval development, and post-metamorphosis survival and size in the field. We found evidence of conflicting effects of egg size on performance: larger eggs had higher fertilization under sperm-limited conditions, were slightly faster to develop pre-feeding, and were larger post-metamorphosis; however, smaller eggs had higher fertilization when sperm was abundant, and faster planktonic development; and egg size did not affect post-metamorphic survival. The results indicate that egg size effects are conflicting in H. diramphus depending on the environments within and among life-history stages. We suggest that offspring size in this species may be a compromise between the overall costs and benefits of egg sizes in each stage and that performance in any one stage is not maximized. PMID:25036850

  16. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person... this Preserve. No rope, wire or other contrivance shall be attached to any coral, rock or...

  17. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person... this Preserve. No rope, wire or other contrivance shall be attached to any coral, rock or...

  18. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person... this Preserve. No rope, wire or other contrivance shall be attached to any coral, rock or...

  19. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person... this Preserve. No rope, wire or other contrivance shall be attached to any coral, rock or...

  20. Infectious Diseases Affect Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  1. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  2. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. 15.2 Section 15.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person shall destroy, injure, deface, mar,...

  3. Impact of dam-building on marine life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandian, T. J.

    1980-03-01

    Dam-building across naturally flowing rivers tends to decrease discharge of surplus water into the sea, reduce nutrient concentration in estuaries and coastal waters, and diminish plankton blooms as well as fish landings. Depletion of nutrients and organic matter along with reduced mud and silt deposition affect benthic life on the continental shelf. Reduced mud and silt deposition leads to coastal retreat. Dams, especially those constructed for hydro-electric purposes, hinder migration of fishes and decapods. Discharge from dams can create barriers at high or low flows, cause delays, disrupt normal behavioural routine and change the travel speed of migratory animals. Where all spawners of a given population are frequently kept away from the breeding site, the population faces extinction.

  4. An Ocean of Discovery: Biodiversity Beyond the Census of Marine Life.

    PubMed

    Snelgrove, Paul V R

    2016-06-01

    The 70 % of Earth's surface covered by oceans supports significant biological diversity and immense untapped potential for marine bioproducts. The recently completed international Census of Marine Life (2000-2010) invested heavily in evaluating the diversity, abundance, and distribution of life in the ocean but concluded that at least 50 % and potentially > 90 % of marine species remain undescribed by science. Despite this potential, and numerous successes spanning pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, anti-foulants and adhesives, biofuels, biocatalysts (enzymes), and cosmetics, several impediments have slowed marine bioproduct development. First, the sheer size of the ocean constrains comprehensive exploration. Second, marine taxonomists and ecologists generally do not focus on the most promising groups for bioproduct development. Third, the geographic mismatch between (often remote) biodiversity hotspots and science capacity limit discovery. Despite these challenges, new ocean sampling tools (digital imaging, remote vehicles, genetic approaches, in situ samplers), many developed or improved during the Census of Marine Life, should enhance future marine biodiversity and thus marine bioproduct discovery. PMID:27093252

  5. Potential Marine Organisms Affecting Airborne Primary Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, J. Y.; Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The oceans cover 70% of earth with the marine environment contributing ~50% of the global biomass. Particularly during periods of high biological activity associated with phytoplankton blooms, primary emitted aerosol particles dominated by organic compounds in the submicron size range, are ejected from surface waters increasing in concentration exponentially with overlying wind speeds. This is significant for clouds and climate particularly over nutrient rich polar seas, where seawater concentrations of biogenic particles can reach 109 cells per ml during spring phytoplankton blooms, and even 106 cells per ml in winter when empty frustules and fragments of diatoms are resuspensed from shallow shelf sediments by strong winds, and mix with living pico- and nanoplankton in surface sea waters. This organic aerosol fraction can have a significant impact on the ability of ocean derived aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei. It has been shown that small insoluble organic particles are aerosolized from the sea surface microlayer (SML) via bubble bursting. The exact composition and complexity of the SML varies spatially and temporally but includes phytoplankton cells, microorganisms, organic debris, and a complex mixture of proteins, polysaccharides, humic-type material and waxes, microgels and colloidal nanogels, and strong surface active lipids. The specific chemical composition is dependent on the fractionation of organic matter which originates from in-situ production, from underlying water and even from atmospheric deposition. These conditions will most likely determine the nature of the organic and biogenic material. Here we review the types, sizes, and properties of ocean-derived particles and organic material which present potential candidates for airborne biogenic and organic particles.

  6. Subjective quality of life in war-affected populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to traumatic war events may lead to a reduction in quality of life for many years. Research suggests that these impairments may be associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, wars also have a profound impact on social conditions. Systematic studies utilising subjective quality of life (SQOL) measures are particularly rare and research in post-conflict settings is scarce. Whether social factors independently affect SQOL after war in addition to symptoms has not been explored in large scale studies. Method War-affected community samples were recruited through a random-walk technique in five Balkan countries and through registers and networking in three Western European countries. The interviews were carried out on average 8 years after the war in the Balkans. SQOL was assessed on Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life - MANSA. We explored the impact of war events, posttraumatic stress symptoms and post-war environment on SQOL. Results We interviewed 3313 Balkan residents and 854 refugees in Western Europe. The MANSA mean score was 4.8 (SD = 0.9) for the Balkan sample and 4.7 (SD = 0.9) for refugees. In both samples participants were explicitly dissatisfied with their employment and financial situation. Posttraumatic stress symptoms had a strong negative impact on SQOL. Traumatic war events were directly linked with lower SQOL in Balkan residents. The post-war environment influenced SQOL in both groups: unemployment was associated with lower SQOL and recent contacts with friends with higher SQOL. Experiencing more migration-related stressors was linked to poorer SQOL in refugees. Conclusion Both posttraumatic stress symptoms and aspects of the post-war environment independently influence SQOL in war-affected populations. Aid programmes to improve wellbeing following the traumatic war events should include both treatment of posttraumatic symptoms and social interventions. PMID:23819629

  7. Cognitive, affective and eudemonic well-being in later life

    PubMed Central

    Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James

    2016-01-01

    The hedonic view on well-being, consisting of both cognitive and affective aspects, assumes that through maximizing pleasurable experiences, and minimizing suffering, the highest levels of well-being can be achieved. The eudemonic approach departs from the concept of a good life that is not just about pleasure and happiness, but involves developing one-self, being autonomous and realizing one’s potential. While these approaches are often positioned against each other on theoretical grounds, this paper investigates the empirical plausibility of this two dimensional view on subjective well-being. The interrelations between common measures such as the General Health Questionnaire, the CES-D inventory of depressive symptoms, the satisfaction with life scale and the eudemonic CASP scale are examined in a confirmatory factor analysis framework using the third wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). A multidimensional structure of well-being, distinguishing cognitive, affective and eudemonic well-being, is shown to be the best fitting empirical solution. This three dimensional second order structure is neutral to gender in its measurement. A lower influence of feeling energetic on self-actualisation, and of somatic symptoms of depression on affective well-being was noted for respondents in the fourth age in comparison to respondents in the third age. These small measurement artefacts underline that somatic symptoms of later life depression should be distinguished from mood symptoms. Two main social facts are confirmed when we compare the different forms of well-being over gender and life stage: men tend to have a higher level of well-being than women, and well-being is lower in the fourth age than in the third age. Although the three measures are very closely related, with high correlations between .74 and .88, they each have their specific meaning. While affective and cognitive well-being emphasize the use of an internal yardstick to measure well

  8. How life affects the geochemical cycle of carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James C. G.

    1992-01-01

    Developing a quantitative understanding of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon as they have worked throughout Earth history on various time scales, how they have been affected by biological evolution, and how changes in the carbon content of ocean and atmosphere may have affected climate and the evolution of life are the goals of the research. Theoretical simulations were developed that can be tuned to reproduce such data as exist and, once tuned, can be used to predict properties that have not yet been observed. This is an ongoing process, in which models and results are refined as new data and interpretations become available and as understanding of the global system improves. Results of the research are described in several papers which were published or submitted for publication. These papers are summarized. Future research plans are presented.

  9. Do early life factors affect the development of knee osteoarthritis in later life: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Antony, Benny; Jones, Graeme; Jin, Xingzhong; Ding, Changhai

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) mainly affects older populations; however, it is possible that early life factors contribute to the development of OA in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the association between childhood or early adulthood risk factors and knee pain, structural imaging markers and development of knee OA in later life. A narrative overview of the literature synthesising the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerised databases and manual searches was conducted. We found that only a few studies have explored the long-term effect of childhood or early adulthood risk factors on the markers of joint health that predispose people to OA or joint symptoms. High body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status from childhood to adulthood were independently related to knee pain and OA in later life. The findings regarding the association between strenuous physical activity and knee structures in young adults are still conflicting. However, a favourable effect of moderate physical activity and fitness on knee structures is reported. Childhood physical activity and performance measures had independent beneficial effects on knee structures including knee cartilage in children and young adults. Anterior knee pain syndrome in adolescence could lead to the development of patellofemoral knee OA in the late 40s. Furthermore, weak evidence suggests that childhood malalignment, socioeconomic status and physical abuse are associated with OA in later life. The available evidence suggests that early life intervention may prevent OA in later life. PMID:27623622

  10. Biodiversity: invasions by marine life on plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A

    2002-04-25

    Colonization by alien species poses one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Here I investigate the colonization by marine organisms of drift debris deposited on the shores of 30 remote islands from the Arctic to the Antarctic (across all oceans) and find that human litter more than doubles the rafting opportunities for biota, particularly at high latitudes. Although the poles may be protected from invasion by freezing sea surface temperatures, these may be under threat as the fastest-warming areas anywhere are at these latitudes. PMID:11976671

  11. Early Life Triclocarban Exposure During Lactation Affects Neonate Rat Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Rebekah C. M.; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A.; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A.; Lasley, Bill L.; Zhao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  12. Early life triclocarban exposure during lactation affects neonate rat survival.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A; Lasley, Bill L; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  13. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bost, Charles A.; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-10-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes.

  14. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography

    PubMed Central

    Bost, Charles A.; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes. PMID:26506134

  15. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography.

    PubMed

    Bost, Charles A; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes. PMID:26506134

  16. Marine & Other Invertebrates. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Invertebrate animals include a vast array of spineless creatures. In this video, students discover marine lifeforms such as jellyfish,…

  17. Towards a meaningful assessment of marine ecological impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Woods, John S; Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Verones, Francesca; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-01-01

    Human demands on marine resources and space are currently unprecedented and concerns are rising over observed declines in marine biodiversity. A quantitative understanding of the impact of industrial activities on the marine environment is thus essential. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely applied method for quantifying the environmental impact of products and processes. LCA was originally developed to assess the impacts of land-based industries on mainly terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As such, impact indicators for major drivers of marine biodiversity loss are currently lacking. We review quantitative approaches for cause-effect assessment of seven major drivers of marine biodiversity loss: climate change, ocean acidification, eutrophication-induced hypoxia, seabed damage, overexploitation of biotic resources, invasive species and marine plastic debris. Our review shows that impact indicators can be developed for all identified drivers, albeit at different levels of coverage of cause-effect pathways and variable levels of uncertainty and spatial coverage. Modeling approaches to predict the spatial distribution and intensity of human-driven interventions in the marine environment are relatively well-established and can be employed to develop spatially-explicit LCA fate factors. Modeling approaches to quantify the effects of these interventions on marine biodiversity are less well-developed. We highlight specific research challenges to facilitate a coherent incorporation of marine biodiversity loss in LCA, thereby making LCA a more comprehensive and robust environmental impact assessment tool. Research challenges of particular importance include i) incorporation of the non-linear behavior of global circulation models (GCMs) within an LCA framework and ii) improving spatial differentiation, especially the representation of coastal regions in GCMs and ocean-carbon cycle models. PMID:26826362

  18. Contemporary Quality of Life Issues Affecting Gynecologic Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jeanne; Penson, Richard; Barakat, Richard; Wenzel, Lari

    2015-01-01

    Gynecologic cancers account for approximately 11% of the newly diagnosed cancers in women in the United States and 18% in the world.1 The most common gynecologic malignancies occur in the uterus and endometrium (53%), ovary (25%), and cervix (14%).2 Cervical cancer is most prevalent in premenopausal women, during their childbearing years, whereas uterine and ovarian cancers tend to present in the perimenopausal or menopausal period. Vaginal and vulvar cancers and malignancies arising from gestation, or gestational trophoblastic neoplasms, occur to a lesser extent. Regardless of cancer origin or age of onset, the disease and its treatment can produce short- and long-term sequelae (ie, sexual dysfunction, infertility, or lymphedema) that adversely affect quality of life (QOL). This article outlines the primary contemporary issues or concerns that may affect QOL and offers strategies to offset or mitigate QOL disruption. These contemporary issues are identified within the domains of sexual functioning, reproductive issues, lymphedema, and the contribution of health-related QOL (HRQOL) in influential gynecologic cancer clinical trials. PMID:22244668

  19. Clinical factors affecting quality of life of patients with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Bartosz; Panaszek, Bernard; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been increased interest in the subjective quality of life (QoL) of patients with bronchial asthma. QoL is a significant indicator guiding the efforts of professionals caring for patients, especially chronically ill ones. The identification of factors affecting the QoL reported by patients, despite their existing condition, is important and useful to provide multidisciplinary care for these patients. Aim To investigate the clinical factors affecting asthma patients’ QoL. Methods The study comprised 100 patients (73 female, 27 male) aged 18–84 years (mean age was 45.7) treated in the Allergy Clinic of the Wroclaw Medical University Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Geriatrics and Allergology. All asthma patients meeting the inclusion criteria were invited to participate. Data on sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected. In this study, we used medical record analysis and two questionnaires: the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) to assess the QoL of patients with asthma and the Asthma Control Test to measure asthma control. Results Active smokers were shown to have a significantly lower QoL in the “Symptoms” domain than nonsmokers (P=0.006). QoL was also demonstrated to decrease significantly as the frequency of asthma exacerbations increased (R=−0.231, P=0.022). QoL in the domain “Activity limitation” was shown to increase significantly along with the number of years of smoking (R=0.404; P=0.004). Time from onset and the dominant symptom of asthma significantly negatively affected QoL in the “Activity limitation” domain of the AQLQ (R=−0.316, P=0.001; P=0.029, respectively). QoL scores in the “Emotional function” and “Environmental stimuli” subscale of the AQLQ decreased significantly as time from onset increased (R=−0.200, P=0.046; R=−0.328, P=0.001, respectively). Conclusion Patients exhibiting better symptom control have higher QoL scores. Asthma patients’ Qo

  20. Calibrating the Ordovician Radiation of marine life: implications for Phanerozoic diversity trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. I.; Foote, M.

    1996-01-01

    It has long been suspected that trends in global marine biodiversity calibrated for the Phanerozoic may be affected by sampling problems. However, this possibility has not been evaluated definitively, and raw diversity trends are generally accepted at face value in macroevolutionary investigations. Here, we analyze a global-scale sample of fossil occurrences that allows us to determine directly the effects of sample size on the calibration of what is generally thought to be among the most significant global biodiversity increases in the history of life: the Ordovician Radiation. Utilizing a composite database that includes trilobites, brachiopods, and three classes of molluscs, we conduct rarefaction analyses to demonstrate that the diversification trajectory for the Radiation was considerably different than suggested by raw diversity time-series. Our analyses suggest that a substantial portion of the increase recognized in raw diversity depictions for the last three Ordovician epochs (the Llandeilian, Caradocian, and Ashgillian) is a consequence of increased sample size of the preserved and catalogued fossil record. We also use biometric data for a global sample of Ordovician trilobites, along with methods of measuring morphological diversity that are not biased by sample size, to show that morphological diversification in this major clade had leveled off by the Llanvirnian. The discordance between raw diversity depictions and more robust taxonomic and morphological diversity metrics suggests that sampling effects may strongly influence our perception of biodiversity trends throughout the Phanerozoic.

  1. Recruitment dynamics in complex life cycles. [of organisms living in marine rocky zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roughgarden, Jonathan; Possingham, Hugh; Gaines, Steven

    1988-01-01

    Factors affecting marine population fluctuations are discussed with particular attention given to a common barnacle species of the Pacific coast of North America. It is shown how models combining larval circulation with adult interactions can potentially forecast population fluctuations. These findings demonstrate how processes in different ecological habitats are coupled.

  2. 26 CFR 1.821-1 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... life or marine or fire insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 831. 1.821-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance... Premium Deposits) § 1.821-1 Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire...

  3. 26 CFR 1.821-1 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... life or marine or fire insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 831. 1.821-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance... Premium Deposits) § 1.821-1 Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire...

  4. 26 CFR 1.821-3 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... life or marine or fire insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 831. 1.821-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance... Premium Deposits) § 1.821-3 Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire...

  5. 26 CFR 1.821-3 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... life or marine or fire insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 831. 1.821-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance... Premium Deposits) § 1.821-3 Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire...

  6. 26 CFR 1.821-1 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... life or marine or fire insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 831. 1.821-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance... Premium Deposits) § 1.821-1 Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire...

  7. 26 CFR 1.821-3 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... life or marine or fire insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 831. 1.821-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance... Premium Deposits) § 1.821-3 Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire...

  8. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  9. Energetic constraints on life in deep marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, J.; LaRowe, D.

    2013-12-01

    Microorganisms are abundant in deep-sea sediments, but what percentage of cells is active, how fast do they grow, and what factors control their diversity and population size? Geochemical modelling of redox reaction energetics can help in answering these questions. Calculations of Gibbs energies reveal which reactions are thermodynamically possible, but they also highlight which geochemical variables (e.g., temperature, pressure, pH, composition) may control microbial activity and how the amount and type of biomass are affected by energy limitations. We will discuss recent results from sediment cores collected at the Peru Margin (active continental shelf with high primary productivity and significant organic matter accumulation), the South Pacific Gyre (ultra-slow sedimentation rate and low organic carbon content), and the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank (high rate of sedimentation influenced by hydrothermal circulation). However, this approach to evaluating bioenergetic potential and predicting microbial activity can be applied to any environment where the geochemistry is well characterized, even if microbiology data have not been collected. When Gibbs energies are calculated on a basis of per mole of electrons transferred (as is commonly done), aerobic oxidation of hydrogen and organic matter in South Pacific Gyre sediments is the most exergonic. Based on this, one might posit that the fastest catabolic rates and the largest biomass would be found there. However, cell counts at Juan de Fuca and the Peru Margin are several orders of magnitude higher. When recast as energy densities (in J per cm3 of sediment), we observe far more energy available in sediments at Juan de Fuca and the Peru Margin than at those in the South Pacific Gyre. We also note that the identity of the most exergonic reaction changes with depth, suggesting corresponding changes in the microbial community structure. The thermodynamic approach used here for energy supply can also be used for energy

  10. Effects of life history variation on vertical transfer of toxicants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Noonburg, Erik G; Nisbet, Roger M; Klanjscek, Tin

    2010-05-21

    Toxicant bioaccumulation poses a risk to many marine mammal populations. Although individual-level toxicology has been the subject of considerable research in several species, we lack a theoretical framework to generalize the results across environments and life histories. Here we formulate a dynamic energy budget model to predict the effects of intra- and interspecific life history variation on toxicant dynamics in marine mammals. Dynamic energy budget theory attempts to describe the most general processes of energy acquisition and utilization in heterotrophs. We tailor the basic model to represent the marine mammal reproductive cycle, and we add a model of toxicant uptake and partitioning to describe vertical transfer of toxicants from mother to offspring during gestation and lactation. We first show that the model predictions are consistent with qualitative patterns reported in empirical studies and previous species-specific modeling studies. Next, we use this model to examine the dependence of offspring toxicant load on birth order, food density, and interspecific life history variation. PMID:20171232

  11. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual...

  12. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... Companies § 1.831-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance...) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on...

  13. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual...

  14. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual...

  15. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual...

  16. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... Companies § 1.831-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance...) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on...

  17. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... Companies § 1.831-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance...) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on...

  18. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or...

  19. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or... Companies § 1.831-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance...) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on...

  20. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or...-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual... insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign insurance companies not carrying on an...

  1. A Global Census of Marine Life on Seamounts: are They Really Oases in the Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consalvey, M.; Clark, M.; Rowden, A.; Stocks, K.

    2006-12-01

    Seamounts have been referred to as oases in the ocean, yet our knowledge is such that this notion can neither be refuted nor accepted. We know that seamounts can support high levels of biodiversity and endemism, that they can play an important role in patterns of marine biogeography, and that they can be highly productive ecosystems acting as feeding grounds for fishes, marine mammals and seabirds. However, our current state of knowledge is such that these observations cannot be taken as generalisations. Under the umbrella of the Census of Marine Life the project CenSeam is conducting a global census of marine life on seamounts, and working towards quantifying what is known, unknown, and will never be known. Seamounts are found in every ocean of the world but of the estimated 100 000, less than 400 have been sampled, and of these, less than 100 in sufficient biological detail. Furthermore, the global sampling effort has been geographically biased - high latitude as well as equatorial seamounts are currently under sampled and the majority of sampled seamounts have summit depths of less than 500m, sampling being limited by practical and financial capabilities. Through uniting the active seamount research community CenSeam aims to establish, at a global scale, the roles that seamounts play in the biogeography, biodiversity, productivity and evolution of marine organisms in order to determine the effect and contribution of seamounts to the global oceanic ecosystem. Recognising that it is not feasible to sample all the world's seamounts, future sampling efforts must be standardised and strategically guided, through assessing the current state of knowledge, to fill critical knowledge gaps and target understudied regions and types of seamounts. This paper will synthesise the current state of seamount knowledge and critically evaluate the global sampling effort stimulating discussion about the future of seamount research and associated methodology and data analysis.

  2. Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Kathryn E; Bardi, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to establish the effects of acts of kindness and acts of novelty on life satisfaction. Participants aged 18-60 took part on a voluntary basis. They were randomly assigned to perform either acts of kindness, acts of novelty, or no acts on a daily basis for 10 days. Their life satisfaction was measured before and after the 10-day experiment. As expected, performing acts of kindness or acts of novelty resulted in an increase in life satisfaction. PMID:20575332

  3. OBIS-USA: a data-sharing legacy of census of marine life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedberry, George R.; Fautin, Daphne G.; Feldman, Michael; Fornwall, Mark D.; Goldstein, Phillip; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey's Biological Informatics Program hosts OBIS-USA, the US node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). OBIS-USA gathers, coordinates, applies standard formats to, and makes widely available data on biological collections in marine waters of the United States and other areas where US investigators have collected data and, in some instances, specimens. OBIS-USA delivers its data to OBIS international, which then delivers its data to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and other Web portals for marine biodiversity data. OBIS-USA currently has 145 data sets from 36 participants, representing over 6.5 million occurrence records of over 83,000 taxa from more than 888,000 locations. OBIS-USA, a legacy of the decade-long (2001–2010) international collaborative Census of Marine Life enterprise, continues to add data, including those from ongoing Census projects. Among the many challenges in creating OBIS, including OBIS-USA, were developing a community of trust and shared value among data providers, and demonstrating to providers the value of making their data accessible to others. Challenges also posed by the diversity of data sets relevant to marine biodiversity stored on thousands of computers, in a variety of formats, not all widely accessible, have been met in OBIS-USA by implementing a uniform standard and publishing platform that is easily accessible to a broad range of users.

  4. Effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, J.; Jin, F.; Wang, J.; Zheng, N.; Cong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The potential effects of elevated CO2 level and reduced carbonate saturation state in marine environment on fishes and other non-calcified organisms are still poorly known. In present study, we investigated the effects of ocean acidification on embryogenesis and organogenesis of newly hatched larvae of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) after 21 d exposure of eggs to different artificially acidified seawater (pH 7.6 and 7.2, respectively), and compared with those in control group (pH 8.2). Results showed that CO2-driven seawater acidification (pH 7.6 and 7.2) had no detectable effect on hatching time, hatching rate, and heart rate of embryos. However, the deformity rate of larvae in pH 7.2 treatment was significantly higher than that in control treatment. The left and right sagitta areas did not differ significantly from each other in each treatment. However, the mean sagitta area of larvae in pH 7.6 treatment was significantly smaller than that in the control (p = 0.024). These results suggest that although marine medaka might be more tolerant of elevated CO2 than some other fishes, the effect of elevated CO2 level on the calcification of otolith is likely to be the most susceptibly physiological process of pH regulation in early life stage of marine medaka.

  5. Viviparity and K-selected life history in a Mesozoic marine plesiosaur (Reptilia, Sauropterygia).

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, F R; Chiappe, L M

    2011-08-12

    Viviparity is known in several clades of Mesozoic aquatic reptiles, but evidence for it is lacking in the Plesiosauria. Here, we report a Late Cretaceous plesiosaur fossil consisting of a fetus preserved within an adult of the same taxon. We interpret this occurrence as a gravid female and unborn young and hence as definitive evidence for plesiosaur viviparity. Quantitative analysis indicates that plesiosaurs gave birth to large, probably single progeny. The combination of viviparity, large offspring size, and small brood number differs markedly from the pattern seen in other marine reptiles but does resemble the K-selected strategy of all extant marine mammals and a few extant lizards. Plesiosaurs may have shared other life history traits with these clades, such as sociality and maternal care. PMID:21836013

  6. Toxicity of chlorine dioxide to early life stages of marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Hose, J.E.; Di Fiore, D.; Parker, H.S.; Sciarrotta, T.

    1989-03-01

    With increasing interest in minimizing exposure to chlorine, many electric generating and water treatment plants are exploring the use of alternative biocides such as chlorine dioxide. Unlike chlorine, chlorine dioxide does not react with ambient organic compounds to form potentially carcinogenic trihalomethanes such as chloroform. However, the toxicity of chlorine dioxide to aquatic organisms has received little study. No information exists on chlorine toxicity to marine organisms. Furthermore, West Coast electric power stations usually discharge chlorine intermittently once or twice daily and substantial mixing of receiving water occurs between treatments. Therefore, this study sought to obtain information on chlorine dioxide toxicity using an exposure schedule typical of generating stations which discharge into the marine environment. Early life history stages of a plant, invertebrate and fish were tested since these stages are generally acknowledged to be most sensitive to toxicants and are the stages that are most likely to be exposed to the effluent.

  7. Conditioned water affects pair formation behaviour in the marine polychaete Neanthes (Nereis) acuminata.

    PubMed

    Storey, Ellen J; Reish, Don J; Hardege, Jörg D

    2013-01-01

    Assessing cues from conspecifics is paramount during mate choice decisions. Neanthes acuminata is a marine polychaete with a unique life cycle: pair formation, female death following reproduction, male parental care and male ability to mate again after egg care. Males completing such egg care are 'experienced'. Females have been shown to prefer experienced males over all others, including aggressively dominant males. As the female dies following reproduction, the reproductive success of her offspring depends upon successful parental care by the male. It is therefore vital that the female makes a good mate choice decision. This paper shows that the use of conditioned water from males caring for eggs and newly experienced males caused the female to alter her choice to a previously undesired male. However, conditioned water from males, which had reproduced but were isolated for 2 weeks, did not have the same effect on pairing behaviour. This indicates that the smell of experience is short lived. PMID:22941305

  8. Mind Invasion: Situated Affectivity and the Corporate Life Hack.

    PubMed

    Slaby, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In view of the philosophical problems that vex the debate on situated affectivity, it can seem wise to focus on simple cases. Accordingly, theorists often single out scenarios in which an individual employs a device in order to enhance their emotional experience, or to achieve new kinds of experience altogether, such as playing an instrument, going to the movies, or sporting a fancy handbag. I argue that this narrow focus on cases that fit a "user/resource model" tends to channel attention away from more complex and also more problematic instances of situated affectivity. Among these are scenarios in which a social domain draws individuals into certain modes of affective interaction, often by way of attunement and habituation to affective styles and interaction patterns that are normative in the domain in question. This can lead to a phenomenon that is not so much "mind extension" than "mind invasion": affectivity is dynamically framed and modulated from without, often contrary to the prior orientations of the individuals in question. As an example, I discuss affective patterns prevalent in today's corporate workplace. I claim that workplace affect sometimes contributes to what is effectively a "hack" of employees' subjectivity. PMID:26941705

  9. Mind Invasion: Situated Affectivity and the Corporate Life Hack

    PubMed Central

    Slaby, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In view of the philosophical problems that vex the debate on situated affectivity, it can seem wise to focus on simple cases. Accordingly, theorists often single out scenarios in which an individual employs a device in order to enhance their emotional experience, or to achieve new kinds of experience altogether, such as playing an instrument, going to the movies, or sporting a fancy handbag. I argue that this narrow focus on cases that fit a “user/resource model” tends to channel attention away from more complex and also more problematic instances of situated affectivity. Among these are scenarios in which a social domain draws individuals into certain modes of affective interaction, often by way of attunement and habituation to affective styles and interaction patterns that are normative in the domain in question. This can lead to a phenomenon that is not so much “mind extension” than “mind invasion”: affectivity is dynamically framed and modulated from without, often contrary to the prior orientations of the individuals in question. As an example, I discuss affective patterns prevalent in today's corporate workplace. I claim that workplace affect sometimes contributes to what is effectively a “hack” of employees' subjectivity. PMID:26941705

  10. Energy use and emissions from marine vessels: a total fuel life cycle approach.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, James J; Corbett, James J; Meyer, Patrick E

    2007-01-01

    Regional and global air pollution from marine transportation is a growing concern. In discerning the sources of such pollution, researchers have become interested in tracking where along the total fuel life cycle these emissions occur. In addition, new efforts to introduce alternative fuels in marine vessels have raised questions about the energy use and environmental impacts of such fuels. To address these issues, this paper presents the Total Energy and Emissions Analysis for Marine Systems (TEAMS) model. TEAMS can be used to analyze total fuel life cycle emissions and energy use from marine vessels. TEAMS captures "well-to-hull" emissions, that is, emissions along the entire fuel pathway, including extraction, processing, distribution, and use in vessels. TEAMS conducts analyses for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to residual oil, (2) petroleum to conventional diesel, (3) petroleum to low-sulfur diesel, (4) natural gas to compressed natural gas, (5) natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and (6) soybeans to biodiesel. TEAMS calculates total fuel-cycle emissions of three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of 10 microm or less, and sulfur oxides). TEAMS also calculates total energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption associated with each of its six fuel cycles. TEAMS can be used to study emissions from a variety of user-defined vessels. This paper presents TEAMS and provides example modeling results for three case studies using alternative fuels: a passenger ferry, a tanker vessel, and a container ship. PMID:17269235

  11. Hypoxia and acidification in ocean ecosystems: coupled dynamics and effects on marine life.

    PubMed

    Gobler, Christopher J; Baumann, Hannes

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing recognition that low dissolved oxygen (DO) and low pH conditions co-occur in many coastal and open ocean environments. Within temperate ecosystems, these conditions not only develop seasonally as temperatures rise and metabolic rates accelerate, but can also display strong diurnal variability, especially in shallow systems where photosynthetic rates ameliorate hypoxia and acidification by day. Despite the widespread, global co-occurrence of low pH and low DO and the likelihood that these conditions may negatively impact marine life, very few studies have actually assessed the extent to which the combination of both stressors elicits additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects in marine organisms. We review the evidence from published factorial experiments that used static and/or fluctuating pH and DO levels to examine different traits (e.g. survival, growth, metabolism), life stages and species across a broad taxonomic spectrum. Additive negative effects of combined low pH and low DO appear to be most common; however, synergistic negative effects have also been observed. Neither the occurrence nor the strength of these synergistic impacts is currently predictable, and therefore, the true threat of concurrent acidification and hypoxia to marine food webs and fisheries is still not fully understood. Addressing this knowledge gap will require an expansion of multi-stressor approaches in experimental and field studies, and the development of a predictive framework. In consideration of marine policy, we note that DO criteria in coastal waters have been developed without consideration of concurrent pH levels. Given the persistence of concurrent low pH-low DO conditions in estuaries and the increased mortality experienced by fish and bivalves under concurrent acidification and hypoxia compared with hypoxia alone, we conclude that such DO criteria may leave coastal fisheries more vulnerable to population reductions than previously anticipated. PMID

  12. Older age may offset genetic influence on affect: The COMT polymorphism and affective well-being across the life span.

    PubMed

    Turan, Bulent; Sims, Tamara; Best, Sasha E; Carstensen, Laura L

    2016-05-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT_Val158Met) genetic polymorphism has been linked to variation in affective well-being. Compared with Val carriers, Met carriers experience lower affective well-being. In parallel, research on aging and affective experience finds that younger adults experience poorer affective well-being than older adults. This study examined how COMT and age may interact to shape daily affective experience across the life span. Results suggest that Met (vs. Val) carriers experience lower levels of affective well-being in younger but not in older ages. These findings suggest that age-related improvements in emotional functioning may offset genetic vulnerabilities to negative affective experience. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27111524

  13. OBIS-USA: a data-sharing legacy of the census of marine life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedberry, G.R.; Fautin, D.G.; Feldman, M.; Fornwall, M.D.; Goldstein, P.; Guralnick, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey's Biological Informatics Program hosts OBIS-USA, the US node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). OBIS-USA gathers, coordinates, applies standard formats to, and makeswidely available data on biological collections in marine waters of the United States and other areas where US investigators have collected data and, in some instances, specimens. OBIS-USA delivers its data to OBIS international, which then delivers its data to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and other Web portals for marine biodiversity data. OBIS-USA currently has 145 data sets from 36 participants, representing over 6.5 million occurrence records of over 83,000 taxa from more than 888,000 locations. OBIS-USA, a legacy of the decade-long (2001-2010) international collaborative Census of Marine Life enterprise, continues to add data, including those from ongoing Census projects. Among the many challenges in creating OBIS, including OBIS-USA, were developing a community of trust and shared valueamong data providers, and demonstrating to providers the value of making their data accessible to others. Challenges also posed by the diversity of data sets relevant tomarine biodiversity stored on thousands of computers, in a variety of formats, not all widely accessible, have been met in OBIS-USA by implementing a uniform standard and publishing platform that is easily accessible to a broad range of users.

  14. Sensing marine biomolecules: smell, taste, and the evolutionary transition from aquatic to terrestrial life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollo, Ernesto; Fontana, Angelo; Roussis, Vassilios; Polese, Gianluca; Amodeo, Pietro; Ghiselin, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The usual definition of smell and taste as distance and contact forms of chemoreception, respectively, has resulted in the belief that, during the shift from aquatic to terrestrial life, odorant receptors (ORs) were selected mainly to recognize airborne hydrophobic ligands, instead of the hydrophilic molecules involved in marine remote-sensing. This post-adaptive evolutionary scenario, however, neglects the fact that marine organisms 1) produce and detect a wide range of small hydrophobic and volatile molecules, especially terpenoids, and 2) contain genes coding for ORs that are able to bind those compounds. These apparent anomalies can be resolved by adopting an alternative, pre-adaptive scenario. Before becoming airborne on land, small molecules, almost insoluble in water, already played a key role in aquatic communication, but acting in “contact” forms of olfaction that did not require major molecular innovations to become effective at a distance in air. Rather, when air was “invaded” by volatile marine terpenoids, an expansion of the spatial range of olfaction was an incidental consequence rather than an adaptation.

  15. Biogas from Marine Macroalgae: a New Environmental Technology — Life Cycle Inventory for a Further LCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagnoli, Francesco; Blumberga, Dagnija; Gigli, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyze the innovative process of production of biogas (via fermentation processes) using marine macroalgae as feedstock in a pilot project plant in Augusta (Sicily, Italy). Algae, during their growth, have the capacity to assimilate nutrients and thus subsequent harvesting of the algal biomass recovers the nutrients from biowaste sources giving the possibility to transform negative environmental externalities in positive mainly in terms of eutrophication and climate change impact categories. The paper presents a novel environmental technology for the production of biogas and 2nd generation biofuel (liquid biomethane) after an upgrading process through the use of a cryogenic technology. The paper would also like to make the first attempt at understanding the possibility to implement this innovative technology in the Latvian context. The first calculations and assumptions for the Life Cycle Inventory for a further Life Cycle Assessment are presented.

  16. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  17. Oceanography in Second Life: Use of a Virtual Reality to Enhance Undergraduate Education in Marine Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villareal, T. A.; Jarmon, L.; Triggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    Shipboard research is a fundamental part of oceanography, but has numerous legal and practical constraints virtually eliminate it as a regular part of large-enrollment programs in marine science. The cost of a properly equipped research vessel alone can prevent student access. While much can be learned by active exploration of archived data by students, the limitations placed on real oceanographic programs by distance, vessel speed, and time are difficult to reproduce in exercises. Pre-cruise planning and collaboration between investigators are likewise a challenge to incorporate. We have used design students in the College of Liberal Arts to construct a oceanographic expedition in Second Life for use in a marine science course (Fall 2009). Second Life is a highly collaborative environment with a variety of tools that allow users to create their own environment and interact with it. Second LIfe is free, highly portable, and inherently amenable to distance or remote teaching. In our application, the research vessel exists as an moving platform with sampling abilities. Software code queries an external MySQL database that contains information from the World Ocean Atlas for the entire ocean, and returns strings of data from standard depths. Students must plan the cruise track to test hypothesis about the ocean, collaborate with other teams to develop the big picture and use standard oceanographic software (Ocean Data Viewer; ODV) to analyze the data. Access to the entire database in ODV then allows comparison to the actual properties and distributions. The effectiveness of this approach is being evaluated by a pre- and post-class surveys and post semester focus group interviews. Similar surveys of the design students that created the environment noted that use of Second Life created a learning experience that was both more immersive and process oriented than traditional college courses. Initial impressions in the marine science class indicate that the strong social

  18. Measuring marine fish biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and demography

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Baum, Julia K

    2005-01-01

    Patterns in marine fish biodiversity can be assessed by quantifying temporal variation in rate of population change, abundance, life history and demography concomitant with long-term reductions in abundance. Based on data for 177 populations (62 species) from four north-temperate oceanic regions (Northeast Atlantic and Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, North mid-Atlantic), 81% of the populations in decline prior to 1992 experienced reductions in their rate of loss thereafter; species whose rate of population decline accelerated after 1992 were predominantly top predators such as Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), sole (Solea solea) and pelagic sharks. Combining population data across regions and species, marine fish have declined 35% since 1978 and are currently less than 70% of recorded maxima; demersal species are generally at historic lows, pelagic species are generally stable or increasing in abundance. Declines by demersal species have been associated with substantive increases in pelagic species, a pattern consistent with the hypothesis that increases in the latter may be attributable to reduced predation mortality. There is a need to determine the consequences to population growth effected by the reductions in age (21%) and size (13%) at maturity and in mean age (5%) and size (18%) of spawners, concomitant with population decline. We conclude that reductions in the rate of population decline, in the absence of targets for population increase, will be insufficient to effect a recovery of marine fish biodiversity, and that great care must be exercised when interpreting multi-species patterns in abundance. Of fundamental importance is the need to explain the geographical, species-specific and habitat biases that pervade patterns of marine fish recovery and biodiversity. PMID:15814348

  19. The affective profiles in the USA: happiness, depression, life satisfaction, and happiness-increasing strategies

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Erica; Sailer, Uta; Al Nima, Ali; Rosenberg, Patricia; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Background. The affective profiles model categorizes individuals as self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The model has been used extensively among Swedes to discern differences between profiles regarding happiness, depression, and also life satisfaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate such differences in a sample of residents of the USA. The study also investigated differences between profiles with regard to happiness-increasing strategies. Methods. In Study I, 900 participants reported affect (Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule; PANAS) and happiness (Happiness-Depression Scale). In Study II, 500 participants self-reported affect (PANAS), life satisfaction (Satisfaction With Life Scale), and how often they used specific strategies to increase their own happiness (Happiness-Increasing Strategies Scales). Results. The results showed that, compared to the other profiles, self-fulfilling individuals were less depressed, happier, and more satisfied with their lives. Nevertheless, self-destructive individuals were more depressed, unhappier, and less satisfied than all other profiles. The self-fulfilling individuals tended to use strategies related to agentic (e.g., instrumental goal-pursuit), communal (e.g., social affiliation), and spiritual (e.g., religion) values when pursuing happiness. Conclusion. These differences suggest that promoting positive emotions can positively influence a depressive-to-happy state as well as increasing life satisfaction. Moreover, the present study shows that pursuing happiness through strategies guided by agency, communion, and spirituality is related to a self-fulfilling experience described as high positive affect and low negative affect. PMID:24058884

  20. Factors affecting marine debris deposition at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 1990-2006.

    PubMed

    Morishige, Carey; Donohue, Mary J; Flint, Elizabeth; Swenson, Christopher; Woolaway, Christine

    2007-08-01

    Data on the amount and type of small debris items deposited on the beaches of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Tern Island station, French Frigate Shoals were collected over 16 years. We calculated deposition rates and investigated the relationship among deposition and year, season, El Niño and La Niña events from 1990 to 2006. In total 52,442 debris items were collected with plastic comprising 71% of all items collected. Annual debris deposition varied significantly (range 1116-5195 items) but was not influenced by season. Debris deposition was significantly greater during El Niño events as compared to La Niña events. Although often deduced to influence floating marine pollution, this study provides the first quantitative evidence of the influence of El Niño/La Niña cycles on marine debris deposition. PMID:17572447

  1. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 μg/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 μg/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production

  2. Does proximity to urban centres affect the dietary regime of marine benthic filter feeders?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puccinelli, Eleonora; Noyon, Margaux; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2016-02-01

    Threats to marine ecosystems include habitat destruction and degradation of water quality, resulting from land- and ocean-based human activities. Anthropogenic input causing modification of water quality, can affect primary productivity and thus food availability and quality for higher trophic levels. This is especially important for sedentary benthic intertidal communities, which rely on local food availability. We investigated the effect of urbanization on the dietary regime of four species of intertidal filter feeders (three barnacles and one mussel) at sites close to high-density cities and at sites far from heavily urbanized areas using fatty acid and stable isotope techniques. δ15N was significantly higher at urbanized sites compared to their corresponding control sites for all species with few exceptions, while no effect on δ13C was recorded. Barnacle fatty acid profiles were not affected by cities, while mussels from sites close to cities had fatty acid signatures with a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We suggest that the enrichment in δ15N at urbanised sites reflects the influence of anthropogenically derived nitrogen directly linked to wastewater input from domestic and industrial sewage. Linked to this, the high proportion of PUFA in mussels at urbanized sites may reflect the influence of increased nitrogen concentrations on primary production and enhanced growth of large phytoplankton cells. The results indicate that anthropogenic effects can strongly influence the diets of benthic organisms, but these effects differ among taxa. Changes in the diet of such habitat forming species can affect their fitness and survival with potential effects on the populations associated with them.

  3. Personality Traits and Positive/Negative Affects: An Analysis of Meaning in Life among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Serife; Üzbe, Nazife

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of positive and negative affects and personality traits on meaning in life in an adult population. The sample consisted of 335 subjects: 190 females and 145 males, and a Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), positive and negative schedule (PANAS), and adjective-based personality scale (ABPT) were used in the research.…

  4. Appreciation and Life Satisfaction: Does Appreciation Uniquely Predict Life Satisfaction above Gender, Coping Skills, Self-Esteem, and Positive Affectivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Joshua Solomon

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine whether appreciation explains variance in life satisfaction after controlling for gender, positive affectivity, self-esteem, and coping skills. Two hundred ninety-eight undergraduates went to the informed consent page of the online survey composed of the Appreciation Scale, the Satisfaction With…

  5. Association of orogenic activity with the Ordovician radiation of marine life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. I.; Mao, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Ordovician radiation of marine life was among the most substantial pulses of diversification in Earth history and coincided in time with a major increase in the global level of orogenic activity. To investigate a possible causal link between these two patterns, the geographic distributions of 6576 individual appearances of Ordovician vician genera around the world were evaluated with respect to their proximity to probable centers of orogeny (foreland basins). Results indicate that these genera, which belonged to an array of higher taxa that diversified in the Middle and Late Ordovician (trilobites, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, monoplacophorans), were far more diverse in, and adjacent to, foreland basins than they were in areas farther removed from orogenic activity (carbonate platforms). This suggests an association of orogeny with diversification at that time.

  6. Ecology of conflict: marine food supply affects human-wildlife interactions on land.

    PubMed

    Artelle, Kyle A; Anderson, Sean C; Reynolds, John D; Cooper, Andrew B; Paquet, Paul C; Darimont, Chris T

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts impose considerable costs to people and wildlife worldwide. Most research focuses on proximate causes, offering limited generalizable understanding of ultimate drivers. We tested three competing hypotheses (problem individuals, regional population saturation, limited food supply) that relate to underlying processes of human-grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) conflict, using data from British Columbia, Canada, between 1960-2014. We found most support for the limited food supply hypothesis: in bear populations that feed on spawning salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), the annual number of bears/km(2) killed due to conflicts with humans increased by an average of 20% (6-32% [95% CI]) for each 50% decrease in annual salmon biomass. Furthermore, we found that across all bear populations (with or without access to salmon), 81% of attacks on humans and 82% of conflict kills occurred after the approximate onset of hyperphagia (July 1(st)), a period of intense caloric demand. Contrary to practices by many management agencies, conflict frequency was not reduced by hunting or removal of problem individuals. Our finding that a marine resource affects terrestrial conflict suggests that evidence-based policy for reducing harm to wildlife and humans requires not only insight into ultimate drivers of conflict, but also management that spans ecosystem and jurisdictional boundaries. PMID:27185189

  7. Ecology of conflict: marine food supply affects human-wildlife interactions on land

    PubMed Central

    Artelle, Kyle A.; Anderson, Sean C.; Reynolds, John D.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Paquet, Paul C.; Darimont, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts impose considerable costs to people and wildlife worldwide. Most research focuses on proximate causes, offering limited generalizable understanding of ultimate drivers. We tested three competing hypotheses (problem individuals, regional population saturation, limited food supply) that relate to underlying processes of human-grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) conflict, using data from British Columbia, Canada, between 1960–2014. We found most support for the limited food supply hypothesis: in bear populations that feed on spawning salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), the annual number of bears/km2 killed due to conflicts with humans increased by an average of 20% (6–32% [95% CI]) for each 50% decrease in annual salmon biomass. Furthermore, we found that across all bear populations (with or without access to salmon), 81% of attacks on humans and 82% of conflict kills occurred after the approximate onset of hyperphagia (July 1st), a period of intense caloric demand. Contrary to practices by many management agencies, conflict frequency was not reduced by hunting or removal of problem individuals. Our finding that a marine resource affects terrestrial conflict suggests that evidence-based policy for reducing harm to wildlife and humans requires not only insight into ultimate drivers of conflict, but also management that spans ecosystem and jurisdictional boundaries. PMID:27185189

  8. Biomass Yield Efficiency of the Marine Anammox Bacterium, “Candidatus Scalindua sp.,” is Affected by Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Awata, Takanori; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The growth rate and biomass yield efficiency of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria are markedly lower than those of most other autotrophic bacteria. Among the anammox bacterial genera, the growth rate and biomass yield of the marine anammox bacterium “Candidatus Scalindua sp.” is still lower than those of other anammox bacteria enriched from freshwater environments. The activity and growth of marine anammox bacteria are generally considered to be affected by the presence of salinity and organic compounds. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of salinity and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the anammox activity, inorganic carbon uptake, and biomass yield efficiency of “Ca. Scalindua sp.” enriched from the marine sediments of Hiroshima Bay, Japan, were investigated in batch experiments. Differences in VFA concentrations (0–10 mM) were observed under varying salinities (0.5%–4%). Anammox activity was high at 0.5%–3.5% salinity, but was 30% lower at 4% salinity. In addition, carbon uptake was higher at 1.5%–3.5% salinity. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated that the biomass yield efficiency of the marine anammox bacterium “Ca. Scalindua sp.” was significantly affected by salinity. On the other hand, the presence of VFAs up to 10 mM did not affect anammox activity, carbon uptake, or biomass yield efficiency. PMID:25740428

  9. The Child in the Process: Affecting His Human Potential through LIFE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Vivian A.; Spidal, David A.

    Language materials of the Language Improvement to Facilitate Education (LIFE) Project are described as carefully sequenced curriculum materials which use visuals to educate deaf children in the affective domain. The affective domain is defined as the area of human experiences related to interest, appreciation, attitudes, adjustments and values;…

  10. Have You Been to the Shore Before? A Marine Education Infusion Unit on Seashore and Aquarium Life. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzow, John W.; And Others

    Classroom and field activities for fifth- through ninth-grade students comprise this teaching guide for the northern New England shore. Teacher background information contains an introduction to life at the shore and the animal classification of marine invertebrates. Activities stress two major concepts: (1) the diversity and complex interactions…

  11. The real limits to marine life: a further critique of the Respiration Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, B. A.; Childress, J. J.

    2013-05-01

    The recently proposed "Respiration Index" (RI = log PO2/PCO2) suggests that aerobic metabolism is limited by the ratio of reactants (oxygen) to products (carbon dioxide) according to the thermodynamics of cellular respiration. Here, we demonstrate further that, because of the large standard free energy change for organic carbon oxidation (ΔG° = -686 kcal mol-1), carbon dioxide can never reach concentrations that would limit the thermodynamics of this reaction. A PCO2 to PO2 ratio of 10503 would be required to reach equilibrium (equilibrium constant, Keq = 10503), where ΔG = 0. Thus, a Respiration Index of -503 would be the real thermodynamic limit to aerobic life. Such a Respiration Index is never reached, either in the cell or in the environment. Moreover, cellular respiration and oxygen provision are kinetically controlled such that, within limits, environmental oxygen and CO2 concentrations have little to do with intracellular concentrations. The RI is fundamentally different from the aragonite saturation state, a thermodynamic index used to quantify the potential effect of CO2 on calcification rates, because of its failure to incorporate the equilibrium constant of the reaction. Not only is the RI invalid, but its use leads to incorrect and misleading predictions of the threat of changing oxygen and carbon dioxide to marine life. We provide a physiological framework that identifies oxygen thresholds and allows for synergistic effects of ocean acidification and global warming.

