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Sample records for affect mrna splicing

  1. Silent exonic mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene that cause familial hypercholesterolemia by affecting mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Defesche, J C; Schuurman, E J M; Klaaijsen, L N; Khoo, K L; Wiegman, A; Stalenhoef, A F H

    2008-06-01

    In a large group of patients with the clinical phenotype of familial hypercholesterolemia, such as elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and premature atherosclerosis, but without functional mutations in the genes coding for the LDL receptor and apolipoprotein B, we examined the effect of 128 seemingly neutral exonic and intronic DNA variants, discovered by routine sequencing of these genes. Two variants, G186G and R385R, were found to be associated with altered splicing. The nucleotide change leading to G186G resulted in the generation of new 3'-splice donor site in exon 4 and R385R was associated with a new 5'-splice acceptor site in exon 9 of the LDL receptor gene. Splicing of these alternate splice sites leads to an in-frame 75-base pair deletion in a stable mRNA of exon 4 in case of G186G and R385R resulted in a 31-base pair frame-shift deletion in exon 9 and non-sense-mediated mRNA decay.

  2. Severe fluoropyrimidine toxicity due to novel and rare DPYD missense mutations, deletion and genomic amplification affecting DPD activity and mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    van Kuilenburg, André B P; Meijer, Judith; Maurer, Dirk; Dobritzsch, Doreen; Meinsma, Rutger; Los, Maartje; Knegt, Lia C; Zoetekouw, Lida; Jansen, Rob L H; Dezentjé, Vincent; van Huis-Tanja, Lieke H; van Kampen, Roel J W; Hertz, Jens Michael; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2017-03-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Genetic variations in DPD have emerged as predictive risk factors for severe fluoropyrimidine toxicity. Here, we report novel and rare genetic variants underlying DPD deficiency in 9 cancer patients presenting with severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity. All patients possessed a strongly reduced DPD activity, ranging from 9 to 53% of controls. Analysis of the DPD gene (DPYD) showed the presence of 21 variable sites including 4 novel and 4 very rare aberrations: 3 missense mutations, 2 splice-site mutations, 1 intronic mutation, a deletion of 21 nucleotides and a genomic amplification of exons 9-12. Two novel/rare variants (c.2843T>C, c.321+1G>A) were present in multiple, unrelated patients. Functional analysis of recombinantly-expressed DPD mutants carrying the p.I948T and p.G284V mutation showed residual DPD activities of 30% and 0.5%, respectively. Analysis of a DPD homology model indicated that the p.I948T and p.G284V mutations may affect electron transfer and the binding of FAD, respectively. cDNA analysis showed that the c.321+1G>A mutation in DPYD leads to skipping of exon 4 immediately upstream of the mutated splice-donor site in the process of DPD pre-mRNA splicing. A lethal toxicity in two DPD patients suggests that fluoropyrimidines combined with other therapies such as radiotherapy might be particularly toxic for DPD deficient patients. Our study advocates a more comprehensive genotyping approach combined with phenotyping strategies for upfront screening for DPD deficiency to ensure the safe administration of fluoropyrimidines.

  3. Links between mRNA splicing, mRNA quality control, and intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Fasken, Milo B.; Corbett, Anita H.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the impairment of RNA binding proteins that play key roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression has been linked to numerous neurological diseases. These RNA binding proteins perform critical mRNA processing steps in the nucleus, including splicing, polyadenylation, and export. In many cases, these RNA binding proteins are ubiquitously expressed raising key questions about why only brain function is impaired. Recently, mutations in the ZC3H14 gene, encoding an evolutionarily conserved, polyadenosine RNA binding protein, have been linked to a nonsyndromic form of autosomal recessive intellectual disability. Thus far, research on ZC3H14 and its Nab2 orthologs in budding yeast and Drosophila reveals that ZC3H14/Nab2 is important for mRNA processing and neuronal patterning. Two recent studies now provide evidence that ZC3H14/Nab2 may function in the quality control of mRNA splicing and export and could help to explain the molecular defects that cause neuronal dysfunction and lead to an inherited form of intellectual disability. These studies on ZC3H14/Nab2 reveal new clues to the puzzle of why loss of the ubiquitously expressed ZC3H14 protein specifically affects neurons. PMID:27868086

  4. In vitro Splicing of Influenza Viral NS1 mRNA and NS1-β -globin Chimeras: Possible Mechanisms for the Control of Viral mRNA Splicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotch, Stephen J.; Krug, Robert M.

    1986-08-01

    In influenza virus-infected cells, the splicing of the viral NS1 mRNA catalyzed by host nuclear enzymes is controlled so that the steady-state amount of the spliced NS2 mRNA is only 5-10% of that of the unspliced NS1 mRNA. Here we examine the splicing of NS1 mRNA in vitro, using nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. We show that in addition to its consensus 5' and 3' splice sites, NS1 mRNA has an intron branch-point adenosine residue that was functional in lariat formation. Nonetheless, this RNA was not detectably spliced in vitro under conditions in which a human β -globin precursor was efficiently spliced. Using chimeric RNA precursors containing both NS1 and β -globin sequences, we show that the NS1 5' splice site was effectively utilized by the β -globin branch-point sequence and 3' splice site to form a spliced RNA, whereas the NS1 3' splice site did not function in detectable splicing in vitro, even in the presence of the β -globin branch-point sequence or in the presence of both the branch-point sequence and 5' exon and splice site from β -globin With the chimeric precursors that were not detectably spliced, as with NS1 mRNA itself, a low level of a lariat structure containing only intron and not 3' exon sequences was formed. The inability of the consensus 3' splice site of NS1 mRNA to function effectively in in vitro splicing suggests that this site is structurally inaccessible to components of the splicing machinery. Based on these results, we propose two mechanisms whereby NS1 mRNA splicing in infected cells is controlled via the accessibility of its 3' splice site.

  5. From polyadenylation to splicing: Dual role for mRNA 3' end formation factors.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ashish; Green, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide protein-RNA interaction studies have significantly reshaped our understanding of the role of mRNA 3' end formation factors in RNA biology. Originally thought to function solely in mediating cleavage and polyadenylation of mRNAs during their maturation, 3' end formation factors have now been shown to play a role in alternative splicing, even at internal introns--an unanticipated role for factors thought only to act at the 3' end of the mRNA. Here, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the role of 3' end formation factors in promoting global changes in alternative splicing at internal exon-intron junctions and how they act as cofactors for well known splicing regulators. Additionally, we review the mechanism by which these factors affect the recruitment of early intron recognition components to the 5' and 3' splice site. Our understanding of the roles of 3' end formation factors is still evolving, and the final picture might be more complex than originally envisioned.

  6. Regulation of mRNA splicing by MeCP2 via epigenetic modifications in the brain.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tian-Lin; Chen, Jingqi; Wan, Huida; Tang, Bin; Tian, Weidong; Liao, Lujian; Qiu, Zilong

    2017-02-17

    Mutations of X-linked gene Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) are the major causes of Rett syndrome (RTT), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Duplications of MECP2-containing genomic segments lead to severe autistic symptoms in human. MECP2-coding protein methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is involved in transcription regulation, microRNA processing and mRNA splicing. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of MeCP2 in mRNA splicing in neurons remain largely elusive. In this work we found that the majority of MeCP2-associated proteins are involved in mRNA splicing using mass spectrometry analysis with multiple samples from Mecp2-null rat brain, mouse primary neuron and human cell lines. We further showed that Mecp2 knockdown in cultured cortical neurons led to widespread alternations of mRNA alternative splicing. Analysis of ChIP-seq datasets indicated that MeCP2-regulated exons display specific epigenetic signatures, with DNA modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and histone modification H3K4me3 are enriched in down-regulated exons, while the H3K36me3 signature is enriched in exons up-regulated in Mecp2-knockdown neurons comparing to un-affected neurons. Functional analysis reveals that genes containing MeCP2-regulated exons are mainly involved in synaptic functions and mRNA splicing. These results suggested that MeCP2 regulated mRNA splicing through interacting with 5hmC and epigenetic changes in histone markers, and provide functional insights of MeCP2-mediated mRNA splicing in the nervous system.

  7. Regulation of mRNA splicing by MeCP2 via epigenetic modifications in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tian-Lin; Chen, Jingqi; Wan, Huida; Tang, Bin; Tian, Weidong; Liao, Lujian; Qiu, Zilong

    2017-01-01

    Mutations of X-linked gene Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) are the major causes of Rett syndrome (RTT), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Duplications of MECP2-containing genomic segments lead to severe autistic symptoms in human. MECP2-coding protein methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is involved in transcription regulation, microRNA processing and mRNA splicing. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of MeCP2 in mRNA splicing in neurons remain largely elusive. In this work we found that the majority of MeCP2-associated proteins are involved in mRNA splicing using mass spectrometry analysis with multiple samples from Mecp2-null rat brain, mouse primary neuron and human cell lines. We further showed that Mecp2 knockdown in cultured cortical neurons led to widespread alternations of mRNA alternative splicing. Analysis of ChIP-seq datasets indicated that MeCP2-regulated exons display specific epigenetic signatures, with DNA modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and histone modification H3K4me3 are enriched in down-regulated exons, while the H3K36me3 signature is enriched in exons up-regulated in Mecp2-knockdown neurons comparing to un-affected neurons. Functional analysis reveals that genes containing MeCP2-regulated exons are mainly involved in synaptic functions and mRNA splicing. These results suggested that MeCP2 regulated mRNA splicing through interacting with 5hmC and epigenetic changes in histone markers, and provide functional insights of MeCP2-mediated mRNA splicing in the nervous system. PMID:28211484

  8. Regulation of hyaluronidase activity by alternative mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Lokeshwar, Vinata B; Schroeder, Grethchen L; Carey, Robert I; Soloway, Mark S; Iida, Naoko

    2002-09-13

    Hyaluronidase is a hyaluronic acid-degrading endoglycosidase that is present in many toxins and the levels of which are elevated in cancer. Increased concentration of HYAL1-type hyaluronidase correlates with tumor progression and is a marker for grade (G) 2 or 3 bladder cancer. Using bladder tissues and cells, prostate cancer cells, and kidney tissues and performing reverse transcription-PCR, cDNA cloning, DNA sequencing, and in vitro translation, we identified splice variants of HYAL1 and HYAL3. HYAL1v1 variant lacks a 30-amino acid (aa) sequence (301-330) present in HYAL1 protein. HYAL1v1, HYAL1v2 (aa 183-435 present in HYAL1 wild type), HYAL1v3 (aa 1-207), HYAL1v4 (aa 260-435), and HYAL1v5 (aa 340-435) are enzymatically inactive and are expressed in normal tissues/cells and G1 bladder tumor tissues. However, HYAL1 wild type is expressed in G2/G3 tumors and in invasive tumor cells. Stable transfection and HYAL1v1-specific antibody confirmed that the HYAL1 sequence from aa 301 to 330 is critical for hyaluronidase activity. All tumor cells and tissues mainly express HYAL3 variants. HYAL3v1 lacks a 30-aa sequence (299-328) present in HYAL3 protein, that is homologous to the 30-aa HYAL1 sequence. HYAL3v1, HYAL3v2 (aa 251-417 present in HYAL3 wild type), and HYAL3v3 (aa 251-417, but lacking aa 299-328), are enzymatically inactive. Although splicing of a single independent exon generates HYAL1v1 and HYAL3v1, internal exon splicing generates the other HYAL1/HYAL3 variants. These results demonstrate that alternative mRNA splicing controls cellular expression of enzymatically active hyaluronidase and may explain the elevated hyaluronidase levels in bladder/prostate cancer.

  9. Quantitative Imaging of Single mRNA Splice Variants in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuwan; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Alternative mRNA splicing is a fundamental process of gene regulation via the precise control of the post-transcriptional step that occurs before mRNA translation. Errors in RNA splicing have been known to correlate with different diseases; however, a key limitation is the lack of technologies for live cell monitoring and quantification to understand the process of alternative splicing. Here, we report a spectroscopic strategy for quantitative imaging of mRNA splice variants in living cells, using nanoplasmonic dimer antennas. The spatial and temporal distribution of three selected splice variants of the breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA1 were monitored at single copy resolution by measuring the hybridization dynamics of nanoplasmonic antennas targeting complementary mRNA sequences in live cells. Our study provides valuable insights on RNA and its transport in living cells, which has the potential to enhance our understanding of cellular protein complex, pharmacogenomics, genetic diagnosis, and gene therapies. PMID:24747838

  10. Interpretation of mRNA splicing mutations in genetic disease: review of the literature and guidelines for information-theoretical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Caminsky, Natasha; Mucaki, Eliseos J.; Rogan, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of genomic variants has become one of the paramount challenges in the post-genome sequencing era. In this review we summarize nearly 20 years of research on the applications of information theory (IT) to interpret coding and non-coding mutations that alter mRNA splicing in rare and common diseases. We compile and summarize the spectrum of published variants analyzed by IT, to provide a broad perspective of the distribution of deleterious natural and cryptic splice site variants detected, as well as those affecting splicing regulatory sequences. Results for natural splice site mutations can be interrogated dynamically with Splicing Mutation Calculator, a companion software program that computes changes in information content for any splice site substitution, linked to corresponding publications containing these mutations. The accuracy of IT-based analysis was assessed in the context of experimentally validated mutations. Because splice site information quantifies binding affinity, IT-based analyses can discern the differences between variants that account for the observed reduced (leaky) versus abolished mRNA splicing. We extend this principle by comparing predicted mutations in natural, cryptic, and regulatory splice sites with observed deleterious phenotypic and benign effects. Our analysis of 1727 variants revealed a number of general principles useful for ensuring portability of these analyses and accurate input and interpretation of mutations. We offer guidelines for optimal use of IT software for interpretation of mRNA splicing mutations. PMID:25717368

  11. Estimation of the minimum mRNA splicing error rate in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Skandalis, A

    2016-01-01

    The majority of protein coding genes in vertebrates contain several introns that are removed by the mRNA splicing machinery. Errors during splicing can generate aberrant transcripts and degrade the transmission of genetic information thus contributing to genomic instability and disease. However, estimating the error rate of constitutive splicing is complicated by the process of alternative splicing which can generate multiple alternative transcripts per locus and is particularly active in humans. In order to estimate the error frequency of constitutive mRNA splicing and avoid bias by alternative splicing we have characterized the frequency of splice variants at three loci, HPRT, POLB, and TRPV1 in multiple tissues of six vertebrate species. Our analysis revealed that the frequency of splice variants varied widely among loci, tissues, and species. However, the lowest observed frequency is quite constant among loci and approximately 0.1% aberrant transcripts per intron. Arguably this reflects the "irreducible" error rate of splicing, which consists primarily of the combination of replication errors by RNA polymerase II in splice consensus sequences and spliceosome errors in correctly pairing exons.

  12. Regulation of corepressor alternative mRNA splicing by hormonal and metabolic signaling.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Chelsea A; Goodson, Michael L; Schroeder, Amy C; Privalsky, Martin L

    2015-09-15

    Alternative mRNA splicing diversifies the products encoded by the NCoR and SMRT corepressor loci. There is a programmed alteration in NCoR mRNA splicing during adipocyte differentiation from an NCoRω isoform, which contains three nuclear receptor interaction domains, to an NCoRδ isoform that contains two nuclear receptor interaction domains. This alternative mRNA splicing of NCoR has profound effects on adiposity and on diabetes in mouse models. We report here that dexamethasone, a powerful regulator of metabolism and of adipocyte differentiation, confers this change in NCoR mRNA splicing in cultured adipocytes. We also demonstrate that changes in dietary components can consistently, if moderately, modulate the total transcript levels and the mRNA splicing of NCoR and SMRT in both cultured cells and intact mice. This ability of alternative corepressor mRNA splicing to respond to nutritional changes confirms its importance in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism, and its promise as a therapeutic candidate for metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes.

  13. Regulation of corepressor alternative mRNA splicing by hormonal and metabolic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Chelsea A.; Goodson, Michael L.; Schroeder, Amy C.; Privalsky, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative mRNA splicing diversifies the products encoded by the NCoR and SMRT corepressor loci. There is a programmed alteration in NCoR mRNA splicing during adipocyte differentiation from an NCoRδ isoform, which contains three nuclear receptor interaction domains, to an NCoRδ isoform that contains two nuclear receptor interaction domains. This alternative mRNA splicing of NCoR has profound effects on adiposity and on diabetes in mouse models. We report here that dexamethasone, a powerful regulator of metabolism and of adipocyte differentiation, confers this change in NCoR mRNA splicing in cultured adipocytes. We also demonstrate that changes in dietary components can consistently, if moderately, modulate the total transcript levels and the mRNA splicing of NCoR and SMRT in both cultured cells and intact mice. This ability of alternative corepressor mRNA splicing to respond to nutritional changes confirms its importance in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism, and its promise as a therapeutic candidate for metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:26166430

  14. Reprogramming the Dynamin 2 mRNA by Spliceosome-mediated RNA Trans-splicing

    PubMed Central

    Trochet, Delphine; Prudhon, Bernard; Jollet, Arnaud; Lorain, Stéphanie; Bitoun, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Dynamin 2 (DNM2) is a large GTPase, ubiquitously expressed, involved in membrane trafficking and regulation of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. DNM2 mutations cause autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy which is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by skeletal muscle weakness and histopathological features including nuclear centralization in absence of regeneration. No curative treatment is currently available for the DNM2-related autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy. In order to develop therapeutic strategy, we evaluated here the potential of Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-splicing technology to reprogram the Dnm2-mRNA in vitro and in vivo in mice. We show that classical 3′-trans-splicing strategy cannot be considered as accurate therapeutic strategy regarding toxicity of the pre-trans-splicing molecules leading to low rate of trans-splicing in vivo. Thus, we tested alternative strategies devoted to prevent this toxicity and enhance frequency of trans-splicing events. We succeeded to overcome the toxicity through a 5′-trans-splicing strategy which also allows detection of trans-splicing events at mRNA and protein levels in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that the Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-splicing strategy may be used to reprogram mutated Dnm2-mRNA but highlight the potential toxicity linked to the molecular tools which have to be carefully investigated during preclinical development. PMID:27623444

  15. Interleukin 7 up-regulates CD95 protein on CD4+ T cells by affecting mRNA alternative splicing: priming for a synergistic effect on HIV-1 reservoir maintenance.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yue; Zhang, Shaoying; Luo, Haihua; Zhang, Xu; Geng, Guannan; Li, Jun; Guo, Xuemin; Cai, Weiping; Li, Linghua; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-02

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) has been used as an immunoregulatory and latency-reversing agent in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Although IL-7 can restore circulating CD4(+) T cell counts in HIV-1-infected patients, the anti-apoptotic and proliferative effects of IL-7 appear to benefit survival and expansion of HIV-1-latently infected memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes. IL-7 has been shown to elevate CD95 on CD4(+) T cells in HIV-1-infected individuals and prime CD4(+) T lymphocytes to CD95-mediated proliferative or apoptotic signals. Here we observed that through increasing microRNA-124, IL-7 down-regulates the splicing regulator polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), leading to inclusion of the transmembrane domain-encoding exon 6 of CD95 mRNA and, subsequently, elevation of CD95 on memory CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, IL-7 up-regulates cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) and stimulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, which switches CD95 signaling to survival mode in memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes. As a result, co-stimulation through IL-7/IL-7R and FasL/CD95 signal pathways augments IL-7-mediated survival and expansion of HIV-1-latently infected memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Collectively, we have demonstrated a novel mechanism for IL-7-mediated maintenance of HIV-1 reservoir.

  16. Physiological state co-regulates thousands of mammalian mRNA splicing events at tandem splice sites and alternative exons.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Karol; Fritsch, Claudia; Schumann, Frank; Siebel, Lisa; Sinha, Rileen; Hampe, Jochen; Hiller, Michael; Englert, Christoph; Huse, Klaus; Platzer, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Thousands of tandem alternative splice sites (TASS) give rise to mRNA insertion/deletion variants with small size differences. Recent work has concentrated on the question of biological relevance in general, and the physiological regulation of TASS in particular. We have quantitatively studied 11 representative TASS cases in comparison to one mutually exclusive exon case and two cassette exons (CEs) using a panel of human and mouse tissues, as well as cultured cell lines. Tissues show small but significant differences in TASS isoform ratios, with a variance 4- to 20-fold lower than seen for CEs. Remarkably, in cultured cells, all studied alternative splicing (AS) cases showed a cell-density-dependent shift of isoform ratios with similar time series profiles. A respective genome-wide co-regulation of TASS splicing was shown by next-generation mRNA sequencing data. Moreover, data from human and mouse organs indicate that this co-regulation of TASS occurs in vivo, with brain showing the strongest difference to other organs. Together, the results indicate a physiological AS regulation mechanism that functions almost independently from the splice site context and sequence.

  17. An alternatively spliced surfactant protein B mRNA in normal human lung: disease implication.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Z; Wang, G; Demello, D E; Floros, J

    1999-01-01

    We identified an alternatively-spliced surfactant protein B (SP-B) mRNA from normal human lung with a 12 nt deletion at the beginning of exon 8. This deletion causes a loss of four amino acids in the SP-B precursor protein. Sequence comparison of the 3' splice sites reveals only one difference in the frequency of U/C in the 11 predominantly-pyrimidine nucleotide tract, 73% for the normal and 45% for the alternatively-spliced SP-B mRNA (77-99% for the consensus sequence). Analysis of SP-B mRNA in lung indicates that the abundance of the alternatively-spliced form is very low and varies among individuals. Although the relative abundance of the deletion form of SP-B mRNA remains constant among normal lungs, it is found with relatively higher abundance in the lungs of some individuals with diseases such as congenital alveolar proteinosis, respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, alveolar capillary dysplasia and hypophosphatasia. This observation points to the possibility that the alternative splicing is a potential regulatory mechanism of SP-B and may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease under certain circumstances. PMID:10493923

  18. Quantitative imaging of single mRNA splice variants in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyuwan; Cui, Yi; Lee, Luke P.; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Alternative messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing is a fundamental process of gene regulation, and errors in RNA splicing are known to be associated with a variety of different diseases. However, there is currently a lack of quantitative technologies for monitoring mRNA splice variants in cells. Here, we show that a combination of plasmonic dimer probes and hyperspectral imaging can be used to detect and quantify mRNA splice variants in living cells. The probes are made from gold nanoparticles functionalized with oligonucleotides and can hybridize to specific mRNA sequences, forming nanoparticle dimers that exhibit distinct spectral shifts due to plasmonic coupling. With this approach, we show that the spatial and temporal distribution of three selected splice variants of the breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA1, can be monitored at single-copy resolution by measuring the hybridization dynamics of the nanoplasmonic dimers. Our study provides insights into RNA and its transport in living cells, which could improve our understanding of cellular protein complexes, pharmacogenomics, genetic diagnosis and gene therapies.

  19. Mammalian mRNA Splice-Isoform Selection Is Tightly Controlled

    PubMed Central

    Chisa, Jennifer L.; Burke, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Post-transcriptional RNA processing is an important regulatory control mechanism for determining the phenotype of eukaryotic cells. The processing of a transcribed RNA species into alternative splice isoforms yields products that can perform different functions. Each type of cell in a multi-cellular organism is presumed to actively control the relative quantities of alternative splice isoforms. In this study, the alternatively spliced isoforms of five mRNA transcription units were examined by quantitative reverse transcription–PCR amplification. We show that interindividual variation in splice-isoform selection is very highly constrained when measured in a large population of genetically diverse mice (i.e., full siblings; N = 150). Remarkably, splice-isoform ratios are among the most invariant phenotypes measured in this population and are confirmed in a second, genetically distinct population. In addition, the patterns of splice-isoform selection show tissue-specific and age-related changes. We propose that splice-isoform selection is exceptionally robust to genetic and environmental variability and may provide a control point for cellular homeostasis. As a consequence, splice-isoform ratios may be useful as a practical quantitative measure of the physiological status of cells and tissues. PMID:17179090

  20. Recruitment of RED-SMU1 complex by Influenza A Virus RNA polymerase to control Viral mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Guillaume; Chiang, Chiayn; Munier, Sandie; Tomoiu, Andru; Demeret, Caroline; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Jacob, Yves; Naffakh, Nadia

    2014-06-01

    Influenza A viruses are major pathogens in humans and in animals, whose genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA segments of negative polarity. Viral mRNAs are synthesized by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the nucleus of infected cells, in close association with the cellular transcriptional machinery. Two proteins essential for viral multiplication, the exportin NS2/NEP and the ion channel protein M2, are produced by splicing of the NS1 and M1 mRNAs, respectively. Here we identify two human spliceosomal factors, RED and SMU1, that control the expression of NS2/NEP and are required for efficient viral multiplication. We provide several lines of evidence that in infected cells, the hetero-trimeric viral polymerase recruits a complex formed by RED and SMU1 through interaction with its PB2 and PB1 subunits. We demonstrate that the splicing of the NS1 viral mRNA is specifically affected in cells depleted of RED or SMU1, leading to a decreased production of the spliced mRNA species NS2, and to a reduced NS2/NS1 protein ratio. In agreement with the exportin function of NS2, these defects impair the transport of newly synthesized viral ribonucleoproteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and strongly reduce the production of infectious influenza virions. Overall, our results unravel a new mechanism of viral subversion of the cellular splicing machinery, by establishing that the human splicing factors RED and SMU1 act jointly as key regulators of influenza virus gene expression. In addition, our data point to a central role of the viral RNA polymerase in coupling transcription and alternative splicing of the viral mRNAs.

  1. Altered mRNA Splicing in SMN-Depleted Motor Neuron-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Todd, A. Gary; Astroski, Jacob W.; Lin, Hai; Liu, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an intractable neurodegenerative disease afflicting 1 in 6–10,000 live births. One of the key functions of the SMN protein is regulation of spliceosome assembly. Reduced levels of the SMN protein that are observed in SMA have been shown to result in aberrant mRNA splicing. SMN-dependent mis-spliced transcripts in motor neurons may cause stresses that are particularly harmful and may serve as potential targets for the treatment of motor neuron disease or as biomarkers in the SMA patient population. We performed deep RNA sequencing using motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells to screen for SMN-dependent mRNA processing changes that occur following acute depletion of SMN. We identified SMN-dependent splicing changes, including an intron retention event that results in the production of a truncated Rit1 transcript. This intron-retained transcript is stable and is mis-spliced in spinal cord from symptomatic SMA mice. Constitutively active Rit1 ameliorated the neurite outgrowth defect in SMN depleted NSC-34 cells, while expression of the truncated protein product of the mis-spliced Rit1 transcript inhibited neurite extension. These results reveal new insights into the biological consequence of SMN-dependent splicing in motor neuron-like cells. PMID:27736905

  2. Impact of Alternative Initiation, Splicing, and Termination on the Diversity of the mRNA Transcripts Encoded by the Mouse Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Zavolan, Mihaela; Kondo, Shinji; Schönbach, Christian; Adachi, Jun; Hume, David A.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Gaasterland, Terry

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the FANTOM2 clone set of 60,770 RIKEN full-length mouse cDNA sequences and 44,122 public mRNA sequences. We developed a new computational procedure to identify and classify the forms of splice variation evident in this data set and organized the results into a publicly accessible database that can be used for future expression array construction, structural genomics, and analyses of the mechanism and regulation of alternative splicing. Statistical analysis shows that at least 41% and possibly as much as 60% of multiexon genes in mouse have multiple splice forms. Of the transcription units with multiple splice forms, 49% contain transcripts in which the apparent use of an alternative transcription start (stop) is accompanied by alternative splicing of the initial (terminal) exon. This implies that alternative transcription may frequently induce alternative splicing. The fact that 73% of all exons with splice variation fall within the annotated coding region indicates that most splice variation is likely to affect the protein form. Finally, we compared the set of constitutive (present in all transcripts) exons with the set of cryptic (present only in some transcripts) exons and found statistically significant differences in their length distributions, the nucleotide distributions around their splice junctions, and the frequencies of occurrence of several short sequence motifs. PMID:12819126

  3. Alternative Splicing of STAT3 Is Affected by RNA Editing.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lior; Abutbul-Amitai, Mor; Paret, Gideon; Nevo-Caspi, Yael

    2017-03-09

    A-to-I RNA editing, carried out by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, is an epigenetic phenomenon of posttranscriptional modifications on pre-mRNA. RNA editing in intronic sequences may influence alternative splicing of flanking exons. We have previously shown that conditions that induce editing result in elevated expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), preferentially the alternatively-spliced STAT3β isoform. Mechanisms regulating alternative splicing of STAT3 have not been elucidated. STAT3 undergoes A-to-I RNA editing in an intron residing in proximity to the alternatively spliced exon. We hypothesized that RNA editing plays a role in regulating alternative splicing toward STAT3β. In this study we extend our observation connecting RNA editing to the preferential induction of STAT3β expression. We study the involvement of ADAR1 in STAT3 editing and reveal the connection between editing and alternative splicing of STAT3. Deferoaxamine treatment caused the induction in STAT3 RNA editing and STAT3β expression. Silencing ADAR1 caused a decrease in STAT3 editing and expression with a preferential decrease in STAT3β. Cells transfected with a mutated minigene showed preferential splicing toward the STAT3β transcript. Editing in the STAT3 intron is performed by ADAR1 and affects STAT3 alternative splicing. These results suggest that RNA editing is one of the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of STAT3β.

  4. HLA-A*68020103 shows an eight nucleotides deletion within intron 2 but has normal mRNA splicing and serological recognition.

    PubMed

    Balas, A; Sánchez-García, F; Bustamante, L; García-Sánchez, F; Vicario, J L

    2007-09-01

    A novel A*68020103 allele was completely characterized by sequencing in a Spanish bone marrow donor. A*68020103 has an eight nucleotides deletion at the 5'-end of intron 2, when compared with other A*6802 alleles. This alteration does not affect either its mRNA splicing process or serological detection.

  5. In silico prediction of splice-affecting nucleotide variants.

    PubMed

    Houdayer, Claude

    2011-01-01

    It appears that all types of genomic nucleotide variations can be deleterious by affecting normal pre-mRNA splicing via disruption/creation of splice site consensus sequences. As it is neither pertinent nor realistic to perform functional testing for all of these variants, it is important to identify those that could lead to a splice defect in order to restrict experimental transcript analyses to the most appropriate cases. In silico tools designed to provide this type of prediction are available. In this chapter, we present in silico splice tools integrated in the Alamut (Interactive Biosoftware) application and detail their use in routine diagnostic applications. At this time, in silico predictions are useful for variants that decrease the strength of wild-type splice sites or create a cryptic splice site. Importantly, in silico predictions are not sufficient to classify variants as neutral or deleterious: they should be used as part of the decision-making process to detect potential candidates for splicing anomalies, prompting molecular geneticists to carry out transcript analyses in a limited and pertinent number of cases which could be managed in routine settings.

  6. HIV-1 Vpr N-terminal tagging affects alternative splicing of the viral genome

    PubMed Central

    Baeyens, Ann; Naessens, Evelien; Van Nuffel, Anouk; Weening, Karin E.; Reilly, Anne-Marie; Claeys, Eva; Trypsteen, Wim; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Eyckerman, Sven; Gevaert, Kris; Verhasselt, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate studies on Vpr function in replicating HIV-1, we aimed to tag the protein in an infectious virus. First we showed that N-, but not C-terminal HA/FLAG tagging of Vpr protein preserves Vpr cytopathicity. Cloning the tags into proviral DNA however ablated viral production and replication. By construction of additional viral variants we could show this defect was not protein- but RNA-dependent and sequence specific, and characterized by oversplicing of the genomic RNA. Simulation of genomic RNA folding suggested that introduction of the tag sequence induced an alternative folding structure in a region enriched in splice sites and splicing regulatory sequences. In silico predictions identified the HA/His6-Vpr tagging in HIV-1 to affect mRNA folding less than HA/FLAG-Vpr tagging. In vitro infectivity and mRNA splice pattern improved but did not reach wild-type values. Thus, sequence-specific insertions may interfere with mRNA splicing, possibly due to altered RNA folding. Our results point to the complexity of viral RNA genome sequence interactions. This should be taken into consideration when designing viral manipulation strategies, for both research as for biological interventions. PMID:27721439

  7. BRR2a Affects Flowering Time via FLC Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Mahrez, Walid; Shin, Juhyun; Exner, Vivien; Siretskiy, Alexey; Köhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Several pathways control time to flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana through transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation. In recent years, mRNA processing has gained interest as a critical regulator of flowering time control in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms linking RNA splicing to flowering time are not well understood. In a screen for Arabidopsis early flowering mutants we identified an allele of BRR2a. BRR2 proteins are components of the spliceosome and highly conserved in eukaryotes. Arabidopsis BRR2a is ubiquitously expressed in all analyzed tissues and involved in the processing of flowering time gene transcripts, most notably FLC. A missense mutation of threonine 895 in BRR2a caused defects in FLC splicing and greatly reduced FLC transcript levels. Reduced FLC expression increased transcription of FT and SOC1 leading to early flowering in both short and long days. Genome-wide experiments established that only a small set of introns was not correctly spliced in the brr2a mutant. Compared to control introns, retained introns were often shorter and GC-poor, had low H3K4me1 and CG methylation levels, and were often derived from genes with a high-H3K27me3-low-H3K36me3 signature. We propose that BRR2a is specifically needed for efficient splicing of a subset of introns characterized by a combination of factors including intron size, sequence and chromatin, and that FLC is most sensitive to splicing defects. PMID:27100965

  8. Molecular structure of the human argininosuccinate synthetase gene: Occurrence of alternative mRNA splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, S.O.; Beaudet, A.L.; Bock, H.G.O.; O'Brien, W.E.

    1984-10-01

    The human genome contains one expressed argininosuccinate synthetase gene and ca. 14 pseudogenes that are dispersed to at least 11 human chromosomes. Eleven clones isolated from a human genomic DNA library were characterized extensively by restriction mapping, Southern blotting, and nucleotide sequencing. These 11 clones represent the entire expressed argininosuccinate synthetase gene that spans 63 kilobases and contains at least 13 exons. The expressed gene codes for two mRNAs that differ in their 5' untranslated sequences and arise by alternative splicing involving the inclusion or deletion of an entire exon. In normal human liver and cultured fibroblasts, the predominant mature argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA lacks sequences encoded by exon 2 in the expressed gene. In contrast, the predominant argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA in baboon liver contains exon 2 sequences. A transformed canavanine-resistant human cell line in which argininosuccinate synthetase activity is 180-fold higher than that in wild-type cells contains abundant amounts of both forms of the argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA. The mRNA lacking exon 2 sequences is the more abundant mRNA species in the canavanine-resistant cells. These observations show that splicing of the argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA is species specific in primates and varies among different human cell types.

  9. Regulation of transcription of the RNA splicing factor hSlu7 by Elk-1 and Sp1 affects alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Alberstein, Moti; Amit, Maayan; Vaknin, Keren; O'Donnell, Amanda; Farhy, Chen; Lerenthal, Yaniv; Shomron, Noam; Shaham, Ohad; Sharrocks, Andrew D; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Ast, Gil

    2007-11-01

    Alternative splicing plays a major role in transcriptome diversity and plasticity, but it is largely unknown how tissue-specific and embryogenesis-specific alternative splicing is regulated. The highly conserved splicing factor Slu7 is involved in 3' splice site selection and also regulates alternative splicing. We show that Slu7 has a unique spatial pattern of expression among human and mouse embryonic and adult tissues. We identified several functional Ets binding sites and GC-boxes in the human Slu7 (hSlu7) promoter region. The Ets and GC-box binding transcription factors, Elk-1 and Sp1, respectively, exerted opposite effects on hSlu7 transcription: Sp1 protein enhances and Elk-1 protein represses transcription in a dose-dependent manner. Sp1 protein bound to the hSlu7 promoter in vivo, and depletion of Sp1 by RNA interference (RNAi) repressed hSlu7 expression. Elk-1 protein bound to the hSlu7 promoter in vivo, and depletion of Elk-1 by RNAi caused an increase in the endogenous level of hSlu7 mRNA. Further, depletion of either Sp1 or Elk-1 affected alternative splicing. Our results provide indications of a complex transcription regulation mechanism that controls the spatial and temporal expression of Slu7, presumably allowing regulation of tissue-specific alternative splicing events.

  10. Systematic analyses of rpm-1 suppressors reveal roles for ESS-2 in mRNA splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Noma, Kentaro; Goncharov, Alexandr; Jin, Yishi

    2014-11-01

    The PHR (Pam/Highwire/RPM-1) family of ubiquitin E3 ligases plays conserved roles in axon patterning and synaptic development. Genetic modifier analysis has greatly aided the discovery of the signal transduction cascades regulated by these proteins. In Caenorhabditis elegans, loss of function in rpm-1 causes axon overgrowth and aberrant presynaptic morphology, yet the mutant animals exhibit little behavioral deficits. Strikingly, rpm-1 mutations strongly synergize with loss of function in the presynaptic active zone assembly factors, syd-1 and syd-2, resulting in severe locomotor deficits. Here, we provide ultrastructural evidence that double mutants, between rpm-1 and syd-1 or syd-2, dramatically impair synapse formation. Taking advantage of the synthetic locomotor defects to select for genetic suppressors, previous studies have identified the DLK-1 MAP kinase cascade negatively regulated by RPM-1. We now report a comprehensive analysis of a large number of suppressor mutations of this screen. Our results highlight the functional specificity of the DLK-1 cascade in synaptogenesis. We also identified two previously uncharacterized genes. One encodes a novel protein, SUPR-1, that acts cell autonomously to antagonize RPM-1. The other affects a conserved protein ESS-2, the homolog of human ES2 or DGCR14. Loss of function in ess-2 suppresses rpm-1 only in the presence of a dlk-1 splice acceptor mutation. We show that ESS-2 acts to promote accurate mRNA splicing when the splice site is compromised. The human DGCR14/ES2 resides in a deleted chromosomal region implicated in DiGeorge syndrome, and its mutation has shown high probability as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Our findings provide the first functional evidence that this family of proteins regulate mRNA splicing in a context-specific manner.

  11. Quantitation of normal CFTR mRNA in CF patients with splice-site mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z.; Olsen, J.C.; Silverman, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    Previously we identified two mutations in introns of the CFTR gene associated with partially active splice sites and unusual clinical phenotypes. One mutation in intron 19 (3849+10 kb C to T) is common in CF patients with normal sweat chloride values; an 84 bp sequence from intron 19, which contains a stop codon, is inserted between exon 19 and exon 20 in most nasal CFTR transcripts. The other mutation in intron 14B (2789+5 G to A) is associated with elevated sweat chloride levels, but mild pulmonary disease; exon 14B (38 bp) is spliced out of most nasal CFTR transcipts. The remaining CFTR cDNA sequences, other than the 84 bp insertion of exon 14B deletion, are identical to the published sequence. To correlate genotype and phenotype, we used quantitative RT-PCR to determine the levels of normally-spliced CFTR mRNA in nasal epithelia from these patients. CFTR cDNA was amplified (25 cycles) by using primers specific for normally-spliced species, {gamma}-actin cDNA was amplified as a standard.

  12. Alternative splicing of the mRNA encoding the human cholesteryl ester transfer protein

    SciTech Connect

    Inazu, Akihiro; Quinet, E.M.; Suke Wang; Brown, M.L.; Stevenson, S.; Barr, M.L.; Moulin, P.; Tall, A.R. )

    1992-03-03

    The plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is known to facilitate the transfer of lipids between plasma lipoproteins. The human CETP gene is a complex locus encompassing 16 exons. The CETP mRNA is found in liver and small intestine as well as in a variety of peripheral tissues. While the CETP cDNA from human adipose tissue was being cloned, a variant CETP cDNA was discovered which excluded the complete sequence encoded by exon 9, but which was otherwise identical to the full-length CETP cDNA, suggesting modification of the CETP gene transcript by an alternative RNA splicing mechanism. RNase protection analysis of tissue RNA confirmed the presence of exon 9 deleted transcripts and showed that they represented a variable proportion of the total CETP mRNA in various human tissues including adipose tissue (25%), liver (33%), and spleen (46%). Transient expression of the exon 9 deleted cDNA in COS cells or stable expression in CHO cells showed that the protein encoded by the alternatively spliced transcript was inactive in neutral lipid transfer, smaller, and poorly secreted compared to the protein derived from the full-length cDNA. Endo H digestion suggested that the inactive, cell-associated protein was present within the endoplasmic reticulum. The experiments show that the expression of the human CETP gene is modified by alternative splicing of the ninth exon, in a tissue-specific fashion. The function of alternative splicing is unknown but could serve to produce a protein with a function other than plasma neutral lipid transfer, or as an on-off switch to regulate the local concentration of biologically active protein.

  13. Alternative splicing in single cells dissected from complex tissues: separate expression of prepro-tachykinin A mRNA splice variants in sensory neurones.

    PubMed

    Springer, Jochen; McGregor, Gerard P; Fink, Ludger; Fischer, Axel

    2003-05-01

    Tachykinins play an important role in peripheral inflammatory diseases and disorders of the CNS. Most members of the tachykinin family are generated by alternative post-transcriptional splicing of the prepro-tachykinin (PPT) A gene. Here, we examined the simultaneous expression of PPT-A splice variants in individual neurones of the nodose ganglion. In extracts of ganglia, the expression of the four PPT-A mRNA splice variants and their four encoded peptides was shown by RT-PCR and combined HPLC and radioimmunoassay respectively. In order to examine prepro-tachykinin A expression in individual cells, single neurones were isolated from the ganglia using laser-assisted microdissection and processed for RT-PCR. Some 31.9% of the neurones investigated expressed a specific PPT-A transcript. Each individual neurone was found to express only a single splice variant. This is the first study to analyse the differential expression of PPT-A splice variants at the single-cell level. In view of the large number of alternatively spliced genes in the human genome and the resulting profound physiological effects, including several diseases, the technique described here is useful for isolating cells without possible confounding effects of dissociated neuronal cultures. For PPT-A, the results indicate that alternative post-transcriptional splicing determines the tachykinergic phenotype and may therefore have important functional implications.

  14. Induction of vacuolar invertase inhibitor mRNA in potato tubers contributes to cold-induced sweetening resistance and includes spliced hybrid mRNA variants.

    PubMed

    Brummell, David A; Chen, Ronan K Y; Harris, John C; Zhang, Huaibi; Hamiaux, Cyril; Kralicek, Andrew V; McKenzie, Marian J

    2011-06-01

    Cold storage of tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) compromises tuber quality in many cultivars by the accumulation of hexose sugars in a process called cold-induced sweetening. This is caused by the breakdown of starch to sucrose, which is cleaved to glucose and fructose by vacuolar acid invertase. During processing of affected tubers, the high temperatures involved in baking and frying cause the Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and free amino acids, resulting in the accumulation of acrylamide. cDNA clones with deduced proteins homologous to known invertase inhibitors were isolated and the two most abundant forms, termed INH1 and INH2, were shown to possess apoplastic and vacuolar localization, respectively. The INH2 gene showed developmentally regulated alternative splicing, so, in addition to the INH2α transcript encoding the full-length protein, two hybrid mRNAs (INH2β*A and INH2β*B) that encoded deduced vacuolar invertase inhibitors with divergent C-termini were detected, the result of mRNA splicing of an upstream region of INH2 to a downstream region of INH1. Hybrid RNAs are common in animals, where they may add to the diversity of the proteome, but are rarely described in plants. During cold storage, INH2α and the hybrid INH2β mRNAs accumulated to higher abundance in cultivars resistant to cold-induced sweetening than in susceptible cultivars. Increased amounts of invertase inhibitor may contribute to the suppression of acid invertase activity and prevent cleavage of sucrose. Evidence for increased RNA splicing activity was detected in several resistant lines, a mechanism that in some circumstances may generate a range of proteins with additional functional capacity to aid adaptability.

  15. Induction of vacuolar invertase inhibitor mRNA in potato tubers contributes to cold-induced sweetening resistance and includes spliced hybrid mRNA variants

    PubMed Central

    Brummell, David A.; Chen, Ronan K. Y.; Harris, John C.; Zhang, Huaibi; Hamiaux, Cyril; Kralicek, Andrew V.; McKenzie, Marian J.

    2011-01-01

    Cold storage of tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) compromises tuber quality in many cultivars by the accumulation of hexose sugars in a process called cold-induced sweetening. This is caused by the breakdown of starch to sucrose, which is cleaved to glucose and fructose by vacuolar acid invertase. During processing of affected tubers, the high temperatures involved in baking and frying cause the Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and free amino acids, resulting in the accumulation of acrylamide. cDNA clones with deduced proteins homologous to known invertase inhibitors were isolated and the two most abundant forms, termed INH1 and INH2, were shown to possess apoplastic and vacuolar localization, respectively. The INH2 gene showed developmentally regulated alternative splicing, so, in addition to the INH2α transcript encoding the full-length protein, two hybrid mRNAs (INH2β*A and INH2β*B) that encoded deduced vacuolar invertase inhibitors with divergent C-termini were detected, the result of mRNA splicing of an upstream region of INH2 to a downstream region of INH1. Hybrid RNAs are common in animals, where they may add to the diversity of the proteome, but are rarely described in plants. During cold storage, INH2α and the hybrid INH2β mRNAs accumulated to higher abundance in cultivars resistant to cold-induced sweetening than in susceptible cultivars. Increased amounts of invertase inhibitor may contribute to the suppression of acid invertase activity and prevent cleavage of sucrose. Evidence for increased RNA splicing activity was detected in several resistant lines, a mechanism that in some circumstances may generate a range of proteins with additional functional capacity to aid adaptability. PMID:21393382

  16. Exclusion of exon 2 is a common mRNA splice variant of primate telomerase reverse transcriptases.

    PubMed

    Withers, Johanna B; Ashvetiya, Tamara; Beemon, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Telomeric sequences are added by an enzyme called telomerase that is made of two components: a catalytic protein called telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and an integral RNA template (TR). Telomerase expression is tightly regulated at each step of gene expression, including alternative splicing of TERT mRNA. While over a dozen different alternative splicing events have been reported for human TERT mRNA, these were all in the 3' half of the coding region. We were interested in examining splicing of the 5' half of hTERT mRNA, especially since exon 2 is unusually large (1.3 kb). Internal mammalian exons are usually short, typically only 50 to 300 nucleotides, and most long internal exons are alternatively processed. We used quantitative RT-PCR and high-throughput sequencing data to examine the variety and quantity of mRNA species generated from the hTERT locus. We determined that there are approximately 20-40 molecules of hTERT mRNA per cell in the A431 human cell line. In addition, we describe an abundant, alternatively-spliced mRNA variant that excludes TERT exon 2 and was seen in other primates. This variant causes a frameshift and results in translation termination in exon 3, generating a 12 kDa polypeptide.

  17. Alternative splicing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mRNA modulates viral protein expression, replication, and infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, D F; Martin, M A

    1993-01-01

    Multiple RNA splicing sites exist within human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomic RNA, and these sites enable the synthesis of many mRNAs for each of several viral proteins. We evaluated the biological significance of the alternatively spliced mRNA species during productive HIV-1 infections of peripheral blood lymphocytes and human T-cell lines to determine the potential role of alternative RNA splicing in the regulation of HIV-1 replication and infection. First, we used a semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction of cDNAs that were radiolabeled for gel analysis to determine the relative abundance of the diverse array of alternatively spliced HIV-1 mRNAs. The predominant rev, tat, vpr, and env RNAs contained a minimum of noncoding sequence, but the predominant nef mRNAs were incompletely spliced and invariably included noncoding exons. Second, the effect of altered RNA processing was measured following mutagenesis of the major 5' splice donor and several cryptic, constitutive, and competing 3' splice acceptor motifs of HIV-1NL4-3. Mutations that ablated constitutive splice sites led to the activation of new cryptic sites; some of these preserved biological function. Mutations that ablated competing splice acceptor sites caused marked alterations in the pool of virus-derived mRNAs and, in some instances, in virus infectivity and/or the profile of virus proteins. The redundant RNA splicing signals in the HIV-1 genome and alternatively spliced mRNAs provides a mechanism for regulating the relative proportions of HIV-1 proteins and, in some cases, viral infectivity. Images PMID:8411338

  18. Characterization of a disease-associated mutation affecting a putative splicing regulatory element in intron 6b of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene.

    PubMed

    Faà, Valeria; Incani, Federica; Meloni, Alessandra; Corda, Denise; Masala, Maddalena; Baffico, A Maria; Seia, Manuela; Cao, Antonio; Rosatelli, M Cristina

    2009-10-30

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common recessive disorder caused by >1600 mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. About 13% of CFTR mutations are classified as "splicing mutations," but for almost 40% of these, their role in affecting the pre-mRNA splicing of the gene is not yet defined. In this work, we describe a new splicing mutation detected in three unrelated Italian CF patients. By DNA analyses and mRNA studies, we identified the c.1002-1110_1113delTAAG mutation localized in intron 6b of the CFTR gene. At the mRNA level, this mutation creates an aberrant inclusion of a sequence of 101 nucleotides between exons 6b and 7. This sequence corresponds to a portion of intron 6b and resembles a cryptic exon because it is characterized by an upstream ag and a downstream gt sequence, which are most probably recognized as 5'- and 3'-splice sites by the spliceosome. Through functional analysis of this splicing defect, we show that this mutation abolishes the interaction of the splicing regulatory protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 with an intronic splicing regulatory element and creates a new recognition motif for the SRp75 splicing factor, causing activation of the cryptic exon. Our results show that the c.1002-1110_1113delTAAG mutation creates a new intronic splicing regulatory element in intron 6b of the CFTR gene exclusively recognized by SRp75.

  19. Neuronal cell depolarization induces intragenic chromatin modifications affecting NCAM alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Schor, Ignacio E.; Rascovan, Nicolás; Pelisch, Federico; Alló, Mariano; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.

    2009-01-01

    In search for physiological pathways affecting alternative splicing through its kinetic coupling with transcription, we found that membrane depolarization of neuronal cells triggers the skipping of exon 18 from the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) mRNA, independently of the calcium/calmodulin protein kinase IV pathway. We show that this exon responds to RNA polymerase II elongation, because its inclusion is increased by a slow polymerase II mutant. Depolarization affects the chromatin template in a specific way, by causing H3K9 hyper-acetylation restricted to an internal region of the NCAM gene surrounding the alternative exon. This intragenic histone hyper-acetylation is not paralleled by acetylation at the promoter, is associated with chromatin relaxation, and is linked to H3K36 tri-methylation. The effects on acetylation and splicing fully revert when the depolarizing conditions are withdrawn and can be both duplicated and potentiated by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Our results are consistent with a mechanism involving the kinetic coupling of splicing and transcription in response to depolarization through intragenic epigenetic changes on a gene that is relevant for the differentiation and function of neuronal cells. PMID:19251664

  20. ASF/SF2-like maize pre-mRNA splicing factors affect splice site utilization and their transcripts are alternatively spliced.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huirong; Gordon-Kamm, William J; Lyznik, L Alexander

    2004-09-15

    Three ASF/SF2-like alternative splicing genes from maize were identified, cloned, and analyzed. Each of these genes (zmSRp30, zmSRp31, and zmSRp32) contains two RNA binding domains, a signature sequence SWQDLKD, and a characteristic serine/ariginine-rich domain. There is a strong structural similarity to the human ASF/SF2 splicing factor and to the Arabidopsis atSRp34/p30 proteins. Similar to ASF/SF2-like genes in other organisms, the maize pre-mRNA messages are alternatively spliced. They are differentially expressed in maize tissues with relatively uniform levels of zmSRp30 and zmSRp31 messages being observed throughout the plant, while zmSRp32 messages preferentially accumulated in the meristematic regions. Overexpression of zmSRp32 in maize cells leads to the enhanced selection of weak 5' intron splice sites during the processing of pre-mRNA molecules. Overexpression of the zmSRp31 or zmSRp32 gene affects regulation of wheat dwarf virus rep gene pre-mRNA splicing, presumably by interacting with the weak 5' splice site, CCGU. Our results suggest that the described genes are functional homologues of the human ASF/SF2 alternative splicing factor and they indicate a diversity of the ASF/SF2-like alternative splicing factors in monocot plant cells.

  1. Evidence that the matrix protein of influenza C virus is coded for by a spliced mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, M; Krystal, M; Palese, P

    1988-01-01

    In contrast to influenza A and B viruses, which encode their matrix (M) proteins via an unspliced mRNA, the influenza C virus M protein appears to be coded for by a spliced mRNA from RNA segment 6. Although an open reading frame in RNA segment 6 of influenza C/JJ/50 virus could potentially code for a protein of 374 amino acids, a splicing event results in an mRNA coding for a 242-amino-acid M protein. The message for this protein represents the major M gene-specific mRNA species in C virus-infected cells. Despite the difference in coding strategies, there are sequence homologies among the M proteins of influenza A, B, and C viruses which confirm the evolutionary relationship of the three influenza virus types. Images PMID:3404579

  2. Ire1 Mediated mRNA Splicing in a C-Terminus Deletion Mutant of Drosophila Xbp1

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Dina S.; Gaspar, Catarina J.; Domingos, Pedro M.

    2014-01-01

    The Unfolded Protein Response is a homeostatic mechanism that permits eukaryotic cells to cope with Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress caused by excessive accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. The more conserved branch of the UPR relies on an ER transmembrane enzyme, Ire1, which, upon ER stress, promotes the unconventional splicing of a small intron from the mRNA encoding the transcription factor Xbp1. In mammals, two specific regions (the hydrophobic region 2 - HR2 - and the C-terminal translational pausing site) present in the Xbp1unspliced protein mediate the recruitment of the Xbp1 mRNA-ribosome-nascent chain complex to the ER membrane, so that Xbp1 mRNA can be spliced by Ire1. Here, we generated a Drosophila Xbp1 deletion mutant (Excision101) lacking both HR2 and C-terminal region, but not the Ire1 splicing site. We show that Ire1-dependent splicing of Xbp1 mRNA is reduced, but not abolished in Excision101. Our results suggest the existence of additional mechanisms for ER membrane targeting of Xbp1 mRNA that are independent of the C-terminal domain of Drosophila Xbp1unspliced. PMID:25136861

  3. LEDGF/p75 interacts with mRNA splicing factors and targets HIV-1 integration to highly spliced genes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parmit Kumar; Plumb, Matthew R; Ferris, Andrea L; Iben, James R; Wu, Xiaolin; Fadel, Hind J; Luke, Brian T; Esnault, Caroline; Poeschla, Eric M; Hughes, Stephen H; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Levin, Henry L

    2015-11-01

    The host chromatin-binding factor LEDGF/p75 interacts with HIV-1 integrase and directs integration to active transcription units. To understand how LEDGF/p75 recognizes transcription units, we sequenced 1 million HIV-1 integration sites isolated from cultured HEK293T cells. Analysis of integration sites showed that cancer genes were preferentially targeted, raising concerns about using lentivirus vectors for gene therapy. Additional analysis led to the discovery that introns and alternative splicing contributed significantly to integration site selection. These correlations were independent of transcription levels, size of transcription units, and length of the introns. Multivariate analysis with five parameters previously found to predict integration sites showed that intron density is the strongest predictor of integration density in transcription units. Analysis of previously published HIV-1 integration site data showed that integration density in transcription units in mouse embryonic fibroblasts also correlated strongly with intron number, and this correlation was absent in cells lacking LEDGF. Affinity purification showed that LEDGF/p75 is associated with a number of splicing factors, and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of HEK293T cells lacking LEDGF/p75 or the LEDGF/p75 integrase-binding domain (IBD) showed that LEDGF/p75 contributes to splicing patterns in half of the transcription units that have alternative isoforms. Thus, LEDGF/p75 interacts with splicing factors, contributes to exon choice, and directs HIV-1 integration to transcription units that are highly spliced.

  4. Mutations in the human adenosine deaminase gene that affect protein structure and RNA splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Akeson, A.L.; Wiginton, D.A.; States, C.J.; Perme, C.M.; Dusing, M.R.; Hutton, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    Adenosine deaminase deficiency is one cause of the genetic disease severe combined immunodeficiency. To identify mutations responsible for ADA deficiency, the authors synthesized cDNAs to ADA mRNAs from two cell lines, GM2756 and GM2825A, derived from ADA-deficient immunodeficient patients. Sequence analysis of GM2756 cDNA clones revealed a different point mutation in each allele that causes amino acid changes of alanine to valine and arginine to histidine. One allele of GM2825A also has a point mutation that causes an alanine to valine substitution. The other allele of GM2825A was found to produce an mRNA in which exon 4 had been spliced out but had no other detrimental mutations. S1 nuclease mapping of GM2825A mRNA showed equal abundance of the full-length ADA mRNA and the ADA mRNA that was missing exon 4. Several of the ADA cDNA clones extended 5' of the major initiation start site, indicating multiple start sites for ADA transcription. The point mutations in GM2756 and GM2825A and the absence of exon 4 in GM2825A appear to be directly responsible for the ADA deficiency. Comparison of a number of normal and mutant ADA cDNA sequences showed a number of changes in the third base of codons. These change do not affect the amino acid sequence. Analyses of ADA cDNAs from different cell lines detected aberrant RNA species that either included intron 7 or excluded exon 7. Their presence is a result of aberrant splicing of pre-mRNAs and is not related to mutations that cause ADA deficiency.

  5. Identification of a Functionally Distinct Truncated BDNF mRNA Splice Variant and Protein in Trachemys scripta elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ambigapathy, Ganesh; Zheng, Zhaoqing; Li, Wei; Keifer, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a diverse functional role and complex pattern of gene expression. Alternative splicing of mRNA transcripts leads to further diversity of mRNAs and protein isoforms. Here, we describe the regulation of BDNF mRNA transcripts in an in vitro model of eyeblink classical conditioning and a unique transcript that forms a functionally distinct truncated BDNF protein isoform. Nine different mRNA transcripts from the BDNF gene of the pond turtle Trachemys scripta elegans (tBDNF) are selectively regulated during classical conditioning: exon I mRNA transcripts show no change, exon II transcripts are downregulated, while exon III transcripts are upregulated. One unique transcript that codes from exon II, tBDNF2a, contains a 40 base pair deletion in the protein coding exon that generates a truncated tBDNF protein. The truncated transcript and protein are expressed in the naïve untrained state and are fully repressed during conditioning when full-length mature tBDNF is expressed, thereby having an alternate pattern of expression in conditioning. Truncated BDNF is not restricted to turtles as a truncated mRNA splice variant has been described for the human BDNF gene. Further studies are required to determine the ubiquity of truncated BDNF alternative splice variants across species and the mechanisms of regulation and function of this newly recognized BDNF protein. PMID:23825634

  6. A Novel Role for Protein Kinase Kin2 in Regulating HAC1 mRNA Translocation, Splicing, and Translation

    PubMed Central

    Anshu, Ashish; Mannan, M. Amin-ul; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Chakrabarti, Saikat

    2014-01-01

    A signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR) resolves the protein-folding defects in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from yeasts to humans. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the UPR activation involves (i) aggregation of the ER-resident kinase/RNase Ire1 to form an Ire1 focus, (ii) targeting HAC1 pre-mRNA toward the Ire1 focus that cleaves out an inhibitory intron from the mRNA, and (iii) translation of Hac1 protein from the spliced mRNA. Targeting HAC1 mRNA to the Ire1 focus requires a cis-acting bipartite element (3′BE) located at the 3′ untranslated leader. Here, we report that the 3′BE plays an additional role in promoting translation from the spliced mRNA. We also report that a high dose of either of two paralogue kinases, Kin1 and Kin2, overcomes the defective UPR caused by a mutation in the 3′BE. These results define a novel role for Kin kinases in the UPR beyond their role in cell polarity and exocytosis. Consistently, targeting, splicing, and translation of HAC1 mRNA are substantially reduced in the kin1Δ kin2Δ strain. Furthermore, we show that Kin2 kinase domain itself is sufficient to activate the UPR, suggesting that Kin2 initiates a signaling cascade to ensure an optimum UPR. PMID:25348718

  7. Functional and splicing defect analysis of 23 ACVRL1 mutations in a cohort of patients affected by Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Alaa el Din, Ferdos; Patri, Sylvie; Thoreau, Vincent; Rodriguez-Ballesteros, Montserrat; Hamade, Eva; Bailly, Sabine; Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Abou Merhi, Raghida; Kitzis, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia syndrome (HHT) or Rendu-Osler-Weber (ROW) syndrome is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder. Two most common forms of HHT, HHT1 and HHT2, have been linked to mutations in the endoglin (ENG) and activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1or ALK1) genes respectively. This work was designed to examine the pathogenicity of 23 nucleotide variations in ACVRL1 gene detected in more than 400 patients. Among them, 14 missense mutations and one intronic variant were novels, and 8 missense mutations were previously identified with questionable implication in HHT2. The functionality of missense mutations was analyzed in response to BMP9 (specific ligand of ALK1), the maturation of the protein products and their localization were analyzed by western blot and fluorescence microscopy. The splicing impairment of the intronic and of two missense mutations was examined by minigene assay. Functional analysis showed that 18 out of 22 missense mutations were defective. Splicing analysis revealed that one missense mutation (c.733A>G, p.Ile245Val) affects the splicing of the harboring exon 6. Similarly, the intronic mutation outside the consensus splicing sites (c.1048+5G>A in intron 7) was seen pathogenic by splicing study. Both mutations induce a frame shift creating a premature stop codon likely resulting in mRNA degradation by NMD surveillance mechanism. Our results confirm the haploinsufficiency model proposed for HHT2. The affected allele of ACVRL1 induces mRNA degradation or the synthesis of a protein lacking the receptor activity. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that functional and splicing analyses together, represent two robust diagnostic tools to be used by geneticists confronted with novel or conflicted ACVRL1 mutations. PMID:26176610

  8. Splicing of goose parvovirus pre-mRNA influences cytoplasmic translation of the processed mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Long; Pintel, David J.

    2012-04-25

    Translation of goose parvovirus (GPV) 72 kDa Rep 1 is initiated from unspliced P9-generated mRNAs in ORF1 from the first in-frame AUG (537 AUG); however, this AUG is bypassed in spliced P9-generated RNA: translation of the 52 kDa Rep 2 protein from spliced RNA is initiated in ORF2 at the next AUG downstream (650 AUG). Usage of the 537 AUG was restored in spliced RNA when the GPV intron was replaced with a chimeric SV40 intron, or following specific mutations of the GPV intron which did not appear in the final spliced mRNA. Additionally, 650 AUG usage was gained in unspliced RNA when the GPV intron splice sites were debilitated. Splicing-dependent regulation of translation initiation was mediated in cis by GPV RNA surrounding the target AUGs. Thus, nuclear RNA processing of GPV P9-generated pre-mRNAs has a complex, but significant, effect on alternative translation initiation of the GPV Rep proteins.

  9. TGF-beta(1) regulation of human AT(1) receptor mRNA splice variants harboring exon 2.

    PubMed

    Martin, Mickey M; Buckenberger, Jessica A; Knoell, Daren L; Strauch, Arthur R; Elton, Terry S

    2006-04-25

    At least four alternatively spliced mRNAs can be synthesized from the human AT(1)R (hAT(1)R) gene that differ only in the inclusion or exclusion of exon 2 and/or 3. RT-PCR experiments demonstrate that splice variants harboring exon 2 accounts for at least 30% of all the hAT(1)R mRNA transcripts expressed in the human tissues investigated. Since exon 2 contains two upstream AUGs or open reading frames (uORFs), we hypothesized that these AUGs would inhibit the translation of the downstream hAT(1)R protein ORF harbored in exon 4. This study demonstrates that the inclusion of exon 2 in hAT(1)R mRNA transcripts dramatically reduces hAT(1)R protein levels (nine-fold) and significantly attenuates Ang II responsiveness ( approximately four-fold). Interestingly, only when both AUGs were mutated in combination were the hAT(1)R density and Ang II signaling levels comparable with those values obtained using mRNA splice variants that did not include exon 2. This observation is consistent with a model where the majority of the ribosomes likely translate uORF#1 and are then unable to reinitiate at the downstream hAT(1)R ORF, in part due to the presence of AUG#2 and to the short intercistronic spacing. Importantly, TGF-beta(1) treatment (4ng/ml for 4h) of fibroblasts up-regulated hAT(1)R mRNA splice variants, which harbored exon 2, six-fold. Since AT(1)R activation is closely associated with cardiovascular disease, the inclusion of exon 2 by alternative splicing represents a novel mechanism to reduce the overall production of the hAT(1)R protein and possibly limit the potential pathological effects of AT(1)R activation.

  10. Alternative splicing affects the subcellular localization of Drosha

    PubMed Central

    Link, Steffen; Grund, Stefanie E.; Diederichs, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The RNase III enzyme Drosha is a key factor in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and as such indispensable for cellular homeostasis and developmental processes. Together with its co-factor DGCR8, it converts the primary transcript (pri-miRNA) into the precursor hairpin (pre-miRNA) in the nucleus. While the middle and the C-terminal domain are crucial for pri-miRNA processing and DGCR8 binding, the function of the N-terminus remains cryptic. Different studies have linked this region to the subcellular localization of Drosha, stabilization and response to stress. In this study, we identify alternatively spliced Drosha transcripts that are devoid of a part of the arginine/serine-rich (RS-rich) domain and expressed in a large set of human cells. In contrast to their expected habitation, we find two isoforms also present in the cytoplasm, while the other two isoforms reside exclusively in the nucleus. Their processing activity for pri-miRNAs and the binding to co-factors remains unaltered. In multiple cell lines, the endogenous mRNA expression of the Drosha isoforms correlates with the localization of endogenous Drosha proteins. The pri-miRNA processing efficiency is not significantly different between groups of cells with or without cytoplasmic Drosha expression. In summary, we discovered novel isoforms of Drosha with differential subcellular localization pointing toward additional layers of complexity in the regulation of its activity. PMID:27185895

  11. A critical analysis of Atoh7 (Math5) mRNA splicing in the developing mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Prasov, Lev; Brown, Nadean L; Glaser, Tom

    2010-08-24

    The Math5 (Atoh7) gene is transiently expressed during retinogenesis by progenitors exiting mitosis, and is essential for ganglion cell (RGC) development. Math5 contains a single exon, and its 1.7 kb mRNA encodes a 149-aa polypeptide. Mouse Math5 mutants have essentially no RGCs or optic nerves. Given the importance of this gene in retinal development, we thoroughly investigated the possibility of Math5 mRNA splicing by Northern blot, 3'RACE, RNase protection assays, and RT-PCR, using RNAs extracted from embryonic eyes and adult cerebellum, or transcribed in vitro from cDNA clones. Because Math5 mRNA contains an elevated G+C content, we used graded concentrations of betaine, an isostabilizing agent that disrupts secondary structure. Although approximately 10% of cerebellar Math5 RNAs are spliced, truncating the polypeptide, our results show few, if any, spliced Math5 transcripts exist in the developing retina (<1%). Rare deleted cDNAs do arise via RT-mediated RNA template switching in vitro, and are selectively amplified during PCR. These data differ starkly from a recent study (Kanadia and Cepko 2010), which concluded that the vast majority of Math5 and other bHLH transcripts are spliced to generate noncoding RNAs. Our findings clarify the architecture of the Math5 gene and its mechanism of action. These results have implications for all members of the bHLH gene family, for any gene that is alternatively spliced, and for the interpretation of all RT-PCR experiments.

  12. Cartography of neurexin alternative splicing mapped by single-molecule long-read mRNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Treutlein, Barbara; Gokce, Ozgun; Quake, Stephen R; Südhof, Thomas C

    2014-04-01

    Neurexins are evolutionarily conserved presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that are essential for normal synapse formation and synaptic transmission. Indirect evidence has indicated that extensive alternative splicing of neurexin mRNAs may produce hundreds if not thousands of neurexin isoforms, but no direct evidence for such diversity has been available. Here we use unbiased long-read sequencing of full-length neurexin (Nrxn)1α, Nrxn1β, Nrxn2β, Nrxn3α, and Nrxn3β mRNAs to systematically assess how many sites of alternative splicing are used in neurexins with a significant frequency, and whether alternative splicing events at these sites are independent of each other. In sequencing more than 25,000 full-length mRNAs, we identified a novel, abundantly used alternatively spliced exon of Nrxn1α and Nrxn3α (referred to as alternatively spliced sequence 6) that encodes a 9-residue insertion in the flexible hinge region between the fifth LNS (laminin-α, neurexin, sex hormone-binding globulin) domain and the third EGF-like sequence. In addition, we observed several larger-scale events of alternative splicing that deleted multiple domains and were much less frequent than the canonical six sites of alternative splicing in neurexins. All of the six canonical events of alternative splicing appear to be independent of each other, suggesting that neurexins may exhibit an even larger isoform diversity than previously envisioned and comprise thousands of variants. Our data are consistent with the notion that α-neurexins represent extracellular protein-interaction scaffolds in which different LNS and EGF domains mediate distinct interactions that affect diverse functions and are independently regulated by independent events of alternative splicing.

  13. Age-Dependent Decrease and Alternative Splicing of Methionine Synthase mRNA in Human Cerebral Cortex and an Accelerated Decrease in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Muratore, Christina R.; Hodgson, Nathaniel W.; Trivedi, Malav S.; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M.; Persico, Antonio M.; Lintas, Carla; De La Monte, Suzanne; Deth, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) is highly sensitive to cellular oxidative status, and lower MS activity increases production of the antioxidant glutathione, while simultaneously decreasing more than 200 methylation reactions, broadly affecting metabolic activity. MS mRNA levels in postmortem human cortex from subjects across the lifespan were measured and a dramatic progressive biphasic decrease of more than 400-fold from 28 weeks of gestation to 84 years was observed. Further analysis revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA, including deletion of folate-binding domain exons and age-dependent deletion of exons from the cap domain, which protects vitamin B12 (cobalamin) from oxidation. Although three species of MS were evident at the protein level, corresponding to full-length and alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts, decreasing mRNA levels across the lifespan were not associated with significant changes in MS protein or methionine levels. MS mRNA levels were significantly lower in autistic subjects, especially at younger ages, and this decrease was replicated in cultured human neuronal cells by treatment with TNF-α, whose CSF levels are elevated in autism. These novel findings suggest that rather than serving as a housekeeping enzyme, MS has a broad and dynamic role in coordinating metabolism in the brain during development and aging. Factors adversely affecting MS activity, such as oxidative stress, can be a source of risk for neurological disorders across the lifespan via their impact on methylation reactions, including epigenetic regulation of gene expression. PMID:23437274

  14. An abnormal mRNA produced by a novel PMP22 splice site mutation associated with HNPP.

    PubMed

    Bellone, E; Balestra, P; Ribizzi, G; Schenone, A; Zocchi, G; Di Maria, E; Ajmar, F; Mandich, P

    2006-04-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant, demyelinating neuropathy. Point mutations in the PMP22 gene are a rare cause of HNPP. A novel PMP22 splice site mutation (c.179+1 G-->C) is reported in an HNPP family. By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments, this mutation was shown to cause the synthesis of an abnormal mRNA in which a premature stop codon probably produces a truncated non-functional protein.

  15. Small changes in ambient temperature affect alternative splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Streitner, Corinna; Simpson, Craig G.; Shaw, Paul; Danisman, Selahattin; Brown, John W.S.; Staiger, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) gives rise to multiple mRNA isoforms from the same gene, providing possibilities to regulate gene expression beyond the level of transcription. In a recent paper in Nucleic Acids Research we used a high resolution RT-PCR based panel to study changes in AS patterns in plants with altered levels of an hnRNP-like RNA-binding protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, we detected significant changes in AS patterns between different Arabidopsis ecotypes. Here we investigated how small changes in ambient temperature affect AS. We found significant changes in AS for 12 of 28 investigated events (43%) upon transfer of Arabidopsis plants from 20°C to 16°C and for 6 of the 28 investigated events (21%) upon transfer from 20°C to 24°C. PMID:23656882

  16. Second-Generation HSP90 Inhibitor Onalespib Blocks mRNA Splicing of Androgen Receptor Variant 7 in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Welti, Jonathan; Powers, Marissa V; Yuan, Wei; Smyth, Tomoko; Seed, George; Riisnaes, Ruth; Hedayat, Somaieh; Wang, Hannah; Crespo, Mateus; Nava Rodrigues, Daniel; Figueiredo, Ines; Miranda, Susana; Carreira, Suzanne; Lyons, John F; Sharp, Swee; Plymate, Stephen R; Attard, Gerhardt; Wallis, Nicola; Workman, Paul; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-05-01

    Resistance to available hormone therapies in prostate cancer has been associated with alternative splicing of androgen receptor (AR) and specifically, the expression of truncated and constitutively active AR variant 7 (AR-V7). The transcriptional activity of steroid receptors, including AR, is dependent on interactions with the HSP90 chaperone machinery, but it is unclear whether HSP90 modulates the activity or expression of AR variants. Here, we investigated the effects of HSP90 inhibition on AR-V7 in prostate cancer cell lines endogenously expressing this variant. We demonstrate that AR-V7 and full-length AR (AR-FL) were depleted upon inhibition of HSP90. However, the mechanisms underlying AR-V7 depletion differed from those for AR-FL. Whereas HSP90 inhibition destabilized AR-FL and induced its proteasomal degradation, AR-V7 protein exhibited higher stability than AR-FL and did not require HSP90 chaperone activity. Instead, HSP90 inhibition resulted in the reduction of AR-V7 mRNA levels but did not affect total AR transcript levels, indicating that HSP90 inhibition disrupted AR-V7 splicing. Bioinformatic analyses of transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing data confirmed that the second-generation HSP90 inhibitor onalespib altered the splicing of at least 557 genes in prostate cancer cells, including AR. These findings indicate that the effects of HSP90 inhibition on mRNA splicing may prove beneficial in prostate cancers expressing AR-V7, supporting further clinical investigation of HSP90 inhibitors in malignancies no longer responsive to androgen deprivation. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2731-42. ©2016 AACR.

  17. During in vivo maturation of eukaryotic nuclear mRNA, splicing yields excised exon circles.

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, B

    1996-01-01

    Circular splicing has already been described on nuclear pre-mRNA for certain splice sites far apart in the multi exonic ETS-1 gene and in the single 1.2 kb exon of the Sry locus. To date, it is unclear how splice site juxtaposition occurs in normal and circular splicing. The splice site selection of an internal exon is likely to involve pairing between splice sites across that exon. Based on this, we predict that, albeit at low frequency, internal exons yield circular RNA by splicing as an error-prone mechanism of exon juxtaposition or, perhaps more interestingly, as a regulated mechanism on alternative exons. To address this question, the circular exon formation was analyzed at three ETS-1 internal exons (one alternative spliced exon and two constitutive), in human cell line and blood cell samples. Here, we show by RT-PCR and sequencing that exon circular splicing occurs at the three individual exons that we examined. RNase protection experiments suggest that there is no correlation between exon circle expression and exon skipping. PMID:8604331

  18. Achieving targeted and quantifiable alteration of mRNA splicing with Morpholino oligos

    SciTech Connect

    Morcos, Paul A. . E-mail: pmorcos@gene-tools.com

    2007-06-29

    This work represents the first guide for using steric-block antisense oligos as tools for effective and targeted modification of RNA splicing. Comparison of several steric-block oligo types shows the properties of Morpholinos provide significant advantages over other potential splice-blocking oligos. The procedures and complications of designing effective splice-blocking Morpholino oligos are described. The design process requires complete pre-mRNA sequence for defining suitable targets, which usually generate specific predictable messengers. To validate the targeting procedure, the level and nature of transcript alteration is characterized by RT-PCR analysis of splice modification in a {beta}-globin splice model system. An oligo-walking study reveals that while U1 and U2 small nuclear RiboNucleoProtein (snRNP) binding sites are the most effective targets for blocking splicing, inclusion of these sites is not required to achieve effective splice modifications. The most effective targeting strategy employs simultaneously blocking snRNP binding sites and splice-junctions. The work presented here continues to be the basis for most of the successful Morpholino oligos designed for the worldwide research community to block RNA splicing.

  19. RtcB, a novel RNA ligase, can catalyze tRNA splicing and HAC1 mRNA splicing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoko; Meineke, Birthe; Shuman, Stewart

    2011-09-02

    RtcB enzymes are novel RNA ligases that join 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ends. The phylogenetic distribution of RtcB points to its candidacy as a tRNA splicing/repair enzyme. Here we show that Escherichia coli RtcB is competent and sufficient for tRNA splicing in vivo by virtue of its ability to complement growth of yeast cells that lack the endogenous "healing/sealing-type" tRNA ligase Trl1. RtcB also protects yeast trl1Δ cells against a fungal ribotoxin that incises the anticodon loop of cellular tRNAs. Moreover, RtcB can replace Trl1 as the catalyst of HAC1 mRNA splicing during the unfolded protein response. Thus, RtcB is a bona fide RNA repair enzyme with broad physiological actions. Biochemical analysis of RtcB highlights the uniqueness of its active site and catalytic mechanism. Our findings draw attention to tRNA ligase as a promising drug target.

  20. Perturbation of chromatin structure globally affects localization and recruitment of splicing factors.

    PubMed

    Schor, Ignacio E; Llères, David; Risso, Guillermo J; Pawellek, Andrea; Ule, Jernej; Lamond, Angus I; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin structure is an important factor in the functional coupling between transcription and mRNA processing, not only by regulating alternative splicing events, but also by contributing to exon recognition during constitutive splicing. We observed that depolarization of neuroblastoma cell membrane potential, which triggers general histone acetylation and regulates alternative splicing, causes a concentration of SR proteins in nuclear speckles. This prompted us to analyze the effect of chromatin structure on splicing factor distribution and dynamics. Here, we show that induction of histone hyper-acetylation results in the accumulation in speckles of multiple splicing factors in different cell types. In addition, a similar effect is observed after depletion of the heterochromatic protein HP1α, associated with repressive chromatin. We used advanced imaging approaches to analyze in detail both the structural organization of the speckle compartment and nuclear distribution of splicing factors, as well as studying direct interactions between splicing factors and their association with chromatin in vivo. The results support a model where perturbation of normal chromatin structure decreases the recruitment efficiency of splicing factors to nascent RNAs, thus causing their accumulation in speckles, which buffer the amount of free molecules in the nucleoplasm. To test this, we analyzed the recruitment of the general splicing factor U2AF65 to nascent RNAs by iCLIP technique, as a way to monitor early spliceosome assembly. We demonstrate that indeed histone hyper-acetylation decreases recruitment of U2AF65 to bulk 3' splice sites, coincident with the change in its localization. In addition, prior to the maximum accumulation in speckles, ∼20% of genes already show a tendency to decreased binding, while U2AF65 seems to increase its binding to the speckle-located ncRNA MALAT1. All together, the combined imaging and biochemical approaches support a model where chromatin

  1. Perturbation of Chromatin Structure Globally Affects Localization and Recruitment of Splicing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Guillermo J.; Pawellek, Andrea; Ule, Jernej; Lamond, Angus I.; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin structure is an important factor in the functional coupling between transcription and mRNA processing, not only by regulating alternative splicing events, but also by contributing to exon recognition during constitutive splicing. We observed that depolarization of neuroblastoma cell membrane potential, which triggers general histone acetylation and regulates alternative splicing, causes a concentration of SR proteins in nuclear speckles. This prompted us to analyze the effect of chromatin structure on splicing factor distribution and dynamics. Here, we show that induction of histone hyper-acetylation results in the accumulation in speckles of multiple splicing factors in different cell types. In addition, a similar effect is observed after depletion of the heterochromatic protein HP1α, associated with repressive chromatin. We used advanced imaging approaches to analyze in detail both the structural organization of the speckle compartment and nuclear distribution of splicing factors, as well as studying direct interactions between splicing factors and their association with chromatin in vivo. The results support a model where perturbation of normal chromatin structure decreases the recruitment efficiency of splicing factors to nascent RNAs, thus causing their accumulation in speckles, which buffer the amount of free molecules in the nucleoplasm. To test this, we analyzed the recruitment of the general splicing factor U2AF65 to nascent RNAs by iCLIP technique, as a way to monitor early spliceosome assembly. We demonstrate that indeed histone hyper-acetylation decreases recruitment of U2AF65 to bulk 3′ splice sites, coincident with the change in its localization. In addition, prior to the maximum accumulation in speckles, ∼20% of genes already show a tendency to decreased binding, while U2AF65 seems to increase its binding to the speckle-located ncRNA MALAT1. All together, the combined imaging and biochemical approaches support a model where chromatin

  2. Applying genetic programming to the prediction of alternative mRNA splice variants.

    PubMed

    Vukusic, Ivana; Grellscheid, Sushma Nagaraja; Wiehe, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Genetic programming (GP) can be used to classify a given gene sequence as either constitutively or alternatively spliced. We describe the principles of GP and apply it to a well-defined data set of alternatively spliced genes. A feature matrix of sequence properties, such as nucleotide composition or exon length, was passed to the GP system "Discipulus." To test its performance we concentrated on cassette exons (SCE) and retained introns (SIR). We analyzed 27,519 constitutively spliced and 9641 cassette exons including their neighboring introns; in addition we analyzed 33,316 constitutively spliced introns compared to 2712 retained introns. We find that the classifier yields highly accurate predictions on the SIR data with a sensitivity of 92.1% and a specificity of 79.2%. Prediction accuracies on the SCE data are lower, 47.3% (sensitivity) and 70.9% (specificity), indicating that alternative splicing of introns can be better captured by sequence properties than that of exons.

  3. Influenza Viruses and mRNA Splicing: Doing More with Less

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Julia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT During their nuclear replication stage, influenza viruses hijack the host splicing machinery to process some of their RNA segments, the M and NS segments. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge gathered on this interplay between influenza viruses and the cellular spliceosome, with a particular focus on influenza A viruses (IAV). These viruses have developed accurate regulation mechanisms to reassign the host spliceosome to alter host cellular expression and enable an optimal expression of specific spliced viral products throughout infection. Moreover, IAV segments undergoing splicing display high levels of similarity with human consensus splice sites and their viral transcripts show noteworthy secondary structures. Sequence alignments and consensus analyses, along with recently published studies, suggest both conservation and evolution of viral splice site sequences and structure for improved adaptation to the host. Altogether, these results emphasize the ability of IAV to be well adapted to the host’s splicing machinery, and further investigations may contribute to a better understanding of splicing regulation with regard to viral replication, host range, and pathogenesis. PMID:24825008

  4. Identification of a third region of cell-specific alternative splicing in human fibronectin mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gutman, A.; Kornblihtt, A.R.

    1987-10-01

    The authors describe here a third region of variability in human fibronectin (FN) due to alternative RNA splicing. Two other positions of alternative splicing have been reported previously (ED and IIICS). The third region involves a 273-nucleotide exon encoding exactly one 91-amino acid repeat of type III homology, located between the DNA- and the cell-binding domains of FN, which is either included in or excluded from FN mRNA. The two mRNA variants arising by an exon-skipping mechanism are present in cells known to synthesize the cellular form of FN. However, liver cells, which are the source of plasma FN, produce only messengers without the extra type III sequence. Therefore, the region described here resembles, both structurally and functionally, the previously described ED (for extra domain) region, located toward the C terminus of the molecule between the cell- and heparin- (hep 2) binding domains. The authors conclude that both the extra type III repeat (names EDII) and ED represent sequences restricted to cellular FN. Combination of all the possible patterns of splicing in the three regions described to date may generate up to 20 distinct FN polypeptides from a single gene.

  5. Arginine methylation and citrullination of splicing factor proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ/PSF) regulates its association with mRNA.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Ambrosius P; Hautbergue, Guillaume M; Bloom, Alex; Williamson, James C; Minshull, Thomas C; Phillips, Helen L; Mihaylov, Simeon R; Gjerde, Douglas T; Hornby, David P; Wilson, Stuart A; Hurd, Paul J; Dickman, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    Splicing factor proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ) also commonly known as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated-splicing factor (PSF) and its binding partner non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO/p54nrb), are highly abundant, multifunctional nuclear proteins. However, the exact role of this complex is yet to be determined. Following purification of the endogeneous SFPQ/NONO complex, mass spectrometry analysis identified a wide range of interacting proteins, including those involved in RNA processing, RNA splicing, and transcriptional regulation, consistent with a multifunctional role for SFPQ/NONO. In addition, we have identified several sites of arginine methylation in SFPQ/PSF using mass spectrometry and found that several arginines in the N-terminal domain of SFPQ/PSF are asymmetrically dimethylated. Furthermore, we find that the protein arginine N-methyltransferase, PRMT1, catalyzes this methylation in vitro and that this is antagonized by citrullination of SFPQ. Arginine methylation and citrullination of SFPQ/PSF does not affect complex formation with NONO. However, arginine methylation was shown to increase the association with mRNA in mRNP complexes in mammalian cells. Finally we show that the biochemical properties of the endogenous complex from cell lysates are significantly influenced by the ionic strength during purification. At low ionic strength, the SFPQ/NONO complex forms large heterogeneous protein assemblies or aggregates, preventing the purification of the SFPQ/NONO complex. The ability of the SFPQ/NONO complex to form varying protein assemblies, in conjunction with the effect of post-translational modifications of SFPQ modulating mRNA binding, suggests key roles affecting mRNP dynamics within the cell.

  6. Starvation actively inhibits splicing of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA via a bifunctional ESE/ESS element bound by hnRNP K.

    PubMed

    Cyphert, T J; Suchanek, A L; Griffith, B N; Salati, L M

    2013-09-01

    Regulated expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is due to changes in the rate of pre-mRNA splicing and not changes in its transcription. Starvation alters pre-mRNA splicing by decreasing the rate of intron removal, leading to intron retention and a decrease in the accumulation of mature mRNA. A regulatory element within exon 12 of G6PD pre-mRNA controls splicing efficiency. Starvation caused an increase in the expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K protein and this increase coincided with the increase in the binding of hnRNP K to the regulatory element and a decrease in the expression of G6PD mRNA. HnRNP K bound to two C-rich motifs forming an ESS within exon 12. Overexpression of hnRNP K decreased the splicing and expression of G6PD mRNA, while siRNA-mediated depletion of hnRNP K caused an increase in the splicing and expression of G6PD mRNA. Binding of hnRNP K to the regulatory element was enhanced in vivo by starvation coinciding with a decrease in G6PD mRNA. HnRNP K binding to the C-rich motifs blocked binding of serine-arginine rich, splicing factor 3 (SRSF3), a splicing enhancer. Thus hnRNP K is a nutrient regulated splicing factor responsible for the inhibition of the splicing of G6PD during starvation.

  7. An Intronic G Run within HIV-1 Intron 2 Is Critical for Splicing Regulation of vif mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Widera, Marek; Erkelenz, Steffen; Hillebrand, Frank; Krikoni, Aikaterini; Widera, Darius; Kaisers, Wolfgang; Deenen, René; Gombert, Michael; Dellen, Rafael; Pfeiffer, Tanya; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Münk, Carsten; Bosch, Valerie; Köhrer, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Within target T lymphocytes, human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) encounters the retroviral restriction factor APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G; A3G), which is counteracted by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vif. Vif is encoded by intron-containing viral RNAs that are generated by splicing at 3′ splice site (3′ss) A1 but lack splicing at 5′ss D2, which results in the retention of a large downstream intron. Hence, the extents of activation of 3′ss A1 and repression of D2, respectively, determine the levels of vif mRNA and thus the ability to evade A3G-mediated antiviral effects. The use of 3′ss A1 can be enhanced or repressed by splicing regulatory elements that control the recognition of downstream 5′ss D2. Here we show that an intronic G run (GI2-1) represses the use of a second 5′ss, termed D2b, that is embedded within intron 2 and, as determined by RNA deep-sequencing analysis, is normally inefficiently used. Mutations of GI2-1 and activation of D2b led to the generation of transcripts coding for Gp41 and Rev protein isoforms but primarily led to considerable upregulation of vif mRNA expression. We further demonstrate, however, that higher levels of Vif protein are actually detrimental to viral replication in A3G-expressing T cell lines but not in A3G-deficient cells. These observations suggest that an appropriate ratio of Vif-to-A3G protein levels is required for optimal virus replication and that part of Vif level regulation is effected by the novel G run identified here. PMID:23255806

  8. Alternative splicing interference by xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Zaharieva, Emanuela; Chipman, J Kevin; Soller, Matthias

    2012-06-14

    The protein coding sequence of most eukaryotic genes (exons) is interrupted by non-coding parts (introns), which are excised in a process termed splicing. To generate a mature messenger RNA (mRNA) hundreds of combinatorial protein-protein and RNA-protein interactions are required to splice out often very large introns with high fidelity and accuracy. Inherent to splicing is the use of alternative splice sites generating immense proteomic diversity from a limited number of genes. In humans, alternative splicing is a major mode of regulating gene expression, occurs in over 90% of genes and is particularly abundant in the brain. Only recently, it has been recognized that the complexity of the splicing process makes it susceptible to interference by various xenobiotics. These compounds include antineoplastic substances, commonly used drugs and food supplements and cause a spectrum of effects ranging from deleterious inhibition of general splicing to highly specific modifications of alternative splicing affecting only certain genes. Alterations in splicing have been implicated in numerous diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration. Splicing regulation plays an important role in the execution of programmed cell death. The switch between anti- and pro-apoptotic isoforms by alternative splice site selection and misregulation of a number of splicing factors impacts on cell survival and disease. Here, our current knowledge is summarized on compounds interfering with general and alternative splicing and of the current methodology to study changes in these processes relevant to the field of toxicology and future risk assessments.

  9. Rbfox proteins regulate alternative mRNA splicing through evolutionarily conserved RNA bridges

    PubMed Central

    Lovci, Michael T; Ghanem, Dana; Marr, Henry; Arnold, Justin; Gee, Sherry; Parra, Marilyn; Liang, Tiffany Y; Stark, Thomas J; Gehman, Lauren T; Hoon, Shawn; Massirer, Katlin B; Pratt, Gabriel A; Black, Douglas L; Gray, Joe W; Conboy, John G; Yeo, Gene W

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) enables programmed diversity of gene expression across tissues and development. We show here that binding in distal intronic regions (>500 nucleotides (nt) from any exon) by Rbfox splicing factors important in development is extensive and is an active mode of splicing regulation. Similarly to exon-proximal sites, distal sites contain evolutionarily conserved GCATG sequences and are associated with AS activation and repression upon modulation of Rbfox abundance in human and mouse experimental systems. As a proof of principle, we validated the activity of two specific Rbfox enhancers in KIF21A and ENAH distal introns and showed that a conserved long-range RNA-RNA base-pairing interaction (an RNA bridge) is necessary for Rbfox-mediated exon inclusion in the ENAH gene. Thus we demonstrate a previously unknown RNA-mediated mechanism for AS control by distally bound RNA-binding proteins. PMID:24213538

  10. Rbfox proteins regulate alternative mRNA splicing through evolutionarily conserved RNA bridges.

    PubMed

    Lovci, Michael T; Ghanem, Dana; Marr, Henry; Arnold, Justin; Gee, Sherry; Parra, Marilyn; Liang, Tiffany Y; Stark, Thomas J; Gehman, Lauren T; Hoon, Shawn; Massirer, Katlin B; Pratt, Gabriel A; Black, Douglas L; Gray, Joe W; Conboy, John G; Yeo, Gene W

    2013-12-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) enables programmed diversity of gene expression across tissues and development. We show here that binding in distal intronic regions (>500 nucleotides (nt) from any exon) by Rbfox splicing factors important in development is extensive and is an active mode of splicing regulation. Similarly to exon-proximal sites, distal sites contain evolutionarily conserved GCATG sequences and are associated with AS activation and repression upon modulation of Rbfox abundance in human and mouse experimental systems. As a proof of principle, we validated the activity of two specific Rbfox enhancers in KIF21A and ENAH distal introns and showed that a conserved long-range RNA-RNA base-pairing interaction (an RNA bridge) is necessary for Rbfox-mediated exon inclusion in the ENAH gene. Thus we demonstrate a previously unknown RNA-mediated mechanism for AS control by distally bound RNA-binding proteins.

  11. Early base-pair fluctuations and the activation of mRNA splicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ariel

    1991-05-01

    By means of multiprocessed Monte Carlo simulations we study the amplification in time structural fluctuations in sequential RNA folding concomitant with transcription. The simulations allow for an exploration of configuration space subject to the realistic time-constraints of RNA synthesis. The treatment focuses on the splicing YC4 intron as a study case. We show how an early disruption in the folding may result in a terminal structure which is active for splicing, bringing together the two cleavage sites at both ends of the intron.

  12. Novel mutations affecting LRP5 splicing in patients with osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG)

    PubMed Central

    Laine, C M; Chung, B D; Susic, M; Prescott, T; Semler, O; Fiskerstrand, T; D'Eufemia, P; Castori, M; Pekkinen, M; Sochett, E; Cole, W G; Netzer, C; Mäkitie, O

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma sydrome (OPPG) is an autosomal recessive disorder with early-onset severe osteoporosis and blindness, caused by biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene. Heterozygous carriers exhibit a milder bone phenotype. Only a few splice mutations in LRP5 have been published. We present clinical and genetic data for four patients with novel LRP5 mutations, three of which affect splicing. Patients were evaluated clinically and by radiography and bone densitometry. Genetic screening of LRP5 was performed on the basis of the clinical diagnosis of OPPG. Splice aberrances were confirmed by cDNA sequencing or exon trapping. The effect of one splice mutation on LRP5 protein function was studied. A novel splice-site mutation c.1584+4A>T abolished the donor splice site of exon 7 and activated a cryptic splice site, which led to an in-frame insertion of 21 amino acids (p.E528_V529ins21). Functional studies revealed severely impaired signal transduction presumably caused by defective intracellular transport of the mutated receptor. Exon trapping was used on two samples to confirm that splice-site mutations c.4112-2A>G and c.1015+1G>T caused splicing-out of exons 20 and 5, respectively. One patient carried a homozygous deletion of exon 4 causing the loss of exons 4 and 5, as demonstrated by cDNA analysis. Our results broaden the spectrum of mutations in LRP5 and provide the first functional data on splice aberrations. PMID:21407258

  13. Human intronless genes: Functional groups, associated diseases, evolution, and mRNA processing in absence of splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Grzybowska, Ewa A.

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functional characteristics of intronless genes (IGs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diseases associated with IGs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Origin and evolution of IGs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mRNA processing without splicing. -- Abstract: Intronless genes (IGs) constitute approximately 3% of the human genome. Human IGs are essentially different in evolution and functionality from the IGs of unicellular eukaryotes, which represent the majority in their genomes. Functional analysis of IGs has revealed a massive over-representation of signal transduction genes and genes encoding regulatory proteins important for growth, proliferation, and development. IGs also often display tissue-specific expression, usually in the nervous system and testis. These characteristics translate into IG-associated diseases, mainly neuropathies, developmental disorders, and cancer. IGs represent recent additions to the genome, created mostly by retroposition of processed mRNAs with retained functionality. Processing, nuclear export, and translation of these mRNAs should be hampered dramatically by the lack of splice factors, which normally tightly cover mature transcripts and govern their fate. However, natural IGs manage to maintain satisfactory expression levels. Different mechanisms by which IGs solve the problem of mRNA processing and nuclear export are discussed here, along with their possible impact on reporter studies.

  14. Regulation of alternative VEGF-A mRNA splicing is a therapeutic target for analgesia☆

    PubMed Central

    Hulse, R.P.; Beazley-Long, N.; Hua, J.; Kennedy, H.; Prager, J.; Bevan, H.; Qiu, Y.; Fernandes, E.S.; Gammons, M.V.; Ballmer-Hofer, K.; Gittenberger de Groot, A.C.; Churchill, A.J.; Harper, S.J.; Brain, S.D.; Bates, D.O.; Donaldson, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is best known as a key regulator of the formation of new blood vessels. Neutralization of VEGF-A with anti-VEGF therapy e.g. bevacizumab, can be painful, and this is hypothesized to result from a loss of VEGF-A-mediated neuroprotection. The multiple vegf-a gene products consist of two alternatively spliced families, typified by VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b (both contain 165 amino acids), both of which are neuroprotective. Under pathological conditions, such as in inflammation and cancer, the pro-angiogenic VEGF-A165a is upregulated and predominates over the VEGF-A165b isoform. We show here that in rats and mice VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b have opposing effects on pain, and that blocking the proximal splicing event – leading to the preferential expression of VEGF-A165b over VEGF165a – prevents pain in vivo. VEGF-A165a sensitizes peripheral nociceptive neurons through actions on VEGFR2 and a TRPV1-dependent mechanism, thus enhancing nociceptive signaling. VEGF-A165b blocks the effect of VEGF-A165a. After nerve injury, the endogenous balance of VEGF-A isoforms switches to greater expression of VEGF-Axxxa compared to VEGF-Axxxb, through an SRPK1-dependent pre-mRNA splicing mechanism. Pharmacological inhibition of SRPK1 after traumatic nerve injury selectively reduced VEGF-Axxxa expression and reversed associated neuropathic pain. Exogenous VEGF-A165b also ameliorated neuropathic pain. We conclude that the relative levels of alternatively spliced VEGF-A isoforms are critical for pain modulation under both normal conditions and in sensory neuropathy. Altering VEGF-Axxxa/VEGF-Axxxb balance by targeting alternative RNA splicing may be a new analgesic strategy. PMID:25151644

  15. A Novel Actin mRNA Splice Variant Regulates ACTG1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Meghan C.; Friderici, Karen H.

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic actins are abundant, ubiquitous proteins in nucleated cells. However, actin expression is regulated in a tissue- and development-specific manner. We identified a novel cytoplasmic-γ-actin (Actg1) transcript that includes a previously unidentified exon (3a). Inclusion of this exon introduces an in-frame termination codon. We hypothesized this alternatively-spliced transcript down-regulates γ-actin production by targeting these transcripts for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). To address this, we investigated conservation between mammals, tissue-specificity in mice, and developmental regulation using C2C12 cell culture. Exon 3a is 80% similar among mammals and varies in length from 41 nucleotides in humans to 45 in mice. Though the predicted amino acid sequences are not similar between all species, inclusion of exon 3a consistently results in the in the introduction of a premature termination codon within the alternative Actg1 transcript. Of twelve tissues examined, exon 3a is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and diaphragm. Splicing to include exon 3a is concomitant with previously described down-regulation of Actg1 in differentiating C2C12 cells. Treatment of differentiated C2C12 cells with an inhibitor of NMD results in a 7-fold increase in exon 3a-containing transcripts. Therefore, splicing to generate exon 3a-containing transcripts may be one component of Actg1 regulation. We propose that this post-transcriptional regulation occurs via NMD, in a process previously described as “regulated unproductive splicing and translation” (RUST). PMID:24098136

  16. Analysis of mutations and alternative splicing patterns in the CFTR gene using mRNA derived from nasal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hull, J; Shackleton, S; Harris, A

    1994-07-01

    Ten to fifteen percent of CF chromosomes carry mutations which are not detected by routine screening of the CFTR gene for known mutations. Many techniques have been used to screen the CFTR gene for these remaining mutations. Most of the methods use genomic DNA, and since the CFTR gene contains 27 exons, are necessarily labour intensive. We have screened the entire coding region of CFTR, by chemical cleavage of 7 overlapping segments of amplified cDNA. Using this method we have identified 4 sequence changes which had not been detected by screening genomic DNA, and successfully detected 10 out of 13 known mutations. In addition, we have identified 8 alternatively spliced forms of CFTR mRNA, 4 of which have not been described previously. These include transcripts lacking a) exon 3, b) exons 2 + 3, c) exons 9 + 12, and d) the final 357 bp of exon 15 as a result of use of the cryptic splice donor site CA2863/GTTCGT).

  17. Faithful mRNA splicing depends on the Prp19 complex subunit faint sausage and is required for tracheal branching morphogenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sauerwald, Julia; Soneson, Charlotte; Robinson, Mark D; Luschnig, Stefan

    2017-02-15

    Morphogenesis requires the dynamic regulation of gene expression, including transcription, mRNA maturation and translation. Dysfunction of the general mRNA splicing machinery can cause surprisingly specific cellular phenotypes, but the basis for these effects is not clear. Here, we show that the Drosophila faint sausage (fas) locus, which is implicated in epithelial morphogenesis and has previously been reported to encode a secreted immunoglobulin domain protein, in fact encodes a subunit of the spliceosome-activating Prp19 complex, which is essential for efficient pre-mRNA splicing. Loss of zygotic fas function globally impairs the efficiency of splicing, and is associated with widespread retention of introns in mRNAs and dramatic changes in gene expression. Surprisingly, despite these general effects, zygotic fas mutants show specific defects in tracheal cell migration during mid-embryogenesis when maternally supplied splicing factors have declined. We propose that tracheal branching, which relies on dynamic changes in gene expression, is particularly sensitive for efficient spliceosome function. Our results reveal an entry point to study requirements of the splicing machinery during organogenesis and provide a better understanding of disease phenotypes associated with mutations in general splicing factors.

  18. The nuclear RNA binding protein RBP33 influences mRNA and spliced leader RNA abundance in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Cirovic, Olivera; Trikin, Roman; Hoffmann, Anneliese; Doiron, Nicholas; Jakob, Martin; Ochsenreiter, Torsten

    2017-03-01

    RNA recognition motif (RRM) containing proteins are important regulators of gene expression in trypanosomes. Here we expand our current knowledge on the exclusively nuclear localized RRM domain containing protein RBP33 of Trypanosoma brucei. Overexpression of RBP33 leads to a quick growth arrest in G2/M in bloodstream form cells likely due to an overall mRNA- and spliced leader abundance decrease while the ribosomal RNAs remain unaffected. The recombinant RBP33 binds to poly(A) and random sequence RNA in vitro confirming its role as a RNA binding protein. Finally super-resolution microscopy detects RBP33 in small punctae throughout the nucleus and surrounding the nucleolus, however the signal is depleted inside the nucleolus.

  19. Cafeteria diet inhibits insulin clearance by reduced insulin-degrading enzyme expression and mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Brandimarti, P; Costa-Júnior, J M; Ferreira, S M; Protzek, A O; Santos, G J; Carneiro, E M; Boschero, A C; Rezende, L F

    2013-11-01

    Insulin clearance plays a major role in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in physiological and/or pathological conditions, such as obesity-induced type 2 diabetes as well as diet-induced obesity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate cafeteria diet-induced obesity-induced changes in insulin clearance and to explain the mechanisms underlying these possible changes. Female Swiss mice were fed either a standard chow diet (CTL) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 8 weeks, after which we performed glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, insulin dynamics, and insulin clearance tests. We then isolated pancreatic islets for ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as well as liver, gastrocnemius, visceral adipose tissue, and hypothalamus for subsequent protein analysis by western blot and determination of mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR. The cafeteria diet induced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and increased insulin secretion and total insulin content. More importantly, mice that were fed a cafeteria diet demonstrated reduced insulin clearance and decay rate as well as reduced insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) protein and mRNA levels in liver and skeletal muscle compared with the control animals. Furthermore, the cafeteria diet reduced IDE expression and alternative splicing in the liver and skeletal muscle of mice. In conclusion, a cafeteria diet impairs glucose homeostasis by reducing insulin sensitivity, but it also reduces insulin clearance by reducing IDE expression and alternative splicing in mouse liver; however, whether this mechanism contributes to the glucose intolerance or helps to ameliorate it remains unclear.

  20. Arabidopsis PTB1 and PTB2 proteins negatively regulate splicing of a mini-exon splicing reporter and affect alternative splicing of endogenous genes differentially.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Craig G; Lewandowska, Dominika; Liney, Michele; Davidson, Diane; Chapman, Sean; Fuller, John; McNicol, Jim; Shaw, Paul; Brown, John W S

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines the function of Arabidopsis thaliana AtPTB1 and AtPTB2 as plant splicing factors. The effect on splicing of overexpression of AtPTB1 and AtPTB2 was analysed in an in vivo protoplast transient expression system with a novel mini-exon splicing reporter. A range of mutations in pyrimidine-rich sequences were compared with and without AtPTB and NpU2AF65 overexpression. Splicing analyses of constructs in protoplasts and RNA from overexpression lines used high-resolution reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). AtPTB1 and AtPTB2 reduced inclusion/splicing of the potato invertase mini-exon splicing reporter, indicating that these proteins can repress plant intron splicing. Mutation of the polypyrimidine tract and closely associated Cytosine and Uracil-rich (CU-rich) sequences, upstream of the mini-exon, altered repression by AtPTB1 and AtPTB2. Coexpression of a plant orthologue of U2AF65 alleviated the splicing repression of AtPTB1. Mutation of a second CU-rich upstream of the mini-exon 3' splice site led to a decline in mini-exon splicing, indicating the presence of a splicing enhancer sequence. Finally, RT-PCR of AtPTB overexpression lines with c. 90 known alternative splicing (AS) events showed that AtPTBs significantly altered AS of over half the events. AtPTB1 and AtPTB2 are splicing factors that influence alternative splicing. This occurs in the potato invertase mini-exon via the polypyrimidine tract and associated pyrimidine-rich sequence.

  1. Intronic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 that affect RNA splicing can be reliably selected by splice-site prediction programs.

    PubMed

    Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; Kraan, Jaennelle N; van der Klift, Heleen M; Vink, Geraldine R; Cornelisse, Cees J; Wijnen, Juul T; Bakker, Egbert; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A large number of sequence variants identified in BRCA1 and BRCA2 cannot be distinguished as either disease-causing mutations or neutral variants. These so-called unclassified variants (UVs) include variants that are located in the intronic sequences of BRCA1 and BRCA2. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of splice-site prediction programs (SSPPs) to select intronic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 that are likely to affect RNA splicing. We performed in vitro molecular characterization of RNA of six intronic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2. In four cases (BRCA1, c.81-6T>A and c.4986+5G>T; BRCA2, c.7617+2T>G and c.8754+5G>A) a deleterious effect on RNA splicing was seen, whereas the c.135-15_-12del variant in BRCA1 showed no effect on RNA splicing. In the case of the BRCA2 c.68-7T>A variant, RNA analysis was not sufficient to establish the clinical significance. Six SSPPs were used to predict whether an effect on RNA splicing was expected for these six variants as well as for 23 intronic variants in BRCA1 for which the effect on RNA splicing has been published. Out of a total of 174 predictions, 161 (93%) were informative (i.e., the wild-type splice-site was recognized). No false-negative predictions were observed; an effect on RNA splicing was always predicted by these programs. In four cases (2.5%) a false-positive prediction was observed. For DNA diagnostic laboratories, these programs are therefore very useful to select intronic variants that are likely to affect RNA splicing for further analysis.

  2. Associations between genetic variants in mRNA splicing-related genes and risk of lung cancer: a pathway-based analysis from published GWASs

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yongchu; Liu, Hongliang; Wang, Yanru; Kang, Xiaozheng; Liu, Zhensheng; Owzar, Kouros; Han, Younghun; Su, Li; Wei, Yongyue; Hung, Rayjean J.; Brhane, Yonathan; McLaughlin, John; Brennan, Paul; Bickeböller, Heike; Rosenberger, Albert; Houlston, Richard S.; Caporaso, Neil; Teresa Landi, Maria; Heinrich, Joachim; Risch, Angela; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; Christiani, David C.; Amos, Christopher I.; Wei, Qingyi

    2017-01-01

    mRNA splicing is an important mechanism to regulate mRNA expression. Abnormal regulation of this process may lead to lung cancer. Here, we investigated the associations of 11,966 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 206 mRNA splicing-related genes with lung cancer risk by using the summary data from six published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung (TRICL) (12,160 cases and 16,838 controls) and another two lung cancer GWASs of Harvard University (984 cases and 970 controls) and deCODE (1,319 cases and 26,380 controls). We found that a total of 12 significant SNPs with false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.05 were mapped to one novel gene PRPF6 and two previously reported genes (DHX16 and LSM2) that were also confirmed in this study. The six novel SNPs in PRPF6 were in high linkage disequilibrium and associated with PRPF6 mRNA expression in lymphoblastoid cells from 373 Europeans in the 1000 Genomes Project. Taken together, our studies shed new light on the role of mRNA splicing genes in the development of lung cancer. PMID:28304396

  3. Four novel cystic fibrosis mutations in splice junction sequences affecting the CFTR nucleotide binding folds

    SciTech Connect

    Doerk, T.; Wulbrand, U.; Tuemmler, B. )

    1993-03-01

    Single cases of the four novel splice site mutations 1525[minus]1 G [r arrow] A (intron 9), 3601[minus]2 A [r arrow] G (intron 18), 3850[minus]3 T [r arrow] G (intron 19), and 4374+1 G [r arrow] T (intron 23) were detected in the CFTR gene of cystic fibrosis patients of Indo-Iranian, Turkish, Polish, and Germany descent. The nucleotide substitutions at the +1, [minus]1, and [minus]2 positions all destroy splice sites and lead to severe disease alleles associated with features typical of gastrointestinal and pulmonary cystic fibrosis disease. The 3850[minus]3 T-to-G change was discovered in a very mildly affected 33-year-old [Delta]F508 compound heterozygote, suggesting that the T-to-G transversion at the less conserved [minus]3 position of the acceptor splice site may retain some wildtype function. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Alternative mRNA splicing generates multiple forms of peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase in rat atrium.