  12. The real limits to marine life: a further critique of the Respiration Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, B. A.; Childress, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    The recently proposed "Respiration Index" (RI = log[PO2]/[PCO2]) suggests that aerobic metabolism is limited by the ratio of reactants (R, oxygen) and products (P, carbon dioxide) according to the thermodynamics of cellular respiration. Here we demonstrate that, because of the large standard free energy change for organic carbon oxidation (ΔG° = -686 kcal mol-1), carbon dioxide can never reach concentrations that would limit the thermodynamics of this reaction. A PCO2 to PO2 ratio of 10503 would be required to reach equilibrium (equilibrium constant, Keq = 10503), where ΔG = 0. Thus a respiration index of -503 would be the real thermodynamic limit to aerobic life. Such a Respiration Index is never reached either in the cell or in the environment. Moreover cellular respiration and oxygen provision are kinetically controlled such that, within limits, environmental oxygen and CO2 concentrations have little to do with intracellular concentrations. The RI is fundamentally different from the aragonite saturation state, a thermodynamic index used to quantify the potential effect of CO2 on calcification rates, because of its failure to incorporate the equilibrium constant of the reaction. Not only is the RI invalid, its use leads to incorrect and dangerous predictions of the threat of changing oxygen and carbon dioxide to marine life. We provide a physiological model that identifies oxygen thresholds, and allows for synergistic effects of ocean acidification and global warming.

  13. cis and trans factors affecting Mos1 mariner evolution and transposition in vitro, and its potential for functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Tosi, L R; Beverley, S M

    2000-02-01

    Mos1 and other mariner / Tc1 transposons move horizon-tally during evolution, and when transplanted into heterologous species can transpose in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to protozoans and vertebrates. To further develop the Drosophila Mos1 mariner system as a genetic tool and to probe mechanisms affecting the regulation of transposition activity, we developed an in vitro system for Mos1 transposition using purified transposase and selectable Mos1 derivatives. Transposition frequencies of nearly 10(-3)/target DNA molecule were obtained, and insertions occurred at TA dinucleotides with little other sequence specificity. Mos1 elements containing only the 28 bp terminal inverted repeats were inactive in vitro, while elements containing a few additional internal bases were fully active, establishing the minimal cis -acting requirements for transposition. With increasing transposase the transposition frequency increased to a plateau value, in contrast to the predictions of the protein over-expression inhibition model and to that found recently with a reconstructed Himar1 transposase. This difference between the 'natural' Mos1 and 'reconstructed' Himar1 transposases suggests an evolutionary path for down-regulation of mariner transposition following its introduction into a naïve population. The establishment of the cis and trans requirements for optimal mariner transposition in vitro provides key data for the creation of vectors for in vitro mutagenesis, and will facilitate the development of in vivo systems for mariner transposition. PMID:10637331

  14. Marine mammals' influence on ecosystem processes affecting fisheries in the Barents Sea is trivial.

    PubMed

    Corkeron, Peter J

    2009-04-23

    Some interpretations of ecosystem-based fishery management include culling marine mammals as an integral component. The current Norwegian policy on marine mammal management is one example. Scientific support for this policy includes the Scenario Barents Sea (SBS) models. These modelled interactions between cod, Gadus morhua, herring, Clupea harengus, capelin, Mallotus villosus and northern minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Adding harp seals Phoca groenlandica into this top-down modelling approach resulted in unrealistic model outputs. Another set of models of the Barents Sea fish-fisheries system focused on interactions within and between the three fish populations, fisheries and climate. These model key processes of the system successfully. Continuing calls to support the SBS models despite their failure suggest a belief that marine mammal predation must be a problem for fisheries. The best available scientific evidence provides no justification for marine mammal culls as a primary component of an ecosystem-based approach to managing the fisheries of the Barents Sea. PMID:19126534

  15. Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, J. G.; Gans, F.; Kleidon, A.

    2011-06-01

    Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

  16. Early marine life history of juvenile Pacific salmon in two regions of Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, E.J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Buckley, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    nearshore residence times (their seasonal duration in the catches) and significant increases in size suggested that nearshore environments may be particularly important rearing areas for juvenile chinook salmon in the northern region, and chum salmon in the southern region. Regional differences in the magnitude and timing of hatchery inputs, salinity, and water temperature likely affect the timing, nearshore use, size, and growth potential for juvenile salmon entering different regions of Puget Sound and could differentially influence subsequent marine survival. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

  18. Genetic diversity affects the strength of population regulation in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D W; Freiwald, J; Bernardi, G

    2016-03-01

    Variation is an essential feature of biological populations, yet much of ecological theory treats individuals as though they are identical. This simplifying assumption is often justified by the perception that variation among individuals does not have significant effects on the dynamics of whole populations. However, this perception may be skewed by a historic focus on studying single populations. A true evaluation of the extent to which among-individual variation affects the dynamics of populations requires the study of multiple populations. In this study, we examined variation in the dynamics of populations of a live-bearing, marine fish (black surfperch; Embiotoca jacksoni). In collaboration with an organization of citizen scientists (Reef Check California), we were able to examine the dynamics of eight populations that were distributed throughout approximately 700 km of coastline, a distance that encompasses much of this species' range. We hypothesized that genetic variation within a local population would be related to the intensity of competition and to the strength of population regulation. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether genetic diversity (measured by the diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes) was related to the strength of population regulation. Low-diversity populations experienced strong density dependence in population growth rates and population sizes were regulated much more tightly than they were in high-diversity populations. Mechanisms that contributed to this pattern include links between genetic diversity, habitat use, and spatial crowding. On average, low-diversity populations used less of the available habitat and exhibited greater spatial clustering (and more intense competition) for a given level of density (measured at the scale of the reef). Although the populations we studied also varied with respect to exogenous characteristics (habitat complexity, densities of predators, and interspecific competitors), none of these

  19. Marine ecotoxic effect of pulse emissions in life cycle impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Johan; Peters, Glen P; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2006-01-01

    Characterization factors for ecotoxicity in life cycle impact assessment are traditionally calculated as the product of effect and fate factors. Steady-state multiple compartment models are used to calculate the fate factor, while effect factors are derived from species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for multiple substances using average or marginal gradients. Others have shown that steady-state multicompartment models can be used to calculate characterization factors if linear dose-response functions are used. Average gradients are linear dose-response functions per definition. Marginal gradients are first-order Taylor approximations of the effect function and require marginal exposure at all points of the compartment. Instantaneous mixing, giving marginal exposure within compartments, is an implicit assumption of the multicompartment model. This paper investigates if the assumption of marginal exposure results in significant errors for the characterization factor. Ecotoxic effect of pulse emissions is simulated in a transient three-dimensional single compartment model of the marine aquatic environment. Results show that the error in characterization factors for the Taylor approximation is less than a factor of two for multisubstance SSDs assuming concentration addition only in the aggregation of toxic effect of substances. Assuming a combination of response and concentration addition may result in a deviation of several orders of magnitude. PMID:16494255

  20. The interplay between sleep behavior and affect in elementary school children's daily life.

    PubMed

    Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Leonhardt, Anja; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-10-01

    Recent reviews raised the idea of a bidirectional relation between sleep behavior and affect in adults, but little is known about this interplay in general and especially regarding children. In this micro-longitudinal study, the interplay of sleep and affect was captured directly in children's daily life context in and out of school through ambulatory assessment. For 31 consecutive days, 110 elementary school children (8-11 years old) provided information about their last night's sleep and reported their current affect at four daily occasions in school and at home on smartphones. A multilevel approach was used to analyze the relation between sleep and affect the next day (morning, noon, and afternoon) and the relation between evening affect and subsequent sleep. At the within-person level, sleep quality was related to all observed facets of affect the next day and the strongest effects were found in the morning. The effect of sleep quality on positive affect was particularly pronounced for children who on average went to bed early and slept long. There were, however, no direct within-person effects of sleep quantity on affect. Furthermore, evening affect was related to subsequent sleep. The findings support the idea of a bidirectional relation between affect and sleep in children's daily life (including school). They suggest that good sleep provides a basis and resource for children's affective well-being the next day and demonstrate the importance of analyzing within-person variations of children's sleep. Micro-longitudinal findings can contribute to explain how macro-longitudinal relations between sleep and affect develop over time. PMID:27236036

  1. Investigating the Relationship among Internet Addiction, Positive and Negative Affects, and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telef, Bülent Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…

  2. Deconstructing Positive Affect in Later Life: A Differential Functionalist Analysis of Joy and Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consedine, Nathan S.; Magai, Carol; King, Arlene R.

    2004-01-01

    Positive affect, an index of psychological well-being, is a known predictor of functionality and health in later life. Measures typically studied include joy, happiness, and subjective well-being, but less often interest--a positive emotion with functional properties that differ from joy or happiness. Following differential emotions theory, the…

  3. Social-Cognitive Factors Affecting Clients' Career and Life Satisfaction after Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbruggen, Marijke; Sels, Luc

    2010-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting clients' career and life satisfaction in the first 6 months after having participated in career counseling. In particular, we tested a large subset of the recent social-cognitive model of work satisfaction of Lent and Brown using a longitudinal data set of 195 former counseling clients. Our results showed that…

  4. Marine Pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action †

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2009 to 2011 is presented in this review, following the format used in the 1998–2008 reviews of this series. The pharmacology of structurally-characterized compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacological activities were reported for 102 marine natural products. Additionally, 60 marine compounds were observed to affect the immune and nervous system as well as possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 68 marine metabolites were shown to interact with a variety of receptors and molecular targets, and thus will probably contribute to multiple pharmacological classes upon further mechanism of action studies. Marine pharmacology during 2009–2011 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 35 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 262 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical pharmaceutical pipeline. Continued pharmacological research with marine natural products will contribute to enhance the marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which in 2013 consisted of 17 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories. PMID:23880931

  5. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts: results from a global science program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, K.; Clark, M.; Rowden, A.; Consalvey, M.

    2010-12-01

    CenSeam (a Global Census of Marine Life on Seamounts) is a network of more than 500 scientists, policy makers and conservationists around the world. These participants are collaborating to increase our understanding of the factors driving seamount community composition and diversity, such that we can better understand and manage the effects of human activities. The major scientific outcomes of the CenSeam community include the findings that 1) Seamount community composition is often similar to surrounding habitats; however, community structure can be different. 2) Contrary to conventional wisdom, few seamounts follow island biogeography predictions. 3) Seamounts can support a higher benthic biomass than surrounding habitats. 4) Seamounts can support species and communities new to science, and represent range extensions for known species, which are being described from CenSeam voyages. 5) For the first time, the extent of the vulnerability and risk to seamount benthic communities from fishing has been quantified. 6) Whilst long assumed, CenSeam researchers have demonstrated that seamount communities are disturbed by fishing and are slow to recover. And 7) Seamounts might act as repositories of biodiversity during future periods of extreme environmental change, as they have likely done in the past. The major products of Censeam include 1) a book synthesizing seamount knowledge: Seamounts: Ecology, Fisheries and Conservation (from Blackwell Publishing); 2) a recent review of the structure and function of seamount benthic communities, human impacts, and seamount management and conservation (Ann Rev Mar Sci); 3) hundreds of scientific publications, including Special Issues in Marine Ecology and Oceanography (in collaboration with the Seamount Biogeogsciences Network), and a Special Collection in PLoSONE; 4) guidance documents and formal advising for seamount management communities, including the United Nations Environment Program, International Seabed Authority

  6. Unequally Distributed Psychological Assets: Are There Social Disparities in Optimism, Life Satisfaction, and Positive Affect?

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, Julia K.; Chen, Ying; Williams, David R.; Ryff, Carol; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is associated with health disparities, but underlying psychosocial mechanisms have not been fully identified. Dispositional optimism may be a psychosocial process linking socioeconomic status with health. We hypothesized that lower optimism would be associated with greater social disadvantage and poorer social mobility. We also investigated whether life satisfaction and positive affect showed similar patterns. Participants from the Midlife in the United States study self-reported their optimism, satisfaction, positive affect, and socioeconomic status (gender, race/ethnicity, education, occupational class and prestige, income). Social disparities in optimism were evident. Optimistic individuals tended to be white and highly educated, had an educated parent, belonged to higher occupational classes with more prestige, and had higher incomes. Findings were generally similar for satisfaction, but not positive affect. Greater optimism and satisfaction were also associated with educational achievement across generations. Optimism and life satisfaction are consistently linked with socioeconomic advantage and may be one conduit by which social disparities influence health. PMID:25671665

  7. The intersection of work and family life: the role of affect.

    PubMed

    Eby, Lillian T; Maher, Charleen P; Butts, Marcus M

    2010-01-01

    This review examines the role that trait-based and state-based affect plays in understanding the intersection of work and family life. We start with the definition of key terms and concepts. This is followed by a historical overview of the two bodies of scholarship that are the focus of this review, the work-family interface and affect. Next, we provide a review and synthesis of 79 empirical studies examining affect in relation to work-family interaction, organized around three perspectives: the dispositional perspective, the state-based specific affective reactions perspective, and the state-based global affective reactions perspective. A methodological critique of these studies follows, providing a springboard for the discussion of recommended methodologies and data analytic approaches, along with directions for future research. PMID:19572785

  8. Marine dinoflagellates show induced life-history shifts to escape parasite infection in response to water-borne signals.

    PubMed

    Toth, Gunilla B; Norén, Fredrik; Selander, Erik; Pavia, Henrik

    2004-04-01

    Many dinoflagellate species form dormant resting cysts as a part of their life cycle, and in some freshwater species, hatching of these cysts can be delayed by the presence of water-borne signals from grazing zooplankton. Some marine dinoflagellates can form temporary cysts, which may function to resist unfavourable short-term environmental conditions. We investigated whether the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii is able to induce an increased resistance to the parasitic flagellate Parvilucifera infectans by forming temporary cysts. We performed several laboratory experiments where dinoflagellates were exposed either to direct contact with parasites or to filtered water from cultures of parasite-infected conspecifics (parasite-derived signals). Infection by P. infectans is lethal to motile A. ostenfeldii cells, but temporary cysts were more resistant to parasite infection. Furthermore, A. ostenfeldii induced a shift in life-history stage (from motile cells to temporary cysts) when exposed to parasite-derived water-borne signals. The response was relaxed within a couple of hours, indicating that A. ostenfeldii may use this behaviour as a short-term escape mechanism to avoid parasite infection. The results suggest that intraspecies chemical communication evoked by biotic interactions can be an important mechanism controlling life-history shifts in marine dinoflagellates, which may have implications for the development of toxic algal blooms. PMID:15209107

  9. Integrated ecotoxicological assessment of marine sediments affected by land-based marine fish farm effluents: physicochemical, acute toxicity and benthic community analyses.

    PubMed

    Silva, C; Yáñez, E; Martín-Díaz, M L; Riba, I; DelValls, T A

    2013-08-01

    An integrated ecotoxicological assessment of marine sediments affected by land-based marine fish farm effluents was developed using physicochemical and benthic community structure analyses and standardised laboratory bioassays with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), amphipods (Ampelisca brevicornis) and sea urchin larvae (Paracentrotus lividus). Intertidal sediment samples were collected at five sites of the Rio San Pedro (RSP) creek, from the aquaculture effluent to a clean site. The effective concentration (EC50) from bacterial bioluminescence and A. brevicornis survival on whole sediments and P. lividus larval developmental success on sediment elutriates were assessed. Numbers of species, abundance and Shannon diversity were the biodiversity indicators measured in benthic fauna of sediment samples. In parallel, redox potential, pH, organic matter and metal levels (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the sediment and dissolved oxygen in the interstitial water were measured in situ. Water and sediment physicochemical analysis revealed the exhibition of a spatial gradient in the RSP, evidenced by hypoxia/anoxia, reduced and acidic conditions, high organic enrichment and metal concentrations at the most contaminated sites. Whereas, the benthic fauna biodiversity decreased the bioassays depicted decreases in EC50, A. brevicornis survival, P. lividus larval success at sampling sites closer to the studied fish farms. This study demonstrates that the sediments polluted by fish farm effluents may lead to alterations of the biodiversity of the exposed organisms. PMID:23681739

  10. Early-Life Environmental Variation Affects Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Development in New-Born Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling-li; Vastenhouw, Stéphanie A.; Heilig, Hans G. H. J.; Smidt, Hauke; Rebel, Johanna M. J.; Smits, Mari A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timing and additional specifics of these processes are unknown. The impact of early-life environmental variations, as experienced under real life circumstances, on gut microbial colonization and immune development has not been studied extensively so far. We designed a study to investigate environmental variation, experienced early after birth, to gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate effects of early-life environmental changes, the piglets of 16 piglet litters were divided into 3 groups per litter and experimentally treated on day 4 after birth. During the course of the experiment, the piglets were kept with their mother sow. Group 1 was not treated, group 2 was treated with an antibiotic, and group 3 was treated with an antibiotic and simultaneously exposed to several routine, but stressful management procedures, including docking, clipping and weighing. Thereafter, treatment effects were measured at day 8 after birth in 16 piglets per treatment group by community-scale analysis of gut microbiota and genome-wide intestinal transcriptome profiling. We observed that the applied antibiotic treatment affected the composition and diversity of gut microbiota and reduced the expression of a large number of immune-related processes. The effect of management procedures on top of the use of an antibiotic was limited. Conclusions/Significance We provide direct evidence that different early-life conditions, specifically focusing on antibiotic treatment and exposure to stress, affect gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. This reinforces the notion that the early phase of life is critical for intestinal immune development, also under regular production circumstances. PMID:24941112

  11. Cladogenesis and loss of the marine life-history phase in freshwater galaxiid fishes (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae).

    PubMed

    Waters, J M; Wallis, G P

    2001-03-01

    Switches from migratory (diadromous) to nonmigratory (freshwater) life histories are known to have occurred repeatedly in some aquatic taxa. However, the significance of the loss of diadromy as an initiator for speciation remains poorly understood. The rivers of New Zealand's South Island house a species flock of recently derived nonmigratory galaxiid fishes known as the Galaxias vulgaris complex. Members of this complex are morphologically and genetically similar to the diadromous G. brevipinnis found in New Zealand and southeastern Australia. We hypothesised that South Island's G. vulgaris complex (at least 10 nonmigratory lineages) represents a number of independent radiations from a migratory G. brevipinnis stock, with repeated loss of diadromy. Sequence data were obtained for 31 ingroup samples (G. vulgaris complex and G. brevipinnis) plus four outgroup taxa. A well-resolved phylogeny based on 5039 base pairs of the mitochondrial genome suggests that diadromy has been lost on three separate occasions. Thus, speciation in these galaxiid fishes is partly an incidental phenomenon caused by switches from diadromous to nonmigratory strategies. However, much of the subsequent nonmigratory diversity is monophyletic, suggesting that drainage evolution (vicariance) has also played a major role in cladogenesis. Levels of sequence divergence among major ingroup lineages (1.6-12.7%) suggest that the radiation is considerably older relative to Northern Hemisphere (postglacial) complexes of salmonid, osmerid, and gasterosteid fishes. Sympatric taxa are not monophyletic, suggesting that their coexistence reflects secondary contact rather than sympatric speciation. The monophyly of New Zealand G. brevipinnis is well supported, but both mitochondrial DNA and nuclear sequences indicate that G. brevipinnis is paraphyletic on an intercontinental scale. The divergence (maximum 11.5%) between Tasmanian and New Zealand G. brevipinnis, although large, supports marine dispersal rather

  12. Legal and institutional tools to mitigate plastic pollution affecting marine species: Argentina as a case study.

    PubMed

    González Carman, Victoria; Machain, Natalia; Campagna, Claudio

    2015-03-15

    Plastics are the most common form of debris found along the Argentine coastline. The Río de la Plata estuarine area is a relevant case study to describe a situation where ample policy exists against a backdrop of plastics disposed by populated coastal areas, industries, and vessels; with resultant high impacts of plastic pollution on marine turtles and mammals. Policy and institutions are in place but the impact remains due to ineffective waste management, limited public education and awareness, and weaknesses in enforcement of regulations. This context is frequently repeated all over the world. We list possible interventions to increase the effectiveness of policy that require integrating efforts among governments, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the inhabitants of coastal cities to reduce the amount of plastics reaching the Río de la Plata and protect threatened marine species. What has been identified for Argentina applies to the region and globally. PMID:25627195

  13. Genetic Diversity Affects the Daily Transcriptional Oscillations of Marine Microbial Populations

    PubMed Central

    Shilova, Irina N.; Robidart, Julie C.; DeLong, Edward F.; Zehr, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Marine microbial communities are genetically diverse but have robust synchronized daily transcriptional patterns at the genus level that are similar across a wide variety of oceanic regions. We developed a microarray-inspired gene-centric approach to resolve transcription of closely-related but distinct strains/ecotypes in high-throughput sequence data. Applying this approach to the existing metatranscriptomics datasets collected from two different oceanic regions, we found unique and variable patterns of transcription by individual taxa within the abundant picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, the alpha Proteobacterium Pelagibacter and the eukaryotic picophytoplankton Ostreococcus. The results demonstrate that marine microbial taxa respond differentially to variability in space and time in the ocean. These intra-genus individual transcriptional patterns underlie whole microbial community responses, and the approach developed here facilitates deeper insights into microbial population dynamics. PMID:26751368

  14. Biofilm history and oxygen availability interact to affect habitat selection in a marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Marcelo E; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2016-07-01

    In marine systems, oxygen availability varies at small temporal and spatial scales, such that current oxygen levels may not reflect conditions of the past. Different studies have shown that marine invertebrate larvae can select settlement sites based on local oxygen levels and oxygenation history of the biofilm, but no study has examined the interaction of both. The influence of normoxic and hypoxic water and oxygenation history of biofilms on pre-settlement behavior and settlement of the bryozoan Bugula neritina was tested. Larvae used cues in a hierarchical way: the oxygen levels in the water prime larvae to respond, the response to different biofilms is contingent on oxygen levels in the water. When oxygen levels varied throughout biofilm formation, larvae responded differently depending on the history of the biofilm. It appears that B. neritina larvae integrate cues about current and historical oxygen levels to select the appropriate microhabitat and maximize their fitness. PMID:27169475

  15. Antarctic Marine Biodiversity – What Do We Know About the Distribution of Life in the Southern Ocean?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Huw J.

    2010-01-01

    The remote and hostile Southern Ocean is home to a diverse and rich community of life that thrives in an environment dominated by glaciations and strong currents. Marine biological studies in the region date back to the nineteenth century, but despite this long history of research, relatively little is known about the complex interactions between the highly seasonal physical environment and the species that inhabit the Southern Ocean. Oceanographically, the Southern Ocean is a major driver of global ocean circulation and plays a vital role in interacting with the deep water circulation in each of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans. The Census of Antarctic Marine Life and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research Marine Biodiversity Information Network (SCAR-MarBIN) have strived to coordinate and unify the available scientific expertise and biodiversity data to improve our understanding of Southern Ocean biodiversity. Taxonomic lists for all marine species have been compiled to form the Register of Antarctic Marine Species, which currently includes over 8,200 species. SCAR-MarBIN has brought together over 1 million distribution records for Southern Ocean species, forming a baseline against which future change can be judged. The sample locations and numbers of known species from different regions were mapped and the depth distributions of benthic samples plotted. Our knowledge of the biodiversity of the Southern Ocean is largely determined by the relative inaccessibility of the region. Benthic sampling is largely restricted to the shelf; little is known about the fauna of the deep sea. The location of scientific bases heavily influences the distribution pattern of sample and observation data, and the logistical supply routes are the focus of much of the at-sea and pelagic work. Taxa such as mollusks and echinoderms are well represented within existing datasets with high numbers of georeferenced records. Other taxa, including the species-rich nematodes, are

  16. Estimates of Marine Debris Accumulation on Beaches Are Strongly Affected by the Temporal Scale of Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen D. A.; Markic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Marine debris is a global issue with impacts on marine organisms, ecological processes, aesthetics and economies. Consequently, there is increasing interest in quantifying the scale of the problem. Accumulation rates of debris on beaches have been advocated as a useful proxy for at-sea debris loads. However, here we show that past studies may have vastly underestimated the quantity of available debris because sampling was too infrequent. Our study of debris on a small beach in eastern Australia indicates that estimated daily accumulation rates decrease rapidly with increasing intervals between surveys, and the quantity of available debris is underestimated by 50% after only 3 days and by an order of magnitude after 1 month. As few past studies report sampling frequencies of less than a month, estimates of the scale of the marine debris problem need to be critically re-examined and scaled-up accordingly. These results reinforce similar, recent work advocating daily sampling as a standard approach for accurate quantification of available debris in coastal habitats. We outline an alternative approach whereby site-specific accumulation models are generated to correct bias when daily sampling is impractical. PMID:24367607

  17. Environmental stability affects phenotypic evolution in a globally distributed marine picoplankton.

    PubMed

    Schaum, C-Elisa; Rost, Björn; Collins, Sinéad

    2016-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton can evolve rapidly when confronted with aspects of climate change because of their large population sizes and fast generation times. Despite this, the importance of environment fluctuations, a key feature of climate change, has received little attention-selection experiments with marine phytoplankton are usually carried out in stable environments and use single or few representatives of a species, genus or functional group. Here we investigate whether and by how much environmental fluctuations contribute to changes in ecologically important phytoplankton traits such as C:N ratios and cell size, and test the variability of changes in these traits within the globally distributed species Ostreococcus. We have evolved 16 physiologically distinct lineages of Ostreococcus at stable high CO2 (1031±87 μatm CO2, SH) and fluctuating high CO2 (1012±244 μatm CO2, FH) for 400 generations. We find that although both fluctuation and high CO2 drive evolution, FH-evolved lineages are smaller, have reduced C:N ratios and respond more strongly to further increases in CO2 than do SH-evolved lineages. This indicates that environmental fluctuations are an important factor to consider when predicting how the characteristics of future phytoplankton populations will have an impact on biogeochemical cycles and higher trophic levels in marine food webs. PMID:26125683

  18. Marine pharmacology in 2005–6: Marine Compounds with Anthelmintic, Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; affecting the Cardiovascular, Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodriguez, Abimael D.; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The review presents the 2005–2006 peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature, and follows a similar format to the authors’ 1998–2004 reviews. The preclinical pharmacology of chemically characterized marine compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is systematically presented. RESULTS Anthelminthic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis and antiviral activities were reported for 78 marine chemicals. Additionally 47 marine compounds were reported to affect the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system as well as possess anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 58 marine compounds were shown to bind to a variety of molecular targets, and thus could potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. CONCLUSIONS Marine pharmacology research during 2005–2006 was truly global in nature, involving investigators from 32 countries, and the United States, and contributed 183 marine chemical leads to the research pipeline aimed at the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. SIGNIFICANCE Continued preclinical and clinical research with marine natural products demonstrating a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity and will probably result in novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of multiple disease categories. PMID:19303911

  19. Research tools to investigate movements, migrations, and life history of sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an emphasis on marine-oriented populations.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Troy C; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T; Schreier, Andrea D; Hightower, Joseph E; Hildebrand, Larry R; Whitlock, Rebecca E; Webb, Molly A H

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

  20. Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

  1. Dental caries affects body weight, growth and quality of life in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Sheiham, A

    2006-11-25

    The effect of a relatively common chronic disease, severe dental caries, affects young childrens' growth and well-being. Treating dental caries in pre-school children would increase growth rates and the quality of life of millions of children. Severe untreated dental caries is common in pre-school children in many countries. Children with severe caries weighed less than controls, and after treatment of decayed teeth there was more rapid weight gain and improvements in their quality of life. This may be due to dietary intake improving because pain affected the quantity and variety of food eaten, and second, chronic inflammation from caries related pulpitis and abscesses is known to suppress growth through a metabolic pathway and to reduce haemoglobin as a result of depressed erythrocyte production. PMID:17128231

  2. Factors that affect the quality of life of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Koeda, Hideki; Naruse, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the quality of life (QOL) of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders and factors that affect it. [Subjects] The subjects were 27 community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders (mean age: 76.3 ± 7.4 years). Their physical and psychological conditions, QOL, and other characteristics were researched. [Methods] The Japanese version of Life-Space Assessment was used to assess the subjects’ daily life activities; the Japanese version of Fall Efficacy Scale (FES), to assess their fear of falling; the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15), to assess their depression status; and the Life Satisfaction Index K (LSIK), to assess their QOL. [Results] The results indicated that the number of family members living together, degree of pain, fear of falling, and depression affect the LSIK scores of the community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] The study results suggest that the LSIK scores of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders can be improved by easing their pain, improving their physical abilities to prevent falls, and improving their mobility. The results also suggest that continuing rehabilitation treatment is required. PMID:26696713

  3. Affective profiles in Italian high school students: life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Meaningful Life Measure were administered to the participants. In the second study, the PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test-revised were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles. PMID:26388814

  4. Tetractinomyxon stages genetically consistent with Sphaerospora dicentrarchi (Myxozoa: Sphaerosporidae) found in Capitella sp. (Polychaeta: Capitellidae) suggest potential role of marine polychaetes in parasite's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Luis F; Castro, Ricardo; Rocha, Sónia; Severino, Ricardo; Casal, Graça; Azevedo, Carlos; Cavaleiro, Francisca; Santos, Maria J

    2016-07-01

    Known life cycles of myxosporean parasites have two hosts, but very few life cycles have been disclosed, especially in the marine environment. Sphaerospora dicentrarchi Sitjà-Bobadilla and Álvarez-Pellitero, 1992 is a systemic parasite from the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758), a highly valuable commercial fish. It affects its health, leading to aquaculture production losses. During 2013 and 2014, an actinospore survey was conducted in a total of 5942 annelids collected from a fish farm in Algarve and from the Aveiro Estuary, in Portugal. A new tetractinomyxon actinospore was found in a capitellid polychaete, belonging to the genera Capitella collected at the fish farm. The tetractinomyxons were pyriform measuring 11·1 ± 0·7 µm in length and 7·2 ± 0·4 µm in width, and presented three rounded polar capsules measuring 2·4 ± 0·3 µm in diameter. The molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA gene sequences from the tetractinomyxons revealed a similarity of 100% with the DNA sequences deposited in the GenBank from S. dicentrarchi myxospores collected from the European seabass and the spotted seabass in the same fish farm and 99·9% similarity with the DNA sequence obtained from the myxospores found infecting the European seabass in the Aveiro Estuary. Therefore, the new tetractinomyxons are inferred to represent the actinospore phase of the S. dicentrarchi life cycle. PMID:27041279

  5. Marine trophic diversity in an anadromous fish is linked to its life-history variation in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan P; Schindler, Daniel E

    2013-02-23

    We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from muscle tissues accrued in the ocean to examine whether marine foraging tactics in anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are linked to their ultimate freshwater life history as adults. Adults from large-bodied populations spawning in deep freshwater habitats had more enriched δ(15)N than individuals from small-bodied populations from shallow streams. Within populations, earlier maturing individuals had higher δ(15)N than older fish. These differences in δ(15)N suggest that the fish with different life histories or spawning habitats in freshwater either fed at different trophic positions or in different habitats in the ocean. We propose that, nested within interspecific diversity in the ecological attributes of salmon, population and life-history diversity in spawning adults is associated with variation in marine foraging tactics. These results further indicate that the trophic diversity of sockeye salmon in the ocean may be linked to trade-offs in ecological and evolutionary constraints they eventually experience as adults in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:23173190

  6. Climate change affects marine fishes through the oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Pörtner, Hans O; Knust, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    A cause-and-effect understanding of climate influences on ecosystems requires evaluation of thermal limits of member species and of their ability to cope with changing temperatures. Laboratory data available for marine fish and invertebrates from various climatic regions led to the hypothesis that, as a unifying principle, a mismatch between the demand for oxygen and the capacity of oxygen supply to tissues is the first mechanism to restrict whole-animal tolerance to thermal extremes. We show in the eelpout, Zoarces viviparus, a bioindicator fish species for environmental monitoring from North and Baltic Seas (Helcom), that thermally limited oxygen delivery closely matches environmental temperatures beyond which growth performance and abundance decrease. Decrements in aerobic performance in warming seas will thus be the first process to cause extinction or relocation to cooler waters. PMID:17204649

  7. Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter Is Unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter; a full-scale hydraulic point absorber, placed on a jack-up rig on the Danish North Sea coast. Noise was recorded 25 m from the converter with an autonomous recording unit (10 Hz to 20 kHz bandwidth). Median sound pressure levels (Leq) in third-octave bands during operation of the converter were 106-109 dB re. 1 μPa in the range 125-250 Hz, 1-2 dB above ambient noise levels (statistically significant). Outside the range 125-250 Hz the noise from the converter was undetectable above the ambient noise. During start and stop of the converter a more powerful tone at 150 Hz (sound pressure level (Leq) 121-125 dB re 1 μPa) was easily detectable. This tone likely originated from the hydraulic pump which was used to lower the absorbers into the water and lift them out of the water at shutdown. Noise levels from the operating wave converter were so low that they would barely be audible to marine mammals and the likelihood of negative impact from the noise appears minimal. A likely explanation for the low noise emissions is the construction of the converter where all moving parts, except for the absorbers themselves, are placed above water on a jack-up rig. The results may thus not be directly transferable to other wave converter designs but do demonstrate that it is possible to harness wave energy without noise pollution to the marine environment. PMID:26148299

  8. Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter Is Unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Tougaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter; a full-scale hydraulic point absorber, placed on a jack-up rig on the Danish North Sea coast. Noise was recorded 25 m from the converter with an autonomous recording unit (10 Hz to 20 kHz bandwidth). Median sound pressure levels (Leq) in third-octave bands during operation of the converter were 106–109 dB re. 1 μPa in the range 125–250 Hz, 1–2 dB above ambient noise levels (statistically significant). Outside the range 125–250 Hz the noise from the converter was undetectable above the ambient noise. During start and stop of the converter a more powerful tone at 150 Hz (sound pressure level (Leq) 121–125 dB re 1 μPa) was easily detectable. This tone likely originated from the hydraulic pump which was used to lower the absorbers into the water and lift them out of the water at shutdown. Noise levels from the operating wave converter were so low that they would barely be audible to marine mammals and the likelihood of negative impact from the noise appears minimal. A likely explanation for the low noise emissions is the construction of the converter where all moving parts, except for the absorbers themselves, are placed above water on a jack-up rig. The results may thus not be directly transferable to other wave converter designs but do demonstrate that it is possible to harness wave energy without noise pollution to the marine environment. PMID:26148299

  9. Deconstructing positive affect in later life: a differential functionalist analysis of joy and interest.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Magai, Carol; King, Arlene R

    2004-01-01

    Positive affect, an index of psychological well-being, is a known predictor of functionality and health in later life. Measures typically studied include joy, happiness, and subjective well-being, but less often interest--a positive emotion with functional properties that differ from joy or happiness. Following differential emotions theory, the present study measured trait joy and interest in a population-based sample of 1,118 adults aged 65-86 years. As predicted, trait joy was associated with greater religious participation, while trait interest was associated with greater education. Joy was associated with lower morbidity and stress while interest was not. Interest was, in fact, associated with greater stress. Both emotions were positively associated with social support. We use the pattern of predictors to develop a functionalist conceptualization of these two emotions in later life, concluding that it is worthwhile to treat interest and joy as partially-independent positive affects contributing differentially to human emotionality and later life adaptation. PMID:15248472

  10. Numerical simulation of 3D flow past a real-life marine hydrokinetic turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seokkoo; Borazjani, Iman; Colby, Jonathan A.; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2012-04-01

    We simulate three-dimensional, turbulent flow past an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine mounted on the bed of a rectangular open channel by adapting a computational framework developed for carrying out high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) in arbitrarily complex domains involving moving or stationary boundaries. The complex turbine geometry, including the rotor and all stationary components, is handled by employing the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method [1,2]. Velocity boundary conditions near all solid surfaces are reconstructed using a wall model based on solving the simplified boundary layer equations [2]. To demonstrate the capabilities of the model we apply it to simulate the flow past a Gen4 axial flow MHK turbine developed by Verdant Power for the Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) project in the East River in New York City, USA. We carry out systematic grid refinement studies, using grids with up to 185 million nodes, for only the turbine rotor placed in an infinite free stream to show that the computed torque converges to a grid insensitive value, which is in good agreement with field measurements. We also carry out LES for the complete turbine configuration, including the pylon, nacelle and rotor, mounted on the bed of a straight rectangular open channel. The computed results illustrate the complexity of the flow and show that the power output of the complete turbine is primarily dependent on the rotor geometry and tip speed ratio, and is not affected by the stationary components of the turbine and the presence of the channel bed. The complete turbine simulation also reveals that the downstream wake of the turbine consists of three main regions: (1) the outer layer with the spiral blade tip vortices rotating in the same direction as the blades; (2) the counter-rotating inner layer surrounded by the spiral tip vortices; and (3) the core layer co-rotating with respect to the tip vortices. This study is the first to report the

  11. A Hybrid Model for Research on Subjective Well-Being: Examining Common- and Component-Specific Sources of Variance in Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael; Sadava, Stanley; DeCourville, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The primary components of subjective well-being (SWB) include life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). There is little consensus, however, concerning how these components form a model of SWB. In this paper, six longitudinal studies varying in demographic characteristics, length of time between assessment periods,…

  12. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Kańczugowska, Angelika; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The women’s general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05). Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009), high self-reported health (p < 0.002), and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04) had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one’s health. PMID:26703697

  13. Does Time Affect Patient Satisfaction and Health-Related Quality of Life After Reduction Mammoplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Wess A.; Homel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A total of 62,611 patients with breast hypertrophy underwent breast reduction surgery in 2013 in the United States to improve their symptoms and health-related quality of life. While multiple studies utilizing various outcome instruments demonstrate the efficacy of reductive surgery, it is presently unknown how the postoperative course affects patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life as measured by the BREAST-Q. Our objective was to determine the temporal relationship of patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life after reduction mammoplasty. Methods: Patients prospectively completed the BREAST-Q reduction mammoplasty module at 3 time points during their treatment: preoperatively, at less than 3 months postoperatively, and at more than 3 months (<12 months) postoperatively. A single surgeon (N.P.P.) performed all of the breast reduction procedures. Results: Each time point contained 20 questionnaires. Mean preoperative BREAST-Q scores were significantly lower than scores at the less than 3-month postoperative time point for the scales Satisfaction With Breasts, Psychosocial Well-being, Sexual Well-being, and Physical Well-being (P < .001). There was no significant difference in BREAST-Q scores between the postoperative time points in these measures. Conclusion: Breast reduction surgery offers a vast improvement in patients’ satisfaction and health-related quality of life that is maintained throughout the postoperative period. These findings can assist surgeons in managing patient expectations after reduction mammoplasty and help improve the probability of obtaining prior authorization for insurance coverage. PMID:26819650

  14. Spouse health status, depressed affect, and resilience in mid and late life: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-04-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on average, depressive symptoms were compared in 4 groups varying in their experience of spousal health transitions: those whose spouse remained ill at T1 and T2, those whose spouse declined in health from T1 to T2, those whose spouse's health improved from T1 to T2, and those whose spouse remained healthy at both time points. Mixed analyses of covariance showed that, as hypothesized, having a spouse who became or remained ill over time was linked to greater depressed affect by T2, whereas having a spouse improve in health was associated with a decline in depressive symptomatology. Moderated regression analyses indicated that while higher mastery and self-esteem were linked to lower depressed affect in general, these resources were especially protective against depressed affect for those whose spouse remained ill at both time points. These findings are at the intersection of life course theory and the stress process model highlighting the contextual forces in and the interconnectedness of individual development as well as the plasticity and resilience evident in adaptation to stress during mid and late life. PMID:24364828

  15. Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird)

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann, R.K. . Dept. of Marine Zoology and Marine Chemistry)

    1994-09-01

    Cohorts of the epiphytic marine copepod Tisbe furcata were chronically exposed to copper in life-table experiments to test whether ecologically relevant impacts can occur at sublethal concentrations. Data on fecundity, longevity, and rate of development were used to calculate r[sub m]--the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Acute toxicity tests were done to compare the concentrations of copper affecting individual lethality and population biology. The LC50 value for Tisbe furcata nauplii was 2.8 [mu]M copper. The results from the life-table experiments show that 0.9 [mu]M copper can cause significant negative effects on demographic parameters (total production of nauplii, life span, and reproductive period for fertile females) and reduce the percentage of fertile females leading to a 61% reduction of r[sub m]. However, r[sub m] was still positive at 0.9 [mu]M copper, and the net reproductive rate (R[sub 0]) indicated a fivefold increase in population size from one generation to the next. Although there were no significant effects of copper at 0.5 [mu]M, there was a negative trend in almost all the demographic parameters, indicating that the observed 10% reduction of r[sub m] at this concentration was an effect of copper. For the substances tested so far with both acute LC50 tests and life-table experiments, r[sub m] was not reduced at concentrations below LC50/10. When life-table experiments are used as part of environmental hazard assessments, concentrations below LC50/10 should be tested to detect substances that are potentially harmful to the environment at sublethal concentrations, rather than testing concentrations close to LC50.

  16. LIFES: Laser Induced Fluorescence and Environmental Sensing. [remote sensing technique for marine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, W. R.; Stephenson, D. G.; Measures, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A laboratory investigation has been conducted to evaluate the detection and identification capabilities of laser induced fluorescence as a remote sensing technique for the marine environment. The relative merits of fluorescence parameters including emission and excitation profiles, intensity and lifetime measurements are discussed in relation to the identification of specific targets of the marine environment including crude oils, refined petroleum products, fish oils and algae. Temporal profiles displaying the variation of lifetime with emission wavelength have proven to add a new dimension of specificity and simplicity to the technique.

  17. Is Rural School-aged Children's Quality of Life Affected by Their Responses to Asthma?

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Sharon D.; Brown, Sharon A.; Walker, Veronica García

    2011-01-01

    The unpredictable nature of asthma makes it stressful for children and can affect their quality of life. An exploratory analysis of 183 rural school-aged children's data was conducted to determine relationships among demographic factors, children's responses to asthma (coping, asthma self-management), and their quality of life (QOL). Coping frequency, asthma severity, and race/ethnicity significantly predicted children's asthma-related QOL. Children reported more frequent coping as asthma-related QOL worsened (higher scores). Children with more asthma severity had worse asthma-related QOL. Post-hoc analyses showed that racial/ethnic minorities reported worse asthma-related QOL scores than did non-Hispanic Whites. PMID:22920660

  18. A comparative study on life cycle analysis of molten carbon fuel cells and diesel engines for marine application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkaner, Selim; Zhou, Peilin

    The study performed a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) plant for marine applications. The results are compared to a benchmark conventional diesel engine (DE) which operates as an auxiliary power generating unit. The LCA includes manufacturing of MCFC and DE, fuel supply, operation and decommissioning stages of the system's life cycle. As a new technology in its very early stages of commercialisation, some detailed data for the FC systems are not available. In order to overcome this problem, a series of scenario analysis has also been performed to evaluate the effect of various factors on the overall impact, such as change in power load factors and effect of recycling credit at the end of life cycle. Environmental benefits from fuel cell operation are maximised with the use of hydrogen as an input fuel. For the manufacturing stage of the life cycle, input material and process energy required for fuel cell stack assemblies and balance-of-plants (BOP) represent a bigger impact than that of conventional benchmark mainly due to special materials used in the stack and the weights of the BOP components. Additionally, recovering valuable materials through re-use or re-cycle will reduce the overall environmental burden of the system over its life cycle.

  19. Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20 μM) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses. PMID:22645501

  20. Why does offspring size affect performance? Integrating metabolic scaling with life-history theory.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Amanda K; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-11-22

    Within species, larger offspring typically outperform smaller offspring. While the relationship between offspring size and performance is ubiquitous, the cause of this relationship remains elusive. By linking metabolic and life-history theory, we provide a general explanation for why larger offspring perform better than smaller offspring. Using high-throughput respirometry arrays, we link metabolic rate to offspring size in two species of marine bryozoan. We found that metabolism scales allometrically with offspring size in both species: while larger offspring use absolutely more energy than smaller offspring, larger offspring use proportionally less of their maternally derived energy throughout the dependent, non-feeding phase. The increased metabolic efficiency of larger offspring while dependent on maternal investment may explain offspring size effects-larger offspring reach nutritional independence (feed for themselves) with a higher proportion of energy relative to structure than smaller offspring. These findings offer a potentially universal explanation for why larger offspring tend to perform better than smaller offspring but studies on other taxa are needed. PMID:26559952

  1. Life Between the Grains of Sand: An Introductory Activity for Beginning Marine Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document presents the outline of a marine biology science unit designed to introduce students to the study and collection of organisms living in the intertidal zone. Details pertaining to the collection of interstitial organisms and a six-item quiz are included. (SL)

  2. Rethinking competence in marine life cycles: ontogenetic changes in the settlement response of sand dollar larvae exposed to turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Hodin, Jason; Ferner, Matthew C.; Ng, Gabriel; Lowe, Christopher J.; Gaylord, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Complex life cycles have evolved independently numerous times in marine animals as well as in disparate algae. Such life histories typically involve a dispersive immature stage followed by settlement and metamorphosis to an adult stage on the sea floor. One commonality among animals exhibiting transitions of this type is that their larvae pass through a ‘precompetent’ period in which they do not respond to localized settlement cues, before entering a ‘competent’ period, during which cues can induce settlement. Despite the widespread existence of these two phases, relatively little is known about how larvae transition between them. Moreover, recent studies have blurred the distinction between the phases by demonstrating that fluid turbulence can spark precocious activation of competence. Here, we further investigate this phenomenon by exploring how larval interactions with turbulence change across ontogeny, focusing on offspring of the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus (Eschscholtz). Our data indicate that larvae exhibit increased responsiveness to turbulence as they get older. We also demonstrate a likely cost to precocious competence: the resulting juveniles are smaller. Based upon these findings, we outline a new, testable conception of competence that has the potential to reshape our understanding of larval dispersal and connectivity among marine populations. PMID:26543587

  3. Marination of deep-water pink shrimp with rosemary extract and the determination of its shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Cadun, Asli; Kışla, Duygu; Çaklı, Şükran

    2008-07-01

    The effect of the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract on marinated deep-water pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris Lucas, 1846) stored at 1°C was investigated. Chemical, physical, instrumental, microbiological and sensory analyses were performed to investigate the quality changes and to determine the shelf-life of marinated shrimps. Chemical composition of the shrimp was determined and no significant difference (P>0.05) was found between the control group (without rosemary extract) and the experimental group (with rosemary extract). Both groups contained 2% citric acid. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the sensory analysis of control and experimental groups on storage days 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 while rancidity was noted by the panelists in the control group on day 75. The TBA value of the control group reached the consumption limit on day 75 but it was still 'very good' for the experimental group. Although the bacterial load of both groups were lower than the consumption limits on storage day 75, TBA value limited the shelf-life of the control group but the experimental group was still of good quality for consumption after 75 days. PMID:26054267

  4. Rethinking competence in marine life cycles: ontogenetic changes in the settlement response of sand dollar larvae exposed to turbulence.

    PubMed

    Hodin, Jason; Ferner, Matthew C; Ng, Gabriel; Lowe, Christopher J; Gaylord, Brian

    2015-06-01

    Complex life cycles have evolved independently numerous times in marine animals as well as in disparate algae. Such life histories typically involve a dispersive immature stage followed by settlement and metamorphosis to an adult stage on the sea floor. One commonality among animals exhibiting transitions of this type is that their larvae pass through a 'precompetent' period in which they do not respond to localized settlement cues, before entering a 'competent' period, during which cues can induce settlement. Despite the widespread existence of these two phases, relatively little is known about how larvae transition between them. Moreover, recent studies have blurred the distinction between the phases by demonstrating that fluid turbulence can spark precocious activation of competence. Here, we further investigate this phenomenon by exploring how larval interactions with turbulence change across ontogeny, focusing on offspring of the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus (Eschscholtz). Our data indicate that larvae exhibit increased responsiveness to turbulence as they get older. We also demonstrate a likely cost to precocious competence: the resulting juveniles are smaller. Based upon these findings, we outline a new, testable conception of competence that has the potential to reshape our understanding of larval dispersal and connectivity among marine populations. PMID:26543587

  5. Early life trauma is associated with altered white matter integrity and affective control.

    PubMed

    Corbo, Vincent; Amick, Melissa A; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2016-08-01

    Early life trauma (ELT) has been shown to impair affective control and attention well into adulthood. Neuroimaging studies have further shown that ELT was associated with decreased white matter integrity in the prefrontal areas in children and adults. However, no study to date has looked at the relationship between white matter integrity and affective control in individuals with and without a history of ELT. To examine this, we tested 240 Veterans with (ELT N = 80) and without (NoELT N = 160) a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse or family violence. Affective control was measured with the Affective Go/No-Go (AGN) and attention was indexed with the Test of Variable Attention (TOVA). White matter integrity was measured using fractional anisotropy (FA). Results showed greater number of errors on the AGN in ELT compared to NoELT. There was no difference on the TOVA. While there were no mean differences in FA, there was an interaction between FA and reaction time to positive stimuli on the AGN where the ELT group showed a positive relationship between FA and reaction time in right frontal and prefrontal areas, whereas the NoELT group showed a negative or no association between FA and reaction time. This suggests that ELT may be associated with a distinct brain-behavior relationship that could be related to other determinants of FA than those present in healthy adults. PMID:27214523

  6. Mixed populations of marine microalgae in continuous culture: Factors affecting species dominance and biomass productivity.