    PubMed Central

    Stoffers, D A; Green, C B; Eipper, B A

    1989-01-01

    Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM; EC 1.14.17.3) catalyzes the conversion of a variety of glycine-extended peptides into biologically active alpha-amidated product peptides in a reaction dependent on copper, ascorbate, and molecular oxygen. We have isolated and sequenced cDNAs representing the two major classes of PAM mRNA in the adult rat heart atrium. The two types of cDNA, rPAM-1 and rPAM-2, are identical except for the deletion of a 315-base-pair segment within the protein coding region in rPAM-2, suggesting that rPAM-1 and rPAM-2 arise by alternative splicing. Northern analysis using a cDNA probe derived from within the 315-base-pair region deleted in rPAM-2 visualized the larger of the PAM mRNAs in adult rat atrium and not the smaller, indicating that the presence or absence of this 315-nucleotide segment is a major feature distinguishing the two size forms of PAM mRNA. The 105 amino acid segment that distinguishes the two forms of atrial PAM contains a consensus N-glycosylation site and a paired basic amino acid site of potential importance in endoproteolytic processing. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of rat, frog, and bovine PAM cDNAs reveals an extremely well conserved segment in the 3' untranslated region. The high degree of conservation in amino acid sequence throughout the catalytic, intragranular, and cytoplasmic domains of rat atrium, bovine pituitary, and frog skin PAM suggests that both the catalytic and noncatalytic domains of the protein subserve important functions. Images PMID:2911604

  5. Intronless mRNA transport elements may affect multiple steps of pre-mRNA processing.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y; Wimler, K M; Carmichael, G G

    1999-01-01

    We have reported recently that a small element within the mouse histone H2a-coding region permits efficient cytoplasmic accumulation of intronless beta-globin cDNA transcripts. This sequence lowers the levels of spliced products from intron-containing constructs and can functionally replace Rev and the Rev-responsive element (RRE) in the nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1-related mRNAs. In work reported here, we further investigate the molecular mechanisms by which this element might work. We demonstrate here through both in vivo and in vitro assays that, in addition to promoting mRNA nuclear export, this element acts as a polyadenylation enhancer and as a potent inhibitor of splicing. Surprisingly, two other described intronless mRNA transport elements (from the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene and hepatitis B virus) appear to function in a similar manner. These findings prompt us to suggest that a general feature of intronless mRNA transport elements might be a collection of phenotypes, including the inhibition of splicing and the enhancement of both polyadenylation and mRNA export. PMID:10075934

  6. Splicing in action: assessing disease causing sequence changes

    PubMed Central

    Baralle, D; Baralle, M

    2005-01-01

    Variations in new splicing regulatory elements are difficult to identify exclusively by sequence inspection and may result in deleterious effects on precursor (pre) mRNA splicing. These mutations can result in either complete skipping of the exon, retention of the intron, or the introduction of a new splice site within an exon or intron. Sometimes mutations that do not disrupt or create a splice site activate pre-existing pseudo splice sites, consistent with the proposal that introns contain splicing inhibitory sequences. These variants can also affect the fine balance of isoforms produced by alternatively spliced exons and in consequence cause disease. Available genomic pathology data reveal that we are still partly ignorant of the basic mechanisms that underlie the pre-mRNA splicing process. The fact that human pathology can provide pointers to new modulatory elements of splicing should be exploited. PMID:16199547

  7. Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion in the Transcription Factor 4 (TCF4) Gene Leads to Widespread mRNA Splicing Changes in Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Wieben, Eric D.; Aleff, Ross A.; Tang, Xiaojia; Butz, Malinda L.; Kalari, Krishna R.; Highsmith, Edward W.; Jen, Jin; Vasmatzis, George; Patel, Sanjay V.; Maguire, Leo J.; Baratz, Keith H.; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To identify RNA missplicing events in human corneal endothelial tissue isolated from Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Methods Total RNA was isolated and sequenced from corneal endothelial tissue obtained during keratoplasty from 12 patients with FECD and 4 patients undergoing keratoplasty or enucleation for other indications. The length of the trinucleotide repeat (TNR) CTG in the transcription factor 4 (TCF4) gene was determined using leukocyte-derived DNA analyzed by a combination of Southern blotting and Genescan analysis. Commercial statistical software was used to quantify expression of alternatively spliced genes. Validation of selected alternative splicing events was performed by using RT-PCR. Gene sets identified were analyzed for overrepresentation using Web-based analysis system. Results Corneal endothelial tissue from FECD patients containing a CTG TNR expansion sequence in the TCF4 gene revealed widespread changes in mRNA splicing, including a novel splicing event involving FGFR2. Differential splicing of NUMA1, PPFIBP1, MBNL1, and MBNL2 transcripts were identified in all FECD samples containing a TNR expansion. The differentially spliced genes were enriched for products that localize to the cell cortex and bind cytoskeletal and cell adhesion proteins. Conclusions Corneal endothelium from FECD patients harbors a unique signature of mis-splicing events due to CTG TNR expansion in the TCF4 gene, consistent with the hypothesis that RNA toxicity contributes to the pathogenesis of FECD. Changes to the endothelial barrier function, a known event in the development of FECD, was identified as a key biological process influenced by the missplicing events. PMID:28118661

  8. The MTL1 Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein Is Required for Both Translation and Splicing of the Mitochondrial NADH DEHYDROGENASE SUBUNIT7 mRNA in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Haïli, Nawel; Planchard, Noelya; Arnal, Nadège; Quadrado, Martine; Vrielynck, Nathalie; Dahan, Jennifer; des Francs-Small, Catherine Colas; Mireau, Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial translation involves a complex interplay of ancient bacteria-like features and host-derived functionalities. Although the basic components of the mitochondrial translation apparatus have been recognized, very few protein factors aiding in recruiting ribosomes on mitochondria-encoded messenger RNA (mRNAs) have been identified in higher plants. In this study, we describe the identification of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MITOCHONDRIAL TRANSLATION FACTOR1 (MTL1) protein, a new member of the Pentatricopeptide Repeat family, and show that it is essential for the translation of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit7 (nad7) mRNA. We demonstrate that mtl1 mutant plants fail to accumulate the Nad7 protein, even though the nad7 mature mRNA is produced and bears the same 5' and 3' extremities as in wild-type plants. We next observed that polysome association of nad7 mature mRNA is specifically disrupted in mtl1 mutants, indicating that the absence of Nad7 results from a lack of translation of nad7 mRNA. These findings illustrate that mitochondrial translation requires the intervention of gene-specific nucleus-encoded PPR trans-factors and that their action does not necessarily involve the 5' processing of their target mRNA, as observed previously. Interestingly, a partial decrease in nad7 intron 2 splicing was also detected in mtl1 mutants, suggesting that MTL1 is also involved in group II intron splicing. However, this second function appears to be less essential for nad7 expression than its role in translation. MTL1 will be instrumental to understand the multifunctionality of PPR proteins and the mechanisms governing mRNA translation and intron splicing in plant mitochondria.

  9. Alternative splicing and developmental and hormonal regulation of porcine comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) mRNA.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Suh, Y; Kim, E; Moeller, S J; Lee, K

    2012-12-01

    The process of lipolysis is essential for regulating the catabolism of cellular fat stores. Therefore, knowledge of lipolysis contributes to improving porcine production, such as reducing back fat, enhancing lean meat, and controlling marbling. Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) plays an important role in the multi-enzyme-mediated process of lipolysis. It was identified as the co-activator of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which performs the first step in breaking down triacylglycerol and generating diacylglycerol and NEFA. We cloned and sequenced the CGI-58 cDNA and deduced the AA sequences in 3 breeds of swine (Duroc, Berkshire, and Landrace). Homologies were found with the human, mouse, and chicken for the lipid droplet binding domain, the α/β hydrolase domain, and the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) domain, which demonstrates conservation of CGI-58 across species. An alternatively spliced isoform with an exon 3 deletion was identified. Interestingly, this unique isoform contains the lipid droplet-binding domain but lacks the LPAAT domain due to an open reading frame (ORF) shift that creates a premature stop codon. Furthermore, porcine CGI-58 is expressed in multiple organs and tissues but is most predominant in adipose tissue. Porcine adipose and stromal-vascular (SV) cell fractionation reveals that CGI-58 and ATGL are highly expressed (P < 0.01) in mature adipocytes. The expressions of both CGI-58 and ATGL mRNA were found to increase (P < 0.05) at d 6 of SV cell culture, confirming their upregulation during adipogenesis and differentiation. Also, the results from in vitro cell culture showed that insulin decreased (P < 0.05) the expressions of both CGI-58 and ATGL in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, these results report the cDNA and AA sequences of porcine CGI-58 with identification of its unique alternatively spliced variant. The results of the study also reveal the developmental and hormonal regulation of porcine CGI-58 gene

  10. Upstream ORF affects MYCN translation depending on exon 1b alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The MYCN gene is transcribed into two major mRNAs: one full-length (MYCN) and one exon 1b-spliced (MYCNΔ1b) mRNA. But nothing is known about their respective ability to translate the MYCN protein. Methods Plasmids were prepared to enable translation from the upstream (uORF) and major ORF of the two MYCN transcripts. Translation was studied after transfection in neuroblastoma SH-EP cell line. Impact of the upstream AUG on translation was evaluated after directed mutagenesis. Functional study with the two MYCN mRNAs was conducted by a cell viability assay. Existence of a new protein encoded by the MYCNΔ1b uORF was explored by designing a rabbit polyclonal antibody against a specific epitope of this protein. Results Both are translated, but higher levels of protein were seen with MYCNΔ1b mRNA. An upstream ORF was shown to have positive cis-regulatory activity on translation from MYCN but not from MYCNΔ1b mRNA. In transfected SH-EP neuroblastoma cells, high MYCN dosage obtained with MYCNΔ1b mRNA translation induces an antiapoptotic effect after serum deprivation that was not observed with low MYCN expression obtained with MYCN mRNA. Here, we showed that MYCNOT: MYCN Overlap Transcript, a new protein of unknown function is translated from the upstream AUG of MYCNΔ1b mRNA. Conclusions Existence of upstream ORF in MYCN transcripts leads to a new level of MYCN regulation. The resulting MYCN dosage has a weak but significant anti-apoptotic activity after intrinsic apoptosis induction. PMID:20017904

  11. ICF-specific DNMT3B dysfunction interferes with intragenic regulation of mRNA transcription and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Sole; Gagliardi, Miriam; Franzese, Monica; Leppert, Sylwia; Papa, Mariarosaria; Cammisa, Marco; Grillo, Giacomo; Velasco, Guillame; Francastel, Claire; Toubiana, Shir; D'Esposito, Maurizio; Angelini, Claudia; Matarazzo, Maria R

    2017-03-09

    Hypomorphic mutations in DNA-methyltransferase DNMT3B cause majority of the rare disorder Immunodeficiency, Centromere instability and Facial anomalies syndrome cases (ICF1). By unspecified mechanisms, mutant-DNMT3B interferes with lymphoid-specific pathways resulting in immune response defects. Interestingly, recent findings report that DNMT3B shapes intragenic CpG-methylation of highly-transcribed genes. However, how the DNMT3B-dependent epigenetic network modulates transcription and whether ICF1-specific mutations impair this process remains unknown. We performed a transcriptomic and epigenomic study in patient-derived B-cell lines to investigate the genome-scale effects of DNMT3B dysfunction. We highlighted that altered intragenic CpG-methylation impairs multiple aspects of transcriptional regulation, like alternative TSS usage, antisense transcription and exon splicing. These defects preferentially associate with changes of intragenic H3K4me3 and at lesser extent of H3K27me3 and H3K36me3. In addition, we highlighted a novel DNMT3B activity in modulating the self-regulatory circuit of sense-antisense pairs and the exon skipping during alternative splicing, through interacting with RNA molecules. Strikingly, altered transcription affects disease relevant genes, as for instance the memory-B cell marker CD27 and PTPRC genes, providing us with biological insights into the ICF1-syndrome pathogenesis. Our genome-scale approach sheds light on the mechanisms still poorly understood of the intragenic function of DNMT3B and DNA methylation in gene expression regulation.

  12. Nonsense codons can reduce the abundance of nuclear mRNA without affecting the abundance of pre-mRNA or the half-life of cytoplasmic mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, J; Maquat, L E

    1993-01-01

    The abundance of the mRNA for human triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) is decreased to approximately 20% of normal by frameshift and nonsense mutations that cause translation to terminate at a nonsense codon within the first three-fourths of the reading frame. Results of previous studies inhibiting RNA synthesis with actinomycin D suggested that the decrease is not attributable to an increased rate of cytoplasmic mRNA decay. However, the step in TPI RNA metabolism that is altered was not defined, and the use of actinomycin D, in affecting all polymerase II-transcribed genes, could result in artifactual conclusions. In data presented here, the nonsense codon-mediated reduction in the level of TPI mRNA is shown to be characteristic of both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of the cell, indicating that the altered metabolic step is nucleus associated. Neither aberrancies in gene transcription nor aberrancies in RNA splicing appear to contribute to the reduction since there were no accompanying changes in the amount of nuclear run-on transcription, the level of any of the six introns in TPI pre-mRNA, or the size of processed mRNA in the nucleus. Deletion of all splice sites that reside downstream of a nonsense codon does not abrogate the reduction, indicating that the reduction takes place independently of the splicing of a downstream intron. Experiments that placed TPI gene expression under the control of the human c-fos promoter, which can be transiently activated by the addition of serum to serum-deprived cells, verified that there is no detectable effect of a nonsense codon on the turnover of cytoplasmic mRNA. Images PMID:8441420

  13. Hibernation-specific alternative splicing of the mRNA encoding cold-inducible RNA-binding protein in the hearts of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yuuki; Shiina, Takahiko; Naitou, Kiyotada; Nakamori, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2015-07-10

    The hearts of hibernating animals are capable of maintaining constant beating despite a decrease in body temperature to less than 10 °C during hibernation, suggesting that the hearts of hibernators are highly tolerant to a cold temperature. In the present study, we examined the expression pattern of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) in the hearts of hibernating hamsters, since CIRP plays important roles in protection of various types of cells against harmful effects of cold temperature. RT-PCR analysis revealed that CIRP mRNA is constitutively expressed in the heart of a non-hibernating euthermic hamster with several different forms probably due to alternative splicing. The short product contained the complete open reading frame for full-length CIRP. On the other hand, the long product had inserted sequences containing a stop codon, suggesting production of a C-terminal deletion isoform of CIRP. In contrast to non-hibernating hamsters, only the short product was amplified in hibernating animals. Induction of artificial hypothermia in non-hibernating hamsters did not completely mimic the splicing patterns observed in hibernating animals, although a partial shift from long form mRNA to short form was observed. Our results indicate that CIRP expression in the hamster heart is regulated at the level of alternative splicing, which would permit a rapid increment of functional CIRP when entering hibernation.

  14. Nonsense-Mediated Decay of Alternative Precursor mRNA Splicing Variants Is a Major Determinant of the Arabidopsis Steady State Transcriptome[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Drechsel, Gabriele; Kahles, André; Kesarwani, Anil K.; Stauffer, Eva; Behr, Jonas; Drewe, Philipp; Rätsch, Gunnar; Wachter, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) surveillance pathway can recognize erroneous transcripts and physiological mRNAs, such as precursor mRNA alternative splicing (AS) variants. Currently, information on the global extent of coupled AS and NMD remains scarce and even absent for any plant species. To address this, we conducted transcriptome-wide splicing studies using Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in the NMD factor homologs UP FRAMESHIFT1 (UPF1) and UPF3 as well as wild-type samples treated with the translation inhibitor cycloheximide. Our analyses revealed that at least 17.4% of all multi-exon, protein-coding genes produce splicing variants that are targeted by NMD. Moreover, we provide evidence that UPF1 and UPF3 act in a translation-independent mRNA decay pathway. Importantly, 92.3% of the NMD-responsive mRNAs exhibit classical NMD-eliciting features, supporting their authenticity as direct targets. Genes generating NMD-sensitive AS variants function in diverse biological processes, including signaling and protein modification, for which NaCl stress–modulated AS-NMD was found. Besides mRNAs, numerous noncoding RNAs and transcripts derived from intergenic regions were shown to be NMD responsive. In summary, we provide evidence for a major function of AS-coupled NMD in shaping the Arabidopsis transcriptome, having fundamental implications in gene regulation and quality control of transcript processing. PMID:24163313

  15. BhbZIP60 from Resurrection Plant Boea hygrometrica Is an mRNA Splicing-Activated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulator Involved in Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Du, Hong; Zhang, Zhennan; Xu, Wenzhong; Deng, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Adverse environmental conditions cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in plants. To mitigate ER stress damage, ER associated transcription factors and inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1)-mediated bZIP60 mRNA splicing are activated in plants. A drought-induced gene, encoding the ortholog of AtbZIP60, was identified in the resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica, termed BhbZIP60. In response to ER stress and dehydration, BhbZIP60 mRNA can be spliced to create a frame shift in the C terminus by the excision of 23b segment in a manner of its ortholog in other plants, thus translocating to the nucleus instead of the cytoplasm. The splicing-activated BhbZIP60 (BhbZIP60S) could function in the same way as its Arabidopsis ortholog by restoring the molecular phenotype of the mutant atbzip60. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, BhbZIP60S provided transgenic plants with enhanced tolerance to drought, tunicamycin and mannitol stresses with upregulation of the expressions of ER quality control (QC) genes (BiP2, BiP3, CNX1, and sPDI) and abscisic acid (ABA) responsive genes (RD29A, RAB18, and RD17). Furthermore, in the yeast one-hybrid system, BhbZIP60S was capable of interacting with ER stress responsive elements (ERSE and ERSE-II) that exist in the promoters of known ER-QC genes, but not binding to ABA responsive cis-elements (ABREs). Our results demonstrated that drought-induced BhbZIP60 may have a function in drought tolerance via the splicing-activated BhbZIP60S to mediate ER-QC by direct binding to the promoters of ER-QC genes. This study evidently demonstrates the involvement of ER-QC in the drought tolerance of Arabidopsis and the desiccation tolerance of the resurrection plant B. hygrometrica. PMID:28286511

  16. BhbZIP60 from Resurrection Plant Boea hygrometrica Is an mRNA Splicing-Activated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulator Involved in Drought Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Du, Hong; Zhang, Zhennan; Xu, Wenzhong; Deng, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Adverse environmental conditions cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in plants. To mitigate ER stress damage, ER associated transcription factors and inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1)-mediated bZIP60 mRNA splicing are activated in plants. A drought-induced gene, encoding the ortholog of AtbZIP60, was identified in the resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica, termed BhbZIP60. In response to ER stress and dehydration, BhbZIP60 mRNA can be spliced to create a frame shift in the C terminus by the excision of 23b segment in a manner of its ortholog in other plants, thus translocating to the nucleus instead of the cytoplasm. The splicing-activated BhbZIP60 (BhbZIP60S) could function in the same way as its Arabidopsis ortholog by restoring the molecular phenotype of the mutant atbzip60. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, BhbZIP60S provided transgenic plants with enhanced tolerance to drought, tunicamycin and mannitol stresses with upregulation of the expressions of ER quality control (QC) genes (BiP2, BiP3, CNX1, and sPDI) and abscisic acid (ABA) responsive genes (RD29A, RAB18, and RD17). Furthermore, in the yeast one-hybrid system, BhbZIP60S was capable of interacting with ER stress responsive elements (ERSE and ERSE-II) that exist in the promoters of known ER-QC genes, but not binding to ABA responsive cis-elements (ABREs). Our results demonstrated that drought-induced BhbZIP60 may have a function in drought tolerance via the splicing-activated BhbZIP60S to mediate ER-QC by direct binding to the promoters of ER-QC genes. This study evidently demonstrates the involvement of ER-QC in the drought tolerance of Arabidopsis and the desiccation tolerance of the resurrection plant B. hygrometrica.

  17. Apparently synonymous substitutions in FGFR2 affect splicing and result in mild Crouzon syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) account for a higher proportion of genetic cases of craniosynostosis than any other gene, and are associated with a wide spectrum of severity of clinical problems. Many of these mutations are highly recurrent and their associated features well documented. Crouzon syndrome is typically caused by heterozygous missense mutations in the third immunoglobulin domain of FGFR2. Case presentation Here we describe two families, each segregating a different, previously unreported FGFR2 mutation of the same nucleotide, c.1083A>G and c.1083A>T, both of which encode an apparently synonymous change at the Pro361 codon. We provide experimental evidence that these mutations affect normal FGFR2 splicing and document the clinical consequences, which include a mild Crouzon syndrome phenotype and reduced penetrance of craniosynostosis. Conclusions These observations add to a growing list of FGFR2 mutations that affect splicing and provide important clinical information for genetic counselling of families affected by these specific mutations. PMID:25174698

  18. Co-expression of the human cannabinoid receptor coding region splice variants (hCB₁) affects the function of hCB₁ receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Bagher, Amina M; Laprairie, Robert B; Kelly, Melanie E M; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M

    2013-12-05

    The human type 1 cannabinoid (hCB1) receptor is expressed at high levels in the central nervous system. mRNA variants of the coding region of this receptor, human cannabinoid hCB1a and hCB1b receptors, have been identified, their biological function remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that the three human cannabinoid hCB1 coding region variants are expressed in the human and monkey (Macaca fascicularis) brain. Western blot analyses of homogenates from different regions of the monkey brain demonstrated that proteins with the expected molecular weights of the cannabinoid CB1, CB1a and CB1b receptors were co-expressed throughout the brain. Given the co-localization of these receptors, we hypothesized that physical interactions between the three splice variants may affect cannabinoid pharmacology. The human cannabinoid hCB1, hCB1a, and hCB1b receptors formed homodimers and heterodimers, as determined by BRET in transiently transfected HEK 293A cells. We found that the co-expression of the human cannabinoid hCB1 and each of the splice variants increased cell surface expression of the human cannabinoid hCB1 receptor and increased Gi/o-dependent ERK phosphorylation in response to cannabinoid agonists. Therefore, the human cannabinoid hCB1 coding region splice variants play an important physiological role in the activity of the endocannabinoid system.

  19. Evolution of the Antisense Overlap between Genes for Thyroid Hormone Receptor and Rev-erbα and Characterization of an Exonic G-Rich Element That Regulates Splicing of TRα2 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, Stephen H.; Morales, Christopher H.; Duyck, Tessa H.; Waters, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    The α-thyroid hormone receptor gene (TRα) codes for two functionally distinct proteins: TRα1, the α-thyroid hormone receptor; and TRα2, a non-hormone-binding variant. The final exon of TRα2 mRNA overlaps the 3’ end of Rev-erbα mRNA, which encodes another nuclear receptor on the opposite strand of DNA. To understand the evolution of this antisense overlap, we sequenced these genes and mRNAs in the platypus Orthorhynchus anatinus. Despite its strong homology with other mammals, the platypus TRα/Rev-erbα locus lacks elements essential for expression of TRα2. Comparative analysis suggests that alternative splicing of TRα2 mRNA expression evolved in a stepwise fashion before the divergence of eutherian and marsupial mammals. A short G-rich element (G30) located downstream of the alternative 3’splice site of TRα2 mRNA and antisense to the 3’UTR of Rev-erbα plays an important role in regulating TRα2 splicing. G30 is tightly conserved in eutherian mammals, but is absent in marsupials and monotremes. Systematic deletions and substitutions within G30 have dramatically different effects on TRα2 splicing, leading to either its inhibition or its enhancement. Mutations that disrupt one or more clusters of G residues enhance splicing two- to three-fold. These results suggest the G30 sequence can adopt a highly structured conformation, possibly a G-quadruplex, and that it is part of a complex splicing regulatory element which exerts both positive and negative effects on TRα2 expression. Since mutations that strongly enhance splicing in vivo have no effect on splicing in vitro, it is likely that the regulatory role of G30 is mediated through linkage of transcription and splicing. PMID:26368571

  20. Simian virus 40 early mRNA's. I. Genomic localization of 3' and 5' termini and two major splices in mRNA from transformed and lytically infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, V B; Ghosh, P K; Lebowitz, P; Piatak, M; Weissman, S M

    1979-01-01

    We have studied the structure of polyadenylated virus-specific cytoplasmic mRNA's in mouse and human cells transformed by simian virus 40 and in monkey cells infected with simian virus 40 in the presence of cytosine arabinoside by means of reverse transcriptase-catalyzed complementary DNA synthesis and complementary DNA sequencing. Abundant mRNA species containing splices from residues 4490 to 4557 (0.533 to 0.546 map units [m.u.]) and 4490 to 4837 (0.533 to 0.600 m.u.) were identified in both transformed and infected cells. Two principal reverse transcriptase stops were observed at the 5' termini of these mRNA's, both occurring with approximately equal frequency. The most distal of these stops was localized at residues 5152 to 5154 (0.660 m.u.), and the second was at residues 5147 to 5148 (0.659 m.u.). Several additional minor stops, between approximately 0.62 and 0.65 m.u., were also found on complementary DNA copied from transformed cell mRNA; in contrast, only one additional stop was present on complementary DNA copied from early lytic mRNA. These data suggest the presence of a prinicipal 5' terminus of early lytic and transformed cell mRNA's at residues 5152 to 5154 and raise the possibility of additional 5' termini at one or more locations in the 0.62 to 0.659 m.u. region of these mRNA's. Transformed cell mRNA was also found to contain a single 3' terminus at positions 2504 and 2505 (0.153 m.u.); termini lying beyond this site were not detected. Images PMID:90157

  1. Molecular Characterization, mRNA Expression and Alternative Splicing of Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Brown Citrus Aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke-Yi; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shang, Feng; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) play a critical role in regulating the release of intracellular calcium, which enables them to be effectively targeted by the two novel classes of insecticides, phthalic acid diamides and anthranilic diamides. However, less information is available about this target site in insects, although the sequence and structure information of target molecules are essential for designing new control agents of high selectivity and efficiency, as well as low non-target toxicity. Here, we provided sufficient information about the coding sequence and molecular structures of RyR in T. citricida (TciRyR), an economically important pest. The full-length TciRyR cDNA was characterized with an open reading frame of 15,306 nucleotides, encoding 5101 amino acid residues. TciRyR was predicted to embrace all the hallmarks of ryanodine receptor, typically as the conserved C-terminal domain with consensus calcium-biding EF-hands (calcium-binding motif) and six transmembrane domains, as well as a large N-terminal domain. qPCR analysis revealed that the highest mRNA expression levels of TciRyR were observed in the adults, especially in the heads. Alternative splicing in TciRyR was evidenced by an alternatively spliced exon, resulting from intron retention, which was different from the case of RyR in Myzus persicae characterized with no alternative splicing events. Diagnostic PCR analysis indicated that the splicing of this exon was not only regulated in a body-specific manner but also in a stage-dependent manner. Taken together, these results provide useful information for new insecticide design and further insights into the molecular basis of insecticide action. PMID:26154764

  2. Familial retinoblastoma due to intronic LINE-1 insertion causes aberrant and noncanonical mRNA splicing of the RB1 gene.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martín, Carlos; Cidre, Florencia; Fernández-Teijeiro, Ana; Gómez-Mariano, Gema; de la Vega, Leticia; Ramos, Patricia; Zaballos, Ángel; Monzón, Sara; Alonso, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB, MIM 180200) is the paradigm of hereditary cancer. Individuals harboring a constitutional mutation in one allele of the RB1 gene have a high predisposition to develop RB. Here, we present the first case of familial RB caused by a de novo insertion of a full-length long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) into intron 14 of the RB1 gene that caused a highly heterogeneous splicing pattern of RB1 mRNA. LINE-1 insertion was inferred by mRNA studies and full-length sequenced by massive parallel sequencing. Some of the aberrant mRNAs were produced by noncanonical acceptor splice sites, a new finding that up to date has not been described to occur upon LINE-1 retrotransposition. Our results clearly show that RNA-based strategies have the potential to detect disease-causing transposon insertions. It also confirms that the incorporation of new genetic approaches, such as massive parallel sequencing, contributes to characterize at the sequence level these unique and exceptional genetic alterations.

  3. A genetic interaction map of RNA-processing factors reveals links between Sem1/Dss1-containing complexes and mRNA export and splicing.

    PubMed

    Wilmes, Gwendolyn M; Bergkessel, Megan; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Shales, Michael; Braberg, Hannes; Cagney, Gerard; Collins, Sean R; Whitworth, Gregg B; Kress, Tracy L; Weissman, Jonathan S; Ideker, Trey; Guthrie, Christine; Krogan, Nevan J

    2008-12-05

    We used a quantitative, high-density genetic interaction map, or E-MAP (Epistatic MiniArray Profile), to interrogate the relationships within and between RNA-processing pathways. Due to their complexity and the essential roles of many of the components, these pathways have been difficult to functionally dissect. Here, we report the results for 107,155 individual interactions involving 552 mutations, 166 of which are hypomorphic alleles of essential genes. Our data enabled the discovery of links between components of the mRNA export and splicing machineries and Sem1/Dss1, a component of the 19S proteasome. In particular, we demonstrate that Sem1 has a proteasome-independent role in mRNA export as a functional component of the Sac3-Thp1 complex. Sem1 also interacts with Csn12, a component of the COP9 signalosome. Finally, we show that Csn12 plays a role in pre-mRNA splicing, which is independent of other signalosome components. Thus, Sem1 is involved in three separate and functionally distinct complexes.

  4. Proteasome-Mediated Proteolysis of SRSF5 Splicing Factor Intriguingly Co-occurs with SRSF5 mRNA Upregulation during Late Erythroid Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Breig, Osman; Baklouti, Faouzi

    2013-01-01

    SR proteins exhibit diverse functions ranging from their role in constitutive and alternative splicing, to virtually all aspects of mRNA metabolism. These findings have attracted growing interest in deciphering the regulatory mechanisms that control the tissue-specific expression of these SR proteins. In this study, we show that SRSF5 protein decreases drastically during erythroid cell differentiation, contrasting with a concomitant upregulation of SRSF5 mRNA level. Proteasome chemical inhibition provided strong evidence that endogenous SRSF5 protein, as well as protein deriving from stably transfected SRSF5 cDNA, are both targeted to proteolysis as the cells undergo terminal differentiation. Consistently, functional experiments show that overexpression of SRSF5 enhances a specific endogenous pre-mRNA splicing event in proliferating cells, but not in differentiating cells, due to proteasome-mediated targeting of both endogenous and transfection-derived SRSF5. Further investigation of the relationship between SRSF5 structure and its post-translation regulation and function, suggested that the RNA recognition motifs of SRSF5 are sufficient to activate pre-mRNA splicing, whereas proteasome-mediated proteolysis of SRSF5 requires the presence of the C-terminal RS domain of the protein. Phosphorylation of SR proteins is a key post-translation regulation that promotes their activity and subcellular availability. We here show that inhibition of the CDC2-like kinase (CLK) family and mutation of the AKT phosphorylation site Ser86 on SRSF5, have no effect on SRSF5 stability. We reasoned that at least AKT and CLK signaling pathways are not involved in proteasome-induced turnover of SRSF5 during late erythroid development. PMID:23536862

  5. Novel deletion mutants that enhance a distant upstream 5' splice in the E3 transcription unit of adenovirus 2.

    PubMed Central

    Deutscher, S L; Bhat, B M; Pursley, M H; Cladaras, C; Wold, W S

    1985-01-01

    Region E3 of adenovirus is a "complex" transcription unit: i.e. different mRNAs and proteins arise by differential RNA 3' end selection and differential splicing of the primary transcript. We are using viable virus mutants to understand the controls that dictate the specificity and efficiency of the RNA processing signals. We describe a novel class of deletion mutations that enhance a natural 5' splice site located approximately 740 nucleotides (nt) upstream. In particular, deletions within nt 1691-2044 in the E3 transcription unit result in a 5-fold enhancement of the 5' splice site at nt 951 (as reflected in steady-state mRNA). The effect is specific, because the deletions do not affect the 5' splice site at nt 372, and because deletions within nt 2044-2214 do not affect either the 951 or the 372 5' splice sites. As a consequence of the enhanced splicing at the 951 5' site, synthesis of the major E3 mRNA and the major E3 protein (gp19K) are dramatically reduced. At least one of the natural 3' splice sites, located at nt 2157, is the recipient of the enhanced splicing at the 951 5' splice site. We conclude that sequences located within nt 1691-2044 affect (probably in cis) splicing at the 951 5' splice site. We speculate that nt 1691-2044 includes a splicing control region which functions to suppress splicing at the 951 5' splice site. Images PMID:2412208

  6. Salt stress affects mRNA editing in soybean chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Nureyev F; Fonseca, Guilherme C da; Kulcheski, Franceli R; Margis, Rogério

    2017-03-02

    Soybean, a crop known by its economic and nutritional importance, has been the subject of several studies that assess the impact and the effective plant responses to abiotic stresses. Salt stress is one of the main environmental stresses and negatively impacts crop growth and yield. In this work, the RNA editing process in the chloroplast of soybean plants was evaluated in response to a salt stress. Bioinformatics approach using sRNA and mRNA libraries were employed to detect specific sites showing differences in editing efficiency. RT-qPCR was used to measure editing efficiency at selected sites. We observed that transcripts of NDHA, NDHB, RPS14 and RPS16 genes presented differences in coverage and editing rates between control and salt-treated libraries. RT-qPCR assays demonstrated an increase in editing efficiency of selected genes. The salt stress enhanced the RNA editing process in transcripts, indicating responses to components of the electron transfer chain, photosystem and translation complexes. These increases can be a response to keep the homeostasis of chloroplast protein functions in response to salt stress.

  7. The transcription factor c-Myb affects pre-mRNA splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Orvain, Christophe; Matre, Vilborg; Gabrielsen, Odd S.

    2008-07-25

    c-Myb is a transcription factor which plays a key role in haematopoietic proliferation and lineage commitment. We raised the question of whether c-Myb may have abilities beyond the extensively studied transcriptional activation function. In this report we show that c-Myb influences alternative pre-mRNA splicing. This was seen by its marked effect on the 5'-splice site selection during E1A alternative splicing, while no effect of c-Myb was observed when reporters for the 3'-splice site selection or for the constitutive splicing process were tested. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments provided evidence for interactions between c-Myb and distinct components of the splicing apparatus, such as the general splicing factor U2AF{sup 65} and hnRNPA1 involved in the 5'-splice site selection. The effect on 5'-splice site selection was abolished in the oncogenic variant v-Myb. Altogether, these data provide evidence that c-Myb may serve a previously unappreciated role in the coupling between transcription and splicing.

  8. BCAS2 is involved in alternative mRNA splicing in spermatogonia and the transition to meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenbo; Wang, Fengchao; Xu, Qianhua; Shi, Junchao; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Lu, Xukun; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Gao, Zheng; Ma, Huaixiao; Duan, Enkui; Gao, Fei; Gao, Shaorong; Yi, Zhaohong; Li, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer amplified sequence 2 (BCAS2) is involved in multiple biological processes, including pre-mRNA splicing. However, the physiological roles of BCAS2 are still largely unclear. Here we report that BCAS2 is specifically enriched in spermatogonia of mouse testes. Conditional disruption of Bcas2 in male germ cells impairs spermatogenesis and leads to male mouse infertility. Although the spermatogonia appear grossly normal, spermatocytes in meiosis prophase I and meiosis events (recombination and synapsis) are rarely observed in the BCAS2-depleted testis. In BCAS2 null testis, 245 genes are altered in alternative splicing forms; at least three spermatogenesis-related genes (Dazl, Ehmt2 and Hmga1) can be verified. In addition, disruption of Bcas2 results in a significant decrease of the full-length form and an increase of the short form (lacking exon 8) of DAZL protein. Altogether, our results suggest that BCAS2 regulates alternative splicing in spermatogonia and the transition to meiosis initiation, and male fertility. PMID:28128212

  9. Functional SNPs of INCENP Affect Semen Quality by Alternative Splicing Mode and Binding Affinity with the Target Bta-miR-378 in Chinese Holstein Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Qiang; Huang, Jinming; Ju, Zhihua; Wang, Xiuge; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

    2016-01-01

    Inner centromere protein (INCENP) plays an important role in mitosis and meiosis as the main member of chromosomal passenger protein complex (CPC). To investigate the functional markers of the INCENP gene associated with semen quality, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) g.19970 A>G and g.34078 T>G were identified and analyzed. The new splice variant INCENP-TV is characterized by the deletion of exon 12. The g.19970 A>G in the exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) motif region results in an aberrant splice variant by constructing two minigene expression vectors using the pSPL3 exon capturing vector and transfecting vectors into MLTC-1 cells. INCENP-TV was more highly expressed than INCENP-reference in adult bull testes. The g.34078 T>G located in the binding region of bta-miR-378 could affect the expression of INCENP, which was verified by luciferase assay. To analyze comprehensively the correlation of SNPs with sperm quality, haplotype combinations constructed by g.19970 A>G and g.34078 T>G, as well as g.-692 C>T and g.-556 G>T reported in our previous studies, were analyzed. The bulls with H1H12 and H2H2 exhibited a higher ejaculate volume than those with H2H10 and H9H12, respectively (P < 0.05). Bulls with H11H11 and H2H10 exhibited higher initial sperm motility than those with H2H2 (P < 0.05). The expression levels of INCENP in bulls with H1H12 and H11H11 were significantly higher than those in bulls with H9H12 (P < 0.05), as determined by qRT-PCR. Findings suggest that g.19970 A>G and g.34078 T>G in INCENP both of which appear to change the molecular and biological characteristics of the mRNA transcribed from the locus may serve as a biomarkers of male bovine fertility by affecting alternative splicing mode and binding affinity with the target bta-miR-378. PMID:27669152

  10. Interplay between DMD Point Mutations and Splicing Signals in Dystrophinopathy Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Juan-Mateu, Jonàs; González-Quereda, Lidia; Rodríguez, Maria José; Verdura, Edgard; Lázaro, Kira; Jou, Cristina; Nascimento, Andrés; Jiménez-Mallebrera, Cecilia; Colomer, Jaume; Monges, Soledad; Lubieniecki, Fabiana; Foncuberta, Maria Eugenia; Pascual-Pascual, Samuel Ignacio; Molano, Jesús; Baiget, Montserrat; Gallano, Pia

    2013-01-01

    DMD nonsense and frameshift mutations lead to severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy while in-frame mutations lead to milder Becker muscular dystrophy. Exceptions are found in 10% of cases and the production of alternatively spliced transcripts is considered a key modifier of disease severity. Several exonic mutations have been shown to induce exon-skipping, while splice site mutations result in exon-skipping or activation of cryptic splice sites. However, factors determining the splicing pathway are still unclear. Point mutations provide valuable information regarding the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing and elements defining exon identity in the DMD gene. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of 98 point mutations related to clinical phenotype and their effect on muscle mRNA and dystrophin expression. Aberrant splicing was found in 27 mutations due to alteration of splice sites or splicing regulatory elements. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to test the ability of the available algorithms to predict consequences on mRNA and to investigate the major factors that determine the splicing pathway in mutations affecting splicing signals. Our findings suggest that the splicing pathway is highly dependent on the interplay between splice site strength and density of regulatory elements. PMID:23536893

  11. Functional Genomic mRNA Profiling of Colorectal Adenomas: Identification and in vivo Validation of CD44 and Splice Variant CD44v6 as Molecular Imaging Targets.

    PubMed

    Hartmans, Elmire; Orian-Rousseau, Veronique; Matzke-Ogi, Alexandra; Karrenbeld, Arend; de Groot, Derk Jan A; de Jong, Steven; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Fehrmann, Rudolf S N; Nagengast, Wouter B

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. High adenoma miss rates, especially seen in high-risk patients, demand for better endoscopic detection. By fluorescently 'highlighting' specific molecular characteristics, endoscopic molecular imaging has great potential to fulfill this need. To implement this technique effectively, target proteins that distinguish adenomas from normal tissue must be identified. In this study we applied in silico Functional Genomic mRNA (FGmRNA) profiling, which is a recently developed method that results in an enhanced view on the downstream effects of genomic alterations occurring in adenomas on gene expression levels. FGmRNA profiles of sporadic adenomas were compared to normal colon tissue to identify overexpressed genes. We validated the protein expression of the top identified genes, AXIN2, CEMIP, CD44 and JUN, in sporadic adenoma patient samples via immunohistochemistry (IHC). CD44 was identified as the most attractive target protein for imaging purposes and we proved its relevance in high-risk patients by demonstrating CD44 protein overexpression in Lynch lesions. Subsequently, we show that the epithelial splice variant CD44V6 is highly overexpressed in our patient samples and we demonstrated the feasibility of visualizing adenomas in Apc(Min/+) mice in vivo by using a fluorescently labeled CD44v6 targeting peptide. In conclusion, via in silico functional genomics and ex vivo protein validation, this study identified CD44 as an attractive molecular target for both sporadic and high-risk Lynch adenomas, and demonstrates the in vivo applicability of a small peptide drug directed against splice variant CD44v6 for adenoma imaging.

  12. Functional Genomic mRNA Profiling of Colorectal Adenomas: Identification and in vivo Validation of CD44 and Splice Variant CD44v6 as Molecular Imaging Targets

    PubMed Central

    Hartmans, Elmire; Orian-Rousseau, Veronique; Matzke-Ogi, Alexandra; Karrenbeld, Arend; de Groot, Derk Jan A.; de Jong, Steven; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Fehrmann, Rudolf S.N.; Nagengast, Wouter B.

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. High adenoma miss rates, especially seen in high-risk patients, demand for better endoscopic detection. By fluorescently 'highlighting' specific molecular characteristics, endoscopic molecular imaging has great potential to fulfill this need. To implement this technique effectively, target proteins that distinguish adenomas from normal tissue must be identified. In this study we applied in silico Functional Genomic mRNA (FGmRNA) profiling, which is a recently developed method that results in an enhanced view on the downstream effects of genomic alterations occurring in adenomas on gene expression levels. FGmRNA profiles of sporadic adenomas were compared to normal colon tissue to identify overexpressed genes. We validated the protein expression of the top identified genes, AXIN2, CEMIP, CD44 and JUN, in sporadic adenoma patient samples via immunohistochemistry (IHC). CD44 was identified as the most attractive target protein for imaging purposes and we proved its relevance in high-risk patients by demonstrating CD44 protein overexpression in Lynch lesions. Subsequently, we show that the epithelial splice variant CD44V6 is highly overexpressed in our patient samples and we demonstrated the feasibility of visualizing adenomas in ApcMin/+ mice in vivo by using a fluorescently labeled CD44v6 targeting peptide. In conclusion, via in silico functional genomics and ex vivo protein validation, this study identified CD44 as an attractive molecular target for both sporadic and high-risk Lynch adenomas, and demonstrates the in vivo applicability of a small peptide drug directed against splice variant CD44v6 for adenoma imaging. PMID:28255344

  13. Identification of a novel synonymous mutation in the human β -Ureidopropionase Gene UPB1 affecting pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Meijer, J; Nakajima, Y; Zhang, C; Meinsma, R; Ito, T; Van Kuilenburg, A B P

    2013-01-01

    β-Ureidopropionase is the third enzyme of the pyrimidine degradation pathway and it catalyzes the conversion of N-carbamyl-β-alanine and N-carbamyl-β-aminoisobutyric acid to β-alanine and β-aminoisobutyric acid, respectively, and ammonia and CO2. To date, only 16 genetically confirmed patients with a complete ß-ureidopropionase deficiency have been reported. Here, we report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular analysis of a newly identified patient with β-ureidopropionase deficiency. Mutation analysis of the UPB1 gene showed that the patient was compound heterozygous for a novel synonymous mutation c.93C >T (p.Gly31Gly) in exon 1 and a previously described missense mutation c.977G >A (p.Arg326Gln) in exon 9. The in silico predicted effect of the synonymous mutation p.Gly31Gly on pre-mRNA splicing was investigated using a minigene approach. Wild-type and the mutated minigene constructs, containing the entire exon 1, intron 1, and exon 2 of UPB1, yielded different splicing products after expression in HEK293 cells. The c.93C >T (p.Gly31Gly) mutation resulted in altered pre-mRNA splicing of the UPB1 minigene construct and a deletion of the last 13 nucleotides of exon 1. This deletion (r.92_104delGCAAGGAACTCAG) results in a frame shift and the generation of a premature stop codon (p.Lys32SerfsX31). Using a minigene approach, we have thus identified the first synonymous mutation in the UPB1 gene, creating a cryptic splice-donor site affecting pre-mRNA splicing.

  14. Characterization of disease-associated mutations affecting an exonic splicing enhancer and two cryptic splice sites in exon 13 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene.

    PubMed

    Aznarez, Isabel; Chan, Elayne M; Zielenski, Julian; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Tsui, Lap-Chee

    2003-08-15

    Sequences in exons can play an important role in constitutive and regulated pre-mRNA splicing. Since exonic splicing regulatory sequences are generally poorly conserved and their mechanism of action is not well understood, the consequence of exonic mutations on splicing can only be determined empirically. In this study, we have investigated the consequence of two cystic fibrosis (CF) disease-causing mutations, E656X and 2108delA, on the function of a putative exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 13 of the CFTR gene. We have also determined whether five other CF mutations D648V, D651N, G654S, E664X and T665S located near this putative ESE could lead to aberrant splicing of exon 13. Using minigene constructs, we have demonstrated that the E656X and 2108delA mutations could indeed cause aberrant splicing in a predicted manner, supporting a role for the putative ESE sequence in pre-mRNA splicing. In addition, we have shown that D648V, E664X and T665S mutations could cause aberrant splicing of exon 13 by improving the polypyrimidine tracts of two cryptic 3' splice sites. We also provide evidence that the relative levels of two splicing factors, hTra2alpha and SF2/ASF, could alter the effect on splicing of some of the exon 13 disease mutations. Taken together, our results suggest that the severity of CF disease could be modulated by changes in the fidelity of CFTR pre-mRNA splicing.

  15. Imbalanced Expression of Vcan mRNA Splice Form Proteins Alters Heart Morphology and Cellular Protein Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Tara A.; Dours-Zimmermann, Maria T.; Zimmermann, Dieter R.; Krug, Edward L.; Comte-Walters, Susana; Reyes, Leticia; Davis, Monica A.; Schey, Kevin L.; Schwacke, John H.; Kern, Christine B.; Mjaatvedt, Corey H.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental importance of the proteoglycan versican to early heart formation was clearly demonstrated by the Vcan null mouse called heart defect (hdf). Total absence of the Vcan gene halts heart development at a stage prior to the heart’s pulmonary/aortic outlet segment growth. This creates a problem for determining the significance of versican’s expression in the forming valve precursors and vascular wall of the pulmonary and aortic roots. This study presents data from a mouse model, Vcan(tm1Zim), of heart defects that results from deletion of exon 7 in the Vcan gene. Loss of exon 7 prevents expression of two of the four alternative splice forms of the Vcan gene. Mice homozygous for the exon 7 deletion survive into adulthood, however, the inability to express the V2 or V0 forms of versican results in ventricular septal defects, smaller cushions/valve leaflets with diminished myocardialization and altered pulmonary and aortic outflow tracts. We correlate these phenotypic findings with a large-scale differential protein expression profiling to identify compensatory alterations in cardiac protein expression at E13.5 post coitus that result from the absence of Vcan exon 7. The Vcan(tm1Zim) hearts show significant changes in the relative abundance of several cytoskeletal and muscle contraction proteins including some previously associated with heart disease. These alterations define a protein fingerprint that provides insight to the observed deficiencies in pre-valvular/septal cushion mesenchyme and the stability of the myocardial phenotype required for alignment of the outflow tract with the heart ventricles. PMID:24586547

  16. Identification of mRNA splicing factors as the endothelial receptor for carbohydrate-dependent lung colonization of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Shingo; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Jun; Akama, Tomoya O.; Wong, Shuk-Man Annie; Kawashima, Hiroto; Zhang, Jianing; Smith, David F.; Ohyama, Chikara; Fukuda, Minoru; Fukuda, Michiko N.

    2009-01-01

    Cell surfaces of epithelial cancer are covered by complex carbohydrates, whose structures function in malignancy and metastasis. However, the mechanism underlying carbohydrate-dependent cancer metastasis has not been defined. Previously, we identified a carbohydrate-mimicry peptide designated I-peptide, which inhibits carbohydrate-dependent lung colonization of sialyl Lewis X-expressing B16-FTIII-M cells in E/P-selectin doubly-deficient mice. We hypothesized that lung endothelial cells express an unknown carbohydrate receptor, designated as I-peptide receptor (IPR), responsible for lung colonization of B16-FTIII-M cells. Here, we visualized IPR by in vivo biotinylation, which revealed that the major IPR is a group of 35-kDa proteins. IPR proteins isolated by I-peptide affinity chromatography were identified by proteomics as Ser/Arg-rich alternative pre-mRNA splicing factors or Sfrs1, Sfrs2, Sfrs5, and Sfrs7 gene products. Bacterially expressed Sfrs1 protein bound to B16-FTIII-M cells but not to parental B16 cells. Recombinant Sfrs1 protein bound to a series of fucosylated oligosaccharides in glycan array and plate-binding assays. When anti-Sfrs antibodies were injected intravenously into mice, antibodies labeled a subset of lung capillaries. Anti-Sfrs antibodies inhibited homing of I-peptide-displaying phage to the lung colonization of B16-FTIII-M cells in vivo in the mouse. These results strongly suggest that Sfrs proteins are responsible for fucosylated carbohydrate-dependent lung metastasis of epithelial cancers. PMID:19218444

  17. General splicing factors SF2 and SC35 have equivalent activities in vitro, and both affect alternative 5' and 3' splice site selection.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, X D; Mayeda, A; Maniatis, T; Krainer, A R

    1992-01-01

    The human pre-mRNA splicing factors SF2 and SC35 have similar electrophoretic mobilities, and both of them contain an N-terminal ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-type RNA-recognition motif and a C-terminal arginine/serine-rich domain. However, the two proteins are encoded by different genes and display only 31% amino acid sequence identity. Here we report a systematic comparison of the splicing activities of recombinant SF2 and SC35. We find that either protein can reconstitute the splicing activity of S100 extracts and of SC35-immunodepleted nuclear extracts. Previous studies revealed that SF2 influences alternative 5' splice site selection in vitro, by favoring proximal over distal 5' splice sites, and that the A1 protein of heterogeneous nuclear RNP counteracts this effect. We now show that SC35 has a similar effect on competing 5' splice sites and is also antagonized by A1 protein. In addition, we report that both SF2 and SC35 also favor the proximal site in a pre-mRNA containing duplicated 3' splice sites, but this effect is not modulated by A1. We conclude that SF2 and SC35 are distinct splicing factors, but they display indistinguishable splicing activities in vitro. Images PMID:1454802

  18. An Alu-derived intronic splicing enhancer facilitates intronic processing and modulates aberrant splicing in ATM.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Tibor; Talotti, Gabriele; Lewandowska, Marzena Anna; Pagani, Franco

    2009-11-01

    We have previously reported a natural GTAA deletion within an intronic splicing processing element (ISPE) of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene that disrupts a non-canonical U1 snRNP interaction and activates the excision of the upstream portion of the intron. The resulting pre-mRNA splicing intermediate is then processed to a cryptic exon, whose aberrant inclusion in the final mRNA is responsible for ataxia telangiectasia. We show here that the last 40 bases of a downstream intronic antisense Alu repeat are required for the activation of the cryptic exon by the ISPE deletion. Evaluation of the pre-mRNA splicing intermediate by a hybrid minigene assay indicates that the identified intronic splicing enhancer represents a novel class of enhancers that facilitates processing of splicing intermediates possibly by recruiting U1 snRNP to defective donor sites. In the absence of this element, the splicing intermediate accumulates and is not further processed to generate the cryptic exon. Our results indicate that Alu-derived sequences can provide intronic splicing regulatory elements that facilitate pre-mRNA processing and potentially affect the severity of disease-causing splicing mutations.

  19. Two novel exonic point mutations in HEXA identified in a juvenile Tay-Sachs patient: role of alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Levit, A; Nutman, D; Osher, E; Kamhi, E; Navon, R

    2010-06-01

    We have identified three mutations in the beta-hexoseaminidase A (HEXA) gene in a juvenile Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) patient, which exhibited a reduced level of HEXA mRNA. Two mutations are novel, c.814G>A (p.Gly272Arg) and c.1305C>T (p.=), located in exon 8 and in exon 11, respectively. The third mutation, c.1195A>G (p.Asn399Asp) in exon 11, has been previously characterized as a common polymorphism in African-Americans. Hex A activity measured in TSD Glial cells, transfected with HEXA cDNA constructs bearing these mutations, was unaltered from the activity level measured in normal HEXA cDNA. Analysis of RT-PCR products revealed three aberrant transcripts in the patient, one where exon 8 was absent, one where exon 11 was absent and a third lacking both exons 10 and 11. All three novel transcripts contain frameshifts resulting in premature termination codons (PTCs). Transfection of mini-gene constructs carrying the c.814G>A and c.1305C>T mutations proved that the two mutations result in exon skipping. mRNAs that harbor a PTC are detected and degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway to prevent synthesis of abnormal proteins. However, although NMD is functional in the patient's fibroblasts, aberrant transcripts are still present. We suggest that the level of correctly spliced transcripts as well as the efficiency in which NMD degrade the PTC-containing transcripts, apparently plays an important role in the phenotype severity of the unique patient and thus should be considered as a potential target for drug therapy.

  20. Double strand break repair by capture of retrotransposon sequences and reverse-transcribed spliced mRNA sequences in mouse zygotes.

    PubMed

    Ono, Ryuichi; Ishii, Masayuki; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Kitazawa, Moe; Usami, Takako; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Kanno, Jun; Ikawa, Masahito; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2015-07-28

    The CRISPR/Cas system efficiently introduces double strand breaks (DSBs) at a genomic locus specified by a single guide RNA (sgRNA). The DSBs are subsequently repaired through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). Here, we demonstrate that DSBs introduced into mouse zygotes by the CRISPR/Cas system are repaired by the capture of DNA sequences deriving from retrotransposons, genomic DNA, mRNA and sgRNA. Among 93 mice analysed, 57 carried mutant alleles and 22 of them had long de novo insertion(s) at DSB-introduced sites; two were spliced mRNAs of Pcnt and Inadl without introns, indicating the involvement of reverse transcription (RT). Fifteen alleles included retrotransposons, mRNAs, and other sequences without evidence of RT. Two others were sgRNAs with one containing T7 promoter-derived sequence suggestive of a PCR product as its origin. In conclusion, RT-product-mediated DSB repair (RMDR) and non-RMDR repair were identified in the mouse zygote. We also confirmed that both RMDR and non-RMDR take place in CRISPR/Cas transfected NIH-3T3 cells. Finally, as two de novo MuERV-L insertions in C57BL/6 mice were shown to have characteristic features of RMDR in natural conditions, we hypothesize that RMDR contributes to the emergence of novel DNA sequences in the course of evolution.

  1. Altered mRNA Splicing, Chondrocyte Gene Expression and Abnormal Skeletal Development due to SF3B4 Mutations in Rodriguez Acrofacial Dysostosis

    PubMed Central

    Nevarez, Lisette; Pogue, Robert; Krakow, Deborah; Cohn, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    The acrofacial dysostoses (AFD) are a genetically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders with craniofacial and limb abnormalities. Rodriguez syndrome is a severe, usually perinatal lethal AFD, characterized by severe retrognathia, oligodactyly and lower limb abnormalities. Rodriguez syndrome has been proposed to be a severe form of Nager syndrome, a non-lethal AFD that results from mutations in SF3B4, a component of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U2 snRNP). Furthermore, a case with a phenotype intermediate between Rodriguez and Nager syndromes has been shown to have an SF3B4 mutation. We identified heterozygosity for SF3B4 mutations in Rodriguez syndrome, confirming that the phenotype is a dominant disorder that is allelic with Nager syndrome. The mutations led to reduced SF3B4 synthesis and defects in mRNA splicing, primarily exon skipping. The mutations also led to reduced expression in growth plate chondrocytes of target genes, including the DLX5, DLX6, SOX9, and SOX6 transcription factor genes, which are known to be important for skeletal development. These data provide mechanistic insight toward understanding how SF3B4 mutations lead to the skeletal abnormalities observed in the acrofacial dysostoses. PMID:27622494

  2. The Role of Canonical and Noncanonical Pre-mRNA Splicing in Plant Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovina, A. S.; Kiselev, K. V.; Zhuravlev, Yu. N.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms capable of adapting to various environmental constraints, such as high or low temperatures, drought, soil salinity, or pathogen attack. To survive the unfavorable conditions, plants actively employ pre-mRNA splicing as a mechanism to regulate expression of stress-responsive genes and reprogram intracellular regulatory networks. There is a growing evidence that various stresses strongly affect the frequency and diversity of alternative splicing events in the stress-responsive genes and lead to an increased accumulation of mRNAs containing premature stop codons, which in turn have an impact on plant stress response. A number of studies revealed that some mRNAs involved in plant stress response are spliced counter to the traditional conception of alternative splicing. Such noncanonical mRNA splicing events include trans-splicing, intraexonic deletions, or variations affecting multiple exons and often require short direct repeats to occur. The noncanonical alternative splicing, along with common splicing events, targets the spliced transcripts to degradation through nonsense-mediated mRNA decay or leads to translation of truncated proteins. Investigation of the diversity, biological consequences, and mechanisms of the canonical and noncanonical alternative splicing events will help one to identify those transcripts which are promising for using in genetic engineering and selection of stress-tolerant plants. PMID:23509698

  3. Coupling transcription and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing regulation not only depends on the interaction of splicing factors with splicing enhancers and silencers in the pre-mRNA, but also on the coupling between transcription and splicing. This coupling is possible because splicing is often cotranscriptional and promoter identity and occupation may affect alternative splicing. We discuss here the different mechanisms by which transcription regulates alternative splicing. These include the recruitment of splicing factors to the transcribing polymerase and "kinetic coupling", which involves changes in the rate of transcriptional elongation that in turn affect the timing in which splice sites are presented to the splicing machinery. The recruitment mechanism may depend on the particular features of the carboxyl terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, whereas kinetic coupling seems to be linked to how changes in chromatin structure and other factors affect transcription elongation.

  4. Splice Variants of mda-7/IL-24 Differentially Affect Survival and Induce Apoptosis in U2OS Cells

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Erin L.; Filippov, Valery; Filippova, Maria; Guerrero-Juarez, Christian F.; Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J.

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) is a cytokine in the IL-10 family that has received a great deal of attention for its properties as a tumor suppressor and as a potential treatment for cancer. In this study, we have identified and characterized five alternatively spliced isoforms of this gene. Several, but not all of these isoforms induce apoptosis in the osteosarcoma cell line U2OS, while none affect the survival of the non-cancerous NOK cell line. One of these isoforms, lacking three exons and encoding the N-terminal end of the mda-7/IL-24 protein sequence, caused levels of apoptosis that were higher than those caused by the full-length mda-7/IL-24 variant. Additionally, we found that the ratio of isoform expression can be modified by the splice factor SRp55. This regulation suggests that alternative splicing of mda-7/IL-24 is under tight control in the cell, and can be modified under various cellular conditions, such as DNA damage. In addition to providing new insights into the function of an important tumor suppressor gene, these findings may also point toward new avenues for cancer treatment. PMID:21843952

  5. High prevalence of mutations affecting the splicing process in a Spanish cohort with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Ezquerra-Inchausti, Maitane; Barandika, Olatz; Anasagasti, Ander; Irigoyen, Cristina; López de Munain, Adolfo; Ruiz-Ederra, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is the most frequent group of inherited retinal dystrophies. It is highly heterogeneous, with more than 80 disease-causing genes 27 of which are known to cause autosomal dominant RP (adRP), having been identified. In this study a total of 29 index cases were ascertained based on a family tree compatible with adRP. A custom panel of 31 adRP genes was analysed by targeted next-generation sequencing using the Ion PGM platform in combination with Sanger sequencing. This allowed us to detect putative disease-causing mutations in 14 out of the 29 (48.28%) families analysed. Remarkably, around 38% of all adRP cases analysed showed mutations affecting the splicing process, mainly due to mutations in genes coding for spliceosome factors (SNRNP200 and PRPF8) but also due to splice-site mutations in RHO. Twelve of the 14 mutations found had been reported previously and two were novel mutations found in PRPF8 in two unrelated patients. In conclusion, our results will lead to more accurate genetic counselling and will contribute to a better characterisation of the disease. In addition, they may have a therapeutic impact in the future given the large number of studies currently underway based on targeted RNA splicing for therapeutic purposes. PMID:28045043

  6. High prevalence of mutations affecting the splicing process in a Spanish cohort with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Ezquerra-Inchausti, Maitane; Barandika, Olatz; Anasagasti, Ander; Irigoyen, Cristina; López de Munain, Adolfo; Ruiz-Ederra, Javier

    2017-01-03

    Retinitis pigmentosa is the most frequent group of inherited retinal dystrophies. It is highly heterogeneous, with more than 80 disease-causing genes 27 of which are known to cause autosomal dominant RP (adRP), having been identified. In this study a total of 29 index cases were ascertained based on a family tree compatible with adRP. A custom panel of 31 adRP genes was analysed by targeted next-generation sequencing using the Ion PGM platform in combination with Sanger sequencing. This allowed us to detect putative disease-causing mutations in 14 out of the 29 (48.28%) families analysed. Remarkably, around 38% of all adRP cases analysed showed mutations affecting the splicing process, mainly due to mutations in genes coding for spliceosome factors (SNRNP200 and PRPF8) but also due to splice-site mutations in RHO. Twelve of the 14 mutations found had been reported previously and two were novel mutations found in PRPF8 in two unrelated patients. In conclusion, our results will lead to more accurate genetic counselling and will contribute to a better characterisation of the disease. In addition, they may have a therapeutic impact in the future given the large number of studies currently underway based on targeted RNA splicing for therapeutic purposes.

  7. Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines express a fusion protein encoded by intergenically spliced mRNA for the multilectin receptor DEC-205 (CD205) and a novel C-type lectin receptor DCL-1.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masato; Khan, Seema; Gonzalez, Nelson; O'Neill, Brian P; McDonald, Kylie J; Cooper, Ben J; Angel, Nicola Z; Hart, Derek N J

    2003-09-05

    Classic Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) tissue contains a small population of morphologically distinct malignant cells called Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells, associated with the development of HL. Using 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) we identified an alternative mRNA for the DEC-205 multilectin receptor in the HRS cell line L428. Sequence analysis revealed that the mRNA encodes a fusion protein between DEC-205 and a novel C-type lectin DCL-1. Although the 7.5-kb DEC-205 and 4.2-kb DCL-1 mRNA were expressed independently in myeloid and B lymphoid cell lines, the DEC-205/DCL-1 fusion mRNA (9.5 kb) predominated in the HRS cell lines (L428, KM-H2, and HDLM-2). The DEC-205 and DCL-1 genes comprising 35 and 6 exons, respectively, are juxtaposed on chromosome band 2q24 and separated by only 5.4 kb. We determined the DCL-1 transcription initiation site within the intervening sequence by 5'-RACE, confirming that DCL-1 is an independent gene. Two DEC-205/DCL-1 fusion mRNA variants may result from cotranscription of DEC-205 and DCL-1, followed by splicing DEC-205 exon 35 or 34-35 along with DCL-1 exon 1. The resulting reading frames encode the DEC-205 ectodomain plus the DCL-1 ectodomain, the transmembrane, and the cytoplasmic domain. Using DCL-1 cytoplasmic domain-specific polyclonal and DEC-205 monoclonal antibodies for immunoprecipitation/Western blot analysis, we showed that the fusion mRNA is translated into a DEC-205/DCL-1 fusion protein, expressed in the HRS cell lines. These results imply an unusual transcriptional control mechanism in HRS cells, which cotranscribe an mRNA containing DEC-205 and DCL-1 prior to generating the intergenically spliced mRNA to produce a DEC-205/DCL-1 fusion protein.

  8. Abiotic stresses affect differently the intron splicing and expression of chloroplast genes in coffee plants (Coffea arabica) and rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Nguyen Dinh, Sy; Sai, Than Zaw Tun; Nawaz, Ghazala; Lee, Kwanuk; Kang, Hunseung

    2016-08-20

    Despite the increasing understanding of the regulation of chloroplast gene expression in plants, the importance of intron splicing and processing of chloroplast RNA transcripts under stress conditions is largely unknown. Here, to understand how abiotic stresses affect the intron splicing and expression patterns of chloroplast genes in dicots and monocots, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the intron splicing and expression patterns of chloroplast genes in the coffee plant (Coffea arabica) as a dicot and rice (Oryza sativa) as a monocot under abiotic stresses, including drought, cold, or combined drought and heat stresses. The photosynthetic activity of both coffee plants and rice seedlings was significantly reduced under all stress conditions tested. Analysis of the transcript levels of chloroplast genes revealed that the splicing of tRNAs and mRNAs in coffee plants and rice seedlings were significantly affected by abiotic stresses. Notably, abiotic stresses affected differently the splicing of chloroplast tRNAs and mRNAs in coffee plants and rice seedlings. The transcript levels of most chloroplast genes were markedly downregulated in both coffee plants and rice seedlings upon stress treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that coffee and rice plants respond to abiotic stresses via regulating the intron splicing and expression of different sets of chloroplast genes.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide triggers a novel alternative splicing of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Daigo; Takeda, Chieri; Yasuoka, Daiki; Himeno, Seiichiro

    2016-11-04

    We previously reported that two splicing variants of human AS3MT mRNA, exon-3 skipping form (Δ3) and exons-4 and -5 skipping form (Δ4,5), were detected in HepG2 cells and that both variants lacked arsenic methylation activity (Sumi et al., 2011). Here we studied whether hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) triggers alternative splicing of AS3MT mRNA. The results showed that exposure of HepG2 cells to H2O2 resulted in increased levels of a novel spliced form skipping exon-3 to exon-10 (Δ3-10) in an H2O2-concentration-dependent manner, although no change was detected in the mRNA levels of Δ3 AS3MT. We found decreased protein levels of serine/arginine-rich 40 (SRp40), which we determined to be a candidate splice factor for controlling the splicing of AS3MT mRNA. We next compared the amounts of methylated arsenic metabolites between control and H2O2-exposed HepG2 cells after the addition of arsenite as a substance. The results showed lower levels of methylated arsenic metabolites in HepG2 cells exposed to H2O2. These data suggest that the splicing of AS3MT pre-mRNA was disconcerted by oxidative stress and that abnormal alternative splicing of AS3MT mRNA may affect arsenic methylation ability.

  10. The Intronic GABRG2 Mutation, IVS6+2T→G, Associated with CAE Altered Subunit mRNA Intron Splicing, Activated Nonsense-Mediated Decay and Produced a Stable Truncated γ2 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mengnan; Macdonald, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    The intronic GABRG2 mutation, IVS6+2T→G, was identified in an Australian family with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and febrile seizures (Kananura et al., 2002). The GABRG2 intron 6 splice donor site was found to be mutated from GT to GG. We generated wildtype and mutant γ2S subunit bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) driven by a CMV promoter and expressed them in HEK293T cells and expressed wildtype and mutant γ2S subunit BACs containing the endogenous hGABRG2 promoter in transgenic mice. Wildtype and mutant GABRG2 mRNA splicing patterns were determined in both BAC transfected HEK293T cells and transgenic mouse brain, and in both, the mutation abolished intron 6 splicing at the donor site, activated a cryptic splice site, generated partial intron 6 retention and produced a frame shift in exon 7 that created a premature translation-termination codon (PTC). The resultant mutant mRNA was either degraded partially by nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD) or translated to a stable, truncated subunit (the γ2-PTC subunit) containing the first 6 GABRG2 exons and a novel frame-shifted 29 aa C terminal tail. The γ2-PTC subunit was homologous to the mollusk acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) but was not secreted from cells. It was retained in the ER and not expressed on the surface membrane, but it did oligomerize with α1 and β2 subunits. These results suggested that the GABRG2 mutation, IVS6+2T→G, reduced surface αβγ2 receptor levels, thus reducing GABAergic inhibition, by reducing GABRG2 transcript level and producing a stable, nonfunctional truncated subunit that had a dominant negative effect on αβγ2 receptor assembly. PMID:22539854

  11. Global regulation of alternative splicing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR).

    PubMed

    Solomon, Oz; Oren, Shirley; Safran, Michal; Deshet-Unger, Naamit; Akiva, Pinchas; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Cesarkas, Karen; Kabesa, Reut; Amariglio, Ninette; Unger, Ron; Rechavi, Gideon; Eyal, Eran

    2013-05-01

    Alternative mRNA splicing is a major mechanism for gene regulation and transcriptome diversity. Despite the extent of the phenomenon, the regulation and specificity of the splicing machinery are only partially understood. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing of pre-mRNA by ADAR enzymes has been linked to splicing regulation in several cases. Here we used bioinformatics approaches, RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray of ADAR knockdown cells to globally examine how ADAR and its A-to-I RNA editing activity influence alternative mRNA splicing. Although A-to-I RNA editing only rarely targets canonical splicing acceptor, donor, and branch sites, it was found to affect splicing regulatory elements (SREs) within exons. Cassette exons were found to be significantly enriched with A-to-I RNA editing sites compared with constitutive exons. RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray revealed that ADAR knockdown in hepatocarcinoma and myelogenous leukemia cell lines leads to global changes in gene expression, with hundreds of genes changing their splicing patterns in both cell lines. This global change in splicing pattern cannot be explained by putative editing sites alone. Genes showing significant changes in their splicing pattern are frequently involved in RNA processing and splicing activity. Analysis of recently published RNA-seq data from glioblastoma cell lines showed similar results. Our global analysis reveals that ADAR plays a major role in splicing regulation. Although direct editing of the splicing motifs does occur, we suggest it is not likely to be the primary mechanism for ADAR-mediated regulation of alternative splicing. Rather, this regulation is achieved by modulating trans-acting factors involved in the splicing machinery.

  12. A novel COL11A1 mutation affecting splicing in a patient with Stickler syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Kobayashi, Haruka; Watanabe, Miki; Okamoto, Nana; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei; Okamoto, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Stickler syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous collagenopathy characterized by ocular, auditory, skeletal and orofacial abnormalities, commonly occurring as an autosomal dominant trait. We conducted target resequencing to analyze candidate genes associated with known clinical phenotypes from a 4-year-old girl with Stickler syndrome. We detected a novel heterozygous intronic mutation (NM_001854.3:c.3168+5G>A) in COL11A1 that may impair splicing, which was suggested by in silico prediction and a minigene assay. PMID:27081549

  13. A novel COL11A1 mutation affecting splicing in a patient with Stickler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Kobayashi, Haruka; Watanabe, Miki; Okamoto, Nana; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei; Okamoto, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Stickler syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous collagenopathy characterized by ocular, auditory, skeletal and orofacial abnormalities, commonly occurring as an autosomal dominant trait. We conducted target resequencing to analyze candidate genes associated with known clinical phenotypes from a 4-year-old girl with Stickler syndrome. We detected a novel heterozygous intronic mutation (NM_001854.3:c.3168+5G>A) in COL11A1 that may impair splicing, which was suggested by in silico prediction and a minigene assay.

  14. Normal and mutant human beta-globin pre-mRNAs are faithfully and efficiently spliced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Krainer, A R; Maniatis, T; Ruskin, B; Green, M R

    1984-04-01

    Human beta-globin mRNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) synthesized in vitro from a bacteriophage SP6 promoter/beta-globin gene fusion are accurately and efficiently spliced when added to a HeLa cell nuclear extract. Under optimal conditions, the first intervening sequence (IVS 1) is removed by splicing in up to 90% of the input pre-mRNA. Splicing requires ATP and in its absence the pre-mRNA is neither spliced nor cleaved at splice junctions. Splicing does not require that the pre-mRNA contain a correct 5' or 3' end, a 3' poly A tail, or a 5'-terminal cap structure. However, capping of the pre-mRNA significantly affects the specificity of in vitro processing. In the absence of a cap approximately 30%-40% of the pre-mRNA is accurately spliced, and a number of aberrantly cleaved RNAs are also detected. In contrast, capped pre-mRNAs are spliced more efficiently and produce fewer aberrant RNA species. The specificity of splice-site selection in vitro was tested by analyzing pre-mRNAs that contain beta-thalassemia splicing mutations in IVS 1. Remarkably, these mutations cause the same abnormal splicing events in vitro and in vivo. The ability to synthesize mutant pre-mRNAs and study their splicing in a faithful in vitro system provides a powerful approach to determine the mechanisms of RNA splice-site selection.

  15. Alternative RNA splicing and cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sali; Cheng, Chonghui

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) is a fundamental mechanism by which a gene can give rise to multiple distinct mRNA transcripts, yielding protein isoforms with different, even opposing, functions. With the recognition that alternative splicing occurs in nearly all human genes, its relationship with cancer-associated pathways has emerged as a rapidly growing field. In this review, we summarize recent findings that have implicated the critical role of alternative splicing in cancer and discuss current understandings of the mechanisms underlying dysregulated alternative splicing in cancer cells.

  16. Alkaline decontamination of sputum specimens adversely affects stability of mycobacterial mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Desjardin, L E; Perkins, M D; Teixeira, L; Cave, M D; Eisenach, K D

    1996-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) is an important tool for Mycobacterium tuberculosis research and diagnostics. A standard procedure using N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) and NaOH has been widely adopted for digestion and decontamination of sputum specimens for mycobacterial culture. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility of this method with the recovery of RNA for RT-PCR assays. Nineteen sputum specimens were collected from smear-positive, pretreatment tuberculosis patients. After homogenization with NALC and glass beads, specimens were further processed by the addition of either NaOH, as per the standard decontamination protocol, or phosphate buffer. RNA was prepared by using a modified guanidine-phenol extraction method developed specifically for sputum sediments. DNA was isolated from the same specimens. Reverse transcriptions of alpha antigen (85B protein) mRNA and 16S rRNA were performed together, and aliquots were removed for separate PCRs. In all specimens, the 85B mRNA target was greatly diminished by treatment with NaOH; however, the 16S rRNA target remained unaffected. Storing sputum specimens for 48 h at 4 degrees C before processing did not seem to affect the integrity or yield of RNA; however, some degradation occurred by 72 h. Data suggest that the NaOH-NALC method for processing sputum samples is not suitable for detecting mRNA targets in RT-PCR assays. PMID:8880495

  17. Stem-loop RNA labeling can affect nuclear and cytoplasmic mRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Stephanie; Sidler, Corinne L; Azzalin, Claus M; Weis, Karsten

    2017-02-01

    The binding of sequence-specific RNA-interacting proteins, such as the bacteriophage MS2 or PP7 coat proteins, to their corresponding target sequences has been extremely useful and widely used to visualize single mRNAs in vivo. However, introduction of MS2 stem-loops into yeast mRNAs has recently been shown to lead to the accumulation of RNA fragments, suggesting that the loops impair mRNA decay. This result was questioned, because fragment occurrence was mainly assessed using ensemble methods, and their cellular localization and its implications had not been addressed on a single transcript level. Here, we demonstrate that the introduction of either MS2 stem-loops (MS2SL) or PP7 stem-loops (PP7SL) can affect the processing and subcellular localization of mRNA. We use single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) to determine the localization of three independent mRNAs tagged with the stem-loop labeling systems in glucose-rich and glucose starvation conditions. Transcripts containing MS2SL or PP7SL display aberrant localization in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. These defects are most prominent in glucose starvation conditions, with nuclear mRNA processing being altered and stem-loop fragments abnormally enriching in processing bodies (PBs). The mislocalization of SL-containing RNAs is independent of the presence of the MS2 or PP7 coat protein (MCP or PCP).

  18. Effects of Age and Hindlimb Immobilization and Remobilization on Fast Troponin T Precursor mRNA Alternative Splicing in Rat Gastrocnemius Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Suhana; Schilder, Rudolf J.; Berg, Arthur S.; Kimball, Scot R.

    2016-01-01

    Fast skeletal muscle Troponin T (TNNT3) is an important component of the skeletal muscle contractile machinery. The pre-mRNA encoding TNNT3 is alternatively spliced and changes in the pattern of TNNT3 splice form expression are associated with alterations in thin filament calcium sensitivity and force production during muscle contraction, thereby regulating muscle function. Interestingly, during aging, muscle force/cross sectional area is reduced, suggesting that loss of mass does not completely account for the impaired muscle function that develops during the aging process. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the hypothesis that age- and changes in muscle loading are associated with alterations in TNNT3 alternative splicing in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. We found that the relative abundance of several TNNT3 splice forms varied significantly with age among 2, 9, and 18-month old rats, and the pattern correlated with changes in body weight rather than muscle mass. Hindlimb immobilization for 7 days resulted in dramatic alterations in splice form relative abundance such that the pattern was similar to that observed in lighter animals. Remobilization for 7 days restored the splicing pattern toward that observed in the non-immobilized limb, even though muscle mass had not yet begun to recover. In conclusion, the results suggest that TNNT3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing is rapidly (i.e. within days) modulated in response to changes in the load placed on the muscle. Moreover, the results show that restoration of TNNT3 alternative splicing to control patterns is initiated prior to an increase in muscle mass. PMID:26799695

  19. Circadian and feeding rhythms differentially affect rhythmic mRNA transcription and translation in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Atger, Florian; Gobet, Cédric; Marquis, Julien; Martin, Eva; Wang, Jingkui; Weger, Benjamin; Lefebvre, Grégory; Descombes, Patrick; Naef, Felix; Gachon, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression are a hallmark of rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Such oscillations are controlled by the interplay between the circadian clock and feeding rhythms. Although rhythmic mRNA accumulation has been extensively studied, comparatively less is known about their transcription and translation. Here, we quantified simultaneously temporal transcription, accumulation, and translation of mouse liver mRNAs under physiological light–dark conditions and ad libitum or night-restricted feeding in WT and brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1)-deficient animals. We found that rhythmic transcription predominantly drives rhythmic mRNA accumulation and translation for a majority of genes. Comparison of wild-type and Bmal1 KO mice shows that circadian clock and feeding rhythms have broad impact on rhythmic gene expression, Bmal1 deletion affecting surprisingly both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Translation efficiency is differentially regulated during the diurnal cycle for genes with 5′-Terminal Oligo Pyrimidine tract (5′-TOP) sequences and for genes involved in mitochondrial activity, many harboring a Translation Initiator of Short 5′-UTR (TISU) motif. The increased translation efficiency of 5′-TOP and TISU genes is mainly driven by feeding rhythms but Bmal1 deletion also affects amplitude and phase of translation, including TISU genes. Together this study emphasizes the complex interconnections between circadian and feeding rhythms at several steps ultimately determining rhythmic gene expression and translation. PMID:26554015

  20. Circadian and feeding rhythms differentially affect rhythmic mRNA transcription and translation in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Atger, Florian; Gobet, Cédric; Marquis, Julien; Martin, Eva; Wang, Jingkui; Weger, Benjamin; Lefebvre, Grégory; Descombes, Patrick; Naef, Felix; Gachon, Frédéric

    2015-11-24

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression are a hallmark of rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Such oscillations are controlled by the interplay between the circadian clock and feeding rhythms. Although rhythmic mRNA accumulation has been extensively studied, comparatively less is known about their transcription and translation. Here, we quantified simultaneously temporal transcription, accumulation, and translation of mouse liver mRNAs under physiological light-dark conditions and ad libitum or night-restricted feeding in WT and brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1)-deficient animals. We found that rhythmic transcription predominantly drives rhythmic mRNA accumulation and translation for a majority of genes. Comparison of wild-type and Bmal1 KO mice shows that circadian clock and feeding rhythms have broad impact on rhythmic gene expression, Bmal1 deletion affecting surprisingly both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Translation efficiency is differentially regulated during the diurnal cycle for genes with 5'-Terminal Oligo Pyrimidine tract (5'-TOP) sequences and for genes involved in mitochondrial activity, many harboring a Translation Initiator of Short 5'-UTR (TISU) motif. The increased translation efficiency of 5'-TOP and TISU genes is mainly driven by feeding rhythms but Bmal1 deletion also affects amplitude and phase of translation, including TISU genes. Together this study emphasizes the complex interconnections between circadian and feeding rhythms at several steps ultimately determining rhythmic gene expression and translation.

  1. Identification and characterization of NF1 splicing mutations in Korean patients with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Sun Kyung; Lee, Myoung-Keun; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2016-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by NF1 mutations. Although mutations affecting mRNA splicing are the most common molecular defects in NF1, few studies have analyzed genomic DNA (gDNA)-mRNA correlations in Korean NF1 patients. In this study, we investigated 28 unrelated NF1 patients who showed splicing alterations in reverse transcription-PCR of NF1 mRNA and identified 24 different NF1 splicing mutations, 9 of which were novel. These mutations can be categorized into five groups: exon skipping resulting from mutations at authentic 5' and 3' splice sites (type I, 46%), cryptic exon inclusion caused by deep intronic mutations (type II, 8%), creation of new splice sites causing loss of exonic sequences (type III, 8%), activation of cryptic splice sites due to disruption of authentic splice sites (type IV, 25%) and exonic sequence alterations causing exon skipping (type V, 13%). In total, 42% of all splicing mutations did not involve the conserved AG/GT dinucleotides of the splice sites, making it difficult to identify the correct mutation sites at the gDNA level. These results add to the mutational spectrum of NF1 and further elucidate the gDNA-mRNA correlations of NF1 mutations.

  2. Intravitreal Injection of Splice-switching Oligonucleotides to Manipulate Splicing in Retinal Cells.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Xavier; Perrault, Isabelle; Munnich, Arnold; Kaplan, Josseline; Rozet, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis is a severe hereditary retinal dystrophy responsible for neonatal blindness. The most common disease-causing mutation (c.2991+1655A>G; 10-15%) creates a strong splice donor site that leads to insertion of a cryptic exon encoding a premature stop codon. Recently, we reported that splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSO) allow skipping of the mutant cryptic exon and the restoration of ciliation in fibroblasts of affected patients, supporting the feasibility of a SSO-mediated exon skipping strategy to correct the aberrant splicing. Here, we present data in the wild-type mouse, which demonstrate that intravitreal administration of 2'-OMePS-SSO allows selective alteration of Cep290 splicing in retinal cells, including photoreceptors as shown by successful alteration of Abca4 splicing using the same approach. We show that both SSOs and Cep290 skipped mRNA were detectable for at least 1 month and that intravitreal administration of oligonucleotides did not provoke any serious adverse event. These data suggest that intravitreal injections of SSO should be considered to bypass protein truncation resulting from the c.2991+1655A>G mutation as well as other truncating mutations in genes which like CEP290 or ABCA4 have a mRNA size that exceed cargo capacities of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved adeno-associated virus (AAV)-vectors, thus hampering gene augmentation therapy.

  3. An event of alternative splicing affects the expression of the NTRC gene, encoding NADPH-thioredoxin reductase C, in seed plants.

    PubMed

    Nájera, Victoria A; González, María Cruz; Pérez-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Cejudo, Francisco Javier

    2017-05-01

    The NTRC gene encodes a NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase with a joint thioredoxin domain, exclusive of photosynthetic organisms. An updated search shows that although most species harbor a single copy of the NTRC gene, two copies were identified in different species of the genus Solanum, Glycine max and the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phylogenetic analysis of NTRCs from different sources produced a tree with the major groups of photosynthetic organisms: cyanobacteria, algae and land plants, indicating the evolutionary success of the NTRC gene among photosynthetic eukaryotes. An event of alternative splicing affecting the expression of the NTRC gene was identified, which is conserved in seed plants but not in algae, bryophytes and lycophytes. The alternative splicing event results in a transcript with premature stop codon, which would produce a truncated form of the enzyme. The standard splicing/alternative splicing (SS/AS) transcripts ratio was higher in photosynthetic tissues from Arabidopsis, Brachypodium and tomato, in line with the higher content of the NTRC polypeptide in these tissues. Moreover, environmental stresses such as cold or high salt affected the SS/AS ratio of the NTRC gene transcripts in Brachypodium seedlings. These results suggest that the alternative splicing of the NTRC gene might be an additional mechanism for modulating the content of NTRC in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissues of seed plants.

  4. Interaction of the Epstein-Barr virus mRNA export factor EB2 with human Spen proteins SHARP, OTT1, and a novel member of the family, OTT3, links Spen proteins with splicing regulation and mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Hiriart, Edwige; Gruffat, Henri; Buisson, Monique; Mikaelian, Ivan; Keppler, Selina; Meresse, Patrick; Mercher, Thomas; Bernard, Olivier A; Sergeant, Alain; Manet, Evelyne

    2005-11-04

    The Epstein-Barr virus early protein EB2 (also called BMLF1, Mta, or SM), a protein absolutely required for the production of infectious virions, shares properties with mRNA export factors. By using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we have identified the human protein OTT3 as an EB2-interacting factor. OTT3 is a new member of the Spen (split end) family of proteins (huSHARP, huOTT1, DmSpen, and muMINT), which are characterized by several N-terminal RNA recognition motifs and a highly conserved C-terminal SPOC (Spen Paralog and Ortholog C-terminal) domain that, in the case of SHARP, has been shown to interact with SMRT/NCoR corepressors. OTT3 is ubiquitously expressed as a 120-kDa protein. Transfected OTT3 is a nonshuttling nuclear protein that co-localizes with co-transfected EB2. We also showed that EB2 interacts with the SPOC domains of both OTT1 and SHARP proteins. Although the OTT3 interaction domain maps within the 40 N-terminal amino acids of EB2, OTT1 and SHARP interact within the C-terminal half of the protein. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the capacity of the OTT3 and OTT1 SPOC domains to interact with SMRT and repress transcription is far weaker than that of SHARP. Thus there is no evidence for a role of OTT3 in transcriptional regulation. Most interestingly, however, we have found that OTT3 has a role in splicing regulation; OTT3 represses accumulation of the alternatively spliced beta-thalassemia mRNAs, but it has no effect on the beta-globin constitutively spliced mRNA. Thus our results suggested a new function for Spen proteins related to mRNA export and splicing.

  5. Depletion of Arabidopsis SC35 and SC35-like serine/arginine-rich proteins affects the transcription and splicing of a subset of genes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xi; Sun, Zhenfei

    2017-01-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors which play significant roles in spliceosome assembly and splicing regulation. However, little is known regarding their biological functions in plants. Here, we analyzed the phenotypes of mutants upon depleting different subfamilies of Arabidopsis SR proteins. We found that loss of the functions of SC35 and SC35-like (SCL) proteins cause pleiotropic changes in plant morphology and development, including serrated leaves, late flowering, shorter roots and abnormal silique phyllotaxy. Using RNA-seq, we found that SC35 and SCL proteins play roles in the pre-mRNA splicing. Motif analysis revealed that SC35 and SCL proteins preferentially bind to a specific RNA sequence containing the AGAAGA motif. In addition, the transcriptions of a subset of genes are affected by the deletion of SC35 and SCL proteins which interact with NRPB4, a specific subunit of RNA polymerase II. The splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) intron1 and transcription of FLC were significantly regulated by SC35 and SCL proteins to control Arabidopsis flowering. Therefore, our findings provide mechanistic insight into the functions of plant SC35 and SCL proteins in the regulation of splicing and transcription in a direct or indirect manner to maintain the proper expression of genes and development. PMID:28273088

  6. Analysis of xanthine dehydrogenase mRNA levels in mutants affecting the expression of the rosy locus.

    PubMed Central

    Covington, M; Fleenor, D; Devlin, R B

    1984-01-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) mRNA levels were measured in a number of mutants and natural variants affecting XDH gene expression. Two variants, ry+4 and ry+10, contain cis-acting elements which map to a region flanking the 5' end of the XDH gene. Ry+4, which has 2-3 times more XDH protein than a wild type strain, has 3.2 times more XDH mRNA. Ry+10 has 50% of the wild type XDH level and 54% of the wild type XDH mRNA level. Three rosy mutants which map within the structural gene were also examined. Two of these had little if any XDH mRNA, but the third mutant had 1.3 times more XDH mRNA than wild type flies. Another mutant, ry2 , which contains no XDH protein and has a 9KB transposable element inserted into the XDH gene, has normal levels of XDH mRNA transcripts which are also the same size as those found in the wild type strain. Changes in XDH mRNA levels were measured during Drosophila development and found to parallel changes in the amount of XDH protein. In addition, there were no large changes in the size of XDH mRNA during development. Images PMID:6588363

  7. Staufen Recruitment into Stress Granules Does Not Affect Early mRNA Transport in Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, María G.; Tosar, Leandro J. Martinez; Loschi, Mariela; Pasquini, Juana M.; Correale, Jorge; Kindler, Stefan; Boccaccio, Graciela L.

    2005-01-01

    Staufen is a conserved double-stranded RNA-binding protein required for mRNA localization in Drosophila oocytes and embryos. The mammalian homologues Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 have been implicated in dendritic RNA targeting in neurons. Here we show that in rodent oligodendrocytes, these two proteins are present in two independent sets of RNA granules located at the distal myelinating processes. A third kind of RNA granules lacks Staufen and contains major myelin mRNAs. Myelin Staufen granules associate with microfilaments and microtubules, and their subcellular distribution is affected by polysome-disrupting drugs. Under oxidative stress, both Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 are recruited into stress granules (SGs), which are stress-induced organelles containing transiently silenced messengers. Staufen SGs contain the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), the RNA-binding proteins HuR and TIAR, and small but not large ribosomal subunits. Staufen recruitment into perinuclear SGs is paralleled by a similar change in the overall localization of polyadenylated RNA. Under the same conditions, the distribution of recently transcribed and exported mRNAs is not affected. Our results indicate that Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 are novel and ubiquitous SG components and suggest that Staufen RNPs are involved in repositioning of most polysomal mRNAs, but not of recently synthesized transcripts, during the stress response. PMID:15525674

  8. p54nrb/NONO regulates cyclic AMP-dependent glucocorticoid production by modulating phosphodiesterase mRNA splicing and degradation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jia Yang; Sewer, Marion B

    2015-04-01

    Glucocorticoid production in the adrenal cortex is activated in response to an increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling. The nuclear protein p54(nrb)/NONO belongs to the Drosophila behavior/human splicing (DBHS) family and has been implicated in several nuclear processes, including transcription, splicing, and RNA export. We previously identified p54(nrb)/NONO as a component of a protein complex that regulates the transcription of CYP17A1, a gene required for glucocorticoid production. Based on the multiple mechanisms by which p54(nrb)/NONO has been shown to control gene expression and the ability of the protein to be recruited to the CYP17A1 promoter, we sought to further define the molecular mechanism by which p54(nrb)/NONO confers optimal cortisol production. We show here that silencing p54(nrb)/NONO expression in H295R human adrenocortical cells decreases the ability of the cells to increase intracellular cAMP production and subsequent cortisol biosynthesis in response to adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) stimulation. Interestingly, the expression of multiple phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms, including PDE2A, PDE3A, PDE3B, PDE4A, PDE4D, and PDE11A, was induced in p54(nrb)/NONO knockdown cells. Investigation of the mechanism by which silencing of p54(nrb)/NONO led to increased expression of select PDE isoforms revealed that p54(nrb)/NONO regulates the splicing of a subset of PDE isoforms. Importantly, we also identify a role for p54(nrb)/NONO in regulating the stability of PDE transcripts by facilitating the interaction between the exoribonuclease XRN2 and select PDE transcripts. In summary, we report that p54(nrb)/NONO modulates cAMP-dependent signaling, and ultimately cAMP-stimulated glucocorticoid biosynthesis by regulating the splicing and degradation of PDE transcripts.

  9. p54nrb/NONO Regulates Cyclic AMP-Dependent Glucocorticoid Production by Modulating Phosphodiesterase mRNA Splicing and Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jia Yang

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid production in the adrenal cortex is activated in response to an increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling. The nuclear protein p54nrb/NONO belongs to the Drosophila behavior/human splicing (DBHS) family and has been implicated in several nuclear processes, including transcription, splicing, and RNA export. We previously identified p54nrb/NONO as a component of a protein complex that regulates the transcription of CYP17A1, a gene required for glucocorticoid production. Based on the multiple mechanisms by which p54nrb/NONO has been shown to control gene expression and the ability of the protein to be recruited to the CYP17A1 promoter, we sought to further define the molecular mechanism by which p54nrb/NONO confers optimal cortisol production. We show here that silencing p54nrb/NONO expression in H295R human adrenocortical cells decreases the ability of the cells to increase intracellular cAMP production and subsequent cortisol biosynthesis in response to adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) stimulation. Interestingly, the expression of multiple phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms, including PDE2A, PDE3A, PDE3B, PDE4A, PDE4D, and PDE11A, was induced in p54nrb/NONO knockdown cells. Investigation of the mechanism by which silencing of p54nrb/NONO led to increased expression of select PDE isoforms revealed that p54nrb/NONO regulates the splicing of a subset of PDE isoforms. Importantly, we also identify a role for p54nrb/NONO in regulating the stability of PDE transcripts by facilitating the interaction between the exoribonuclease XRN2 and select PDE transcripts. In summary, we report that p54nrb/NONO modulates cAMP-dependent signaling, and ultimately cAMP-stimulated glucocorticoid biosynthesis by regulating the splicing and degradation of PDE transcripts. PMID:25605330

  10. Splicing of Friend Murine Leukemia Virus env-mRNA Enhances Its Ability to Form Polysomes

    PubMed Central

    Machinaga, Akihito; Ishihara, Syuhei; Shirai, Akiko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka

    2016-01-01

    Friend murine leukemia virus (MLV) belongs to the gamma retroviruses of the Retroviridae family. The positive-sense RNA of its genome contains a 5′ long terminal repeat (LTR), 5′ leader sequence, gag, pol, env, and 3′ LTR. Transcription from proviral DNA begins from the R region of the 5′ LTR and ends at the polyadenylation signal located at the R region of the other end of the 3′ LTR. There is a 5′ splice site in the 5′ leader sequence and a 3′ splice site at the 3′ end of the pol region. Both full-length unspliced mRNAs and a singly spliced mRNA (env-mRNA) are produced in MLV-infected cells. The MLV Env protein plays important roles both in viral adsorption to host cells and in neuropathogenic disease in MLV-infected mice and rats. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms controlling Env expression is important for determining the functions of the Env protein. We have previously shown that splicing increases env-mRNA stability and translation efficiency. Generally, mRNA polysome formation correlates with translation efficiency. Therefore, here we investigated the effects of env-mRNA splicing on polysome formation to identify mechanisms for Env up-regulation due to splicing. We performed polysome profile analyses using Env-expression plasmids producing spliced or unspliced env-mRNA and showed that the former formed polysomes more efficiently than the latter. Thus, splicing of env-mRNA facilitated polysome formation, suggesting that this contributes to up-regulation of Env expression. We replaced the env region of the expression plasmids with a luciferase (luc) gene, and found that in this case both unspliced and spliced luc-mRNA formed polysomes to a similar extent. Thus, we conclude that whether mRNA polysome formation is affected by splicing depends on the structure of gene in question. PMID:26909075

  11. Cellular RNA binding proteins NS1-BP and hnRNP K regulate influenza A virus RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Ling; Chiou, Ni-Ting; Kuss, Sharon; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Lynch, Kristen W; Fontoura, Beatriz M A

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a major human pathogen with a genome comprised of eight single-strand, negative-sense, RNA segments. Two viral RNA segments, NS1 and M, undergo alternative splicing and yield several proteins including NS1, NS2, M1 and M2 proteins. However, the mechanisms or players involved in splicing of these viral RNA segments have not been fully studied. Here, by investigating the interacting partners and function of the cellular protein NS1-binding protein (NS1-BP), we revealed novel players in the splicing of the M1 segment. Using a proteomics approach, we identified a complex of RNA binding proteins containing NS1-BP and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), among which are hnRNPs involved in host pre-mRNA splicing. We found that low levels of NS1-BP specifically impaired proper alternative splicing of the viral M1 mRNA segment to yield the M2 mRNA without affecting splicing of mRNA3, M4, or the NS mRNA segments. Further biochemical analysis by formaldehyde and UV cross-linking demonstrated that NS1-BP did not interact directly with viral M1 mRNA but its interacting partners, hnRNPs A1, K, L, and M, directly bound M1 mRNA. Among these hnRNPs, we identified hnRNP K as a major mediator of M1 mRNA splicing. The M1 mRNA segment generates the matrix protein M1 and the M2 ion channel, which are essential proteins involved in viral trafficking, release into the cytoplasm, and budding. Thus, reduction of NS1-BP and/or hnRNP K levels altered M2/M1 mRNA and protein ratios, decreasing M2 levels and inhibiting virus replication. Thus, NS1-BP-hnRNPK complex is a key mediator of influenza A virus gene expression.

  12. MEIS1 intronic risk haplotype associated with restless legs syndrome affects its mRNA and protein expression levels

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Lan; Catoire, Hélène; Dion, Patrick; Gaspar, Claudia; Lafrenière, Ronald G.; Girard, Simon L.; Levchenko, Anastasia; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Fiori, Laura; St-Onge, Judith; Bachand, Isabelle; Thibodeau, Pascale; Allen, Richard; Earley, Christopher; Turecki, Gustavo; Montplaisir, Jacques; Rouleau, Guy A.

    2009-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs at night, which is often accompanied by unpleasant sensations. A recent genomewide association study identified an association between RLS and intronic markers from the MEIS1 gene. Comparative genomic analysis indicates that MEIS1 is the only gene encompassed in this evolutionarily conserved chromosomal segment, i.e. a conservation synteny block, from mammals to fish. We carried out a series of experiments to delineate the role of MEIS1 in RLS pathogenesis and the underlying genetic mechanism. We sequenced all 13 MEIS1 exons and their splice junctions in 285 RLS probands with confirmed clinical diagnosis and did not identify any causative coding or exon–intron junction mutations. We found no evidence of structural variation or disease-associated haplotype differential splicing. However, sequencing of conserved regions of MEIS1 introns 8 and 9 identified a novel single nucleotide polymorphism (C13B_2) significantly associated with RLS (allelic association, P = 1.81E−07). We detected a significant decrease in MEIS1 mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and brain tissues from RLS patients homozygous for the intronic RLS risk haplotype, compared with those homozygous for the non-risk haplotype. Finally, we found significantly decreased MEIS1 protein levels in the same batch of LCLs and brain tissues from the homozygous carriers of the risk haplotype, compared with the homozygous non-carriers. Therefore, these data suggest that reduced expression of the MEIS1 gene, possibly through intronic cis-regulatory element(s), predisposes to RLS. PMID:19126776

  13. Benchmark analysis of algorithms for determining and quantifying full-length mRNA splice forms from RNA-seq data

    PubMed Central

    Hayer, Katharina E.; Pizarro, Angel; Lahens, Nicholas F.; Hogenesch, John B.; Grant, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Because of the advantages of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) over microarrays, it is gaining widespread popularity for highly parallel gene expression analysis. For example, RNA-Seq is expected to be able to provide accurate identification and quantification of full-length splice forms. A number of informatics packages have been developed for this purpose, but short reads make it a difficult problem in principle. Sequencing error and polymorphisms add further complications. It has become necessary to perform studies to determine which algorithms perform best and which if any algorithms perform adequately. However, there is a dearth of independent and unbiased benchmarking studies. Here we take an approach using both simulated and experimental benchmark data to evaluate their accuracy. Results: We conclude that most methods are inaccurate even using idealized data, and that no method is highly accurate once multiple splice forms, polymorphisms, intron signal, sequencing errors, alignment errors, annotation errors and other complicating factors are present. These results point to the pressing need for further algorithm development. Availability and implementation: Simulated datasets and other supporting information can be found at http://bioinf.itmat.upenn.edu/BEERS/bp2 Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: hayer@upenn.edu PMID:26338770

  14. Publisher's note. Identification of a novel synonymous mutation in the human β-ureidopropionase gene UPB1 affecting pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Meijer, J; Nakajima, Y; Zhang, C; Meinsma, R; Ito, T; Van Kuilenburg, A B P

    2014-01-01

    β-Ureidopropionase is the third enzyme of the pyrimidine degradation pathway and it catalyzes the conversion of N-carbamyl-β-alanine and N-carbamyl-β-aminoisobutyric acid to β-alanine and β-aminoisobutyric acid, respectively, and ammonia and CO2. To date, only 16 genetically confirmed patients with a complete ß-ureidopropionase deficiency have been reported. Here, we report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular analysis of a newly identified patient with β-ureidopropionase deficiency. Mutation analysis of the UPB1 gene showed that the patient was compound heterozygous for a novel synonymous mutation c.93C>T (p.Gly31Gly) in exon 1 and a previously described missense mutation c.977G>A (p.Arg326Gln) in exon 9. The in silico predicted effect of the synonymous mutation p.Gly31Gly on pre-mRNA splicing was investigated using a minigene approach. Wild-type and the mutated minigene constructs, containing the entire exon 1, intron 1, and exon 2 of UPB1, yielded different splicing products after expression in HEK293 cells. The c.93C>T (p.Gly31Gly) mutation resulted in altered pre-mRNA splicing of the UPB1 minigene construct and a deletion of the last 13 nucleotides of exon 1. This deletion (r.92 104delGCAAGGAACTCAG) results in a frame shift and the generation of a premature stop codon (p.Lys32SerfsX31). Using a minigene approach, we have thus identified the first synonymous mutation in the UPB1 gene, creating a cryptic splice-donor site affecting pre-mRNA splicing.

  15. Regulated tissue-specific expression of antagonistic pre-mRNA splicing factors.

    PubMed Central

    Hanamura, A; Cáceres, J F; Mayeda, A; Franza, B R; Krainer, A R

    1998-01-01

    The SR proteins are essential metazoan pre-mRNA splicing factors that can also influence the selection of alternative 5' splice sites in a concentration-dependent manner. Their activity in alternative splicing in vitro is antagonized by members of the hnRNP A/B family of proteins. The opposite effects of members of these two families of antagonistic splicing factors in vitro and upon overexpression in vivo suggest that changes in their relative levels may be a natural mechanism for the regulation of alternative splicing in vivo. One prediction of this model is that the ratios of these antagonists should vary in different cell types and in other situations in which cellular or viral transcripts are differentially spliced. We raised monoclonal antibodies specific for SF2/ASF and used them to measure the abundance of SF2/ASF protein and its isoforms, its phosphorylation state in vivo and during splicing in vitro, and its association with the spliceosome. SF2/ASF exists predominantly or exclusively in a highly phosphorylated state in vivo in all cell types examined, and unphosphorylated protein was not detectable. Unphosphorylated recombinant SF2/ASF becomes rapidly phosphorylated under splicing conditions in HeLa cell extracts and associates stably with one or more exons of beta-globin pre-mRNA. This interaction appears to persist through the splicing reaction and SF2/ASF remains bound to spliced mRNA. We compared the distribution of SF2/ASF to that of its antagonist, hnRNP A1, in different rat tissues and in immortal and transformed cell lines. We found that the protein levels of these antagonistic splicing factors vary naturally over a very wide range, supporting the notion that changes in the ratio of these proteins can affect alternative splicing of a variety of pre-mRNAs in vivo. PMID:9630249

  16. Influenza A viruses suppress cyclooxygenase-2 expression by affecting its mRNA stability

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, Sabine Eva; Nitzsche, Katja; Ludwig, Stephan; Ehrhardt, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Infection with influenza A viruses (IAV) provokes activation of cellular defence mechanisms contributing to the innate immune and inflammatory response. In this process the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in the induction of prostaglandin-dependent inflammation. While it has been reported that COX-2 is induced upon IAV infection, in the present study we observed a down-regulation at later stages of infection suggesting a tight regulation of COX-2 by IAV. Our data indicate the pattern-recognition receptor RIG-I as mediator of the initial IAV-induced COX-2 synthesis. Nonetheless, during on-going IAV replication substantial suppression of COX-2 mRNA and protein synthesis could be detected, accompanied by a decrease in mRNA half-life. Interestingly, COX-2 mRNA stability was not only imbalanced by IAV replication but also by stimulation of cells with viral RNA. Our results reveal tristetraprolin (TTP), which is known to bind COX-2 mRNA and promote its rapid degradation, as regulator of COX-2 expression in IAV infection. During IAV replication and viral RNA accumulation TTP mRNA synthesis was induced, resulting in reduced COX-2 levels. Accordingly, the down-regulation of TTP resulted in increased COX-2 protein expression after IAV infection. These findings indicate a novel IAV-regulated cellular mechanism, contributing to the repression of host defence and therefore facilitating viral replication. PMID:27265729

  17. An NS-segment exonic splicing enhancer regulates influenza A virus replication in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Min; Wang, Pui; Mok, Bobo Wing-Yee; Liu, Siwen; Lau, Siu-Ying; Chen, Pin; Liu, Yen-Chin; Liu, Honglian; Chen, Yixin; Song, Wenjun; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Chen, Honglin

    2017-01-01

    Influenza virus utilizes host splicing machinery to process viral mRNAs expressed from both M and NS segments. Through genetic analysis and functional characterization, we here show that the NS segment of H7N9 virus contains a unique G540A substitution, located within a previously undefined exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) motif present in the NEP mRNA of influenza A viruses. G540A supports virus replication in mammalian cells while retaining replication ability in avian cells. Host splicing regulator, SF2, interacts with this ESE to regulate splicing of NEP/NS1 mRNA and G540A substitution affects SF2–ESE interaction. The NS1 protein directly interacts with SF2 in the nucleus and modulates splicing of NS mRNAs during virus replication. We demonstrate that splicing of NEP/NS1 mRNA is regulated through a cis NEP-ESE motif and suggest a unique NEP-ESE may contribute to provide H7N9 virus with the ability to both circulate efficiently in avian hosts and replicate in mammalian cells. PMID:28323816

  18. RNA splicing and splicing regulator changes in prostate cancer pathology.

    PubMed

    Munkley, Jennifer; Livermore, Karen; Rajan, Prabhakar; Elliott, David J

    2017-04-05

    Changes in mRNA splice patterns have been associated with key pathological mechanisms in prostate cancer progression. The androgen receptor (abbreviated AR) transcription factor is a major driver of prostate cancer pathology and activated by androgen steroid hormones. Selection of alternative promoters by the activated AR can critically alter gene function by switching mRNA isoform production, including creating a pro-oncogenic isoform of the normally tumour suppressor gene TSC2. A number of androgen-regulated genes generate alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms, including a prostate-specific splice isoform of ST6GALNAC1 mRNA. ST6GALNAC1 encodes a sialyltransferase that catalyses the synthesis of the cancer-associated sTn antigen important for cell mobility. Genetic rearrangements occurring early in prostate cancer development place ERG oncogene expression under the control of the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 promoter to hijack cell behaviour. This TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene shows different patterns of alternative splicing in invasive versus localised prostate cancer. Alternative AR mRNA isoforms play a key role in the generation of prostate cancer drug resistance, by providing a mechanism through which prostate cancer cells can grow in limited serum androgen concentrations. A number of splicing regulator proteins change expression patterns in prostate cancer and may help drive key stages of disease progression. Up-regulation of SRRM4 establishes neuronal splicing patterns in neuroendocrine prostate cancer. The splicing regulators Sam68 and Tra2β increase expression in prostate cancer. The SR protein kinase SRPK1 that modulates the activity of SR proteins is up-regulated in prostate cancer and has already given encouraging results as a potential therapeutic target in mouse models.

  19. Cistanches Herba aqueous extract affecting serum BGP and TRAP and bone marrow Smad1 mRNA, Smad5 mRNA, TGF-β1 mRNA and TIEG1 mRNA expression levels in osteoporosis disease.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hai-Dong; Yu, Fang; Tong, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong-Quan; Liang, Wu

    2013-02-01

    We studied molecular mechanism of Cistanches Herba aqueous extract (CHAE) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, as an experimental model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Female rats were either sham-operated or bilaterally OVX; and at 60 days postoperatively. The OVX group (n = 8) received an ovariectomy and treatment with normal saline for 90 days commencing from 20th post ovariectomy day. The ovariectomized +CHAE (OVX + CHAE) group (n = 8) received an ovariectomy and were treated with Cistanches Herba aqueous extract of 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 90 days commencing from 22nd post ovariectomy day. The ovariectomy +CHAE (OVX + CHAE) group (n = 8) received an ovariectomy, and were treated with the of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 90 days commencing from 20th post ovariectomy day. Serum BGP and TRAP, E2, FSH and LH level, bone marrow Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1 mRNA expression levels were examined. Results showed that serum BGP and TRAP, FSH and LH levels were significantly increased, whereas E2, Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1 mRNA and proteins expression levels were significantly decreased in OVX rats compared to sham rats. 90 days of CHAE treatment could significantly decrease serum BGP and TRAP, FSH and LH levels, and increase E2, Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1 mRNA and proteins expression levels in OVX rats. It can be concluded that CHAE play its protective effect against OVX-induced bone degeneration partly by regulating some bone metabolism related genes, e.g. Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1.

  20. NF1 mutation rather than individual genetic variability is the main determinant of the NF1-transcriptional profile of mutations affecting splicing.