    PubMed

    Regan, D L; Ivancic, N

    1984-11-01

    Marine microalgae were grown in multispecies continuous cultures. Under carbon dioxide limitation, blue-green algae dominated. Under nitrate and light limitation, species dominance depended on the initial conditions. When the inoculum consisted primarily of blue-green algae with smaller amounts of other species, blue-green algae and pennate diatoms dominated. When the inoculum consisted of equal amounts of all species, green flagellates and pennate diatoms dominated. Green flagellates and blue-green algae were incompatible and never shared dominance. When nutrient limitations were overcome, the productivity of seawater was increased 100-fold before light limitation occurred. The productivity could be further increased by reducing photorespiration in the culture. The dilution rates studied (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 day(-1)) had no effect on species dominance, nor did the higher dilution rates select for smaller cells. The maximum productivity occurred at a dilution rate of 0.2 day(-1). Temperature had the greatest effect on species dominance, with green flagellates, pennate diatoms, and blue-green algae dominating at 20 degrees C and only blue-green algae dominating at 35 degrees C. The productivity at 35 degrees C was lower than that at 20 degrees C because of the lower solubility of carbon dioxide at higher temperatures. At 10% salinity, green flagellates and pennate diatoms dominated. The productivity at this salinity was 50% that obtained at the salinity of seawater (3.5%). At 25% salinity, only the green flagellate, Dunaliella salina, survived at a productivity of 1% that obtained at the salinity of seawater. PMID:18551649

  7. Sociodemographic factors affecting the quality of life of patients with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Bartosz; Panaszek, Bernard; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the subjective quality of life (QoL) of patients with bronchial asthma. Patients diagnosed with asthma experience a number of problems with regard to everyday activities and functions, which adversely affects their health-related QoL. Aim The aim of this study is to analyze the sociodemographic factors affecting the QoL of patients with asthma. Patients and methods The study comprised of 100 patients (73 females and 27 males) aged 18–84 years (mean age 45.7 years) treated in the Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Geriatrics and Allergology, Wroclaw Medical University. All patients with asthma who met the inclusion criteria participated in the study. We used medical record analysis and two questionnaires: the asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ) and the asthma control test. Up-to-date sociodemographic data were collected from all participants, including sex, age, marital status, education, and sources of income. Results The sociodemographic variables that correlated positively with QoL in all domains of the AQLQ were professional activity and higher education level of respondents. Factors that negatively influenced the AQLQ domains were older age and lack of professional activity. Conclusion This study shows that age, physical work, and lack of professional activity decreased the QoL in this patient group. It was found that higher education contributes to better QoL scores. PMID:27051276

  8. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies

    PubMed Central

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Nakas, Christos T.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful – dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  9. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies.

    PubMed

    Gerofotis, Christos D; Ioannou, Charalampos S; Nakas, Christos T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful - dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  10. What constitutes a good life? Cultural differences in the role of positive and negative affect in subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-08-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect-but not recalled negative affect-for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans' life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life. PMID:19558439

  11. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, T. Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being’s ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  12. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, T Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being's ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  13. Intermittent hypoxia leads to functional reorganization of mitochondria and affects cellular bioenergetics in marine molluscs.

    PubMed

    Ivanina, Anna V; Nesmelova, Irina; Leamy, Larry; Sokolov, Eugene P; Sokolova, Inna M

    2016-06-01

    Fluctuations in oxygen (O2) concentrations represent a major challenge to aerobic organisms and can be extremely damaging to their mitochondria. Marine intertidal molluscs are well-adapted to frequent O2 fluctuations, yet it remains unknown how their mitochondrial functions are regulated to sustain energy metabolism and prevent cellular damage during hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R). We used metabolic control analysis to investigate the mechanisms of mitochondrial responses to H/R stress (18 h at <0.1% O2 followed by 1 h of reoxygenation) using hypoxia-tolerant intertidal clams Mercenaria mercenaria and hypoxia-sensitive subtidal scallops Argopecten irradians as models. We also assessed H/R-induced changes in cellular energy balance, oxidative damage and unfolded protein response to determine the potential links between mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular injury. Mitochondrial responses to H/R in scallops strongly resembled those in other hypoxia-sensitive organisms. Exposure to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation led to a strong decrease in the substrate oxidation (SOX) and phosphorylation (PHOS) capacities as well as partial depolarization of mitochondria of scallops. Elevated mRNA expression of a reactive oxygen species-sensitive enzyme aconitase and Lon protease (responsible for degradation of oxidized mitochondrial proteins) during H/R stress was consistent with elevated levels of oxidative stress in mitochondria of scallops. In hypoxia-tolerant clams, mitochondrial SOX capacity was enhanced during hypoxia and continued rising during the first hour of reoxygenation. In both species, the mitochondrial PHOS capacity was suppressed during hypoxia, likely to prevent ATP wastage by the reverse action of FO,F1-ATPase. The PHOS capacity recovered after 1 h of reoxygenation in clams but not in scallops. Compared with scallops, clams showed a greater suppression of energy-consuming processes (such as protein turnover and ion transport) during hypoxia, indicated

  14. Change in photoperiodic cycle affects life span in a prosimian primate (Microcebus murinus).

    PubMed

    Perret, M

    1997-04-01

    The lesser mouse lemur, a small prosimian primate, exhibits seasonal rhythms strictly controlled by photoperiodic variations. Exposure to day lengths shorter than 12 h results in complete sexual rest, fattening, lethargy, and reduced behavioral activities; whereas exposure to day lengths greater than 12 h induces sexual activity, an increase in behavioral activities, and high hormonal levels. The objective of this study was to test whether long-term acceleration of seasonal rhythms may affect survival and longevity of this primate. In captivity, acceleration of seasonal rhythms was obtained by exposing the animals to an accelerated photoperiodic regimen consisting of 5 months of long photoperiod followed by 3 months of short photoperiod. The age-specific survival rate in animals exposed from birth to accelerated photoperiodic conditions (n = 89) was compared to the age-specific survival rate of animals maintained under a natural photoperiod (n = 68). Independent of sexes, the mean life span (45.5 +/- 2.1 months) and maximal survival (79.3 +/- 3.3 months) were significantly (p < .01) shortened in mouse lemurs exposed to the accelerated photoperiodic cycle compared to those in animals living under annual photoperiod (63.2 +/- 2.5 and 98 +/- 3.9 months for mean life span and maximal survival, respectively). This reduction of about 30% of life span was not accompanied by a desynchronization of biological rhythms under photoperiodic control and was not related to an increase in reproduction or in duration of time spent in active conditions. However, when the number of seasonal cycles experienced by 1 individual is considered rather than chronological age, the mean life span was 5 seasonal cycles and maximum survival reached 9-10 cycles, independent of sex or of photoperiodic regimen. These results suggest that in mouse lemurs, as in other seasonal mammals, longevity may depend on the expression of a fixed number of seasonal cycles rather than on a fixed biological age

  15. Growing up in the Ocean: Complex Life Cycles of Common Marine Invertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Katie; Hiebert, Laurel

    2010-01-01

    Most people are familiar with the concept that animals come in all shapes and sizes and that the body plan of some animals can completely transform during their lifetime. Well-known examples of such complex life cycles of terrestrial animals include butterflies and frogs. Many people are unaware, however, that complex life cycles are exceedingly…

  16. Climate change affects low trophic level marine consumers: warming decreases copepod size and abundance.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    Concern about climate change has re-ignited interest in universal ecological responses to temperature variations: (1) biogeographical shifts, (2) phenology changes, and (3) size shifts. In this study we used copepods as model organisms to study size responses to temperature because of their central role in the pelagic food web and because of the ontogenetic length constancy between molts, which facilitates the definition of size of distinct developmental stages. In order to test the expected temperature-induced shifts towards smaller body size and lower abundances under warming conditions, a mesocosm experiment using plankton from the Baltic Sea at three temperature levels (ambient, ambient +4 °C, ambient -4 °C) was performed in summer 2010. Overall copepod and copepodit abundances, copepod size at all life stages, and adult copepod size in particular, showed significant temperature effects. As expected, zooplankton peak abundance was lower in warm than in ambient treatments. Copepod size-at-immature stage significantly increased in cold treatments, while adult size significantly decreased in warm treatments. PMID:25413864

  17. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rada, D.; Seco, J.; Tijero, B.; Abecia, L. C.; Gómez-Esteban, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire for quality of life) was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index). However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12) in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale). Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain. PMID:27239367

  18. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Rada, D; Seco, J; Echevarría, E; Tijero, B; Abecia, L C; Gómez-Esteban, J C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire for quality of life) was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index). However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12) in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale). Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain. PMID:27239367

  19. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  20. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  1. Negotiation and Decision Making with Collaborative Software: How MarineMap 'Changed the Game' in California's Marine Life Protected Act Initiative.

    PubMed

    Cravens, Amanda E

    2016-02-01

    Environmental managers and planners have become increasingly enthusiastic about the potential of decision support tools (DSTs) to improve environmental decision-making processes as information technology transforms many aspects of daily life. Discussions about DSTs, however, rarely recognize the range of ways software can influence users' negotiation, problem-solving, or decision-making strategies and incentives, in part because there are few empirical studies of completed processes that used technology. This mixed-methods study-which draws on data from approximately 60 semi-structured interviews and an online survey--examines how one geospatial DST influenced participants' experiences during a multi-year marine planning process in California. Results suggest that DSTs can facilitate communication by creating a common language, help users understand the geography and scientific criteria in play during the process, aid stakeholders in identifying shared or diverging interests, and facilitate joint problem solving. The same design features that enabled the tool to aid in decision making, however, also presented surprising challenges in certain circumstances by, for example, making it difficult for participants to discuss information that was not spatially represented on the map-based interface. The study also highlights the importance of the social context in which software is developed and implemented, suggesting that the relationship between the software development team and other participants may be as important as technical software design in shaping how DSTs add value. The paper concludes with considerations to inform the future use of DSTs in environmental decision-making processes. PMID:26429362

  2. Negotiation and Decision Making with Collaborative Software: How MarineMap `Changed the Game' in California's Marine Life Protected Act Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravens, Amanda E.

    2016-02-01

    Environmental managers and planners have become increasingly enthusiastic about the potential of decision support tools (DSTs) to improve environmental decision-making processes as information technology transforms many aspects of daily life. Discussions about DSTs, however, rarely recognize the range of ways software can influence users' negotiation, problem-solving, or decision-making strategies and incentives, in part because there are few empirical studies of completed processes that used technology. This mixed-methods study—which draws on data from approximately 60 semi-structured interviews and an online survey—examines how one geospatial DST influenced participants' experiences during a multi-year marine planning process in California. Results suggest that DSTs can facilitate communication by creating a common language, help users understand the geography and scientific criteria in play during the process, aid stakeholders in identifying shared or diverging interests, and facilitate joint problem solving. The same design features that enabled the tool to aid in decision making, however, also presented surprising challenges in certain circumstances by, for example, making it difficult for participants to discuss information that was not spatially represented on the map-based interface. The study also highlights the importance of the social context in which software is developed and implemented, suggesting that the relationship between the software development team and other participants may be as important as technical software design in shaping how DSTs add value. The paper concludes with considerations to inform the future use of DSTs in environmental decision-making processes.

  3. Long life testing of spare Mariner Venus '67 hardware. [power conditioning electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    The faultless performance of the Mariner Venus '67 Power Conditioning Electronics (PCE) throughout six years of continuous operation in a simulated space environment is reported. Weekly functional tests supplemented by daily monitoring verified that the PCE equipment can perform to its intended functions for at least six years without apparent performance degradation. Performance throughout the test period was very stable, there are no circuit or redundancy improvements to be considered. When the equipment was examined after the test was completed, there was no evidence of any physical damage nor any difficulty in disconnecting the wiring connectors.

  4. Estimating the influence of life satisfaction and positive affect on later income using sibling fixed effects

    PubMed Central

    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Oswald, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether there is a connection between income and psychological well-being is a long-studied issue across the social, psychological, and behavioral sciences. Much research has found that richer people tend to be happier. However, relatively little attention has been paid to whether happier individuals perform better financially in the first place. This possibility of reverse causality is arguably understudied. Using data from a large US representative panel, we show that adolescents and young adults who report higher life satisfaction or positive affect grow up to earn significantly higher levels of income later in life. We focus on earnings approximately one decade after the person’s well-being is measured; we exploit the availability of sibling clusters to introduce family fixed effects; we account for the human capacity to imagine later socioeconomic outcomes and to anticipate the resulting feelings in current well-being. The study’s results are robust to the inclusion of controls such as education, intelligence quotient, physical health, height, self-esteem, and later happiness. We consider how psychological well-being may influence income. Sobel–Goodman mediation tests reveal direct and indirect effects that carry the influence from happiness to income. Significant mediating pathways include a higher probability of obtaining a college degree, getting hired and promoted, having higher degrees of optimism and extraversion, and less neuroticism. PMID:23169627

  5. Characteristics of the Activity-Affect Association in Inactive People: An Ambulatory Assessment Study in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    von Haaren, Birte; Loeffler, Simone Nadine; Haertel, Sascha; Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Stumpp, Juergen; Hey, Stefan; Boes, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity (PA) is related to well-being and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to PA or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants’ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between PA and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 ± 1.7 years) using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and PA was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every 2 h on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence, and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level [mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET) value] and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 min before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Analyzing the PA-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine characteristics of affective responses of inactive people to PA in daily life. General assumptions

  6. Effects of ocean acidification on the early life history of a tropical marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Munday, Philip L.; Donelson, Jennifer M.; Dixson, Danielle L.; Endo, Geoff G. K.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about how fishes and other non-calcifying marine organisms will respond to the increased levels of dissolved CO2 and reduced sea water pH that are predicted to occur over the coming century. We reared eggs and larvae of the orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, in sea water simulating a range of ocean acidification scenarios for the next 50–100 years (current day, 550, 750 and 1030 ppm atmospheric CO2). CO2 acidification had no detectable effect on embryonic duration, egg survival and size at hatching. In contrast, CO2 acidification tended to increase the growth rate of larvae. By the time of settlement (11 days post-hatching), larvae from some parental pairs were 15 to 18 per cent longer and 47 to 52 per cent heavier in acidified water compared with controls. Larvae from other parents were unaffected by CO2 acidification. Elevated CO2 and reduced pH had no effect on the maximum swimming speed of settlement-stage larvae. There was, however, a weak positive relationship between length and swimming speed. Large size is usually considered to be advantageous for larvae and newly settled juveniles. Consequently, these results suggest that levels of ocean acidification likely to be experienced in the near future might not, in isolation, significantly disadvantage the growth and performance of larvae from benthic-spawning marine fishes. PMID:19556256

  7. A census of fishes and everything they eat: How the census of marine life advanced fisheries science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dor, Ron; Boustany, Andre M.; Chittenden, Cedar M.; Costello, Mark J.; Moustahfid, Hassan; Payne, John; Steinke, Dirk; Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Vanden Berghe, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The Census of Marine Life was a 10-year, international research effort to explore poorly known ocean habitats and conduct large-scale experimentation with new technology. The goal of Census 2010 in its mission statement was to describe what did live in the oceans, what does live in the oceans, and what will live in the ocean. Many of the findings and techniques from census research may prove valuable in making a transition, which many governments have publicly endorsed, from single-species fisheries management to more holistic ecosystem management. Census researchers sampled continental margins, mid-Atlantic ridges, ocean floor vents and seeps, and abyssal plains and polar seas and organized massive amounts of past and new information in a public online database called the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (www.iobis.org). The census described and categorized seamount biology worldwide for its vulnerability to fishing, advanced large-scale animal tracking with acoustic arrays and satellite archival tags, and accelerated species identification, including nearshore, coral reef, and zooplankton sampling using genetic barcoding and pyrotag sequencing for microbes and helped to launch the exciting new field of marine environmental history. Above all, the census showed the value of investing in large-scale, collaborative projects and sharing results publicly.

  8. Risk factors affecting quality of life in a group of Italian children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Indinnimeo, L; Chiarotti, F; De Vittori, V; Baldini, L; De Castro, G; Zicari, A M; Tancredi, G; Leonardi, L; Duse, M

    2014-01-01

    The measure of Quality of Life (QoL) has become one of the most important criteria used to assess the impact of chronic illness, such as asthma, on the patient’s daily life, in adults and children alike. The objective of our open observational study was to measure the QoL and analyze several factors that potentially affect QoL, such as symptoms and functional respiratory parameters, in a cohort of children with asthma. One hundred and twenty-seven children with asthma, 6 to 14 years of age, living in the city of Rome, were enrolled as outpatients. They were subjected to Skin Prick Tests (SPT), underwent spirometry and filled out the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). One hundred and eleven children were diagnosed with intermittent asthma, 12 (10%) with mild asthma, and four with moderate persistent asthma. Ninety-six children had a positive SPT. The mean total score of QoL, obtained from the questionnaire, was 5.4 (∓1.2 SD). Two QoL groups were created. Children with total QoL score <5.5 were included in the “Lower QoL” score group while children with total QoL score ≥ 5.5 were included in the “Higher QoL” score group. Children in the Higher group and their mothers had a higher mean age, suffered from fewer asthma exacerbations during the year preceding the study, and showed a higher mean value of forced expiratory volume (FEV1) compared to the children in the Lower category. Using Logistic regression we identified the main factors that may affect QoL as FEV1, symptoms in the previous year and mother’s age. QoL is correlated with the frequency of asthma exacerbations and FEV1 values. Furthermore, our research shows that a significant impairment of QoL may also occur in patients with normal lung function, pointing out the importance of evaluating QoL in all children with asthma. PMID:25004835

  9. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Christina Y N; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  10. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context

    PubMed Central

    Niermann, Christina Y. N.; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  11. It’s a Wonderful Life: Mentally Subtracting Positive Events Improves People’s Affective States, Contrary to Their Affective Forecasts

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Minkyung; Algoe, Sara B.; Wilson, Timothy D.; Gilbert, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that thinking about the absence of a positive event from one’s life would improve affective states more than thinking about the presence of a positive event but that people would not predict this when making affective forecasts. In Studies 1 and 2, college students wrote about the ways in which a positive event might never have happened and was surprising or how it became part of their life and was unsurprising. As predicted, people in the former condition reported more positive affective states. In Study 3, college student forecasters failed to anticipate this effect. In Study 4, Internet respondents and university staff members who wrote about how they might never have met their romantic partner were more satisfied with their relationship than were those who wrote about how they did meet their partner. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for the literatures on gratitude induction and counterfactual reasoning. PMID:18954203

  12. Genomes of surface isolates of Alteromonas macleodii: the life of a widespread marine opportunistic copiotroph

    PubMed Central

    López-Pérez, Mario; Gonzaga, Aitor; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Onyshchenko, Olga; Ghavidel, Akbar; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii is a marine gammaproteobacterium with widespread distribution in temperate or tropical waters. We describe three genomes of isolates from surface waters around Europe (Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea) and compare them with a previously described deep Mediterranean isolate (AltDE) that belongs to a widely divergent clade. The surface isolates are quite similar, the most divergent being the Black Sea (BS11) isolate. The genomes contain several genomic islands with different gene content. The recruitment of very similar genomic fragments from metagenomes in different locations indicates that the surface clade is globally abundant with little effect of geography, even the AltDE and the BS11 genomes recruiting from surface samples in open ocean locations. The finding of CRISPR protospacers of AltDE in a lysogenic phage in the Atlantic (English Channel) isolate illustrates a flow of genetic material among these clades and a remarkably wide distribution of this phage. PMID:23019517

  13. Genomes of surface isolates of Alteromonas macleodii: the life of a widespread marine opportunistic copiotroph.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, Mario; Gonzaga, Aitor; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Onyshchenko, Olga; Ghavidel, Akbar; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii is a marine gammaproteobacterium with widespread distribution in temperate or tropical waters. We describe three genomes of isolates from surface waters around Europe (Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea) and compare them with a previously described deep Mediterranean isolate (AltDE) that belongs to a widely divergent clade. The surface isolates are quite similar, the most divergent being the Black Sea (BS11) isolate. The genomes contain several genomic islands with different gene content. The recruitment of very similar genomic fragments from metagenomes in different locations indicates that the surface clade is globally abundant with little effect of geography, even the AltDE and the BS11 genomes recruiting from surface samples in open ocean locations. The finding of CRISPR protospacers of AltDE in a lysogenic phage in the Atlantic (English Channel) isolate illustrates a flow of genetic material among these clades and a remarkably wide distribution of this phage. PMID:23019517

  14. The Microbial Community on Marine Plastic Debris: Life in the "Plastisphere"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral-Zettler, L. A.; Zettler, E. R.; Mincer, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    Plastic debris is an abundant substrate of anthropogenic origin in the marine environment that is receiving increased attention. We documented the bacterial (V6-V4) and eukaryotic (V9) communities on open ocean plastic debris samples using 454 amplicon sequencing of small-subunit rRNA hypervariable regions and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Parametric alpha diversity measures of plastic samples showed considerable species richness comparable to the surrounding seawater with many Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) unique to the plastic substrates. We also found that while all samples contained an OTU assigned to SAR 11 (Candidatus Pelagibacter), considered to be one of most abundant heterotrophic bacteria in the ocean, this was not the most abundant OTU in our samples. Quite surprisingly, the most abundant OTU found in our polypropylene sample was an OTU assigned to the genus Vibrio. Although endemic to the marine environment, the genus Vibrio has several members that are human and animal pathogens. Our samples also included representatives from many protist groups and fungi. Sequences recovered were dominated by heterotrophs including an unidentified sequence related to colonial radiolaria and suctorian ciliates, but many photosynthetic groups including dinoflagellates, diatoms, and green, brown, and red algae were also present. SEM images revealed a complex landscape of microbes on the surface of the plastic; rich bacterial biofilms included diatoms and stalked suctorian ciliates covered with what appeared to be bacterial epibionts. The fact that these communities are distinct from the surrounding surface water suggests that plastic surfaces may serve as a unique new ecological habitat in the open ocean and warrant further investigation. We have proposed the term "Plastisphere" to describe the community of organisms closely associated with plastic debris in aquatic systems.

  15. Temperature change affected groundwater quality in a confined marine aquifer during long-term heating and cooling.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takeshi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Ueki, Takashi; Ohkubo, Satoshi; Moldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2016-05-01

    Global warming and urbanization together with development of subsurface infrastructures (e.g. subways, shopping complexes, sewage systems, and Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) systems) will likely cause a rapid increase in the temperature of relatively shallow groundwater reservoirs (subsurface thermal pollution). However, potential effects of a subsurface temperature change on groundwater quality due to changed physical, chemical, and microbial processes have received little attention. We therefore investigated changes in 34 groundwater quality parameters during a 13-month enhanced-heating period, followed by 14 months of natural or enhanced cooling in a confined marine aquifer at around 17 m depth on the Saitama University campus, Japan. A full-scale GSHP test facility consisting of a 50 m deep U-tube for circulating the heat-carrying fluid and four monitoring wells at 1, 2, 5, and 10 m from the U-tube were installed, and groundwater quality was monitored every 1-2 weeks. Rapid changes in the groundwater level in the area, especially during the summer, prevented accurate analyses of temperature effects using a single-well time series. Instead, Dual-Well Analysis (DWA) was applied, comparing variations in subsurface temperature and groundwater chemical concentrations between the thermally-disturbed well and a non-affected reference well. Using the 1 m distant well (temperature increase up to 7 °C) and the 10 m distant well (non-temperature-affected), the DWA showed an approximately linear relationships for eight components (B, Si, Li, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Mg(2+), NH4(+), Na(+), and K(+)) during the combined 27 months of heating and cooling, suggesting changes in concentration between 4% and 31% for a temperature change of 7 °C. PMID:26938497

  16. 26 CFR 1.821-1 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 831. 1.821-1 Section 1.821-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED)...

  17. 26 CFR 1.821-3 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 831. 1.821-3 Section 1.821-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED)...

  18. The diatom-derived aldehyde decadienal affects life cycle transition in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis through nitric oxide/ERK signalling

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Immacolata; Ercolesi, Elena; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Palumbo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are fatty-acid-derived metabolites produced by some microalgae, including different diatom species. PUAs are mainly produced as a wound-activated defence mechanism against microalgal predators or released from senescent cells at the end of a bloom. PUAs, including 2,4-trans-decadienal (DD), induce deleterious effects on embryonic and larval development of several planktonic and benthic organisms. Here, we report on the effects of DD on larval development and metamorphosis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Ciona larval development is regulated by the cross-talking of different molecular events, including nitric oxide (NO) production, ERK activation and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. We report that treatment with DD at the competence larval stage results in a delay in metamorphosis. DD affects redox balance by reducing total glutathione and NO levels. By biochemical and quantitative gene expression analysis, we identify the NO-signalling network affected by DD, including the upregulation of ERK phosphatase mkp1 and consequent reduction of ERK phosphorylation, with final changes in the expression of downstream ERK target genes. Overall, these results give new insights into the molecular pathways induced in marine organisms after exposure to PUAs during larval development, demonstrating that this aldehyde affects key checkpoints of larval transition from the vegetative to the reproductive life stage. PMID:25788553

  19. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed. PMID:26834654

  20. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed. PMID:26834654

  1. Marine Microbial Mats and the Search for Evidence of Life in Deep Time and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacterial mats in extensive seawater evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico, have been excellent subjects for microbial ecology research. The studies reviewed here have documented the steep and rapidly changing environmental gradients experienced by mat microorganisms and the very high rates of biogeochemical processes that they maintained. Recent genetic studies have revealed an enormous diversity of bacteria as well as the spatial distribution of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. These findings, together with emerging insights into the intimate interactions between these diverse populations, have contributed substantially to our understanding of the origins, environmental impacts, and biosignatures of photosynthetic microbial mats. The biosignatures (preservable cells, sedimentary fabrics, organic compounds, minerals, stable isotope patterns, etc.) potentially can serve as indicators of past life on early Earth. They also can inform our search for evidence of any life on Mars. Mars exploration has revealed evidence of evaporite deposits and thermal spring deposits; similar deposits on Earth once hosted ancient microbial mat ecosystems.

  2. Life-history correlates of maximum population growth rates in marine fishes.

    PubMed Central

    Denney, Nicola H; Jennings, Simon; Reynolds, John D

    2002-01-01

    Theory predicts that populations of animals with late maturity, low fecundity, large body size and low body growth rates will have low potential rates of population increase at low abundance. If this is true, then these traits may be used to predict the intrinsic rate of increase for species or populations, as well as extinction risks. We used life-history and population data for 63 stocks of commercially exploited fish species from the northeast Atlantic to test relationships between life-history parameters and the rate of population increase at low abundance. We used cross-taxonomic analyses among stocks and among species, and analyses that accounted for phylogenetic relationships. These analyses confirmed that large-bodied, slow-growing stocks and species had significantly lower rates of recruitment and adult production per spawning adult at low abundance. Furthermore, high ages at maturity were significantly correlated with low maximum recruit production. Contrary to expectation, fecundity was significantly negatively related to recruit production, due to its positive relationship with maximum body size. Our results support theoretical predictions, and suggest that a simply measured life-history parameter can provide a useful tool for predicting rates of recovery from low population abundance. PMID:12427316

  3. Dialysis-related factors affecting quality of life in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Anees, Muhammad; Hameed, Farooq; Mumtaz, Asim; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Saeed Khan, Muhammad Nasir

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Treatment modalities for end-stage renal disease affect quality of life (QOL) of the patients. This study was conducted to assess the QOL of patients on hemodialysis and compare it with caregivers of these patients. Cause of ESRD and dialysis-related factors affecting QOL were also examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This cross-sectional study was conducted on patient on maintenance hemodialysis for more than 3 months at 3 dialysis centers of Lahore. Fifty healthy individuals were included as controls from among the patients' caregivers. The QOL index was measured using the World Health Organization QOL questionnaire, with higher scores corresponding to better QOL of patients. RESULTS. Eighty-nine patients (71.2%) were men, 99 (79.2%) were married, 75 (60.0%) were older than 45 years, and 77 (61.6%) were on dialysis for more than 8 months. Patients on hemodialysis had a poorer QOL as compared to their caregivers in all domains except for domain 4 (environment). There was no difference in the QOL between the three dialysis centers of the study, except for domain 3 (social relationship) of the patients at Mayo Hospital (a public hospital), which was significantly better. Nondiabetic patients had a better QOL in domain 1 (physical health) as compared to diabetic patients. Duration of dialysis had a reverse correlation with the overall QOL. CONCLUSIONS. We found that QOL of hemodialysis patients was poor as compared to caregivers of the patients, especially that of diabetics. Also, duration of dialysis had a reverse correlation with QOL. PMID:21189427

  4. Bioassay development using early life stages of the marine macroalga, Ecklonia radiata

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, J.R.; Wheeler, K.D.; Roper, J.; Burridge, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    A lack of standard toxicity test methods for species native to Australia has stimulated research to overcome this deficiency. In the present work, germination inhibition was utilized as an endpoint in 48h bioassays with the marine macroalga Ecklonia radiata. E radiata is often a dominant member of temperate subtidal communities in Australia and other parts of the southern hemisphere. The alga fills an ecological niche similar to that of Macrocystis pyrifera, the giant kelp which occurs in the northern hemisphere. In an adaptation of test methods used for M. pyrifera, release of E. radiata zoospores was induced in the laboratory. Settled spores were then exposed to toxicants for 48 h and germination success was determined by scoring the spores for the development of a germination tube. At 20 C, EC{sub 50} values ranging between 53.4 and 77.4 mg/L were generated in tests with hexavalent chromium (potassium chromate). The EC{sub 50} for copper (cupric chloride) was 0.53 mg/L. Sensitivity of E. radiata to metals such as copper may have significance toward assessing the environmental impacts of some antifoulant coatings used on seagoing vessels. In future studies, growth of zoospore germination tubes and comparative sensitivity of different E. radiata populations will be examined.

  5. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  6. Different immunological responses to early-life antibiotic exposure affecting autoimmune diabetes development in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Youjia; Jin, Ping; Peng, Jian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2016-08-01

    Environmental factors clearly influence the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease. We have studied gut microbiota as important environmental agents that could affect the initiation or progression of type 1 diabetes especially in the prenatal period. We used neomycin, targeting mainly Gram negative or vancomycin, targeting mainly Gram positive bacteria, to treat pregnant NOD mothers and to study autoimmune diabetes development in their offspring. Neomycin-treated offspring were protected from diabetes, while vancomycin-treated offspring had accelerated diabetes development, and both antibiotics caused distinctly different shifts in gut microbiota composition compared with the offspring from untreated control mice. Our study demonstrated that neomycin treatment of pregnant mothers leads to generation of immune-tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the offspring and these APCs had reduced specific autoantigen-presenting function both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the protection from diabetes mediated by tolerogenic APCs was vertically transmissible to the second generation. In contrast, more diabetogenic inflammatory T cells were found in the lymphoid organs of the offspring from the vancomycin-treated pregnant mothers. This change however was not transmitted to the second generation. Our results suggested that prenatal exposure to antibiotic influenced gut bacterial composition at the earliest time point in life and is critical for consequent education of the immune system. As different bacteria can induce different immune responses, understanding these differences and how to generate self-tolerogenic APCs could be important for developing new therapy for type 1 diabetes. PMID:27178773

  7. How is the artist role affected when artists are participating in projects in work life?

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, during the last decade, the artist has come to function as a creative resource in workplaces. There are two organisations, Skiss (Contemporary Artist in the Contemporary Society) and Airis (Artist in Residence), that organise projects for artists and coworkers. These projects are intended to have a positive effect on the well-being of organisations and their employees through artistic means, and the artist often focuses on the social interaction between the employees in their work. The artists’ work involves frequent interaction with coworkers. The aim of this article was to describe how visual artists’ roles as artists are affected by their engagement in artistic and social projects at workplaces in Sweden. The focus in the article is on the social interaction between artists and employees. The study is a qualitative narrative interview study with fine artists participating in different projects in work life. Since the artist's intervention is usually directed towards social relations in the workplaces, a social perspective on well-being is from a micro-sociological point of view. The categories in the interviews were how the artists worked with the projects, how the social interaction between artists and coworkers worked out, and how the artists evaluated the projects in relation to their ambitions. The results show that, many times, the artistic projects promote well-being in organisations and to some extent benefit the artist, but that the ability of the artists to actually function as artists can be problematic. PMID:27167555

  8. Exploring the High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Molecules that can Affect the Quality of your Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Terry A.

    2014-06-01

    Few things affect your quality of life more than the air you breathe and the temperature of your immediate environment. Since more than 80% of the energy used in the industrialized world today is still derived from fossil fuels, these two quantities are not unrelated. Most organic molecules injected into the troposphere are degraded via oxidative processes involving free radical intermediates, and many of these intermediates are the same as the ones involved in the combustion of fossil fuels. Key oxidizing intermediates are hydroxyl, OH (day), and nitrate, NO_3 (night), and early intermediates of oxidized organic compounds include the alkoxy (RO) and peroxy (RO_2) families of radicals. Recently we have explored the spectroscopy of RO, RO_2, and NO_3 radicals both for diagnostic purposes and to characterize their molecular properties and benchmark quantum chemistry calculations. We have utilized moderate resolution cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) to study ambient temperature radicals and high resolution CRDS and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) to study jet-cooled radicals. Peroxy radicals and NO_3 have weak tilde{A}-tilde{X} electronic transitions in the near infrared which we have studied with CRDS. Comparable LIF measurements have been made for the alkoxy species in the UV. Both vibrational and rotational resolution of the electronic spectra is observed. Data obtained from the spectral observations provide information about both the geometric and electronic structure of these radicals as well as their dynamics and also provide the capability for unambiguous diagnostics of their concentrations and reactions.

  9. Do Afterlife Beliefs Affect Psychological Adjustment to Late-Life Spousal Loss?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We explore whether beliefs about the existence and nature of an afterlife affect 5 psychological symptoms (anxiety, anger, depression, intrusive thoughts, and yearning) among recently bereaved older spouses. Method. We conduct multivariate regression analyses using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC), a prospective study of spousal loss. The CLOC obtained data from bereaved persons prior to loss and both 6 and 18 months postloss. All analyses are adjusted for health, sociodemographic characteristics, and preloss marital quality. Results. Bleak or uncertain views about the afterlife are associated with multiple aspects of distress postloss. Uncertainty about the existence of an afterlife is associated with elevated intrusive thoughts, a symptom similar to posttraumatic distress. Widowed persons who do not expect to be reunited with loved ones in the afterlife report significantly more depressive symptoms, anger, and intrusive thoughts at both 6 and 18 months postloss. Discussion. Beliefs in an afterlife may be maladaptive for coping with late-life spousal loss, particularly if one is uncertain about its existence or holds a pessimistic view of what the afterlife entails. Our findings are broadly consistent with recent work suggesting that “continuing bonds” with the decedent may not be adaptive for older bereaved spouses. PMID:23811692

  10. Thresholds of hypoxia for marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Vaquer-Sunyer, Raquel; Duarte, Carlos M

    2008-10-01

    Hypoxia is a mounting problem affecting the world's coastal waters, with severe consequences for marine life, including death and catastrophic changes. Hypoxia is forecast to increase owing to the combined effects of the continued spread of coastal eutrophication and global warming. A broad comparative analysis across a range of contrasting marine benthic organisms showed that hypoxia thresholds vary greatly across marine benthic organisms and that the conventional definition of 2 mg O(2)/liter to designate waters as hypoxic is below the empirical sublethal and lethal O(2) thresholds for half of the species tested. These results imply that the number and area of coastal ecosystems affected by hypoxia and the future extent of hypoxia impacts on marine life have been generally underestimated. PMID:18824689

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production from Marine Macroalgae: a Latvian Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilicka, Iluta; Blumberga, Dagnija; Romagnoli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    There is potential environmental benefit to be gained from the use of algae because of their ability to fix CO2, no need for direct land use and utilization of bio-waste (rich in potassium, phosphate and nitrogen based compounds) as a nutrients. The aim of the research is to assess the impact of biogas production and the final use in a cogeneration unit system from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in comparison with a similar reference system using a non-renewable source (e.g. natural gas). The paper is intended to be a preliminary study for understanding the implementation of this novel technology in a Latvian context.

  12. Does mating behaviour affect connectivity in marine fishes? Comparative population genetics of two protogynous groupers (Family Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Portnoy, D S; Hollenbeck, C M; Renshaw, M A; Cummings, N J; Gold, J R

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic larval duration (PLD) has been hypothesized to be the primary predictor of connectivity in marine fishes; however, few studies have examined the effects that adult reproductive behaviour may have on realized dispersal. We assessed gene flow (connectivity) by documenting variation in microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences in two protogynous species of groupers, the aggregate spawning red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, and the single-male, harem-spawning coney, Cephalopholis fulva, to ask whether reproductive strategy affects connectivity. Samples of both species were obtained from waters off three islands (Puerto Rico, St. Thomas and St. Croix) in the Caribbean Sea. Despite the notion that aggregate spawning of red hind may facilitate larval retention, stronger signals of population structure were detected in the harem-spawning coney. Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on microsatellites, involved St. Croix (red hind and coney) and the west coast of Puerto Rico (coney). Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on mitochondrial DNA, involved St. Croix (coney only). Genetic divergence in both species was stronger for microsatellites than for mitochondrial DNA, suggesting sex-biased dispersal in both species. Long-term migration rates, based on microsatellites, indicated asymmetric gene flow for both species in the same direction as mean surface currents in the region. Red hind had higher levels of variation in microsatellites and lower levels of variation in mitochondrial DNA. Long-term effective size and effective number of breeders were greater for red hind; estimates of θ(f) , a proxy for long-term effective female size, were the same in both species. Patterns of gene flow in both species appear to stem in part from shared aspects of larval and adult biology, local bathymetry and surface current patterns. Differences in connectivity and levels of genetic variation between the species, however, likely stem from differences in behaviour

  13. Yes, but are they happy? Effects of trait self-control on affective well-being and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Luhmann, Maike; Fisher, Rachel R; Vohs, Kathleen D; Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-08-01

    Does trait self-control (TSC) predict affective well-being and life satisfaction--positively, negatively, or not? We conducted three studies (Study 1: N = 414, 64% female, Mage = 35.0 years; Study 2: N = 208, 66% female, Mage = 25.24 years; Study 3: N = 234, 61% female, Mage = 34.53 years). The key predictor was TSC, with affective well-being and life satisfaction ratings as key outcomes. Potential explanatory constructs including goal conflict, goal balancing, and emotional distress also were investigated. TSC is positively related to affective well-being and life satisfaction, and managing goal conflict is a key as to why. All studies, moreover, showed that the effect of TSC on life satisfaction is at least partially mediated by affect. Study 1's correlational study established the effect. Study 2's experience sampling approach demonstrated that compared to those low in TSC, those high in TSC experience higher levels of momentary affect even as they experience desire, an effect partially mediated through experiencing lower conflict and emotional distress. Study 3 found evidence for the proposed mechanism--that TSC may boost well-being by helping people avoid frequent conflict and balance vice-virtue conflicts by favoring virtues. Self-control positively contributes to happiness through avoiding and dealing with motivational conflict. PMID:23750741

  14. Combined effects of marinating and γ-irradiation in ensuring safety, protection of nutritional value and increase in shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat for immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Ben Fadhel, Yosra; Leroy, Valentin; Dussault, Dominic; St-Yves, France; Lauzon, Martine; Salmieri, Stéphane; Jamshidian, Majid; Vu, Dang Khanh; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining marinating and γ-irradiation at doses of 1, 1.5 and 3kGy on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Clostridium sporogenes in raw meat packed under vacuum and stored at 4°C and to estimate its safety and shelf-life. Further, the effect of combined treatments on sensorial, nutritional values (lipid oxidation, concentration of thiamin and riboflavin) and color was evaluated. The study demonstrated that the use of marinade in combination with a low dose of γ-irradiation (1.5kGy) could act in synergy to reduce to undetectable level of pathogenic bacteria and increase the shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat loin without affecting its sensorial and nutritional quality. PMID:27043970

  15. Factors affecting life cycle assessment of milk produced on 6 Mediterranean buffalo farms.

    PubMed

    Pirlo, G; Carè, S; Fantin, V; Falconi, F; Buttol, P; Terzano, G M; Masoni, P; Pacelli, C

    2014-10-01

    This study quantifies the environmental impact of milk production of Italian Mediterranean buffaloes and points out the farm characteristics that mainly affect their environmental performance. Life cycle assessment was applied in a sample of 6 farms. The functional unit was 1 kg of normalized buffalo milk (LBN), with a reference milk fat and protein content of 8.3 and 4.73%, respectively. The system boundaries included the agricultural phase of the buffalo milk chain from cradle to farm gate. An economic criterion was adopted to allocate the impacts on milk production. Impact categories investigated were global warming (GW), abiotic depletion (AD), photochemical ozone formation (PO), acidification (AC), and eutrophication (EU). The contribution to the total results of the following farm activities were investigated: (1) on-farm energy consumption, (2) manure management, (3) manure application, (4) on-farm feed production (comprising production and application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides), (5) purchased feed production, (6) enteric fermentation, and (7) transport of purchased feeds, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides from producers to farms. Global warming associated with 1 kg of LBN resulted in 5.07 kg of CO₂ Eq [coefficient of variation (CV)=21.9%], AD was 3.5 × 10(-3) kg of Sb Eq (CV=51.7%), PO was 6.8 × 10(-4) kg of C₂H₄ Eq (CV=28.8%), AC was 6.5 × 10(-2) kg of SO₂ Eq (CV=30.3%), and EU was 3.3 × 10(-2) kg of PO₄(3-) Eq (CV=36.5%). The contribution of enteric fermentation and manure application to GW is 37 and 20%, respectively; on-farm consumption, on-farm feed production, and purchased feed production are the main contributors to AD; about 70% of PO is due to enteric fermentation; manure management and manure application are responsible for 55 and 25% of AC and 25 and 55% of EU, respectively. Methane and N₂O are responsible for 44 and 43% of GW, respectively. Crude oil consumption is responsible for about 72% of AD; contribution of

  16. Demographic factors affecting quality of life of hemodialysis patients – Lahore, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Anees, Muhammad; Malik, Muzammil Riaz; Abbasi, Tanzeel; Nasir, Zeeshan; Hussain, Yasir; Ibrahim, Muhamamd

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the demographic factors affecting Quality Of Life (QOL) of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: This observational study was conducted at Shalamar Hospital, Lahore. Patients of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and on maintenance HD for more than three months were included during the period March to June 2012. Patient of ESRD not on dialysis and Acute Renal Failure were excluded. One hundred and twenty five patients who fulfilled the criteria were included. Demographic data containing age, sex, residence, socio economic status, education, mode of traveling for dialysis, total time consumed in dialysis were collected by the investigators. QOL index was measured using 26 items, WHO QOL BREF. Results: There were 89(71.2%) male and 36(28.8%) female patients. Environmental domain score was highest (p=0.000) than all other domains in HD Patients. In overall analysis age, marital status and total time consumed in getting HD effect QOL significantly (p=<0.05). In domain wise analysis, male has better QOL in social relationship domain than female. Age has negative relationship with physical health and psychological health domain. QOL of unmarried and literate patients is significantly better (p=<0.05) in physical health domain. Employed patients have better QOL in physical, psychological and social relationship domain (p=<0.05) than unemployed patients. Patients of residence of rural areas have better QOL in physical and environment domain. Financial status of HD patients affect QOL in social domain. Distance covered to reach hospital effect QOL in psychological domain (p=<0.05). Patients traveling in private transport have better QOL in environmental domain (p=<0.05). Total time consumed in getting HD effect social relation in QOL (p=<0.05). According to linear regression model, marital status is positive predictor and unemployment is negative predictor of QOL in physical health domain. Age is negative predictor of QOL in

  17. Normative life events and PTSD in children: how easy stress can affect children's brain.

    PubMed

    Kousha, Maryam; Mehdizadeh Tehrani, Shervin

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic events is common in children and adolescent. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional reaction to traumatic events, which is increasingly recognized to be a prevalent and disabling disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of normative life events which predicts PTSD in youth who referred to an outpatient clinic in Rasht, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The samples of children and adolescents ranging from 1-18 yr old who were diagnosed PTSD based on DSM-IV criteria in psychiatric interview and K-SADS (Kiddie-schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia for school age children) semi-structured diagnostic interview, from 2005 until 2008.The information consist of: age, sex, comorbidity with PTSD, events accompanying with PTSD, and time interval between events and visit. Eighty four youth who met the diagnosis of PTSD and their parents participated in the survey. Half of PTSD youth were 6-11 years old and admitted to clinic in the first 3 months after events. The most common events were witnessing violent or fearful scenes on TV followed by witnessing someone's death or funeral ceremony. The most comorbidity with PTSD included: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Our results indicate that youth exposure to violent or fearful scenes on TV could be very traumatic for them. Informing parents about the potential effect of low-magnitude stressors such as violent or fearful scenes on TV and funeral ceremony can decrease the prevalence of PTSD in youth. PMID:23456584

  18. Factors affecting toxicity test endpoints in sensitive life stages of native Gulf of Mexico species.

    PubMed

    Echols, B S; Smith, A J; Rand, G M; Seda, B C

    2015-05-01

    Indigenous species are less commonly used in laboratory aquatic toxicity tests compared with standard test species due to (1) limited availability lack of requisite information necessary for their acclimation and maintenance under laboratory conditions and (2) lack of information on their sensitivity and the reproducibility of toxicity test results. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment aquatic toxicity program in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil incident (2010), sensitive life stages of native Gulf of Mexico species were evaluated in laboratory toxicity tests to determine the potential effects of the spill. Fish (n = 5) and invertebrates (n = 2) selected for this program include the following: the Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), spotted sea trout (Cynoscion nebulosus), cobia (Rachycentron canadum), red porgy (Pagrus pagrus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and the common moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita). Initially in the program, to establish part of the background information, acute tests with reference toxicants (CdCl2, KCl, CuSO4) were performed with each species to establish data on intraspecies variability and test precision as well as identify other factors that may affect toxicity results. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated for each acute toxicity test with average LC50 values ranging from 248 to 862 mg/L for fish exposures to potassium chloride. Variability between test results was determined for each species by calculating the coefficient of variation (%CV) based on LC50 values. CVs ranged from 11.2 % for pompano (96-h LC50 value) to 74.8 % for red porgy 24-h tests. Cadmium chloride acute toxicity tests with the jellyfish A. aurita had the lowest overall CV of 3.6 %. By understanding acute toxicity to these native organisms from a compound with known toxicity ranges and the variability in test results, acute tests with nonstandard species can be better interpreted and used

  19. Do Physical Therapy Interventions Affect Urinary Incontinence and Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Monica; Melnick, Marsha; Allen, Diane D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) presents with many debilitating symptoms, including urinary incontinence (UI), that physical therapy (PT) may address; UI is widely prevalent, but PT management of symptoms lacks consensus. A meta-analysis of long-term nonsurgical and nonpharmaceutical treatment options may supply this deficiency. We analyzed the current evidence for effectiveness of PT to decrease UI and improve quality of life (QOL) in people with MS. Methods: An electronic search conducted through November 26, 2013, included the following search terms: incontinence, bladder dysfunction, urinary incontinence, multiple sclerosis, MS, physical therapy, physiotherapy, therapy, and rehabilitation. Criteria for inclusion were as follows: MS diagnosis, intervention involved PT for UI or bladder dysfunction, outcomes assessed QOL or UI, and at least a 4 of 10 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale or a 2b level of evidence. Outcomes were combined across studies, and effect sizes are depicted in forest plots. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Between-group analysis revealed statistically significant differences in incontinence episodes and QOL, but did not reach significance for functional control mechanisms (eg, electromyography data on strength of contraction, relaxation, and endurance). Incontinence leakage episodes and QOL participation improved within groups. Conclusions: Meta-analysis indicates support for PT for minimizing incontinence compared with pretreatment and affecting incontinence and QOL more than control in people with MS. Protocols were heterogeneous regarding duration and type of PT intervention and were applied in different types of MS. Further research may reveal the most effective combination and variety of PT interventions for people with MS. PMID:26300703

  20. Milestone Age Affects the Role of Health and Emotions in Life Satisfaction: A Preliminary Inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Miron-Shatz, Talya; Bhargave, Rajesh; Doniger, Glen M.

    2015-01-01

    Jill turns 40. Should this change how she evaluates her life, and would a similar change occur when she turns 41? Milestone age (e.g., 30, 40, 50)—a naturally occurring feature in personal timelines—has received much attention is popular culture, but little attention in academic inquiry. This study examines whether milestone birthdays change the way people evaluate their life. We show that life outlook is impacted by this temporal landmark, which appears to punctuate people’s mental maps of their life cycle. At these milestone junctures, people take stock of where they stand and have a more evaluative perspective towards their lives when making life satisfaction judgments. Correspondingly, they place less emphasis on daily emotional experiences. We find that milestone agers (vs. other individuals) place greater weight on health satisfaction and BMI and lesser weight on daily positive emotions in their overall life satisfaction judgments, whereas negative emotions remain influential. PMID:26244348

  1. Milestone Age Affects the Role of Health and Emotions in Life Satisfaction: A Preliminary Inquiry.

    PubMed

    Miron-Shatz, Talya; Bhargave, Rajesh; Doniger, Glen M

    2015-01-01

    Jill turns 40. Should this change how she evaluates her life, and would a similar change occur when she turns 41? Milestone age (e.g., 30, 40, 50)--a naturally occurring feature in personal timelines--has received much attention is popular culture, but little attention in academic inquiry. This study examines whether milestone birthdays change the way people evaluate their life. We show that life outlook is impacted by this temporal landmark, which appears to punctuate people's mental maps of their life cycle. At these milestone junctures, people take stock of where they stand and have a more evaluative perspective towards their lives when making life satisfaction judgments. Correspondingly, they place less emphasis on daily emotional experiences. We find that milestone agers (vs. other individuals) place greater weight on health satisfaction and BMI and lesser weight on daily positive emotions in their overall life satisfaction judgments, whereas negative emotions remain influential. PMID:26244348

  2. Modelling dispersal dynamics of the early life stages of a marine flatfish (Solea solea L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Geneviève; Maes, Gregory E.; Bolle, Loes J.; Volckaert, Filip A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Connectivity throughout the life cycle of flatfish remains an open question, especially during the early life stages. Their effective management requires understanding of how spawning grounds and nurseries are connected and what processes influence larval retention and dispersal. The case of sole (Solea solea L.) is of particular interest because it is one of the most valuable commercial species in the North Sea, although stocks are chronically overexploited and variability in interannual recruitment is high. The transport of sole larvae from the spawning grounds to the nurseries is driven by hydrodynamic processes, but the final dispersal pattern and larval survival/abundance might be influenced by both behavioral and environmental factors. Therefore it is important to understand the relative impact of hydrodynamics, environment, behavior and ecophysiology on sole larval dispersal. Here we use a particle-tracking transport model coupled to a 3D hydro-dynamic model of the North Sea to investigate interannual variability of the transport of sole larvae over a 12-year period (1995-2006). A sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the relative impact of hydrodynamics, temperature and behavior on the recruitment dynamics to the nurseries. Four scenarios have been tested: (i) constant forcing of sea surface temperature during all years but varying meteorological forcing and river runoff, (ii) constant meteorological forcing during the whole period but varying sea surface temperature and river runoff, (iii) no vertical migration and (iv) an extended drift period (max. 30 days) before settlement if the larvae are not close to a suitable sediment type. Results suggest that year-to-year variability of larval supply to the nurseries is high, both in terms of abundance and larval source (balance between retention and dispersal). Sensitivity analysis shows that larval abundance at the end of the larval stage increases considerably if a settling delay is included. The impact

  3. Procrastination, Self-Regulation Failure, Academic Life Satisfaction, and Affective Well-Being: Underregulation or Misregulation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of self-regulation failure in procrastination. In addition, it also aimed to investigate the effects of procrastination on affective well-being and academic life satisfaction. Three hundred and twenty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The most obvious finding emerging from this…

  4. Positive and Negative Affectivity as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Optimism and Life Satisfaction in Turkish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapikiran, Necla Acun

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the mediator and moderator role of positive and negative affectivity variables on the relationship between optimism and life satisfaction in university students. 397 university students, ranging in age from 18 to 27 (M = 20.98), attending different departments of the Faculty of Education, at Pamukkale…

  5. Differences in Affect, Life Satisfaction, and Depression between Successfully and Unsuccessfully Rehabilitated Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Martha H.; Holbert, Donald

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed whether persons with spinal cord injuries who were successfully rehabilitated differed from those who were not with regard to positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and depression. An ex post facto research design compared persons with spinal cord injuries who were previously employed with persons with spinal cord…

  6. Towards a Model for Mapping Participation: Exploring Factors Affecting Participation in a Telecollaborative Learning Scenario in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Airong; Deutschmann, Mats; Steinvall, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine factors affecting participation in telecollaborative language courses conducted in virtual world environments. From recordings of a course in sociolinguistics conducted in Second Life (SL), we determine degrees of linguistic participation (voice and chat), and triangulate these data with questionnaire…

  7. Linkages between life history type and migration pathways in freshwater and marine environments for Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rishi; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2012-05-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, are commonly categorized as ocean-type (migrating to the ocean in their first year of life) or stream-type (migrating after a full year in freshwater). These two forms have been hypothesized to display different ocean migration pathways; the former are hypothesized to migrate primarily on the continental shelf whereas the latter are hypothesized to migrate off the shelf to the open ocean. These differences in migration patterns have important implications for management, as fishing mortality rates are strongly influenced by ocean migration. Ocean-type Chinook salmon predominate in coastal rivers in the southern part of the species' range, whereas stream-type predominate in the interior and northerly rivers. This latitudinal gradient has confounded previous efforts to test the hypothesis regarding ocean migration pathways. To address this problem, we used a pair-wise design based on coded wire tagging data to compare the marine distributions of stream- and ocean-type Chinook salmon from a suite of rivers producing both forms. Both forms of Chinook salmon from the lower Columbia River, Oregon coast, lower Fraser River, and northern British Columbia rivers followed similar migration paths, contradicting the hypothesis. In contrast, recoveries of tagged Chinook salmon from the upper Columbia River, Snake River, and the upper Fraser River revealed migration patterns consistent with the hypothesis. These findings have important implications for our understanding of these life history types, and also for the conservation and management of declining, threatened, or endangered stream-type Chinook salmon populations in the US and Canada.

  8. Psychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How Are They Affected by Infertility, Gender, and Parenthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Longitudinally examined effects of infertility on marital and global life quality with 174 infertile couples and 74 fertile couples. By third interview, 42% of infertile couples and 36% of fertile couples were parents. Psychosocial predictors of life quality were highly similar for members of infertile and fertile couples and for couples with and…

  9. Role of Virtues and Perceived Life Stress in Affecting Psychological Symptoms among Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Siu, Bowie P. Y.; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship among virtues, self-perceived life stress, and psychological symptoms. Participants: A total of 235 undergraduates participated in the study in March 2013. Methods: The participants were recruited to complete the Life Stress Rating Scale for College Students, the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire that…

  10. Affective Isolation as a Coping Strategy for Persons with Low and High Amounts of Life Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, John F.; Spridigliozzi, Gail A.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the effect of a laboratory-induced stress (failure feedback) on persons with differing levels of life stress. Proposed that differing levels of previous life stress cause people to make varying judgments about the degree of threat in a short-term stressful situation. (Author)

  11. Remote Sensing of Marine Life and Submerged Target Motions with Ocean Waveguide Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zheng

    acoustics. This is very important for many sonar applications, such as localizing and tracking underwater vehicles and vocalizing marine mammal populations. Instantaneous passive source localization applying the (1) synthetic aperture tracking, (2) array invariant, (3) bearings-only target motion analysis in modified polar coordinates via the extended Kalman filter, and (4) bearings-migration minimum mean-square error methods using measurements made on a single towed horizontal receiver array in a random range-dependent ocean waveguide are examined. These methods are employed to localize and track a vertical source array deployed in the far-field of a towed horizontal receiver array during the Gulf of Maine 2006 Experiment. The source transmitted intermittent broadband pulses in the 300--1200 Hz frequency range. All four methods are found to be comparable with average errors of between 9% to 13% in estimating the mean source positions in a wide variety of source-receiver geometries and range separations up to 20 km. In the case of a relatively stationary source, the synthetic aperture tracking outperformed the other three methods by a factor of two with only 4% error. For a moving source, the Kalman filter method yielded the best performance with 8% error. The array invariant was the best approach for localizing sources within the endfire beam of the receiver array with less than 10% error.

  12. Geographical Area and Life History Traits Influence Diet in an Arctic Marine Predator

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Global changes are thought to affect most Arctic species, yet some populations are more at risk. Today, the Barents Sea ecoregion is suffering the strongest sea ice retreat ever measured; and these changes are suspected to modify food access and thus diet of several species. Biochemical diet tracers enable investigation of diet in species such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). We examined individual diet variation of female polar bears in Svalbard, Norway, and related it to year, season (spring and autumn), sampling area and breeding status (solitary, with cubs of the year or yearlings). Sampling areas were split according to their ice cover: North-West (less sea ice cover), South-East (larger amplitude in sea ice extent) and North-East/South-West (NESW) as bears from that zone are more mobile among all regions of Svalbard. We measured fatty acid (FA) composition in adipose tissue and carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopes in plasma and red blood cells. Females feeding in the North-West area had lower δ15N values than those from the NESW. In South-East females, δ13C values were lower in autumn compared to spring and females seemed less selective in their diet as depicted by large variances in stable isotope values. Considering the differences in FA composition and stable isotope values, we suggest that females from the North-West and South-East could ingest a higher proportion of avian prey. With regard to breeding status, solitary females had higher δ15N values and smaller variance in their stable isotopic values than females with cubs, suggesting that solitary females were more selective and prey on higher trophic level species (i.e. seals). Overall, our results indicate that prey availability for Svalbard polar bears varies according to geographical area and prey selectivity differs according to breeding status. Our findings suggest that complex changes in sea ice and prey availability will interact to affect Svalbard polar bear feeding patterns

  13. Geographical Area and Life History Traits Influence Diet in an Arctic Marine Predator.

    PubMed

    Tartu, Sabrina; Bourgeon, Sophie; Aars, Jon; Andersen, Magnus; Ehrich, Dorothee; Thiemann, Gregory W; Welker, Jeffrey M; Routti, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Global changes are thought to affect most Arctic species, yet some populations are more at risk. Today, the Barents Sea ecoregion is suffering the strongest sea ice retreat ever measured; and these changes are suspected to modify food access and thus diet of several species. Biochemical diet tracers enable investigation of diet in species such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). We examined individual diet variation of female polar bears in Svalbard, Norway, and related it to year, season (spring and autumn), sampling area and breeding status (solitary, with cubs of the year or yearlings). Sampling areas were split according to their ice cover: North-West (less sea ice cover), South-East (larger amplitude in sea ice extent) and North-East/South-West (NESW) as bears from that zone are more mobile among all regions of Svalbard. We measured fatty acid (FA) composition in adipose tissue and carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopes in plasma and red blood cells. Females feeding in the North-West area had lower δ15N values than those from the NESW. In South-East females, δ13C values were lower in autumn compared to spring and females seemed less selective in their diet as depicted by large variances in stable isotope values. Considering the differences in FA composition and stable isotope values, we suggest that females from the North-West and South-East could ingest a higher proportion of avian prey. With regard to breeding status, solitary females had higher δ15N values and smaller variance in their stable isotopic values than females with cubs, suggesting that solitary females were more selective and prey on higher trophic level species (i.e. seals). Overall, our results indicate that prey availability for Svalbard polar bears varies according to geographical area and prey selectivity differs according to breeding status. Our findings suggest that complex changes in sea ice and prey availability will interact to affect Svalbard polar bear feeding patterns

  14. Physical Activity, Menopause, and Quality of Life: The Role of Affect and Self-Worth across Time

    PubMed Central

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2009-01-01

    Objective Physical activity has been shown to enhance quality of life, however, few investigations of these effects exist in women undergoing the menopausal transition. The present study examined the long-term effects of physical activity on menopause-related quality of life (QOL) and tested the mediating effects of physical self-worth and positive affect in this relationship. Design Middle-aged women previously enrolled in a 4-month randomized controlled trial involving walking, yoga, and a control group completed a follow-up mail-in survey two years following the end of the trial. The survey included a battery of psychological and physical activity measures, including measures of menopausal symptoms and menopause-related quality of life. Longitudinal linear panel analysis was conducted within a covariance modeling framework to test whether physical self-worth and positive affect mediated the physical activity - quality of life relationship over time. Results At the end of the trial, physical activity and menopausal symptoms were related to physical self-worth and positive affect, and in turn, greater levels of physical self-worth and positive affect were associated with higher levels of menopause-related QOL. Analyses indicated that increases in physical activity and decreases in menopausal symptoms over the 2-year period were related to increases in physical self-worth (βs = .23 and −.52) and for symptoms also to decreased positive affect (β = −.47), and both physical self-worth (β = .34) and affect (β = .43) directly influenced enhancements in QOL (R2 = .775). Conclusions The findings support the position that physical activity effects on QOL are in part mediated by intermediate psychological outcomes and that physical activity can have long-term benefits for women undergoing the menopausal transition. PMID:19169167

  15. Analysis of the Pseudoalteromonas tunicata Genome Reveals Properties of a Surface-Associated Life Style in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Torsten; Evans, Flavia F.; Schleheck, David; Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Burke, Catherine; Penesyan, Anahit; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Stelzer-Braid, Sacha; Saunders, Neil; Johnson, Justin; Ferriera, Steve; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Egan, Suhelen

    2008-01-01

    Background Colonisation of sessile eukaryotic host surfaces (e.g. invertebrates and seaweeds) by bacteria is common in the marine environment and is expected to create significant inter-species competition and other interactions. The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a successful competitor on marine surfaces owing primarily to its ability to produce a number of inhibitory molecules. As such P. tunicata has become a model organism for the studies into processes of surface colonisation and eukaryotic host-bacteria interactions. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain a broader understanding into the adaptation to a surface-associated life-style, we have sequenced and analysed the genome of P. tunicata and compared it to the genomes of closely related strains. We found that the P. tunicata genome contains several genes and gene clusters that are involved in the production of inhibitory compounds against surface competitors and secondary colonisers. Features of P. tunicata's oxidative stress response, iron scavenging and nutrient acquisition show that the organism is well adapted to high-density communities on surfaces. Variation of the P. tunicata genome is suggested by several landmarks of genetic rearrangements and mobile genetic elements (e.g. transposons, CRISPRs, phage). Surface attachment is likely to be mediated by curli, novel pili, a number of extracellular polymers and potentially other unexpected cell surface proteins. The P. tunicata genome also shows a utilisation pattern of extracellular polymers that would avoid a degradation of its recognised hosts, while potentially causing detrimental effects on other host types. In addition, the prevalence of recognised virulence genes suggests that P. tunicata has the potential for pathogenic interactions. Conclusions/Significance The genome analysis has revealed several physiological features that would provide P. tunciata with competitive advantage against other members of the surface-associated community

  16. Watershed-Marine Linkages: Monitoring how Terrigenous Runoff and Wave-Induced Resuspension Affect Marine Sediment Dynamics in Bays with Coral Reefs, St. John, USVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, S.; Gray, S. C.; Whinney, J.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Campbell, S.; LaFevor, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    In the USVI, land-based sedimentation in coastal marine environments has increased due to watershed development and is a major cause of coral reef degradation. Watershed runoff and wave/current-induced resuspension of benthic sediment contribute to turbidity/sedimentation. Our objectives are to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of marine sediment dynamics in response to runoff and resuspension in shoreline and reef areas of St. John, USVI, and directly compare the efficacy of time-integrated vs. high-resolution sediment monitoring approaches. To complement a six-year sediment trap study of sedimentation, nephelometers (10-min resolution) were deployed alongside sediment traps (26 day resolution) at four ephemeral stream outfalls and three reefs sites below comparable developed and minimally developed catchments. Watershed runoff was monitored using stream (10-min resolution) and peak crest (2-week resolution) gauges. Mean turbidity/deposition were 4/5 times greater at shore compared to reef sites, 5/6 times greater below developed compared to minimally developed catchments, 2/4 times greater during runoff compared to non-runoff periods, and 100/500 times background levels (time series median) following the largest runoff event of the 5-month time series. Turbidity values due to resuspension during non-runoff periods were primarily controlled by wave height (71% of the variability), tides, and the presence of finer sediment grains. However, the relative contribution to total sedimentation of resuspension vs. watershed runoff varied spatially between sites due to variations in bay geography, benthic sediment grain size, and catchment characteristics. Sediment traps and nephelometers recorded generally consistent temporal patterns of sedimentation at most sites. Though our study confirmed that watershed development increases turbidity and deposition in bays with coral reefs, multiple processes govern sediment dynamics and the distribution of sediments

  17. Autoimmunity affects health-related quality of life in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Bektas Uysal, Hilal; Ayhan, Mediha

    2016-08-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most common endocrine disorder leading to hypothyroidism. HT is characterized by the presence of elevated circulating antibodies, especially anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg). In our study, we aimed to reveal the effects of autoimmunity on health-related quality of life of euthyroid HT patients. Patients who were admitted to the Adnan Menderes University Outpatient Clinic were enrolled. The medical records of the patients were surveyed and their demographical data were collected. By using communication data, the patients were invited to our clinic, to inform them about our study and to fill out the health-related quality of life questionnaire. A total of 84 euthyroid HT patients older than 18 years who completed the short form-36 questionnaire, were enrolled. As all patients were euthyroid, there was a significant negative correlation between each domain score and the antibody levels, individually. Patients who had higher anti-TPO and anti-Tg levels had significantly lower quality of life domain scores (p < 0.001). There was statistically no significant correlation between the antibody levels and thyroid function tests (p > 0.05). Additionally, all dimension scores were significantly higher both in the anti-Tg and anti-TPO negative groups, indicating a better quality of life than that in the antibody positive groups. Our study revealed that higher thyroid antibody levels were negatively correlated with life quality scores. Thus, patients who had higher anti-TPO and anti-Tg levels had significantly lower quality of life domain scores. We believe that apart from hypothyroidism, a high antibody level was one of the contributing factors for the development of HT-associated symptoms, leading to a lower quality of life. Other probable contributing factors such as selenium deficiency, thyroid hormone fluctuation, and disease awareness should keep in mind. PMID:27523457

  18. Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD): Integrative Study of Marine Ice Sheet Stability and Subglacial Life Habitats (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulaczyk, S. M.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Behar, A. E.; Christner, B. C.; Fisher, A. T.; Fricker, H. A.; Holland, D. M.; Jacobel, R. W.; Mikucki, J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Powell, R. D.; Priscu, J. C.; Scherer, R. P.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    The WISSARD project is a large, NSF-funded, interdisciplinary initiative focused on scientific drilling, exploration, and investigation of Antarctic subglacial aquatic environments. The project consists of three interrelated components: (1) LISSARD - Lake and Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling, (2) RAGES - Robotic Access to Grounding-zones for Exploration and Science, and (3) GBASE - GeomicroBiology of Antarctic Subglacial Environments). A number of previous studies in West Antarctica highlighted the importance of understanding ice sheet interactions with water, either at the basal boundary where ice streams come in contact with active subglacial hydrologic and geological systems or at the marine margin where the ice sheet is exposed to forcing from the global ocean and sedimentation. Recent biological investigations of Antarctic subglacial environments show that they provide a significant habitat for life and source of bacterial carbon in a setting that was previously thought to be inhospitable. Subglacial microbial ecosystems also enhance biogeochemical weathering, mobilizing elements from long term geological storage. The overarching scientific objective of WISSARD is to examine the subglacial hydrological system of West Antarctica in glaciological, geological, microbiological, geochemical, and oceanographic contexts. Direct sampling will yield seminal information on these systems and test the overarching hypothesis that active hydrological systems connect various subglacial environments and exert major control on ice sheet dynamics, subglacial sediment transfer, geochemistry, metabolic and phylogenetic diversity, and biogeochemical transformations and geological records of ice sheet history. Technological advances during WISSARD will provide the US-science community with a capability to access and study sub-ice sheet environments. Developing this technological infrastructure will benefit the broader science community and it will be available for

  19. The Dynamic Response of Marine Life to Extreme Temperature and Low Oxygen Events Following the End-Permian Mass Extinction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, C.; Bottjer, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction was the most devastating taxonomic and ecological crisis in the history of life on Earth. The recovery lasted 5 My making it the longest in geologic history, although the cause of the delay is still heavily debated. We find that additional environmental changes during the recovery interval reset the attempts that marine communities made toward ecological complexity, resulting in the overall appearance of a stagnant recovery. The extinction mechanisms during the end-Permian include extreme temperature change and low oxygen environments resulting from the volcanic emission of carbon dioxide and other toxic gasses to the atmosphere. The biotic response to ancient environmental change is a direct analog for the ecological impacts of modern anthropogenic climate change. We applied an ecological recovery rubric to benthic, sea floor dwelling, communities throughout the Early Triassic recovery in two major ocean basins. Newly collected bulk fossil data from the Moenkopi and Thaynes Formations from the Southwest US and the Werfen Formation in Italy were analyzed along with literature data. In Italy, directly following the extinction, low oxygen environments prevented an ecological rebound. Once low oxygen conditions receded, 600 kyr after the extinction, taxonomic diversity, fossil body size, and trace fossil complexity rebounded. A little more than 1 My into the Early Triassic, an extreme temperature event resulted in a reset of community complexity in both Italy and the Southwest US. The body size of gastropods and the repopulation of echinoderms were significantly inhibited as was trace fossil complexity. Low oxygen conditions that developed in the last ~2My of the Early Triassic limited diversity and body size in the Southwest United States. The stagnant recovery is re-interpreted as dynamic resets and rapid rebounds driven by environmental perturbations throughout the Early Triassic.

  20. Governing the Potentials of Life Itself? Interrogating the Promises in Affective Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staunaes, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    This article critically explores how educational leadership is becoming increasingly affective in order to cultivate pupil potential and thereby meet the challenge of creating the best schools in the world. It critically analyses policy and handbook approaches to affective educational leadership technologies by showing the difficulty in keeping…

  1. Correlates of the Quality of life of Adolescents in families affected by HIV/AIDS in Benue State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akpa, Onoja Matthew; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi

    2015-01-01

    It was estimated that over 260,000 children are living with HIV/AIDS while close to 2 million are directly or indirectly affected by the disease in Nigeria. Improvements in treatments for infected children have been documented in the literature but there is a gross knowledge gap on the impact of HIV/AIDS on the quality of life and psychosocial functioning (PSF) of affected children in Nigeria. We comparatively explored the association of quality of life with PSF and other factors among adolescents in families affected by HIV/AIDS (FAHA) and in families not affected by HIV/AIDS (FNAHA). Data was extracted for 960 adolescents from a State wide cross-sectional study in which participants were selected through multistage sampling techniques. Data was collected using questionnaires consisting of demographic information, adapted WHO-QOL BREF and the Strength & Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ). The quality of life scores were categorized into Poor, Moderate and High based on the amount of standard deviation away from the mean while the SDQ scores were categorized into normal, borderline and abnormal based on the SDQ scoring systems. Chi-square test and independent t-test were used for bivariate analyses while logistic regression was used for multivariate analyses at 5% level of significance. Proportion with poor quality of life (27.0%) was significantly higher among adolescents in FAHA than in FNAHA (p=0.0001). Adolescents in FAHA (OR:2.32; 95%CI:1.67-4.09) were twice more likely to have poor quality of life than those in FNAHA. In FAHA, adolescents on the borderline of PSF (OR:2.19; 95%CI:1.23-3.89) were twice more likely to have poor quality of life than those with normal PSF. Adolescents in FAHA have poorer quality of life than those in FNAHA and also face additional burdens of psychosocial dysfunctions. Interventions focusing on functional social support and economic empowerment will benefit adolescents in FAHA in the studied location. PMID:26587049

  2. Tough Adults, Frail Babies: An Analysis of Stress Sensitivity across Early Life-History Stages of Widely Introduced Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, M. Carmen; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna; Ordóñez, Víctor; Rius, Marc

    2012-01-01

    All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis) were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C), low salinities (26 and 22‰) and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L). Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis), fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success might be

  3. Toward a Life Span Theory of Close Relationships: The Affective Relationships Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Keiko

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses how close relationships can be conceptualized so that they can be accurately understood over the life span. First, two typical clusters of theories of close relationships, the attachment theory and the social network theory, are compared and discussed with regard to their fundamental but controversial assumptions regarding…

  4. Does Change in Functional Performance Affect Quality of Life in Persons with Orthopaedic Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostir, Glenn V.; Berges, Ivonne-Marie; Smith, Pamela M.; Smith, David; Rice, Janida L.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Examine the association between change in functional status and quality of life for individuals with orthopaedic impairments approximately 90 days after discharge from in-patient medical rehabilitation. Methods: A retrospective study from 2001 to 2002 using information from the IT HealthTrack database. The study included…

  5. The Space Physics of Life: Searching for Biosignatures on Habitable Icy Worlds Affected by Space Weathering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2006-01-01

    Accessible surfaces of the most likely astrobiological habitats (Mars, Europa, Titan) in the solar system beyond Earth are exposed to various chemical and hydrologic weathering processes directly or indirectly induced by interaction with the overlying space environment. These processes can be both beneficial, through provision of chemical compounds and energy, and destructive, through chemical dissociation or burial, to detectable presence of biosignatures. Orbital, suborbital, and surface platforms carrying astrobiological instrumentation must survive, and preferably exploit, space environment interactions to reach these habitats and search for evidence of life or its precursors. Experience from Mars suggests that any detection of biosignatures must be accompanied by characterization of the local chemical environment and energy sources including irradiation by solar ultraviolet photons and energetic particles from the space environment. Orbital and suborbital surveys of surface chemistry and astrobiological potential in the context of the space environment should precede targeted in-situ measurements to maximize probability of biosignature detection through site selection. The Space Physics of Life (SPOL) investigation has recently been proposed to the NASA Astrobiology Institute and is briefly described in this presentation. SPOL is the astrobiologically relevant study of the interactions and relationships of potentially? or previously inhabited, bodies of the solar system with the surrounding environments. This requires an interdisciplinary effort in space physics, planetary science, and radiation biology. The proposed investigation addresses the search for habitable environments, chemical resources to support life, and techniques for detection of organic and inorganic signs of life in the context of the space environment.

  6. Does Rurality Affect Quality of Life Following Treatment for Breast Cancer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A.; Cox, Cathy R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present research examined the extent to which rural residence and social support seeking are associated with quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients following chemotherapy. Methods: Female breast cancer patients (n = 46) from communities of varying degrees of rurality in a Midwestern state completed psychological and QOL…

  7. Ways by Which Comparable Income Affects Life Satisfaction in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Leung, Kwan-kwok

    2008-01-01

    Proponents of social equality attribute low life satisfaction to income inequality in society, an inequality which occurs when most people have relatively low income and only a few have high income. In contrast, range-frequency theory and other social comparison theories predict that when most people have low income, they are satisfied because of…

  8. Factors affecting cycle life in ambient temperature of secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R.

    1982-01-01

    Three major factors are discussed: electrode integrity, electrolyte stability, and dendrite formation. It is concluded that elastomers can function as improved binders for rechargeable cathodes. The cathodes can retain integrity under long cycle life with no visual deteriorations. It is found that microelectrodes can be made from powdery cathode materials for voltammetry studies.

  9. Seed and seedling traits affecting critical life stage transitions and recruitment outcomes in dryland grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Seeding native plants is a key management practice to counter land degradation across the globe, yet the majority of seeding efforts fail, limiting the ability of this tool to accelerate ecosystem recovery. 2. Seedling recruitment requires transitions through several life stages, some of which ma...

  10. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kafayat, A Fakoya; Martins, A Anetekhai; Shehu, L Akintola; Abdulwakil, O Sabal; Abass, Mikhail A

    2015-03-01

    The Gorean snapper, Lutanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life-history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90 cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10 cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance ofjuveniles (<20 cm) and sub-adults (20-35 cm) which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99 cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99 cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean +/- SD; 16.19 +/- 3.73 cm) to the marine habitat samples (32.89 +/- 6.14 cm) indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous

  11. Néotectonique affectant les dépôts marins tyrrhéniens du littoral sud-est tunisien : implications pour les variations du niveau marinNeotectonics in the Tyrrhenian marine deposits of the southeastern Tunisian coast: implications for sea level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouaziz, Samir; Jedoui, Younes; Barrier, Éric; Angelier, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Pleistocene marine deposits of so-called Tyrrhenian age in southeastern Tunisia include two lithostratigraphic units of Last Interglacial (marine isotopic substage 5e). The lower unit culminates at about +3 m above the sea level; the upper unit with Strombus bubonius culminates at +5 m. Brittle deformations affected the upper unit. The analysis of fault-slip data sets reveals a post-Tyrrhenian N020°E trending compression, consistent with joint patterns. This event induced limited vertical movements, showing that at the northeastern edge of the Saharan Platform, the coastal area of the southern Tunisia remained relatively stable since at least the Last Interglacial.

  12. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.

    PubMed

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P

    2014-10-01

    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; P<0.001). Life performance of the dams did not differ among clusters. In addition, metabolic parameters (fat and protein yield) were found to correlate significantly with yields between the first and second lactations (milk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms. PMID:25084160

  13. Patients’ report on how endometriosis affects health, work, and daily life

    PubMed Central

    Fourquet, Jessica; Gao, Xin; Zavala, Diego; Orengo, Juan C.; Abac, Sonia; Ruiz, Abigail; Laboy, Joaquín; Flores, Idhaliz

    2009-01-01

    NARRATIVE ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the burden of endometriosis by obtaining Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) data describing the experience of living with this disease. Survey data from one hundred and seven women with self-reported, surgically diagnosed endometriosis showed that living with this disease may be characterized by physical limitations that disrupt health, work and daily life. PMID:19926084

  14. Lopinavir/ritonavir dosage form affects quality of life during monotherapy in HIV-positive adults.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Rosa F; Lipman, Bryan A; Mayberry, Carl; Miguel, Bernie; Nemecek, John J; Gathe, Joseph C

    2010-01-01

    This was a single-center, open-label study of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) single-agent therapy in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-infected participants initiating therapy with twice-daily soft-gelatin capsules (SGC) and switched to tablets after ≥4 weeks. The objective was to evaluate quality of life and tolerability of the 2 formulations. Participants quality of life, depression, and tolerability were measured using the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV (MOS-HIV), Modified Global Condition Improvement (GCI), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D), prior to and 4 weeks following switch. MOS-HIV showed significant improvements in general health perception (+6 (16), mean (SD); P = .047) and role functioning (+8 (19), mean (SD); P = .023) post-switch. GCI showed significant improvement in ease of taking medications with tablets (56.7% vs 83.3%; P = .021). No change was observed in CES-D. Tolerability improved in 47%. Reported diarrhea (grade 2) was higher during SGC (33.3% vs3.3%; P = .004). Quality-of-life measures, tolerability, and diarrhea improved with the LPV/r tablet formulation compared to SGC in HIV-positive patients not receiving other antiretroviral therapy (ART). PMID:20841439

  15. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Rittschof, Clare C; Coombs, Chelsey B; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ''gets under the skin'' resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee's early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  16. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Coombs, Chelsey B.; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ‘‘gets under the skin’’ resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee’s early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  17. Affect and pictographic image: the constitution of meaning in mental life.

    PubMed

    Barros, E M

    2000-12-01

    The author explores the processes of revealing, creating and working through new meaning in mental life and relates these processes to specific methods of producing representations of emotional experience through their transformation into unconscious symbolism in the form of imagery. Drawing on several dreams and other experiences from a detailed clinical case, the author argues for the value of considering three interpenetrating levels of meaning that operate simultaneously in mental life, namely hidden meaning, absent meaning and potential meaning: 'hidden' meaning resulting from dynamic forms of repression, absent meaning from a pregnant pressure exerted on psychic life by unconscious internal objects whenever any new emotional situation confronts the ego. Absent meaning is not just waiting in the unconscious to become explicit in a unique form. It is in its very nature to remain partially absent and it can never be rendered wholly conscious. All symbolic constructions that are expressed at first by unconscious imagery found especially in dreams are attempts to capture and represent the absent meaning. The concept of potential meaning refers to experiences produced by the interpretation of absent meaning, and consists of a specific case of this latter. Potential-meaning, when interpreted, rearticulates meanings on a specific symbolic field, and opens up new experiential possibilities, thus creating new meanings that expand the possibilities for emotional development. The author's ideas draw on the formulations of Aulagnier, Bion, Ferro, Green and Khan. PMID:11144851

  18. Interspecies Systems Biology Uncovers Metabolites Affecting C. elegans Gene Expression and Life History Traits

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Emma; MacNeil, Lesley T.; Ritter, Ashlyn D.; Yilmaz, L. Safak; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Caudy, Amy A.; Walhout, Albertha J. M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Diet greatly influences gene expression and physiology. In mammals, elucidating the effects and mechanisms of individual nutrients is challenging due to the complexity of both the animal and its diet. Here we used an interspecies systems biology approach with Caenorhabditis elegans and two if its bacterial diets, Escherichia coli and Comamonas aquatica, to identify metabolites that affect the animal’s gene expression and physiology. We identify vitamin B12 as the major dilutable metabolite provided by Comamonas aq. that regulates gene expression, accelerates development and reduces fertility, but does not affect lifespan. We find that vitamin B12 has a dual role in the animal: it affects development and fertility via the methionine/S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) cycle and breaks down the short-chain fatty acid propionic acid preventing its toxic buildup. Our interspecies systems biology approach provides a paradigm for understanding complex interactions between diet and physiology. PMID:24529378

  19. From Affective Experience to Motivated Action: Tracking Reward-Seeking and Punishment-Avoidant Behaviour in Real-Life

    PubMed Central

    Wichers, Marieke; Kasanova, Zuzana; Bakker, Jindra; Thiery, Evert; Derom, Catherine; Jacobs, Nele; van Os, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Many of the decisions and actions in everyday life result from implicit learning processes. Important to psychopathology are, for example, implicit reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant learning processes. It is known that when specific actions get associated with a rewarding experience, such as positive emotions, that this will increase the likelihood that an organism will engage in similar actions in the future. Similarly, when actions get associated with punishing experiences, such as negative emotions, this may reduce the likelihood that the organism will engage in similar actions in the future. This study examines whether we can observe these implicit processes prospectively in the flow of daily life. If such processes take place then we expect that current behaviour can be predicted by how similar behaviour was experienced (in terms of positive and negative affect) at previous measurement moments. This was examined in a sample of 621 female individuals that had participated in an Experience Sampling data collection. Measures of affect and behaviour were collected at 10 semi-random moments of the day for 5 consecutive days. It was examined whether affective experience that was paired with certain behaviours (physical activity and social context) at previous measurements modified the likelihood to show similar behaviours at next measurement moments. Analyses were performed both at the level of observations (a time scale with units of ± 90 min) and at day level (a time scale with units of 24 h). As expected, we found that affect indeed moderated the extent to which previous behaviour predicted similar behaviour later in time, at both beep- and day-level. This study showed that it is feasible to track reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant behaviour prospectively in humans in the flow of daily life. This opens up a new toolbox to examine processes determining goal-oriented behaviour in relation to psychopathology in humans. PMID:26087323

  20. Life history strategies in zooplankton communities: The significance of female gonad morphology and maturation types for the reproductive biology of marine calanoid copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    The present review addresses the reproductive strategies of marine calanoid copepods, as affected by their physiological preconditioning, and aims to enhance understanding of their adaptations to specific environmental conditions. Knowledge about oocyte development and internal gonad structure, especially in relation to feeding conditions, is essential for a complete understanding of the reproductive strategies of the copepods. Therefore, the foci of the review are to identify general patterns in oocyte and gonad development in calanoid copepod species from marine ecosystems worldwide and to elucidate the significance of gonad structures for reproductive strategies. Oogenesis is similar in all copepod species. During maturation, the morphology of the oocytes changes distinctly and, according to oocyte size and appearance of ooplasm and nucleus, five oocyte developmental stages are distinguished. In contrast, the gonad structure and its changes during the spawning cycle differ considerably among species, and these differences are related to specific reproductive traits. Four gonad morphology types can be distinguished: the Calanus-type, found in species from all over the world with distinctly different life history traits, is apparently most common in calanoid copepods. In this gonad type, most oocyte developmental stages are present simultaneously, and usually many oocytes mature synchronously, all of which are released in one clutch. The gonad structure allows frequent spawning and large clutches, hence, high egg production rates. This may be a preconditioning for exploiting seasonally high food supply. However, the Calanus-type was also found in species producing eggs at lower rates. In the diverticula of Pseudocalanus-type gonads, only two oocyte developmental stages are present and usually fewer oocytes mature synchronously. Accordingly, the egg production rate is generally lower as compared to the Calanus-type, and apparently only this gonad-type is

  1. The "Simmie" Side of Life: Old Order Amish Youths' Affective Response to Culturally Prescribed Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiling, Denise M.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed the counterintuitive affective response Old Order Amish youth make to unique cultural prescriptions for adolescent deviance (constructed by adult Amish culture). Interview data supported the basic principles of Terror Management Theory in an unexpected, indirect fashion. Rather than functioning as a specialized cultural-anxiety buffer…

  2. Diverse pathways to positive and negative affect in adulthood and later life: an integrative approach using recursive partitioning.

    PubMed

    Gruenewald, Tara L; Mroczek, Daniel K; Ryff, Carol D; Singer, Burton H

    2008-03-01

    Recursive partitioning is an analytic technique that is useful for identifying complex combinations of conditions that predict particular outcomes as well as for delineating multiple subgroup differences in how such factors work together. As such, the methodology is well suited to multidisciplinary, life course inquiry in which the goal is to integrate many interacting influences and understand subgroup variation. The authors conducted recursive partitioning analyses on a previously published study (D. K. Mroczek & C. M. Kolarz, 1998) that investigated life course profiles of positive and negative affect and incorporated various top-down (personality traits) and bottom-up (sociodemographic statuses, contextual influences) influences. The new analyses reveal multiway, nonlinear interactions among these variables in predicting affective experience and, importantly, life course differences in how these various factors combine. Included are details of how recursive partitioning trees are generated as well as descriptions of the software packages available for using such techniques. Overall, the methodology offers tractable strategies for discerning meaningful patterns in highly complex data sets. PMID:18331126

  3. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Elske N.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings’ SFP at one week and offsprings’ anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

  4. Carbon nanotubes affect the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to denitrification in marine sediments by altering cellular internalization of nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Li, Mu; Huang, Haining; Li, Xu

    2016-06-01

    Denitrification is an important pathway for nitrate transformation in marine sediments, and this process has been observed to be negatively affected by engineered nanomaterials. However, previous studies only focused on the potential effect of a certain type of nanomaterial on microbial denitrification. Here we show that the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) to denitrification in marine sediments is highly affected by the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It was found that the removal efficiency of total NOX‑-N (NO3‑-N and NO2‑-N) in the presence of CuO NPs was only 62.3%, but it increased to 81.1% when CNTs appeared in this circumstance. Our data revealed that CuO NPs were more easily attached to CNTs rather than cell surface because of the lower energy barrier (3.5 versus 36.2 kT). Further studies confirmed that the presence of CNTs caused the formation of large, incompact, non-uniform dispersed, and more negatively charged CuO-CNTs heteroaggregates, and thus reduced the nanoparticle internalization by cells, leading to less toxicity to metabolism of carbon source, generation of reduction equivalent, and activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results indicate that assessing nanomaterial-induced risks in real circumstances needs to consider the “mixed” effects of nanomaterials.

  5. Carbon nanotubes affect the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to denitrification in marine sediments by altering cellular internalization of nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Li, Mu; Huang, Haining; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Denitrification is an important pathway for nitrate transformation in marine sediments, and this process has been observed to be negatively affected by engineered nanomaterials. However, previous studies only focused on the potential effect of a certain type of nanomaterial on microbial denitrification. Here we show that the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) to denitrification in marine sediments is highly affected by the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It was found that the removal efficiency of total NOX(-)-N (NO3(-)-N and NO2(-)-N) in the presence of CuO NPs was only 62.3%, but it increased to 81.1% when CNTs appeared in this circumstance. Our data revealed that CuO NPs were more easily attached to CNTs rather than cell surface because of the lower energy barrier (3.5 versus 36.2 kT). Further studies confirmed that the presence of CNTs caused the formation of large, incompact, non-uniform dispersed, and more negatively charged CuO-CNTs heteroaggregates, and thus reduced the nanoparticle internalization by cells, leading to less toxicity to metabolism of carbon source, generation of reduction equivalent, and activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results indicate that assessing nanomaterial-induced risks in real circumstances needs to consider the "mixed" effects of nanomaterials. PMID:27279546

  6. Carbon nanotubes affect the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to denitrification in marine sediments by altering cellular internalization of nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Li, Mu; Huang, Haining; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Denitrification is an important pathway for nitrate transformation in marine sediments, and this process has been observed to be negatively affected by engineered nanomaterials. However, previous studies only focused on the potential effect of a certain type of nanomaterial on microbial denitrification. Here we show that the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) to denitrification in marine sediments is highly affected by the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It was found that the removal efficiency of total NOX−-N (NO3−-N and NO2−-N) in the presence of CuO NPs was only 62.3%, but it increased to 81.1% when CNTs appeared in this circumstance. Our data revealed that CuO NPs were more easily attached to CNTs rather than cell surface because of the lower energy barrier (3.5 versus 36.2 kT). Further studies confirmed that the presence of CNTs caused the formation of large, incompact, non-uniform dispersed, and more negatively charged CuO-CNTs heteroaggregates, and thus reduced the nanoparticle internalization by cells, leading to less toxicity to metabolism of carbon source, generation of reduction equivalent, and activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results indicate that assessing nanomaterial-induced risks in real circumstances needs to consider the “mixed” effects of nanomaterials. PMID:27279546

  7. Factors affecting teachers' attitudes and practice of family life education in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olukoya, A A; Oyedeji, S O; Johnson, T O

    1992-01-01

    Questionnaires completed by 700 secondary school teachers in Nigeria's Lagos, Kaduna, and Cross-River States revealed a generally positive attitude toward family life education. 53.56% of respondents were female and 31.5%% were or had been married. Their average age was 28.3 years. One third of the teachers were not parents, and only 15.5% had children as old as their students. The teachers expressed agreement with the importance of school-based sex education (71.6%), the potential for family planning to improve health (82.9%), concern with rapid population growth (68.7%), and awareness that teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases are major social problems in Nigeria (84.7% and 74.9%, respectively). Most identified ages 10-14 years as the ideal time to talk to children about sex. Half considered it the mother's responsibility to provide sex education, and most felt it is easier to talk to a female child. 45% of teachers agreed that contraceptive services should be available to adolescents. The factors associated with a positive attitude toward family life education were female sex, single marital status, Christian religion, and teaching in a coeducational school. PMID:12319296

  8. Psychosocial problems of donor heart recipients adversely affecting quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bunzel, B; Wollenek, G; Grundböck, A

    1992-10-01

    Heart transplantation has become an accepted therapy for patients suffering from terminal heart disease for whom neither standard forms of medication nor the usual surgery are of any benefit. Although results regarding postoperative quantity and quality of life are encouraging, it must not be overlooked that the patient and his family face, and have to overcome, profound psychosocial problems. The main stressors were identified in interviews with 47 heart transplant patients. The main preoperative problems were: the way of being informed about the diagnosis, the waiting period for transplantation, anguishing doubts about the decision to have a transplant, being a body without heart ('zombie'), guilt and shame regarding the donor, the reactions of others. Postoperatively the patients have to cope with: re-entering social systems, reactions of friends, neighbours and colleagues, rejection episodes, death of a fellow patient, the need to redesign family life. All the problems reported by the patients interviewed are discussed regarding their psychosocial implications, and hints are given on how to minimize them. PMID:1299462

  9. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  10. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  11. Does early-life diet affect longevity? A meta-analysis across experimental studies.

    PubMed

    English, Sinead; Uller, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    Life-history theory predicts that nutrition influences lifespan owing to trade-offs between allocating resources to reproduction, growth and repair. Despite occasional reports that early diet has strong effects on lifespan, it is unclear whether this prediction is generally supported by empirical studies. We conducted a meta-analysis across experimental studies manipulating pre- or post-natal diet and measuring longevity. We found no overall effect of early diet on lifespan. We used meta-regression, considering moderator variables based on experimental and life-history traits, to test predictions regarding the strength and direction of effects that could lead to positive or negative effects. Pre-natal diet manipulations reduced lifespan, but there were no effects of later diet, manipulation type, development mode, or sex. The results are consistent with the prediction that early diet restriction disrupts growth and results in increased somatic damage, which incurs lifespan costs. Our findings raise a cautionary note, however, for placing too strong an emphasis on early diet effects on lifespan and highlight limitations of measuring these effects under laboratory conditions. PMID:27601722

  12. Breast screening technologists: Does real-life case volume affect performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Hazel J.; Gale, Alastair G.; Wooding, David S.

    2004-05-01

    In the UK fewer radiologists are now specialising in breast cancer screening. Consequently, a number of technologists have been specially trained to read mammograms so as to double-read with existing radiologists. Each year the majority of these film-readers examine a set of difficult cases as a means of self-assessing their skills. We investigated whether the technologists performed as well as breast-screening radiologists on this difficult test set. We also investigated technologists" performance over a number of years to compare the performance of those technologists who have read a greater number of breast screening films and those who have had less experience. Finally, we investigated real-life experience and performance on the scheme by comparing; volume of cases read, experience, and technologists" performance over time versus radiologists" performance. Data for approximately 250 breast screening Radiologists and 80 specially trained technologists over three years for six sets of 60 difficult recent screening cases were examined. Overall, those technologists who have not read the same volume of cases as radiologists did not perform as well on this particular task. Although when the group was fractionated by volume of cases read in real-life and the number of years reading cases, then the technologists performed at a level similar to the radiologists.

  13. Money and happiness: rank of income, not income, affects life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Christopher J; Brown, Gordon D A; Moore, Simon C

    2010-04-01

    Does money buy happiness, or does happiness come indirectly from the higher rank in society that money brings? We tested a rank-income hypothesis, according to which people gain utility from the ranked position of their income within a comparison group. The rank hypothesis contrasts with traditional reference-income hypotheses, which suggest that utility from income depends on comparison to a social reference-group norm. We found that the ranked position of an individual's income predicts general life satisfaction, whereas absolute income and reference income have no effect. Furthermore, individuals weight upward comparisons more heavily than downward comparisons. According to the rank hypothesis, income and utility are not directly linked: Increasing an individual's income will increase his or her utility only if ranked position also increases and will necessarily reduce the utility of others who will lose rank. PMID:20424085

  14. Affect of Early Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Domm, William; Misra, Ravi S.; O’Reilly, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity. Here, we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense. This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health. PMID:26322310

  15. How Different Genetically Manipulated Brassica Genotypes Affect Life Table Parameters of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Nikooei, Mehrnoosh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Jalali Javaran, Mokhtar; Soufbaf, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    The fitness of Plutella xylostella L. on different genetically manipulated Brassica plants, including canola's progenitor (Brassica rapa L.), two cultivated canola cultivars (Opera and RGS003), one hybrid (Hyula401), one gamma-ray mutant-RGS003, and one transgenic (PF) genotype was compared using two-sex and female-based life table parameters. All experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. There were significant differences in duration of different life stages of P. xylostella on different plant genotypes. The shortest (13.92 d) and longest (24.61 d) total developmental time were on Opera and PF, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase of P. xylostella ranged between 0.236 (Opera) and 0.071 day(-1) (PF). The highest (60.79 offspring) and lowest (7.88 offspring) net reproductive rates were observed on Opera and PF, respectively. Comparison of intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rates, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, fecundity, and survivorship of P. xylostella on the plant genotypes suggested that this pest performed well on cultivars (RGS003 and Opera) and performed poorly on the other manipulated genotypes especially on mutant-RGS003 and PF. Glucosinolate levels were significantly higher in damaged plants than undamaged ones and the lowest and highest concentrations of glucosinolates were found in transgenic genotype and canola's progenitor, respectively. Interestingly, our results showed that performance and fitness of this pest was better on canola's progenitor and cultivated plants, which had high levels of glucosinolate. PMID:26470162

  16. The interaction of early life experiences with COMT val158met affects anxiety sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Baumann, C; Klauke, B; Weber, H; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Pauli, P; Deckert, J; Reif, A

    2013-11-01

    The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is considered to be multifactorial with a complex interaction of genetic factors and individual environmental factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine gene-by-environment interactions of the genes coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) with life events on measures related to anxiety. A sample of healthy subjects (N = 782; thereof 531 women; mean age M = 24.79, SD = 6.02) was genotyped for COMT rs4680 and MAOA-uVNTR (upstream variable number of tandem repeats), and was assessed for childhood adversities [Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] and anxious apprehension [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)]. Main and interaction effects of genotype, environment and gender on measures related to anxiety were assessed by means of regression analyses. Association analysis showed no main gene effect on either questionnaire score. A significant interactive effect of childhood adversities and COMT genotype was observed: Homozygosity for the low-active met allele and high CTQ scores was associated with a significant increment of explained ASI variance [R(2) = 0.040, false discovery rate (FDR) corrected P = 0.04]. A borderline interactive effect with respect to MAOA-uVNTR was restricted to the male subgroup. Carriers of the low-active MAOA allele who reported more aversive experiences in childhood exhibited a trend for enhanced anxious apprehension (R(2) = 0.077, FDR corrected P = 0.10). Early aversive life experiences therefore might increase the vulnerability to anxiety disorders in the presence of homozygosity for the COMT 158met allele or low-active MAOA-uVNTR alleles. PMID:24118915

  17. Larval nutrition affects life history traits in a capital breeding moth.

    PubMed

    Colasurdo, Nadia; Gélinas, Yves; Despland, Emma

    2009-06-01

    Fitness depends not only on resource uptake but also on the allocation of these resources to various life history functions. This study explores the life-history consequences of larval diet in terms not only of larval performance but also of adult body composition and reproductive traits in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hübner). Caterpillars were reared on their preferred tree host, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), or on one of three artificial foods: high protein:low carbohydrate, equal protein-to-carbohydrate ratio or low protein:high carbohydrate. Survivorship, larval development rate and adult body size were lowest on the carbohydrate-biased diet and similar on the protein-biased and equal-ratio diets. Fecundity increased with body size but did not otherwise differ between diets. Moths reared on the carbohydrate-biased diet allocated a lower proportion of their mass to the ovaries and more to somatic growth whereas those on equal-ratio and protein-biased diets allocated more to reproductive tissue and less to somatic tissue. These differences in allocation to reproduction arose from differences in the size of eggs, an index of offspring quality. No differences were found in lipid and protein content of female ovaries, accessory glands or somatic tissue, or of the whole body of male moths. The findings show that physiological processes regulate the composition of the different components of the adult body. Diet effects occur as differences in overall body size and in relative allocation to these components. Although lepidopterans can, to a large extent, compensate post-ingestively for nutritionally deficient diets, investment in reproduction vs somatic growth depends on the nutrients available. PMID:19482996

  18. Life history traits and exploitation affect the spatial mean-variance relationship in fish abundance.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ting-chun; Mandal, Sandip; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Hsieh, Chih-hao

    2016-05-01

    Fishing is expected to alter the spatial heterogeneity of fishes. As an effective index to quantify spatial heterogeneity, the exponent b in Taylor's power law (V = aMb) measures how spatial variance (V) varies with changes in mean abundance (M) of a population, with larger b indicating higher spatial aggregation potential (i.e., more heterogeneity). Theory predicts b is related with life history traits, but empirical evidence is lacking. Using 50-yr spatiotemporal data from the California Current Ecosystem, we examined fishing and life history effects on Taylor's exponent by comparing spatial distributions of exploited and unexploited fishes living in the same environment. We found that unexploited species with smaller size and generation time exhibit larger b, supporting theoretical prediction. In contrast, this relationship in exploited species is much weaker, as the exponents of large exploited species were higher than unexploited species with similar traits. Our results suggest that fishing may increase spatial aggregation potential of a species, likely through degrading their size/age structure. Results of moving-window cross-correlation analyses on b vs. age structure indices (mean age and age evenness) for some exploited species corroborate our findings. Furthermore, through linking our findings to other fundamental ecological patterns (occupancy-abundance and size-abundance relationships), we provide theoretical arguments for the usefulness of monitoring the exponent b for management purposes. We propose that age/size-truncated species might have lower recovery rate in spatial occupancy, and the spatial variance-mass relationship of a species might be non-linear. Our findings provide theoretical basis explaining why fishery management strategy should be concerned with changes to the age and spatial structure of exploited fishes. PMID:27349101

  19. Could narrow marine embayments prevent sea-glacier invasion, and protect photosynthetic life during a Snowball Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Adam J.