    PubMed

    Pros, Eva; Larriba, Sara; López, Eva; Ravella, Anna; Gili, M Lluïsa; Kruyer, Helena; Valls, Joan; Serra, Eduard; Lázaro, Conxi

    2006-11-01

    A significant number of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) mutations result in exon skipping. The majority of these mutations do not occur in the canonical splice sites and can produce different aberrant transcripts whose proportions have not been well studied. It has been hypothesized that differences in the mutation-determined NF1-transcriptional profile could partially explain disease variability among patients bearing the same NF1 splice defect. In order to gain insight into these aspects, we analyzed the proportion of the different transcripts generated by nine NF1-splicing mutations in 30 patients. We assessed the influence of the mutation in the NF1-related transcriptional profiles and investigated the existence of individual differences in a global manner. We analyzed potential differences in tissue-specific transcriptional profiles and evaluated the influence of sample processing and mRNA nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Small transcriptional differences were found in neurofibromas and neurofibroma-derived Schwann cells (SC) compared to blood. We also detected a higher cell culture-dependent NMD. We observed that mutation per se explains 93.5% of the profile variability among mutations studied. However, despite the importance of mutation in determining the proportion of NF1 transcripts generated, we found certain variability among patients with the same mutation. From our results, it seems that genetic factors influencing RNA processing play a minor role in determining the NF1-transcriptional profile. Nevertheless neurofibromin studies would clarify whether these small differences translate into significant functional changes that could explain the great clinical expressivity observed in the disease or any of the disease-related traits.

  1. Alternative splicing in cancer: implications for biology and therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Weiss, W A

    2015-01-02

    Alternative splicing has critical roles in normal development and can promote growth and survival in cancer. Aberrant splicing, the production of noncanonical and cancer-specific mRNA transcripts, can lead to loss-of-function in tumor suppressors or activation of oncogenes and cancer pathways. Emerging data suggest that aberrant splicing products and loss of canonically spliced variants correlate with stage and progression in malignancy. Here, we review the splicing landscape of TP53, BARD1 and AR to illuminate roles for alternative splicing in cancer. We also examine the intersection between alternative splicing pathways and novel therapeutic approaches.

  2. Transposon insertions causing constitutive sex-lethal activity in Drosophila melanogaster affect Sxl sex-specific transcript splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Berstein, M.; Cline, T.W. |; Lersch, R.A.; Subrahmanyan, L.

    1995-02-01

    Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene products induce female development in Drosophila melanogaster and suppress the transcriptional hyperactivation of X-linked genes responsible for male X-chromosome dosage compensation. Control of Sxl functioning by the dose of X-chromosomes normally ensures that the female-specific functions of this developmental switch gene are only expressed in diplo-X individuals. Although the immediate effect of X-chromosome dose is on Sxl transcription, during most of the life cycle {open_quotes}on{close_quotes} vs. {open_quotes}off{close_quotes} reflects alternative Sxl RNA splicing, with the female (productive) splicing mode maintained by a positive feedback activity of SXL protein on Sxl pre-mRNA splicing. {open_quotes}Male-lethal{close_quotes} (Sxl{sup M}) gain-of-function alleles subvert Sxl control by X-chromosome dose, allowing female Sxl functions to be expressed independent of the positive regulators upstream of Sxl. As a consequence, Sxl{sup M} haplo-X animals (chromosomal males) die because of improper dosage compensation, and Sxl{sup m} chromosomal females survive the otherwise lethal effects of mutations in upstream positive regulators. Transcript analysis of double-mutant male-viable Sxl{sup M} derivatives in which the Sxl{sup M} insertion is cis to loss-of-function mutations, combined with other results reported here, indicates that the constitutive character of these Sxl{sup M} alleles is a consequence of an alteration of the structure of the pre-mRNA that allow some level of female splicing to occur even in the absence of functional SXL protein. Surprisingly, however, most of the constitutive character of Sxl{sup M} alleles appears to depend on the mutant alleles` responsiveness, perhaps greater than wild-type, to the autoregulatory splicing activity of the wild-type SXL proteins they produce. 47 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Molecular Characteristics, mRNA Expression, and Alternative Splicing of a Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shi, Wen-Zhi; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a distinct class of ligand-gated channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. The emergence of diamide insecticides, which selectively target insect RyRs, has promoted the study of insect RyRs. In the present study, the full-length RyR cDNA (BdRyR) was cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest of fruits and vegetables throughout East Asia and the Pacific Rim. The cDNA of BdRyR contains a 15,420-bp open reading frame encoding 5,140 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 582.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.38. BdRyR shows a high level of amino acid sequence identity (78 to 97%) to other insect RyR isoforms. All common structural features of the RyRs are present in the BdRyR, including a well-conserved C-terminal domain containing consensus calcium-binding EF-hands and six transmembrane domains, and a large N-terminal domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that BdRyR was expressed at the lowest and highest levels in egg and adult, respectively, and that the BdRyR expression levels in the third instar larva, pupa and adult were 166.99-, 157.56- and 808.56-fold higher, respectively, than that in the egg. Among different adult body parts, the highest expression level was observed in the thorax compared with the head and abdomen. In addition, four alternative splice sites were identified in the BdRyR gene, with the first, ASI, being located in the central part of the predicted second spore lysis A/RyR domain. Diagnostic PCR analyses revealed that alternative splice variants were generated not only in a tissue-specific manner but also in a developmentally regulated manner. These results lay the foundation for further understanding the structural and functional properties of BdRyR, and the molecular mechanisms for target site resistance in B. dorsalis. PMID:24740254

  4. The chromatin remodeling and mRNA splicing functions of the Brahma (SWI/SNF) complex are mediated by the SNR1/SNF5 regulatory subunit.

    PubMed

    Zraly, Claudia B; Dingwall, Andrew K

    2012-07-01

    Nucleosome remodeling catalyzed by the ATP-dependent SWI/SNF complex is essential for regulated gene expression. Transcriptome profiling studies in flies and mammals identified cell cycle and hormone responsive genes as important targets of remodeling complex activities. Loss of chromatin remodeling function has been linked to developmental abnormalities and aggressive cancers. The Drosophila Brahma (Brm) SWI/SNF complex assists in reprogramming and coordinating gene expression in response to ecdysone hormone signaling at critical points during development. We used RNAi knockdown in cultured cells and transgenic flies, and conditional mutant alleles to identify unique and important functions of two conserved Brm complex core subunits, SNR1/SNF5 and BRM/SNF2-SWI2, on target gene regulation. Unexpectedly, we found that incorporation of a loss of function SNR1 subunit led to alterations in RNA polymerase elongation, pre-mRNA splicing regulation and chromatin accessibility of ecdysone hormone regulated genes, revealing that SNR1 functions to restrict BRM-dependent nucleosome remodeling activities downstream of the promoter region. Our results reveal critically important roles of the SNR1/SNF5 subunit and the Brm chromatin remodeling complex in transcription regulation during elongation by RNA Polymerase II and completion of pre-mRNA transcripts that are dependent on hormone signaling in late development.

  5. Genome-Wide Survey of Cold Stress Regulated Alternative Splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana with Tiling Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Leviatan, Noam; Alkan, Noam; Leshkowitz, Dena; Fluhr, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing plays a major role in expanding the potential informational content of eukaryotic genomes. It is an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism that can increase protein diversity and affect mRNA stability. Alternative splicing is often regulated in a tissue-specific and stress-responsive manner. Cold stress, which adversely affects plant growth and development, regulates the transcription and splicing of plant splicing factors. This can affect the pre-mRNA processing of many genes. To identify cold regulated alternative splicing we applied Affymetrix Arabidopsis tiling arrays to survey the transcriptome under cold treatment conditions. A novel algorithm was used for detection of statistically relevant changes in intron expression within a transcript between control and cold growth conditions. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of a number of randomly selected genes confirmed the changes in splicing patterns under cold stress predicted by tiling array. Our analysis revealed new types of cold responsive genes. While their expression level remains relatively unchanged under cold stress their splicing pattern shows detectable changes in the relative abundance of isoforms. The majority of cold regulated alternative splicing introduced a premature termination codon (PTC) into the transcripts creating potential targets for degradation by the nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD) process. A number of these genes were analyzed in NMD-defective mutants by RT-PCR and shown to evade NMD. This may result in new and truncated proteins with altered functions or dominant negative effects. The results indicate that cold affects both quantitative and qualitative aspects of gene expression. PMID:23776682

  6. Genome-wide survey of cold stress regulated alternative splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana with tiling microarray.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, Noam; Alkan, Noam; Leshkowitz, Dena; Fluhr, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing plays a major role in expanding the potential informational content of eukaryotic genomes. It is an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism that can increase protein diversity and affect mRNA stability. Alternative splicing is often regulated in a tissue-specific and stress-responsive manner. Cold stress, which adversely affects plant growth and development, regulates the transcription and splicing of plant splicing factors. This can affect the pre-mRNA processing of many genes. To identify cold regulated alternative splicing we applied Affymetrix Arabidopsis tiling arrays to survey the transcriptome under cold treatment conditions. A novel algorithm was used for detection of statistically relevant changes in intron expression within a transcript between control and cold growth conditions. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of a number of randomly selected genes confirmed the changes in splicing patterns under cold stress predicted by tiling array. Our analysis revealed new types of cold responsive genes. While their expression level remains relatively unchanged under cold stress their splicing pattern shows detectable changes in the relative abundance of isoforms. The majority of cold regulated alternative splicing introduced a premature termination codon (PTC) into the transcripts creating potential targets for degradation by the nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD) process. A number of these genes were analyzed in NMD-defective mutants by RT-PCR and shown to evade NMD. This may result in new and truncated proteins with altered functions or dominant negative effects. The results indicate that cold affects both quantitative and qualitative aspects of gene expression.

  7. Intragenic epigenetic changes modulate NCAM alternative splicing in neuronal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Schor, Ignacio E; Fiszbein, Ana; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing contributes to cell type-specific transcriptomes. Here, we show that changes in intragenic chromatin marks affect NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) exon 18 (E18) alternative splicing during neuronal differentiation. An increase in the repressive marks H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 along the gene body correlated with inhibition of polymerase II elongation in the E18 region, but without significantly affecting total mRNA levels. Treatment with the general DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine and BIX 01294, a specific inhibitor of H3K9 dimethylation, inhibited the differentiation-induced E18 inclusion, pointing to a role for repressive marks in sustaining NCAM splicing patterns typical of mature neurons. We demonstrate that intragenic deployment of repressive chromatin marks, induced by intronic small interfering RNAs targeting NCAM intron 18, promotes E18 inclusion in undifferentiated N2a cells, confirming the chromatin changes observed upon differentiation to be sufficient to induce alternative splicing. Combined with previous evidence that neuronal depolarization causes H3K9 acetylation and subsequent E18 skipping, our results show how two alternative epigenetic marks regulate NCAM alternative splicing and E18 levels in different cellular contexts. PMID:23892457

  8. Intragenic epigenetic changes modulate NCAM alternative splicing in neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Schor, Ignacio E; Fiszbein, Ana; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2013-08-14

    Alternative splicing contributes to cell type-specific transcriptomes. Here, we show that changes in intragenic chromatin marks affect NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) exon 18 (E18) alternative splicing during neuronal differentiation. An increase in the repressive marks H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 along the gene body correlated with inhibition of polymerase II elongation in the E18 region, but without significantly affecting total mRNA levels. Treatment with the general DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine and BIX 01294, a specific inhibitor of H3K9 dimethylation, inhibited the differentiation-induced E18 inclusion, pointing to a role for repressive marks in sustaining NCAM splicing patterns typical of mature neurons. We demonstrate that intragenic deployment of repressive chromatin marks, induced by intronic small interfering RNAs targeting NCAM intron 18, promotes E18 inclusion in undifferentiated N2a cells, confirming the chromatin changes observed upon differentiation to be sufficient to induce alternative splicing. Combined with previous evidence that neuronal depolarization causes H3K9 acetylation and subsequent E18 skipping, our results show how two alternative epigenetic marks regulate NCAM alternative splicing and E18 levels in different cellular contexts.

  9. Silencing of two alternative splicing-derived mRNA variants of chitin synthase 1 gene by RNAi is lethal to the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianzhen; Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jianqin; Li, Daqi; Sun, Yi; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2010-11-01

    Chitin synthases are crucial enzymes responsible for chitin biosynthesis in fungi, nematodes and arthropods. We characterized two alternative splicing-derived variants of chitin synthase 1 gene (LmCHS1) from the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). Each cDNA of the two variants (LmCHS1A and LmCHS1B) consists of 5116 nucleotides that include a 4728-nucleotide open reading frame (ORF) encoding 1576 amino acid residues, and 67- and 321-bp non-coding regions at the 5'- and 3'-ends of the cDNA, respectively. The two variants differ only in one exon consisting of 177 nucleotides that encode 59 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequences within this alternative splicing region are 75% identical between the two variants. Both variants were expressed in all the developmental stages. However, LmCHS1A was predominately expressed in the integument whereas LmCHS1B was mainly expressed in the trachea. Our RNAi-based gene silencing study resulted in a dramatic reduction in the levels of the corresponding mRNA in the locust nymphs injected with dsRNA of LmCHS1, or either of its two variants, LmCHS1A and LmCHS1B. Consequentially, 95, 88 and 51% of mortalities were observed in the locusts injected with the LmCHS1, LmCHS1A and LmCHS1B dsRNA, respectively. The phenotypes resulted from the injection of LmCHS1A dsRNA were similar to those from the injection of LmCHS1 dsRNA, whereas the locusts injected with LmCHS1B dsRNA exhibited crimpled cuticle phenotype. Our results suggest that both variants of chitin synthase 1 are essential for insect growth and development.

  10. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina; Redal, María Ana; Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shamy, Magdy; Muñoz, Manuel J.; and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  11. Exploitation of a thermosensitive splicing event to study pre-mRNA splicing in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Cizdziel, P.E.; De Mars, M.; Murphy, E.C. Jr.

    1988-04-01

    The spliced form of MuSVts110 viral RNA is approximately 20-fold more abundant at growth temperatures of 33/sup 0/C or lower than at 37 to 41/sup 0/C. This difference is due to changes in the efficiency of MuSVts110 RNA splicing rather than selective thermolability of the spliced species at 37 to 41/sup 0/C or general thermosensitivity of RNA splicing in MuSVts110-infected cells. Moreover, RNA transcribed from MuSVts110 DNA introduced into a variety of cell lines is spliced in a temperature-sensitive fashion, suggesting that the structure of the viral RNA controls the efficiency of the event. The authors exploited this novel splicing event to study the cleavage and ligation events during splicing in vivo. No spliced viral mRNA or splicing intermediates were observed in MuSVts110-infected cells (6m2 cells) at 39/sup 0/C. However, after a short (about 30-min) lag following a shift to 33/sup 0/C, viral pre-mRNA cleaved at the 5' splice site began to accumulate. Ligated exons were not detected until about 60 min following the initial detection of cleavage at the 5' splice site, suggesting that these two splicing reactions did not occur concurrently. Splicing of viral RNA in the MuSVts110 revertant 54-5A4, which lacks the sequence -AG/TGT- at the usual 3' splice site, was studied. Cleavage at the 5' splice site in the revertant viral RNA proceeded in a temperature-sensitive fashion. No novel cryptic 3' splice sites were activated; however, splicing at an alternate upstream 3' splice site used at low efficiency in normal MuSVts110 RNA was increased to a level close to that of 5'-splice-site cleavage in the revertant viral RNA.

  12. RNA splicing: disease and therapy.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Andrew G L; Wood, Matthew J A

    2011-05-01

    The majority of human genes that encode proteins undergo alternative pre-mRNA splicing and mutations that affect splicing are more prevalent than previously thought. The mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing is highly complex, requiring multiple interactions between pre-mRNA, small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and splicing factor proteins. Regulation of this process is even more complicated, relying on loosely defined cis-acting regulatory sequence elements, trans-acting protein factors and cellular responses to varying environmental conditions. Many different human diseases can be caused by errors in RNA splicing or its regulation. Targeting aberrant RNA provides an opportunity to correct faulty splicing and potentially treat numerous genetic disorders. Antisense oligonucleotide therapies show particular promise in this area and, if coupled with improved delivery strategies, could open the door to a multitude of novel personalized therapies.

  13. Amphotericin B severely affects expression and activity of the endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase involving altered mRNA stability

    PubMed Central

    Suschek, Christoph Viktor; Bonmann, Eckhard; Kleinert, Hartmut; Wenzel, Michael; Mahotka, Csaba; Kolb, Hubert; Förstermann, Ulrich; Gerharz, Claus-Dieter; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    The therapeutic use of the antifungal drug amphotericin B (AmB) is limited due to severe side effects like glomerular vasoconstriction and risk of renal failure during AmB administration. As nitric oxide (NO) has substantial functions in renal autoregulation, we have determined the effects of AmB on endothelial constitutive NO synthase (ecNOS) expression and activity in human and rat endothelial cell cultures.AmB used at concentrations of 0.6 to 1.25 μg ml−1 led to increases in ecNOS mRNA and protein expression as well as NO production. This was the result of an increased ecNOS mRNA half-life. In contrast, incubation of cells with higher albeit subtoxic concentrations of AmB (2.5–5.0 μg ml−1) resulted in a decrease or respectively in completely abolished ecNOS mRNA and protein expression with a strongly reduced or inhibited ecNOS activity, due to a decrease of ecNOS mRNA half-life. None of the AmB concentrations affected promoter activity as found with a reporter gene construct stably transfected into ECV304 cells.Thus, our experiments show a concentration-dependent biphasic effect of AmB on expression and activity of ecNOS, an effect best explained by AmB influencing ecNOS mRNA stability. In view of the known renal accumulation of this drug the results reported here could help to elucidate its renal toxicity. PMID:11015297

  14. Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Christopher R; Emmett, Warren; Blazquez, Lorea; Faro, Ana; Haberman, Nejc; Briese, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John; Modic, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Wilson, Stephen W; Plagnol, Vincent; Ule, Jernej

    2015-05-21

    It is generally believed that splicing removes introns as single units from precursor messenger RNA transcripts. However, some long Drosophila melanogaster introns contain a cryptic site, known as a recursive splice site (RS-site), that enables a multi-step process of intron removal termed recursive splicing. The extent to which recursive splicing occurs in other species and its mechanistic basis have not been examined. Here we identify highly conserved RS-sites in genes expressed in the mammalian brain that encode proteins functioning in neuronal development. Moreover, the RS-sites are found in some of the longest introns across vertebrates. We find that vertebrate recursive splicing requires initial definition of an 'RS-exon' that follows the RS-site. The RS-exon is then excluded from the dominant mRNA isoform owing to competition with a reconstituted 5' splice site formed at the RS-site after the first splicing step. Conversely, the RS-exon is included when preceded by cryptic promoters or exons that fail to reconstitute an efficient 5' splice site. Most RS-exons contain a premature stop codon such that their inclusion can decrease mRNA stability. Thus, by establishing a binary splicing switch, RS-sites demarcate different mRNA isoforms emerging from long genes by coupling cryptic elements with inclusion of RS-exons.

  15. A new view of transcriptome complexity and regulation through the lens of local splicing variations

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero-Garcia, Jorge; Barrera, Alejandro; Gazzara, Matthew R; González-Vallinas, Juan; Lahens, Nicholas F; Hogenesch, John B; Lynch, Kristen W; Barash, Yoseph

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) can critically affect gene function and disease, yet mapping splicing variations remains a challenge. Here, we propose a new approach to define and quantify mRNA splicing in units of local splicing variations (LSVs). LSVs capture previously defined types of alternative splicing as well as more complex transcript variations. Building the first genome wide map of LSVs from twelve mouse tissues, we find complex LSVs constitute over 30% of tissue dependent transcript variations and affect specific protein families. We show the prevalence of complex LSVs is conserved in humans and identify hundreds of LSVs that are specific to brain subregions or altered in Alzheimer's patients. Amongst those are novel isoforms in the Camk2 family and a novel poison exon in Ptbp1, a key splice factor in neurogenesis. We anticipate the approach presented here will advance the ability to relate tissue-specific splice variation to genetic variation, phenotype, and disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11752.001 PMID:26829591

  16. Corticotropin (ACTH) regulates alternative RNA splicing in Y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Schimmer, Bernard P; Cordova, Martha

    2015-06-15

    The stimulatory effect of ACTH on gene expression is well documented and is thought to be a major mechanism by which ACTH maintains the functional and structural integrity of the gland. Previously, we showed that ACTH regulates the accumulation of over 1200 transcripts in Y1 adrenal cells, including a cluster with functions in alternative splicing of RNA. On this basis, we postulated that some of the effects of ACTH on the transcription landscape of Y1 cells are mediated by alternative splicing. In this study, we demonstrate that ACTH regulates the alternative splicing of four transcripts - Gnas, Cd151, Dab2 and Tia1. Inasmuch as alternative splicing potentially affects transcripts from more than two-thirds of the mouse genome, we suggest that these findings are representative of a genome-wide effect of ACTH that impacts on the mRNA and protein composition of the adrenal cortex.

  17. Targeting RNA Splicing for Disease Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Havens, Mallory A.; Duelli, Dominik M.

    2013-01-01

    Splicing of pre-messenger RNA into mature messenger RNA is an essential step for expression of most genes in higher eukaryotes. Defects in this process typically affect cellular function and can have pathological consequences. Many human genetic diseases are caused by mutations that cause splicing defects. Furthermore, a number of diseases are associated with splicing defects that are not attributed to overt mutations. Targeting splicing directly to correct disease-associated aberrant splicing is a logical approach to therapy. Splicing is a favorable intervention point for disease therapeutics, because it is an early step in gene expression and does not alter the genome. Significant advances have been made in the development of approaches to manipulate splicing for therapy. Splicing can be manipulated with a number of tools including antisense oligonucleotides, modified small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), trans-splicing, and small molecule compounds, all of which have been used to increase specific alternatively spliced isoforms or to correct aberrant gene expression resulting from gene mutations that alter splicing. Here we describe clinically relevant splicing defects in disease states, the current tools used to target and alter splicing, specific mutations and diseases that are being targeted using splice-modulating approaches, and emerging therapeutics. PMID:23512601

  18. Targeting RNA splicing for disease therapy.

    PubMed

    Havens, Mallory A; Duelli, Dominik M; Hastings, Michelle L

    2013-01-01

    Splicing of pre-messenger RNA into mature messenger RNA is an essential step for the expression of most genes in higher eukaryotes. Defects in this process typically affect cellular function and can have pathological consequences. Many human genetic diseases are caused by mutations that cause splicing defects. Furthermore, a number of diseases are associated with splicing defects that are not attributed to overt mutations. Targeting splicing directly to correct disease-associated aberrant splicing is a logical approach to therapy. Splicing is a favorable intervention point for disease therapeutics, because it is an early step in gene expression and does not alter the genome. Significant advances have been made in the development of approaches to manipulate splicing for therapy. Splicing can be manipulated with a number of tools including antisense oligonucleotides, modified small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), trans-splicing, and small molecule compounds, all of which have been used to increase specific alternatively spliced isoforms or to correct aberrant gene expression resulting from gene mutations that alter splicing. Here we describe clinically relevant splicing defects in disease states, the current tools used to target and alter splicing, specific mutations and diseases that are being targeted using splice-modulating approaches, and emerging therapeutics.

  19. The bromodomain protein BRD4 regulates splicing during heat shock

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, Michelle; Kaehler, Christian; Kerick, Martin; Grimm, Christina; Franz, Alexandra; Timmermann, Bernd; Welzel, Franziska; Isensee, Jörg; Hucho, Tim; Krobitsch, Sylvia; Schweiger, Michal R.

    2017-01-01

    The cellular response to heat stress is an ancient and evolutionarily highly conserved defence mechanism characterised by the transcriptional up-regulation of cyto-protective genes and a partial inhibition of splicing. These features closely resemble the proteotoxic stress response during tumor development. The bromodomain protein BRD4 has been identified as an integral member of the oxidative stress as well as of the inflammatory response, mainly due to its role in the transcriptional regulation process. In addition, there are also several lines of evidence implicating BRD4 in the splicing process. Using RNA-sequencing we found a significant increase in splicing inhibition, in particular intron retentions (IR), following heat treatment in BRD4-depleted cells. This leads to a decrease of mRNA abundancy of the affected transcripts, most likely due to premature termination codons. Subsequent experiments revealed that BRD4 interacts with the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) such that under heat stress BRD4 is recruited to nuclear stress bodies and non-coding SatIII RNA transcripts are up-regulated. These findings implicate BRD4 as an important regulator of splicing during heat stress. Our data which links BRD4 to the stress induced splicing process may provide novel mechanisms of BRD4 inhibitors in regard to anti-cancer therapies. PMID:27536004

  20. An intronic RNA structure modulates expression of the mRNA biogenesis factor Sus1.

    PubMed

    AbuQattam, Ali; Gallego, José; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Sus1 is a conserved protein involved in chromatin remodeling and mRNA biogenesis. Unlike most yeast genes, the SUS1 pre-mRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two introns and is alternatively spliced, retaining one or both introns in response to changes in environmental conditions. SUS1 splicing may allow the cell to control Sus1 expression, but the mechanisms that regulate this process remain unknown. Using in silico analyses together with NMR spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and UV thermal denaturation experiments, we show that the downstream intron (I2) of SUS1 forms a weakly stable, 37-nucleotide stem-loop structure containing the branch site near its apical loop and the 3' splice site after the stem terminus. A cellular assay revealed that two of four mutants containing altered I2 structures had significantly impaired SUS1 expression. Semiquantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that all mutants accumulated unspliced SUS1 pre-mRNA and/or induced distorted levels of fully spliced mRNA relative to wild type. Concomitantly, Sus1 cellular functions in histone H2B deubiquitination and mRNA export were affected in I2 hairpin mutants that inhibited splicing. This work demonstrates that I2 structure is relevant for SUS1 expression, and that this effect is likely exerted through modulation of splicing.

  1. An intronic RNA structure modulates expression of the mRNA biogenesis factor Sus1

    PubMed Central

    AbuQattam, Ali; Gallego, José; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Sus1 is a conserved protein involved in chromatin remodeling and mRNA biogenesis. Unlike most yeast genes, the SUS1 pre-mRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two introns and is alternatively spliced, retaining one or both introns in response to changes in environmental conditions. SUS1 splicing may allow the cell to control Sus1 expression, but the mechanisms that regulate this process remain unknown. Using in silico analyses together with NMR spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and UV thermal denaturation experiments, we show that the downstream intron (I2) of SUS1 forms a weakly stable, 37-nucleotide stem–loop structure containing the branch site near its apical loop and the 3′ splice site after the stem terminus. A cellular assay revealed that two of four mutants containing altered I2 structures had significantly impaired SUS1 expression. Semiquantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that all mutants accumulated unspliced SUS1 pre-mRNA and/or induced distorted levels of fully spliced mRNA relative to wild type. Concomitantly, Sus1 cellular functions in histone H2B deubiquitination and mRNA export were affected in I2 hairpin mutants that inhibited splicing. This work demonstrates that I2 structure is relevant for SUS1 expression, and that this effect is likely exerted through modulation of splicing. PMID:26546116

  2. RNA-binding protein hnRNPLL regulates mRNA splicing and stability during B-cell to plasma-cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xing; Li, Bin; Rao, Anjana

    2015-04-14

    Posttranscriptional regulation is a major mechanism to rewire transcriptomes during differentiation. Heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding protein LL (hnRNPLL) is specifically induced in terminally differentiated lymphocytes, including effector T cells and plasma cells. To study the molecular functions of hnRNPLL at a genome-wide level, we identified hnRNPLL RNA targets and binding sites in plasma cells through integrated Photoactivatable-Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) and RNA sequencing. hnRNPLL preferentially recognizes CA dinucleotide-containing sequences in introns and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), promotes exon inclusion or exclusion in a context-dependent manner, and stabilizes mRNA when associated with 3' UTRs. During differentiation of primary B cells to plasma cells, hnRNPLL mediates a genome-wide switch of RNA processing, resulting in loss of B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) expression and increased Ig production--both hallmarks of plasma-cell maturation. Our data identify previously unknown functions of hnRNPLL in B-cell to plasma-cell differentiation and demonstrate that the RNA-binding protein hnRNPLL has a critical role in tuning transcriptomes of terminally differentiating B lymphocytes.

  3. Cellular stress and RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Biamonti, Giuseppe; Caceres, Javier F

    2009-03-01

    In response to physical and chemical stresses that affect protein folding and, thus, the execution of normal metabolic processes, cells activate gene-expression strategies aimed at increasing their chance of survival. One target of several stressing agents is pre-mRNA splicing, which is inhibited upon heat shock. Recently, the molecular basis of this splicing inhibition has begun to emerge. Interestingly, different mechanisms seem to be in place to block constitutive pre-mRNA splicing and to affect alternative splicing regulation. This could be important to modulate gene expression during recovery from stress. Thus, pre-mRNA splicing emerges as a central mechanism to integrate cellular and metabolic stresses into gene-expression profiles.

  4. Myocardial Expression Analysis of Osteopontin and Its Splice Variants in Patients Affected by End-Stage Idiopathic or Ischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cabiati, Manuela; Svezia, Benedetta; Matteucci, Marco; Botta, Luca; Pucci, Angela; Rinaldi, Mauro; Caselli, Chiara; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Del Ry, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphoglycoprotein of cardiac extracellular matrix and it is still poorly defined whether its expression changes in failing heart of different origin. The full-length OPN-a and its isoforms (OPN-b, OPN-c) transcriptomic profile were evaluated in myocardium of patients with dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy (DCM n = 8; LVEF% = 17.5±3; ICM n = 8; LVEF% = 19.5±5.2) and in auricle of valvular patients (VLP n = 5; LVEF%≥50), by Real-time PCR analysis. OPN-a and thrombin mRNA levels resulted significantly higher in DCM compared to ICM patients (DCM:31.3±7.4, ICM:2.7±1.1, p = 0.0002; DCM:19.1±4.9, ICM:5.4±2.2, p = 0.007, respectively). Although both genes’ mRNA levels increased in patients with LVEF<50% (DCM+ICM) with respect to VLP with LVEF>50%, a significant increase in OPN (p = 0.0004) and thrombin (p = 0.001) expression was observed only in DCM. In addition, a correlation between OPN-a and thrombin was found in patients with LVEF<50% (r = 0.6; p = 0.003). The mRNA pattern was confirmed by OPN-a cardiac protein concentration (VLP:1.127±0.26; DCM:1.29±0.22; ICM:1.00±0.077 ng/ml). The OPN splice variants expression were detectable only in ICM (OPN-b: 0.357±0.273; OPN-c: 0.091±0.033) and not in DCM patients. A significant correlation was observed between collagen type I, evaluated by immunohistochemistry analysis, and both OPN-a mRNA expression (r = 0.87, p = 0.002) and OPN protein concentrations (r = 0.77, p = 0.016). Concluding, OPN-a and thrombin mRNA resulted dependent on the origin of heart failure while OPN-b and OPN-c highlighted a different expression for DCM and ICM patients, suggesting their correlation with different clinical-pathophysiological setting. PMID:27479215

  5. Beta zero thalassemia caused by a base substitution that creates an alternative splice acceptor site in an intron.

    PubMed Central

    Metherall, J E; Collins, F S; Pan, J; Weissman, S M; Forget, B G

    1986-01-01

    A thalassemic beta-globin gene cloned from a haplotype I chromosome contains a T to G transversion at position 116 of IVS1 which results in the generation of an abnormal alternative acceptor splice site. Transient expression studies revealed a 4-fold decrease in the amount of RNA produced with greater than 99% of it being abnormally spliced despite preservation of the normal acceptor splice site at position 130. These results suggest that the mutation at IVS1 position 116 results in beta zero thalassemia. A closely related mutation at position 110 of IVS1 also generates a novel acceptor site and results in a similar decrease in total mRNA produced, but approximately 20% of the mRNA produced is normally spliced and thus the phenotype is that of beta + thalassemia. These observations suggest that short range position effects may play a dramatic role in the choice of potential splice acceptor sites. We demonstrate the presence of abnormally spliced mRNA in reticulocytes of affected individuals and show the mutation at IVS1 position 116 segregating from the mutation at IVS1 position 110 in a three generation pedigree. The mutation results in the creation of a MaeI restriction site, as do a number of other thalassemic mutations, and we demonstrate some difficulties that may arise in the differential diagnosis of these mutations. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3780671

  6. SKIP Is a Component of the Spliceosome Linking Alternative Splicing and the Circadian Clock in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Fangming; Xie, Qiguang; Wang, Huamei; Wang, Ying; Yue, Yanling; Gahura, Ondrej; Ma, Shuangshuang; Liu, Lei; Cao, Ying; Jiao, Yuling; Puta, Frantisek; McClung, C. Robertson; Xu, Xiaodong; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-01-01

    Circadian clocks generate endogenous rhythms in most organisms from cyanobacteria to humans and facilitate entrainment to environmental diurnal cycles, thus conferring a fitness advantage. Both transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms are prominent in the basic network architecture of circadian systems. Posttranscriptional regulation, including mRNA processing, is emerging as a critical step for clock function. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking RNA metabolism to the circadian clock network. Here, we report that a conserved SNW/Ski-interacting protein (SKIP) domain protein, SKIP, a splicing factor and component of the spliceosome, is involved in posttranscriptional regulation of circadian clock genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutation in SKIP lengthens the circadian period in a temperature-sensitive manner and affects light input and the sensitivity of the clock to light resetting. SKIP physically interacts with the spliceosomal splicing factor Ser/Arg-rich protein45 and associates with the pre-mRNA of clock genes, such as PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR7 (PRR7) and PRR9, and is necessary for the regulation of their alternative splicing and mRNA maturation. Genome-wide investigations reveal that SKIP functions in regulating alternative splicing of many genes, presumably through modulating recognition or cleavage of 5′ and 3′ splice donor and acceptor sites. Our study addresses a fundamental question on how the mRNA splicing machinery contributes to circadian clock function at a posttranscriptional level. PMID:22942380

  7. Investigating alternative RNA splicing in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Mereau, Agnès; Hardy, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing, the process by which distinct mature mRNAs can be produced from a single primary transcript, is a key mechanism to increase the organism complexity. The generation of alternative splicing pattern is a means to expand the proteome diversity and also to control gene expression through the regulation of mRNA abundance. Alternative splicing is therefore particularly prevalent during development and accordingly numerous splicing events are regulated in a tissue or temporal manner. To study the roles of alternative splicing during developmental processes and decipher the molecular mechanisms that underlie temporal and spatial regulation, it is important to develop in vivo whole animal studies. In this chapter, we present the advantages of using the amphibian Xenopus as a fully in vivo model to study alternative splicing and we describe the experimental procedures that can be used with Xenopus laevis embryos and oocytes to define the cis-regulatory elements and identify the associated trans-acting factors.

  8. Regulation of mRNA abundance in activated T lymphocytes: identification of mRNA species affected by the inhibition of protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Coleclough, C; Kuhn, L; Lefkovits, I

    1990-01-01

    Inhibition of protein synthesis has often been observed to increase the concentration of mRNAs that encode proteins associated with the regulation of cell division. As two-dimensional gel electrophoresis permits the simultaneous monitoring of individual elements in large populations of gene products, we have used this technique to assess the effect of cycloheximide treatment on the mRNA complement of activated mouse T cells in an objective fashion. Two-dimensional gels of proteins generated by cell-free translation of mRNA from T-cell blasts display about 400 spots; only 5 of these are reproducibly enhanced by cycloheximide treatment and about 4 are diminished. The cDNA cloning vector lambda jac allows analysis of large arrays of molecular clones by cell-free expression, and we have used it in a sibling selection scheme to isolate a clone of one of the prominently induced mRNA species, which we refer to as chx1. chx1 mRNA concentration is increased by cycloheximide treatment of activated B cells, as well as T cells, and it is rapidly and transiently induced, in a cycloheximide-enhanced manner, upon serum stimulation of resting 3T3 fibroblastoid cells. The chx1 protein is hydrophilic, is slightly basic, and has patches of homology with the Jun-D gene product. The chx1 gene is remarkable in its lack of detectable introns and of strong bias against CpG dinucleotides. Images PMID:2308934

  9. [Exon 5 alternative splicing of the cytochrome P450 aromatase could be a regulatory mechanism for estrogen production in humans].

    PubMed

    Pepe, Carolina M; Saraco, Nora I; Baquedano, María Sonia; Guercio, Gabriela; Vaiani, Elisa; Berensztein, Esperanza; Rivarola, Marco A; Belgorosky, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    P450 aromatase (P450Aro), involved in androgen to estrogen conversion, is encoded by the CYP19 gene. P450Aro c655G>A mutation described in heterozygous form in a girl and in homozygous form in an adult male with P450Aro deficiency results in an aberrant splicing due to disruption of a donor splice site. A truncated inactive protein would be expected if intron5 is retained. Surprisingly, the girl described with this mutation showed spontaneous breast development and pubertal estradiol (E2) levels suggesting residual P450Aro activity (AA). Formerly, we postulate the in frame E5 skipping as a consequence of this mutation generating a protein with some degree of activity. When P450Aro mRNA expression was analysed from patient's lymphocytes, an aberrant spliced mRNA lacking E5 (-E5mRNA) was detected, suggesting an association between E5 skipping and the presence of the mutation. Splicing assays in Y1 cells confirmed this association. -Ex5 cDNA expression in Y1 cells resulted in an inactive protein that could not explain patient's phenotype. Exon 5 might be predicted as a poorly defined exon suggesting a susceptibility to splicing mutations and physiological alternative splicing (AS) events. Therefore, -Ex5mRNA was assessed as a natural occurring alternative transcript in normal human steroidogenic tissues. As P450Aro -E5mRNA expression was detected in human term placenta, prepubertal testis and prepubertal adrenal, we might speculate that AS of P450Aro coding region would occur in humans and would be involved in the complex AA regulation. Furthermore, tissue specific regulation of AS might suggest low expression of +E5mRNA from the c655G>A allele explaining residual AA evidenced in the affected girl.

  10. HOLLYWOOD: a comparative relational database of alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Holste, Dirk; Huo, George; Tung, Vivian; Burge, Christopher B

    2006-01-01

    RNA splicing is an essential step in gene expression, and is often variable, giving rise to multiple alternatively spliced mRNA and protein isoforms from a single gene locus. The design of effective databases to support experimental and computational investigations of alternative splicing (AS) is a significant challenge. In an effort to integrate accurate exon and splice site annotation with current knowledge about splicing regulatory elements and predicted AS events, and to link information about the splicing of orthologous genes in different species, we have developed the Hollywood system. This database was built upon genomic annotation of splicing patterns of known genes derived from spliced alignment of complementary DNAs (cDNAs) and expressed sequence tags, and links features such as splice site sequence and strength, exonic splicing enhancers and silencers, conserved and non-conserved patterns of splicing, and cDNA library information for inferred alternative exons. Hollywood was implemented as a relational database and currently contains comprehensive information for human and mouse. It is accompanied by a web query tool that allows searches for sets of exons with specific splicing characteristics or splicing regulatory element composition, or gives a graphical or sequence-level summary of splicing patterns for a specific gene. A streamlined graphical representation of gene splicing patterns is provided, and these patterns can alternatively be layered onto existing information in the UCSC Genome Browser. The database is accessible at http://hollywood.mit.edu.

  11. MAASE: An alternative splicing database designed for supporting splicing microarray applications

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, CHRISTINA L.; KWON, YOUNG-SOO; LI, HAI-RI; ZHANG, KUI; COUTINHO-MANSFIELD, GABRIELA; YANG, CANZHU; NAIR, T. MURLIDHARAN; GRIBSKOV, MICHAEL; FU, XIANG-DONG

    2005-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a prominent feature of higher eukaryotes. Understanding of the function of mRNA isoforms and the regulation of alternative splicing is a major challenge in the post-genomic era. The development of mRNA isoform sensitive microarrays, which requires precise splice-junction sequence information, is a promising approach. Despite the availability of a large number of mRNAs and ESTs in various databases and the efforts made to align transcript sequences to genomic sequences, existing alternative splicing databases do not offer adequate information in an appropriate format to aid in splicing array design. Here we describe our effort in constructing the Manually Annotated Alternatively Spliced Events (MAASE) database system, which is specifically designed to support splicing microarray applications. MAASE comprises two components: (1) a manual/computational annotation tool for the efficient extraction of critical sequence and functional information for alternative splicing events and (2) a user-friendly database of annotated events that allows convenient export of information to aid in microarray design and data analysis. We provide a detailed introduction and a step-by-step user guide to the MAASE database system to facilitate future large-scale annotation efforts, integration with other alternative splicing databases, and splicing array fabrication. PMID:16251387

  12. Tumor microenvironment-associated modifications of alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Jean-Philippe; Lucier, Jean-François; Nwilati, Hanad; Thibault, Philippe; Garneau, Daniel; Gendron, Daniel; Durand, Mathieu; Couture, Sonia; Lapointe, Elvy; Prinos, Panagiotis; Klinck, Roscoe; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Chabot, Benoit; Abou-Elela, Sherif

    2014-02-01

    Pre-mRNA alternative splicing is modified in cancer, but the origin and specificity of these changes remain unclear. Here, we probed ovarian tumors to identify cancer-associated splicing isoforms and define the mechanism by which splicing is modified in cancer cells. Using high-throughput quantitative PCR, we monitored the expression of splice variants in laser-dissected tissues from ovarian tumors. Surprisingly, changes in alternative splicing were not limited to the tumor tissues but were also found in the tumor microenvironment. Changes in the tumor-associated splicing events were found to be regulated by splicing factors that are differentially expressed in cancer tissues. Overall, ∼20% of the alternative splicing events affected by the down-regulation of the splicing factors QKI and RBFOX2 were altered in the microenvironment of ovarian tumors. Together, our results indicate that the tumor microenvironment undergoes specific changes in alternative splicing orchestrated by a limited number of splicing factors.

  13. Chromatin, DNA structure and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Nieto Moreno, Nicolás; Giono, Luciana E; Cambindo Botto, Adrián E; Muñoz, Manuel J; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2015-11-14

    Coupling of transcription and alternative splicing via regulation of the transcriptional elongation rate is a well-studied phenomenon. Template features that act as roadblocks for the progression of RNA polymerase II comprise histone modifications and variants, DNA-interacting proteins and chromatin compaction. These may affect alternative splicing decisions by inducing pauses or decreasing elongation rate that change the time-window for splicing regulatory sequences to be recognized. Herein we discuss the evidence supporting the influence of template structural modifications on transcription and splicing, and provide insights about possible roles of non-B DNA conformations on the regulation of alternative splicing.

  14. Alcoholism and alternative splicing of candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Sasabe, Toshikazu; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2010-04-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports suggest that aberrant expression of splice variants affects alcohol sensitivities, and alcohol consumption also regulates alternative splicing. Thus, investigations of alternative splicing are essential for understanding the molecular events underlying the development of alcoholism.

  15. Toxaphene affects the levels of mRNA transcripts that encode antioxidant enzymes in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seonock; Lee, Aekyung; Won, Hyokyoung; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Yum, Seungshic

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated toxaphene-induced acute toxicity in Hydra magnipapillata. The median lethal concentrations of the animals (LC(50)) were determined to be 34.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L and 12.0 mg/L after exposure to toxaphene for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Morphological responses of hydra polyps to a range of toxaphene concentrations suggested that toxaphene negatively affects the nervous system of H. magnipapillata. We used real-time quantitative PCR of RNA extracted from polyps exposed to two concentrations of toxaphene (0.3 mg/L and 3 mg/L) for 24 h to evaluate the differential regulation of levels of transcripts that encode six antioxidant enzymes (CAT, G6PD, GPx, GR, GST and SOD), two proteins involved in detoxification and molecular stress responses (CYP1A and UB), and two proteins involved in neurotransmission and nerve cell differentiation (AChE and Hym-355). Of the genes involved in antioxidant responses, the most striking changes were observed for transcripts that encode GPx, G6PD, SOD, CAT and GST, with no evident change in levels of transcripts encoding GR. Levels of UB and CYP1A transcripts increased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to toxaphene. Given that toxaphene-induced neurotoxicity was not reflected in the level of AChE transcripts and only slight accumulation of Hym-355 transcript was observed only at the higher of the two doses of toxaphene tested, there remains a need to identify transcriptional biomarkers for toxaphene-mediated neurotoxicity in H. magnipapillata. Transcripts that respond to toxaphene exposure could be valuable biomarkers for stress levels in H. magnipapillata and may be useful for monitoring the pollution of aquatic environments.

  16. A novel donor splice-site mutation of major intrinsic protein gene associated with congenital cataract in a Chinese family

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lu; Liu, Wenqiang; Feng, Wenguo; Wang, Xing; Dang, Hui; Gao, Luna; Yao, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify the disease-causing gene in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant congenital cataract. Methods Clinical and ophthalmologic examinations were performed on all members of a Chinese family with congenital cataract. Nine genes associated with congenital cataract were screened using direct DNA sequencing. Mutations were confirmed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The mutated major intrinsic protein (MIP) minigene, which carries the disease-causing splice-site mutation, and the wild-type (WT) MIP minigene were constructed using the pcDNA3.1 expression vector. Wild-type and mutant MIP minigene constructs were transiently transfected into HeLa cells. After 48 h of incubation at 37 °C, total RNA isolation and reverse transcription (RT)–PCR analysis were performed, and PCR products were separated and confirmed with sequencing. Results Direct DNA sequence analysis identified a novel splice-site mutation in intron 3 (c.606+1 G>A) of the MIP gene. To investigate the manner in which the splice donor mutation could affect mRNA splicing, WT and mutant MIP minigenes were inserted in the pcDNA3.1 (+) vector. Constructs were transfected into HeLa cells. RT–PCR analysis showed that the donor splice site mutation led to deletion of exon 3 in the mRNA encoded by the MIP gene. Conclusions The present study identified a novel donor splice-site mutation (c.606+1G>A) in the MIP gene in a Chinese family with congenital cataract. In vitro RT–PCR analysis showed that this splice-site mutation resulted in the deletion of exon 3 from mRNA encoded by the MIP gene. This is the first report to show that donor splice-site mutation in MIP gene can cause autosomal dominant congenital cataract. PMID:24319327

  17. Antisense suppression of donor splice site mutations in the dystrophin gene transcript

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Sue; Meloni, Penny L; Johnsen, Russell D; Wong, Brenda L; Muntoni, Francesco; Wilton, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    We describe two donor splice site mutations, affecting dystrophin exons 16 and 45 that led to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), through catastrophic inactivation of the mRNA. These gene lesions unexpectedly resulted in the retention of the downstream introns, thereby increasing the length of the dystrophin mRNA by 20.2 and 36 kb, respectively. Splice-switching antisense oligomers targeted to exon 16 excised this in-frame exon and the following intron from the patient dystrophin transcript very efficiently in vitro, thereby restoring the reading frame and allowing synthesis of near-normal levels of a putatively functional dystrophin isoform. In contrast, targeting splice-switching oligomers to exon 45 in patient cells promoted only modest levels of an out-of-frame dystrophin transcript after transfection at high oligomer concentrations, whereas dual targeting of exons 44 and 45 or 45 and 46 resulted in more efficient exon skipping, with concomitant removal of intron 45. The splice site mutations reported here appear highly amenable to antisense oligomer intervention. We suggest that other splice site mutations may need to be evaluated for oligomer interventions on a case-by-case basis. PMID:24498612

  18. Splicing inhibition decreases phosphorylation level of Ser2 in Pol II CTD

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Mitsunori; Hayashi, Megumi; Kaida, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), especially Ser2 and Ser5 residues, plays important roles in transcription and mRNA processing, including 5′ end capping, splicing and 3′ end processing. These phosphorylation events stimulate mRNA processing, however, it is not clear whether splicing activity affects the phosphorylation status of Pol II. In this study, we found that splicing inhibition by potent splicing inhibitors spliceostatin A (SSA) and pladienolide B or by antisense oligos against snRNAs decreased phospho-Ser2 level, but had little or no effects on phospho-Ser5 level. In contrast, transcription and translation inhibitors did not decrease phospho-Ser2 level, therefore inhibition of not all the gene expression processes cause the decrease of phospho-Ser2. SSA treatment caused early dissociation of Pol II and decrease in phospho-Ser2 level of chromatin-bound Pol II, suggesting that splicing inhibition causes downregulation of phospho-Ser2 through at least these two mechanisms. PMID:26202968

  19. Cancer-Associated Perturbations in Alternative Pre-messenger RNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Bell, Brendan; Revil, Timothée; Venables, Julian P; Prinos, Panagiotis; Elela, Sherif Abou; Chabot, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    For most of our 25,000 genes, the removal of introns by pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing represents an essential step toward the production of functional messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Alternative splicing of a single pre-mRNA results in the production of different mRNAs. Although complex organisms use alternative splicing to expand protein function and phenotypic diversity, patterns of alternative splicing are often altered in cancer cells. Alternative splicing contributes to tumorigenesis by producing splice isoforms that can stimulate cell proliferation and cell migration or induce resistance to apoptosis and anticancer agents. Cancer-specific changes in splicing profiles can occur through mutations that are affecting splice sites and splicing control elements, and also by alterations in the expression of proteins that control splicing decisions. Recent progress in global approaches that interrogate splicing diversity should help to obtain specific splicing signatures for cancer types. The development of innovative approaches for annotating and reprogramming splicing events will more fully establish the essential contribution of alternative splicing to the biology of cancer and will hopefully provide novel targets and anticancer strategies. Metazoan genes are usually made up of several exons interrupted by introns. The introns are removed from the pre-mRNA by RNA splicing. In conjunction with other maturation steps, such as capping and polyadenylation, the spliced mRNA is then transported to the cytoplasm to be translated into a functional protein. The basic mechanism of splicing requires accurate recognition of each extremity of each intron by the spliceosome. Introns are identified by the binding of U1 snRNP to the 5' splice site and the U2AF65/U2AF35 complex to the 3' splice site. Following these interactions, other proteins and snRNPs are recruited to generate the complete spliceosomal complex needed to excise the intron. While many introns are constitutively

  20. Cross Talk between β1 and αV Integrins: β1 Affects β3 mRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Retta, Saverio Francesco; Cassarà, Georgia; D'Amato, Monica; Alessandro, Riccardo; Pellegrino, Maurizio; Degani, Simona; De Leo, Giacomo; Silengo, Lorenzo; Tarone, Guido

    2001-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that a fine-tuned integrin cross talk can generate a high degree of specificity in cell adhesion, suggesting that spatially and temporally coordinated expression and activation of integrins are more important for regulated cell adhesive functions than the intrinsic specificity of individual receptors. However, little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms of integrin cross talk. With the use of β1-null GD25 cells ectopically expressing the β1A integrin subunit, we provide evidence for the existence of a cross talk between β1 and αV integrins that affects the ratio of αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrin cell surface levels. In particular, we demonstrate that a down-regulation of αVβ3 and an up-regulation of αVβ5 occur as a consequence of β1A expression. Moreover, with the use of GD25 cells expressing the integrin isoforms β1B and β1D, as well as two β1 cytoplasmic domain deletion mutants lacking either the entire cytoplasmic domain (β1TR) or only its “variable” region (β1COM), we show that the effects of β1 over αV integrins take place irrespective of the type of β1 isoform, but require the presence of the “common” region of the β1 cytoplasmic domain. In an attempt to establish the regulatory mechanism(s) whereby β1 integrins exert their trans-acting functions, we have found that the down-regulation of αVβ3 is due to a decreased β3 subunit mRNA stability, whereas the up-regulation of αVβ5 is mainly due to translational or posttranslational events. These findings provide the first evidence for an integrin cross talk based on the regulation of mRNA stability. PMID:11598197

  1. The RNA Splicing Response to DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Chabot, Benoit

    2015-10-29

    The number of factors known to participate in the DNA damage response (DDR) has expanded considerably in recent years to include splicing and alternative splicing factors. While the binding of splicing proteins and ribonucleoprotein complexes to nascent transcripts prevents genomic instability by deterring the formation of RNA/DNA duplexes, splicing factors are also recruited to, or removed from, sites of DNA damage. The first steps of the DDR promote the post-translational modification of splicing factors to affect their localization and activity, while more downstream DDR events alter their expression. Although descriptions of molecular mechanisms remain limited, an emerging trend is that DNA damage disrupts the coupling of constitutive and alternative splicing with the transcription of genes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle control and apoptosis. A better understanding of how changes in splice site selection are integrated into the DDR may provide new avenues to combat cancer and delay aging.

  2. Splicing-related genes are alternatively spliced upon changes in ambient temperatures in plants

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Johan; Lammers, Michiel; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; Bonnema, Guusje; Rodenburg, Nicole; Proveniers, Marcel C. G.; Angenent, Gerco C.

    2017-01-01

    Plants adjust their development and architecture to small variations in ambient temperature. In a time in which temperatures are rising world-wide, the mechanism by which plants are able to sense temperature fluctuations and adapt to it, is becoming of special interest. By performing RNA-sequencing on two Arabidopsis accession and one Brassica species exposed to temperature alterations, we showed that alternative splicing is an important mechanism in ambient temperature sensing and adaptation. We found that amongst the differentially alternatively spliced genes, splicing related genes are enriched, suggesting that the splicing machinery itself is targeted for alternative splicing when temperature changes. Moreover, we showed that many different components of the splicing machinery are targeted for ambient temperature regulated alternative splicing. Mutant analysis of a splicing related gene that was differentially spliced in two of the genotypes showed an altered flowering time response to different temperatures. We propose a two-step mechanism where temperature directly influences alternative splicing of the splicing machinery genes, followed by a second step where the altered splicing machinery affects splicing of downstream genes involved in the adaptation to altered temperatures. PMID:28257507

  3. SplicePie: a novel analytical approach for the detection of alternative, non-sequential and recursive splicing.

    PubMed

    Pulyakhina, Irina; Gazzoli, Isabella; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Verwey, Nisha; den Dunnen, Johan T; den Dunnen, Johan; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Laros, Jeroen F J

    2015-07-13

    Alternative splicing is a powerful mechanism present in eukaryotic cells to obtain a wide range of transcripts and protein isoforms from a relatively small number of genes. The mechanisms regulating (alternative) splicing and the paradigm of consecutive splicing have recently been challenged, especially for genes with a large number of introns. RNA-Seq, a powerful technology using deep sequencing in order to determine transcript structure and expression levels, is usually performed on mature mRNA, therefore not allowing detailed analysis of splicing progression. Sequencing pre-mRNA at different stages of splicing potentially provides insight into mRNA maturation. Although the number of tools that analyze total and cytoplasmic RNA in order to elucidate the transcriptome composition is rapidly growing, there are no tools specifically designed for the analysis of nuclear RNA (which contains mixtures of pre- and mature mRNA). We developed dedicated algorithms to investigate the splicing process. In this paper, we present a new classification of RNA-Seq reads based on three major stages of splicing: pre-, intermediate- and post-splicing. Applying this novel classification we demonstrate the possibility to analyze the order of splicing. Furthermore, we uncover the potential to investigate the multi-step nature of splicing, assessing various types of recursive splicing events. We provide the data that gives biological insight into the order of splicing, show that non-sequential splicing of certain introns is reproducible and coinciding in multiple cell lines. We validated our observations with independent experimental technologies and showed the reliability of our method. The pipeline, named SplicePie, is freely available at: https://github.com/pulyakhina/splicing_analysis_pipeline. The example data can be found at: https://barmsijs.lumc.nl/HG/irina/example_data.tar.gz.