    During the Snowball Earth events of the Neoproterozoic, the Earth's oceans may have been completely covered in ice. This ice would have been thick enough to prohibit the transmission of light to the liquid water underneath the entirely frozen surface of the ocean. However, photosynthetic eukaryotes are thought to have survived during these events. This is the first work to throughly attempt to reconcile how photosynthetic eukaryotes survived on a planet with a completely frozen ocean surface. Narrow marine embayments like the modern-day Red Sea, would restrict the inflow of sea glaciers. These embayments, if located in regions of net sublimation, would restrict sea-glacier invasion and could provide refuge for these organisms at the end of their channels. This work demonstrates that under a set of climate conditions and channel geometries, narrow marine embayments allow for incomplete sea-glacier invasion, a necessary condition for marine embayments to provide refugia.

  20. METHODS FOR SPAWNING, CULTURING, AND CONDUCTING TOXICITY TESTS WITH EARLY-LIFE STAGES OF ESTUARINE AND MARINE FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides a detailed description of the life history, geographical distribution of the life history, geographical distribution, and procedures for laboratory spawning, culturing and testing of five fishes: the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; the inlan...

  1. Life history influences how fire affects genetic diversity in two lizard species.

    PubMed

    Smith, Annabel L; Bull, C Michael; Gardner, Michael G; Driscoll, Don A

    2014-05-01

    'Fire mosaics' are often maintained in landscapes to promote successional diversity in vegetation with little understanding of how this will affect ecological processes in animal populations such as dispersal, social organization and re-establishment. To investigate these processes, we conducted a replicated, spatiotemporal landscape genetics study of two Australian woodland lizard species [Amphibolurus norrisi (Agamidae) and Ctenotus atlas (Scincidae)]. Agamids have a more complex social and territory structure than skinks, so fire might have a greater impact on their population structure and thus genetic diversity. Genetic diversity increased with time since fire in C. atlas and decreased with time since fire in A. norrisi. For C. atlas, this might reflect its increasing population size after fire, but we could not detect increased gene flow that would reduce the loss of genetic diversity through genetic drift. Using landscape resistance analyses, we found no evidence that postfire habitat succession or topography affected gene flow in either species and we were unable to distinguish between survival and immigration as modes of postfire re-establishment. In A. norrisi, we detected female-biased dispersal, likely reflecting its territorial social structure and polygynous mating system. The increased genetic diversity in A. norrisi in recently burnt habitat might reflect a temporary disruption of its territoriality and increased male dispersal, a hypothesis that was supported with a simulation experiment. Our results suggest that the effects of disturbance on genetic diversity will be stronger for species with territorial social organization. PMID:24750427

  2. Effect of Spinal Cord Injury on Quality of Life of Affected Soldiers in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bhawna

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A prospective cross-sectional study with convenience sampling approach was done to assess quality of life (QoL) in 100 soldiers and veterans affected by spinal cord injury (SCI). Purpose SCI affects almost every aspect of the life of an affected individual. This study was done to measure the impact of SCI on QoL of affected soldiers and veterans using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Overview of Literature The devastating effect of SCI on QoL is well known. However, this study is unique in that it includes soldiers and veterans, who constitute a large, but excluded, cohort in most demographic studies. Methods A cross-sectional study was done at two SCI rehabilitation centres of the Indian armed forces. Data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 100 patients, which included both sociodemographic data as well as all the questions included in WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results Age and marital status did not have any influence on QoL. Level of injury (paraplegic or quadriplegic), level of education and presence of other medical co-morbidities had the most significant influence on QoL. Presence of other medical co-morbidities had a negative influence on QoL. Conclusions Identification of factors having a positive and negative influence on QoL help in formulating measures and policies that positively influence the QoL following SCI in soldiers. Future longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes and assessment of additional variables in addition to WHOQOL-BREF, like presence/absence of secondary complications, are required to bring about policy changes to provide SCI patients with additional support and increased access to equipment or lifestyle interventions. PMID:27114767

  3. De Novo Assembly and Genome Analyses of the Marine-Derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis Strain LF580 Unravels Life-Style Traits and Anticancerous Scopularide Biosynthetic Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhishek; Henrissat, Bernard; Arvas, Mikko; Syed, Muhammad Fahad; Thieme, Nils; Benz, J. Philipp; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Record, Eric; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Kempken, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The marine-derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain LF580 produces scopularides A and B, which have anticancerous properties. We carried out genome sequencing using three next-generation DNA sequencing methods. De novo hybrid assembly yielded 621 scaffolds with a total size of 32.2 Mb and 16298 putative gene models. We identified a large non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (nrps1) and supporting pks2 gene in the same biosynthetic gene cluster. This cluster and the genes within the cluster are functionally active as confirmed by RNA-Seq. Characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes and major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-type transporters lead to postulate S. brevicaulis originated from a soil fungus, which came into contact with the marine sponge Tethya aurantium. This marine sponge seems to provide shelter to this fungus and micro-environment suitable for its survival in the ocean. This study also builds the platform for further investigations of the role of life-style and secondary metabolites from S. brevicaulis. PMID:26505484

  4. Early life stress affects cerebral glucose metabolism in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Parr, Lisa A; Boudreau, Matthew; Hecht, Erin; Winslow, James T; Nemeroff, Charles B; Sánchez, Mar M

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for anxiety, mood disorders and alterations in stress responses. Less is known about the long-term neurobiological impact of ELS. We used [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) to assess neural responses to a moderate stress test in adult monkeys that experienced ELS as infants. Both groups of monkeys showed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-induced activations and cardiac arousal in response to the stressor. A whole brain analysis detected significantly greater regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in superior temporal sulcus, putamen, thalamus, and inferotemporal cortex of ELS animals compared to controls. Region of interest (ROI) analyses performed in areas identified as vulnerable to ELS showed greater activity in the orbitofrontal cortex of ELS compared to control monkeys, but greater hippocampal activity in the control compared to ELS monkeys. Together, these results suggest hyperactivity in emotional and sensory processing regions of adult monkeys with ELS, and greater activity in stress-regulatory areas in the controls. Despite these neural responses, no group differences were detected in neuroendocrine, autonomic or behavioral responses, except for a trend towards increased stillness in the ELS monkeys. Together, these data suggest hypervigilance in the ELS monkeys in the absence of immediate danger. PMID:22682736

  5. Colony pace: a life-history trait affecting social insect epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Séverine Denise; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2016-01-13

    Among colonies of social insects, the worker turnover rate (colony 'pace') typically shows considerable variation. This has epidemiological consequences for parasites, because in 'fast-paced' colonies, with short-lived workers, the time of parasite residence in a given host will be reduced, and further transmission may thus get less likely. Here, we test this idea and ask whether pace is a life-history strategy against infectious parasites. We infected bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) with the infectious gut parasite Crithidia bombi, and experimentally manipulated birth and death rates to mimic slow and fast pace. We found that fewer workers and, importantly, fewer last-generation workers that are responsible for rearing sexuals were infected in colonies with faster pace. This translates into increased fitness in fast-paced colonies, as daughter queens exposed to fewer infected workers in the nest are less likely to become infected themselves, and have a higher chance of founding their own colonies in the next year. High worker turnover rate can thus act as a strategy of defence against a spreading infection in social insect colonies. PMID:26763696

  6. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions affect the life-cycle analysis of algal biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Edward D.; Han, Jeongwoo; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael Q.

    2012-03-01

    Researchers around the world are developing sustainable plant-based liquid transportation fuels (biofuels) to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Algae are attractive because they promise large yields per acre compared to grasses, grains and trees, and because they produce oils that might be converted to diesel and gasoline equivalents. It takes considerable energy to produce algal biofuels with current technology; thus, the potential benefits of algal biofuels compared to petroleum fuels must be quantified. To this end, we identified key parameters for algal biofuel production using GREET, a tool for the life-cycle analysis of energy use and emissions in transportation systems. The baseline scenario produced 55 400 g CO2 equivalent per million BTU of biodiesel compared to 101 000 g for low-sulfur petroleum diesel. The analysis considered the potential for greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic digestion processes commonly used in algal biofuel models. The work also studied alternative scenarios, e.g., catalytic hydrothermal gasification, that may reduce these emissions. The analysis of the nitrogen recovery step from lipid-extracted algae (residues) highlighted the importance of considering the fate of the unrecovered nitrogen fraction, especially that which produces N2O, a potent greenhouse gas with global warming potential 298 times that of CO2.

  7. Relationships between ocean anoxia, the biological pump, and marine animal life during the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. M.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean anoxia/euxinia and carbon cycle instability have long been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and the Early Triassic interval of delayed or interrupted biotic recovery. Many hypotheses to explain this extinction event invoke the release of greenhouse gases during the emplacement of the Siberian Traps, which likely triggered abrupt changes in marine biogeochemical cycling, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. However, the precise ways in which volcanism and these perturbations are linked and how they governed the tempo and mode of biotic recovery remain poorly understood. Here we highlight new C, Ca, and Sr isotopic data that serve to link volcanic CO2 inputs to changes in marine biogeochemistry and environmental change. We then examine the relationship between ocean biogeochemistry, the biological pump, and marine animal ecosystems during the end-Permian mass extinction and Early Triassic recovery. Finally, we use numerical simulations to probe whether these relationships also explain broad Phanerozoic trends in ocean nutrient status, anoxia, and productivity of marine ecosystems.

  8. Factors affecting microbial spoilage and shelf-life of chilled vacuum-packed lamb transported to distant markets: a review.

    PubMed

    Mills, John; Donnison, Andrea; Brightwell, Gale

    2014-09-01

    Vacuum-packaging and stringent control of storage temperatures enable the export of meat to distant markets, supplying a chilled product that can favourably compete with local fresh meats. To save fuel and reduce emissions, the speed of ships travelling to international markets has decreased resulting in requirement for the shelf-life of chilled lamb to be extended beyond the recognised time of 60-70 days. Growth of microorganisms and ability to cause spoilage of vacuum-packed lamb are dependent on many factors, including the type and initial concentration of spoilage bacteria, meat pH, water activity, availability of substrates, oxygen availability and, most importantly, storage time and temperature of the packaged product. This paper reviews the existing knowledge of the spoilage bacteria affecting vacuum-packed lamb, discusses the impact of these bacteria on product quality, shelf-life and spoilage, and concludes that under specified conditions the shelf-life of chilled lamb can be extended to beyond 70 days. PMID:24875594

  9. Disability and Quality of Life of Subjects with Bipolar Affective Disorder in Remission

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Soumya P.; Nisha, A.; Varghese, P. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite significant advances in pharmacological and psychological therapies for bipolar disorder, many people continue to have less than optimal outcomes, which are associated with significant disability and poor quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to assess the disability and QOL and factors associated with such suboptimal outcomes in subjects with bipolar disorder in remission. Methods: Consecutive patients diagnosed to have bipolar disorder in remission attending the Department of Psychiatry, MOSC Medical College, Kerala, India were recruited for the study. They were assessed using the International Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Criteria for Research-10, Hamilton Scale for Depression, Young's Mania Rating Scale, World Health Organization-QOL (WHO QOL-BREF), WHO-Disability Assessment Scale (WHO-DAS), and Kuppuswamy's scale for socioeconomic status assessment. Results: Eighty-four patients were evaluated. The mean total WHO-DAS score was 19.2 ± 2.09, the maximum disability in domain 4 (getting along) followed by domain 2 (mobility). The mean total WHO-QOL BREF score was 54.26 ± 2.85, the lowest subscore in domain 3 (social interactions). Disability scores were significantly associated with increasing age, female gender, not being an earning member of the family, and lower QOL scores. Poorer QOL scores were significantly associated with increasing age and higher disability score. Conclusions: Many bipolar patients in remission have significant disability and poorer QOL. There is a need for longitudinal studies to explore such associations and develop interventions to reduce the disability thereby enhancing the QOL. PMID:27570346

  10. A research program to facilitate resolution of ecological issues affecting the use of dispersants in marine oil spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Aurand, D.

    1995-06-01

    The use of dispersants in oil spill response in the US remains a controversial environmental topic. At the center of this controversy is a lack of confidence in the available data to evaluate the effects of dispersants on local biota. The main reasons that many of the attempts around the country to resolve concerns over dispersant use have been unsuccessful are that they have either (1) failed to focus on the true issues of concern; (2) collected laboratory (and sometimes field) data which cannot be effectively applied in decision-making; or (3) failed to effectively communicate information to the participants in the decision process. These issues can be addressed by a research program intentionally designed to examine issues in an ecosystem context and which focuses on information dissemination and communication, which are the central themes of the Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC) initiative. The MSRC environmental program contains four elements: improved use and synthesis of existing information, improved methods for laboratory toxicity evaluations and interpretation, development of a realistic mesocosm testing program, and field experiments to correlate laboratory and mesocosm data to real world situations. This paper describes the rationale for the program and the progress made over the first two and one-half years.

  11. Crude oil affecting the biomass of the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus: Comparing a simple and complex population model.

    PubMed

    De Hoop, Lisette; Broch, Ole Jacob; Hendriks, A Jan; De Laender, Frederik

    2016-08-01

    In the current study differences were evaluated between a complex 3D multistage population model (SINMOD) and a simpler consumer-resource population model for estimating the effects of crude oil on the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. The SINTEF OSCAR model was used to simulate hypothetical oil spills in the Lofoten area in 1995, 1997, and 2001. Both population models simulated a negligible effect of crude oil on the Calanus' biomass when assuming low species sensitivity. The simple model estimated a larger effect on the biomass (up to a 100% decline) compared to the complex model (maximum decline of 60-80%) at high species sensitivity to crude oil. These differences may be related to the inclusion of copepod advection in the complex model. Our study showed that if little data is available to parameterize a model, or if computational resources are scarce, the simple model could be used for risk screening. Nevertheless, the possibility of including a dilution factor for time-varying biomass should be examined to improve the estimations of the simple model. The complex model should be used for a more in depth risk analysis, as it includes physical processes such as the drift of organisms and differentiation between developmental stages. PMID:27326463

  12. How does non-formal marine education affect student attitude and knowledge? A case study using SCDNR's Discovery program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Mary Francis

    Non-formal environmental education provides students the opportunity to learn in ways that would not be possible in a traditional classroom setting. Outdoor learning allows students to make connections to their environment and helps to foster an appreciation for nature. This type of education can be interdisciplinary---students not only develop skills in science, but also in mathematics, social studies, technology, and critical thinking. This case study focuses on a non-formal marine education program, the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources' (SCDNR) Discovery vessel based program. The Discovery curriculum was evaluated to determine impact on student knowledge about and attitude toward the estuary. Students from two South Carolina coastal counties who attended the boat program during fall 2014 were asked to complete a brief survey before, immediately after, and two weeks following the program. The results of this study indicate that both student knowledge about and attitude significantly improved after completion of the Discovery vessel based program. Knowledge and attitude scores demonstrated a positive correlation.

  13. Wheat cultivars affecting life history and digestive amylolytic activity of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Borzoui, E; Naseri, B

    2016-08-01

    The life history and digestive α-amylase activity of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were studied on six wheat cultivars (Arg, Bam, Nai 60, Pishtaz, Sepahan and Shanghai) at 25 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 65 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A delay in the developmental time of S. cerealella immature stages was detected when larvae were fed on cultivar Sepahan. The maximum survival rate of immature stages was seen on cultivar Bam (93.33 ± 2.10%), and the minimum rates were on cultivars Nai 60 (54.66 ± 2.49%) and Sepahan (49.33 ± 4.52%). The highest realized fecundity and fertility were recorded for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Bam (93.30 ± 2.10 eggs/female and 91.90 ± 3.10%, respectively); and the lowest ones were observed for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Sepahan (49.30 ± 4.50 eggs/female and 67.4 ± 11.1%, respectively). The heaviest male and female weights of S. cerealella were observed on cultivar Bam (2.97 ± 0.02 and 4.80 ± 0.01 mg, respectively). The highest amylolytic activity of the fourth instar was detected on cultivar Bam (0.89 ± 0.04 mg maltose min-1), which had the maximum mean hundred-wheat weight (5.92 ± 0.19 g). One α-amylase isozyme was detected in the midgut extracts from the fourth instar larvae fed on different wheat cultivars, and the highest intensity was found in larvae fed on cultivar Bam. Correlation analyses showed that very high correlations existed between the immature period, fecundity and fertility on one side and inhibition of α-amylase, soluble starch content and hundred-wheat weight on the other. According to the obtained results, cultivar Sepahan is an unfavorable host for the feeding and development of S. cerealella. PMID:27019124

  14. Diethylstilbestrol at environmental levels affects the development of early life stage and target gene expression in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Lei, Bingli; Peng, Wei; Li, Wei; Yu, Yingxin; Xu, Jie; Wang, Yipei

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the biologic effects of DES on the early life and adult life stages of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were evaluated. At the early life stage, the fertilized eggs were exposed to 1-1000 ng/L diethylstilbestrol (DES) for 15 days and the hatched larvae were continually exposed to the same concentrations for an additional 25 days. Significant adverse effects on hatchability, time to hatching and mortality rate occurred at DES concentrations of 100 and 1000 ng/L, while the abnormality (scoliosis and abdominal swelling) rate was significantly increased at 10 ng/L and above. After exposure, the fish were maintained in charcoal-dechlorinated tap water for a further 30 days. Only the male gonadosomatic index (GSI) at 1000 ng/L was significantly increased. At concentrations greater than 1 ng/L, estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA in both sexes and vitellogenin-I (Vtg-I) mRNA in males were significantly down-regulated; while Vtg-I mRNA in females was significantly up-regulated. When sexually mature medaka were exposed to 10 and 1000 ng/L DES for 21 days, only the GSI in females was significantly decreased at 1000 ng/L. At 10 and 1000 ng/L, ERα mRNA in both sexes was significantly down-regulated, while Vtg-I mRNA in males was significantly up-regulated. These findings showed that DES at the environmental concentration of 10 ng/L can affect the early life stage development of medaka and alter liver ERα and Vtg-I gene expression. Therefore, if we only focused on these sensitive toxicity endpoints such as ERα and Vtg-I mRNA expression, DES has a strong estrogenic effect on Japanese medaka. PMID:26908245

  15. Impact of large atmospheric CO2 decline on marine life and sedimentation 375-325 million years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riding, R.

    2010-12-01

    Mass Extinctions, widespread deposition of black shale and carbonate mud mounds, and decline in atmospheric CO2 occurred during the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian (LDEM), 375-325 million years ago. These at first sight unrelated events can be linked by the response of phytoplankton to reduced CO2 supply. pCO2 declined from >10 to <5 times present atmospheric level (PAL). In experiments, reduction on this scale induces CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) in present-day cyanobacteria. CCMs act to maintain photosynthesis, but also have effects that parallel LDEM events. First, by helping to overcome carbon limitation, CCMs increase primary productivity, promoting bloom conditions, anoxia and black shale accumulation. Second, so long as carbonate saturation state is sufficiently elevated, cyanobacterial CCMs also promote water-column precipitation of fine-grained CaCO3 (whitings) due to active import of HCO3- raising pH adjacent to cells. Intense whitings would provide a sustained source of fine-grained carbonate for mud mound formation. Third, by affecting the success of other phytoplankton in which CCMs are less well-developed or lacking, CCM induction by cyanobacteria could have promoted Late Devonian acritarch extinction. It is also possible that toxic blooms of cyanobacteria, generated by CCMs, contributed to Late Devonian extinction of very shallow water reef and other communities. Further evidence consistent with CCM induction and proliferation of planktic cyanobacteria during the LDEM includes increases in cyanobacterial biomarkers, cyanobacterial sheath-calcification, and δ13C isotope values. Carbonate mud mound abundance increased in the Late Devonian, reaching its Paleozoic acme in the Early Mississippian. The source of this mud and its unusual abundance at this time has defied resolution. It has been suggested that the carbonate mud was largely precipitated in situ on the mounds. However,this mechanism is inconsistent with bedded mound structure, leaves

  16. Gene–environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

    PubMed Central

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience. PMID:23045644

  17. Factors Affecting the Temporal and Spatial Variability and Characteristics of Marine Hydrocarbon Seepage, Coal Oil Point, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Sontro, T. S.; Leifer, I.; Luyendyk, B.

    2004-12-01

    The Coal Oil Point (COP) natural marine hydrocarbon (HC) seep field of the Santa Barbara Channel is one of the largest and most intensively studied marine HC seepage regions. Daily oil emissions were estimated at ˜100 barrels, while total gas emissions reach ˜100,000 m3day-1. The COP seep field consists of several intense areas of seepage that are each made up of dozens to hundreds or thousands of individual vents. Observations show that COP seepage varies spatially (cm-km), temporally (second - decade), and in magnitude (from trace to 104 m3day-1). The primary seepage trends (scale of 100s-1000s meters) lie above major WNW-ESE faults cutting the Coal Oil Point and South Ellwood anticlines. There is significant variation in seepage along these trends with the most intense emissions at intersections with NE-SW cross-cutting faults. Spatial variations on shorter scales (10s of meters) are related to fractures, exposed shale beds, and seabed characteristics (pebbles, sand, tar, etc.). Individual vent distribution varies on sub-meter scales. Seabed characteristics, seepage spatial distribution, and gas and oil emissions relate to seabed and subsurface geologic features. For example, bubble sizes are correlated with the substrate from which they are emitted. Small-sized bubbles (<0.1 cm diameter) emerge directly from fractures in the exposed shale. Larger-sized bubbles (0.1 < 1.0 cm) tend to escape after passing through a sediment overburden, with the size of the bubbles increasing with the sediment coarseness. Giant bubbles (>1.0 cm) are associated with a tar-sand overburden. The bubble size is an important factor with regards to bubble-mediated transport of seep gas and oil to the sea surface. A network of small conical tents was developed and deployed in active seep areas to gather high time resolution (0.2 s) gas emission rates that also had high spatial resolution (1 m). The tents ( ˜1-m tall, ˜2-m diameter) sit directly on the seabed over areas of seepage

  18. Life in a temperate Polar sea: a unique taphonomic window on the structure of a Late Cretaceous Arctic marine ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Karen; Bloch, John; Sweet, Arthur; Tweet, Justin; Eberle, Jaelyn; Cumbaa, Stephen; Witkowski, Jakub; Harwood, David

    2008-01-01

    As the earth faces a warming climate, the rock record reminds us that comparable climatic scenarios have occurred before. In the Late Cretaceous, Arctic marine organisms were not subject to frigid temperatures but still contended with seasonal extremes in photoperiod. Here, we describe an unusual fossil assemblage from Devon Island, Arctic Canada, that offers a snapshot of a ca 75 Myr ago marine palaeoecosystem adapted to such conditions. Thick siliceous biogenic sediments and glaucony sands reveal remarkably persistent high primary productivity along a high-latitude Late Cretaceous coastline. Abundant fossil faeces demonstrate that this planktonic bounty supported benthic invertebrates and large, possibly seasonal, vertebrates in short food chains. These ancient organisms filled trophic roles comparable to those of extant Arctic species, but there were fundamental differences in resource dynamics. Whereas most of the modern Arctic is oligotrophic and structured by resources from melting sea ice, we suggest that forested terrestrial landscapes helped support the ancient marine community through high levels of terrigenous organic input. PMID:18713718

  19. The dual task-cost of standing balance affects quality of life in mildly disabled MS people.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Letizia; De Luca, Francesca; Marchetti, Maria Rita; Sellitto, Giovanni; Fanelli, Fulvia; Prosperini, Luca

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the correlations between the dual-task cost (DTC) of standing balance and quality of life (QoL) in mildly disabled patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cross-sectional study, patients affected by MS with an expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score of 3.0 or less and without an overt balance impairment were tested by means of static posturography under eyes-opened (single-task condition) and while performing the Stroop word-color test (dual-task condition), to estimate the DTC of standing balance. The self-reported 54-item MS quality of life questionnaire (MSQoL-54) was also administered to obtain a MS-specific assessment of health-related QoL. Among the 120 screened patients, 75 (53 women, 22 men) were tested. Although there was no impact of the DTC of standing balance on the physical and mental composite scores of MSQoL-54, patients who had a greater DTC of standing balance scored worse on role limitations due to physical problems (p = 0.007) and social function (p < 0.001), irrespective of demographic and other clinical characteristics including walking performance and cognitive status. However, the EDSS step and fatigue also contributed to reduced scores in these two QoL domains (p-values < 0.01). In conclusion, the phenomenon of cognitive-motor interference, investigated as DTC of standing balance, may affect specific QoL domains even in mildly disabled patients with MS and in the absence of an overt balance dysfunction. PMID:26728268

  20. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J. W.; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Methods Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Key Results Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. Conclusions The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant’s life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow

  1. Effect of Nasal Calcitonin on the Health-Related Quality of Life in Postmenopause Women Affected With Low Bone Density

    PubMed Central

    Shohrati, Majid; Bayat, Noushin; Saburi, Amin; Abbasi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity and mental health could be affected by osteoporosis and various therapeutic options such as calcitonin may influence Quality Of Life (QOL) of these patients with Low Bone Density (LBD). Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nasal calcitonin on QOL in post menopause women with LBD. Patients and Methods: This clinical trial study was performed on one hundred and fifteen menopause women with LBD less than 1 SD in Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD) referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during 2009 - 2010. They were assigned to receive 200 IU calcitonin nasal spray along with calcium (1000 mg) and vitamin D (400 IU) for 6 months. Quality of life was assessed by Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire (Persian-validated version). Results: The mean age (± SD) of the participants was 58.75 ± 8.15 years. Intranasal spray of calcitonin increased QOL scores significantly (88.05 ± 15.63 vs. 92.15 ± 13.22, P value = 0.000). Bone mineral density of spine was increased from 0.834 ± 0.11 to 0.12 ± 0.852 and this difference in BMD of lumbar spine was statistically significant (P value: 0.003) but not significant in femur’s BMD (P value = 0.061). In comparison with BMD indexes, The QOL scores especially Mental Health domain changes had only a significant correlation with the changes of total T score in BMD (P = 0.031, Coefficient Correlation = 0.248). Conclusions: It seems that nasal spray of calcitonin can effectively improve QOL of women with LBD and QOL changes were not influenced by clinical or para-clinical alteration. Mental health domain must be more considered in further studies as a predicting domain for Health-Related Quality of Life (HR-QOL) changes. PMID:26421180

  2. Life history analysis of HIV/AIDS-affected households in rice and cassava-based farming communities in Northern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Midori; van Huis, Arnold; Jiggins, Janice

    2010-10-01

    The "New Variant Famine" hypothesis proposed that AIDS offers a major challenge to food security in this part of Africa by impairing the functioning of traditional support systems, leading to the collapse of "social immunity". This study explores the changing perceptions of HIV and AIDS and peoples' responses to its impact by eliciting life history narratives of 30 respondents in Northern Malawi. We classified respondents by means of gender, livelihood systems and AIDS impact levels. Respondents reported a range of critical events, recorded in the life histories, that threatened their "social immunity", including deaths, sicknesses, migration, marriages and divorces, and dropping out of school; i.e., a greater range of risks than AIDS alone, that need to be recognised in HIV and AIDS programming. For the respondents who were classified as "AIDS-affected", learning about their seropositive status was found to be an important, and in some cases a positive, turning point in their lives in terms of behavioural changes, such as joining support groups and opening up to discussion of the implications of their status. The emerging social organisations could re-create social capacity and check the downward spiral proposed by the "New Variant Famine" hypothesis. To promote this shift and to confer a higher level of "social immunity", investments in expanding access to voluntary counselling and testing and antiretroviral therapy services, and assistance to community-based organisations would be essential. PMID:20640952

  3. Bringing Real-Life Marine Science Experience to the Classroom: Results From a Teacher in the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavias, J. A.; Kelly, R. P.

    2008-12-01

    Many public school science teachers are "textbook" teachers who lack basic research experience. Conversely, many scientists fail to relate their findings back to the general public in a meaningful way. The ARMADA project, funded by the National Science Foundation, is an effective program that exposes teachers to real-world oceanographic experiences. Additionally, the ARMADA project provides opportunities for teachers to pass on first hand experiences from the research community to their classrooms. After participating in a month long cruise aboard the USCGC Healy during July 2008 as part of the Bering Sea Ecosystem Study (BEST), a new appreciation for field research was developed. As part of a group from the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography, first hand experience was gained on how marine scientists study the effects of global climate change in the Bering Sea. These experiences at sea have resulted in changes to the marine biology class curriculum to include the tools and techniques used by marine scientists to conduct their work. One lesson in particular discusses anthropogenic impacts on polar regions. In addition, students' attitudes toward the class have changed. For example, a lesson on global climate change from a teacher who has first hand experience of climate change research is far more effective than from one who lacks it. The effect of having a teacher who has unique field experience in front of the classroom on students is immeasurable. In addition, the presence of a teacher at sea encourages the scientists to reduce their work to the most significant observations and conclusions on a daily basis during the cruise, helping to prepare the scientists for future public communications. In this manner, the gap between science research and public education is reduced.

  4. Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Acinas, Silvia G.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2015-01-14

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. We isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. In the host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system.

  5. Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Acinas, Silvia G.; et al

    2015-01-14

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. We isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. In the host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested,more » >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system.« less

  6. Life-style and genome structure of marine Pseudoalteromonas siphovirus B8b isolated from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B; Acinas, Silvia G

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. Here we isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. Host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system. PMID:25587991

  7. Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Acinas, Silvia G.

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. Here we isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. Host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new ‘rare virosphere’ phage–host model system. PMID:25587991

  8. Life history strategies in zooplankton communities: The significance of female gonad morphology and maturation types for the reproductive biology of marine calanoid copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    The present review addresses the reproductive strategies of marine calanoid copepods, as affected by their physiological preconditioning, and aims to enhance understanding of their adaptations to specific environmental conditions. Knowledge about oocyte development and internal gonad structure, especially in relation to feeding conditions, is essential for a complete understanding of the reproductive strategies of the copepods. Therefore, the foci of the review are to identify general patterns in oocyte and gonad development in calanoid copepod species from marine ecosystems worldwide and to elucidate the significance of gonad structures for reproductive strategies. Oogenesis is similar in all copepod species. During maturation, the morphology of the oocytes changes distinctly and, according to oocyte size and appearance of ooplasm and nucleus, five oocyte developmental stages are distinguished. In contrast, the gonad structure and its changes during the spawning cycle differ considerably among species, and these differences are related to specific reproductive traits. Four gonad morphology types can be distinguished: the Calanus-type, found in species from all over the world with distinctly different life history traits, is apparently most common in calanoid copepods. In this gonad type, most oocyte developmental stages are present simultaneously, and usually many oocytes mature synchronously, all of which are released in one clutch. The gonad structure allows frequent spawning and large clutches, hence, high egg production rates. This may be a preconditioning for exploiting seasonally high food supply. However, the Calanus-type was also found in species producing eggs at lower rates. In the diverticula of Pseudocalanus-type gonads, only two oocyte developmental stages are present and usually fewer oocytes mature synchronously. Accordingly, the egg production rate is generally lower as compared to the Calanus-type, and apparently only this gonad-type is

  9. Summary Report Panel 1: The Need for Protocols and Standards in Research on Underwater Noise Impacts on Marine Life.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Ainslie, Michael A; de Jong, Christ A F; Racca, Roberto; Stocker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    As concern about anthropogenic noise and its impacts on marine fauna is increasing around the globe, data are being compared across populations, species, noise sources, geographic regions, and time. However, much of the raw and processed data are not comparable due to differences in measurement methodology, analysis and reporting, and a lack of metadata. Common protocols and more formal, international standards are needed to ensure the effectiveness of research, conservation, regulation and practice, and unambiguous communication of information and ideas. Developing standards takes time and effort, is largely driven by a few expert volunteers, and would benefit from stakeholders' contribution and support. PMID:26611096

  10. The affective profiles, psychological well-being, and harmony: environmental mastery and self-acceptance predict the sense of a harmonious life

    PubMed Central

    Al Nima, Ali; Kjell, Oscar N.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. An important outcome from the debate on whether wellness equals happiness, is the need of research focusing on how psychological well-being might influence humans’ ability to adapt to the changing environment and live in harmony. To get a detailed picture of the influence of positive and negative affect, the current study employed the affective profiles model in which individuals are categorised into groups based on either high positive and low negative affect (self-fulfilling); high positive and high negative affect (high affective); low positive and low negative affect (low affective); and high negative and low positive affect (self-destructive). The aims were to (1) investigate differences between affective profiles in psychological well-being and harmony and (2) how psychological well-being and its dimensions relate to harmony within the four affective profiles. Method. 500 participants (mean age = 34.14 years, SD. = ±12.75 years; 187 males and 313 females) were recruited online and required to answer three self-report measures: The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule; The Scales of Psychological Well-Being (short version) and The Harmony in Life Scale. We conducted a Multivariate Analysis of Variance where the affective profiles and gender were the independent factors and psychological well-being composite score, its six dimensions as well as the harmony in life score were the dependent factors. In addition, we conducted four multi-group (i.e., the four affective profiles) moderation analyses with the psychological well-being dimensions as predictors and harmony in life as the dependent variables. Results. Individuals categorised as self-fulfilling, as compared to the other profiles, tended to score higher on the psychological well-being dimensions: positive relations, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and purpose in life. In addition, 47% to 66% of the variance of the harmony in life was explained by

  11. Few genetic and environmental correlations between life history and stress resistance traits affect adaptation to fluctuating thermal regimes.

    PubMed

    Manenti, T; Sørensen, J G; Moghadam, N N; Loeschcke, V

    2016-09-01

    Laboratory selection in thermal regimes that differed in the amplitude and the predictability of daily fluctuations had a marked effect on stress resistance and life history traits in Drosophila simulans. The observed evolutionary changes are expected to be the result of both direct and correlated responses to selection. Thus, a given trait might not evolve independently from other traits because of genetic correlations among these traits. Moreover, different test environments can induce novel genetic correlations because of the activation of environmentally dependent genes. To test whether and how genetic correlations among stress resistance and life history traits constrain evolutionary adaptation, we used three populations of D. simulans selected for 20 generations in constant, predictable and unpredictable daily fluctuating thermal regimes and tested each of these selected populations in the same three thermal regimes. We explored the relationship between genetic correlations between traits and the evolutionary potential of D. simulans by comparing genetic correlation matrices in flies selected and tested in different thermal test regimes. We observed genetic correlations mainly between productivity, body size, starvation and desiccation tolerance, suggesting that adaptation to the three thermal regimes was affected by correlations between these traits. We also found that the correlations between some traits such as body size and productivity or starvation tolerance and productivity were determined by test regime rather than selection regime that is expected to limit genetic adaptation to thermal regimes in these traits. The results of this study suggest that several traits and several environments are needed to explore adaptive responses, as genetic and environmentally induced correlations between traits as results obtained in one environment cannot be used to predict the response of the same population in another environment. PMID:27273321

  12. Ocean Acidification Affects Redox-Balance and Ion-Homeostasis in the Life-Cycle Stages of Emiliania huxleyi

    PubMed Central

    Rokitta, Sebastian D.; John, Uwe; Rost, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) has been shown to affect photosynthesis and calcification in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan calcifier that significantly contributes to the regulation of the biological carbon pumps. Its non-calcifying, haploid life-cycle stage was found to be relatively unaffected by OA with respect to biomass production. Deeper insights into physiological key processes and their dependence on environmental factors are lacking, but are required to understand and possibly estimate the dynamics of carbon cycling in present and future oceans. Therefore, calcifying diploid and non-calcifying haploid cells were acclimated to present and future CO2 partial pressures (pCO2; 38.5 Pa vs. 101.3 Pa CO2) under low and high light (50 vs. 300 µmol photons m−2 s−1). Comparative microarray-based transcriptome profiling was used to screen for the underlying cellular processes and allowed to follow up interpretations derived from physiological data. In the diplont, the observed increases in biomass production under OA are likely caused by stimulated production of glycoconjugates and lipids. The observed lowered calcification under OA can be attributed to impaired signal-transduction and ion-transport. The haplont utilizes distinct genes and metabolic pathways, reflecting the stage-specific usage of certain portions of the genome. With respect to functionality and energy-dependence, however, the transcriptomic OA-responses resemble those of the diplont. In both life-cycle stages, OA affects the cellular redox-state as a master regulator and thereby causes a metabolic shift from oxidative towards reductive pathways, which involves a reconstellation of carbon flux networks within and across compartments. Whereas signal transduction and ion-homeostasis appear equally OA-sensitive under both light intensities, the effects on carbon metabolism and light physiology are clearly modulated by light availability. These interactive effects can be attributed

  13. Marine pharmacology in 2001–2002: Marine compounds with anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M.S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    During 2001–2002, research on the pharmacology of marine chemicals continued to be global in nature involving investigators from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the United States. This current article, a sequel to the authors’ 1998, 1999 and 2000 marine pharmacology reviews, classifies 106 marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria, on the basis of peer-reviewed preclinical pharmacology. Anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis or antiviral activities were reported for 56 marine chemicals. An additional 19 marine compounds were shown to have significant effects on the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system as well as to possess anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. Finally, 31 marine compounds were reported to act on a variety of molecular targets and thus may potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. Thus, during 2001–2002 pharmacological research with marine chemicals continued to contribute potentially novel chemical leads for the ongoing global search for therapeutic agents for the treatment of multiple disease categories. PMID:15919242

  14. Evolution and maintenance of haploid-diploid life cycles in natural populations: The case of the marine brown alga Ectocarpus.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Lucía; Le Gac, Mickael; Hunsperger, Heather M; Mauger, Stéphane; Destombe, Christophe; Cock, J Mark; Ahmed, Sophia; Coelho, Susana M; Valero, Myriam; Peters, Akira F

    2015-07-01

    The evolutionary stability of haploid-diploid life cycles is still controversial. Mathematical models indicate that niche differences between ploidy phases may be a necessary condition for the evolution and maintenance of these life cycles. Nevertheless, experimental support for this prediction remains elusive. In the present work, we explored this hypothesis in natural populations of the brown alga Ectocarpus. Consistent with the life cycle described in culture, Ectocarpus crouaniorum in NW France and E. siliculosus in SW Italy exhibited an alternation between haploid gametophytes and diploid sporophytes. Our field data invalidated, however, the long-standing view of an isomorphic alternation of generations. Gametophytes and sporophytes displayed marked differences in size and, conforming to theoretical predictions, occupied different spatiotemporal niches. Gametophytes were found almost exclusively on the alga Scytosiphon lomentaria during spring whereas sporophytes were present year-round on abiotic substrata. Paradoxically, E. siliculosus in NW France exhibited similar habitat usage despite the absence of alternation of ploidy phases. Diploid sporophytes grew both epilithically and epiphytically, and this mainly asexual population gained the same ecological advantage postulated for haploid-diploid populations. Consequently, an ecological interpretation of the niche differences between haploid and diploid individuals does not seem to satisfactorily explain the evolution of the Ectocarpus life cycle. PMID:26096000

  15. Preoperative Factors Affecting Postoperative Early Quality of Life During the Learning Curve of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Jun; Kim, Hyo Sin; Koh, Jun Sung; Han, Seung Bum; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Cho, Su Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the preoperative factors related to early quality of life (QoL) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) during the surgeon's learning curve. Methods The medical records of 82 patients with a follow-up period of at least 3 months who were treated with HoLEP during the time of a surgeon's learning curve were analyzed retrospectively. We divided the patients into two groups on the basis of the QoL component of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) 3 months after HoLEP: the high QoL group (IPSS/QoL≤3) and the low QoL group (IPSS/QoL≥4). Preoperative factors in each group were compared, including prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen, history of acute urinary retention (AUR), urgency incontinence, IPSS, and urodynamic parameters. Detrusor underactivity was defined as a bladder contractility index less than 100 on urodynamic study. Results A total of 61 patients (74.3%) had a high QoL, whereas 21 (25.7%) had a low QoL. A history of AUR, detrusor pressure on maximal flow (PdetQmax), bladder outlet obstruction grade, bladder contractility index, and detrusor underactivity were associated with postoperative QoL in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, a history of AUR and PdetQmax were independent factors affecting postoperative QoL. Conclusions A history of AUR and bladder contractility affect early QoL, and preoperative urodynamic study plays an important role in the proper selection of patients during the HoLEP learning curve. PMID:23869273

  16. Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and early events of the virus life cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A.

    2015-01-15

    Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectors with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding events of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. - Highlights: • Env cleavage signal impacts infectivity of gammaretroviruses. • Non-infectious mutants have hyper-glycosylated envelope that bind target cells. • Non-infectious mutants have defects in the formation of the double-stranded DNA. • Env cleavage motif has functions beyond cleavage of the env precursor.

  17. Perinatal paracetamol exposure in mice does not affect the development of allergic airways disease in early life

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Debbie C P; Walker, Simone A; Byrne, Adam J; Gregory, Lisa G; Buckley, James; Bush, Andrew; Shaheen, Seif O; Saglani, Sejal; Lloyd, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Background Current data concerning maternal paracetamol intake during pregnancy, or intake during infancy and risk of wheezing or asthma in childhood is inconclusive based on epidemiological studies. We have investigated whether there is a causal link between maternal paracetamol intake during pregnancy and lactation and the development of house dust mite (HDM) induced allergic airways disease (AAD) in offspring using a neonatal mouse model. Methods Pregnant mice were administered paracetamol or saline by oral gavage from the day of mating throughout pregnancy and/or lactation. Subsequently, their pups were exposed to intranasal HDM or saline from day 3 of life for up to 6 weeks. Assessments of airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation and remodelling were made at weaning (3 weeks) and 6 weeks of age. Results Maternal paracetamol exposure either during pregnancy and/or lactation did not affect development of AAD in offspring at weaning or at 6 weeks. There were no effects of maternal paracetamol at any time point on airway remodelling or IgE levels. Conclusions Maternal paracetamol did not enhance HDM induced AAD in offspring. Our mechanistic data do not support the hypothesis that prenatal paracetamol exposure increases the risk of childhood asthma. PMID:25841236

  18. Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and early events of the virus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A

    2015-01-15

    Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectors with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding events of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. PMID:25462351

  19. Fingerprints of lagoonal life: Migration of the marine flatfish Solea solea assessed by stable isotopes and otolith microchemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierking, Jan; Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2012-06-01

    The commercially important marine flatfish common sole (Solea solea) facultatively uses NW Mediterranean lagoons as nurseries. To assess the imprint left by the lagoonal passage, muscle carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope values of S. solea juveniles caught in Mauguio lagoon in spring (shortly after arrival from the sea) and in autumn (before the return to the sea) were compared with values of juveniles from adjacent coastal marine nurseries. In addition, in the lagoon, sole otolith stable isotope (C and oxygen (O)) and elemental (11 elements) composition in spring and autumn, and the stable isotope composition (C and N) of organic matter sources in autumn, were determined. Overall, our data indicate that a distinct lagoonal signature existed. Specifically, lagoon soles showed a strong enrichment in muscle tissue 15N (>6‰) compared to their coastal relatives, likely linked to sewage inputs (see below), and a depletion in 13C (1-2‰), indicative of higher importance of 13C depleted terrestrial POM in the lagoon compared to coastal nurseries. In addition, over the time spent in the lagoon, sole otolith δ13C and δ18O values and otolith elemental composition changed significantly. Analysis of the lagoon sole foodweb based on C and N isotopes placed sediment particulate organic matter (POM) at the base. Seagrasses, formerly common but in decline in Mauguio lagoon, played a minor role in the detritus cycle. The very strong 15N enrichment of the entire foodweb (+7 to +11‰) compared to little impacted lagoons and coastal areas testified of important human sewage inputs. Regarding the S. solea migration, the analysis of higher turnover and fast growth muscle tissue and metabolically inert and slower growth otoliths indicated that soles arrived at least several weeks prior to capture in spring, and that no migrations took place in summer. In the autumn, the high muscle δ15N value acquired in Mauguio lagoon would be a good marker of recent return to the sea, whereas

  20. Marine pharmacology in 2003-4: Marine Compounds with Anthelminthic, Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antiplatelet, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; affecting the Cardiovascular, Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M.S.; Rodriguez, Abimael D.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2007-01-01

    The current marine pharmacology review that covers the peer-reviewed literature during 2003 and 2004 is a sequel to the authors' 1998-2002 reviews, and highlights the preclinical pharmacology of 166 marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria. Anthelminthic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis or antiviral activities were reported for 67 marine chemicals. Additionally 45 marine compounds were shown to have significant effects on the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system as well as possessing anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 54 marine compounds were reported to act on a variety of molecular targets and thus may potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. Thus, during 2003-2004, research on the pharmacology of marine natural products which involved investigators from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Belgium, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, the Philippines, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States, contributed numerous chemical leads for the continued global search for novel therapeutic agents with broad spectrum activity. PMID:17392033

  1. Marine Pharmacology in 2000: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antiplatelet, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Cardiovascular, Immune, and Nervous Systems and Other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    During 2000 research on the pharmacology of marine chemicals involved investigators from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Phillipines, Singapore, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States. This current review, a sequel to the authors’ 1998 and 1999 reviews, classifies 68 peer-reviewed articles on the basis of the reported preclinical pharmacologic properties of marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi, and bacteria. Antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antituberculosis, or antiviral activity was reported for 35 marine chemicals. An additional 20 marine compounds were shown to have significant effects on the cardiovascular and nervous system, and to possess anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressant properties. Finally, 23 marine compounds were reported to act on a variety of molecular targets and thus could potentially contribute to several pharmacologic classes. Thus, as in 1998 and 1999, during 2000 pharmacologic research with marine chemicals continued to contribute potentially novel chemical leads to the ongoing global search for therapeutic agents in the treatment of multiple disease categories. PMID:14583811

  2. Marine sponges with contrasting life histories can be complementary biomonitors of heavy metal pollution in coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Batista, Daniela; Muricy, Guilherme; Rocha, Rafael Chávez; Miekeley, Norbert F

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we compared the usefulness of a long-living sponge (Hymeniacidon heliophila, Class Demospongiae) and a short-living one (Paraleucilla magna, Class Calcarea) as biomonitors of metallic pollution. The concentrations of 16 heavy metals were analyzed in both species along a gradient of decreasing pollution from the heavily polluted Guanabara Bay to the less impacted coastal islands in Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil (SW Atlantic). The levels of most elements analyzed were higher in H. heliophila (Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Hg, Ni, and Sn) and P. magna (Ni, Cu, Mn, Al, Ti, Fe, Pb, Co, Cr, Zn, and V) collected from the heavily polluted bay when compared with the cleanest sites. Hymeniacidon heliophila accumulates 11 elements more efficiently than P. magna. This difference may be related to their skeleton composition, histological organization, symbiont bacteria and especially to their life cycle. Both species can be used as a biomonitors of metallic pollution, but while Hymeniacidon heliophila was more effective in concentrating most metals, Paraleucilla magna is more indicated to detect recent pollutant discharges due to its shorter life cycle. We suggest that the complementary use of species with contrasting life histories can be an effective monitoring strategy of heavy metals in coastal environments. PMID:24442965

  3. The influence of childhood abuse, adult life events, and affective temperaments on the well-being of the general, nonclinical adult population

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Yoshiaki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Ichiki, Masahiko; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Ishikawa, Jun; Ono, Yasuyuki; Murakoshi, Akiko; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the effects of childhood abuse, life events, and temperaments on well-being (positive affect) and ill-being (negative affect). We hypothesized that childhood abuse, affective temperaments, and adult life events interact with one another and influence positive and negative affects in the general adult population and tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Methods A total of 415 participants from the general, nonclinical adult population were studied using the following self-administered questionnaires: the Subjective Well-Being Inventory (SUBI); Life Experiences Survey (LES); Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A); and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). The data were analyzed with single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (Mplus). Results Childhood abuse indirectly predicted the worsening of positive and negative affects through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments as measured by the TEMPS-A in the structural equation model. The cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments directly worsened the positive and negative affects and the negative appraisal of life events that occurred during the past year, while the hyperthymic temperament had the opposite effects. Limitations The subjects of this study were nonclinical volunteers. The findings might not be generalizable to psychiatric patients. Conclusion This study demonstrated that childhood abuse, particularly neglect, indirectly worsened the well-being of individuals through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable affective temperaments. An important “mediator” role of affective temperaments in the effect of childhood abuse on well-being was suggested. PMID:27110116

  4. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Qi, A; Lin, C; Zhou, A; Du, J; Jia, X; Sun, L; Zhang, G; Zhang, L; Liu, M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL) and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S), Knee Society Score (KSS), and HRQL (SF-36). At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05). SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001). Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS) scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score) (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI), and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05). The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05), but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05). The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05). In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions. PMID:26577843

  5. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement

    PubMed Central

    Qi, A.; Lin, C.; Zhou, A.; Du, J.; Jia, X.; Sun, L.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, L.; Liu, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL) and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S), Knee Society Score (KSS), and HRQL (SF-36). At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05). SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001). Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS) scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score) (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI), and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05). The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05), but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05). The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05). In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions. PMID:26577843

  6. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A

    2011-06-01

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood and a sodium polyacrylate polymer gel as a bulking and solidifying agent are among the constituents of the current larval diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Locally available, inexpensive dietary materials could reduce rearing cost and address an uncertain commercial supply of spray-dried blood. We compared efficacy of diet prepared from fresh bovine blood after decoagulation with sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or after mechanical defibrination, with the diet containing spray-dried blood using either gel or cellulose fiber as the bulking and solidifying agent. Several life-history parameters were compared among insects reared on each of the blood and bulking agent diets combination. Diets containing citrated blood yielded the lightest larval and pupal weights and fewest pupae. EDTA-treated blood with the gel also caused reductions. EDTA-treated blood with fiber yielded screwworms that were heavier and more numerous than those from the diet with citrated blood but lighter than those from the control diet using spray-dried blood. A reduction in percentage of adults emerging from pupae occurred from diets with both bulking agents using citrated blood and the diet using EDTA mixed with the gel bulking agent. As a group, the cellulose-fiber diets performed better than the gel diets. Larval diet did not affect adult longevity, weight of the eggs deposited by the females that emerged or subsequent egg hatch. Parameter measurements of insects from both defibrinated blood diets were similar to those from the spray-dried blood diets, indicating that fresh, defibrinated bovine blood can successfully replace the dry blood in the screwworm rearing medium. PMID:21735935

  7. Affective and Motivational Factors Mediate the Relation between Math Skills and Use of Math in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Schmitz, Eva A.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life. PMID:27148122

  8. The Mediator Roles of Life Satisfaction and Self-Esteem between the Affective Components of Psychological Well-Being and the Cognitive Symptoms of Problematic Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat

    2011-01-01

    The factors associated with cognitions about problematic Internet use have been empirically tested in various studies. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediator roles of both life satisfaction and self-esteem between affective components of subjective well-being and cognitions about problematic Internet use. For this purpose, the…

  9. Subjective Well-Being and Adaptation to Life Events: A Meta-Analysis on Differences Between Cognitive and Affective Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Maike; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Eid, Michael; Lucas, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that major life events can have short- and long-term effects on subjective well-being (SWB). The present meta-analysis examines (a) whether life events have different effects on cognitive and affective well-being and (b) how the rate of adaptation varies across different life events. Longitudinal data from 188 publications (313 samples, N = 65,911) were integrated to describe the reaction and adaptation to four family events (marriage, divorce, bereavement, child birth) and four work events (unemployment, reemployment, retirement, relocation/migration). The findings show that life events have very different effects on affective and cognitive well-being, and that for most events the effects of life events on cognitive well-being are stronger and more consistent across samples. Different life events differ in their effects on SWB, but these effects are not a function of the alleged desirability of events. The results are discussed with respect to their theoretical implications, and recommendations for future studies on adaptation are given. PMID:22059843

  10. Are People Emotionally Predisposed to Experience Lower Quality of Life? The Impact of Negative Affectivity on Quality of Life in Patients Recovering from Cardiac Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony J.; Benos, Alexis; Maes, Stan

    2006-01-01

    Negative affectivity has been defined as a predisposition to experience intense states of negative emotions. As a trait concept it is a dimension that reflects stable and pervasive differences in negative mood and self-concept. There has been systematic evidence linking negative affectivity to anxiety, depression, psychosomatic complaints, pain…

  11. Marine and terrestrial factors affecting Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae chick growth and recruitment off the western Antarctic Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Erik W.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Patterson, Donna L.; Ribic, Christine A.; Fraser, William R.

    2011-01-01

    An individual-based bioenergetics model that simulates the growth of an Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliaechick from hatching to fledging was used to assess marine and terrestrial factors that affect chick growth and fledging mass off the western Antarctic Peninsula. Simulations considered the effects on Adélie penguin fledging mass of (1) modification of chick diet through the addition of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum to an all-Antarctic krillEuphausia superba diet, (2) reduction of provisioning rate which may occur as a result of an environmental stress such as reduced prey availability, and (3) increased thermoregulatory costs due to wetting of chicks which may result from increased precipitation or snow-melt in colonies. Addition of 17% Antarctic silverfish of Age-Class 3 yr (AC3) to a penguin chick diet composed of Antarctic krill increased chick fledging mass by 5%. Environmental stress that results in >4% reduction in provisioning rate or wetting of just 10% of the chick’s surface area decreased fledging mass enough to reduce the chick’s probability of successful recruitment. The negative effects of reduced provisioning and wetting on chick growth can be compensated for by inclusion of Antarctic silverfish of AC3 and older in the chick diet. Results provide insight into climate-driven processes that influence chick growth and highlight a need for field research designed to investigate factors that determine the availability of AC3 and older Antarctic silverfish to foraging Adélie penguins and the influence of snowfall on chick wetting, thermoregulation and adult provisioning rate.

  12. Long-term feeding a plant-based diet devoid of marine ingredients strongly affects certain key metabolic enzymes in the rainbow trout liver.

    PubMed

    Véron, Vincent; Panserat, Stéphane; Le Boucher, Richard; Labbé, Laurent; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Incorporation of a plant blend in the diet can affect growth parameters and metabolism in carnivorous fish. We studied for the first time the long-term (1 year) metabolic response of rainbow trout fed from first feeding with a plant-based diet totally devoid of marine ingredients. Hepatic enzymes were analyzed at enzymatic and molecular levels, at 3, 8 and 24 h after the last meal to study both the short-term effects of the last meal and long-term effects of the diet. The results were compared with those of fish fed a control diet of fish meal and fish oil. Growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein retention were lower in the group fed the plant-based diet. Glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activity were lower in the livers of trout fed the plant-based diet which the proportion of starch was lower than in the control diet. Glutamate dehydrogenase was induced by the plant-based diet, suggesting an imbalance of amino acids and a possible link with the lower protein retention observed. Gene expression of delta 6 desaturase was higher in fish fed the plant-based diet, probably linked to a high dietary level of linolenic acid and the absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase expression was also induced by plant-based diet because of the low rate of cholesterol in the diet. Changes in regulation mechanisms already identified through short-term nutritional experiments (<12 weeks) suggest that metabolic responses are implemented at short term and remain in the long term. PMID:26746847

  13. Borate as a synergistic anion for Marinobacter algicola ferric binding protein, FbpA: a role for boron in iron transport in marine life.

    PubMed

    Weerasinghe, Aruna J; Amin, Shady A; Barker, Ryan A; Othman, Thaer; Romano, Ariel N; Parker Siburt, Claire J; Tisnado, Jerrell; Lambert, Lisa A; Huxford, Tom; Carrano, Carl J; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2013-10-01

    Boron in the ocean is generally considered a nonbiological element due to its relatively high concentration (0.4 mM) and depth independent concentration profile. Here we report an unexpected role for boron in the iron transport system of the marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola. Proteome analysis under varying boron concentrations revealed that the periplasmic ferric binding protein (Mb-FbpA) was among the proteins whose expression was most affected, strongly implicating the involvement of boron in iron utilization. Here we show that boron facilitates Fe(3+) sequestration by Mb-FbpA at pH 8 (oceanic pH) by acting as a synergistic anion (B(OH)4(1-)). Fe(3+) sequestration does not occur at pH 6.5 where boric acid (B(OH)3; pK(a) = 8.55) is the predominant species. Borate anion is also shown to bind to apo-Mb-FbpA with mM affinity at pH 8, consistent with the biological relevance implied from boron's oceanic concentration (0.4 mM). Borate is among those synergistic anions tested which support the strongest Fe(3+) binding to Mb-FbpA, where the range of anion dependent affinity constants is log K'(eff) = 21-22. Since the pKa of boric acid (8.55) lies near the pH of ocean water, changes in oceanic pH, as a consequence of fluctuations in atmospheric CO2, may perturb iron uptake in many marine heterotrophic bacteria due to a decrease in oceanic borate anion concentration. PMID:24028339

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of the CO2 Ocean Sequestration on Marine Life in the Sea near Japan Using a Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tomoaki; Wada, Akira; Hasegawa, Kazuyuki; Ochiai, Minoru

    CO2 oceanic sequestration is one of the technologies for reducing the discharge of CO2 into the atmosphere, which is considered to cause the global warming, and consists in isolating industry-made CO2 gas within the depths of the ocean. This method is expected to enable industry-made CO2 to be separated from the atmosphere for a considerably long period of time. On the other hand, it is also feared that the CO2 injected in the ocean may lower pH of seawater surrounding the sequestration site, thus may adversely affect marine organisms. For evaluating the biological influences, we have studied to precisely predict the CO2 distribution around the CO2 injection site by a numerical simulation method. In previous studies, in which a 2 degree by 2 degree mesh was employed in the simulation, CO2 concentrations tended to be evenly dispersed within the grid, giving lower concentration values. Thus, the calculation accuracy within the area several hundred kilometers from the CO2 injection site was not satisfactory for the biological effect assessment. In the present study, we improved the accuracy of concentration distribution by changing the computational mesh resolution for a 0.2 by 0.2 degree. By the renewed method we could obtain detailed CO2 distribution in waters within several hundred kilometers of the injection site, and clarified that the Moving-ship procedure may have less effects of lowered pH on marine organisms than the fixed-point release procedure of CO2 sequestration.

  15. How Educational Practices Affect the Development of Life-Long Learning Orientations in Traditionally-Aged Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Wolniak, Gregory C.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated curricular conditions and educational practices that influenced the development of life-long learning orientations among 405 undergraduate students. Results suggest that growth in life-long learning orientations was facilitated by instruction that included opportunities for reflection, active learning, and perspective-taking and…

  16. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity–depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity–depth pattern over time

  17. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal

  18. Benefits of adversity?! How life history affects the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter genotype

    PubMed Central

    Bodden, Carina; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Gerß, Joachim; Palme, Rupert; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewejohann, Lars; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral profiles are influenced by both positive and negative experiences as well as the genetic disposition. Traditionally, accumulating adversity over lifetime is considered to predict increased anxiety-like behavior (“allostatic load”). The alternative “mismatch hypothesis” suggests increased levels of anxiety if the early environment differs from the later-life environment. Thus, there is a need for a whole-life history approach to gain a deeper understanding of how behavioral profiles are shaped. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of life history on the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype, an established mouse model of increased anxiety-like behavior. For this purpose, mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions during early phases of life. In adulthood, they were further subdivided so as to face a situation that either matched or mismatched the condition experienced so far, resulting in four different life histories. Subsequently, mice were tested for their anxiety-like and exploratory behavior. The main results were: (1) Life history profoundly modulated the behavioral profile. Surprisingly, mice that experienced early beneficial and later escapable adverse conditions showed less anxiety-like and more exploratory behavior compared to mice of other life histories. (2) Genotype significantly influenced the behavioral profile, with homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice displaying highest levels of anxiety-like and lowest levels of exploratory behavior. Our findings concerning life history indicate that the absence of adversity does not necessarily cause lower levels of anxiety than accumulating adversity. Rather, some adversity may be beneficial, particularly when following positive events. Altogether, we conclude that for an understanding of behavioral profiles, it is not sufficient to look at experiences during single phases of life, but the whole life history has to be considered

  19. Head and neck cancer patients’ perceptions of quality of life and how it is affected by the disease and enteral tube feeding during treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Kay; Laurell, Göran; Langius-Eklöf, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To explore individual quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer from diagnosis up to 3 months after termination of radiotherapy. Research questions: 1) Which areas in life are important to quality of life, and which are influenced by the disease and by having oral or enteral nutrition; and 2) Which areas in life are influenced by having a nasogastric feeding tube (NGT) or a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube? Material and methods. Data were collected in 36 patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an extended version of the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life (SEIQoL) and analysed with content analysis. Results. Negative and positive experiences of quality of life in general were about relation to family, own health, and leisure activities. Negative impacts on physical, psychological, existential and social problems, but also positive experiences are described by the patients related to the disease. More than half expressed eating-related problems. Enteral nutrition entailed negative and positive experiences, and no greater variations were described by the patients with NGT or PEG tube. Overall, there were interindividual variations. Conclusions. The patients’ perception of general or disease-related quality of life was not affected by whether they had enteral nutrition or not. From the patients’ perspective neither of the two feeding tubes (NGT or PEG) was clearly in favour. We suggest that more studies are needed on how the choice of enteral feeding tube can be evidence-based, and incorporating the patients’ perspective. PMID:26482657

  20. The use of multi-species, multi-life stage tests to evaluate soil toxicity at Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base, California

    SciTech Connect

    Byron, E.; Ohlendorf, H.; Stanaway, M.

    1995-12-31

    Soil toxicity testing was conducted at several contaminated sites as a portion of the ecological risk assessment evaluations at Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base, California. The primary risk assessment concern at these sites was the potential exposure of site invertebrates, plants, and their secondary consumers (birds, mammals) to toxic levels of contaminants. Contaminants included a variety of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, herbicides, PAHs, arsenic, heavy metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons. Toxicity to earthworms was measured as survival and growth over 28 days. Toxicity to lettuce was assessed as seed germination and 28-day growth of above-ground plant biomass. Test organisms were exposed to a series of concentrations of site soils diluted with clean control soils ranging from 100% to 25% site soil. The tests yielded varying results which indicated a wide range of sensitivities to toxic contaminants among the test species and life stages. In addition, test results indicated a strong and potentially confounding sensitivity of earthworms to soil structure, apparently independent of soil chemistry. However, the combination of multi-species toxicity tests including the assessment of earthworm and lettuce bioaccumulation of selected contaminants provided a ranking of sites by toxicity, estimates of the probable causes of toxicity, and an assessment of the LC{sup 50} and NOEC values for detected soil contaminants at the Sites.

  1. Modelling the impact of temperature-induced life history plasticity and mate limitation on the epidemic potential of a marine ectoparasite.

    PubMed

    Groner, Maya L; Gettinby, George; Stormoen, Marit; Revie, Crawford W; Cox, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is hypothesized to contribute to increased pathogenicity and virulence of many marine diseases. The sea louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is an ectoparasite of salmonids that exhibits strong life-history plasticity in response to temperature; however, the effect of temperature on the epidemiology of this parasite has not been rigorously examined. We used matrix population modelling to examine the influence of temperature on demographic parameters of sea lice parasitizing farmed salmon. Demographically-stochastic population projection matrices were created using parameters from the existing literature on vital rates of sea lice at different fixed temperatures and yearly temperature profiles. In addition, we quantified the effectiveness of a single stage-specific control applied at different times during a year with seasonal temperature changes. We found that the epidemic potential of sea lice increased with temperature due to a decrease in generation time and an increase in the net reproductive rate. In addition, mate limitation constrained population growth more at low temperatures than at high temperatures. Our model predicts that control measures targeting preadults and chalimus are most effective regardless of the temperature. The predictions from this model suggest that temperature can dramatically change vital rates of sea lice and can increase population growth. The results of this study suggest that sea surface temperatures should be considered when choosing salmon farm sites and designing management plans to control sea louse infestations. More broadly, this study demonstrates the utility of matrix population modelling for epidemiological studies. PMID:24505493

  2. Life cycles, molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the 'pygmaeus' microphallids (Digenea: Microphallidae): widespread parasites of marine and coastal birds in the Holarctic.

    PubMed

    Galaktionov, Kirill V; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Olson, Peter D

    2012-09-01

    The 'pygmaeus' microphallids (MPG) are a closely related group of 6 digenean (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) Microphallus species that share a derived 2-host life cycle in which metacercariae develop inside daughter sporocysts in the intermediate host (intertidal and subtidal gastropods, mostly of the genus Littorina) and are infective to marine birds (ducks, gulls and waders). Here we investigate MPG transmission patterns in coastal ecosystems and their diversification with respect to historical events, host switching and host-parasite co-evolution. Species phylogenies and phylogeographical reconstructions are estimated on the basis of 28S, ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA data and we use a combination of analyses to test the robustness and stability of the results, and the likelihood of alternative biogeographical scenarios. Results demonstrate that speciation within the MPG was not associated with co-speciation with either the first intermediate or final hosts, but rather by host-switching events coincident with glacial cycles in the Northern Hemisphere during the late Pliocene/Pleistocene. These resulted in the expansion of Pacific biota into the Arctic-North Atlantic and periodic isolation of Atlantic and Pacific populations. Thus we hypothesize that contemporary species of MPG and their host associations resulted from fragmentation of populations in regional refugia during stadials, and their subsequent range expansion from refugial centres during interstadials. PMID:22717011

  3. Modelling the Impact of Temperature-Induced Life History Plasticity and Mate Limitation on the Epidemic Potential of a Marine Ectoparasite

    PubMed Central

    Groner, Maya L.; Gettinby, George; Stormoen, Marit; Revie, Crawford W.; Cox, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is hypothesized to contribute to increased pathogenicity and virulence of many marine diseases. The sea louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is an ectoparasite of salmonids that exhibits strong life-history plasticity in response to temperature; however, the effect of temperature on the epidemiology of this parasite has not been rigorously examined. We used matrix population modelling to examine the influence of temperature on demographic parameters of sea lice parasitizing farmed salmon. Demographically-stochastic population projection matrices were created using parameters from the existing literature on vital rates of sea lice at different fixed temperatures and yearly temperature profiles. In addition, we quantified the effectiveness of a single stage-specific control applied at different times during a year with seasonal temperature changes. We found that the epidemic potential of sea lice increased with temperature due to a decrease in generation time and an increase in the net reproductive rate. In addition, mate limitation constrained population growth more at low temperatures than at high temperatures. Our model predicts that control measures targeting preadults and chalimus are most effective regardless of the temperature. The predictions from this model suggest that temperature can dramatically change vital rates of sea lice and can increase population growth. The results of this study suggest that sea surface temperatures should be considered when choosing salmon farm sites and designing management plans to control sea louse infestations. More broadly, this study demonstrates the utility of matrix population modelling for epidemiological studies. PMID:24505493

  4. 76 FR 38552 - Amendments to Regulations Regarding Major Life-Changing Events Affecting Income-Related Monthly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...This final rule adopts, without change, the interim final rule with request for comments we published in the Federal Register on July 15, 2010 at 75 FR 41084. The interim final rule concerned what we consider major life-changing events for the Medicare Part B income- related monthly adjustment amount (IRMAA) and what evidence we require to support a claim of a major life-changing event. This......

  5. 75 FR 41084 - Amendments to Regulations Regarding Major Life-Changing Events Affecting Income-Related Monthly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...We are modifying our regulations to clarify and revise what we consider major life-changing events for the Medicare Part B income- related monthly adjustment amount (IRMAA) and what evidence we require to support a claim of a major life-changing event. Recent changes in the economy and other unforeseen events have had a significant effect on many Medicare Part B beneficiaries. The changes we......

  6. 77 FR 33718 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... scenic beauty and remarkable productivity, the sanctuary supports a rich diversity of marine life... Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean... seats on the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: (2) Education Members;...

  7. Marine Chemical Ecology: Chemical Signals and Cues Structure Marine Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical cues constitute much of the language of life in the sea. Our understanding of biotic interactions and their effects on marine ecosystems will advance more rapidly if this language is studied and understood. Here, I review how chemical cues regulate critical aspects of the behavior of marine organisms from bacteria to phytoplankton to benthic invertebrates and water column fishes. These chemically mediated interactions strongly affect population structure, community organization, and ecosystem function. Chemical cues determine foraging strategies, feeding choices, commensal associations, selection of mates and habitats, competitive interactions, and transfer of energy and nutrients within and among ecosystems. In numerous cases, the indirect effects of chemical signals on behavior have as much or more effect on community structure and function as the direct effects of consumers and pathogens. Chemical cues are critical for understanding marine systems, but their omnipresence and impact are inadequately recognized. PMID:21141035

  8. Marine Chemical Ecology: Chemical Signals and Cues Structure Marine Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical cues constitute much of the language of life in the sea. Our understanding of biotic interactions and their effects on marine ecosystems will advance more rapidly if this language is studied and understood. Here, I review how chemical cues regulate critical aspects of the behavior of marine organisms from bacteria to phytoplankton to benthic invertebrates and water column fishes. These chemically mediated interactions strongly affect population structure, community organization, and ecosystem function. Chemical cues determine foraging strategies, feeding choices, commensal associations, selection of mates and habitats, competitive interactions, and transfer of energy and nutrients within and among ecosystems. In numerous cases, the indirect effects of chemical signals on behavior have as much or more effect on community structure and function as the direct effects of consumers and pathogens. Chemical cues are critical for understanding marine systems, but their omnipresence and impact are inadequately recognized.

  9. Marin Tsunami (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  10. Do Panic Symptoms Affect the Quality of Life and Add to the Disability in Patients with Bronchial Asthma?

    PubMed

    Faye, A D; Gawande, S; Tadke, R; Kirpekar, V C; Bhave, S H; Pakhare, A P; Tayade, B

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anxiety and panic are known to be associated with bronchial asthma with variety of impact on clinical presentation, treatment outcome, comorbidities, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with asthma. This study aims to explore the pattern of panic symptoms, prevalence and severity of panic disorder (PD), quality of life, and disability in them. Methods. Sixty consecutive patients of bronchial asthma were interviewed using semistructured proforma, Panic and Agoraphobia scale, WHO Quality of life (QOL) BREF scale, and WHO disability schedule II (WHODAS II). Results. Though 60% of the participants had panic symptoms, only 46.7% had diagnosable panic attacks according to DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria and 33.3% had PD. Most common symptoms were "sensations of shortness of breath or smothering," "feeling of choking," and "fear of dying" found in 83.3% of the participants. 73.3% of the participants had poor quality of life which was most impaired in physical and environmental domains. 55% of the participants had disability score more than a mean (18.1). Conclusion. One-third of the participants had panic disorder with significant effect on physical and environmental domains of quality of life. Patients with more severe PD and bronchial asthma had more disability. PMID:26425540

  11. How Do You Feel? Self-esteem Predicts Affect, Stress, Social Interaction, and Symptom Severity during Daily Life in Patients with Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    JUTH, VANESSA; SMYTH, JOSHUA M.; SANTUZZI, ALECIA M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-esteem has been demonstrated to predict health and well-being in a number of samples and domains using retrospective reports, but little is known about the effect of self-esteem in daily life. A community sample with asthma (n = 97) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 31) completed a self-esteem measure and collected Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data 5x/day for one week using a palmtop computer. Low self-esteem predicted more negative affect, less positive affect, greater stress severity, and greater symptom severity in daily life. Naturalistic exploration of mechanisms relating self-esteem to physiological and/or psychological components in illness may clarify causal relationships and inform theoretical models of self-care, well-being, and disease management. PMID:18809639

  12. Life cycle assessment of lignocellulosic ethanol: a review of key factors and methods affecting calculated GHG emissions and energy use.

    PubMed

    Gerbrandt, Kelsey; Chu, Pei Lin; Simmonds, Allison; Mullins, Kimberley A; MacLean, Heather L; Griffin, W Michael; Saville, Bradley A

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol has potential for lower life cycle greenhouse gas emissions compared to gasoline and conventional grain-based ethanol. Ethanol production 'pathways' need to meet economic and environmental goals. Numerous life cycle assessments of lignocellulosic ethanol have been published over the last 15 years, but gaps remain in understanding life cycle performance due to insufficient data, and model and methodological issues. We highlight key aspects of these issues, drawing on literature and a case study of corn stover ethanol. Challenges include the complexity of feedstock/ecosystems and market-mediated aspects and the short history of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol facilities, which collectively have led to uncertainty in GHG emissions estimates, and to debates on LCA methods and the role of uncertainty in decision making. PMID:26807514

  13. Germination Season and Watering Regime, but Not Seed Morph, Affect Life History Traits in a Cold Desert Diaspore-Heteromorphic Annual

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Juan J.; Tan, Dun Y.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed morph, abiotic conditions and time of germination can affect plant fitness, but few studies have tested their combined effects on plasticity of plant life history traits. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that seed morph, germination season and watering regime influence phenotypic expression of post-germination life history traits in the diaspore-heteromorphic cold desert winter annual/spring ephemeral Diptychocarpus strictus. The two seed morphs were sown in watered and non-watered plots in late summer, and plants derived from them were watered or not-watered throughout the study. Seed morph did not affect phenology, growth and morphology, survival, dry mass accumulation and allocation or silique and seed production. Seeds in watered plots germinated in autumn (AW) and spring (SW) but only in spring for non-watered plots (SNW). A high percentage of AW, SW and SNW plants survived and reproduced, but flowering date and flowering period of autumn- vs. spring-germinated plants differed. Dry mass also differed with germination season/watering regime (AW > SW > SNW). Number of siliques and seeds increased with plant size (AW > SW > SNW), whereas percent dry mass allocated to reproduction was higher in small plants: SNW > SW > AW. Thus, although seed morph did not affect the expression of life history traits, germination season and watering regime significantly affected phenology, plant size and accumulation and allocation of biomass to reproduction. Flexibility throughout the life cycle of D. strictus is an adaptation to the variation in timing and amount of rainfall in its cold desert habitat. PMID:25013967

  14. Do conditions in early life affect old-age mortality directly and indirectly? Evidence from 19th-century rural Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Tommy; Broström, Göran

    2009-05-01

    Previous research has shown that the disease load experienced during the birth year, measured as the infant mortality rate, had a significant influence on old-age mortality in nineteenth-century rural Sweden. We know that children born in years with very high rates of infant mortality, due to outbreaks of smallpox or whooping cough, and who still survived to adulthood and married, faced a life length several years shorter than others. We do not know, however, whether this is a direct effect, caused by permanent physical damage leading to fatal outcomes later in life, or an indirect effect, via its influence on accumulation of wealth and obtained socio-economic status. The Scanian Demographic Database, with information on five rural parishes in southern Sweden between 1813 and 1894, contains the data needed to distinguish between the two mechanisms. First, the effects of conditions in childhood on obtained socio-economic status as an adult are analyzed, then the effects of both early-life conditions and socio-economic status at various stages of life on old-age mortality. By including random effects, we take into account possible dependencies in the data due to kinship and marriage. We find that a high disease load during the first year of life had a strong negative impact on a person's ability to acquire wealth, never before shown for a historical setting. This means that it is indeed possible that the effects of disease load in the first year of life indirectly affect mortality in old age through obtained socio-economic status. We find, however, no effects of obtained socio-economic status on old-age mortality. While the result is interesting per se, constituting a debatable issue, it means that the argument that early-life conditions indirectly affect old-age mortality is not supported. Instead, we find support for the conclusion that the effect of the disease load in early-life is direct or, in other words, that physiological damage from severe infections at the

  15. The sheepshead minnow as an in vivo model for endocrine disruption in marine teleosts: a partial life-cycle test with 17alpha-ethynylestradiol.

    PubMed

    Zillioux, E J; Johnson, I C; Kiparissis, Y; Metcalfe, C D; Wheat, J V; Ward, S G; Liu, H

    2001-09-01

    The sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus Lacépède), an estuarine fish species, was exposed to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) at nominal test concentrations of 0.2, 2, 20, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, and 3,200 ng/L. Fish were exposed for up to 59 d, from subadult stages to sexual maturity, under flow-through conditions. The exposure period was followed by an evaluation of reproductive success and survival of progeny. The reproductive success of exposed sheepshead minnows, as determined from data on egg production from two subsequent spawning trials, was reduced in fish exposed to 200 ng/L EE2 and, in one spawning trial, in the 20-ng/L treatment. Hatching success was reduced in the progeny of fish exposed to 200 ng/L EE2, but survival was good among fry that successfully hatched. Histological examination indicated generalized edema, damage to gill epithelia, hepatic toxicity, fibrosis of the testis, and evidence of sex reversal, including testes-ova and spermatagonia-like cells in ovaries. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) for gonadal development in males was within the normal range of EE2 concentrations in sewage treatment plant effluents. The exposure regimen and choice of test organism, combined with histological examination, allowed independent evaluation of ecologically significant acute, reproductive and estrogenic endpoints. Estrogen receptor-mediated effects occurred at concentrations where reproductive effects were measurable under standard reproduction assays. The sheepshead minnow appears to be a sensitive in vivo model for partial life-cycle testing of compounds that have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system as well as reproduction in estuarine and coastal marine fish species. PMID:11521823

  16. Influences of humic acid on the bioavailability of phenanthrene and alkyl phenanthrenes to early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangzhi; Yang, Chenghu; Cheng, Pakkin; He, Xiaojing; Zhu, Yaxian; Zhang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The influences of humic acid (HA) on the environmental behavior and bioavailability of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl PAHs were investigated and compared using the early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma, O. melastigma). It was demonstrated that the binding affinity of parent phenanthrene (PHE) with HA was smaller than that of 3-methyl phenanthrene (3-MP) and 9-ethyl phenanthrene (9-EP). Furthermore, the bioaccumulation of the three PAHs and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were calculated to study the changes in bioavailability of PAHs in presence of HA. The results indicated that the addition of HA significantly decreased the bioaccumulation and toxicity of PAHs by decreasing free PAHs concentrations. The bioavailable fractions of HA-bound PAHs in bioaccumulation (α) and toxicity (β) were evaluated, indicating that the HA-bound 3-MP and 9-EP show higher bioavailability in bioaccumulation and lower bioavailability in toxicity relative to those of PHE. The β/α values were less than 1 for all PAH treatment groups containing HA, suggesting that the fraction of HA-bound PAHs contributing to bioaccumulation was higher than that of HA-bound PAHs inducing toxic effect. In addition, we proposed that the free PAHs generated by desorption from HA in the cell were toxic by showing that the β/α ratio values are correlated with the log KOW values (p = 0.007 and R(2) = 0.8355). Thus, oil spill risk assessments should consider both alkyl PAHs and the factors that influence the bioavailability and toxicity of PAHs in the natural aquatic environments. PMID:26735166

  17. Site specific fertilization affects yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent' mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site specific fertilization (SSF) defines the type and rate of fertilizer needed for individual orchards. This study presents preliminary results (2010-2011) of a medium term project to quantify the effects of SSF on yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent’ mango. Two orchards are used f...

  18. The Mediation Effect of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Teacher Support, Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telef, Bülent Baki; Arslan, Gökmen; Mert, Abdullah; Kalafat, Sezai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among teacher support, positive emotions, school satisfaction and life satisfaction in adolescences. The study had the participation of 344 adolescents from different socio-economic levels studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three public middle schools in the province of…

  19. Diverse Pathways to Positive and Negative Affect in Adulthood and Later Life: An Integrative Approach Using Recursive Partitioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenewald, Tara L.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Ryff, Carol D.; Singer, Burton H.

    2008-01-01

    Recursive partitioning is an analytic technique that is useful for identifying complex combinations of conditions that predict particular outcomes as well as for delineating multiple subgroup differences in how such factors work together. As such, the methodology is well suited to multidisciplinary, life course inquiry in which the goal is to…

  20. "Electric Power for Rural Growth: How Electricity Affects Rural Life in Developing Countries," by Douglas F. Barnes. [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodwick, Dora G.; McIntosh, William A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a book assessing the effects of central grid rural electrification on the social and economic development of 192 communities in India and Colombia. The study examines the impact on agricultural productivity (through increased irrigation), the quality of life of women and children, business activities, and regional inequities. (SV)

  1. How E-Learning with Second Life, an Online Virtual World Technology System, Affects Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sharon Kibbe

    2013-01-01

    Educators face challenges as they seek to ensure their online learning content is interactive, is engaging, and works well for remote learners. Second Life (SL), an online virtual world technology-based system built on Web 2.0 technology, is one approach designed to enrich online instruction and e-learning. This study involved a synthesis of…

  2. Physical activity and quality of life among university students: exploring self-efficacy, self-esteem, and affect as potential mediators

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Royse, Kathryn E.; Benitez, Tanya J.; Pekmezi, Dorothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity (PA) has been shown to enhance quality of life (QOL) in older adults. Findings from these studies indicate that the relationship between PA and QOL is indirect and likely mediated by variables such as physical self-esteem, exercise self-efficacy, and affect. As PA varies greatly by age, the purpose of the current study is to extend this area of research to young adults and explore the complex relationship between PA and QOL in this target population. Methods Data were collected via anonymous questionnaire from N = 590 undergraduate students. PA was assessed with the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, and QOL was assessed by the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Path analysis was used to test the relationship between PA and QOL, with mediators of exercise self-efficacy, physical self-esteem, and affect. Results The PA model (RMSEA = .03, CFI = .99) accounted for 25 % of the variance in QOL. PA had positive direct effects on exercise self-efficacy (β = .28, P < .001), physical self-esteem (β = .10, P < .001), positive affect (β = .10, P < .05), and negative affect (β = .08, P < .05). Physical self-esteem was found to be the most powerful mediating variable on QOL (β = .30, P < .001), followed by positive affect (β = .27, P < .001) and negative affect (β = .14, P < .001). Conclusion Physical self-esteem and, to a lesser extent, positive affect emerged as integral components in the link between PA and QOL. Findings suggest that health education programs designed to promote regular PA and increase physical self-esteem may be effective in improving QOL in young adults. PMID:23928820

  3. Deep-Water Chemosynthetic Ecosystem Research during the Census of Marine Life Decade and Beyond: A Proposed Deep-Ocean Road Map

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher R.; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Baker, Maria C.; Tyler, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The ChEss project of the Census of Marine Life (2002–2010) helped foster internationally-coordinated studies worldwide focusing on exploration for, and characterization of new deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystem sites. This work has advanced our understanding of the nature and factors controlling the biogeography and biodiversity of these ecosystems in four geographic locations: the Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB), the New Zealand region, the Arctic and Antarctic and the SE Pacific off Chile. In the AEB, major discoveries include hydrothermal seeps on the Costa Rica margin, deepest vents found on the Mid-Cayman Rise and the hottest vents found on the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was also shown that the major fracture zones on the MAR do not create barriers for the dispersal but may act as trans-Atlantic conduits for larvae. In New Zealand, investigations of a newly found large cold-seep area suggest that this region may be a new biogeographic province. In the Arctic, the newly discovered sites on the Mohns Ridge (71°N) showed extensive mats of sulfur-oxidisng bacteria, but only one gastropod potentially bears chemosynthetic symbionts, while cold seeps on the Haakon Mossby Mud Volcano (72°N) are dominated by siboglinid worms. In the Antarctic region, the first hydrothermal vents south of the Polar Front were located and biological results indicate that they may represent a new biogeographic province. The recent exploration of the South Pacific region has provided evidence for a sediment hosted hydrothermal source near a methane-rich cold-seep area. Based on our 8 years of investigations of deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystems worldwide, we suggest highest priorities for future research: (i) continued exploration of the deep-ocean ridge-crest; (ii) increased focus on anthropogenic impacts; (iii) concerted effort to coordinate a major investigation of the deep South Pacific Ocean – the largest contiguous habitat for life within Earth's biosphere, but also the

  4. Deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystem research during the census of marine life decade and beyond: a proposed deep-ocean road map.

    PubMed

    German, Christopher R; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Baker, Maria C; Tyler, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    The ChEss project of the Census of Marine Life (2002-2010) helped foster internationally-coordinated studies worldwide focusing on exploration for, and characterization of new deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystem sites. This work has advanced our understanding of the nature and factors controlling the biogeography and biodiversity of these ecosystems in four geographic locations: the Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB), the New Zealand region, the Arctic and Antarctic and the SE Pacific off Chile. In the AEB, major discoveries include hydrothermal seeps on the Costa Rica margin, deepest vents found on the Mid-Cayman Rise and the hottest vents found on the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was also shown that the major fracture zones on the MAR do not create barriers for the dispersal but may act as trans-Atlantic conduits for larvae. In New Zealand, investigations of a newly found large cold-seep area suggest that this region may be a new biogeographic province. In the Arctic, the newly discovered sites on the Mohns Ridge (71 °N) showed extensive mats of sulfur-oxidisng bacteria, but only one gastropod potentially bears chemosynthetic symbionts, while cold seeps on the Haakon Mossby Mud Volcano (72 °N) are dominated by siboglinid worms. In the Antarctic region, the first hydrothermal vents south of the Polar Front were located and biological results indicate that they may represent a new biogeographic province. The recent exploration of the South Pacific region has provided evidence for a sediment hosted hydrothermal source near a methane-rich cold-seep area. Based on our 8 years of investigations of deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystems worldwide, we suggest highest priorities for future research: (i) continued exploration of the deep-ocean ridge-crest; (ii) increased focus on anthropogenic impacts; (iii) concerted effort to coordinate a major investigation of the deep South Pacific Ocean - the largest contiguous habitat for life within Earth's biosphere, but also the

  5. Maternal early-life trauma and affective parenting style: the mediating role of HPA-axis function.

    PubMed

    Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C

    2016-02-01

    A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting. PMID:25956587

  6. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment. PMID:25650731

  7. Factors that affect the quality of life of patients with oral cancer who have had their defects reconstructed immediately after excision of the tumour.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjie; Li, Feng; Li, Wenlu

    2016-05-01

    Physical, social, and psychological factors profoundly affect the quality of life (QoL) of patients with oral cancer. Here we have investigated these factors in patients who have had resection and reconstruction of their oral cancer. We have assessed patients who had reconstructions with a pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMM) flap or a free anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap using the University of Washington Quality of Life version 4 questionnaires (Chinese version). Data were analysed to investigate how age, sex, type of neck dissection, size of resection, dental condition, use of radiotherapy and need for mandibulotomy affected their QoL. Of the 72 patients who were sent a questionnaire, 61 (85%) returned them completed. Twenty-eight patients(46%) had had ALT perforator flaps and 33 patients (54%) PMM flaps. In the group who had ALT perforator flaps, age, sex, type of neck dissection, mandibulotomy, and the use of radiotherapy affected QoL. Among those who the PMM flaps, age, neck dissection, mandibulotomy, and use of radiotherapy affected QoL. The only factors that the two flaps had in common were age, neck dissection, use of radiotherapy, and mandibulotomy. PMID:26774899

  8. Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health.

    PubMed

    Bossart, G D

    2011-05-01

    The long-term consequences of climate change and potential environmental degradation are likely to include aspects of disease emergence in marine plants and animals. In turn, these emerging diseases may have epizootic potential, zoonotic implications, and a complex pathogenesis involving other cofactors such as anthropogenic contaminant burden, genetics, and immunologic dysfunction. The concept of marine sentinel organisms provides one approach to evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. Such sentinels are barometers for current or potential negative impacts on individual- and population-level animal health. In turn, using marine sentinels permits better characterization and management of impacts that ultimately affect animal and human health associated with the oceans. Marine mammals are prime sentinel species because many species have long life spans, are long-term coastal residents, feed at a high trophic level, and have unique fat stores that can serve as depots for anthropogenic toxins. Marine mammals may be exposed to environmental stressors such as chemical pollutants, harmful algal biotoxins, and emerging or resurging pathogens. Since many marine mammal species share the coastal environment with humans and consume the same food, they also may serve as effective sentinels for public health problems. Finally, marine mammals are charismatic megafauna that typically stimulate an exaggerated human behavioral response and are thus more likely to be observed. PMID:21160025

  9. [PREDICTING FACTORS OF THE LIFE SPAN IN PATIENTS, SUFFERING METASTATIC COLORECTAL CANCER AND SYNCHRONOUS HEPATIC AFFECTION AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT].

    PubMed

    Kolesnik, O O; Burlaka, A A; Lukashenko, A V; Pryimak, V V; Zhukov, Yu O; Makhmudov, D E; Volk, M O; Shchepotin, I B

    2015-05-01

    The results of treatment of 125 patients, suffering metastatic hepatic affection in colorectal cancer (pT1--4N0--2M1--in colonic cancer and pT1--3N0--2M1--in cancer recti), to whom in 2008-2015 yrs a one-staged (Group 1) or two-staged (Group II) surgical treatment was done. In affection of 4 regional lymph nodes and more (pN2) late results were less favorable, than in pN1 or pN0, not depending from surgical approach choosed. In 48 (38.4%) patients with one syndromal hepatic metastatic focus, the indices of general three-year and five-year cumulative survival were the best, than in other groups--82 and 63% (p = 0.001) accordingly; in monolobar affection--68 and 49%, and in bilobar--23 and 0%, not depending from method of surgical treatment (p < 0.001) choosed. Predictive factors were established, which impact negatively the indices of general survival in patients, suffering metastatic hepatic affection in colorectal cancer: hepatic metastatic foci number 4 and more, bilobar hepatic metastatic affection. PMID:26419027

  10. Marine biodiversity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Boeuf, Gilles

    2011-05-01

    Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity. PMID:21640952

  11. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M

    2015-10-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America. PMID:26072908

  12. Acid rain threatens marine life

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    In freshwater, acid rain harms aquatic organisms because one of its components, sulfur dioxide, lowers the water's pH. In seawater, the damage comes from other components of acid precipitation: nitrogen oxides. Acting as a nutrient, nitrogen promotes excessive algal growth, which blocks sunlight and depletes dissolved oxygen, thereby suffocating other plants and animals. Known as eutrophication, this phenomenon has been increasing in both frequency and intensity on the Atlantic coast during the past few years. The New York City-based Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), study focused on the Chesapeake Bay, the nation's largest estuary and an important spawning ground for many species of economic importance. It has long been known that the bay is suffering from nitrogen pollution. Until now, it was assumed that most of the nitrogen was coming from sewage and agricultural runoff. However, based on data collected from both federal and state agencies, EDF scientists estimated that nitrates from acid rain are responsible for 25% of the nitrogen entering the bay. The report says that if present trends continue, airborne nitrates will contribute 42% of annual nitrogen deposits into the Chesapeake Bay by the year 2030.

  13. Correlation Between Ecospace and Metabolic Rate of Marine Organisms Through Geologic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, C.; Tenorio, A.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    Marine organisms are the most abundant fossils scientists have discovered in the fossil record. Various factors affect the survival rate of individual organisms and entire genera including metabolic rate, genetic diversity, environmental availability, and ecology. We however chose to focus our attention on studying mean metabolic rates in correlation to life modes. A marine organism's life mode is determined by three criteria: tiering, motility, and feeding mechanism. We believe an organism's life mode has an effect on its survivorship, especially since ecospace is the "primary determinant of routine metabolic rate for marine organisms" (Seibel & Drazen 2007). Using the metabolic equation, we were able to plot metabolic rate changes for various life modes over time. Seibel and Drazen (2007) explain that "metabolic variation in the ocean results from interspecific differences in ecological energy demand," thus allowing us to hypothesize that with different combinations of life modes, different marine organisms will have varying metabolic rates. To further compare our data, we created a heatmap to show the change in metabolic rates over the last 540 million years. Based on the collection of data, metabolic rates of marine organisms have shown an increasing trend. When analyzing ecospaces, pelagic (living in the water column), free moving organisms have relatively high metabolic rates in comparison to other modes of tiering. In other life modes, there's a general trend of genera maintaining a stabilized and moderate metabolic rate that is neither extremely high nor low.

  14. Factors That Affect Quality of Life among People Living with HIV Attending an Urban Clinic in Uganda: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mutabazi-Mwesigire, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and primary general care for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource limited settings, PLHIV are living longer, and HIV has been transformed into a chronic illness. People are diagnosed and started on treatment when they are relatively well. Although ART results in clinical improvement, the ultimate goal of treatment is full physical functioning and general well-being, with a focus on quality of life rather than clinical outcomes. However, there has been little research on the relationship of specific factors to quality of life in PLHIV. The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with quality of life among PLHIV in Uganda receiving basic care and those on ART. Methods We enrolled 1274 patients attending an HIV outpatient clinic into a prospective cohort study. Of these, 640 received ART. All were followed up at 3 and 6 months. Health related quality of life was assessed with the MOS-HIV Health Survey and the Global Person Generated Index (GPGI). Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression with generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship of social behavioral and disease factors with Physical Health Summary (PHS) score, Mental Health Summary (MHS) score, and GPGI. Results Among PLHIV receiving basic care, PHS was associated with: sex (p=0.045) - females had lower PHS; age in years at enrollment (p=0.0001) - older patients had lower PHS; and depression (p<0.001) - depressed patients had lower PHS. MHS was only associated with opportunistic infection (p=0.01) - presence of an opportunistic infection was associated with lower MHS. For the GPG the associated variables were age (p=0.03) - older patients had lower GPGI; education (p=0.01) – higher education associated with higher GPGI; and depression - patients with depression had a lower GPGI (p<0.001). Among patients on ART, PHS was associated with: study visit (p=0.01), with increase in

  15. Negative Experiences in Physical Education and Sport: How Much Do They Affect Physical Activity Participation Later in Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2013-01-01

    People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…

  16. Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

  17. Marine antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment. PMID:12807313

  18. Development of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimuli during the first 12 months of post-natal life.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Louis A; Trainor, Laurel J; Santesso, Diane L

    2003-06-01

    We examined the development of infants' regional electrocortical (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimuli during the first 12 months of post-natal life. Separate groups of infants were seen at 3 (n=33), 6 (n=42), 9 (n=52), and 12 (n=40) months of age at which time regional EEG and ECG responses were continuously recorded during a baseline condition and during the presentation of three orchestral pieces that were known to vary in affective valence and intensity (happy, sad, fear). Overall, there were two important findings. First, we found that although the overall amount of EEG 4-8 Hz power increased between 3 and 12 months, the distribution of EEG power changed across age, with the younger infants (3- and 6-month-olds) showing no difference between frontal and parietal regions, but the older infants (9- and 12-month-olds) showing relatively more activation at frontal than at parietal sites. This development likely reflects the maturation of frontal lobe function. Second, we found that the presentation of affective music significantly increased brain activity at 3 months of age, had seemingly little effect at 6 and 9 months, and significantly attenuated brain activity at 12 months. Findings suggest that there is a clear developmental change in the effect of music on brain activity in the first year, with music having a "calming" influence on infants by the end of the first year of life. PMID:12812802

  19. Quality changes of pomegranate arils throughout shelf life affected by deficit irrigation and pre-processing storage.

    PubMed

    Peña-Estévez, María E; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Artés, Francisco; Aguayo, Encarna; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Galindo, Alejandro; Gómez, Perla A

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the influence of sustained deficit irrigation (SDI, 78% less water supply than the reference evapotranspiration, ET0) compared to a control (100% ET0) on the physicochemical and sensory qualities and health-promoting compounds of pomegranate arils stored for 14days at 5°C. Prior to processing, the fruits were stored for 0, 30, 60 or 90days at 5°C. The effect of the pre-processing storage duration was also examined. Physicochemical and sensory qualities were kept during the storage period. Arils from SDI fruit had lower punicalagin-α and ellagic acid losses than the control (13% vs 50%). However, the anthocyanin content decreased during the shelf-life (72%) regardless of the treatment. The ascorbic acid slight decreased. Arils from SDI experienced glucose/fructose ratio loss (19%) lower than that of the control (35%). In general, arils from SDI showed better quality and health attributes during the shelf-life than did the control samples. PMID:27173567

  20. Stressful Life Events and Daily Stressors Affect Awakening Cortisol Level in Midlife Mothers of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jen D.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The current study examines the awakening cortisol level in midlife mothers (M=51.4 years old, SD=8.4) of individuals (M=22.1 years old, SD=7.1) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) under stressful conditions that are not specific to the son or daughter's ASD symptoms. Methods In addition to completing a set of questionnaires and in-home interviews, 82 mothers from the Adolescents and Adults with Autism Study (AAA) participated in a Daily Diary Study. Results Findings from the multilevel models indicated that mothers who previously were exposed to no negative life events in the previous period had an increased awakening cortisol level on days following a greater number and more severe stressors, a normative stress response. In contrast, we observed a flatter cortisol level of daily stressors in mothers who experienced a greater number of negative life events in the previous period. Conclusion These findings highlight the sustained toll that global and everyday stressors have on awakening cortisol level of midlife and aging mothers of individuals with ASD. PMID:22640177

  1. Out of the frying pan, into the fire: mixed affective reactions to social proximity in borderline and avoidant personality disorders in daily life.