  4. RNA-Binding Proteins: Splicing Factors and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Alger M.; Cygan, Kamil J.; Brown, Brian A.; Fairbrother, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is mediated by interactions of the Core Spliceosome and an array of accessory RNA binding proteins with cis-sequence elements. Splicing is a major regulatory component in higher eukaryotes. Disruptions in splicing are a major contributor to human disease. One in three hereditary disease alleles are believed to cause aberrant splicing. Hereditary disease alleles can alter splicing by disrupting a splicing element, creating a toxic RNA, or affecting splicing factors. One of the challenges of medical genetics is identifying causal variants from the thousands of possibilities discovered in a clinical sequencing experiment. Here we review the basic biochemistry of splicing, the mechanisms of splicing mutations, the methods for identifying splicing mutants, and the potential of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25985083

  5. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina; Redal, María Ana; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shamy, Magdy; Muñoz, Manuel J; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2015-07-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing.

  6. Disease-associated mutation in SRSF2 misregulates splicing by altering RNA-binding affinities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Lieu, Yen K.; Ali, Abdullah M.; Penson, Alex; Reggio, Kathryn S.; Rabadan, Raul; Raza, Azra; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Manley, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) is an RNA-binding protein that plays important roles in splicing of mRNA precursors. SRSF2 mutations are frequently found in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and certain leukemias, but how these mutations affect SRSF2 function has only begun to be examined. We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease to introduce the P95H mutation to SRSF2 in K562 leukemia cells, generating an isogenic model so that splicing alterations can be attributed solely to mutant SRSF2. We found that SRSF2 (P95H) misregulates 548 splicing events (<1% of total). Of these events, 374 involved the inclusion of cassette exons, and the inclusion was either increased (206) or decreased (168). We detected a specific motif (UCCA/UG) enriched in the more-included exons and a distinct motif (UGGA/UG) in the more-excluded exons. RNA gel shift assays showed that a mutant SRSF2 derivative bound more tightly than its wild-type counterpart to RNA sites containing UCCAG but bound less tightly to UGGAG sites. Thus in most cases the pattern of exon inclusion or exclusion correlated with stronger or weaker RNA binding, respectively. We further show that the P95H mutation does not affect other functions of SRSF2, i.e., protein–protein interactions with key splicing factors. Our results thus demonstrate that the P95H mutation positively or negatively alters the binding affinity of SRSF2 for cognate RNA sites in target transcripts, leading to misregulation of exon inclusion. Our findings shed light on the mechanism of the disease-associated SRSF2 mutation in splicing regulation and also reveal a group of misspliced mRNA isoforms for potential therapeutic targeting. PMID:26261309

  7. Disease-associated mutation in SRSF2 misregulates splicing by altering RNA-binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Lieu, Yen K; Ali, Abdullah M; Penson, Alex; Reggio, Kathryn S; Rabadan, Raul; Raza, Azra; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Manley, James L

    2015-08-25

    Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) is an RNA-binding protein that plays important roles in splicing of mRNA precursors. SRSF2 mutations are frequently found in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and certain leukemias, but how these mutations affect SRSF2 function has only begun to be examined. We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease to introduce the P95H mutation to SRSF2 in K562 leukemia cells, generating an isogenic model so that splicing alterations can be attributed solely to mutant SRSF2. We found that SRSF2 (P95H) misregulates 548 splicing events (<1% of total). Of these events, 374 involved the inclusion of cassette exons, and the inclusion was either increased (206) or decreased (168). We detected a specific motif (UCCA/UG) enriched in the more-included exons and a distinct motif (UGGA/UG) in the more-excluded exons. RNA gel shift assays showed that a mutant SRSF2 derivative bound more tightly than its wild-type counterpart to RNA sites containing UCCAG but bound less tightly to UGGAG sites. Thus in most cases the pattern of exon inclusion or exclusion correlated with stronger or weaker RNA binding, respectively. We further show that the P95H mutation does not affect other functions of SRSF2, i.e., protein-protein interactions with key splicing factors. Our results thus demonstrate that the P95H mutation positively or negatively alters the binding affinity of SRSF2 for cognate RNA sites in target transcripts, leading to misregulation of exon inclusion. Our findings shed light on the mechanism of the disease-associated SRSF2 mutation in splicing regulation and also reveal a group of misspliced mRNA isoforms for potential therapeutic targeting.

  8. Mutations within the LINC-HELLP non-coding RNA differentially bind ribosomal and RNA splicing complexes and negatively affect trophoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Marie; Visser, Allerdien; Buabeng, Kwadwo M L; Poutsma, Ankie; van der Schors, Roel C; Oudejans, Cees B M

    2015-10-01

    LINC-HELLP, showing chromosomal linkage with the pregnancy-specific HELLP syndrome in Dutch families, reduces differentiation from a proliferative to an invasive phenotype of first-trimester extravillous trophoblasts. Here we show that mutations in LINC-HELLP identified in HELLP families negatively affect this trophoblast differentiation either by inducing proliferation rate or by causing cell cycle exit as shown by a decrease in both proliferation and invasion. As LincRNAs predominantly function through interactions with proteins, we identified the directly interacting proteins using chromatin isolation by RNA purification followed by protein mass spectrometry. We found 22 proteins predominantly clustering in two functional networks, i.e. RNA splicing and the ribosome. YBX1, PCBP1, PCBP2, RPS6 and RPL7 were validated, and binding to these proteins was influenced by the HELLP mutations carried. Finally, we show that the LINC-HELLP transcript levels are significantly upregulated in plasma of women in their first trimester of pregnancy compared with non-pregnant women, whereas this upregulation seems absent in a pilot set of patients later developing pregnancy complications, indicative of its functional significance in vivo.

  9. Pharmacology of Modulators of Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jonathan C.; Oltean, Sebastian; Donaldson, Lucy F.

    2017-01-01

    More than 95% of genes in the human genome are alternatively spliced to form multiple transcripts, often encoding proteins with differing or opposing function. The control of alternative splicing is now being elucidated, and with this comes the opportunity to develop modulators of alternative splicing that can control cellular function. A number of approaches have been taken to develop compounds that can experimentally, and sometimes clinically, affect splicing control, resulting in potential novel therapeutics. Here we develop the concepts that targeting alternative splicing can result in relatively specific pathway inhibitors/activators that result in dampening down of physiologic or pathologic processes, from changes in muscle physiology to altering angiogenesis or pain. The targets and pharmacology of some of the current inhibitors/activators of alternative splicing are demonstrated and future directions discussed. PMID:28034912

  10. Understanding splicing regulation through RNA splicing maps.

    PubMed

    Witten, Joshua T; Ule, Jernej

    2011-03-01

    Alternative splicing is a highly regulated process that greatly increases the proteome diversity and plays an important role in cellular differentiation and disease. Interactions between RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and pre-mRNA are the principle regulator of splicing decisions. Findings from recent genome-wide studies of protein-RNA interactions have been combined with assays of the global effects of RBPs on splicing to create RNA splicing maps. These maps integrate information from all pre-mRNAs regulated by single RBPs to identify the global positioning principles guiding splicing regulation. Recent studies using this approach have identified a set of positional principles that are shared between diverse RBPs. Here, we discuss how insights from RNA splicing maps of different RBPs inform the mechanistic models of splicing regulation.

  11. mRNA decay during herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections: mutations that affect translation of an mRNA influence the sites at which it is cleaved by the HSV virion host shutoff (Vhs) protein.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, Lora A; Read, G Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    During lytic infections, the herpes simplex virus (HSV) virion host shutoff (Vhs) endoribonuclease degrades many host and viral mRNAs. Within infected cells it cuts mRNAs at preferred sites, including some in regions of translation initiation. Vhs binds the translation initiation factors eIF4H, eIF4AI, and eIF4AII, suggesting that its mRNA degradative function is somehow linked to translation. To explore how Vhs is targeted to preferred sites, we examined the in vitro degradation of a target mRNA in rabbit reticulocyte lysates containing in vitro-translated Vhs. Vhs caused rapid degradation of mRNAs beginning with cleavages at sites in the first 250 nucleotides, including a number near the start codon and in the 5' untranslated region. Ligation of the ends to form a circular mRNA inhibited Vhs cleavage at the same sites at which it cuts capped linear molecules. This was not due to an inability to cut any circular RNA, since Vhs cuts circular mRNAs containing an encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at the same sites as linear molecules with the IRES. Cutting linear mRNAs at preferred sites was augmented by the presence of a 5' cap. Moreover, mutations that altered the 5' proximal AUG abolished Vhs cleavage at nearby sites, while mutations that changed sequences surrounding the AUG to improve their match to the Kozak consensus sequence enhanced Vhs cutting near the start codon. The results indicate that mutations in an mRNA that affect its translation affect the sites at which it is cut by Vhs and suggest that Vhs is directed to its preferred cut sites during translation initiation.

  12. In vitro neuropeptide Y mRNA expressing model for screening essences that may affect appetite using Rolf B1.T cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiau-Wei; Wu, Po-Ju; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2012-08-15

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is the most important appetite regulator. This study aimed to establish an in vitro NPY mRNA expression model for screening essences to determine if they are an appetite stimulator or inhibitor. We cultured the olfactory nerve cells Rolf B1.T for 2 days and then treated the cells with the known appetite inhibitor limonene and stimulator linalool. It was found that linalool could significantly stimulate NPY mRNA expression in 10 min, and limonene had the opposite effect. Similar results were also found in primary olfactory ensheathing cells isolated from rats. Further clinical trials using human subjects found that, when 10 min of treatment was applied, linalool indeed increased the serum NPY level in human peripheral blood. Limonene, on the other hand, decreased the serum NPY level. Thus, NPY mRNA expression in Rolf B1.T cells could be used as an in vitro model for screening essences that may affect appetite.

  13. Translational regulation of human neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by an alternatively spliced 5'-untranslated region leader exon.

    PubMed

    Newton, Derek C; Bevan, Sian C; Choi, Stephen; Robb, G Brett; Millar, Adam; Wang, Yang; Marsden, Philip A

    2003-01-03

    Expression of the neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNA is subject to complex cell-specific transcriptional regulation, which is mediated by alternative promoters. Unexpectedly, we identified a 89-nucleotide alternatively spliced exon located in the 5'-untranslated region between exon 1 variants and a common exon 2 that contains the translational initiation codon. Alternative splicing events that do not affect the open reading frame are distinctly uncommon in mammals; therefore, we assessed its functional relevance. Transient transfection of reporter RNAs performed in a variety of cell types revealed that this alternatively spliced exon acts as a potent translational repressor. Stably transfected cell lines confirmed that the alternatively spliced exon inhibited translation of the native nNOS open reading frame. Reverse transcription-PCR and RNase protection assays indicated that nNOS mRNAs containing this exon are common and expressed in both a promoter-specific and tissue-restricted fashion. Mutational analysis identified the functional cis-element within this novel exon, and a secondary structure prediction revealed that it forms a putative stem-loop. RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay techniques revealed that a specific cytoplasmic RNA-binding complex interacts with this motif. Hence, a unique splicing event within a 5'-untranslated region is demonstrated to introduce a translational control element. This represents a newer model for the translational control of a mammalian mRNA.

  14. Promoter usage and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2005-06-01

    Recent findings justify a renewed interest in alternative splicing (AS): the process is more a rule than an exception as it affects the expression of 60% of human genes; it explains how a vast mammalian proteomic complexity is achieved with a limited number of genes; and mutations in AS regulatory sequences are a widespread source of human disease. AS regulation not only depends on the interaction of splicing factors with their target sequences in the pre-mRNA but is coupled to transcription. A clearer picture is emerging of the mechanisms by which transcription affects AS through promoter identity and occupation. These mechanisms involve the recruitment of factors with dual functions in transcription and splicing (i.e. that contain both functional domains and hence link the two processes) and the control of RNA polymerase II elongation.

  15. Can the HIV-1 splicing machinery be targeted for drug discovery?

    PubMed

    Dlamini, Zodwa; Hull, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 is able to express multiple protein types and isoforms from a single 9 kb mRNA transcript. These proteins are also expressed at particular stages of viral development, and this is achieved through the control of alternative splicing and the export of these transcripts from the nucleus. The nuclear export is controlled by the HIV protein Rev being required to transport incompletely spliced and partially spliced mRNA from the nucleus where they are normally retained. This implies a close relationship between the control of alternate splicing and the nuclear export of mRNA in the control of HIV-1 viral proliferation. This review discusses both the processes. The specificity and regulation of splicing in HIV-1 is controlled by the use of specific splice sites as well as exonic splicing enhancer and exonic splicing silencer sequences. The use of these silencer and enhancer sequences is dependent on the serine arginine family of proteins as well as the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family of proteins that bind to these sequences and increase or decrease splicing. Since alternative splicing is such a critical factor in viral development, it presents itself as a promising drug target. This review aims to discuss the inhibition of splicing, which would stall viral development, as an anti-HIV therapeutic strategy. In this review, the most recent knowledge of splicing in human immunodeficiency viral development and the latest therapeutic strategies targeting human immunodeficiency viral splicing are discussed.

  16. Can the HIV-1 splicing machinery be targeted for drug discovery?

    PubMed Central

    Dlamini, Zodwa; Hull, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 is able to express multiple protein types and isoforms from a single 9 kb mRNA transcript. These proteins are also expressed at particular stages of viral development, and this is achieved through the control of alternative splicing and the export of these transcripts from the nucleus. The nuclear export is controlled by the HIV protein Rev being required to transport incompletely spliced and partially spliced mRNA from the nucleus where they are normally retained. This implies a close relationship between the control of alternate splicing and the nuclear export of mRNA in the control of HIV-1 viral proliferation. This review discusses both the processes. The specificity and regulation of splicing in HIV-1 is controlled by the use of specific splice sites as well as exonic splicing enhancer and exonic splicing silencer sequences. The use of these silencer and enhancer sequences is dependent on the serine arginine family of proteins as well as the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family of proteins that bind to these sequences and increase or decrease splicing. Since alternative splicing is such a critical factor in viral development, it presents itself as a promising drug target. This review aims to discuss the inhibition of splicing, which would stall viral development, as an anti-HIV therapeutic strategy. In this review, the most recent knowledge of splicing in human immunodeficiency viral development and the latest therapeutic strategies targeting human immunodeficiency viral splicing are discussed. PMID:28331370

  17. Human cellular CYBA UTR sequences increase mRNA translation without affecting the half-life of recombinant RNA transcripts.

    PubMed

    Ferizi, Mehrije; Aneja, Manish K; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; Badieyan, Zohreh Sadat; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Rudolph, Carsten; Plank, Christian

    2016-12-15

    Modified nucleotide chemistries that increase the half-life (T1/2) of transfected recombinant mRNA and the use of non-native 5'- and 3'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences that enhance protein translation are advancing the prospects of transcript therapy. To this end, a set of UTR sequences that are present in mRNAs with long cellular T1/2 were synthesized and cloned as five different recombinant sequence set combinations as upstream 5'-UTR and/or downstream 3'-UTR regions flanking a reporter gene. Initial screening in two different cell systems in vitro revealed that cytochrome b-245 alpha chain (CYBA) combinations performed the best among all other UTR combinations and were characterized in detail. The presence or absence of CYBA UTRs had no impact on the mRNA stability of transfected mRNAs, but appeared to enhance the productivity of transfected transcripts based on the measurement of mRNA and protein levels in cells. When CYBA UTRs were fused to human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) coding sequence, the recombinant mRNA transcripts upon transfection produced higher levels of protein as compared to control transcripts. Moreover, transfection of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells with recombinant hBMP2-CYBA UTR transcripts induced bone differentiation demonstrating the osteogenic and therapeutic potential for transcript therapy based on hybrid UTR designs.

  18. Human cellular CYBA UTR sequences increase mRNA translation without affecting the half-life of recombinant RNA transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Ferizi, Mehrije; Aneja, Manish K.; Balmayor, Elizabeth R.; Badieyan, Zohreh Sadat; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Rudolph, Carsten; Plank, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Modified nucleotide chemistries that increase the half-life (T1/2) of transfected recombinant mRNA and the use of non-native 5′- and 3′-untranslated region (UTR) sequences that enhance protein translation are advancing the prospects of transcript therapy. To this end, a set of UTR sequences that are present in mRNAs with long cellular T1/2 were synthesized and cloned as five different recombinant sequence set combinations as upstream 5′-UTR and/or downstream 3′-UTR regions flanking a reporter gene. Initial screening in two different cell systems in vitro revealed that cytochrome b-245 alpha chain (CYBA) combinations performed the best among all other UTR combinations and were characterized in detail. The presence or absence of CYBA UTRs had no impact on the mRNA stability of transfected mRNAs, but appeared to enhance the productivity of transfected transcripts based on the measurement of mRNA and protein levels in cells. When CYBA UTRs were fused to human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) coding sequence, the recombinant mRNA transcripts upon transfection produced higher levels of protein as compared to control transcripts. Moreover, transfection of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells with recombinant hBMP2-CYBA UTR transcripts induced bone differentiation demonstrating the osteogenic and therapeutic potential for transcript therapy based on hybrid UTR designs. PMID:27974853

  19. Common CYP2D6 polymorphisms affecting alternative splicing and transcription: long-range haplotypes with two regulatory variants modulate CYP2D6 activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danxin; Poi, Ming J; Sun, Xiaochun; Gaedigk, Andrea; Leeder, J Steven; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is involved in the metabolism of 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause substantial variation in CYP2D6 activity and serve as biomarkers guiding drug therapy. However, genotype-phenotype relationships remain ambiguous except for poor metabolizers carrying null alleles, suggesting the presence of yet unknown genetic variants. Searching for regulatory CYP2D6 polymorphisms, we find that a SNP defining the CYP2D6*2 allele, rs16947 [R296C, 17-60% minor allele frequency (MAF)], previously thought to convey normal activity, alters exon 6 splicing, thereby reducing CYP2D6 expression at least 2-fold. In addition, two completely linked SNPs (rs5758550/rs133333, MAF 13-42%) increase CYP2D6 transcription more than 2-fold, located in a distant downstream enhancer region (>100 kb) that interacts with the CYP2D6 promoter. In high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other, rs16947 and the enhancer SNPs form haplotypes that affect CYP2D6 enzyme activity in vivo. In a pediatric cohort of 164 individuals, rs16947 alone (minor haplotype frequency 28%) was associated with reduced CYP2D6 metabolic activity (measured as dextromethorphan/metabolite ratios), whereas rs5758550/rs133333 alone (frequency 3%) resulted in increased CYP2D6 activity, while haplotypes containing both rs16947 and rs5758550/rs133333 were similar to the wild-type. Other alleles used in biomarker panels carrying these variants such as CYP2D6*41 require re-evaluation of independent effects on CYP2D6 activity. The occurrence of two regulatory variants of high frequency and in high LD, residing on a long haplotype, highlights the importance of gene architecture, likely shaped by evolutionary selection pressures, in determining activity of encoded proteins.

  20. Dystrophin rescue by trans-splicing: a strategy for DMD genotypes not eligible for exon skipping approaches.

    PubMed

    Lorain, Stéphanie; Peccate, Cécile; Le Hir, Maëva; Griffith, Graziella; Philippi, Susanne; Précigout, Guillaume; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Jollet, Arnaud; Voit, Thomas; Garcia, Luis

    2013-09-01

    RNA-based therapeutic approaches using splice-switching oligonucleotides have been successfully applied to rescue dystrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) preclinical models and are currently being evaluated in DMD patients. Although the modular structure of dystrophin protein tolerates internal deletions, many mutations that affect nondispensable domains of the protein require further strategies. Among these, trans-splicing technology is particularly attractive, as it allows the replacement of any mutated exon by its normal version as well as introducing missing exons or correcting duplication mutations. We have applied such a strategy in vitro by using cotransfection of pre-trans-splicing molecule (PTM) constructs along with a reporter minigene containing part of the dystrophin gene harboring the stop-codon mutation found in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Optimization of the different functional domains of the PTMs allowed achieving accurate and efficient trans-splicing of up to 30% of the transcript encoded by the cotransfected minigene. Optimized parameters included mRNA stabilization, choice of splice site sequence, inclusion of exon splice enhancers and artificial intronic sequence. Intramuscular delivery of adeno-associated virus vectors expressing PTMs allowed detectable levels of dystrophin in mdx and mdx4Cv, illustrating that a given PTM can be suitable for a variety of mutations.

  1. Myotubular myopathy caused by multiple abnormal splicing variants in the MTM1 RNA in a patient with a mild phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Vasli, Nasim; Laugel, Vincent; Böhm, Johann; Lannes, Béatrice; Biancalana, Valérie; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Mutations impacting on the splicing of pre-mRNA are one important cause of genetically inherited diseases. However, detection of splice mutations, that are mainly due to intronic variations, and characterization of their effects are usually not performed as a first approach during genetic diagnosis. X-linked recessive myotubular myopathy is a severe congenital myopathy due to mutations in the MTM1 gene encoding myotubularin. Here, we screened a male patient showing an unusually mild phenotype without respiratory distress by western blot with specific myotubularin antibodies and detected a strong reduction of the protein level.The disease was subsequently linked to a hemizygous point mutation affecting the acceptor splice site of exon 8 of MTM1, proven by protein, transcript and genomic DNA analysis. Detailed analysis of the MTM1 mRNA by RT-PCR, sequencing and quantitative PCR revealed multiple abnormal transcripts with retention of a truncated exon 8, and neighboring exons 7 and 9 but exclusion of several other exons, suggesting a complex effect of this mutation on the splicing of non-adjacent exons. We conclude that the analysis of RNA by RT-PCR and sequencing is an important step to characterize the precise impact of detected splice variants. It is likely that complex splice aberrations due to a single mutation also account for unsolved cases in other diseases. PMID:22258523

  2. Alternative splicing of a viral mirtron differentially affects the expression of other microRNAs from its cluster and of the host transcript.

    PubMed

    Rasschaert, Perrine; Figueroa, Thomas; Dambrine, Ginette; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Interplay between alternative splicing and the Microprocessor may have differential effects on the expression of intronic miRNAs organized into clusters. We used a viral model - the LAT long non-coding RNA (LAT lncRNA) of Marek's disease oncogenic herpesvirus (MDV-1), which has the mdv1-miR-M8-M6-M7-M10 cluster embedded in its first intron - to assess the impact of splicing modifications on the biogenesis of each of the miRNAs from the cluster. Drosha silencing and alternative splicing of an extended exon 2 of the LAT lncRNA from a newly identified 3' splice site (SS) at the end of the second miRNA of the cluster showed that mdv1-miR-M6 was a 5'-tailed mirtron. We have thus identified the first 5'-tailed mirtron within a cluster of miRNAs for which alternative splicing is directly associated with differential expression of the other miRNAs of the cluster, with an increase in intronic mdv1-miR-M8 expression and a decrease in expression of the exonic mdv1-miR-M7, and indirectly associated with regulation of the host transcript. According to the alternative 3SS used for the host intron splicing, the mdv1-miR-M6 is processed as a mirtron by the spliceosome, dispatching the other miRNAs of the cluster into intron and exon, or as a canonical miRNA by the Microprocessor complex. The viral mdv1-miR-M6 mirtron is the first mirtron described that can also follow the canonical pathway.

  3. Intron retention resulting from a silent mutation in the VWF gene that structurally influences the 5′ splice site

    PubMed Central

    Yadegari, Hamideh; Biswas, Arijit; Akhter, Mohammad Suhail; Driesen, Julia; Ivaskevicius, Vytautas; Marquardt, Natascha

    2016-01-01

    Disease-associated silent mutations are considered to affect the accurate pre–messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing either by influencing regulatory elements, leading to exon skipping, or by creating a new cryptic splice site. This study describes a new molecular pathological mechanism by which a silent mutation inhibits splicing and leads to intron retention. We identified a heterozygous silent mutation, c.7464C>T, in exon 44 of the von Willebrand factor (VWF) gene in a family with type 1 von Willebrand disease. In vivo and ex vivo transcript analysis revealed an aberrantly spliced transcript, with intron 44 retained in the mRNA, implying disruption of the first catalytic step of splicing at the 5′ splice site (5′ss). The abnormal transcript with the retained intronic region coded a truncated protein that lacked the carboxy-terminal end of the VWF protein. Confocal immunofluorescence characterizations of blood outgrowth endothelial cells derived from the patient confirmed the presence of the truncated protein by demonstrating accumulation of VWF in the endoplasmic reticulum. In silico pre-mRNA secondary and tertiary structure analysis revealed that this substitution, despite its distal position from the 5′ss (85 bp downstream), induces cis alterations in pre-mRNA structure that result in the formation of a stable hairpin at the 5′ss. This hairpin sequesters the 5′ss residues involved in U1 small nuclear RNA interactions, thereby inhibiting excision of the pre-mRNA intronic region. This study is the first to show the allosteric-like/far-reaching effect of an exonic variation on pre-mRNA splicing that is mediated by structural changes in the pre-mRNA. PMID:27543438

  4. Alternative-splicing-mediated gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianliang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental process during gene expression and has been found to be ubiquitous in eukaryotes. However, how AS impacts gene expression levels both quantitatively and qualitatively remains to be fully explored. Here, we analyze two common models of gene expression, each incorporating a simple splice mechanism that a pre-mRNA is spliced into two mature mRNA isoforms in a probabilistic manner. In the constitutive expression case, we show that the steady-state molecular numbers of two mature mRNA isoforms follow mutually independent Poisson distributions. In the bursting expression case, we demonstrate that the tail decay of the steady-state distribution for both mature mRNA isoforms that in general are not mutually independent can be characterized by the product of mean burst size and splicing probability. In both cases, we find that AS can efficiently modulate both the variability (measured by variance) and the noise level of the total mature mRNA, and in particular, the latter is always lower than the noise level of the pre-mRNA, implying that AS always reduces the noise. These results altogether reveal that AS is a mechanism of efficiently controlling the gene expression noise.

  5. Quantitative mapping shows that serotonin rather than dopamine receptor mRNA expressions are affected after repeated intermittent administration of MDMA in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kindlundh-Högberg, Anna M S; Svenningsson, Per; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2006-09-01

    Ecstasy, (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxy-metamphetamine (MDMA), is a popular recreational drug among young people. The present study aims to mimic MDMA intake among adolescents at dance clubs, taking repeated doses in the same evening on an intermittent basis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either 3x1 or 3x5 mg/kg/day (3 h apart) every seventh day during 4 weeks. We used real-time RT-PCR to determine the gene expression of serotonin 5HT1A, 5HT1B, 5HT2A, 5HT2C, 5HT3, 5HT6 receptors and dopamine D1, D2, D3 receptors in seven brain nuclei. The highest dose of MDMA extensively increased the 5HT1B-receptor mRNA in the cortex, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hypothalamus. The 5HT2A-receptor mRNA was reduced at the highest MDMA dose in the cortex. The 5HT2C mRNA was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner in the cortex and the hypothalamus, as well as the 5HT3-receptor mRNA was in the hypothalamus. The 5HT6 mRNA level was increased in the forebrain cortex and the amygdala. Dopamine receptor mRNAs were only affected in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for a unique implication of serotonin rather than dopamine receptor mRNA levels, in response to repeated intermittent MDMA administration. We therefore suggest that serotonin regulated functions also primarily underlie repeated MDMA intake at rave parties.

  6. Global variability in gene expression and alternative splicing is modulated by mitochondrial content.

    PubMed

    Guantes, Raul; Rastrojo, Alberto; Neves, Ricardo; Lima, Ana; Aguado, Begoña; Iborra, Francisco J

    2015-05-01

    Noise in gene expression is a main determinant of phenotypic variability. Increasing experimental evidence suggests that genome-wide cellular constraints largely contribute to the heterogeneity observed in gene products. It is still unclear, however, which global factors affect gene expression noise and to what extent. Since eukaryotic gene expression is an energy demanding process, differences in the energy budget of each cell could determine gene expression differences. Here, we quantify the contribution of mitochondrial variability (a natural source of ATP variation) to global variability in gene expression. We find that changes in mitochondrial content can account for ∼50% of the variability observed in protein levels. This is the combined result of the effect of mitochondria dosage on transcription and translation apparatus content and activities. Moreover, we find that mitochondrial levels have a large impact on alternative splicing, thus modulating both the abundance and type of mRNAs. A simple mathematical model in which mitochondrial content simultaneously affects transcription rate and splicing site choice can explain the alternative splicing data. The results of this study show that mitochondrial content (and/or probably function) influences mRNA abundance, translation, and alternative splicing, which ultimately affects cellular phenotype.

  7. Global variability in gene expression and alternative splicing is modulated by mitochondrial content

    PubMed Central

    Guantes, Raul; Rastrojo, Alberto; Neves, Ricardo; Lima, Ana; Aguado, Begoña; Iborra, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Noise in gene expression is a main determinant of phenotypic variability. Increasing experimental evidence suggests that genome-wide cellular constraints largely contribute to the heterogeneity observed in gene products. It is still unclear, however, which global factors affect gene expression noise and to what extent. Since eukaryotic gene expression is an energy demanding process, differences in the energy budget of each cell could determine gene expression differences. Here, we quantify the contribution of mitochondrial variability (a natural source of ATP variation) to global variability in gene expression. We find that changes in mitochondrial content can account for ∼50% of the variability observed in protein levels. This is the combined result of the effect of mitochondria dosage on transcription and translation apparatus content and activities. Moreover, we find that mitochondrial levels have a large impact on alternative splicing, thus modulating both the abundance and type of mRNAs. A simple mathematical model in which mitochondrial content simultaneously affects transcription rate and splicing site choice can explain the alternative splicing data. The results of this study show that mitochondrial content (and/or probably function) influences mRNA abundance, translation, and alternative splicing, which ultimately affects cellular phenotype. PMID:25800673

  8. ida4-1, ida4-2, and ida4-3 are intron splicing mutations affecting the locus encoding p28, a light chain of Chlamydomonas axonemal inner dynein arms.

    PubMed Central

    LeDizet, M; Piperno, G

    1995-01-01

    We recently determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding p28, a light chain of inner dynein arms of Chlamydomonas axonemes. Here, we show that p28 is the protein encoded by the IDA4 locus. p28, and the dynein heavy chains normally associated with it, are completely absent from the flagella and cell bodies of three allelic strains of ida4, named ida4-1, ida4-2, and ida4-3. We determined the nucleotide sequence of the three alleles of the p28 gene and found in each case a single nucleotide change, affecting the splice sites of the first, second, and fourth introns, respectively. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction amplification of RNAs prepared from ida4 cells confirmed that these mutations prevent the correct splicing of the affected introns, thereby blocking the synthesis of full-length p28. These are the first intron splicing mutations described in Chlamydomonas and the first inner dynein arm mutations characterized at the molecular level. The absence in ida4 axonemes of the dynein heavy chains normally found in association with p28 suggests that p28 is necessary for stable assembly of a subset of inner dynein arms or for the binding of these arms to the microtubule doublets. Images PMID:7579690

  9. [Alternative splicing regulation: implications in cancer diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montiel, Nancy; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca

    2015-04-08

    The accurate expression of the genetic information is regulated by processes like mRNA splicing, proposed after the discoveries of Phil Sharp and Richard Roberts, who demonstrated the existence of intronic sequences, present in almost every structural eukaryotic gene, which should be precisely removed. This intron removal is called "splicing", which generates different proteins from a single mRNA, with different or even antagonistic functions. We currently know that alternative splicing is the most important source of protein diversity, given that 70% of the human genes undergo splicing and that mutations causing defects in this process could originate up to 50% of genetic diseases, including cancer. When these defects occur in genes involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and cell cycle regulation, there is an impact on cancer progression, rising the opportunity to diagnose and treat some types of cancer according to a particular splicing profile.

  10. Evolutionary Insights into RNA trans-Splicing in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Quan; Li, Cong; Zuo, Zhixiang; Huang, Chunhua; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2016-01-01

    Pre-RNA splicing is an essential step in generating mature mRNA. RNA trans-splicing combines two separate pre-mRNA molecules to form a chimeric non-co-linear RNA, which may exert a function distinct from its original molecules. Trans-spliced RNAs may encode novel proteins or serve as noncoding or regulatory RNAs. These novel RNAs not only increase the complexity of the proteome but also provide new regulatory mechanisms for gene expression. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that trans-splicing occurs frequently in both physiological and pathological processes. In addition, mRNA reprogramming based on trans-splicing has been successfully applied in RNA-based therapies for human genetic diseases. Nevertheless, clarifying the extent and evolution of trans-splicing in vertebrates and developing detection methods for trans-splicing remain challenging. In this review, we summarize previous research, highlight recent advances in trans-splicing, and discuss possible splicing mechanisms and functions from an evolutionary viewpoint. PMID:26966239

  11. Evolutionary Insights into RNA trans-Splicing in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lei, Quan; Li, Cong; Zuo, Zhixiang; Huang, Chunhua; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2016-03-10

    Pre-RNA splicing is an essential step in generating mature mRNA. RNA trans-splicing combines two separate pre-mRNA molecules to form a chimeric non-co-linear RNA, which may exert a function distinct from its original molecules. Trans-spliced RNAs may encode novel proteins or serve as noncoding or regulatory RNAs. These novel RNAs not only increase the complexity of the proteome but also provide new regulatory mechanisms for gene expression. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that trans-splicing occurs frequently in both physiological and pathological processes. In addition, mRNA reprogramming based on trans-splicing has been successfully applied in RNA-based therapies for human genetic diseases. Nevertheless, clarifying the extent and evolution of trans-splicing in vertebrates and developing detection methods for trans-splicing remain challenging. In this review, we summarize previous research, highlight recent advances in trans-splicing, and discuss possible splicing mechanisms and functions from an evolutionary viewpoint.

  12. Selenium Deficiency Affects the mRNA Expression of Inflammatory Factors and Selenoprotein Genes in the Kidneys of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiu-Li; Xu, Bo; Huang, Xiao-Dan; Gao, Yu-Hong; Chen, Yu; Shan, An-Shan

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Se deficiency on the transcription of inflammatory factors and selenoprotein genes in the kidneys of broiler chicks. One hundred fifty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to two groups fed with either a low-Se diet (L group, 0.033 mg/kg Se) or an adequate Se diet (C group, 0.2 mg/kg Se). The levels of uric acid (UA) and creatinine (Cr) in the serum and the mRNA levels of 6 inflammatory factors and 25 selenoprotein genes in the kidneys were measured as the clinical signs of Se deficiency occurred at 20 days old. The results indicated that the contents of UA and Cr in the serum increased in L group (p < 0.05), and the mRNA levels of the inflammatory factors (NF-κB, iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α) increased in L group (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of PTGEs and HO-1 were not changed. In addition, 25 selenoprotein transcripts displayed ubiquitous expression in the kidneys of the chicks. The mRNA levels of 14 selenoprotein genes (Dio1, Dio2, GPx3, Sepp1, SelH, SelI, SelK, Sepn1, SelO, SelW, Sep15, SelT, SelU, and SelS) decreased, and 9 selenoprotein genes (GPx1, GPx2, GPx4, SelPb, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, SPS2, and SelM) increased in L group (p < 0.05), but the Dio3 and Sepx1 mRNA levels did not change. The results indicated that Se deficiency resulted in kidney dysfunction, activation of the NF-κB pathway, and a change in selenoprotein gene expression. The changes of inflammatory factor and selenoprotein gene expression levels were directly related to the abnormal renal functions induced by Se deficiency.

  13. Par-4/THAP1 complex and Notch3 competitively regulated pre-mRNA splicing of CCAR1 and affected inversely the survival of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Li, J-Y; Ge, Z; Zhang, L; Zhou, G-P

    2013-12-12

    Although the intensification of therapy for children with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) has substantially improved clinical outcomes, T-ALL remains an important challenge in pediatric oncology. Here, we report that the cooperative synergy between prostate apoptosis response factor-4 (Par-4) and THAP1 induces cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1) gene expression and cellular apoptosis in human T-ALL cell line Jurkat cells, CEM cells and primary cultured neoplastic T lymphocytes from children with T-ALL. Par-4 and THAP1 collaborated to activate the promoter of CCAR1 gene. Mechanistic investigations revealed that Par-4 and THAP1 formed a protein complex by the interaction of their carboxyl termini, and THAP1 bound to CCAR1 promoter though its zinc-dependent DNA-binding domain at amino terminus. Par-4/THAP1 complex and Notch3 competitively bound to CCAR1 promoter and competitively modulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing of CCAR1, which resulted in two different transcripts and played an opposite role in T-ALL cell survival. Despite Notch3 induced a shift splicing from the full-length isoform toward a shorter form of CCAR1 mRNA by splicing factor SRp40 and SRp55, Par-4/THAP1 complex strongly antagonized this inductive effect. Our finding revealed a mechanistic rationale for Par-4/THAP1-induced apoptosis in T-ALL cells that would be of benefit to develop a new therapy strategy for T-ALL.

  14. High intensity interval training favourably affects antioxidant and inflammation mRNA expression in early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Patrick S; Briskey, David R; Scanlan, Aaron T; Coombes, Jeff S; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-12-01

    Increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammation have been linked to the progression of chronic kidney disease. To reduce oxidative stress and inflammation related to chronic kidney disease, chronic aerobic exercise is often recommended. Data suggests high intensity interval training may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of differing modes of exercise, along with explanations of mechanisms responsible for observed effects, are lacking. This study assessed effects of eight weeks of high intensity interval training (85% VO2max), versus low intensity exercise (45-50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour, in an animal model of early-stage chronic kidney disease. We examined kidney-specific mRNA expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidase 1; Gpx1, superoxide dismutase 1; Sod1, and catalase; Cat) and inflammation (kidney injury molecule 1; Kim1 and tumour necrosis factor receptor super family 1b; Tnfrsf1b), as well as plasma F2-isoprostanes, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Compared to sedentary behaviour, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Sod1 (p=0.01) and Cat (p<0.001). Compared to low intensity exercise, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Cat (p<0.001) and Tnfrsf1b (p=0.047). In this study, high intensity interval training was superior to sedentary behaviour and low intensity exercise as high intensity interval training beneficially influenced expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity and inflammation.

  15. Gene and alternative splicing annotation with AIR

    PubMed Central

    Florea, Liliana; Di Francesco, Valentina; Miller, Jason; Turner, Russell; Yao, Alison; Harris, Michael; Walenz, Brian; Mobarry, Clark; Merkulov, Gennady V.; Charlab, Rosane; Dew, Ian; Deng, Zuoming; Istrail, Sorin; Li, Peter; Sutton, Granger

    2005-01-01

    Designing effective and accurate tools for identifying the functional and structural elements in a genome remains at the frontier of genome annotation owing to incompleteness and inaccuracy of the data, limitations in the computational models, and shifting paradigms in genomics, such as alternative splicing. We present a methodology for the automated annotation of genes and their alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts based on existing cDNA and protein sequence evidence from the same species or projected from a related species using syntenic mapping information. At the core of the method is the splice graph, a compact representation of a gene, its exons, introns, and alternatively spliced isoforms. The putative transcripts are enumerated from the graph and assigned confidence scores based on the strength of sequence evidence, and a subset of the high-scoring candidates are selected and promoted into the annotation. The method is highly selective, eliminating the unlikely candidates while retaining 98% of the high-quality mRNA evidence in well-formed transcripts, and produces annotation that is measurably more accurate than some evidence-based gene sets. The process is fast, accurate, and fully automated, and combines the traditionally distinct gene annotation and alternative splicing detection processes in a comprehensive and systematic way, thus considerably aiding in the ensuing manual curation efforts. PMID:15632090

  16. Correct splicing despite mutation of the invariant first nucleotide of a 5[prime] splice site: A possible basis for disparate clinical phenotypes in siblings with adenosine deaminase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Arredondo-Vega, F.X.; Santisteban, I.; Kelly, S.; Hershfield, M.S. ); Umetsu, D.T. ); Schlossman, C.M.

    1994-05-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency usually causes severe combined immune deficiency in infancy. Milder phenotypes also occur and are associated with less severely impaired deoxyadenosine (dAdo) catabolism. The authors have characterized the mutations responsible for ADA deficiency in siblings with disparity in clinical phenotype. Erythrocyte dAdo nucleotide pool size, which reflects total residual ADA activity, was lower in the older, more mildly affected sib (RG) than in her younger, more severely affected sister (EG). Cultured T cells, fibroblasts, and B lymphoblasts of RG had detectable residual ADA activity, while cells of EG did not. ADA mRNA was undetectable by northern analysis in cells of both patients. Both sibs were found to be compound heterozygotes for the following novel splicing defects: (1) a G[sup +1][yields]A substitution at the 5' splice site of IVS 2 and (2) a complex 17-bp rearrangement of the 3' splice site of IVS 8, which inserted a run of seven purines into the polypyrimidine tract and altered the reading frame of exon 9. PCR-amplified ADA cDNA clones with premature translation stop codons arising from aberrant pre-mRNA splicing were identified, which were consistent with these mutations. However, some cDNA clones from T cells of both patients and from fibroblasts and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cells of RG, were normally spliced at both the exon 2/3 and exon 8/9 junctions. A normal coding sequence was documented for clones from both sibs. The normal cDNA clones did not appear to arise from either contamination or PCR artifact, and mosaicism seems unlikely to have been involved. These findings suggest (1) that a low level of normal pre-mRNA splicing may occur despite mutation of the invariant first nucleotide of the 5' splice sequence and (2) that differences in efficiency of such splicing may account for the difference in residual ADA activity, immune dysfunction, and clinical severity in these siblings. 66 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Targeting RNA-splicing for SMA treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianhua; Zheng, Xuexiu; Shen, Haihong

    2012-03-01

    The central dogma of DNA-RNA-protein was established more than 40 years ago. However, important biological processes have been identified since the central dogma was developed. For example, methylation is important in the regulation of transcription. In contrast, proteins, are more complex due to modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination, or cleavage. RNA is the mediator between DNA and protein, but it can also be modulated at several levels. Among the most profound discoveries of RNA regulation is RNA splicing. It has been estimated that 80% of pre-mRNA undergo alternative splicing, which exponentially increases biological information flow in cellular processes. However, an increased number of regulated steps inevitably accompanies an increased number of errors. Abnormal splicing is often found in cells, resulting in protein dysfunction that causes disease. Splicing of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene has been extensively studied during the last two decades. Accumulating knowledge on SMN splicing has led to speculation and search for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) treatment by stimulating the inclusion of exon 7 into SMN mRNA. This mini-review summaries the latest progress on SMN splicing research as a potential treatment for SMA disease.

  18. Splicing of aged fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volotinen, Tarja T.; Yuce, Hakan H.; Bonanno, Nicholas; Frantz, Rolf A.; Duffy, Sean

    1993-11-01

    The deployment of fiber in the subscriber loop will require that an optical fiber network maintain the highest possible level of reliability over time, despite being subjected to extremes of temperature, humidity, and other environmental and mechanical stresses imposed on the outside plant. At the same time, both the initial cost and the ongoing maintenance expenses for loop equipment must be kept low. Fiber in the Loop (FITL) applications will entail increased fiber handling. Cable lengths will be shorter, and fiber counts higher, than has been the case so far in long-distance applications. There will also be more cable sheath openings per unit length of cable and/or fiber, as well as more splicing and connectorization. It may become a common practice that a customer is connected to a cable installed many years earlier. In subscriber loops, cables and fibers will be installed in harsher and more varying environments. Fibers will be exposed to higher humidity and temperature, particularly in splice boxes mounted on building walls, in pedestal cabinets, and in other similar enclosures. Corrosive gases and/or liquids may also be present at some locations and will adversely affect the fibers. The combination of increased handling, greater exposure, and more stressful environments may give rise to a need for new, more stringent requirements for fiber mechanical reliability. These can include increaSed fiber strength, increased aging resistance, and increased fatigue resistance.

  19. Serine Arginine Splicing Factor 3 Is Involved in Enhanced Splicing of Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase RNA in Response to Nutrients and Hormones in Liver*

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Callee M.; Suchanek, Amanda L.; Cyphert, Travis J.; Kohan, Alison B.; Szeszel-Fedorowicz, Wioletta; Salati, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Expression of G6PD is controlled by changes in the degree of splicing of the G6PD mRNA in response to nutrients in the diet. This regulation involves an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12 of the mRNA. Using the G6PD model, we demonstrate that nutrients and hormones control the activity of serine-arginine-rich (SR) proteins, a family of splicing co-activators, and thereby regulate the splicing of G6PD mRNA. In primary rat hepatocyte cultures, insulin increased the amount of phosphorylated SR proteins, and this effect was counteracted by arachidonic acid. The results of RNA affinity analysis with nuclear extracts from intact liver demonstrated that the SR splicing factor proteins SRSF3 and SRSF4 bound to the G6PD ESE. Consequently, siRNA-mediated depletion of SRSF3, but not SRSF4, in liver cells inhibited accumulation of both mRNA expressed from a minigene containing exon 12 and the endogenous G6PD mRNA. Consistent with the functional role of SRSF3 in regulating splicing, SRSF3 was observed to bind to the ESE in both intact cells and in animals using RNA immunoprecipitation analysis. Furthermore, refeeding significantly increased the binding of SRSF3 coincident with increased splicing and expression of G6PD. Together, these data establish that nutritional regulation of SRSF3 activity is involved in the differential splicing of the G6PD transcript in response to nutrients. Nutritional regulation of other SR proteins presents a regulatory mechanism that could cause widespread changes in mRNA splicing. Nutrients are therefore novel regulators of mRNA splicing. PMID:23233666

  20. Serine arginine splicing factor 3 is involved in enhanced splicing of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase RNA in response to nutrients and hormones in liver.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Callee M; Suchanek, Amanda L; Cyphert, Travis J; Kohan, Alison B; Szeszel-Fedorowicz, Wioletta; Salati, Lisa M

    2013-01-25

    Expression of G6PD is controlled by changes in the degree of splicing of the G6PD mRNA in response to nutrients in the diet. This regulation involves an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12 of the mRNA. Using the G6PD model, we demonstrate that nutrients and hormones control the activity of serine-arginine-rich (SR) proteins, a family of splicing co-activators, and thereby regulate the splicing of G6PD mRNA. In primary rat hepatocyte cultures, insulin increased the amount of phosphorylated SR proteins, and this effect was counteracted by arachidonic acid. The results of RNA affinity analysis with nuclear extracts from intact liver demonstrated that the SR splicing factor proteins SRSF3 and SRSF4 bound to the G6PD ESE. Consequently, siRNA-mediated depletion of SRSF3, but not SRSF4, in liver cells inhibited accumulation of both mRNA expressed from a minigene containing exon 12 and the endogenous G6PD mRNA. Consistent with the functional role of SRSF3 in regulating splicing, SRSF3 was observed to bind to the ESE in both intact cells and in animals using RNA immunoprecipitation analysis. Furthermore, refeeding significantly increased the binding of SRSF3 coincident with increased splicing and expression of G6PD. Together, these data establish that nutritional regulation of SRSF3 activity is involved in the differential splicing of the G6PD transcript in response to nutrients. Nutritional regulation of other SR proteins presents a regulatory mechanism that could cause widespread changes in mRNA splicing. Nutrients are therefore novel regulators of mRNA splicing.

  1. Frameshift mutations in the v-src gene of avian sarcoma virus act in cis to specifically reduce v-src mRNA levels.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, S B; Stoltzfus, C M

    1994-01-01

    A portion of the avian sarcoma virus (ASV) primary RNA transcripts is alternatively spliced in chicken embryo fibroblast cells to two different messages, the src and env mRNAs. Frameshift mutations of the viral genome causing premature translation termination within the src gene result in a decreased steady-state level of the src mRNA. In marked contrast, frameshift mutations at various positions of the env gene do not decrease the level of the env mRNA. We show that the src gene product is not required in trans for splicing and accumulation of src mRNA. Conversely, the truncated Src proteins do not act negatively in trans to decrease specifically the levels of src mRNA. Taken together, these results indicate that the frameshift mutations act in cis to reduce src mRNA levels. A double mutant with a lesion in the src initiator AUG and a frameshift within the src gene demonstrated wild-type RNA levels, indicating that the src mRNA must be recognized as a translatable mRNA for the effect on src mRNA levels to occur. Our results indicate that the reduced levels do not result from decreased cytoplasmic stability of the mature src mRNA. We also show that the src gene frameshift mutations affect src mRNA levels when expressed from intronless src cDNA clones. We conclude that the reduction of src mRNA levels triggered by the presence of frameshift mutations within the src gene occurs while it is associated with the nucleus. Our data also strongly suggest that this occurs at a step of RNA processing or transport independent of RNA splicing. Images PMID:8114716

  2. Late-onset spastic paraplegia: Aberrant SPG11 transcripts generated by a novel splice site donor mutation.

    PubMed

    Kawarai, Toshitaka; Miyamoto, Ryosuke; Mori, Atsuko; Oki, Ryosuke; Tsukamoto-Miyashiro, Ai; Matsui, Naoko; Miyazaki, Yoshimichi; Orlacchio, Antonio; Izumi, Yuishin; Nishida, Yoshihiko; Kaji, Ryuji

    2015-12-15

    We identified a novel homozygous mutation in the splice site donor (SSD) of intron 30 (c.5866+1G>A) in consanguineous Japanese SPG11 siblings showing late-onset spastic paraplegia using the whole-exome sequencing. Phenotypic variability was observed, including age-at-onset, dysarthria and pes cavus. Coding DNA sequencing revealed that the mutation affected the recognition of the constitutive SSD of intron 30, splicing upstream onto a nearby cryptic SSD in exon 30. The use of constitutive splice sites of intron 29 was confirmed by sequencing. The mutant transcripts are mostly subject to degradation by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay system. SPG11 transcripts, escaping from the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway, would generate a truncated protein (p.Tyr1900Phefs5X) containing the first 1899 amino acids and followed by 4 aberrant amino acids. This study showed a successful clinical application of whole-exome sequencing in spastic paraplegia and demonstrated a further evidence of allelic heterogeneity in SPG11. The confirmation of aberrant transcript by splice site mutation is a prerequisite for a more precise molecular diagnosis.

  3. Regulation of PMP22 mRNA by G3BP1 affects cell proliferation in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulation of mRNAs is one way to control protein levels and thereby important cellular processes such as growth, invasion and apoptosis. G3BPs constitute a family of mRNA-binding proteins, shown to be overexpressed in several cancer types, including breast, colon and pancreas cancer. G3BP has been reported to both stabilize and induce degradation of specific mRNAs. Results Here, we show that G3BP1, but not G3BP2, supports proliferation of several breast cancer cell lines. Global gene expression analyses of G3BP1- and G3BP2-depleted cells indicate that primarily G3BP1, and much less G3BP2, influences mRNA expression levels. Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) was one gene that was significantly influenced by G3BP1 depletion which led to a 2–3 fold increased expression. Depletion of PMP22 resulted in increased proliferation and the G3BP1-mediated effect on proliferation was not seen upon PMP22-depletion. Conclusions This indicates a novel role for G3BP1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in breast cancer cells, perhaps via a regulatory effect on PMP22 expression. PMID:24321297

  4. Functional association between promoter structure and transcript alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Cramer, P; Pesce, C G; Baralle, F E; Kornblihtt, A R

    1997-10-14

    It has been assumed that constitutive and regulated splicing of RNA polymerase II transcripts depends exclusively on signals present in the RNA molecule. Here we show that changes in promoter structure strongly affect splice site selection. We investigated the splicing of the ED I exon, which encodes a facultative type III repeat of fibronectin, whose inclusion is regulated during development and in proliferative processes. We used an alternative splicing assay combined with promoter swapping to demonstrate that the extent of ED I splicing is dependent on the promoter structure from which the transcript originated and that this regulation is independent of the promoter strength. Thus, these results provide the first evidence for coupling between alternative splicing and promoter-specific transcription, which agrees with recent cytological and biochemical evidence of coordination between splicing and transcription.

  5. Multiply spliced env and nef transcripts of simian immunodeficiency virus from West African green monkey (SIVagm-sab).

    PubMed

    Bibollet-Ruche, F; Cuny, G; Pourrut, X; Brengues, C; Galat-Luong, A; Galat, G; Delaporte, E

    1998-04-10

    We have characterized the spliced transcripts of nef and envelope genes of SIVagm from African green monkey of the sabaeus subspecies. Most of the transcripts we have studied, representing the most abundant mRNA species in our assay, have undergone a specific splicing event that removes a part of the trans-activation response (TAR) element. This region is predicted to form a stable secondary structure (four stem-loop elements in SIVagm-sab) that affects the trans-activation of viral gene expression by Tat and the translation of the viral transcripts. Contrary to what is observed in other viruses, in which this R-region splicing has also been described (e.g., HIV-2), the LTR splicing in SIVagm-sab removes part of the first stem-loop and the following ones, nearly completely disrupting the TAR element secondary structure. Because LTR splicing seems to be a conserved feature among the strains we have characterized, these results suggest that this phenomenon could have important consequences for virus replication, pathogenicity, and latency.

  6. A synonymous CHRNE mutation responsible for an aberrant splicing leading to congenital myasthenic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Richard, Pascale; Gaudon, Karen; Fournier, Emmanuel; Jackson, Christopher; Bauché, Stéphanie; Haddad, Hafedh; Koenig, Jeanine; Echenne, Bernard; Hantaï, Daniel; Eymard, Bruno

    2007-05-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs) are rare hereditary disorders transmitted in a recessive or dominant pattern, and are caused by mutations in the genes encoding proteins of the neuromuscular junction. They are classified in three groups depending on the origin of the molecular defect. Postsynaptic defects are the most frequent and have been reported to be partly due to abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor, and particularly to mutations in CHRNE, the gene encoding the acetylcholine receptor epsilon-subunit. In a Portuguese patient with a mild form of recessive CMS, CHRNE sequencing identified an unknown homozygous transition. This variation affects the third nucleotide of the glycine 285 condon, and leads to a synonymous variant. Analysis of transcripts demonstrated that this single change creates a new splice donor site located 4 nucleotides upstream of the normal site, leading to a deletion and generating a frameshift in exon 9 followed by a premature termination codon. This paper relates the identification of a synonymous mutation in CHRNE that creates a new splice donor site leading to an aberrant splicing of pre-mRNAs and so to their instability. This is the first synonymous mutation in CHRNE known to generate a cryptic splice site, and mRNA quantification strongly suggests that it is the disease-causing mutation.

  7. RNA Splicing: Regulation and Dysregulation in the Heart.

    PubMed

    van den Hoogenhof, Maarten M G; Pinto, Yigal M; Creemers, Esther E

    2016-02-05

    RNA splicing represents a post-transcriptional mechanism to generate multiple functional RNAs or proteins from a single transcript. The evolution of RNA splicing is a prime example of the Darwinian function follows form concept. A mutation that leads to a new mRNA (form) that encodes for a new functional protein (function) is likely to be retained, and this way, the genome has gradually evolved to encode for genes with multiple isoforms, thereby creating an enormously diverse transcriptome. Advances in technologies to characterize RNA populations have led to a better understanding of RNA processing in health and disease. In the heart, alternative splicing is increasingly being recognized as an important layer of post-transcriptional gene regulation. Moreover, the recent identification of several cardiac splice factors, such as RNA-binding motif protein 20 and SF3B1, not only provided important insight into the mechanisms underlying alternative splicing but also revealed how these splicing factors impact functional properties of the heart. Here, we review our current knowledge of alternative splicing in the heart, with a particular focus on the major and minor spliceosome, the factors controlling RNA splicing, and the role of alternative splicing in cardiac development and disease.

  8. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FAST K) synergizes with TIA-1/TIAR proteins to regulate Fas alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, José M; Valcárcel, Juan

    2007-01-19

    The factors and mechanisms that mediate the effects of intracellular signaling cascades on alternative pre-mRNA splicing are poorly understood. TIA-1 (T-cell intracellular antigen 1) and TIAR (TIA-1-related) proteins regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing by promoting the use of suboptimal 5' splice sites followed by uridine-rich intronic enhancer sequences. These proteins promote, for example, inclusion of Fas receptor exon 6, which leads to an mRNA encoding a pro-apoptotic form of the receptor at the expense of the form that skips exon 6, which encodes an anti-apoptotic form. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FAST K) is known to interact with and phosphorylate TIA-1. Here we have tested the possibility that FAST K influences alternative pre-mRNA splicing by affecting the activity of TIA-1/TIAR. Depletion of FAST K form Jurkat cells leads to skipping of exon 6 from endogenous Fas transcripts. Conversely, FAST K overexpression enhances exon 6 inclusion of Fas reporters transfected in HeLa cells. Consistent with the possibility that the effects of FAST K are mediated by changes in the function of TIA-1/TIAR, the effects of FAST K overexpression (i) are largely suppressed by depletion of TIA-1 and TIAR and (ii) are significantly compromised by mutation of a TIA-1/TIAR-responsive enhancer present downstream of exon 6 5' splice site. Furthermore, in vitro phosphorylation of TIA-1 by FAST K results in enhanced U1 snRNP recruitment. Interestingly, this enhancement is not due to increased binding of TIA-1 to the pre-mRNA. Taken together, the results connect Fas signaling with the activity of splicing factors that modulate Fas alternative splicing, suggesting the existence of an autoregulatory loop that could serve to amplify Fas responses.

  9. Designing oligo libraries taking alternative splicing into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoshan, Avi; Grebinskiy, Vladimir; Magen, Avner; Scolnicov, Ariel; Fink, Eyal; Lehavi, David; Wasserman, Alon

    2001-06-01

    We have designed sequences for DNA microarrays and oligo libraries, taking alternative splicing into account. Alternative splicing is a common phenomenon, occurring in more than 25% of the human genes. In many cases, different splice variants have different functions, are expressed in different tissues or may indicate different stages of disease. When designing sequences for DNA microarrays or oligo libraries, it is very important to take into account the sequence information of all the mRNA transcripts. Therefore, when a gene has more than one transcript (as a result of alternative splicing, alternative promoter sites or alternative poly-adenylation sites), it is very important to take all of them into account in the design. We have used the LEADS transcriptome prediction system to cluster and assemble the human sequences in GenBank and design optimal oligonucleotides for all the human genes with a known mRNA sequence based on the LEADS predictions.

  10. RNA splicing. The human splicing code reveals new insights into the genetic determinants of disease.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hui Y; Alipanahi, Babak; Lee, Leo J; Bretschneider, Hannes; Merico, Daniele; Yuen, Ryan K C; Hua, Yimin; Gueroussov, Serge; Najafabadi, Hamed S; Hughes, Timothy R; Morris, Quaid; Barash, Yoseph; Krainer, Adrian R; Jojic, Nebojsa; Scherer, Stephen W; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Frey, Brendan J

    2015-01-09

    To facilitate precision medicine and whole-genome annotation, we developed a machine-learning technique that scores how strongly genetic variants affect RNA splicing, whose alteration contributes to many diseases. Analysis of more than 650,000 intronic and exonic variants revealed widespread patterns of mutation-driven aberrant splicing. Intronic disease mutations that are more than 30 nucleotides from any splice site alter splicing nine times as often as common variants, and missense exonic disease mutations that have the least impact on protein function are five times as likely as others to alter splicing. We detected tens of thousands of disease-causing mutations, including those involved in cancers and spinal muscular atrophy. Examination of intronic and exonic variants found using whole-genome sequencing of individuals with autism revealed misspliced genes with neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Our approach provides evidence for causal variants and should enable new discoveries in precision medicine.

  11. Temporal regulation of adenovirus major late alternative RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Akusjarvi, Goran

    2008-05-01

    Adenovirus makes extensive use of alternative RNA splicing to produce a complex set of spliced mRNAs during replication. The accumulation of viral mRNAs is subjected to a temporal regulation, a mechanism that ensures that proteins that are needed at certain stages of the virus life cycle are produced in a timely fashion. The complex interactions between the virus and the host cell RNA splicing machinery has been studied in detail during the last decade. These studies have resulted in the characterization of two viral proteins, E4-ORF4 and L4-33K, that adenovirus uses to remodel the host cell RNA splicing machinery. Here I will review the current knowledge of how mRNA expression from the adenovirus major late transcription unit is controlled with a particular emphasis on how cis-acting sequence element, trans-acting factors and mechanisms regulating adenovirus major late L1 alternative RNA splicing is controlled.

  12. Phosphoregulation of Ire1 RNase splicing activity

    PubMed Central

    Prischi, Filippo; Nowak, Piotr R.; Carrara, Marta; Ali, Maruf M. U.

    2014-01-01

    Ire1 is activated in response to accumulation of misfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum as part of the unfolded protein response (UPR). It is a unique enzyme, possessing both kinase and RNase activity that is required for specific splicing of Xbp1 mRNA leading to UPR activation. How phosphorylation impacts on the Ire1 splicing activity is unclear. In this study, we isolate distinct phosphorylated species of Ire1 and assess their effects on RNase splicing both in vitro and in vivo. We find that phosphorylation within the kinase activation loop significantly increases RNase splicing in vitro. Correspondingly, mutants of Ire1 that cannot be phosphorylated on the activation loop show decreased specific Xbp1 and promiscuous RNase splicing activity relative to wild-type Ire1 in cells. These data couple the kinase phosphorylation reaction to the activation state of the RNase, suggesting that phosphorylation of the activation loop is an important step in Ire1-mediated UPR activation. PMID:24704861

  13. Quantification of pre-mRNA escape rate and synergy in splicing

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Voegeli, Sylvia; Baudrimont, Antoine; Séraphin, Bertrand; Becskei, Attila

    2014-01-01

    Splicing reactions generally combine high speed with accuracy. However, some of the pre-mRNAs escape the nucleus with a retained intron. Intron retention can control gene expression and increase proteome diversity. We calculated the escape rate for the yeast PTC7 intron and pre-mRNA. This prediction was facilitated by the observation that splicing is a linear process and by deriving simple algebraic expressions from a model of co- and post-transcriptional splicing and RNA surveillance that determines the rate of the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of the pre-mRNAs with the retained intron. The escape rate was consistent with the observed threshold of splicing rate below which the mature mRNA level declined. When an mRNA contains multiple introns, the outcome of splicing becomes more difficult to predict since not only the escape rate of the pre-mRNA has to be considered, but also the possibility that the splicing of each intron is influenced by the others. We showed that the two adjacent introns in the SUS1 mRNA are spliced cooperatively, but this does not counteract the escape of the partially spliced mRNA. These findings will help to infer promoter activity and to predict the behavior of and to control splicing regulatory networks. PMID:25352554

  14. Mechanisms and Regulation of Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is a critical step in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, providing significant expansion of the functional proteome of eukaryotic organisms with limited gene numbers. Split eukaryotic genes contain intervening sequences or introns disrupting protein-coding exons, and intron removal occurs by repeated assembly of a large and highly dynamic ribonucleoprotein complex termed the spliceosome, which is composed of five small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles, U1, U2, U4/U6, and U5. Biochemical studies over the past 10 years have allowed the isolation as well as compositional, functional, and structural analysis of splicing complexes at distinct stages along the spliceosome cycle. The average human gene contains eight exons and seven introns, producing an average of three or more alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms. Recent high-throughput sequencing studies indicate that 100% of human genes produce at least two alternative mRNA isoforms. Mechanisms of alternative splicing include RNA–protein interactions of splicing factors with regulatory sites termed silencers or enhancers, RNA–RNA base-pairing interactions, or chromatin-based effects that can change or determine splicing patterns. Disease-causing mutations can often occur in splice sites near intron borders or in exonic or intronic RNA regulatory silencer or enhancer elements, as well as in genes that encode splicing factors. Together, these studies provide mechanistic insights into how spliceosome assembly, dynamics, and catalysis occur; how alternative splicing is regulated and evolves; and how splicing can be disrupted by cis- and trans-acting mutations leading to disease states. These findings make the spliceosome an attractive new target for small-molecule, antisense, and genome-editing therapeutic interventions. PMID:25784052

  15. Cotranscriptional coupling of splicing factor recruitment and precursor messenger RNA splicing in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Listerman, Imke; Sapra, Aparna K; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2006-09-01

    Coupling between transcription and RNA processing is a key gene regulatory mechanism. Here we use chromatin immunoprecipitation to detect transcription-dependent accumulation of the precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) splicing factors hnRNP A1, U2AF65 and U1 and U5 snRNPs on the intron-containing human FOS gene. These factors were poorly detected on intronless heat-shock and histone genes, a result that opposes direct recruitment by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) or the cap-binding complex in vivo. However, an observed RNA-dependent interaction between U2AF65 and active forms of Pol II may stabilize U2AF65 binding to intron-containing nascent RNA. We establish chromatin-RNA immunoprecipitation and show that FOS pre-mRNA is cotranscriptionally spliced. Notably, the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin, which stalls elongating Pol II, increased cotranscriptional splicing factor accumulation and splicing in parallel. This provides direct evidence for a kinetic link between transcription, splicing factor recruitment and splicing catalysis.

  16. Tissue-specific splicing mutation in acute intermittent porphyria

    SciTech Connect

    Grandchamp, B.; Picat, C. ); Mignotte, V.; Romeo, P.H.; Goossens, M. ); Wilson, J.H.P.; Sandkuyl, L. ); Te Velde, K. ); Nordmann, Y. )

    1989-01-01

    An inherited deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase in humans is responsible for the autosomal dominant disease acute intermittent porphyria. Different classes of mutations have been described at the protein level suggesting that this is a heterogeneous disease. It was previously demonstrated that porphobilinogen deaminase is encoded by two distinct mRNA species expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Analysis of the genomic sequences indicated that these two mRNAs are transcribed from two promoters and only differ in their first exon. The first mutation identified in the human porphobilinogen deaminase gene is a single-base substitution (G {yields} A) in the canonical 5{prime} splice donor site of intron 1. This mutation leads to a particular subtype of acute intermittent porphyria characterized by the restriction of the enzymatic defect to nonerythropoietic tissues. Hybridization analysis using olignonucleotide probes after in vitro amplification of genomic DNA offers another possibility of detecting asymptomatic carriers of the mutation in affected families.

  17. Methylation Affects Transposition and Splicing of a Large CACTA Transposon from a MYB Transcription Factor Regulating Anthocyanin Synthase Genes in Soybean Seed Coats

    PubMed Central

    Zabala, Gracia; Vodkin, Lila O.

    2014-01-01

    We determined the molecular basis of three soybean lines that vary in seed coat color at the R locus which is thought to encode a MYB transcription factor. RM55-rm is homozygous for a mutable allele (rm) that specifies black and brown striped seeds; RM30-R* is a stable black revertant isoline derived from the mutable line; and RM38-r has brown seed coats due to a recessive r allele shown to translate a truncated MYB protein. Using long range PCR, 454 sequencing of amplicons, and whole genome re-sequencing, we determined that the variegated RM55-rm line had a 13 kb CACTA subfamily transposon insertion (designated TgmR*) at a position 110 bp from the beginning of Intron2 of the R locus, Glyma09g36983. Although the MYB encoded by R was expressed at only very low levels in older seed coats of the black revertant RM30-R* line, it upregulated expression of anthocyanidin synthase genes (ANS2, ANS3) to promote the synthesis of anthocyanins. Surprisingly, the RM30-R* revertant also carried the 13 kb TgmR* insertion in Intron2. Using RNA-Seq, we showed that intron splicing was accurate, albeit at lower levels, despite the presence of the 13 kb TgmR* element. As determined by whole genome methylation sequencing, we demonstrate that the TgmR* sequence was relatively more methylated in RM30-R* than in the mutable RM55-rm progenitor line. The stabilized and more methylated RM30-R* revertant line apparently lacks effective binding of a transposae to its subterminal repeats, thus allowing intron splicing to proceed resulting in sufficient MYB protein to stimulate anthocyanin production and thus black seed coats. In this regard, the TgmR* element in soybean resembles McClintock's Spm-suppressible and change-of-state alleles of maize. This comparison explains the opposite effects of the TgmR* element on intron splicing of the MYB gene in which it resides depending on the methylation state of the element. PMID:25369033

  18. Anguillicola crassus Infection Significantly Affects the Silvering Related Modifications in Steady State mRNA Levels in Gas Gland Tissue of the European Eel

    PubMed Central

    Pelster, Bernd; Schneebauer, Gabriel; Dirks, Ron P.

    2016-01-01

    Using Illumina sequencing, transcriptional changes occurring during silvering in swimbladder tissue of the European eel have been analyzed by comparison of yellow and silver eel tissue samples. Functional annotation analysis based on GO terms revealed significant expression changes in a number of genes related to the extracellular matrix, important for the control of gas permeability of the swimbladder, and to reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense, important to cope with ROS generated under hyperbaric oxygen partial pressures. Focusing on swimbladder tissue metabolism, levels of several mRNA species encoding glucose transport proteins were several-fold higher in silver eels, while enzymes of the glycolytic pathway were not affected. The significantly higher steady state level of a transcript encoding for membrane bound carbonic anhydrase, however, suggested that CO2 production in the pentose phosphate shunt and diffusion of CO2 was of particular importance in silver eel swimbladder. In addition, the mRNA level of a large number of genes related to immune response and to sexual maturation was significantly modified in the silver eel swimbladder. The modification of several processes related to protein metabolism and transport, cell cycle, and apoptosis suggested that these changes in swimbladder metabolism and permeability were achieved by increasing cell turn-over. The impact of an infection of the swimbladder with the nematode Anguillicola crassus has been assessed by comparing these expression changes with expression changes observed between uninfected yellow eel swimbladder tissue and infected silver eel swimbladder tissue. In contrast to uninfected silver eel swimbladder tissue, in infected tissue the mRNA level of several glycolytic enzymes was significantly elevated, and with respect to extracellular matrix, several mucin genes were many-fold higher in their mRNA level. Modification of many immune related genes and of the functional categories “response to

  19. Anguillicola crassus Infection Significantly Affects the Silvering Related Modifications in Steady State mRNA Levels in Gas Gland Tissue of the European Eel.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Bernd; Schneebauer, Gabriel; Dirks, Ron P

    2016-01-01

    Using Illumina sequencing, transcriptional changes occurring during silvering in swimbladder tissue of the European eel have been analyzed by comparison of yellow and silver eel tissue samples. Functional annotation analysis based on GO terms revealed significant expression changes in a number of genes related to the extracellular matrix, important for the control of gas permeability of the swimbladder, and to reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense, important to cope with ROS generated under hyperbaric oxygen partial pressures. Focusing on swimbladder tissue metabolism, levels of several mRNA species encoding glucose transport proteins were several-fold higher in silver eels, while enzymes of the glycolytic pathway were not affected. The significantly higher steady state level of a transcript encoding for membrane bound carbonic anhydrase, however, suggested that CO2 production in the pentose phosphate shunt and diffusion of CO2 was of particular importance in silver eel swimbladder. In addition, the mRNA level of a large number of genes related to immune response and to sexual maturation was significantly modified in the silver eel swimbladder. The modification of several processes related to protein metabolism and transport, cell cycle, and apoptosis suggested that these changes in swimbladder metabolism and permeability were achieved by increasing cell turn-over. The impact of an infection of the swimbladder with the nematode Anguillicola crassus has been assessed by comparing these expression changes with expression changes observed between uninfected yellow eel swimbladder tissue and infected silver eel swimbladder tissue. In contrast to uninfected silver eel swimbladder tissue, in infected tissue the mRNA level of several glycolytic enzymes was significantly elevated, and with respect to extracellular matrix, several mucin genes were many-fold higher in their mRNA level. Modification of many immune related genes and of the functional categories "response to

  20. Influenza Virus mRNA Trafficking Through Host Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Amir; White, Alexander; Zhang, Ke; Thompson, Matthew; Esparza, Matthew; Muñoz-Moreno, Raquel; Koide, Kazunori; Lynch, Kristen W.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Fontoura, Beatriz M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a human pathogen whose genome is comprised of eight viral RNA segments that replicate in the nucleus. Two viral mRNAs are alternatively spliced. The unspliced M1 mRNA is translated into the matrix M1 protein while the ion channel M2 protein is generated after alternative splicing. These proteins are critical mediators of viral trafficking and budding. We show that influenza virus utilizes nuclear speckles to promote post-transcriptional splicing of its M1 mRNA. We assign previously unknown roles for the viral NS1 protein and cellular factors to an intranuclear trafficking pathway that targets the viral M1 mRNA to nuclear speckles, mediates splicing at these nuclear bodies, and exports the spliced M2 mRNA from the nucleus. Since nuclear speckles are storage sites for splicing factors, which leave these sites to splice cellular pre-mRNAs at transcribing genes, we reveal a functional subversion of nuclear speckles to promote viral gene expression. PMID:27347430

  1. Methods of RNA preparation affect mRNA abundance quantification of reference genes in pig maturing oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-K; Li, X; Song, Z-Q; Yang, C-X

    2017-04-13

    To ensure accurate normalization and quantification of target RNA transcripts using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), most studies focus on the identification of stably expressed gene(s) as internal reference. However, RNA preparation methods could also be an important factor, especially for test samples of limited quantity (e.g. oocytes). In this study, we aimed to select appropriate reference gene(s), and evaluate the effect of RNA preparation methods on gene expression quantification in porcine oocytes and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation. Expression profiles of seven genes (GAPDH, 18S, YWHAG, BACT, RPL4, HPRT1 and PPIA) were examined, on RNA samples extracted from cumulus cells (RNeasy Kit) and oocytes (RNeasy Kit and Lysis Kit) during in vitro maturation, respectively. Interestingly, different RNA preparation methods were found to potentially affect the quantification of reference gene expression in pig oocytes cultured in vitro. After geNorm analyses, the most suitable genes for normalization were identified, GAPDH/18S for cumulus cells and YWHAG/BACT for oocytes, respectively. Thus, our results provide useful data and information on the selection of better reference genes and RNA preparation method for related functional studies.

  2. Splicing plastic optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Susan D.; Salazar, Roberto A.

    1991-12-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plastic optical fiber (500 micrometers diameter, fluoropolymer cladding) has been spliced using a fused silica sleeve and a variety of solvent/PMMA solutions as adhesives. Mechanical splicing using index matching fluid has also been investigated. To ensure good bonding and minimize scattering, fiber ends are polished prior to application of adhesive. Using an LED ((lambda) max approximately 640 nm), losses are routinely less than 1.0 dB/splice, and some adhesive formulations have exhibited losses as low as 0.2 dB/splice. Five-meter fibers with as many as ten splices/fiber have been monitored over a period of several months. No fiber has exhibited an increase in optical loss with time.

  3. From Cryptic Toward Canonical Pre-mRNA Splicing in Pompe Disease: a Pipeline for the Development of Antisense Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Bergsma, Atze J; in ‘t Groen, Stijn LM; Verheijen, Frans W; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Pijnappel, WWM Pim

    2016-01-01

    While 9% of human pathogenic variants have an established effect on pre-mRNA splicing, it is suspected that an additional 20% of otherwise classified variants also affect splicing. Aberrant splicing includes disruption of splice sites or regulatory elements, or creation or strengthening of cryptic splice sites. For the majority of variants, it is poorly understood to what extent and how these may affect splicing. We have identified cryptic splicing in an unbiased manner. Three types of cryptic splicing were analyzed in the context of pathogenic variants in the acid α-glucosidase gene causing Pompe disease. These involved newly formed deep intronic or exonic cryptic splice sites, and a natural cryptic splice that was utilized due to weakening of a canonical splice site. Antisense oligonucleotides that targeted the identified cryptic splice sites repressed cryptic splicing at the expense of canonical splicing in all three cases, as shown by reverse-transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and by enhancement of acid α-glucosidase enzymatic activity. This argues for a competition model for available splice sites, including intact or weakened canonical sites and natural or newly formed cryptic sites. The pipeline described here can detect cryptic splicing and correct canonical splicing using antisense oligonucleotides to restore the gene defect. PMID:27623443

  4. Correlation of mRNA expression and protein abundance affected by multiple sequence features related to translational efficiency in Desulfovibrio vulgaris: A quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Lei; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Weiwen

    2006-12-01

    The modest correlation between mRNA expression and protein abundance in large scale datasets is explained in part by experimental challenges, such as technological limitations, and in part by fundamental biological factors in the transcription and translation processes. Among various factors affecting the mRNA-protein correlation, the roles of biological factors related to translation are poorly understood. In this study, using experimental mRNA expression and protein abundance data collected from Desulfovibrio vulgaris by DNA microarray and LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis, we quantitatively examined the effects of several translational-efficiency-related sequence features on mRNA-protein correlation. Three classes of sequence features were investigated according to different translational stages: (1) initiation: Shine-Dalgarno sequences, start codon identity and start codon context; (2) elongation: codon usage and amino acid usage; and (3) termination: stop codon identity and stop codon context. Surprisingly, although it is widely accepted that translation initiation is a rate-limiting step for translation, our results showed that the mRNA-protein correlation was affected the most by the features at elongation stages, codon usage and amino acid composition (7.4-12.6% and 5.3-9.3% of the total variation of mRNA-protein correlation, respectively), followed by stop codon context and the Shine-Dalgarno sequence (2.5-4.2% and 2.3%, respectively). Taken together, all sequence features contributed to 18.4-21.8% of the total variation of mRNA-protein correlation. As the first comprehensive quantitative analysis of the mRNA-protein correlation in bacterial D. vulgaris, our results suggest that the traditional view of the relative importance of various sequence features in prokaryotic protein translation might be questionable.

  5. Connecting the dots: chromatin and alternative splicing in EMT

    PubMed Central

    Warns, Jessica A.; Davie, James R.; Dhasarathy, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Nature has devised sophisticated cellular machinery to process mRNA transcripts produced by RNA Polymerase II, removing intronic regions and connecting exons together, to produce mature RNAs. This process, known as splicing, is very closely linked to transcription. Alternative splicing, or the ability to produce different combinations of exons that are spliced together from the same genomic template, is a fundamental means of regulating protein complexity. Similar to transcription, both constitutive and alternative splicing can be regulated by chromatin and its associated factors in response to various signal transduction pathways activated by external stimuli. This regulation can vary between different cell types, and interference with these pathways can lead to changes in splicing, often resulting in aberrant cellular states and disease. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which leads to cancer metastasis, is influenced by alternative splicing events of chromatin remodelers and epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs. In this review, we will discuss the role of epigenetic factors including chromatin, chromatin remodelers, DNA methyltransferases and microRNAs in the context of alternative splicing, and discuss their potential involvement in alternative splicing during the EMT process. PMID:26291837

  6. Connecting the dots: chromatin and alternative splicing in EMT.

    PubMed

    Warns, Jessica A; Davie, James R; Dhasarathy, Archana

    2016-02-01

    Nature has devised sophisticated cellular machinery to process mRNA transcripts produced by RNA Polymerase II, removing intronic regions and connecting exons together, to produce mature RNAs. This process, known as splicing, is very closely linked to transcription. Alternative splicing, or the ability to produce different combinations of exons that are spliced together from the same genomic template, is a fundamental means of regulating protein complexity. Similar to transcription, both constitutive and alternative splicing can be regulated by chromatin and its associated factors in response to various signal transduction pathways activated by external stimuli. This regulation can vary between different cell types, and interference with these pathways can lead to changes in splicing, often resulting in aberrant cellular states and disease. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which leads to cancer metastasis, is influenced by alternative splicing events of chromatin remodelers and epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs. In this review, we will discuss the role of epigenetic factors including chromatin, chromatin remodelers, DNA methyltransferases, and microRNAs in the context of alternative splicing, and discuss their potential involvement in alternative splicing during the EMT process.

  7. Studies on the role of NonA in mRNA biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlova, Natalia; Braga, Jose; Lundgren, Josefin; Rino, Jose; Young, Patrick; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria; Visa, Neus . E-mail: Neus.Visa@molbio.su.se

    2006-08-01

    The NonA protein of Drosophila melanogaster is an abundant nuclear protein that belongs to the DBHS (Drosophila behavior, human splicing) protein family. The DBHS proteins bind both DNA and RNA in vitro and have been involved in different aspects of gene expression, including pre-mRNA splicing, transcription regulation and nuclear retention of mRNA. We have used double-stranded RNA interference in Drosophila S2 cells to silence the expression of NonA and to investigate its role in mRNA biogenesis. We show that knockdown of NonA does not affect transcription nor splicing. We demonstrate that NonA forms a complex with the essential nuclear export factor NXF1 in an RNA-dependent manner. We have constructed stable S2 cell lines that express full-length and truncated NXF1 fused to GFP in order to perform fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments. We show that knockdown of NonA reduces the intranuclear mobility of NXF1-GFP associated with poly(A){sup +} RNA in vivo, while the mobility of the truncated NXF1-GFP that does not bind RNA is not affected. Our data suggest that NonA facilitates the intranuclear mobility of mRNP particles.

  8. A 3' splice site mutation in the thyroglobulin gene responsible for congenital goiter with hypothyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Ieiri, T; Cochaux, P; Targovnik, H M; Suzuki, M; Shimoda, S; Perret, J; Vassart, G

    1991-01-01

    A case of congenital goiter with defective thyroglobulin synthesis has been studied in molecular terms. The patient is the fifth of a kindred of six, three of which have a goiter. The parents are first cousins. Segregation of thyroglobulin alleles in the family was studied by Southern blotting with a probe revealing a diallelic restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The results demonstrated that the three affected siblings were homozygous for the RFLP. Northern blotting analysis of the goiter RNA with a thyroglobulin probe suggested that thyroglobulin mRNA size was slightly reduced. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 8.5-kb thyroglobulin mRNA as overlapping cDNA fragments demonstrated that a 200-bp segment was missing from the 5' region of the goiter mRNA. Subcloning and sequencing of the cDNA fragments, and of the patient genomic DNA amplified from this region, revealed that exon 4 is missing from the major thyroglobulin transcript in the goiter, and that this aberrant splicing is due to a C to G transversion at position minus 3 in the acceptor splice site of intron 3. The presence in exon 4 of a putative donor tyrosine residue (Tyrosine nr 130) involved in thyroid hormone formation provides a coherent explanation to the hypothyroid status of the patient. Images PMID:1752952

  9. A novel ARH splice site mutation in a Mexican kindred with autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; Ordóñez-Sánchez, María L; Rodríguez-Torres, Maribel; Venturas-Gallegos, José L; Riba, Laura; Ramírez-Jimenez, Salvador; Salas-Montiel, Rocío; Medina-Palacios, Giovani; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Miliar-García, Angel; Rosales-León, Luis; Ruiz-Ordaz, Blanca H; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Ferré-D'Amare, Adrian; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Tusié-Luna, Ma Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) is characterized by elevated LDL serum levels, xanthomatosis, and premature coronary artery disease. Three loci have been described for this condition (1p35, 15q25-q26 and 13q). Recently, the responsible gene at the 1p35 locus, encoding an LDL receptor adaptor protein (ARH) has been identified. We studied a Mexican ARH family with two affected siblings. Sequence analysis of the ARH gene (1p35 locus) revealed that the affected siblings are homozygous for a novel mutation (IVS4+2T>G) affecting the donor splice site in intron 4, whereas both the parents and an unaffected sister are heterozygous for this mutation. The IVS4+2T>G mutation results in a major alternative transcript derived from a cryptic splice site, which carries an in-frame deletion of 78 nucleotides in the mature mRNA. The translation of this mRNA yields a mutant protein product (ARH-26) lacking 26 amino acids, resulting in the loss of beta-strands beta6 and beta7 from the PTB domain. This is the first case where a naturally occurring mutant with an altered PTB domain has been identified.

  10. Oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1 is a network hub that regulates alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Selvanathan, Saravana P; Graham, Garrett T; Erkizan, Hayriye V; Dirksen, Uta; Natarajan, Thanemozhi G; Dakic, Aleksandra; Yu, Songtao; Liu, Xuefeng; Paulsen, Michelle T; Ljungman, Mats E; Wu, Cathy H; Lawlor, Elizabeth R; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A

    2015-03-17

    The synthesis and processing of mRNA, from transcription to translation initiation, often requires splicing of intragenic material. The final mRNA composition varies based on proteins that modulate splice site selection. EWS-FLI1 is an Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncoprotein with an interactome that we demonstrate to have multiple partners in spliceosomal complexes. We evaluate the effect of EWS-FLI1 on posttranscriptional gene regulation using both exon array and RNA-seq. Genes that potentially regulate oncogenesis, including CLK1, CASP3, PPFIBP1, and TERT, validate as alternatively spliced by EWS-FLI1. In a CLIP-seq experiment, we find that EWS-FLI1 RNA-binding motifs most frequently occur adjacent to intron-exon boundaries. EWS-FLI1 also alters splicing by directly binding to known splicing factors including DDX5, hnRNP K, and PRPF6. Reduction of EWS-FLI1 produces an isoform of γ-TERT that has increased telomerase activity compared with wild-type (WT) TERT. The small molecule YK-4-279 is an inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 oncogenic function that disrupts specific protein interactions, including helicases DDX5 and RNA helicase A (RHA) that alters RNA-splicing ratios. As such, YK-4-279 validates the splicing mechanism of EWS-FLI1, showing alternatively spliced gene patterns that significantly overlap with EWS-FLI1 reduction and WT human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Exon array analysis of 75 ES patient samples shows similar isoform expression patterns to cell line models expressing EWS-FLI1, supporting the clinical relevance of our findings. These experiments establish systemic alternative splicing as an oncogenic process modulated by EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 modulation of mRNA splicing may provide insight into the contribution of splicing toward oncogenesis, and, reciprocally, EWS-FLI1 interactions with splicing proteins may inform the splicing code.

  11. Splicing of many human genes involves sites embedded within introns

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Steven; Georgomanolis, Theodore; Zirkel, Anne; Diermeier, Sarah; O'Reilly, Dawn; Murphy, Shona; Längst, Gernot; Cook, Peter R.; Papantonis, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    The conventional model for splicing involves excision of each intron in one piece; we demonstrate this inaccurately describes splicing in many human genes. First, after switching on transcription of SAMD4A, a gene with a 134 kb-long first intron, splicing joins the 3′ end of exon 1 to successive points within intron 1 well before the acceptor site at exon 2 is made. Second, genome-wide analysis shows that >60% of active genes yield products generated by such intermediate intron splicing. These products are present at ∼15% the levels of primary transcripts, are encoded by conserved sequences similar to those found at canonical acceptors, and marked by distinctive structural and epigenetic features. Finally, using targeted genome editing, we demonstrate that inhibiting the formation of these splicing intermediates affects efficient exon–exon splicing. These findings greatly expand the functional and regulatory complexity of the human transcriptome. PMID:25897131

  12. Targeting Splicing in the Treatment of Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Suñé-Pou, Marc; Prieto-Sánchez, Silvia; Boyero-Corral, Sofía; Moreno-Castro, Cristina; El Yousfi, Younes; Suñé-Negre, Josep Mª; Hernández-Munain, Cristina; Suñé, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The tightly regulated process of precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) alternative splicing (AS) is a key mechanism in the regulation of gene expression. Defects in this regulatory process affect cellular functions and are the cause of many human diseases. Recent advances in our understanding of splicing regulation have led to the development of new tools for manipulating splicing for therapeutic purposes. Several tools, including antisense oligonucleotides and trans-splicing, have been developed to target and alter splicing to correct misregulated gene expression or to modulate transcript isoform levels. At present, deregulated AS is recognized as an important area for therapeutic intervention. Here, we summarize the major hallmarks of the splicing process, the clinical implications that arise from alterations in this process, and the current tools that can be used to deliver, target, and correct deficiencies of this key pre-mRNA processing event. PMID:28245575

  13. SKIP Confers Osmotic Tolerance during Salt Stress by Controlling Alternative Gene Splicing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinlin; Li, Jingjing; Gao, Zhaoxu; Lu, Yaru; Yu, Junya; Zheng, Qian; Yan, Shuning; Zhang, Wenjiao; He, Hang; Ma, Ligeng; Zhu, Zhengge

    2015-07-01

    Deciphering the mechanisms underlying plant responses to abiotic stress is key for improving plant stress resistance. Much is known about the regulation of gene expression in response to salt stress at the transcriptional level; however, little is known about this process at the posttranscriptional level. Recently, we demonstrated that SKIP is a component of spliceosome that interacts with clock gene pre-mRNAs and is essential for regulating their alternative splicing and mRNA maturation. In this study, we found that skip-1 plants are hypersensitive to both salt and osmotic stresses, and that SKIP is required for the alternative splicing and mRNA maturation of several salt-tolerance genes, including NHX1, CBL1, P5CS1, RCI2A, and PAT10. A genome-wide analysis revealed that SKIP mediates the alternative splicing of many genes under salt-stress conditions, and that most of the alternative splicing events in skip-1 involve intron retention and can generate a premature termination codon in the transcribed mRNA. SKIP also controls alternative splicing by modulating the recognition or cleavage of 5' and 3' splice donor and acceptor sites under salt-stress conditions. Therefore, this study addresses the fundamental question of how the mRNA splicing machinery in plants contributes to salt-stress responses at the posttranscriptional level, and provides a link between alternative splicing and salt tolerance.

  14. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, John F; Latendresse, John R; Delongchamp, Robert R; Warbritton, Alan R; Thomas, Monzy; Divine, Becky; Doerge, Daniel R

    2009-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were < or =1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  15. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, John F.; Latendresse, John R.; Delongchamp, Robert R.; Warbritton, Alan R.; Thomas, Monzy; Divine, Becky; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2009-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were <= 1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  16. A cis-acting regulatory element that affects the alternative splicing of a muscle-specific exon in the mouse NCAM gene.

    PubMed

    Kawahigashi, H; Harada, Y; Asano, A; Nakamura, M

    1998-05-11

    The pre-mRNA encoding the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is spliced to generate NCAM isoforms containing the muscle-specific domain (MSD) during myogenesis. Utilizing chimeric NCAM minigenes, we searched for cis-acting elements that contribute to the alternative selection of exon MSDb, one of the four exons encoding MSD, and identified an intronic cis-element located downstream of exon MSDb. The cis-element acted as a negative regulator for the selection of exon MSDb in nonmuscle fibroblasts but not in myoblasts, that are already destined to differentiate into muscle cells. The suppressive effect of this cis-element on the selection of exon MSDb was released in the process of myogenesis. When MyoD was co-expressed with a minigene containing this element in fibroblasts, the suppressive effect of the cis-element was released as the cells underwent differentiation. We propose that this cis-element contributes at least as one of the regulatory elements in the differentiation state-dependent selection of MSD exons in vivo.

  17. The Maize Zmsmu2 Gene Encodes a Putative RNA-Splicing Factor That Affects Protein Synthesis and RNA Processing during Endosperm Development1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Taijoon; Kim, Cheol Soo; Nguyen, Hong N.; Meeley, Robert B.; Larkins, Brian A.

    2007-01-01

    We characterized two maize (Zea mays) mutants, zmsmu2-1 and zmsmu2-3, that result from insertion of a Mutator (Mu) transposable element in the first exon of a gene homologous to the nematode gene, smu-2, which is involved in RNA splicing. In addition to having a starchy endosperm with reduced levels of zein storage proteins, homozygous zmsmu2-1 mutants manifest a number of phenotypes, including defective meristem development. The zmsmu2 mutants have poor seedling viability and surviving plants are sterile. The gene encoding ZmSMU2 is expressed in the endosperm, embryo, and shoot apex, which explains the pleiotropic nature of the mutation. We found that proper expression of Zmsmu2 is required for efficient ribosomal RNA processing, ribosome biogenesis, and protein synthesis in developing endosperm. Based on the pleiotropic nature of the mutations and the known function of animal Zmsmu2 homologs, we propose a possible role for ZmSMU2 in the development of maize endosperm, as well as a mechanism by which misregulation of zmsmu2 causes the mutant phenotypes. PMID:17384163

  18. Half pint/Puf68 is required for negative regulation of splicing by the SR splicing factor Transformer2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanzhi; Wagner, Eric J; Mattox, William

    2013-08-01

    The SR family of proteins plays important regulatory roles in the control of alternative splicing in a wide range of organisms. These factors affect splicing through both positive and negative controls of splice site recognition by pre-spliceosomal factors. Recent studies indicate that the Drosophila SR factor Transformer 2 (Tra2) activates and represses splicing through distinct and separable effector regions of the protein. While the interactions of its Arg-Ser-rich activator region have been well studied, cofactors involved in splicing repression have yet to be found. Here we use a luciferase-based splicing reporter assay to screen for novel proteins necessary for Tra2-dependent repression of splicing. This approach identified Half pint, also known as Puf68, as a co-repressor required for Tra2-mediated autoregulation of the M1 intron. In vivo, Half pint is required for Tra2-dependent repression of M1 splicing but is not necessary for Tra2-dependent activation of doublesex splicing. Further experiments indicate that the effect of Hfp is sequence-specific and that it associates with these target transcripts in cells. Importantly, known M1 splicing regulatory elements are sufficient to sensitize a heterologous intron to Hfp regulation. Two alternative proteins deriving from Hfp transcripts, Hfp68, and Hfp58, were found to be expressed in vivo but differed dramatically in their effect on M1 splicing. Comparison of the cellular localization of these forms in S2 cells revealed that Hfp68 is predominantly localized to the nucleus while Hfp58 is distributed across both the nucleus and cytoplasm. This accords with their observed effects on splicing and suggests that differential compartmentalization may contribute to the specificity of these isoforms. Together, these studies reveal a function for Half pint in splicing repression and demonstrate it to be specifically required for Tra2-dependent intron inclusion.

  19. Molecular characterization of ten F8 splicing mutations in RNA isolated from patient's leucocytes: assessment of in silico prediction tools accuracy.

    PubMed

    Martorell, L; Corrales, I; Ramirez, L; Parra, R; Raya, A; Barquinero, J; Vidal, F

    2015-03-01

    Although 8% of reported FVIII gene (F8) mutations responsible for haemophilia A (HA) affect mRNA processing, very few have been fully characterized at the mRNA level and/or systematically predicted their biological consequences by in silico analysis. This study is aimed to elucidate the effect of potential splice site mutations (PSSM) on the F8 mRNA processing, investigate its correlation with disease severity, and assess their concordance with in silico predictions. We studied the F8 mRNA from 10 HA patient's leucocytes with PSSM by RT-PCR and compared the experimental results with those predicted in silico. The mRNA analysis could explain all the phenotypes observed and demonstrated exon skipping in six cases (c.222G>A, c.601+1delG, c.602-11T>G, c.671-3C>G, c.6115+9C>G and c.6116-1G>A) and activation of cryptic splicing sites, both donor (c.1009+1G>A and c.1009+3A>C) and acceptor sites (c.266-3delC and c.5587-1G>A). In contrast, the in silico analysis was able to predict the score variation of most of the affected splice site, but the precise mechanism could only be correctly determined in two of the 10 mutations analysed. In addition, we have detected aberrant F8 transcripts, even in healthy controls, so this must be taken into account as they could mask the actual contribution of some PSSM. We conclude that F8 mRNA analysis using leucocytes still constitutes an excellent approach to investigate the transcriptional effects of the PSSM in HA, whereas prediction in silico is not always reliable for diagnostic decision-making.

  20. Nanoplasmonic probes of RNA folding and assembly during pre-mRNA splicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Anh H.; Lee, Jong Uk; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-02-01

    RNA splicing plays important roles in transcriptome and proteome diversity. Herein, we describe the use of a nanoplasmonic system that unveils RNA folding and assembly during pre-mRNA splicing wherein the quantification of mRNA splice variants is not taken into account. With a couple of SERS-probes and plasmonic probes binding at the boundary sites of exon-2/intron-2 and intron-2/exon-3 of the pre-mature RNA of the β-globin gene, the splicing process brings the probes into the plasmonic bands. For plasmonic probes, a plasmon shift increase of ~29 nm, corresponding to intron removal and exon-2 and exon-3 connection to form the mRNA molecule, is measured by plasmonic coupling. The increased scattering intensity and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) fingerprinting reveal the clear dynamics of pre-mRNA splicing. Moreover, a time-resolved experiment of individual RNA molecules exhibited a successful splicing and an inhibited splicing event by 33 μM biflavonoid isoginkgetin, a general inhibitor of RNA splicing. The results suggest that the RNA splicing is successfully monitored with the nanoplasmonic system. Thus, this platform can be useful for studying RNA nanotechnology, biomolecular folding, alternative splicing, and maturation of microRNA.

  1. Nanoplasmonic probes of RNA folding and assembly during pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh H; Lee, Jong Uk; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-02-28

    RNA splicing plays important roles in transcriptome and proteome diversity. Herein, we describe the use of a nanoplasmonic system that unveils RNA folding and assembly during pre-mRNA splicing wherein the quantification of mRNA splice variants is not taken into account. With a couple of SERS-probes and plasmonic probes binding at the boundary sites of exon-2/intron-2 and intron-2/exon-3 of the pre-mature RNA of the β-globin gene, the splicing process brings the probes into the plasmonic bands. For plasmonic probes, a plasmon shift increase of ∼29 nm, corresponding to intron removal and exon-2 and exon-3 connection to form the mRNA molecule, is measured by plasmonic coupling. The increased scattering intensity and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) fingerprinting reveal the clear dynamics of pre-mRNA splicing. Moreover, a time-resolved experiment of individual RNA molecules exhibited a successful splicing and an inhibited splicing event by 33 μM biflavonoid isoginkgetin, a general inhibitor of RNA splicing. The results suggest that the RNA splicing is successfully monitored with the nanoplasmonic system. Thus, this platform can be useful for studying RNA nanotechnology, biomolecular folding, alternative splicing, and maturation of microRNA.

  2. Genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia: the importance of functional analysis of potential splice-site mutations.

    PubMed

    Bourbon, M; Duarte, M A; Alves, A C; Medeiros, A M; Marques, L; Soutar, A K

    2009-05-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) results from defective low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) activity, mainly due to LDLR gene defects. Of the many different LDLR mutations found in patients with FH, about 6% of single base substitutions are located near or within introns, and are predicted to result in exon skipping, retention of an intron, or activation of cryptic sites during mRNA splicing. This paper reports on the Portuguese FH Study, which found 10 such mutations, 6 of them novel. For the mutations that have not been described before or those whose effect on function have not been analysed, their effect on splicing was investigated, using reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of LDLR mRNA from freshly isolated blood mononuclear cells. Two of these variants (c.313+6 T-->C, c.2389G-->T (p.V776L)) caused exon skipping, and one caused retention of an intron (c.1359-5C-->G), whereas two others (c.2140+5 G-->A and c.1061-8T-->C) had no apparent effect. Any effect of c.1185G-->C (p.V374V) on splicing could not be determined because it was on an allele with a promoter mutation (-42C-->G) that was probably not transcribed. Variants in four patients lost to follow-up could not be tested experimentally, but they almost certainly affect splicing because they disrupt the invariant AG or GT in acceptor (c.818-2A-->G) or donor (c.1060+1G-->A, c.1845+1delG and c.2547+1G-->A) spice sites. These findings emphasise that care must be taken before reporting the presence or absence of a splice-site mutation in the LDLR gene for diagnostic purposes. The study also shows that relatively simple, quick and inexpensive RNA assays can evaluate putative splicing mutations that are not always predictable by available software, thereby reducing genetic misdiagnosis of patients with FH.

  3. Alternative 5' exons and differential splicing regulate expression of protein 4.1R isoforms with distinct n-termini

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Marilyn K.; Gee, Sherry L.; Koury, Mark J.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2003-03-25

    Among the alternative pre-mRNA splicing events that characterize protein 4.1R gene expression, one involving exon 2' plays a critical role in regulating translation initiation and N-terminal protein structure. Exon 2' encompasses translation initiation site AUG1 and is located between alternative splice acceptor sites at the 5' end of exon 2; its inclusion or exclusion from mature 4.1R mRNA regulates expression of longer or shorter isoforms of 4.1R protein, respectively. The current study reports unexpected complexity in the 5' region of the 4.1R gene that directly affects alternative splicing of exon 2'. Three mutually exclusive alternative 5' exons, designated 1A, 1B, and 1C, were identified far upstream of exon 2 in both mouse and human genomes; all three are associated with strong transcriptional promoters in the flanking genomic sequence. Importantly, exons 1A and 1B splice differentially with respect to exon 2', generating transcripts with different 5' ends and distinct N-terminal protein coding capacity. Exon 1A-type transcripts splice so as to exclude exon 2' and therefore utilize the downstream AUG2 for translation of 80kD 4.1R protein, whereas exon 1B transcripts include exon 2' and initiate at AUG1 to synthesize 135kD isoforms. RNA blot analyses revealed that 1A transcripts increase in abundance in late erythroblasts, consistent with the previously demonstrated upregulation of 80kD 4.1R during terminal erythroid differentiation. Together these results suggest that synthesis of structurally distinct 4.1R protein isoforms in various cell types is regulated by a novel mechanism requiring coordination between upstream transcription initiation events and downstream alternative splicing events.

  4. Regulation of chemoresistance via alternative messenger RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Eblen, Scott T

    2012-04-15

    The acquisition of resistance to chemotherapy is a significant problem in the treatment of cancer, greatly increasing patient morbidity and mortality. Tumors are often sensitive to chemotherapy upon initial treatment, but repeated treatments can select for those cells that were able to survive initial therapy and have acquired cellular mechanisms to enhance their resistance to subsequent chemotherapy treatment. Many cellular mechanisms of drug resistance have been identified, most of which result from changes in gene and protein expression. While changes at the transcriptional level have been duly noted, it is primarily the post-transcriptional processing of pre-mRNA into mature mRNA that regulates the composition of the proteome and it is the proteome that actually regulates the cell's response to chemotherapeutic insult, inducing cell survival or death. During pre-mRNA processing, intronic non-protein-coding sequences are removed and protein-coding exons are spliced to form a continuous template for protein translation. Alternative splicing involves the differential inclusion or exclusion of exonic sequences into the mature transcript, generating different mRNA templates for protein production. This regulatory mechanism enables the potential to produce many different protein isoforms from the same gene. In this review I will explain the mechanism of alternative pre-mRNA splicing and look at some specific examples of how splicing factors, splicing factor kinases and alternative splicing of specific pre-mRNAs from genes have been shown to contribute to acquisition of the drug resistant phenotype.

  5. RNA helicases in splicing.

    PubMed

    Cordin, Olivier; Beggs, Jean D

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, introns are spliced from pre-mRNAs by the spliceosome. Both the composition and the structure of the spliceosome are highly dynamic, and eight DExD/H RNA helicases play essential roles in controlling conformational rearrangements. There is evidence that the various helicases are functionally and physically connected with each other and with many other factors in the spliceosome. Understanding the dynamics of those interactions is essential to comprehend the mechanism and regulation of normal as well as of pathological splicing. This review focuses on recent advances in the characterization of the splicing helicases and their interactions, and highlights the deep integration of splicing helicases in global mRNP biogenesis pathways.

  6. Altered Pre-mRNA Splicing Caused by a Novel Intronic Mutation c.1443+5G>A in the Dihydropyrimidinase (DPYS) Gene.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yoko; Meijer, Judith; Zhang, Chunhua; Wang, Xu; Kondo, Tomomi; Ito, Tetsuya; Dobritzsch, Doreen; Van Kuilenburg, André B P

    2016-01-12

    Dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the DPYS gene. Patients present with highly elevated levels of dihydrouracil and dihydrothymine in their urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The analysis of the effect of mutations in DPYS on pre-mRNA splicing is hampered by the fact that DHP is primarily expressed in liver and kidney cells. The minigene approach can detect mRNA splicing aberrations using cells that do not express the endogenous mRNA. We have used a minigene-based approach to analyze the effects of a presumptive pre-mRNA splicing mutation in two newly identified Chinese pediatric patients with DHP deficiency. Mutation analysis of DPYS showed that both patients were compound heterozygous for a novel intronic mutation c.1443+5G>A in intron 8 and a previously described missense mutation c.1001A>G (p.Q334R) in exon 6. Wild-type and the mutated minigene constructs, containing exons 7, 8 and 9 of DPYS, yielded different splicing products after expression in HEK293 cells. The c.1443+5G>A mutation resulted in altered pre-mRNA splicing of the DPYS minigene construct with full skipping of exon 8. Analysis of the DHP crystal structure showed that the deletion of exon 8 severely affects folding, stability and homooligomerization of the enzyme as well as disruption of the catalytic site. Thus, the analysis suggests that the c.1443+5G>A mutation results in aberrant splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding DHP, underlying the DHP deficiency in two unrelated Chinese patients.

  7. Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 alternative splicing events in basal chordates and vertebrates: a focus on paired box domain

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Peter; Kozmikova, Iryna; Kozmik, Zbynek; Pantzartzi, Chrysoula N.

    2015-01-01

    Paired box transcription factors play important role in development and tissue morphogenesis. The number of Pax homologs varies among species studied so far, due to genome and gene duplications that have affected PAX family to a great extent. Based on sequence similarity and functional domains, four Pax classes have been identified in chordates, namely Pax1/9, Pax2/5/8, Pax3/7, and Pax4/6. Numerous splicing events have been reported mainly for Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 genes. Of significant interest are those events that lead to Pax proteins with presumed novel properties, such as altered DNA-binding or transcriptional activity. In the current study, a thorough analysis of Pax2/5/8 splicing events from cephalochordates and vertebrates was performed. We focused more on Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 splicing events in which the paired domain is involved. Three new splicing events were identified in Oryzias latipes, one of which seems to be conserved in Acanthomorphata. Using representatives from deuterostome and protostome phyla, a comparative analysis of the Pax6 exon-intron structure of the paired domain was performed, during an attempt to estimate the time of appearance of the Pax6(5a) mRNA isoform. As shown in our analysis, this splicing event is characteristic of Gnathostomata and is absent in the other chordate subphyla. Moreover, expression pattern of alternative spliced variants was compared between cephalochordates and fish species. In summary, our data indicate expansion of alternative mRNA variants in paired box region of Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 genes during the course of vertebrate evolution. PMID:26191073

  8. Altered Pre-mRNA Splicing Caused by a Novel Intronic Mutation c.1443+5G>A in the Dihydropyrimidinase (DPYS) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yoko; Meijer, Judith; Zhang, Chunhua; Wang, Xu; Kondo, Tomomi; Ito, Tetsuya; Dobritzsch, Doreen; Van Kuilenburg, André B. P.

    2016-01-01

    Dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the DPYS gene. Patients present with highly elevated levels of dihydrouracil and dihydrothymine in their urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The analysis of the effect of mutations in DPYS on pre-mRNA splicing is hampered by the fact that DHP is primarily expressed in liver and kidney cells. The minigene approach can detect mRNA splicing aberrations using cells that do not express the endogenous mRNA. We have used a minigene-based approach to analyze the effects of a presumptive pre-mRNA splicing mutation in two newly identified Chinese pediatric patients with DHP deficiency. Mutation analysis of DPYS showed that both patients were compound heterozygous for a novel intronic mutation c.1443+5G>A in intron 8 and a previously described missense mutation c.1001A>G (p.Q334R) in exon 6. Wild-type and the mutated minigene constructs, containing exons 7, 8 and 9 of DPYS, yielded different splicing products after expression in HEK293 cells. The c.1443+5G>A mutation resulted in altered pre-mRNA splicing of the DPYS minigene construct with full skipping of exon 8. Analysis of the DHP crystal structure showed that the deletion of exon 8 severely affects folding, stability and homooligomerization of the enzyme as well as disruption of the catalytic site. Thus, the analysis suggests that the c.1443+5G>A mutation results in aberrant splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding DHP, underlying the DHP deficiency in two unrelated Chinese patients. PMID:26771602

  9. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected the splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. This large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs. PMID:26294686

  10. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    DOE PAGES

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; ...

    2015-08-20

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected themore » splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. In conclusion, this large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs.« less

  11. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-08-20

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected the splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. In conclusion, this large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs.

  12. Characterization of a splicing mutation in the factor VIII gene at the RNA level.

    PubMed

    David, D; Tavares, A; Lavinha, J

    1995-01-01

    Haemophilia A is an X-linked bleeding disorder caused by mutations in the coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) gene. The identification and characterization of naturally occurring disease-producing mutations allows the recognition of new mechanisms of pathogenesis in haemophilia A. Analysis of the illegitimately transcribed FVIII mRNA in a severely affected patient has revealed that the A-->G transition at position -2 of the acceptor splice site of intron 4 results in the skipping of exon 5 in 90% of the processed pre-mRNA. Another minor mRNA species arising from the skipping of exons 4 and 5 has also been observed. The skipping of exon 5 predicts the removal of the corresponding 13 amino acids from the A1 domain of FVIII. A novel missense mutation, C329S, in exon 8 of FVIII gene has been identified in another patient.

  13. Defective minor spliceosome mRNA processing results in isolated familial growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Argente, Jesús; Flores, Raquel; Gutiérrez-Arumí, Armand; Verma, Bhupendra; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Cuscó, Ivon; Oghabian, Ali; Chowen, Julie A; Frilander, Mikko J; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular basis of a significant number of cases of isolated growth hormone deficiency remains unknown. We describe three sisters affected with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia caused by biallelic mutations in the RNPC3 gene, which codes for a minor spliceosome protein required for U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) formation and splicing of U12-type introns. We found anomalies in U11/U12 di-snRNP formation and in splicing of multiple U12-type introns in patient cells. Defective transcripts include preprohormone convertases SPCS2 and SPCS3 and actin-related ARPC5L genes, which are candidates for the somatotroph-restricted dysfunction. The reported novel mechanism for familial growth hormone deficiency demonstrates that general mRNA processing defects of the minor spliceosome can lead to very narrow tissue-specific consequences. Subject Categories Genetics, Gene Therapy ' Genetic Disease; Metabolism PMID:24480542

  14. Defective minor spliceosome mRNA processing results in isolated familial growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Argente, Jesús; Flores, Raquel; Gutiérrez-Arumí, Armand; Verma, Bhupendra; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Cuscó, Ivon; Oghabian, Ali; Chowen, Julie A; Frilander, Mikko J; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2014-03-01

    The molecular basis of a significant number of cases of isolated growth hormone deficiency remains unknown. We describe three sisters affected with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia caused by biallelic mutations in the RNPC3 gene, which codes for a minor spliceosome protein required for U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) formation and splicing of U12-type introns. We found anomalies in U11/U12 di-snRNP formation and in splicing of multiple U12-type introns in patient cells. Defective transcripts include preprohormone convertases SPCS2 and SPCS3 and actin-related ARPC5L genes, which are candidates for the somatotroph-restricted dysfunction. The reported novel mechanism for familial growth hormone deficiency demonstrates that general mRNA processing defects of the minor spliceosome can lead to very narrow tissue-specific consequences.