    PubMed

    Gadassi, Reuma; Snir, Avigal; Berenson, Kathy; Downey, Geraldine; Rafaeli, Eshkol

    2014-08-01

    Social proximity typically helps individuals meet their belongingness needs, but several forms of psychopathology, including borderline and avoidant personality disorders (BPD and APD, respectively) are characterized by social difficulties. This experience-sampling study is one of the first to directly investigate the affective reactions of individuals with BPD and APD (compared with healthy controls [HC]) to social proximity in daily life. We examined both person-level and day-level reactions. At the person level, the rate of social proximity across the diary period was associated with diminished feelings of rejection, isolation, shame, and dissociation in the HC group. In contrast, it was not associated with any affective reaction in the BPD group, and was associated with decreased rejection and isolation on the one hand, but also with increased anxiety in the APD group. At the day level, we used multilevel regression to examine affective reactions when in social proximity. The HC group showed a consistent benefit when in social proximity. In contrast, both PD groups exhibited mixed affective reactions to social proximity; specifically, benefits (increased positive affect, decreased rejection, isolation, and dissociation) were interspersed with costs (increased shame for both PD groups; increased anger for BPD; increased anxiety for APD). The mixed reactions found in both PDs may contribute to the disturbed relationships of individuals with these disorders. PMID:24933280

  2. Evaluation the quality characteristics of wheat flour and shelf-life of fresh noodles as affected by ozone treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Wang, Bi-Wen; Guo, Xiao-Na; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2012-12-15

    In this study, the effects of ozone treatment on the microorganism mortality in wheat flour and shelf-life of fresh noodles were investigated, as well as the physicochemical properties of wheat flour and textural qualities of cooked noodles. Results showed that the total plate count (TPC) can be largely reduced in wheat flour exposed to ozone gas for 30 min and 60 min. Whiteness of flour and noodle sheet, dough stability, and peak viscosity of wheat starch were all increased by ozone treatment. Free cysteine content in wheat flour was shown to decrease significantly (P<0.05) as the treatment time increased and remarkable protein aggregates were observed in both reduced and non-reduced SDS-PAGE patterns. In addition, ozone treated noodles were generally higher in firmness, springiness, and chewiness, while lower in adhesiveness. Microbial growth and darkening rate of fresh noodles made from ozone treated flour were delayed significantly. PMID:22980785

  3. Inconstant sun: how solar evolution has affected cosmic and ultraviolet radiation exposure over the history of life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Karam, P Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Four billion years ago, sea-level UV exposure was more than 400 times as intense as today, the dose from solar cosmic rays was five times present levels, and galactic cosmic rays accounted for only about 10% their current contribution to sea-level radiation doses. Exposure to cosmic radiation accounts for about 10% of natural background radiation exposure today and includes dose from galactic cosmic rays and solar charged particles. There is little exposure to ionizing wavelengths of UV due to absorption by ozone. The sun has evolved significantly over its life; in the past there were higher levels of particulate radiation and lower UV emissions from the sun, and a stronger solar wind reduced radiation dose in the inner solar system from galactic cosmic rays. Finally, since the early atmosphere contained little to no oxygen, surface levels of UV radiation were far higher in the past. PMID:12645767

  4. Disturbance of the gut microbiota in early-life selectively affects visceral pain in adulthood without impacting cognitive or anxiety-related behaviors in male rats.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, S M; Felice, V D; Nally, K; Savignac, H M; Claesson, M J; Scully, P; Woznicki, J; Hyland, N P; Shanahan, F; Quigley, E M; Marchesi, J R; O'Toole, P W; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2014-09-26

    Disruption of bacterial colonization during the early postnatal period is increasingly being linked to adverse health outcomes. Indeed, there is a growing appreciation that the gut microbiota plays a role in neurodevelopment. However, there is a paucity of information on the consequences of early-life manipulations of the gut microbiota on behavior. To this end we administered an antibiotic (vancomycin) from postnatal days 4-13 to male rat pups and assessed behavioral and physiological measures across all aspects of the brain-gut axis. In addition, we sought to confirm and expand the effects of early-life antibiotic treatment using a different antibiotic strategy (a cocktail of pimaricin, bacitracin, neomycin; orally) during the same time period in both female and male rat pups. Vancomycin significantly altered the microbiota, which was restored to control levels by 8 weeks of age. Notably, vancomycin-treated animals displayed visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood without any significant effect on anxiety responses as assessed in the elevated plus maze or open field tests. Moreover, cognitive performance in the Morris water maze was not affected by early-life dysbiosis. Immune and stress-related physiological responses were equally unaffected. The early-life antibiotic-induced visceral hypersensitivity was also observed in male rats given the antibiotic cocktail. Both treatments did not alter visceral pain perception in female rats. Changes in visceral pain perception in males were paralleled by distinct decreases in the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1, the α-2A adrenergic receptor and cholecystokinin B receptor. In conclusion, a temporary disruption of the gut microbiota in early-life results in very specific and long-lasting changes in visceral sensitivity in male rats, a hallmark of stress-related functional disorders of the brain-gut axis such as irritable bowel disorder. PMID:25088912

  5. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  6. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    With 63,000 chemicals in common use, the task of identifying specific pollutants and their effects in relation to marine life is immense. The interdisciplinary approach to this complex issue includes studies in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, vertebrate and invertebrate pathology, electron microscopy, immunology, and behavioral biology. Primary concerns are whether pollutants are available to organisms and whether they are transferred through marine food webs. Studies on marine and estuarine pollution in the New York Bight and Puget Sound, Washington, are summarized. Among other results it is interactive effects between two pollutants in marine organism that account for substantial alterations in certain biochemical systems and in cellular morphology. (JGB)

  7. Parental Whole Life Cycle Exposure to Dietary Methylmercury in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Affects the Behavior of Offspring.

    PubMed

    Mora-Zamorano, Francisco X; Klingler, Rebekah; Murphy, Cheryl A; Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica; Carvan, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an established neurotoxicant of concern to fish-eating organisms. While most studies have focused on the fish consumers, much less is known about the effects of MeHg on the fish themselves, especially following exposures to chronic and environmentally relevant scenarios. Here we evaluated the behavioral effects of developmental MeHg insult by exposing parental generations of zebrafish to an environmentally realistic MeHg dietary concentration (1 ppm) and two higher concentrations (3 and 10 ppm) throughout their whole life span. Upon reaching adulthood, their offspring were analyzed through a series of behavioral tests, including the visual-motor response (VMR) assay, analysis of spontaneous swimming and evaluation of foraging efficiency. The VMR assay identified decreased locomotor output in the 6 day postfertilization (dpf) offspring of fish exposed to 3 and 10 ppm MeHg. However, in a second test 7 dpf fish revealed an increase in locomotor activity in all MeHg exposures tested. Increases in locomotion continued to be observed until 16 dpf, which coincided with increased foraging efficiency. These results suggest an association between MeHg and hyperactivity, and imply that fish chronically exposed to MeHg in the wild may be vulnerable to predation. PMID:27023211

  8. Stereotypes as stumbling-blocks: how coping with stereotype threat affects life outcomes for people with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Arielle M; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2014-10-01

    Stereotype threat, the concern about being judged in light of negative stereotypes, causes underperformance in evaluative situations. However, less is known about how coping with stereotypes can aggravate underperformance over time. We propose a model in which ongoing stereotype threat experiences threaten a person's sense of self-integrity, which in turn prompts defensive avoidance of stereotype-relevant situations, impeding growth, achievement, and well-being. We test this model in an important but understudied population: the physically disabled. In Study 1, blind adults reporting higher levels of stereotype threat reported lower self-integrity and well-being and were more likely to be unemployed and to report avoiding stereotype-threatening situations. In Study 2's field experiment, blind students in a compensatory skill-training program made more progress if they had completed a values-affirmation, an exercise that bolsters self-integrity. The findings suggest that stereotype threat poses a chronic threat to self-integrity and undermines life outcomes for people with disabilities. PMID:25015337

  9. The ALS-associated proteins FUS and TDP-43 function together to affect Drosophila locomotion and life span.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Wu; Brent, Jonathan R; Tomlinson, Andrew; Shneider, Neil A; McCabe, Brian D

    2011-10-01

    The fatal adult motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) shares some clinical and pathological overlap with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder. The RNA/DNA-binding proteins fused in sarcoma (FUS; also known as TLS) and TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) have recently been shown to be genetically and pathologically associated with familial forms of ALS and FTD. It is currently unknown whether perturbation of these proteins results in disease through mechanisms that are independent of normal protein function or via the pathophysiological disruption of molecular processes in which they are both critical. Here, we report that Drosophila mutants in which the homolog of FUS is disrupted exhibit decreased adult viability, diminished locomotor speed, and reduced life span compared with controls. These phenotypes were fully rescued by wild-type human FUS, but not ALS-associated mutant FUS proteins. A mutant of the Drosophila homolog of TDP-43 had similar, but more severe, deficits. Through cross-rescue analysis, we demonstrated that FUS acted together with and downstream of TDP-43 in a common genetic pathway in neurons. Furthermore, we found that these proteins associated with each other in an RNA-dependent complex. Our results establish that FUS and TDP-43 function together in vivo and suggest that molecular pathways requiring the combined activities of both of these proteins may be disrupted in ALS and FTD. PMID:21881207

  10. Life span and stress resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans are differentially affected by glutathione transferases metabolizing 4-hydroxynon-2-enal

    PubMed Central

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Dandapat, Abhijit; Singh, Sharda P.; Siegel, Eric R.; Shmookler Reis, Robert J.; Zimniak, Ludwika; Zimniak, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    The lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynon-2-enal (4-HNE) forms as a consequence of oxidative stress, and acts as a signaling molecule or, at superphysiological levels, as a toxicant. The steady-state concentration of the compound reflects the balance between its generation and its metabolism, primarily through glutathione conjugation. Using an RNAi-based screen, we identified in Caenorhabditis elegans five glutathione transferases (GSTs) capable of catalyzing 4-HNE conjugation. RNAi knock-down of these GSTs (products of the gst-5, gst-6, gst-8, gst-10, and gst-24 genes) sensitized the nematode to electrophilic stress elicited by exposure to 4-HNE. However, interference with the expression of only two of these genes (gst-5 and gst-10) significantly shortened the life span of the organism. RNAi knock-down of the other GSTs resulted in at least as much 4-HNE adducts, suggesting tissue-specificity of effects on longevity. Our results are consistent with the oxidative stress theory of organismal aging, broadened by considering electrophilic stress as a contributing factor. According to this extended hypothesis, peroxidation of lipids leads to the formation of 4-HNE in a chain reaction which amplifies the original damage. 4-HNE then acts as an "aging effector" via the formation of 4-HNE-protein adducts, and a resulting change in protein function. PMID:17157356

  11. Posterior laryngitis: a disease with different aetiologies affecting health-related quality of life: a prospective case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Laryngo-pharyngeal reflux (LPR) is assumed to be the most common cause of posterior laryngitis (PL). Since LPR is found in healthy subjects, and PL patients are not improved by acid-reducing therapy, other aetiologies to PL must be considered. The aims of this study in PL were to investigate the prevalence of acid reflux in the proximal oesophagus and functional gastrointestinal symptoms, to analyse motilin levels in plasma, and to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) before and after treatment. Methods Forty-six patients (26 women), with verified PL, median age 55 (IQR 41–68) years, were referred to oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy and 24-h pH monitoring. Plasma motilin was analysed. The 36-item Short-Form questionnaire was completed at inclusion and at follow-up after 43±14 months, when also the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome was completed. Values were compared to controls. Treatment and relief of symptoms were noted from medical records. Results Thirty-four percent had proximal acid reflux and 40% showed signs of distal reflux. Ninety-four percent received acid-reducing treatment, with total relief of symptoms in 17%. Patients with reflux symptoms had lower plasma motilin levels compared to patients without reflux symptoms (p = 0.021). The HRQOL was impaired at inclusion, but improved over time. Patients, especially men, had more functional gastrointestinal symptoms than controls. Conclusions This study indicates that a minority of patients with PL has LPR and is cured by acid-reducing therapy. Disturbed plasma motilin levels and presence of functional gastrointestinal symptoms are found in PL. The impaired HRQOL improves over time. PMID:24015952

  12. Paying the Price at the End of Life: A Consideration of Factors that Affect the Profitability of Hospice

    PubMed Central

    Ettner, Susan L.; Lorenz, Karl A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate factors that affect the financial performance of hospice. Methods Using the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development 2003 survey, we evaluated the organizational attributes, clinical care, and financial performance of 185 operational hospices. As outcomes, we evaluated revenues, costs, and profits per patient and per patient–day, the intensity and skill mix of care, and the provision of charitable and special palliative services. We evaluated regression-adjusted differences by profit status controlling for other organizational features and aggregate patient characteristics. Results Hospices reported median revenue of $6865 per patient and $138 per patient–day (for-profit-not-for profit [FP-NFP] difference −$20, p = 0.045), median cost of $6737 per patient, and $135 per patient–day (FP-NFP difference −$55, p = 0.002), and median pretax profit of $334 per patient and $6 per patient–day (FP-NFP difference $34, p = 0.026). Patients received a median of 29.9 total visits by all providers per patient (FP-NFP difference 8.8 visits, p = 0.010), but there was no difference in total visits per patient–day. A median of 50.8% of all nursing visits were registered nurse (RN) visits (FP-NFP difference −14.1%, p < 0.001). Few hospices provided charity care, and only 4% of hospices reported expenditures on chemotherapy and only 9% on radiation therapy. Conclusions Overall hospice profitability is low. Length of stay is strongly associated with financial performance, and greater FP profitability is related to lower costs. FP hospices also provide less RN care as a proportion of nursing care. Few hospices provide charitable care or special costly services. The relationship of service patterns to patient quality needs to be examined. PMID:18788962

  13. Organization of marine phenology data in support of planning and conservation in ocean and coastal ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Fornwall, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Griffis, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many effects of climate change is its influence on the phenology of biota. In marine and coastal ecosystems, phenological shifts have been documented for multiple life forms; however, biological data related to marine species' phenology remain difficult to access and is under-used. We conducted an assessment of potential sources of biological data for marine species and their availability for use in phenological analyses and assessments. Our evaluations showed that data potentially related to understanding marine species' phenology are available through online resources of governmental, academic, and non-governmental organizations, but appropriate datasets are often difficult to discover and access, presenting opportunities for scientific infrastructure improvement. The developing Federal Marine Data Architecture when fully implemented will improve data flow and standardization for marine data within major federal repositories and provide an archival repository for collaborating academic and public data contributors. Another opportunity, largely untapped, is the engagement of citizen scientists in standardized collection of marine phenology data and contribution of these data to established data flows. Use of metadata with marine phenology related keywords could improve discovery and access to appropriate datasets. When data originators choose to self-publish, publication of research datasets with a digital object identifier, linked to metadata, will also improve subsequent discovery and access. Phenological changes in the marine environment will affect human economics, food systems, and recreation. No one source of data will be sufficient to understand these changes. The collective attention of marine data collectors is needed—whether with an agency, an educational institution, or a citizen scientist group—toward adopting the data management processes and standards needed to ensure availability of sufficient and useable marine data to understand

  14. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  15. Respiratory symptoms increase health care consumption and affect everyday life – a cross-sectional population-based study from Finland, Estonia, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Malin; Lindberg, Anne; Kainu, Annette; Rönmark, Eva; Jansson, Sven-Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though respiratory symptoms are common in the adult population, there is limited research describing their impact on everyday life and association with health care consumption. Aim The main objective of this population-based study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden in relation to health care consumption and to identify factors influencing health care consumption. A secondary aim was to assess to which extent the presence of respiratory symptoms affect everyday life. Method In the population-based FinEsS studies consisting of random samples of subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Finland (n=1,337), Estonia (n=1,346), and Sweden (n=1,953), data on demographics, respiratory health, and health care consumption were collected by structured interviews. Prevalence was compared and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common in Finland (66.0%) and Estonia (65.2%) than in Sweden (54.1%). Among subjects with respiratory symptoms, the proportion reporting outpatient care during the past year was fairly similar in the three countries, while specialist consultations were more common in Finland (19.1%), and hospitalisations more common in Estonia (15.0%). Finnish and Estonian residency, female sex, and BMI>25 increased the risk for outpatient care consumption. Wheeze and attacks of shortness of breath in the past 12 months, recurrent sputum production, and cough were associated with an increased risk for health care consumption. Increasing number of respiratory symptoms increased the risk for consuming health care. A larger proportion of subjects in Estonia and Sweden experienced their everyday life being affected by respiratory symptoms compared with subjects in Finland. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms are common in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden and contribute to a negative impact on everyday life as well as increased

  16. Affective facial expression processing in young children who have experienced maltreatment during the first year of life: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Curtis, W John; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-05-01

    This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural correlates of facial affect processing in maltreated and nonmaltreated children at 42 months of age. ERPs elicited while children passively viewed standardized pictures of female models posing angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions were examined, and differences between maltreated (N = 46) and nonmaltreated (N = 25) children were reported. Three occipital components (P1, N170, and P400) and four frontal-central components (N150, P240, Nc, and a positive slow wave [PSW]) were identified. Findings revealed that maltreated children had greater P1 and P400 amplitude in response to angry facial affect compared to other emotions, and compared to nonmaltreated children. N170 amplitude was greater in response to happy compared to angry in the maltreated group. For the P240 component, maltreated children had greater amplitude in response to angry facial expressions relative to happy, whereas children in the nonmaltreated group had greater P240 amplitude in response to happy relative to angry facial affect. Further, the nonmaltreated group had greater PSW amplitude in response to angry facial affect, whereas those in the maltreated group showed greater PSW amplitude to happy facial expressions. The results provided further support for the hypothesis that the experience of maltreatment and the predominantly negative emotional tone in maltreating families alters the functioning of neural systems associated with the identification and processing of facial emotion. These results exemplify the importance of early preventive interventions focused on emotion for children who have experienced maltreatment early in life. PMID:23786684

  17. 76 FR 32313 - Regattas and Marine Parades; Great Lakes Annual Marine Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Part 100 Regattas and Marine Parades; Great Lakes Annual Marine Events AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... annual regattas and marine parades in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone from 8 a.m. on June 24, 2011 through 6 p.m. on July 31, 2011. This action is necessary and intended to ensure safety of life on...

  18. United States Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement: filling data gaps to better understand the effects of anthropogenic noise on marine life.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Jill; Burkhard, Elizabeth; Skrupky, Kimberly; Epperson, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Protecting the environment while ensuring the safe development of our Nation's offshore energy(from both renewable and traditional sources) and marine mineral resources is a critical part of the mission of the BOEMRE. The BOEMRE, as with all federal agencies, must consider the potential environmental impacts for every decision made. This includes understanding the potential for and degree of adverse effects that may result from the introduction of anthropogenic noise into the marine environment from BOEMRE-regulated industry sources. The ESP and the TAR Program are integral in helping the BOEMRE achieve this mission because the strength and quality of the environmental decision making can only be as good as the science supporting it. Cumulatively,these research programs help the BOEMRE pursue an adaptive and ecosystem-based approach to its stewardship responsibilities. PMID:22278565

  19. Undergoing Diagnostic Evaluation for Possible Cancer Affects the Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Presenting with Non-Specific Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Moseholm, Ellen; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ørskov

    2016-01-01

    Aim Undergoing diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aims of this study were to examine the HRQoL in patients undergoing a diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer due to non-specific symptoms and further to investigate the impact of socio-demographic and medical factors associated with HRQoL at the time of diagnosis. Methods This was a prospective, multicenter survey study that included patients who were referred for a diagnostic evaluation due to non-specific cancer symptoms. Participants completed the EORTC-QLQ-C30 quality of life scale before and after completing the diagnostic evaluation. The baseline and follow-up EORTC-QLQ-C30 scores were compared with reference populations. The impact of socio-demographic and medical factors on HRQoL at follow-up was explored by bootstrapped multivariate linear regression. Results A total of 838 patients participated in the study; 680 (81%) also completed follow-up. Twenty-two percent of the patients received a cancer diagnosis at the end of follow-up. Patients presented initially with a high burden of symptoms, less role and emotional functioning and a lower global health/QoL. Most domains improved after diagnosis and no clinically important difference between baseline and follow-up scores was found. Patients reported effects on HRQoL both at baseline and at follow-up compared with the Danish reference population and had similar scores as a cancer reference population. Co-morbidity, being unemployed and receiving a cancer diagnosis had the greatest effect on HRQoL around the time of diagnosis. Conclusions Patients with non-specific symptoms reported an affected HRQoL while undergoing a diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer. Morbidity, being unemployed and receiving a cancer diagnosis had the greatest effect on HRQoL around the time of diagnosis. PMID:26840866

  20. Integration in the Vocational World: How Does It Affect Quality of Life and Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Eynat; Selanikyo, Efrat; Bar-Haim Erez, Asnat; Katz, Noomi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether the perception of quality of life (QOL) and subjective well-being (SWB) of young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is affected by participation in a comprehensive program. Participants included 25 young adults with ASD who participated in the “Roim Rachok Program” (RRP), where they were trained to become aerial photography interpreters. Following the training period, they served in a designated army unit where they practiced their newly acquired profession. The participants filled out two questionnaires, (a) Quality of Life (QOL-Q) and (b) Personal Well-being Index (PWI), at three points of the intervention: (a) before the course, (b) at the end of the course, and (c) six months after integrating in the designated army unit. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were used to assess the differences between the reported QOL and SWB at the three points of time. The results suggest that there were no significant differences at the end of the course, compared to its beginning. However, there were significantly improved perception of QOL and SWB during the period between the end of the course and six months after starting work. The results of this study highlight the importance of tailored vocational programs that are adapted to the unique needs and strengths of individuals with ASD. PMID:26404341

  1. Integration in the Vocational World: How Does It Affect Quality of Life and Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults with ASD.

    PubMed

    Gal, Eynat; Selanikyo, Efrat; Erez, Asnat Bar-Haim; Katz, Noomi

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to assess whether the perception of quality of life (QOL) and subjective well-being (SWB) of young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is affected by participation in a comprehensive program. Participants included 25 young adults with ASD who participated in the "Roim Rachok Program" (RRP), where they were trained to become aerial photography interpreters. Following the training period, they served in a designated army unit where they practiced their newly acquired profession. The participants filled out two questionnaires, (a) Quality of Life (QOL-Q) and (b) Personal Well-being Index (PWI), at three points of the intervention: (a) before the course, (b) at the end of the course, and (c) six months after integrating in the designated army unit. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were used to assess the differences between the reported QOL and SWB at the three points of time. The results suggest that there were no significant differences at the end of the course, compared to its beginning. However, there were significantly improved perception of QOL and SWB during the period between the end of the course and six months after starting work. The results of this study highlight the importance of tailored vocational programs that are adapted to the unique needs and strengths of individuals with ASD. PMID:26404341

  2. Sensitivity of walleye (Sander vitreus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) early-life stages to naphthenic acid fraction components extracted from fresh oil sands process-affected waters.

    PubMed

    Marentette, Julie R; Frank, Richard A; Hewitt, L Mark; Gillis, Patricia L; Bartlett, Adrienne J; Brunswick, Pamela; Shang, Dayue; Parrott, Joanne L

    2015-12-01

    Unconventional oil production in Alberta's oil sands generates oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), which contains toxic constituents such as naphthenic acid fraction components (NAFCs). There have been few studies examining effects of NAFC exposure over long periods of early-life stage development in fish. Here we examined the effects of NAFCs extracted from OSPW to embryo-larval fathead minnow, exposed for 21 days. We compared the sensitivity of fathead minnow to walleye reared to 7 days post-hatch (18-20 days total). EC50s for hatch success, including deformities, and total survival were lower for walleye (10-11 mg/L) than fathead minnow (22-25 mg/L), with little post-hatch mortality observed in either species. NAFC exposure affected larval growth at concentrations below the EC50 in fathead minnow (total mass IC10 14-17 mg/L). These data contribute to an understanding of the developmental stages targeted by oil sands NAFCs, as well as their toxicity in a greater range of relevant taxa. PMID:26342575

  3. Warmer winters modulate life history and energy storage but do not affect sensitivity to a widespread pesticide in an aquatic insect.

    PubMed

    Arambourou, Hélène; Stoks, Robby

    2015-10-01

    Despite the increased attention for the effects of pesticides under global warming no studies tested how winter warming affects subsequent sensitivity to pesticides. Winter warming is expected to cause delayed negative effects when it increases metabolic rates and thereby depletes energy reserves. Using a common-garden experiment, we investigated the combined effect of a 4 °C increase in winter temperature and subsequent exposure to chlorpyrifos in the aquatic larvae of replicated low- and high-latitude European populations of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. The warmer winter (8 °C) resulted in a higher winter survival and higher growth rates compared to the cold winter (4 °C) commonly experienced by European high-latitude populations. Low-latitude populations were better at coping with the warmer winter, indicating thermal adaptation to the local winter temperatures. Subsequent chlorpyrifos exposure at 20 °C induced strong negative effects on survival, growth rate, lipid content and acetylcholinesterase activity while phenoloxidase activity increased. These pesticide effects were not affected by winter warming. Our results suggest that for species where winter warming has positive effects on life history, no delayed effects on the sensitivity to subsequent pesticide exposure should be expected. PMID:26261878

  4. Factors Affecting Gender Differences in the Association between Health-Related Quality of Life and Metabolic Syndrome Components: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Parisa; Deihim, Tina; Taherian, Reza; Karimi, Mehrdad; Gharibzadeh, Safoora; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Shiva, Niloofar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Using structural equation modeling, this study is one of the first efforts aimed at assessing influential factors causing gender differences in the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and metabolic syndrome. Methods A sample of 950 adults, from Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study were recruited for this cross sectional study in 2005–2007. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Iranian version of SF-36. Metabolic syndrome components (MetSCs) and physical and mental HRQoL were considered as continuous latent constructs explaining the variances of their observed components. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the association between the constructs of MetSCs and the physical and mental HRQoL within the two gender groups. Results Based on the primary hypothesis, MetSCs and HRQoL were fitted in a model. The negative effect of MetSCs on HRQoL was found to be significant only in the physical domain and only in women. The proportion of all the cardio-metabolic risk factors as well as subscales of physical HRQoL that have been explained via the two constructs of MetSCs and HRQoL, respectively, were significantly higher in women. Physical activity in both men (β = 3.19, p<0.05) and women (β = 3.94, p<0.05), age (β = -3.28, p<0.05), education (β = 2.63, p<0.05) only in women and smoking (β = 2.28, p<0.05) just in men, directly affected physical HRQoL. Regarding the mental domain, physical activity (β = 3.37, p<0.05) and marital status (β = 3.44, p<0.05) in women and age (β = 2.01, p<0.05) in men were direct effective factors. Age and education in women as well as smoking in men indirectly affected physical HRQoL via MetSCs. Conclusion Gender differences in the association between MetSCs and physical HRQoL could mostly be attributed to the different structures of both MetSCs and physical HRQoL constructs in men and women. Age and smoking are the most important socio-behavioral factors which could affect this

  5. Developmental Associations between Short-Term Variability and Long-Term Changes: Intraindividual Correlation of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life and Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time within individuals, that it differs across individuals, and that a less negative iCorr is associated with better resilience and less vulnerability. However, little is known about how the iCorr of PA and NA relates to cognitive aging. This project examined how the association between PA and NA in everyday life is associated with long-term cognitive aging trajectories. To do so, we linked micro-longitudinal data on PA and NA obtained on up to 33 occasions over six consecutive days with macro-longitudinal data on fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities obtained over 15 years from a subsample of Berlin Aging Study participants (N = 81, mean age at the micro-longitudinal study = 81 years, range 73–98; 41% women). Over and above age, gender, education, overall levels of PA and NA, and number of health conditions, a less negative iCorr of PA and NA was associated with lower levels of cognitive ability and steeper cognitive declines, particularly for fluency and knowledge abilities. We discuss possible mechanisms for this finding and argue that a less negative iCorr of PA and NA may be indicative of deficits in emotional integration that are tied to changes in crystallized aspects of cognitive abilities. PMID:26010386

  6. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  7. Assessment of quality of life of the children and parents affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet: preliminary results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development in therapeutic strategies has increased survival of children affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet (IEMRD). These diseases have mild- and long-term consequences on the health. Little is known about the impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children and their families. The aims of this study were: to compare the QoL of the children and parents affected by IEMRD with the QoL of the general population and one pathology associated with long-term consequences. Patients and methods This cross-sectional study was performed at the French Reference Center for inborn metabolic disorders (Marseille, France). Inclusion criteria were: a child with a diagnosis of organic aciduria, urea cycle defect, or maple syrups urine disease (MSUD). Socio-demographics, clinical data, and QoL were recorded. Results Twenty-one of 32 eligible families were included during a planned routine visit. Ten (47%, 95% CI 27-69%) children were affected by organic aciduria, six (29%, 95% CI 10-48%) by urea cycle defects, and five (24%, 95% CI 6-42%) by MSUD. Among the younger children, the general well-being was significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (58 ± 16 versus 76 ± 15, p = 0.012), and among the older children, the leisure activities were significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (29 ± 18 versus 62 ± 22, p < 10-3), while the relationships with teachers were better (76 ± 23 versus 60 ± 23, p = 0.01). The physical QoL score was lower in the parents than in the French norms (66 ± 21 versus 75 ± 1, p = 0.05). Factors modulating QoL were: eating and neurologic disorders, enteral nutrition, and feeding modalities. Conclusion The children and the parents of children affected presented altered ‘physical’ and ‘social’ QoL scores compared with the norms and patients with leukemia and their families. Future studies based on larger cohort

  8. 75 FR 17899 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... productivity, the sanctuary supports a rich diversity of marine life including 22 species of marine mammals... Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean... the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Member and Alternate two-year...

  9. 76 FR 2347 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... marine life including 22 species of marine mammals, more than 30 species of seabirds, over 60 species of... Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean... the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: (1) At- Large Alternate seat and...

  10. 77 FR 15359 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... productivity, the sanctuary supports a rich diversity of marine life including 22 species of marine mammals... Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean... seats on the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: (1) At-Large Member;...

  11. 76 FR 51953 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... sanctuary supports a rich diversity of marine life including 22 species of marine mammals, more than 30... Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean... the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: (2) Research (Alternate)...

  12. 76 FR 14651 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... sanctuary supports a rich diversity of marine life including 22 species of marine mammals, more than 30... Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean... the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: (1) Research Member seat and...

  13. 76 FR 23305 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... supports a rich diversity of marine life including 22 species of marine mammals, more than 30 species of... Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean... the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: (1) At- Large (Alternate)...

  14. 75 FR 44215 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... sanctuary supports a rich diversity of marine life including 22 species of marine mammals, more than 30... Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean... the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Member and alternate seats...

  15. Effect of oil sands process-affected water on toxicity of retene to early life-stages of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Morandi, Garrett; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B

    2016-07-01

    Toxicity of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) to aquatic organisms has been studied, but effects of co-exposure to OSPW and polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are an important class of chemicals in tailings ponds used to store OSPW, has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was to determine if organic compounds extracted from the aqueous phase of relatively fresh OSPW from Base-Mine Lake (BML-OSPW) or aged OSPW from Pond 9 experimental reclamation pond (P9-OSPW) modulated toxic potency of the model alkyl-PAH, retene, to early life-stages of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Embryos were exposed to retene by use of a partition controlled delivery (PCD) system made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) until day of hatch. Incidences of pericardial edema and expression of CYP1A were not significantly greater in larvae exposed only to dissolved organic compounds from either OSPW but were significantly greater in larvae exposed only to retene. Expression of CYP1A and incidences of pericardial edema were significantly greater in larvae co-exposed to retene and 5×equivalent of dissolved organic compounds from BML-OSPW compared to retene alone. However, there was no effect of co-exposure to retene and either a 1×equivalent of dissolved organic compounds from BML-OSPW or 5×equivalent of dissolved organic compounds from P9-OSPW. While there was evidence that exposure to 5×equivalent of dissolved organic compounds from BML-OSPW caused oxidative stress, there was no evidence of this effect in larvae exposed only to retene or co-exposed to retene and a 5×equivalent of dissolved organic compounds from BML-OSPW. These results suggest that oxidative stress is not a mechanism of pericardial edema in early-life stages of Japanese medaka. Relatively fresh OSPW from Base Mine Lake might influence toxicity of alkylated-PAHs to early life stages of fishes but this effect would not be expected to occur at current concentrations of OSPW and is attenuated by

  16. Influence of negative affectivity and self-esteem on the oral health related quality of life in patients receiving oral rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate if and how the personality traits Negative Affectivity (NA) and self-esteem influenced the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in patients receiving oral rehabilitation. Methods OHRQoL was measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile 49 (OHIP-49), NA with a short form of the Eysenck Personality Inventory Questionnaire (EPI-Q), and self-esteem with Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in 66 patients treated with removable dental prosthesis (RDP). The minimally important difference (MID), effect size (ES), and standard error of the measurement (SEM) were used to clinically interpret the patient-reported effect. Results The OHIP-49 score was significantly higher and exceeded the MID pre- and post-treatment in participants with high EPI-Q and low RSES score compared to participants with low EPI-Q and high RSES score. The improvement in OHIP-49 score was significant and not limited by high EPI-Q and low RSES score. High EPI-Q score was associated high improvement in OHIP-49 score and the ES of the improvement in participants with high EPI-Q was large and exceeded the MID and SEM. Conclusion Treatment with RDP improves the OHRQoL regardless of level of NA and self-esteem. High NA is associated with a large effect, but both high NA and low self-esteem is associated with poorer OHRQoL both before and after treatment. PMID:24156271

  17. Psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life in youth affected by violence: the burden of the multiply victimised.

    PubMed

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent victimisation and violence perpetration were contrasted with non-involved comparisons. The results show that even low levels of violence involvement were associated with more problems, fewer protective factors and impaired HRQOL. Multiply victimised youth - not perpetrating victims - stood out with internalising, peer and hyperactivity/inattention problems. Discriminant function analysis separated non-involved from violence-affected youth, and multiply victimised from not multiply victimised youth. Externalising behaviours, family issues, male sex and school functioning predicted group separation on the first function (proportion variance explained 80.0%), while internalising and peer issues were predictive for the second function (PVE 14.2%). Implications for prevention, intervention and research are discussed. PMID:23582650

  18. Linking biogeographic and life history information for nonindigenous marine and estuarine species in the North Pacific: An introduction to the Pacific Coast Ecological Information System (PCEIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonindigenous species (NIS) are a pervasive problem throughout the world. To help address this threat the EPA and USGS have developed a hierarchical database (PCEIS) that synthesizes existing biogeographic, life history, and invasion history information for near-coastal and estu...

  19. Linking biogeographic and life history information for nonindigenous marine and estuarine species in the North Pacific: An introduction to the Pacific Coast Ecological Information System (PCEIS) November 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonindigenous species (NIS) are a pervasive problem throughout the world. To help address this threat the EPA and USGS have developed a hierarchical database (PCEIS) that synthesizes existing biogeographic, life history, and invasion history information for near-coastal and estu...

  20. Relationships between the Life Values of U. S. College Students and their Cognitive/Affective Responses to the Threat of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships between life values of 399 American college students and their nuclear war-related thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Subjects completed four scales from Life Values Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale, four scales from Nuclear War Inventory, and single behavioral measure of approach toward information concerning nuclear…

  1. Leiodermatolide, a novel marine natural product, has potent cytotoxic and antimitotic activity against cancer cells, appears to affect microtubule dynamics, and exhibits antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Esther A; Xu, Qunli; Pitts, Tara P; Mitsuhashi, Kaoru Ogawa; Baker, Cheryl; Linley, Patricia A; Oestreicher, Judy; Tendyke, Karen; Winder, Priscilla L; Suh, Edward M; Wright, Amy E

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, has a negative prognosis because metastasis occurs before symptoms manifest. Leiodermatolide, a polyketide macrolide with antimitotic activity isolated from a deep water sponge of the genus Leiodermatium, exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity toward the pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1, PANC-1, BxPC-3, and MIA PaCa-2, and potent cytotoxicity against skin, breast and colon cancer cell lines. Induction of apoptosis by leiodermatolide was confirmed in the AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2 cells. Leiodermatolide induces cell cycle arrest but has no effects on in vitro polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin alone, while it enhances polymerization of tubulin containing microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). Observations through confocal microscopy show that leiodermatolide, at low concentrations, causes minimal effects on polymerization or depolymerization of the microtubule network in interphase cells, but disruption of spindle formation in mitotic cells. At higher concentrations, depolymerization of the microtubule network is observed. Visualization of the growing microtubule in HeLa cells expressing GFP-tagged plus end binding protein EB-1 showed that leiodermatolide stopped the polymerization of tubulin. These results suggest that leiodermatolide may affect tubulin dynamics without directly interacting with tubulin and hint at a unique mechanism of action. In a mouse model of metastatic pancreatic cancer, leiodermatolide exhibited significant tumor reduction when compared to gemcitabine and controls. The antitumor activities of leiodermatolide, as well as the proven utility of antimitotic compounds against cancer, make leiodermatolide an interesting compound with potential chemotherapeutic effects that may merit further research. PMID:27376928

  2. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual’s fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0–11 years) and late (12–18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life

  3. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years) and late (12-18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  4. Small Variations in Early-Life Environment Can Affect Coping Behaviour in Response to Foraging Challenge in the Three-Spined Stickleback

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Context An increasing concern in the face of human expansion throughout natural habitats is whether animal populations can respond adaptively when confronted with challenges like environmental change and novelty. Behavioural flexibility is an important factor in estimating the adaptive potential of both individuals and populations, and predicting the degree to which they can cope with change. Study Design This study on the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an empiric illustration of the degree of behavioural variation that can emerge between semi-natural systems within only a single generation. Wild-caught adult sticklebacks (P, N = 400) were randomly distributed in equal densities over 20 standardized semi-natural environments (ponds), and one year later offspring (F1, N = 652) were presented with repeated behavioural assays. Individuals were challenged to reach a food source through a novel transparent obstacle, during which exploration, activity, foraging, sociability and wall-biting behaviours were recorded through video observation. We found that coping responses of individuals from the first generation to this unfamiliar foraging challenge were related to even relatively small, naturally diversified variation in developmental environment. All measured behaviours were correlated with each other. Especially exploration, sociability and wall-biting were found to differ significantly between ponds. These differences could not be explained by stickleback density or the turbidity of the water. Findings Our findings show that a) differences in early-life environment appear to affect stickleback feeding behaviour later in life; b) this is the case even when the environmental differences are only small, within natural parameters and diversified gradually; and c) effects are present despite semi-natural conditions that fluctuate during the year. Therefore, in behaviourally plastic animals like the stickleback, the adaptive response to human

  5. Comparison of life history traits of Tanais dulongii (Tanaidacea: Tanaididae) in natural and artificial marine environments of the south-western Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbold, Carlos E.; Obenat, Sandra M.; Spivak, Eduardo D.

    2015-06-01

    Tanaidaceans are small benthic crustaceans with a strictly benthic life cycle and low dispersion rates, so they are good candidates to evaluate the effects of environment over life history strategies and reproductive biology. In this work, we studied two populations of Tanais dulongii (Audouin, 1826) that live in two contrasting habitats in order to determine whether they differ in life history traits. The animals were obtained by systematic sampling in a rocky shore with a lower anthropic impact (La Estafeta: LE) and a polluted area (Mar del Plata harbour: MdP) from March 2011 to March 2012. Seawater temperature and salinity did not differ between sites, but MdP showed more acid and hypoxic conditions than LE. Population density was homogeneous and lower in MdP (ca. 20 ind/100 gr) than that in LE where density varied between 250 and 800 ind/100 gr. Reproductive individuals and juveniles were always present, and both populations showed two main recruitment periods: the first in spring in both populations, and the second in summer in MdP but in autumn-winter in LE. In both populations, sex ratio was strongly female-biased. Juveniles, females and males from LE had larger sizes than that from MdP and reached their sexual differentiation at larger sizes. The estimated lifespan was about 9 and 12 months in MdP and LE, respectively. This study suggests that the differences observed between populations of T. dulongii in life history traits are intimately related to environmental differences in pH and dissolved oxygen between habitats, but should not be discarded a synergistic effect of temperature, organic pollution, food availability and predation pressure.

  6. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  7. Evaluation of persistence and adherence to teriparatide treatment in patients affected by severe osteoporosis (PATT): a multicenter observational real life study

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Silvia; Resmini, Giuseppina; Buffa, Angela; Fornari, Rachele; Di Pietro, Gioconda; Cerocchi, Irene; Dormi, Ada; Gimigliano, Francesca; Mulè, Rita; Celi, Monica; Frigato, Marilena; Lenzi, Andrea; Tarantino, Umberto; Iolascon, Giovanni; Malavolta, Nazzarena

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Osteoporosis is a chronic condition leading to an increased risk of developing fractures, with high morbidity and mortality in aging population. Efficacy of anti-osteoporotic treatment is based on drug potency but also on compliance and persistence to treatment regimen, which is very low, as already described for other diseases. Teriparatide (TPTD) is the first anabolic agent developed for the treatment of osteoporosis. Since it appears that persistence to Teriparatide declines over time, aim of this pilot multicenter observational study was to evaluate persistence and adherence to TPTD (20 μg daily injection regimen for 18 months) treatment (PATT) in patients affected by severe osteoporosis in an every day clinical practice. Methods. Patients affected by severe osteoporosis were selected among those who referred to 5 different specialized centers for osteoporosis in North, Center and South of Italy. A sample of 475 women with severe postmenopausal osteoporosis treated with TPTD in accordance to the Italian osteoporosis guidelines was included. At the beginning of TPTD treatment patients were instructed on the use of the device by the referring specialist of the center, a resident fellow or a nurse. Bone biochemical markers were evaluated the same morning and after 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. Patients were visited at time 0 and after 6, 12 and 18 months for clinical follow up. Results. The results included observations of 441/475 patients (98% women) who completed the 18 months treatment; mean age for women was 73±8 and for men 65±9. After 6 months of TPTD treatment persistence was of 89,79%, 87,75% after 12 months and 86,85% after 18 months. Adherence was of 100% at 6,12 and 18 months. Total dropouts were 13,15% (71/441), which was usually higher within the first 6 months of TPTD treatment. Most common adverse events (arthralgies 2,7%, dizziness 1,8%, migraine 1,8%, depression 1,6%, hypertension 1,1%) were reported in 62/441 patients (14

  8. Temperature affects long-term productivity and quality attributes of day-neutral strawberry for a space life-support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Chase, Elaine; Santini, Judith B.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2015-04-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa L.) is a promising candidate crop for space life-support systems with desirable sensory quality and health attributes. Day-neutral cultivars such as 'Seascape' are adaptable to a range of photoperiods, including short days that would save considerable energy for crop lighting without reductions in productivity or yield. Since photoperiod and temperature interact to affect strawberry growth and development, several diurnal temperature regimes were tested under a short photoperiod of 10 h per day for effects on yield and quality attributes of 'Seascape' strawberry during production cycles longer than 270 days. The coolest day/night temperature regime, 16°/8 °C, tended to produce smaller numbers of larger fruit than did the intermediate temperature range of 18°/10 °C or the warmest regime, 20°/12 °C, both of which produced similar larger numbers of smaller fruit. The intermediate temperature regime produced the highest total fresh mass of berries over an entire production cycle. Independent experiments examined either organoleptic or physicochemical quality attributes. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that fruit grown under the coolest temperature regime tended to score the highest for both hedonic preference and descriptive evaluation of sensory attributes related to sweetness, texture, aftertaste, and overall approval. The physicochemical quality attributes Brix, pH, and sugar/acid ratio were highest for fruits harvested from the coolest temperature regime and lower for those from the warmer temperature regimes. The cool-regime fruits also were lowest in titratable acidity. The yield parameters fruit number and size oscillated over the course of a production cycle, with a gradual decline in fruit size under all three temperature regimes. Brix and titratable acidity both decreased over time for all three temperature treatments, but sugar/acid ratio remained highest for the cool temperature regime over the entire production

  9. First measurements on how pressure affects the half-life of 22Na: Comparison to theory and analog to 40K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. K.; Nelson, R. O.; Rundberg, R.; Steinle-Neumann, G.

    2007-12-01

    Radioactive decay plays a central role in planetary sciences as appropriate decay schemes are used to date geological and astronomical processes and radioactivity provides an important source of heat in planetary bodies, both in their early history during accretion and differentiation and also over geological times. The most important isotopes that currently heat the Earth are 40K, 232Th, 235U and 238U. As radioactive decay is a nuclear process it is considered to be insensitive to external factors such as pressure or chemical environment. This has been shown to be true for α, β+ and β- processes, however, electron capture decay is dependent on the electron charge density at the nucleus of a compound, which is sensitive to the external environment. Using high-resolution Ge gamma-ray detectors to make relative measurements with 137Cs and the positron decay of 22Na, we measure how pressure affects the half-life of 22Na due to electron-capture decay. Our systematics look favorable for observing this small effect. We will compare our preliminary measurements with complementary ab-initio all-electron computations using the linearized augmented plane wave method (LAPW). Using 22Na as an analog for 40K, our results suggest that the pressure effect for 40K, combined with the opposing effects of high temperatures, will have little, discernible effect on the heat production in the deep Earth as our predicted changes are smaller than the uncertainties in the total decay constant for 40K. This work was supported in part by the Carnegie/DOE Alliance Center (CDAC), through the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The LANSCE facility is operated, and portions of this work were performed, by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC52- 06NA25396.

  10. Marine invertebrates: communities at risk.

    PubMed

    Mather, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Our definition of the word 'animal' centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them. PMID:24832811

  11. Marine Invertebrates: Communities at Risk

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them. PMID:24832811

  12. Marine Ecomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark W.; Gaylord, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The emerging field of marine ecomechanics provides an explicit physical framework for exploring interactions among marine organisms and between these organisms and their environments. It exhibits particular utility through its construction of predictive, mechanistic models, a number of which address responses to changing climatic conditions. Examples include predictions of (a) the change in relative abundance of corals as a function of colony morphology, ocean acidity, and storm intensity; (b) the rate of disturbance and patch formation in beds of mussels, a competitive dominant on many intertidal shores; (c) the dispersal and recruitment patterns of giant kelps, an important nearshore foundation species; (d) the effects of turbulence on external fertilization, a widespread method of reproduction in the sea; and (e) the long-term incidence of extreme ecological events. These diverse examples emphasize the breadth of marine ecomechanics. Indeed, its principles can be applied to any ecological system.

  13. Technologists and Technicians in the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Melissa

    1978-01-01

    A variety of technical occupations that involve biological or life science education are discussed. These technical occupations are divided into agricultural, biological, marine science, and medical areas. (MDR)

  14. CoralWatch Data Analysis at Hoi Ha Wan Marine Park, Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, A.; Hodgson, P.

    2015-12-01

    CoralWatch is a conservation organization that is based at the University of Queensland in Australia. Their development of the "Coral Health Chart" standardized the colour of corals for the further investigation of coral health and bleaching. The location of this project is in the NE part of Hong Kong in New Territories. The location faces ShenZhen, a heavily industrialized city, which is known for its pollution of the Pearl River. This area is protected by the Hong Kong Government and the WWF since 1996.Human activities have caused large amounts of greenhouse gasses to be released into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide has caused the global temperature to rise and made ocean waters more acidic due to ocean respiration. The ocean is a carbon sink for mankind and the effect of severe acidification is negatively affecting marine life. The increase of temperature diminishes the amount of diversity of marine life; the decreasing acidity of the water has eliminated many species of shellfish and sea anemone; the increase of marine exploitation has decreased the diversity of marine life. The release of toxic waste, mainly mercury, waste and plastic products has also polluted the oceans which negatively impact coral reefs and endanger marine life.The data has been collected by observing the colours and discolouration (bleaching) of the corals of approximately 40 colonies per month. The species of coral in Hoi Ha Wan include, Favites flexuosa, Goniopora columna,Leptastrea purpurea, Lithophyllon undulatum, Pavona decussata. and Platygyra acuta (AFCD,1). The evaluation of four years of coralwatch data has shown the bleaching of hard boulder corals in Hoi Ha Wan, Hong Kong, has halted and the reefs are being to show signs of regeneration. Local marine biologists credited the improved situation of the corals to protected status of the area.

  15. [Effects of global climate change on the ecological characteristics and biogeochemical significance of marine viruses--A review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunlan; Cai, Lanlan; Zhang, Rui

    2015-09-01

    As the most abundance biological agents in the oceans, viruses can influence the physiological and ecological characteristics of host cells through viral infections and lysis, and affect the nutrient and energy cycles of the marine food chain. Thus, they are the major players in the ocean biogeochemical processes. The problems caused by global climate changes, such as sea-surface warming, acidification, nutrients availability, and deoxygenation, have the potential effects on marine viruses and subsequently their ecological and biogeochemical function in the ocean. Here, we reviewed the potential impacts of global climate change on the ecological characteristics (e. g. abundance, distribution, life cycle and the host-virus interactions) and biogeochemical significance (e. g. carbon cycling) of marine viruses. We proposed that marine viruses should not be ignored in the global climate change study. PMID:26762022

  16. The life cycle of Huffmanela huffmani Moravec, 1987(Nematoda: Trichosomoididae), an endemic marine-relict parasite of Centrarchidae from a Central Texas spring.

    PubMed

    Worsham, McLean L D; Huffman, David G; Moravec, Frantisek; Gibson, J Randy

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of the swim bladder nematode Huffmanela huffmani Moravec, 1987 (Trichinelloidea: Trichosomoididae), an endemic parasite of centrarchid fishes in the upper spring run of the San Marcos River in Hays County, Texas, USA, was experimentally completed. The amphipods Hyalella cf. azteca (Saussure), Hyalella sp. and Gammarus sp. were successfully infected with larvated eggs of Huffmanela huffmani. After ingestion of eggs of H. huffmani by experimental amphipods, the first-stage larvae hatch from their eggshells and penetrate through the digestive tract to the hemocoel of the amphipod. Within about 5 days in the hemocoel of the experimental amphipods at 22 °C, the larvae presumably attained the second larval stage and were infective for the experimental centrarchid definitive hosts, Lepomis spp. The minimum incubation period before adult nematodes began laying eggs in the swim bladders of the definitive hosts was found to be about 7.5 months at 22 °C. This is the first experimentally completed life cycle within the Huffmanelinae. PMID:27312028

  17. Ultrastructure observation on the cells at different life history stages of Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora: Prostomatea), a parasitic ciliate of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Ni, Bing; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Yin, Fei; Gu, Fukang

    2016-09-01

    Cells of Cryptocaryon irritans at different life history stages were studied using both light and electron microscopy. The characteristics of several organelles were revealed for the first time at the ultrastructural level. It was confirmed that the cytostome of trophonts, protomonts and theronts was surrounded by cilium-palp triplets rather than ciliary triplets. The nematodesmata underlying the circumoral dikinetids were single bundles, whereas these were always paired in Prorodontids. Toxicysts were present in late-stage tomonts and theronts, but were absent in trophonts and protomonts. We posited that toxicysts might play a role in infection and invasion of host-fish tissue by theronts. The adoral brosse was unlike that of any other family of the class Prostomatea based on its location and morphology. Membranous folds were present in trophonts, protomonts and theronts. These folds were longer and more highly developed in C. irritans than in exclusively free-living prostome ciliates suggesting that they might be linked to parasitism in C. irritans. Trophonts, protomonts and theronts had multiple contractile vacuoles. The basic ultrastructure of the contractile vacuole of C. irritans was similar to that of other kinetofragminophoran ciliates. They might play different roles in different stages of the life cycle since their ultrastructure varied among trophonts, protomonts and theronts. PMID:27460894

  18. 29 CFR 784.129 - “Marine products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...”, fishing operations. Also, such “marine products” are limited to aquatic forms of “life.” ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âMarine productsâ. 784.129 Section 784.129 Labor... Aquatic Products First Processing, Canning, Or Packing of Marine Products Under Section 13(a)(5) §...

  19. 29 CFR 784.129 - “Marine products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...”, fishing operations. Also, such “marine products” are limited to aquatic forms of “life.” ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âMarine productsâ. 784.129 Section 784.129 Labor... Aquatic Products First Processing, Canning, Or Packing of Marine Products Under Section 13(a)(5) §...

  20. 29 CFR 784.129 - “Marine products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...”, fishing operations. Also, such “marine products” are limited to aquatic forms of “life.” ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âMarine productsâ. 784.129 Section 784.129 Labor... Aquatic Products First Processing, Canning, Or Packing of Marine Products Under Section 13(a)(5) §...

  1. 29 CFR 784.129 - “Marine products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...”, fishing operations. Also, such “marine products” are limited to aquatic forms of “life.” ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âMarine productsâ. 784.129 Section 784.129 Labor... Aquatic Products First Processing, Canning, Or Packing of Marine Products Under Section 13(a)(5) §...

  2. School Projects for Monitoring the State of the Marine Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benkendorff, Kirsten

    Australia's marine environment hosts a high level of diverse endemic species along with some of the highest biodiversity in the world. Two-thirds of the population of Australia are living in coastal areas and can be considered a threat to marine life which is very vulnerable to human impacts. Although marine environments conserve high economic…

  3. 33 CFR 100.1103 - Northern California annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northern California annual marine events. 100.1103 Section 100.1103 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1103 Northern California annual marine events. (a) General....

  4. Research and Application of Marine Microbial Enzymes: Status and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Over billions of years, the ocean has been regarded as the origin of life on Earth. The ocean includes the largest range of habitats, hosting the most life-forms. Competition amongst microorganisms for space and nutrients in the marine environment is a powerful selective force, which has led to evolution. The evolution prompted the marine microorganisms to generate multifarious enzyme systems to adapt to the complicated marine environments. Therefore, marine microbial enzymes can offer novel biocatalysts with extraordinary properties. This review deals with the research and development work investigating the occurrence and bioprocessing of marine microbial enzymes. PMID:20631875

  5. Marine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented in the marine session may be broadly grouped into several classes: microwave region instruments compared to infrared and visible region sensors, satellite techniques compared to aircraft techniques, open ocean applications compared to coastal region applications, and basic research and understanding of ocean phenomena compared to research techniques that offer immediate applications.

  6. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  7. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  8. Developmental Associations between Short-Term Variability and Long-Term Changes: Intraindividual Correlation of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life and Cognitive Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time…

  9. Flourishing ocean drives the end-Permian marine mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Ghaderi, Abbas; Strauss, Harald; Korn, Dieter; Korte, Christoph

    2015-08-18

    The end-Permian mass extinction, the most severe biotic crisis in the Phanerozoic, was accompanied by climate change and expansion of oceanic anoxic zones. The partitioning of sulfur among different exogenic reservoirs by biological and physical processes was of importance for this biodiversity crisis, but the exact role of bioessential sulfur in the mass extinction is still unclear. Here we show that globally increased production of organic matter affected the seawater sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope signature that has been recorded in carbonate rock spanning the Permian-Triassic boundary. A bifurcating temporal trend is observed for the strata spanning the marine mass extinction with carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope excursions toward decreased and increased values, respectively. By coupling these results to a box model, we show that increased marine productivity and successive enhanced microbial sulfate reduction is the most likely scenario to explain these temporal trends. The new data demonstrate that worldwide expansion of euxinic and anoxic zones are symptoms of increased biological carbon recycling in the marine realm initiated by global warming. The spatial distribution of sulfidic water column conditions in shallow seafloor environments is dictated by the severity and geographic patterns of nutrient fluxes and serves as an adequate model to explain the scale of the marine biodiversity crisis. Our results provide evidence that the major biodiversity crises in Earth's history do not necessarily implicate an ocean stripped of (most) life but rather the demise of certain eukaryotic organisms, leading to a decline in species richness. PMID:26240323

  10. Marine diatoms as optical chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Stefano, Luca; Rendina, Ivo; De Stefano, Mario; Bismuto, Alfredo; Maddalena, Pasqualino

    2005-12-01

    Complex micro- and nanostructured materials for optical sensing purposes are designed and fabricated using top technologies. A completely different approach to engineering systems at the nanoscale consists in recognizing the nanostructures and morphologies that nature has optimized during life's history on earth. We have found that the photoluminescence emission from silica skeleton of marine diatoms Thalassiosira rotula Meunier is strongly dependent on the surrounding environment. Both the optical intensity and the peaks positions are affected by gases and organic vapors. Depending on the electronegativity and polarizing ability, some substances quench the luminescence, while others effectively enhance it. These phenomena allow the discrimination between different substances. These naturally occurring organisms are thus good candidates as optical sensing materials.

  11. Toxicity of untreated and ozone-treated oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) to early life stages of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    He, Yuhe; Patterson, Sarah; Wang, Nan; Hecker, Markus; Martin, Jonathan W; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B

    2012-12-01

    Due to a policy of no release, oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), produced by the surface-mining oil sands industry in North Eastern Alberta, Canada, is stored on-site in tailings ponds. Currently, ozonation is considered one possible method for remediation of OSPW by reducing the concentrations of dissolved organic compounds, including naphthenic acids (NAs), which are considered the primary toxic constituents. However, further work was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of ozonation in reducing the toxicity of OSPW and to ensure that ozonation does not increase the toxicity of OSPW. This study examined effects of untreated, ozone-treated, and activated charcoal-treated OSPW (OSPW, O3-OSPW, and AC-OSPW) on the early life stage (ELS) of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Success of hatching of eggs, spontaneous movement, and incidences of hemorrhage, pericardial edema, and malformation of the spine of embryos were examined. To elucidate the mechanism of toxicity, concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured, and the abundances of transcripts of genes involved in biotransformation of xenobiotics, response to oxidative stress, and apoptosis were quantified by real-time PCR. Compared to the control group, which had an embryo survival rate of 97.9 ± 2.08%, survival was significantly less when exposed to OSPW (43.8 ± 7.12%). Eggs exposed to untreated OSPW exhibited a significantly greater rate of premature hatching, and embryos exhibited greater spontaneous movement. Incidences of hemorrhage (50.0 ± 3.40%), pericardial edema (56.3 ± 7.12%), and malformation of the spine (37.5 ± 5.38%) were significantly greater in embryos exposed to OSPW compared to controls. These effects are typical of exposure to dioxin-like compounds, however, abundance of transcripts of cyp1a was not significantly greater in embryos exposed to OSPW. Significantly greater concentrations of ROS, and greater abundances of transcripts cyp3a, gst, sod, casp9, and apopen

  12. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840

  13. Potential Antiviral Agents from Marine Fungi: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Nikzad, Sonia; Kadir, Habsah Abdul; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-07-01

    Biodiversity of the marine world is only partially subjected to detailed scientific scrutiny in comparison to terrestrial life. Life in the marine world depends heavily on marine fungi scavenging the oceans of lifeless plants and animals and entering them into the nutrient cycle by. Approximately 150 to 200 new compounds, including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyketides, and aromatic compounds, are identified from marine fungi annually. In recent years, numerous investigations demonstrated the tremendous potential of marine fungi as a promising source to develop new antivirals against different important viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, the human immunodeficiency virus, and the influenza virus. Various genera of marine fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were subjected to compound isolation and antiviral studies, which led to an illustration of the strong antiviral activity of a variety of marine fungi-derived compounds. The present review strives to summarize all available knowledge on active compounds isolated from marine fungi with antiviral activity. PMID:26204947

  14. Potential Antiviral Agents from Marine Fungi: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Nikzad, Sonia; Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity of the marine world is only partially subjected to detailed scientific scrutiny in comparison to terrestrial life. Life in the marine world depends heavily on marine fungi scavenging the oceans of lifeless plants and animals and entering them into the nutrient cycle by. Approximately 150 to 200 new compounds, including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyketides, and aromatic compounds, are identified from marine fungi annually. In recent years, numerous investigations demonstrated the tremendous potential of marine fungi as a promising source to develop new antivirals against different important viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, the human immunodeficiency virus, and the influenza virus. Various genera of marine fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were subjected to compound isolation and antiviral studies, which led to an illustration of the strong antiviral activity of a variety of marine fungi-derived compounds. The present review strives to summarize all available knowledge on active compounds isolated from marine fungi with antiviral activity. PMID:26204947

  15. The Life Cycle of the Parasitic Crustacean, Lernanthropus latis Yamaguti, 1954 (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae), on Marine-Cultured Fish, Lates calcarifer, from Setiu Wetland, Terengganu

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Khalid, Nur Qamarina; Shaharoum-Harrison, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic crustaceans of Lernanthropus latis were isolated from the host, the seabass, Lates calcarifer, obtained from a cage culture in Setiu Wetland, Terengganu. The adult females with egg were kept alive in vials containing 20 mL of filtered seawater and incubated at 30°C. The eggs were monitored every hour and the hatching periods were recorded. Three developmental stages were observed, namely, nauplii I, nauplii II, and infective copepodid. The infective copepodids were then transferred into a tank containing 60 litres of seawater with 150 fingerlings for infection purpose. One fish was sacrificed every 24 hr to inspect the next developmental stage. As a result, six more stages were obtained within 298 hrs starting from the infection day. The stages were known as fixed copepodid I, fixed copepodid II, fixed copepodid III, fixed copepodid IV, preadult, and adult. Parasitic L. latis takes a 483 hr period to complete a life cycle. PMID:25574379

  16. Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitbart, Mya

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

  17. A novel spatio-temporal scale based on ocean currents unravels environmental drivers of reproductive timing in a marine predator

    PubMed Central

    Afán, Isabel; Chiaradia, André; Forero, Manuela G.; Dann, Peter; Ramírez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Life-history strategies have evolved in response to predictable patterns of environmental features. In practice, linking life-history strategies and changes in environmental conditions requires comparable space–time scales between both processes, a difficult match in most marine system studies. We propose a novel spatio-temporal and dynamic scale to explore marine productivity patterns probably driving reproductive timing in the inshore little penguin (Eudyptula minor), based on monthly data on ocean circulation in the Southern Ocean, Australia. In contrast to what occurred when considering any other fixed scales, little penguin's highly variable laying date always occurred within the annual peak of ocean productivity that emerged from our newly defined dynamic scale. Additionally, local sea surface temperature seems to have triggered the onset of reproduction, acting as an environmental cue informing on marine productivity patterns at our dynamic scale. Chlorophyll-a patterns extracted from this scale revealed that environment factors in marine ecosystems affecting breeding decisions are related to a much wider region than foraging areas that are commonly used in current studies investigating the link between animals' life history and their environment. We suggest that marine productivity patterns may be more predictable than previously thought when environmental and biological data are examined at appropriate scales. PMID:26063848

  18. A novel spatio-temporal scale based on ocean currents unravels environmental drivers of reproductive timing in a marine predator.

    PubMed

    Afán, Isabel; Chiaradia, André; Forero, Manuela G; Dann, Peter; Ramírez, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Life-history strategies have evolved in response to predictable patterns of environmental features. In practice, linking life-history strategies and changes in environmental conditions requires comparable space-time scales between both processes, a difficult match in most marine system studies. We propose a novel spatio-temporal and dynamic scale to explore marine productivity patterns probably driving reproductive timing in the inshore little penguin (Eudyptula minor), based on monthly data on ocean circulation in the Southern Ocean, Australia. In contrast to what occurred when considering any other fixed scales, little penguin's highly variable laying date always occurred within the annual peak of ocean productivity that emerged from our newly defined dynamic scale. Additionally, local sea surface temperature seems to have triggered the onset of reproduction, acting as an environmental cue informing on marine productivity patterns at our dynamic scale. Chlorophyll-a patterns extracted from this scale revealed that environment factors in marine ecosystems affecting breeding decisions are related to a much wider region than foraging areas that are commonly used in current studies investigating the link between animals' life history and their environment. We suggest that marine productivity patterns may be more predictable than previously thought when environmental and biological data are examined at appropriate scales. PMID:26063848

  19. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Seven and Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 7 and 8. The unit, focusing on life in the sea and the physical factors which influence that life, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the theory of plate tectonics; (2) ocean floor…

  20. Marine Education: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Wildman, Terry M.

    1980-01-01

    Examined are the scope and status of precollege marine education, including history of marine education, present interdisciplinary marine education, informal approaches to marine education, marine awareness studies, and some implications of marine education. (Author/DS)

  1. Marine Oil Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Terry C; Prince, Roger C; Mahmoudi, Nagissa

    2016-03-01

    Crude oil has been part of the marine environment for millions of years, and microbes that use its rich source of energy and carbon are found in seawater, sediments, and shorelines from the tropics to the polar regions. Catastrophic oil spills stimulate these organisms to "bloom" in a reproducible fashion, and although oil does not provide bioavailable nitrogen, phosphorus or iron, there are enough of these nutrients in the sea that when dispersed oil droplets dilute to low concentrations these low levels are adequate for microbial growth. Most of the hydrocarbons in dispersed oil are degraded in aerobic marine waters with a half-life of days to months. In contrast, oil that reaches shorelines is likely to be too concentrated, have lower levels of nutrients, and have a far longer residence time in the environment. Oil that becomes entrained in anaerobic sediments is also likely to have a long residence time, although it too will eventually be biodegraded. Thus, data that encompass everything from the ecosystem to the molecular level are needed for understanding the complicated process of petroleum biodegradation in marine environments. PMID:26698270

  2. Marine Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The marine turbine pump pictured is the Jacuzzi 12YJ, a jet propulsion system for pleasure or commercial boating. Its development was aided by a NASA computer program made available by the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia. The manufacturer, Jacuzzi Brothers, Incorporated, Little Rock, Arkansas, used COSMIC'S Computer Program for Predicting Turbopump Inducer Loading, which enabled substantial savings in development time and money through reduction of repetitive testing.

  3. A Spinoff from Mariner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Among the technologies incorporated into the later Mariner missions was a dry film lubricant which offered exceptional lubrication quality for reduced friction and extended wear-life of mating parts in harsh interplanetary environments. Micro Surface Corporation acquired this technology, and currently market it as WS2 modified tungsten disulfide coating. A pressurized refrigerated air application process impinges a dry metallic WS2 coating without heat, curing, binders or adhesives. The coating binds instantly to metal or resin substrates with a 20 millionths of an inch thickness. Performance has been excellent in a variety of industries, particularly in plastics where in some operations, the coating increases production by reducing drag between tool steel and resin. Other advantages include product quality improvement, extension of equipment service life and maintenance elimination or reduction.

  4. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future. PMID:18299181

  5. Marine protected area networks in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Botsford, Louis W; White, J Wilson; Carr, Mark H; Caselle, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    California responded to concerns about overfishing in the 1990s by implementing a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) through two science-based decision-making processes. The first process focused on the Channel Islands, and the second addressed California's entire coastline, pursuant to the state's Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA). We review the interaction between science and policy in both processes, and lessons learned. For the Channel Islands, scientists controversially recommended setting aside 30-50% of coastline to protect marine ecosystems. For the MLPA, MPAs were intended to be ecologically connected in a network, so design guidelines included minimum size and maximum spacing of MPAs (based roughly on fish movement rates), an approach that also implicitly specified a minimum fraction of the coastline to be protected. As MPA science developed during the California processes, spatial population models were constructed to quantify how MPAs were affected by adult fish movement and larval dispersal, i.e., how population persistence within MPA networks depended on fishing outside the MPAs, and how fishery yields could either increase or decrease with MPA implementation, depending on fishery management. These newer quantitative methods added to, but did not supplant, the initial rule-of-thumb guidelines. In the future, similar spatial population models will allow more comprehensive evaluation of the integrated effects of MPAs and conventional fisheries management. By 2011, California had implemented 132 MPAs covering more than 15% of its coastline, and now stands on the threshold of the most challenging step in this effort: monitoring and adaptive management to ensure ecosystem sustainability. PMID:25358301

  6. Factors Affecting Study-Related Burnout among Finnish University Students: Teaching-Learning Environment, Achievement Motivation and the Meaning of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriläinen, Matti

    2014-01-01

    This study of a large sample (n = 3035) examined relationships between study-related burnout and components of the teaching-learning environment, achievement motivation and the perceived meaning of life. The overall model, tested with structural equation modelling, revealed that the factor of the teaching-learning environment correlated with both…

  7. The Factors Affecting End-of-Life Decision-Making by Physicians of Patients with Intellectual Disabilities in the Netherlands: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagemans, A.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.; Proot, I.; Metsemakers, J.; Tuffrey-Wijne, I.; Curfs, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the process of end-of-life decision-making regarding people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Netherlands, from the perspective of physicians. Methods: This qualitative study involved nine semi-structured interviews with ID physicians in the Netherlands after the deaths of patients with…

  8. Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

  9. Do Family Responsibilities and a Clinical Versus Research Faculty Position Affect Satisfaction with Career and Work–Life Balance for Medical School Faculty?

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia Pleotis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Balancing career and family obligations poses challenges to medical school faculty and contributes to dissatisfaction and attrition from academics. We examined the relationship between family setting and responsibilities, rank, and career and work–life satisfaction for faculty in a large U.S. medical school. Methods: Baseline faculty surveys were analyzed from the first year of a 4-year National Institutes of Health–funded study to evaluate awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and use of family friendly policies and career satisfaction. The study focus was on the impact of family responsibilities and characteristics of the faculty position (rank, clinical vs. nonclinical, and academic series) in multivariate comparisons between primary predictors and outcomes of interest. Results: Both clinical and family responsibilities for children under 18 play a major and interacting role in satisfaction with career and work–life balance. Clinical faculty respondents without children at home reported significantly greater career satisfaction and better work–life balance than their nonclinical counterparts. Nonclinical faculty respondents with children reported greater satisfaction and better balance than counterparts without family responsibilities. However, the advantage in career satisfaction and work–life balance for clinical faculty respondents disappeared for those with responsibility for young children. No gender-based differences were noted in the results or across faculty rank for respondents; however, for women, reaching associate professor resulted in greater career satisfaction. Conclusion: This study suggests that both work-related factors and family responsibilities influence satisfaction with career and work–life balance, but the predictors appear to interact in complex and nuanced ways. Further research is needed to delineate more clearly these interactions and to explore other factors that may play important additional roles. PMID

  10. Measurements of Marine Vessel Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Middlebrook, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from large marine vessels are a significant source of these species to the atmosphere. One estimate indicates that oxidized nitrogen from this source is at least 14% of all combustion emissions globally (1). More importantly, since approximately 70% of all ship emissions occur within 400 km of land (1) marine vessel emissions are of significance regionally in coastal areas and locally in ports. Marine vessel emissions are calculated from marine fuel usage and various emission factors, where sulfur emission factors depend on the sulfur content of fuel and nitrogen emission factors depend on the vessel engine type: slow-speed diesel, medium-speed diesel, and other (generally steam-turbine). Currently, the best available emission factors come from a Lloyd's Register of Shipping sponsored emissions research program. Measurements were made of emissions from engines during bench tests and from in-service marine vessels directly at the stack. While these results are the best available data, the significance of marine vessel emissions suggests that additional evaluation of emission factors be conducted. During the 2002 New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS 2002) the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown was equipped with trace gas and aerosol monitoring instrumentation for the purpose of investigating the factors that affect air quality in coastal New England. As a part of that study, measurements were made of gaseous and particulate emissions from marine vessels, both in port and underway. This talk will present those results and relate them to current inventory estimates of marine vessel emissions. (1) Corbett, J.J., et al., Global nitrogen and sulfur inventories for oceangoing ships, J. Geophy. Res., 104, 3457-3470, 1999.

  11. Cobalt and marine redox evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Robbins, Leslie J.; Bekker, Andrey; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Saito, Mak A.; Kappler, Andreas; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2014-03-01

    Cobalt (Co) is a bio-essential trace element and limiting nutrient in some regions of the modern oceans. It has been proposed that Co was more abundant in poorly ventilated Precambrian oceans based on the greater utilization of Co by anaerobic microbes relative to plants and animals. However, there are few empirical or theoretical constraints on the history of seawater Co concentrations. Herein, we present a survey of authigenic Co in marine sediments (iron formations, authigenic pyrite and bulk euxinic shales) with the goal of tracking changes in the marine Co reservoir throughout Earth's history. We further provide an overview of the modern marine Co cycle, which we use as a platform to evaluate how changes in the redox state of Earth's surface were likely to have affected marine Co concentrations. Based on sedimentary Co contents and our understanding of marine Co sources and sinks, we propose that from ca. 2.8 to 1.8 Ga the large volume of hydrothermal fluids circulating through abundant submarine ultramafic rocks along with a predominantly anoxic ocean with a low capacity for Co burial resulted in a large dissolved marine Co reservoir. We tentatively propose that there was a decrease in marine Co concentrations after ca. 1.8 Ga resulting from waning hydrothermal Co sources and the expansion of sulfide Co burial flux. Changes in the Co reservoir due to deep-water ventilation in the Neoproterozoic, if they occurred, are not resolvable with the current dataset. Rather, Co enrichments in Phanerozoic euxinic shales deposited during ocean anoxic events (OAE) indicate Co mobilization from expanded anoxic sediments and enhanced hydrothermal sources. A new record of marine Co concentrations provides a platform from which we can reevaluate the role that environmental Co concentrations played in shaping biological Co utilization throughout Earth's history.

  12. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  13. Why marine phytoplankton calcify.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Fanny M; Bach, Lennart T; Brownlee, Colin; Bown, Paul; Rickaby, Rosalind E M; Poulton, Alex J; Tyrrell, Toby; Beaufort, Luc; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Gibbs, Samantha; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Lee, Renee; Riebesell, Ulf; Young, Jeremy; Ridgwell, Andy

    2016-07-01

    Calcifying marine phytoplankton-coccolithophores- are some of the most successful yet enigmatic organisms in the ocean and are at risk from global change. To better understand how they will be affected, we need to know "why" coccolithophores calcify. We review coccolithophorid evolutionary history and cell biology as well as insights from recent experiments to provide a critical assessment of the costs and benefits of calcification. We conclude that calcification has high energy demands and that coccolithophores might have calcified initially to reduce grazing pressure but that additional benefits such as protection from photodamage and viral/bacterial attack further explain their high diversity and broad spectrum ecology. The cost-benefit aspect of these traits is illustrated by novel ecosystem modeling, although conclusive observations remain limited. In the future ocean, the trade-off between changing ecological and physiological costs of calcification and their benefits will ultimately decide how this important group is affected by ocean acidification and global warming. PMID:27453937

  14. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-11

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide. PMID:26766230

  15. Acclimatization and Adaptive Capacity of Marine Species in a Changing Ocean.

    PubMed

    Foo, S A; Byrne, M

    2016-01-01

    To persist in an ocean changing in temperature, pH and other stressors related to climate change, many marine species will likely need to acclimatize or adapt to avoid extinction. If marine populations possess adequate genetic variation in tolerance to climate change stressors, species might be able to adapt to environmental change. Marine climate change research is moving away from single life stage studies where individuals are directly placed into projected scenarios ('future shock' approach), to focus on the adaptive potential of populations in an ocean that will gradually change over coming decades. This review summarizes studies that consider the adaptive potential of marine invertebrates to climate change stressors and the methods that have been applied to this research, including quantitative genetics, laboratory selection studies and trans- and multigenerational experiments. Phenotypic plasticity is likely to contribute to population persistence providing time for genetic adaptation to occur. Transgenerational and epigenetic effects indicate that the environmental and physiological history of the parents can affect offspring performance. There is a need for long-term, multigenerational experiments to determine the influence of phenotypic plasticity, genetic variation and transgenerational effects on species' capacity to persist in a changing ocean. However, multigenerational studies are only practicable for short generation species. Consideration of multiple morphological and physiological traits, including changes in molecular processes (eg, DNA methylation) and long-term studies that facilitate acclimatization will be essential in making informed predictions of how the seascape and marine communities will be altered by climate change. PMID:27573050

  16. Health-related quality of life and affective status in liver transplant recipients and patients on the waiting list with low MELD scores

    PubMed Central

    Benzing, Christian; Krezdorn, Nicco; Förster, Julia; Hinz, Andreas; Krenzien, Felix; Atanasov, Georgi; Schmelzle, Moritz; Hau, Hans-Michael; Bartels, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background This study seeks to examine the impact of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and mental health in patients with different MELD scores. Methods Patients who has undergone orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) or were on the waiting list for OLT were submitted to HRQoL and depression/anxiety assessment by questionnaire: Short-Form 36 (SF-36), Questions on Life Satisfaction (FLZ-M), Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4). Data were analysed following division of patients into three groups: pretransplant patients with a MELD score <10, ≥10, and OLT recipients. Results The surveys were sent to 940 consecutive patients within one week in June 2013. Of these 940 patients, 869 (92.4%) met the inclusion criteria. In total, 291 (33.5%) eligible questionnaires (OLT group: 235, MELD <10: 25; MELD _10: 31) were suitable for analysis. General health (GH), vitality (VIT), and mental health (MH) were lower in both pretransplant groups compared to the OLT group (all p < 0.05). Anxiety and depression were higher in the MELD <10 group than in the OLT group (anxiety: p < 0.05; depression: p < 0.01). Discussion Patients with low MELD scores seem to benefit from OLT with regards to HRQoL and mental health. PMID:27154809

  17. Associations between factors affecting access to care and health-related quality of life: results of a statewide HIV/AIDS cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Krause, Denise D; Butler, Kenneth R; May, Warren L

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe the relationship between access to care and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Mississippi by administering a statewide survey. A random probability sample of PLWHA was derived from the Mississippi State Department of Health's communicable disease tracking system. Interviews were conducted with 220 PLWHA to collect data on access to care, demographic and social characteristics, and HRQOL. Overall, most participants had access to care and reasonable HRQOL. Multivariate and univariate analyses were performed to measure associations between access to care and HRQOL. Univariate analyses showed that age, income, social networks, severity of disease, having been prescribed medications, and having experienced problems accessing care to be significantly associated with HRQOL scales. Multivariate analysis of variance models further demonstrated low-income level, having experienced problems accessing care, and having been prescribed antiretroviral medications to be significantly associated with HRQOL. Reducing barriers is a major factor in improving quality of life. This study provides needed insight into the relationship between access to care and HRQOL among PLWHA in Mississippi, which could be valuable to public health planners to help them better understand how to make the greatest impact on HRQOL. PMID:22612404

  18. Which tinnitus-related characteristics affect current health-related quality of life and depression? A cross-sectional cohort study.

    PubMed

    Weidt, Steffi; Delsignore, Aba; Meyer, Martin; Rufer, Michael; Peter, Nicole; Drabe, Natalie; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2016-03-30

    Tinnitus is sometimes associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms. However, only limited evidence exists identifying which tinnitus characteristics are responsible for these associations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations between tinnitus, HRQoL, depressive symptoms, subjective tinnitus loudness and audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics (e.g., hearing threshold). Two hundred and eight outpatients reporting tinnitus completed questionnaires on tinnitus (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, THI), HRQoL (World-Health-Organisation Quality of Life Short Form Survey, WHOQOL-BREF), and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), and underwent audiometry. Patients with higher THI scores exhibited significantly lower HRQoL, and higher depression scores. THI total-score, THI subscales, and subjective tinnitus loudness explained significant variance of WHOQOL-BREF and BDI. Audiometrically measured features were not associated with WHOQOL-BREF or BDI. Overall, we confirmed findings that different features of tinnitus are associated with HRQoL and depressive symptoms but not with audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics. Consequently, physicians should evaluate THI total score, its sub-scores, and subjective tinnitus loudness to reliably and quickly identify patients who potentially suffer from depressive symptoms or significantly lower HRQoL. Supporting these patients early might help to prevent the development of reactive depressive symptoms and impairment of HRQoL. PMID:26850646

  19. Identification by Random Mutagenesis of Functional Domains in KREPB5 That Differentially Affect RNA Editing between Life Cycle Stages of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Suzanne M.; Carnes, Jason

    2015-01-01

    KREPB5 is an essential component of ∼20S editosomes in Trypanosoma brucei which contains a degenerate, noncatalytic RNase III domain. To explore the function of this protein, we used a novel approach to make and screen numerous conditional null T. brucei bloodstream form cell lines that express randomly mutagenized KREPB5 alleles. We identified nine single amino acid substitutions that could not complement the conditional loss of wild-type KREPB5. Seven of these were within the RNase III domain, and two were in the C-terminal region that has no homology to known motifs. Exclusive expression of these mutated KREPB5 alleles in the absence of wild-type allele expression resulted in growth inhibition, the loss of ∼20S editosomes, and inhibition of RNA editing in BF cells. Eight of these mutations were lethal in bloodstream form parasites but not in procyclic-form parasites, showing that multiple domains function in a life cycle-dependent manner. Amino acid changes at a substantial number of positions, including up to 7 per allele, allowed complementation and thus did not block KREPB5 function. Hence, the degenerate RNase III domain and a newly identified domain are critical for KREPB5 function and have differential effects between the life cycle stages of T. brucei that differentially edit mRNAs. PMID:26370513

  20. Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

    2015-04-01

    This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is that the global atmospheric planetary waves can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the most recent 59-year period (1950-2008) have been identified based on Student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. The global forcing mechanism is described with a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate that examining the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries is a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from longwave (relatively smooth and less complex) to shorter

  1. Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

    2014-08-01

    This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is the global atmospheric planetary waves that can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the recent 59 years (1950-2008) have been identified based on student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. Due to the multidisciplinary audience, the global forcing mechanism is described from a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries are a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from long wave (relatively smooth and less complex) to

  2. The marine diversity spectrum.

    PubMed

    Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the 'diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0.5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0.5 and -0.1. Slopes of -0.5 and -0.1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of -0.5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of -0.1 depicts a 1.6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour, dispersal, and life history on

  3. Merchant Marine Ship Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sankovich, M. F.; Mumm, J. F.; North, Jr, D. C.; Rock, H. R.; Gestson, D. K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor for use in a merchant marine ship is described. The reactor is of pressurized, light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements that are confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass. (AEC)

  4. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  5. Affects of Anxiety and Depression on Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients with Benign Breast Lumps Diagnosed via Ultrasonography in China

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Zhe; Li, Yinyan; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    There is a high incidence of benign breast lumps among women, and these lumps may lead to physical and psychological problems. This study aims to evaluate anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with benign breast lumps diagnosed via ultrasonography and investigate their impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from January to November 2013. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires, including the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), together with demographic characteristics, from patients of the Department of Breast Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR) was performed to explore the effects of anxiety and depression on HRQOL. The overall prevalences of anxiety (SAS score ≥ 40) and depression (CES-D scores ≥ 16) were 40.2% and 62.0%, respectively, and 37.5% of the participants had both of these psychological symptoms. The means and standard deviations of PCS and MCS were 75.42 (15.22) and 68.70 (17.71), respectively. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were significantly negatively associated with the HRQOL of patients with benign breast lumps diagnosed via ultrasonography. Women with benign breast lumps diagnosed via ultrasonography in China experienced relatively high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Anxiety and depressive symptoms had significant negative impacts on both the mental and physical quality of life (QOL) of women with benign breast lumps. Beyond the necessary clinical treatment procedures, psychological guidance and detailed explanations of the disease should be offered to alleviate the anxiety and depressive symptoms and enhance the HRQOL of patients with benign breast lumps. PMID:26343700

  6. Toxicities Affecting Quality of Life After Chemo-IMRT of Oropharyngeal Cancer: Prospective Study of Patient-Reported, Observer-Rated, and Objective Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Klaudia U.; Schipper, Matthew; Feng, Felix Y.; Lyden, Teresa; Haxer, Mark; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol-Anne; Cornwall, Benjamin; Lee, Connie S.Y.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) aiming to spare the salivary glands and swallowing structures would reduce or eliminate the effects of xerostomia and dysphagia on quality of life (QOL). Methods and Materials: In this prospective, longitudinal study, 72 patients with stage III-IV oropharyngeal cancer were treated uniformly with definitive chemo-IMRT sparing the salivary glands and swallowing structures. Overall QOL was assessed by summary scores of the Head Neck QOL (HNQOL) and University of Washington QOL (UWQOL) questionnaires, as well as the HNQOL “Overall Bother” question. Quality of life, observer-rated toxicities (Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Effects scale, version 2), and objective evaluations (videofluoroscopy assessing dysphagia and saliva flow rates assessing xerostomia) were recorded from before therapy through 2 years after therapy. Correlations between toxicities/objective evaluations and overall QOL were assessed using longitudinal repeated measures of analysis and Pearson correlations. Results: All observer-rated toxicities and QOL scores worsened 1-3 months after therapy and improved through 12 months, with minor further improvements through 24 months. At 12 months, dysphagia grades 0-1, 2, and 3, were observed in 95%, 4%, and 1% of patients, respectively. Using all posttherapy observations, observer-rated dysphagia was highly correlated with all overall QOL measures (P<.0001), whereas xerostomia and mucosal and voice toxicities were significantly correlated with some, but not all, overall QOL measures, with lower correlation coefficients than dysphagia. Late overall QOL (≥6 or ≥12 months after therapy) was primarily associated with observer-rated dysphagia, and to a lesser extent with xerostomia. Videofluoroscopy scores, but not salivary flows, were significantly correlated with some of the overall QOL measures. Conclusion: After chemo-IMRT, although late dysphagia was on average mild

  7. Reaching the Next Generation of Marine Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, J.

    2009-04-01

    The next generation of marine scientists are today at primary school, secondary school or at college. To encourage them in their career, and to introduce those who are as yet undecided to the wonders of marine science, the Irish Marine Institute has devised a series of three overlapping outreach programmes to reach children at all three levels. Beginning at primary school, the "Explorers" programme offers a range of resources to teachers to enable them to teach marine-related examples as part of the science or geography modules of the SESE curriculum. These include teacher training, expert visits to schools, the installation and stocking of aquaria, field trips and downloadable lesson plans. For older pupils, the "Follow the Fleet" programme is a web-based education asset that allows users to track individual merchant ships and research vessels across the world, to interact with senior crew members of ships and to learn about their cargoes, the ports they visit and the sea conditions along the way. Finally, the "Integrated Marine Exploration Programme (IMEP)" takes secondary school pupils and university students to sea aboard the Marine Institute's research vessels to give them a taste of life as a marine scientist or to educate them in the practical day-to-day sampling and data processing tasks that make up a marine scientist's job.

  8. Engagement with Health Care Providers Affects Self- Efficacy, Self-Esteem, Medication Adherence and Quality of Life in People Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Wantland, Dean; Reid, Paula; Corless, Inge B; Eller, Lucille S; Iipinge, Scholastika; Holzemer, William L; Nokes, Kathleen; Sefcik, Elizbeth; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Voss, Joachim; Nicholas, Patrice; Phillips, J Craig; Brion, John M; Rose, Caro Dawson; Portillo, Carmen J; Kirksey, Kenn; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Johnson, Mallory O; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Webel, Allison R

    2013-11-01

    The engagement of patients with their health care providers (HCP) improves patients' quality of life (QOL), adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and life satisfaction. Engagement with HCP includes access to HCP as needed, information sharing, involvement of client in decision making and self-care activities, respect and support of the HCP for the client's choices, and management of client concerns. This study compares country-level differences in patients' engagement with HCP and assesses statistical associations relative to adherence rates, self-efficacy, self-esteem, QOL, and symptom self-reporting by people living with HIV (PLHIV). A convenience sample of 2,182 PLHIV was enrolled in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, Namibia, and China. Cross-sectional data were collected between September 2009 and January 2011. Inclusion criteria were being at least 18 years of age, diagnosed with HIV, able to provide informed consent, and able to communicate in the local language with site researchers. In the HCP scale, a low score indicated greater provider engagement. Country comparisons showed that PLHIV in Namibia had the most HCP engagement (OR 2.80, p < 0.001) and that PLHIV in China had the least engagement (OR -7.03, p < 0.0001) compared to the PLHIV in the Western countries. Individuals having better HCP engagement showed better self-efficacy for adherence (t = -5.22, p < 0.0001), missed fewer medication doses (t = 1.92, p ≤ 0.05), had lower self-esteem ratings (t = 2.67, p < 0.01), fewer self-reported symptoms (t = 3.25, p < 0.0001), and better overall QOL physical condition (t = -3.39, p < 0.001). This study suggests that promoting engagement with the HCP is necessary to facilitate skills that help PLHIV manage their HIV. To improve ART adherence, HCPs should work on strategies to enhance self-efficacy and self-esteem, therefore, exhibiting fewer HIV-related symptoms and missing less medication doses to achieve better QOL. PMID:24575329

  9. Engagement with Health Care Providers Affects Self- Efficacy, Self-Esteem, Medication Adherence and Quality of Life in People Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Wantland, Dean; Reid, Paula; Corless, Inge B; Eller, Lucille S.; Iipinge, Scholastika; Holzemer, William L; Nokes, Kathleen; Sefcik, Elizbeth; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Voss, Joachim; Nicholas, Patrice; Phillips, J. Craig; Brion, John M.; Rose, Caro Dawson; Portillo, Carmen J; Kirksey, Kenn; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Johnson, Mallory O; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Webel, Allison R

    2014-01-01

    The engagement of patients with their health care providers (HCP) improves patients’ quality of life (QOL), adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and life satisfaction. Engagement with HCP includes access to HCP as needed, information sharing, involvement of client in decision making and self-care activities, respect and support of the HCP for the client’s choices, and management of client concerns. This study compares country-level differences in patients’ engagement with HCP and assesses statistical associations relative to adherence rates, self-efficacy, self-esteem, QOL, and symptom self-reporting by people living with HIV (PLHIV). A convenience sample of 2,182 PLHIV was enrolled in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, Namibia, and China. Cross-sectional data were collected between September 2009 and January 2011. Inclusion criteria were being at least 18 years of age, diagnosed with HIV, able to provide informed consent, and able to communicate in the local language with site researchers. In the HCP scale, a low score indicated greater provider engagement. Country comparisons showed that PLHIV in Namibia had the most HCP engagement (OR 2.80, p < 0.001) and that PLHIV in China had the least engagement (OR −7.03, p < 0.0001) compared to the PLHIV in the Western countries. Individuals having better HCP engagement showed better self-efficacy for adherence (t = −5.22, p < 0.0001), missed fewer medication doses (t = 1.92, p ≤ 0.05), had lower self-esteem ratings (t = 2.67, p < 0.01), fewer self-reported symptoms (t = 3.25, p < 0.0001), and better overall QOL physical condition (t = −3.39, p < 0.001). This study suggests that promoting engagement with the HCP is necessary to facilitate skills that help PLHIV manage their HIV. To improve ART adherence, HCPs should work on strategies to enhance self-efficacy and self-esteem, therefore, exhibiting fewer HIV-related symptoms and missing less medication doses to achieve better QOL. PMID:24575329

  10. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Halpern, Benjamin S; Breed, Greg A; Nickel, Barry; Teutschel, Nicole M; Crowder, Larry B; Benson, Scott; Dutton, Peter H; Bailey, Helen; Kappes, Michelle A; Kuhn, Carey E; Weise, Michael J; Mate, Bruce; Shaffer, Scott A; Hassrick, Jason L; Henry, Robert W; Irvine, Ladd; McDonald, Birgitte I; Robinson, Patrick W; Block, Barbara A; Costa, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact (CUI) on marine predators by combining electronic tracking data of eight protected predator species (n=685 individuals) in the California Current Ecosystem with data on 24 anthropogenic stressors. We show significant variation in CUI with some of the highest impacts within US National Marine Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied in planning the use of marine resources. PMID:24162104

  11. Nutritional quality changes throughout shelf-life of fresh-cut kailan-hybrid and 'Parthenon' broccoli as affected by temperature and atmosphere composition.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Gómez, Perla A; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional quality changes of the fresh-cut kailan-hybrid broccoli were compared with those of the 'Parthenon' cv. throughout 15 days at 2 ℃, 5 ℃ and 8 ℃ under air and modified atmosphere packaging. Florets showed higher dietary fiber content than stems. The total protein content of kailan-hybrid florets was 2.2-fold higher than that of 'Parthenon' cv. and higher amounts of S, Ca, Mg, Fe, Sr, Mn, Zn and Cu were found. However, 'Parthenon' florets registered higher initial total phenolics content than the kailan-hybrid edible part, followed by an increase throughout shelf-life favored at 5 ℃ and 8 ℃ under modified atmosphere packaging (5-7 kPa O2 + 14-15 kPa CO2). Modified atmosphere packaging stored samples at 8 ℃ showed higher individual phenolics content than modified atmosphere packaging stored samples at 2 ℃. The initial total antioxidant capacity of the kailan-hybrid edible part was higher than that of 'Parthenon' cv. florets. In conclusion, the kailan-hybrid florets generally showed healthier properties on the analyzed bioactive compounds, except total phenolic content, compared to the conventional 'Parthenon' cv. PMID:24045885

  12. Species and life-history affects the utility of otolith chemical composition to determine natal stream-of-origin in Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Swanson, Heidi K.; Volk, Eric C.; Kent, Adam J.R.

    2013-01-01

    To test the utility of otolith chemical composition as a tool for determining the natal stream of origin for salmon, we examined water chemistry and otoliths of juvenile and adult Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Coho Salmon O. kisutch from three watersheds (five rivers) in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The two species are characterized by different life histories: Coho Salmon rear in freshwater for up to 3 years, whereas Chum Salmon emigrate from freshwater shortly after emergence. We used laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) to quantify element: Ca ratios for Mg, Mn, Zn, Sr, and Ba, and we used multicollector LA-ICP-MS to determine 87Sr:86Sr ratios in otolith regions corresponding to the period of freshwater residence. Significant differences existed in both water and otolith elemental composition, suggesting that otolith composition could be used to discriminate the natal origin of Coho Salmon and Chum Salmon but only when 87Sr:86Sr ratios were included in the discriminant function analyses. The best discriminant model included 87Sr:86Sr ratios, and without 87Sr:86Sr ratios it was difficult to discriminate among watersheds and rivers. Classification accuracy was 80% for Coho Salmon and 68% for Chum Salmon, indicating that this method does not provide sufficient sensitivity to estimate straying rates of Pacific salmon at the scale we studied.

  13. Marine concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    This book examines how the chemical and physical properties of the oceans affect the durability, fatigue, and corrosion of structures. Structure types addressed include oil platforms, arctic structures, and sea walls. Reviews qualities of plain, reinforced, prestressed, and floating concrete. Discusses the inspection, maintenance, and repair of concrete structures.

  14. Acupuncture and physical exercise for affective symptoms and health-related quality of life in polycystic ovary syndrome: secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have symptoms of depression and anxiety and impaired health related quality of life (HRQoL). Here we test the post-hoc hypothesis that acupuncture and exercise improve depression and anxiety symptoms and HRQoL in PCOS women. Methods Seventy-two PCOS women were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of 1) acupuncture (n = 28); 2) exercise (n = 29); or 3) no intervention (control) (n = 15). Outcome measures included: change in Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S), Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA-S), Swedish Short-Form 36 (SF-36), and PCOS Questionnaire (PCOSQ) scores from baseline to after 16-week intervention, and to 16-week post-intervention follow-up. Results A reduction in MADRS-S and BSA-S from baseline to 16-weeks post-intervention follow-up was observed for the acupuncture group. The SF-36 domains role physical, energy/vitality, general health perception and the mental component of summary scores improved in the acupuncture group after intervention and at follow-up. Within the exercise group the role physical decreased after treatment, while physical functioning and general health perception scores increased at follow-up. The emotion domain in the PCOSQ improved after 16-weeks of intervention within all three groups, and at follow-up in acupuncture and exercise groups. At follow-up, improvement in the infertility domain was observed within the exercise group. Conclusion There was a modest improvement in depression and anxiety scores in women treated with acupuncture, and improved HRQoL scores were noted in both intervention groups. While not a primary focus of the trial, these data suggest continued investigation of mental health outcomes in women treated for PCOS. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00484705 PMID:23763822

  15. Understanding interannual variability in the distribution of, and transport processes affecting, the early life stages of Todarodes pacificus using behavioral-hydrodynamic modeling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung Jin; Stockhausen, William; Kim, Suam; Cho, Yang-Ki; Seo, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Joon-Soo

    2015-11-01

    To understand interannual variability in the distribution of the early life stages of Todarodes pacificus summer spawning population, and to identify the key transport processes influencing this variability, we used a coupled bio-physical model that combines an individual-based model (IBM) incorporating ontogenetic vertical migration for paralarval behavior and temperature-dependent survival process with a ROMS oceanographic model. Using the distribution of paralarvae observed in the northern East China Sea (ECS) during several field cruises as an end point, the spawning ground for the summer-spawning population was estimated to extend from southeast Jeju Island to the central ECS near 29°N by running the model backwards in time. Running the model forward, interannual variability in the distribution of paralarvae predicted by the model was consistent with that observed in several field surveys; surviving individuals in the northern ECS were substantially more abundant in late July 2006 than in 2007, in agreement with observed paralarval distributions. The total number of surviving individuals at 60 days after release based on the simulation throughout summer spawning period (June-August) was 20,329 for 2006, compared with 13,816 for 2007. The surviving individuals were mainly distributed in the East/Japan Sea (EJS), corresponding to a pathway following the nearshore branch of the Tsushima Warm Current flowing along the Japanese coast during both years. In contrast, the abundance of surviving individuals was extremely low in 2007 compared to 2006 on the Pacific side of Japan. Interannual variability in transport and survival processes made a substantial impact on not only the abundance of surviving paralarvae, but also on the flux of paralarvae to adjacent waters. Our simulation results for between-year variation in paralarval abundance coincide with recruitment (year n + 1) variability of T. pacificus in the field. The agreement between the simulation and field

  16. Affective Dynamics in Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Trull, Timothy J.; Lane, Sean P.; Koval, Peter; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss three varieties of affective dynamics (affective instability, emotional inertia, and emotional differentiation). In each case, we suggest how these affective dynamics should be operationalized and measured in daily life using time-intensive methods, like ecological momentary assessment or ambulatory assessment, and recommend time-sensitive analyses that take into account not only the variability but also the temporal dependency of reports. Studies that explore how these affective dynamics are associated with psychological disorders and symptoms are reviewed, and we emphasize that these affective processes are within a nexus of other components of emotion regulation.

  17. Therapygenetics in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: do genes have an impact on therapy-induced change in real-life positive affective experiences?

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, J M; Lieverse, R; Menne-Lothmann, C; Viechtbauer, W; Pishva, E; Kenis, G; Geschwind, N; Peeters, F; van Os, J; Wichers, M

    2014-01-01

    Positive affect (PA) has an important role in resilience against depression and has been shown to increase with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of change in PA as well as develop insights that may benefit personalized medicine, the current study examined the contribution of genetic variation to individual differences in change in PA in response to MBCT. Individuals (n=126) with residual depressive symptoms were randomized to either an MBCT group or treatment as usual. PA was assessed using experience sampling methodology (ESM). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes known to be involved in reward functioning were selected. SNPs in the genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2), the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and the μ1 opioid receptor (OPRM1) significantly moderated the impact of treatment condition over time on PA. Genetic variation in the genes for CHRM2 and OPRM1 specifically had an impact on the level of PA following MBCT. The current study shows that variation in response to MBCT may be contingent on genetic factors associated with the regulation of PA. These findings contribute to our understanding of the processes moderating response to treatment and prediction of treatment outcome. PMID:24755993

  18. Flourishing ocean drives the end-Permian marine mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Ghaderi, Abbas; Strauss, Harald; Korn, Dieter; Korte, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction, the most severe biotic crisis in the Phanerozoic, was accompanied by climate change and expansion of oceanic anoxic zones. The partitioning of sulfur among different exogenic reservoirs by biological and physical processes was of importance for this biodiversity crisis, but the exact role of bioessential sulfur in the mass extinction is still unclear. Here we show that globally increased production of organic matter affected the seawater sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope signature that has been recorded in carbonate rock spanning the Permian−Triassic boundary. A bifurcating temporal trend is observed for the strata spanning the marine mass extinction with carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope excursions toward decreased and increased values, respectively. By coupling these results to a box model, we show that increased marine productivity and successive enhanced microbial sulfate reduction is the most likely scenario to explain these temporal trends. The new data demonstrate that worldwide expansion of euxinic and anoxic zones are symptoms of increased biological carbon recycling in the marine realm initiated by global warming. The spatial distribution of sulfidic water column conditions in shallow seafloor environments is dictated by the severity and geographic patterns of nutrient fluxes and serves as an adequate model to explain the scale of the marine biodiversity crisis. Our results provide evidence that the major biodiversity crises in Earth’s history do not necessarily implicate an ocean stripped of (most) life but rather the demise of certain eukaryotic organisms, leading to a decline in species richness. PMID:26240323

  19. 75 FR 1029 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14486

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT56 Marine Mammals; File No. 14486 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Alaska SeaLife...

  20. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on physical factors influencing life in the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the ocean floor; (2) tides; (3) ocean waves; (4) ocean currents; (5)…