  15. Alternative splicing and differential expression of two transcripts of nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase B gene from Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fan; Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Ming-Yi

    2009-03-01

    With the exception of rice, little is known about the existence of respiratory burst oxidase homolog (rboh) gene in cereals. The present study reports the cloning and analysis of a novel rboh gene, termed ZmrbohB, from maize (Zea mays L.). The full-length cDNA of ZmrbohB encodes a 942 amino acid protein containing all of the respiratory burst oxidase homolog catalytically critical motifs. Alternative splicing of ZmrbohB has generated two transcript isoforms, ZmrbohB-alpha and -beta. Spliced transcript ZmrbohB-beta retains an unspliced intron 11 that carries a premature termination codon and probably leads to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Expression analysis showed that two splice isoforms were differentially expressed in various tissues and at different developmental stages, and the major product was ZmrbohB-alpha. The transcripts of ZmrbohB-alpha accumulated markedly when the maize seedlings were subjected to various abiotic stimuli, such as wounding, cold (4 degrees C), heat (40 degrees C), UV and salinity stress. In addition, several abiotic stimuli also affected the alternative splicing pattern of ZmrbohB except wounding. These results provide new insight into roles in the expression regulation of plant rboh genes and suggest that ZmrbohB gene may play a role in response to environmental stresses.

  16. Identification of common genetic variation that modulates alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jeremy; Campino, Susana; Rowlands, Kate; Chan, Man-Suen; Copley, Richard R; Taylor, Martin S; Rockett, Kirk; Elvidge, Gareth; Keating, Brendan; Knight, Julian; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2007-06-01

    Alternative splicing of genes is an efficient means of generating variation in protein function. Several disease states have been associated with rare genetic variants that affect splicing patterns. Conversely, splicing efficiency of some genes is known to vary between individuals without apparent ill effects. What is not clear is whether commonly observed phenotypic variation in splicing patterns, and hence potential variation in protein function, is to a significant extent determined by naturally occurring DNA sequence variation and in particular by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this study, we surveyed the splicing patterns of 250 exons in 22 individuals who had been previously genotyped by the International HapMap Project. We identified 70 simple cassette exon alternative splicing events in our experimental system; for six of these, we detected consistent differences in splicing pattern between individuals, with a highly significant association between splice phenotype and neighbouring SNPs. Remarkably, for five out of six of these events, the strongest correlation was found with the SNP closest to the intron-exon boundary, although the distance between these SNPs and the intron-exon boundary ranged from 2 bp to greater than 1,000 bp. Two of these SNPs were further investigated using a minigene splicing system, and in each case the SNPs were found to exert cis-acting effects on exon splicing efficiency in vitro. The functional consequences of these SNPs could not be predicted using bioinformatic algorithms. Our findings suggest that phenotypic variation in splicing patterns is determined by the presence of SNPs within flanking introns or exons. Effects on splicing may represent an important mechanism by which SNPs influence gene function.

  17. Splicing mutants and their second-site suppressors at the dihydrofolate reductase locus in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Carothers, A M; Urlaub, G; Grunberger, D; Chasin, L A

    1993-08-01

    Point mutants induced with a variety of mutagens at the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) locus in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were screened for aberrantly spliced dhfr mRNA by RNase protection and/or reverse transcriptase coupled with cDNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 115 mutants screened, 28 were found to be affected in splicing. All exhibited less than 1% correct splicing, probably because the selection procedure was stringent. All 26 unique mutations were located within the consensus splice sequences; changes were found at 9 of 10 possible sites in this 25-kb six-exon gene. Mutations at the sites flanking the first and last exons resulted in the efficient recruitment of a cryptic site within each exon. In contrast, mutations bordering internal exons caused predominantly exon skipping. In many cases, multiple exons were skipped, suggesting the clustering of adjacent exons prior to actual splicing. Six mutations fell outside the well-conserved GU and AG dinucleotides. All but one were donor site single-base substitutions that decreased the agreement with the consensus and resulted in little or no correct splicing. Starting with five of these donor site mutants, we isolated 31 DHFR+ revertants. Most revertants carried a single-base substitution at a site other than that of the original mutation, and most had only partially regained the ability to splice correctly. The second-site suppression occurred through a variety of mechanisms: (i) a second change within the consensus sequence that produced a better agreement with the consensus; (ii) a change close to but beyond the consensus boundaries, as far as 8 bases upstream in the exon or 28 bases downstream in the intron; (iii) mutations in an apparent pseudo 5' site in the intron, 84 and 88 bases downstream of a donor site; and (iv) mutations that improved the upstream acceptor site of the affected exon. Taken together, these second-site suppressor mutations extend the definition of a

  18. Detection of three nonsense mutations and one missense mutation in the interleukin-2 receptor [gamma] chain gene in SCIDX1 that differently affect the mRNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Markiewicz, S.; Fischer, A.; Saint Basile, G. de ); Subtil, A.; Dautry-Varsat, A. )

    1994-05-01

    The interleukin-2 receptor [gamma] (IL-2R[gamma]) chain gene encodes a 64-kDa protein that not only composes the high-affinity form of the IL-2 binding receptor in association with the 2R [alpha] and [beta] chains, but also participates in at least the IL-4 and IL-7 receptor complexes. Mutations in this gene have recently been shown to cause X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCIDX1). This disease of the immune system results from an early block of T lymphocyte and natural killer (NK) cell differentiation, which leads to a severe cellular and humoral immune defect that is lethal unless treated by bone marrow transplantation. Analysis of the IL-2R[gamma] gene in SCIDX1 patients has revealed the presence of heterogeneous mutations principally located in the extracellular domain of the molecule. We report here three intraexonic mutations and one deletion in the IL-2R[gamma] gene in four SCIDX1 patients. These mutations appear to differentially affect RNA processing, either by decreasing IL-2R[gamma] mRNA level or by the skipping of a constitutive exon. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Aberrant alternative splicing pattern of ADAR2 downregulates adenosine-to-inosine editing in glioma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohui; Tian, Yu; Tian, Nan; Zhao, Xingli; Du, Chao; Han, Liang; Zhang, Haishan

    2015-06-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is the most common type of RNA editing in mammals, and is catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). ADAR2 is the main enzyme responsible for A-to-I editing in humans, and A-to-I underediting at the glutamine (Q)/arginine (R) site of the glutamate receptor subunit B (GluR-B) is associated with the pathogenesis and invasiveness of glioma. The level of ADAR2 mRNA expression and the alternative splicing of the ADAR2 pre-mRNA both affect the catalytic activity of ADAR2. However, reports of ADAR2 mRNA expression in glioma are inconsistent. The mechanism regulating ADAR2 pre-mRNA splicing is also unknown. In this study, we explored the deregulation of A-to-I RNA editing in glioma. We confirmed the underediting at the Q/R site of GluR-B mRNA in the glioma cell lines U87, U251 and A172 compared with that in normal human astrocytes (NHAs) HA1800. However, we demonstrated with reverse transcription (RT-PCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) that the expression of ADAR2 mRNA was not significantly altered in the glioma cell lines. Three alternative splicing sites are utilized in the glioma cell lines and NHAs: the first, located between exons -1 and 1, causes the inclusion of exon 1a; the second causes the removal of exon 2, which encodes two double-stranded RNA-binding domains; and the third, located between exons 4 and 6, causes the inclusion of alternative exon 5a, introducing a 120-nucleotide coding Alu-repeat sequence in frame. However, the expression ratio of two types of transcripts (with and without exon 5a) was altered in the glioma cells. Transcripts with exon 5a, which generate an ADAR2 isoform with ~50% reduced activity, were predominantly expressed in the glioma cell lines, whereas transcripts without exon 5a were predominantly expressed in the NHAs. From these results, we conclude that this aberrant alternative splicing pattern of ADAR2 downregulates A-to-I editing in glioma.

  20. Analysis of aberrant splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of the stop codon mutations c.109G>T and c.504_505delCT in 7 patients with HMG-CoA lyase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Puisac, Beatriz; Teresa-Rodrigo, María Esperanza; Arnedo, María; Gil-Rodríguez, María Concepción; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Ribes, Antonia; Pié, Angeles; Bueno, Gloria; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Pié, Juan

    2013-04-01

    Eukaryotic cells can be protected against mutations that generate stop codons by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) and/or nonsense-associated altered splicing (NAS). However, the processes are only partially understood and do not always occur. In this work, we study these phenomena in the stop codon mutations c.109G>T (p.Glu37*) and c.504_505delCT; the second and third most frequent mutations in HMG-CoA lyase deficiency (MIM #246450). The deficiency affects the synthesis of ketone bodies and produces severe disorders during early childhood. We used a minigene approach, real-time quantitative PCR and the inhibition of NMD by puromycin treatment, to study the effect of stop codons on splicing (NAS) and NMD in seven patients. Surprisingly, none of the stop codons studied appears to be the direct cause of aberrant splicing. In the mutation c.109G>T, the splicing is due to the base change G>T at position 109, which is critical and cannot be explained by disruption of exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) elements, by the appearance of exonic splicing silencer (ESS) elements which were predicted by bioinformatic tools or by the stop codons. Moreover, the mutation c.504_505delCT produces two mRNA transcripts both with stop codons that generate simultaneous NMD phenomena. The effects of the mutations studied on splicing seemed to be similar in all the patients. Furthermore, we report a Spanish patient with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria and a novel missense mutation: c.825C>G (p.Asn275Lys).

  1. The Role of Alternative Splicing in Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    tumorigenesis Reportable Outcomes: -portions of the work have been chosen for an oral presentation at this year’s Cold Spring Harbor “Eukaryotic mRNA...splicing alterations. References: N/A Appendices: Copy of abstract of the work presented during the Cold Spring Harbor “Eukaryotic mRNA Processing” meeting, August 22-26, 2007

  2. Definition of Proteasomal Peptide Splicing Rules for High-Efficiency Spliced Peptide Presentation by MHC Class I Molecules.

    PubMed

    Berkers, Celia R; de Jong, Annemieke; Schuurman, Karianne G; Linnemann, Carsten; Meiring, Hugo D; Janssen, Lennert; Neefjes, Jacques J; Schumacher, Ton N M; Rodenko, Boris; Ovaa, Huib

    2015-11-01

    Peptide splicing, in which two distant parts of a protein are excised and then ligated to form a novel peptide, can generate unique MHC class I-restricted responses. Because these peptides are not genetically encoded and the rules behind proteasomal splicing are unknown, it is difficult to predict these spliced Ags. In the current study, small libraries of short peptides were used to identify amino acid sequences that affect the efficiency of this transpeptidation process. We observed that splicing does not occur at random, neither in terms of the amino acid sequences nor through random splicing of peptides from different sources. In contrast, splicing followed distinct rules that we deduced and validated both in vitro and in cells. Peptide ligation was quantified using a model peptide and demonstrated to occur with up to 30% ligation efficiency in vitro, provided that optimal structural requirements for ligation were met by both ligating partners. In addition, many splicing products could be formed from a single protein. Our splicing rules will facilitate prediction and detection of new spliced Ags to expand the peptidome presented by MHC class I Ags.

  3. Coupled transcription-splicing regulation of mutually exclusive splicing events at the 5′ exons of protein 4.1R gene

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Aeri; Norton, Stephanie; Liu, Eva S.; Park, Jennie; Zhou, Anyu; Munagala, Indira D.; Ou, Alexander C.; Yang, Guang; Wickrema, Amittha; Tang, Tang K.; Benz, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    The tightly regulated production of distinct erythrocyte protein 4.1R isoforms involves differential splicing of 3 mutually exclusive first exons (1A, 1B, 1C) to the alternative 3′ splice sites (ss) of exon 2′/2. Here, we demonstrate that exon 1 and 2′/2 splicing diversity is regulated by a transcription-coupled splicing mechanism. We also implicate distinctive regulatory elements that promote the splicing of exon 1A to the distal 3′ ss and exon 1B to the proximal 3′ ss in murine erythroleukemia cells. A hybrid minigene driven by cytomegalovirus promoter mimicked 1B-promoter–driven splicing patterns but differed from 1A-promoter–driven splicing patterns, suggesting that promoter identity affects exon 2′/2 splicing. Furthermore, splicing factor SF2/ASF ultraviolet (UV) cross-linked to the exon 2′/2 junction CAGAGAA, a sequence that overlaps the distal U2AF35-binding 3′ ss. Consequently, depletion of SF2/ASF allowed exon 1B to splice to the distal 3′ ss but had no effect on exon 1A splicing. These findings identify for the first time that an SF2/ASF binding site also can serve as a 3′ ss in a transcript-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that 4.1R gene expression involves transcriptional regulation coupled with a complex splicing regulatory network. PMID:19729518

  4. Alternative splicing and genomic structure of the Wilms tumor gene WT1

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, D.A. Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Charlestown ); Sohn, R.L.; Buckler, A.J.; Pelletier, J.; Call, K.M.; Housman, D.E. )

    1991-11-01

    The chromosome 11p13 Wilms tumor susceptibility gene WT1 appears to play a crucial role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of nephroblasts and gonadal tissue. The WT1 gene consists of 10 exons, encoding a complex pattern of mRNA species: four distinct transcripts are expressed, reflecting the presence or absence of two alternative splices. Splice I consists of a separate exon, encoding 17 amino acids, which is inserted between the proline-rich amino terminus and the zinc finger domains. Splice II arises from the use of an alternative 5{prime} splice junction and results in the insertion of 3 amino acids between zinc fingers 3 and 4. RNase protection analysis demonstrates that the most prevalent splice variant in both human and mouse is that which contains both alternative splices, whereas the least common is the transcript missing both splices. The relative distribution of splice variants is highly conserved between normal fetal kidney tissue and Wilms tumors that have intact WT1 transcripts. The ratio of these different WT1 mRNA species is also maintained as a function of development in the mouse kidney and in various mouse tissues expressing WT1. The conservation in structure and relative levels of each of the four WT1 mRNA species suggest that each encoded polypeptide makes a significant contribution to normal gene function. The control of cellular proliferation and differentiation exerted by the WT1 gene products may involve interactions between four polypeptides with distinct targets and functions.

  5. Experimental study of lap splice bolted connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dehui; Tian, Lishan; Jiang, Wenqiang; An, Liqiang; Zhang, Ziyang

    2017-01-01

    The bolted connection is prone to slip under external load in the lattice transmission tower, which will affect the internal forces and deformation of tower. In order to better simulate the effect of bolt connection slippage on transmission tower, the load deformation relationship should be established. In this paper, the single lap splice bolt connection under tension load is tested and the load displacement curve is obtained. Furthermore, the existing model of single lap splice bolted connection is modified, which will plays an important role in the influence of the bolt slippage of the transmission lines towers more accurately and reasonably.

  6. Structure of the human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein gene and multiple alternative spliced isoforms

    SciTech Connect

    Pham-Dinh, D.; Gaspera, D.B.; Dautigny, A.

    1995-09-20

    Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a special component of the central nervous system localization on the outermost lamellae of mature myelin, is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. We report here the organization of the human MOG gene, which spans approximately 17 kb, and the characterization of six MOG mRNA splicing variants. The intron/exon structure of the human MOG gene confirmed the splicing pattern, supporting the hypothesis that mRNA isoforms could arise by alternative splicing of a single gene. In addition to the eight exons coding for the major MOG isoform, the human MOG gene also contains 3` region, a previously unknown alternatively spliced coding exon, VIA. Alternative utilization of two acceptor splicing sites for exon VIII could produce two different C-termini. The nucleotide sequences presented here may be a useful tool to study further possible involvement if the MOG gene in hereditary neurological disorders. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Evidence for a base-pairing interaction between U6 small nuclear RNA and 5' splice site during the splicing reaction in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Sawa, H; Abelson, J

    1992-01-01

    U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is an essential factor in mRNA splicing. On the basis of the high conservation of its sequence, it has been proposed that U6 snRNA may function catalytically during the splicing reaction. If this is the case, it is likely that U6 snRNA interacts with the splice sites in the spliceosome to catalyze the reaction. We have used UV crosslinking to analyze the interactions of U6 snRNA with the splicing substrates during the yeast splicing reaction. Crosslinked products in which the central region of U6 snRNA was joined to the 5' splice site region of mRNA precursor and lariat intermediate were identified. The crosslinking sites were precisely located in one of these products. The results suggest a possible base-pairing interaction between U6 snRNA and the 5' splice site of the mRNA precursor. Images PMID:1333604

  8. Development and media regulate alternative splicing of a methyltransferase pre-mRNA in Monascus pilosus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Yong; Miyake, Tsuyoshi

    2009-05-27

    Two alternatively spliced mRNAs (d- and l-MpLaeA) of a methyltransferase gene (MpLaeA) were identified from Monascus pilosus IFO4520 and its mutant MK-1. Alternative splicing of the MpLaeA pre-mRNA occurred in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR). The alternative splicing patterns of MpLaeA were regulated by the fungal growth stage and the principal nutrients: that is, the short l-MpLaeA mRNA was a constitutive transcript at all growth stages and different carbon or nitrogen sources, but the glutamate and NaNO(3) as main nitrogen source could up-regulate the long d-MpLaeA mRNA form. The long spliced 5'-UTR of d-MpLaeA blocked GFP expression in Escherichia coli , suggesting that d-MpLaeA mRNA was an ineffective spliced mRNA. Down-regulation of MpLaeA by transgenic antisense d-MpLaeA cDNA resulted in decreasing synthesis of monacolin K in M. pilosus. This suggested that the alternative splicing of MpLaeA mRNA might regulate the synthesis of monacolin K.

  9. Biomedical Impact of Splicing Mutations Revealed through Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Taneri, Bahar; Asilmaz, Esra; Gaasterland, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Splicing is a cellular mechanism, which dictates eukaryotic gene expression by removing the noncoding introns and ligating the coding exons in the form of a messenger RNA molecule. Alternative splicing (AS) adds a major level of complexity to this mechanism and thus to the regulation of gene expression. This widespread cellular phenomenon generates multiple messenger RNA isoforms from a single gene, by utilizing alternative splice sites and promoting different exon–intron inclusions and exclusions. AS greatly increases the coding potential of eukaryotic genomes and hence contributes to the diversity of eukaryotic proteomes. Mutations that lead to disruptions of either constitutive splicing or AS cause several diseases, among which are myotonic dystrophy and cystic fibrosis. Aberrant splicing is also well established in cancer states. Identification of rare novel mutations associated with splice-site recognition, and splicing regulation in general, could provide further insight into genetic mechanisms of rare diseases. Here, disease relevance of aberrant splicing is reviewed, and the new methodological approach of starting from disease phenotype, employing exome sequencing and identifying rare mutations affecting splicing regulation is described. Exome sequencing has emerged as a reliable method for finding sequence variations associated with various disease states. To date, genetic studies using exome sequencing to find disease-causing mutations have focused on the discovery of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms that alter amino acids or introduce early stop codons, or on the use of exome sequencing as a means to genotype known single nucleotide polymorphisms. The involvement of splicing mutations in inherited diseases has received little attention and thus likely occurs more frequently than currently estimated. Studies of exome sequencing followed by molecular and bioinformatic analyses have great potential to reveal the high impact of splicing

  10. Modulation of RNA splicing as a potential treatment for cancer.

    PubMed

    Bauman, John A; Kole, Ryszard

    2011-01-01

    Close to 90% of human genes are transcribed into pre-mRNA that undergoes alternative splicing, producing multiple mRNAs and proteins from single genes. This process is largely responsible for human proteome diversity, and about half of genetic disease-causing mutations affect splicing. Splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) comprise an emerging class of antisense therapeutics that modify gene expression by directing pre-mRNA splice site usage. Bauman et al. investigated an SSO that up-regulated the expression of an anti-cancer splice variant while simultaneously eliminating an over-expressed cancer-causing splice variant.  This was accomplished by targeting pre-mRNA of the apoptotic regulator Bcl-x, which is alternatively spliced to express anti- and pro-apoptotic splice variants Bcl-xL and Bcl-xS, respectively. High expression of Bcl-xL is a hallmark of many cancers and is considered a general mechanism used by cancer cells to evade apoptosis. Redirection of Bcl-x pre-mRNA splicing from Bcl-xL to -xS by SSO induced apoptotic and chemosensitizing effects in various cancer cell lines. Importantly, the paper shows that delivery of Bcl-x SSO using a lipid nanoparticle redirected Bcl-x splicing and reduced tumor burden in melanoma lung metastases. This was the first demonstration of SSO efficacy in tumors in vivo. SSOs are not limited to be solely potential anti-cancer drugs. SSOs were first applied to repair aberrant splicing in thalassemia, a genetic disease, they have been used to create novel proteins (e.g., ∆7TNFR1), and they have recently progressed to clinical trials for patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. 

  11. RNA splicing factors as oncoproteins and tumor suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Dvinge, Heidi; Kim, Eunhee; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Bradley, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Preface The recent genomic characterization of cancers has revealed recurrent somatic point mutations and copy number changes affecting genes encoding RNA splicing factors. Initial studies of these ‘spliceosomal mutations’ suggest that the proteins bearing these mutations exhibit altered splice site and/or exon recognition preferences relative to their wild-type counterparts, resulting in cancer-specific mis-splicing. Such changes in the splicing machinery may create novel vulnerabilities in cancer cells that can be therapeutically exploited using compounds that can influence the splicing process. Further studies to dissect the biochemical, genomic, and biological effects of spliceosomal mutations are critical for the development of cancer therapies targeted to these mutations. PMID:27282250

  12. Splice assembly tool and method of splicing

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Frank A.

    1980-01-01

    A splice assembly tool for assembling component parts of an electrical conductor while producing a splice connection between electrical cables therewith, comprises a first structural member adaptable for supporting force applying means thereon, said force applying means enabling a rotary force applied manually thereto to be converted to a longitudinal force for subsequent application against a first component part of said electrical connection, a second structural member adaptable for engaging a second component part in a manner to assist said first structural member in assembling the component parts relative to one another and transmission means for conveying said longitudinal force between said first and said second structural members, said first and said second structural members being coupled to one another by said transmission means, wherein at least one of said component parts comprises a tubular elastomeric sleeve and said force applying means provides a relatively high mechanical advantage when said rotary force is applied thereto so as to facilitate assembly of said at least one tubular elastomeric sleeve about said other component part in an interference fit manner.

  13. Sprouty4 mRNA variants and protein expressions in breast and lung-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Doriguzzi, Angelina; Salhi, Jihen; Sutterlüty-Fall, Hedwig

    2016-01-01

    Sprouty proteins are modulators of mitogen-induced signalling processes and are therefore hypothesized to affect malignant diseases. As a member of the Sprouty family, Sprouty4 has been previously shown to function as a tumour suppressor in lung and breast cancer. The present study analysed the expression of two known Sprouty4 splice variants in cells established from malignant and normal lung and breast tissues using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. The results indicated that the expression of the two messenger RNA (mRNA) variants was reduced in the cells derived from malignant tissue in comparison to the normal counterparts. Although the expression of the two splice variants were associated in both tissue types, on average, the relative expression of the longer variant was slightly increased in malignant cells compared with normal tissues. Notably, the protein levels reflected the expression observed at the mRNA level only in breast-derived cells. Contrarily, with regards to the measured mRNA levels, Sprouty4 protein was disproportional augmented in lung cells known to harbour the mutated K-Ras gene. PMID:27895786

  14. A Broad Set of Chromatin Factors Influences Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, Eric; Myers, Michael P.; Garcia-Bernardo, Jose; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Krainer, Adrian R.; Muchardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Several studies propose an influence of chromatin on pre-mRNA splicing, but it is still unclear how widespread and how direct this phenomenon is. We find here that when assembled in vivo, the U2 snRNP co-purifies with a subset of chromatin-proteins, including histones and remodeling complexes like SWI/SNF. Yet, an unbiased RNAi screen revealed that the outcome of splicing is influenced by a much larger variety of chromatin factors not all associating with the spliceosome. The availability of this broad range of chromatin factors impacting splicing further unveiled their very context specific effect, resulting in either inclusion or skipping, depending on the exon under scrutiny. Finally, a direct assessment of the impact of chromatin on splicing using an in vitro co-transcriptional splicing assay with pre-mRNAs transcribed from a nucleosomal template, demonstrated that chromatin impacts nascent pre-mRNP in their competence for splicing. Altogether, our data show that numerous chromatin factors associated or not with the spliceosome can affect the outcome of splicing, possibly as a function of the local chromatin environment that by default interferes with the efficiency of splicing. PMID:27662573

  15. RNA splicing in human disease and in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Baralle, Diana; Buratti, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    Defects at the level of the pre-mRNA splicing process represent a major cause of human disease. Approximately 15-50% of all human disease mutations have been shown to alter functioning of basic and auxiliary splicing elements. These elements are required to ensure proper processing of pre-mRNA splicing molecules, with their disruption leading to misprocessing of the pre-mRNA molecule and disease. The splicing process is a complex process, with much still to be uncovered before we are able to accurately predict whether a reported genomic sequence variant (GV) represents a splicing-associated disease mutation or a harmless polymorphism. Furthermore, even when a mutation is correctly identified as affecting the splicing process, there still remains the difficulty of providing an exact evaluation of the potential impact on disease onset, severity and duration. In this review, we provide a brief overview of splicing diagnostic methodologies, from in silico bioinformatics approaches to wet lab in vitro and in vivo systems to evaluate splicing efficiencies. In particular, we provide an overview of how the latest developments in high-throughput sequencing can be applied to the clinic, and are already changing clinical approaches.

  16. SpliceDisease database: linking RNA splicing and disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Kaibo; Zhao, Wei; Cui, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    RNA splicing is an important aspect of gene regulation in many organisms. Splicing of RNA is regulated by complicated mechanisms involving numerous RNA-binding proteins and the intricate network of interactions among them. Mutations in cis-acting splicing elements or its regulatory proteins have been shown to be involved in human diseases. Defects in pre-mRNA splicing process have emerged as a common disease-causing mechanism. Therefore, a database integrating RNA splicing and disease associations would be helpful for understanding not only the RNA splicing but also its contribution to disease. In SpliceDisease database, we manually curated 2337 splicing mutation disease entries involving 303 genes and 370 diseases, which have been supported experimentally in 898 publications. The SpliceDisease database provides information including the change of the nucleotide in the sequence, the location of the mutation on the gene, the reference Pubmed ID and detailed description for the relationship among gene mutations, splicing defects and diseases. We standardized the names of the diseases and genes and provided links for these genes to NCBI and UCSC genome browser for further annotation and genomic sequences. For the location of the mutation, we give direct links of the entry to the respective position/region in the genome browser. The users can freely browse, search and download the data in SpliceDisease at http://cmbi.bjmu.edu.cn/sdisease.

  17. Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wentao; Du, Bojing; Liu, Di; Qi, Xiaoting

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Arabidopsis splicing factor SR34b gene is cadmium-inducible. • SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant is sensitive to cadmium due to high cadmium uptake. • SR34b is a regulator of cadmium transporter IRT1 at the posttranscription level. • These results highlight the roles of splicing factors in cadmium tolerance of plant. - Abstract: Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerance in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd{sup 2+} uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance.

  18. Light regulates alternative splicing of hydroxypyruvate reductase in pumpkin.

    PubMed

    Mano, S; Hayashi, M; Nishimura, M

    1999-02-01

    Hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR) is a leaf peroxisomal enzyme that functions in the glycolate pathway of photorespiration in plants. We have obtained two highly similar cDNAs for pumpkin HPR (HPR1 and HPR2). It has been revealed that two HPR mRNAs might be produced by alternative splicing from a single type of pre-mRNA. The HPR1 protein, but not the HPR2 protein, was found to have a targeting sequence into leaf peroxisomes at the C-terminus, suggesting that alternative splicing controls the subcellular localization of the two HPR proteins. Immunoblot analysis and subcellular fractionation experiments showed that HPR1 and HPR2 proteins are localized in leaf peroxisomes and the cytosol, respectively. Moreover, indirect fluorescence microscopy and analyses of transgenic tobacco cultured cells and Arabidopsis thaliana expressing fusion proteins with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed the different subcellular localizations of the two HPR proteins. Both mRNAs were induced developmentally and by light, but with quantitative differences. Almost equal amounts of the mRNAs were detected in pumpkin cotyledons grown in darkness, but treatment with light greatly enhanced the production of HPR2 mRNA. These findings indicate that light regulates alternative splicing of HPR mRNA, suggesting the presence of a novel mechanism of mRNA maturation, namely light-regulated alternative splicing, in higher plants.

  19. Real-time imaging of cotranscriptional splicing reveals a kinetic model that reduces noise: implications for alternative splicing regulation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Ute; Robert, Marie-Cécile; Yoshida, Minoru; Villemin, Jean-Philippe; Auboeuf, Didier; Aitken, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Splicing is a key process that expands the coding capacity of genomes. Its kinetics remain poorly characterized, and the distribution of splicing time caused by the stochasticity of single splicing events is expected to affect regulation efficiency. We conducted a small-scale survey on 40 introns in human cells and observed that most were spliced cotranscriptionally. Consequently, we constructed a reporter system that splices cotranscriptionally and can be monitored in live cells and in real time through the use of MS2–GFP. All small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) are loaded on nascent pre-mRNAs, and spliceostatin A inhibits splicing but not snRNP recruitment. Intron removal occurs in minutes and is best described by a model where several successive steps are rate limiting. Each pre-mRNA molecule is predicted to require a similar time to splice, reducing kinetic noise and improving the regulation of alternative splicing. This model is relevant to other kinetically controlled processes acting on few molecules. PMID:21624952

  20. Workflow for Genome-Wide Determination of Pre-mRNA Splicing Efficiency from Yeast RNA-seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Folk, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing represents an important regulatory layer of eukaryotic gene expression. In the simple budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, about one-third of all mRNA molecules undergo splicing, and splicing efficiency is tightly regulated, for example, during meiotic differentiation. S. cerevisiae features a streamlined, evolutionarily highly conserved splicing machinery and serves as a favourite model for studies of various aspects of splicing. RNA-seq represents a robust, versatile, and affordable technique for transcriptome interrogation, which can also be used to study splicing efficiency. However, convenient bioinformatics tools for the analysis of splicing efficiency from yeast RNA-seq data are lacking. We present a complete workflow for the calculation of genome-wide splicing efficiency in S. cerevisiae using strand-specific RNA-seq data. Our pipeline takes sequencing reads in the FASTQ format and provides splicing efficiency values for the 5′ and 3′ splice junctions of each intron. The pipeline is based on up-to-date open-source software tools and requires very limited input from the user. We provide all relevant scripts in a ready-to-use form. We demonstrate the functionality of the workflow using RNA-seq datasets from three spliceosome mutants. The workflow should prove useful for studies of yeast splicing mutants or of regulated splicing, for example, under specific growth conditions. PMID:28050562

  1. Workflow for Genome-Wide Determination of Pre-mRNA Splicing Efficiency from Yeast RNA-seq Data.

    PubMed

    Převorovský, Martin; Hálová, Martina; Abrhámová, Kateřina; Libus, Jiří; Folk, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing represents an important regulatory layer of eukaryotic gene expression. In the simple budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, about one-third of all mRNA molecules undergo splicing, and splicing efficiency is tightly regulated, for example, during meiotic differentiation. S. cerevisiae features a streamlined, evolutionarily highly conserved splicing machinery and serves as a favourite model for studies of various aspects of splicing. RNA-seq represents a robust, versatile, and affordable technique for transcriptome interrogation, which can also be used to study splicing efficiency. However, convenient bioinformatics tools for the analysis of splicing efficiency from yeast RNA-seq data are lacking. We present a complete workflow for the calculation of genome-wide splicing efficiency in S. cerevisiae using strand-specific RNA-seq data. Our pipeline takes sequencing reads in the FASTQ format and provides splicing efficiency values for the 5' and 3' splice junctions of each intron. The pipeline is based on up-to-date open-source software tools and requires very limited input from the user. We provide all relevant scripts in a ready-to-use form. We demonstrate the functionality of the workflow using RNA-seq datasets from three spliceosome mutants. The workflow should prove useful for studies of yeast splicing mutants or of regulated splicing, for example, under specific growth conditions.

  2. Lack of Drosophila cytoskeletal tropomyosin affects head morphogenesis and the accumulation of oskar mRNA required for germ cell formation.

    PubMed Central

    Tetzlaff, M T; Jäckle, H; Pankratz, M J

    1996-01-01

    Drosophila encodes five muscle and one cytoskeletal isoform of the actin-binding protein tropomyosin. We have identified a lack-of-function mutation in the cytoskeletal isoform (cTmII). Zygotic mutant embryos show a defect in head morphogenesis, while embryos lacking maternal cTmII are defective in germ cell formation but otherwise give rise to viable adults. oskar mRNA, which is required for both germ cell formation and abdominal segmentation, fails to accumulate at the posterior pole in these embryos. nanos mRNA, however, which is required exclusively for abdominal segmentation, is localized at wild-type levels. These results indicate that head morphogenesis and the accumulation of high levels of oskar mRNA necessary for germ cell formation require tropomyosin-dependent cytoskeleton. Images PMID:8635457

  3. The splicing activator DAZAP1 integrates splicing control into MEK/Erk-regulated cell proliferation and migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Rajarshi; Roy, Sreerupa Ghose; Tsai, Yihsuan S.; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Graves, Lee M.; Wang, Zefeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) is a critical stage of gene regulation in response to environmental stimuli. Here we show that DAZAP1, an RNA-binding protein involved in mammalian development and spermatogenesis, promotes inclusion of weak exons through specific recognition of diverse cis-elements. The carboxy-terminal proline-rich domain of DAZAP1 interacts with and neutralizes general splicing inhibitors, and is sufficient to activate splicing when recruited to pre-mRNA. This domain is phosphorylated by the MEK/Erk (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) pathway and this modification is essential for the splicing regulatory activity and the nuclear/cytoplasmic translocation of DAZAP1. Using mRNA-seq, we identify endogenous splicing events regulated by DAZAP1, many of which are involved in maintaining cell growth. Knockdown or over-expression of DAZAP1 causes a cell proliferation defect. Taken together, these studies reveal a molecular mechanism that integrates splicing control into MEK/Erk-regulated cell proliferation.

  4. Final report: FASEB Summer Research Conference on ''Post-transcriptional control of gene expression: Effectors of mRNA decay'' [agenda and attendees list

    SciTech Connect

    Maquat, Lynne

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this meeting was to provide an interactive forum for scientists working on prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA decay. A special seminar presented by a leader in the field of mRNA decay in S. cerevisiae focused on what is known and what needs to be determined, not only for yeast but for other organisms. The large attendance (110 participants) reflects the awareness that mRNA decay is a key player in gene regulation in a way that is affected by the many steps that precede mRNA formation. Sessions were held on the following topics: mRNA transport and mRNP; multicomponent eukaryotic nucleases; nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and nonsense-associated altered splicing; Cis-acting sequences/Trans-acting factors of mRNA decay; translational accuracy; multicomponent bacterial nucleases; interplay between mRNA polyadenylation, translation and decay in prokaryotes and prokaryotic organelles; and RNA interference and other RNA mediators of gene expression. In addition to the talks and two poster sessions, there were three round tables: (1) Does translation occur in the nucleus? (2) Differences and similarities in the mechanisms of mRNA decay in different eukaryotes, and (3) RNA surveillance in bacteria?

  5. Prenatal diagnosis and a donor splice site mutation in fibrillin in a family with Marfan syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, M.; Vandemark, N.; Wang, M.; Han, J.; Rao, V.H. ); Velinov, M.; Tsipouras, P. ); Wargowski, D.; Becker, J.; Robertson, W.; Droste, S. )

    1993-08-01

    The Marfan syndrome, an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder, is manifested by abnormalities in the cardiovascular, skeletal, and ocular systems. Recently, fibrillin, an elastic-associated microfibrillar glycoprotein, has been linked to the Marfan syndrome, and fibrillin mutations in affected individuals have been documented. In this study, genetic linkage analysis with fibrillin-specific markers was used to establish the prenatal diagnosis in an 11-wk-gestation fetus in a four-generation Marfan kindred. At birth, skeletal changes suggestive of the Marfan syndrome were observed. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification of the fibrillin gene mRNA detected a deletion of 123 bp in one allele in affected relatives. This deletion corresponds to an exon encoding an epidermal growth factor-like motif. Examination of genomic DNA showed a G[yields]C transversion at the +1 consensus donor splice site. 45 refs., 7 figs.

  6. High-throughput sequence analysis of Ciona intestinalis SL trans-spliced mRNAs: alternative expression modes and gene function correlates.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jun; Dewar, Ken; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Wiley, Graham B; Macmil, Simone L; Roe, Bruce A; Zeller, Robert W; Satou, Yutaka; Hastings, Kenneth E M

    2010-05-01

    Pre-mRNA 5' spliced-leader (SL) trans-splicing occurs in some metazoan groups but not in others. Genome-wide characterization of the trans-spliced mRNA subpopulation has not yet been reported for any metazoan. We carried out a high-throughput analysis of the SL trans-spliced mRNA population of the ascidian tunicate Ciona intestinalis by 454 Life Sciences (Roche) pyrosequencing of SL-PCR-amplified random-primed reverse transcripts of tailbud embryo RNA. We obtained approximately 250,000 high-quality reads corresponding to 8790 genes, approximately 58% of the Ciona total gene number. The great depth of this data revealed new aspects of trans-splicing, including the existence of a significant class of "infrequently trans-spliced" genes, accounting for approximately 28% of represented genes, that generate largely non-trans-spliced mRNAs, but also produce trans-spliced mRNAs, in part through alternative promoter use. Thus, the conventional qualitative dichotomy of trans-spliced versus non-trans-spliced genes should be supplanted by a more accurate quantitative view recognizing frequently and infrequently trans-spliced gene categories. Our data include reads representing approximately 80% of Ciona frequently trans-spliced genes. Our analysis also revealed significant use of closely spaced alternative trans-splice acceptor sites which further underscores the mechanistic similarity of cis- and trans-splicing and indicates that the prevalence of +/-3-nt alternative splicing events at tandem acceptor sites, NAGNAG, is driven by spliceosomal mechanisms, and not nonsense-mediated decay, or selection at the protein level. The breadth of gene representation data enabled us to find new correlations between trans-splicing status and gene function, namely the overrepresentation in the frequently trans-spliced gene class of genes associated with plasma/endomembrane system, Ca(2+) homeostasis, and actin cytoskeleton.

  7. Starvation and diet composition affect mRNA levels of the high density-lipoprotein-beta glucan binding protein in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; García-Carreño, Fernando; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma Beatriz; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2005-10-01

    A high density lipoprotein-beta glucan binding protein (HDL-BGBP) is synthesized in the hepatopancreas of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and secreted to the hemolymph. Recently, we reported the HDL-BGBP full length cDNA sequence and found that the predicted polypeptide is larger than the mature protein and also, that it contains a long 5'- and 3'-UTRs that may be involved in transcript level regulation. To test whether starvation and feeding may play a role in regulating HDL-BGBP mRNA levels, two different stimuli were evaluated: starvation and composition of diets. After 24 h, the steady state HDL-BGBP mRNA levels of starved shrimp decreased, suggesting that synthesis of the lipoprotein is less required in the absence of food. When shrimp were fed with diets containing different concentrations of protein and lipids, changes in HDL-BGBP mRNA levels were also detected. Shrimp fed the lower concentration of protein and lipid feed accumulated higher levels of HDL-BGBP mRNA. These results indicate that feeding influences HDL-BGBP transcript levels in the hepatopancreas.

  8. Insulin-Regulated Srebp-1c and Pck1 mRNA Expression in Primary Hepatocytes from Zucker Fatty but Not Lean Rats Is Affected by Feeding Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Wei; Li, Rui; Li, Yang; Ge, Yuebin; Chen, Guoxun

    2011-01-01

    Insulin regulates the transcription of genes for hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that this action may be impaired in hepatocytes from insulin resistant animals. Primary hepatocytes from insulin sensitive Zucker lean (ZL) and insulin resistant Zucker fatty (ZF) rats in ad libitum or after an overnight fasting were isolated, cultured and treated with insulin and other compounds for analysis of gene expression using real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of one insulin-induced (Srebp-1c) and one insulin-suppressed (Pck1) genes in response to insulin, glucagon, and compactin treatments in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZL and ZF rats were analyzed. Additionally, the effects of insulin and T1317 on their levels in hepatocytes from ad libitum or fasted ZL or ZF rats were compared. The mRNA levels of Srebp-1c, Fas, and Scd1, but not that of Insr, Gck and Pck1, were higher in freshly isolated hepatocytes from ad libitum ZF than that from ZL rats. These patterns of Srebp-1c and Pck1 mRNA levels remained in primary hepatocyte cultured in vitro. Insulin's ability to regulate Srebp-1c and Pck1 expression was diminished in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZF, but not ZL rats. Glucagon or compactin suppressed Srebp-1c mRNA expression in lean, but not fatty hepatocytes. However, glucagon induced Pck1 mRNA expression similarly in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZL and ZF rats. Insulin caused the same dose-dependent increase of Akt phosphorylation in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZL and ZF rats. It synergized with T1317 to induce Srebp-1c, and suppressed Pck1 mRNA levels in hepatocytes from fasted, but not that from ad libitum ZF rats. We demonstrated that insulin was unable to regulate its downstream genes' mRNA expression in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZF rats. This impairment can be partially restored in hepatocytes from ZF rats after an overnight fasting, a phenomenon that deserves further investigation. PMID:21731709

  9. Splicing changes in SMA mouse motoneurons and SMN-depleted neuroblastoma cells: Evidence for involvement of splicing regulatory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Qing; Kayikci, Melis; Odermatt, Philipp; Meyer, Kathrin; Michels, Olivia; Saxena, Smita; Ule, Jernej; Schümperli, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is caused by deletions or mutations in the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. The second gene copy, SMN2, produces some, but not enough, functional SMN protein. SMN is essential to assemble small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) that form the spliceosome. However, it is not clear whether SMA is caused by defects in this function that could lead to splicing changes in all tissues, or by the impairment of an additional, less well characterized, but motoneuron-specific SMN function. We addressed the first possibility by exon junction microarray analysis of motoneurons (MNs) isolated by laser capture microdissection from a severe SMA mouse model. This revealed changes in multiple U2-dependent splicing events. Moreover, splicing appeared to be more strongly affected in MNs than in other cells. By testing mutiple genes in a model of progressive SMN depletion in NB2a neuroblastoma cells, we obtained evidence that U2-dependent splicing changes occur earlier than U12-dependent ones. As several of these changes affect genes coding for splicing regulators, this may acerbate the splicing response induced by low SMN levels and induce secondary waves of splicing alterations. PMID:25692239

  10. The Involvement of Splicing Factor hnRNP A1 in UVB-Induced Alternative Splicing of hdm2.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianguo; Li, Li; Tong, Lingying; Tang, Liling; Wu, Shiyong

    2016-01-12

    Human homolog double minute 2 (hdm2), an oncoprotein, which binds to tumor suppressor p53 to facilitate its degradation, has been known to contribute to tumorigenesis. Its splicing variants are reported to be highly expressed in many cancers and can be induced by ultraviolet B light (UVB). However, the mechanisms of how UVB radiation induces hdm2 alternative splicing still remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the roles of two common splicing factors, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) A1 and serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1), in regulating UVB-induced hdm2 splicing. Our study indicated that while the expression of both hnRNP A1 and SRSF1 are induced, only hnRNP A1 is involved in hdm2 alternative splicing upon UVB irradiation. Overexpression of hnRNP A1 resulted in decrease of full-length hdm2 (hdm2-FL) and increase of hdm2B, one of hdm2 alternate-splicing forms; while down-regulated hnRNP A1 expression led to the decrease of the hdm2-FL and hdm2B in HaCaT cells. Protein-mRNA binding assay confirmed that UVB irradiation could increase the binding of hnRNP A1 to hdm2 pre-mRNA. In conclusion, we elucidated that UVB induces alternative splicing of hdm2 via increasing the expression and the binding of hnRNP A1 to hdm2 full-length mRNA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers affect mRNA expression of DNA nucleotide excision repair in skin and muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Luiz Philippe S; Campos, Vera Maria A; Vicentini, Solange C; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; de Paoli, Flavia; Fonseca, Adenilson S

    2016-04-01

    Lasers emit light beams with specific characteristics, in which wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode properties determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses. Low-intensity lasers could induce free radical generation in biological tissues and cause alterations in macromolecules, such as DNA. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in biological tissues exposed to low-intensity lasers. Wistar rat (n = 28, 4 for each group) skin and muscle were exposed to low-intensity red (660 nm) and near-infrared (880 nm) lasers at different fluences (25, 50, and 100 J/cm(2)), and samples of these tissues were withdrawn for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and gene expression evaluation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Laser exposure was in continuous wave and power of 100 mW. Data show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expressions decrease in skin (p < 0.001) exposed to near-infrared laser, but increase in muscle tissue (p < 0.001). ERCC1 mRNA expression does not alter (p > 0.05), but ERCC2 mRNA expression decreases in skin (p < 0.001) and increases in muscle tissue (p < 0.001) exposed to red laser. Our results show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expression is differently altered in skin and muscle tissue exposed to low-intensity lasers depending on wavelengths and fluences used in therapeutic protocols.

  12. Expression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/ fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 and VEGF mRNA in rat liver, lung and heart: effect of methyl tertbutyl ether.

    PubMed

    Minchenko, D O; Kundieva, A V; Tsuchihara, K; Yavorovsky, O P; Paustovsky, Y O; Esumi, H; Minchenko, O H

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this work was investigation of the effect of methyl tertbutyl ether, ecologically dangerous chemical compound, on the expression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 (PFKFB-3) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA in different rat organs. Expression of PFKFB-3 and VEGF is a hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-dependent process which significantly increases under hypoxia, in malignant tumors and other pathology. In this study we have shown that PFKFB-3 and VEGF mRNA expression in the liver, lung, and heart changes in rats, treated with methyl tertbutyl ether for two months, in organ-specific manner. Expression of alternative splice variants of PFKFB-3 mRNA as well as VEGF mRNA also changes in organ-specific manner in rats, treated with methyl tertbutyl ether. The effect of methyl tertbutyl ether on the expression of PFKFB-3 and VEGF mRNA and its alternative splice variants is dose-dependent. Results of this investigation clearly demonstrated that methyl tertbutyl ether affects the expression of PFKFB-3, a key regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, as well as VEGF, very important factor of angiogenesis, in an organ-specific and dose-dependent manner.

  13. Connecting the speckles: Splicing kinases and their role in tumorigenesis and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Corkery, Dale P; Holly, Alice C; Lahsaee, Sara; Dellaire, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing in higher eukaryotes enhances transcriptome complexity and proteome diversity. Its regulation is mediated by a complex RNA-protein network that is essential for the maintenance of cellular and tissue homeostasis. Disruptions to this regulatory network underlie a host of human diseases and contribute to cancer development and progression. The splicing kinases are an important family of pre-mRNA splicing regulators, , which includes the CDC-like kinases (CLKs), the SRSF protein kinases (SRPKs) and pre-mRNA splicing 4 kinase (PRP4K/PRPF4B). These splicing kinases regulate pre-mRNA splicing via phosphorylation of spliceosomal components and serine-arginine (SR) proteins, affecting both their nuclear localization within nuclear speckle domains as well as their nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling. Here we summarize the emerging evidence that splicing kinases are dysregulated in cancer and play important roles in both tumorigenesis as well as therapeutic response to radiation and chemotherapy.

  14. Transposon-mediated Generation of Cellular and Mouse Models of Splicing Mutations to Assess the Efficacy of snRNA-based Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Barbon, Elena; Ferrarese, Mattia; van Wittenberghe, Laetitia; Sanatine, Peggy; Ronzitti, Giuseppe; Collaud, Fanny; Colella, Pasqualina; Pinotti, Mirko; Mingozzi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Disease-causing splicing mutations can be rescued by variants of the U1 small nuclear RNA (U1snRNAs). However, the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of modified U1snRNAs as therapeutic tools is limited by the availability of cellular and animal models specific for a given mutation. Hence, we exploited the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposon system (SB100X) to integrate human factor IX (hFIX) minigenes into genomic DNA in vitro and in vivo. We generated stable HEK293 cell lines and C57BL/6 mice harboring splicing-competent hFIX minigenes either wild type (SChFIX-wt) or mutated (SChFIXex5-2C). In both models the SChFIXex5-2C variant, found in patients affected by Hemophilia B, displayed an aberrant splicing pattern characterized by exon 5 skipping. This allowed us to test, for the first time in a genomic DNA context, the efficacy of the snRNA U1-fix9, delivered with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector. With this approach, we showed rescue of the correct splicing pattern of hFIX mRNA, leading to hFIX protein expression. These data validate the SB100X as a versatile tool to quickly generate models of human genetic mutations, to study their effect in a stable DNA context and to assess mutation-targeted therapeutic strategies. PMID:27898092

  15. Transcription and splicing: when the twain meet.

    PubMed

    Brody, Yehuda; Shav-Tal, Yaron

    2011-01-01

    Splicing can occur co-transcriptionally. What happens when the splicing reaction lags after the completed transcriptional process? We found that elongation rates are independent of ongoing splicing on the examined genes and suggest that when transcription has completed but splicing has not, the splicing machinery is retained at the site of transcription, independently of the polymerase.

  16. Trans-splicing improvement by the combined application of antisense strategies.

    PubMed

    Koller, Ulrich; Hainzl, Stefan; Kocher, Thomas; Hüttner, Clemens; Klausegger, Alfred; Gruber, Christina; Mayr, Elisabeth; Wally, Verena; Bauer, Johann W; Murauer, Eva M

    2015-01-06

    Spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing has become an emergent tool for the repair of mutated pre-mRNAs in the treatment of genetic diseases. RNA trans-splicing molecules (RTMs) are designed to induce a specific trans-splicing reaction via a binding domain for a respective target pre-mRNA region. A previously established reporter-based screening system allows us to analyze the impact of various factors on the RTM trans-splicing efficiency in vitro. Using this system, we are further able to investigate the potential of antisense RNAs (AS RNAs), presuming to improve the trans-splicing efficiency of a selected RTM, specific for intron 102 of COL7A1. Mutations in the COL7A1 gene underlie the dystrophic subtype of the skin blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa (DEB). We have shown that co-transfections of the RTM and a selected AS RNA, interfering with competitive splicing elements on a COL7A1-minigene (COL7A1-MG), lead to a significant increase of the RNA trans-splicing efficiency. Thereby, accurate trans-splicing between the RTM and the COL7A1-MG is represented by the restoration of full-length green fluorescent protein GFP on mRNA and protein level. This mechanism can be crucial for the improvement of an RTM-mediated correction, especially in cases where a high trans-splicing efficiency is required.

  17. Altered expression of hyaluronan synthase and hyaluronidase mRNA may affect hyaluronic acid distribution in keloid disease compared with normal skin.

    PubMed

    Sidgwick, Gary P; Iqbal, Syed A; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2013-05-01

    Keloid disease (KD) is a fibroproliferative disorder characterised partly by an altered extracellular matrix (ECM) profile. In fetal scarring, hyaluronic acid (HA) expression is increased, but is reduced in KD tissue compared with normal skin (NS). The expression of Hyaluronan Synthase (HAS) and hyaluronidase (HYAL) in KD and NS tissue were investigated for the first time using a range of techniques. Hyaluronan synthase and HYAL mRNA expression were significantly increased in NS tissue compared with KD tissue (P < 0.05). Immunohistological analysis of tissue indicated an accumulation of HAS and HYAL protein expression in KD compared with NS due to the thicker epidermis. No differences were observed in mRNA or protein expression in KD and NS fibroblasts. Reduced expression of HAS and HYAL may alter HA synthesis, degradation and accumulation in KD. Better understanding of the role of HA in KD may lead to novel therapeutic approaches to address the resulting ECM imbalance.

  18. Alternatively Spliced Methionine Synthase in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: Cobalamin and GSH Dependence and Inhibitory Effects of Neurotoxic Metals and Thimerosal

    PubMed Central

    Power-Charnitsky, Verna-Ann; Sharma, Alok; Audhya, Tapan; Zhang, Yiting

    2016-01-01

    The folate and cobalamin (Cbl-) dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) is highly sensitive to oxidation and its activity affects all methylation reactions. Recent studies have revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA in human brain and patient-derived fibroblasts. Here we show that MS mRNA in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells is alternatively spliced, resulting in three primary protein species, thus providing a useful model to examine cofactor dependence of these variant enzymes. MS activity was dependent upon methylcobalamin (MeCbl) or the combination of hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). OHCbl-based activity was eliminated by depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) but could be rescued by provision of either glutathionylcobalamin (GSCbl) or MeCbl. Pretreatment of cells with lead, arsenic, aluminum, mercury, or the ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal lowered GSH levels and inhibited MS activity in association with decreased uptake of cysteine, which is rate-limiting for GSH synthesis. Thimerosal treatment decreased cellular levels of GSCbl and MeCbl. These findings indicate that the alternatively spliced form of MS expressed in SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells is sensitive to inhibition by thimerosal and neurotoxic metals, and lower GSH levels contribute to their inhibitory action. PMID:26989453

  19. Alternatively Spliced Methionine Synthase in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: Cobalamin and GSH Dependence and Inhibitory Effects of Neurotoxic Metals and Thimerosal.

    PubMed

    Waly, Mostafa; Power-Charnitsky, Verna-Ann; Hodgson, Nathaniel; Sharma, Alok; Audhya, Tapan; Zhang, Yiting; Deth, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The folate and cobalamin (Cbl-) dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) is highly sensitive to oxidation and its activity affects all methylation reactions. Recent studies have revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA in human brain and patient-derived fibroblasts. Here we show that MS mRNA in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells is alternatively spliced, resulting in three primary protein species, thus providing a useful model to examine cofactor dependence of these variant enzymes. MS activity was dependent upon methylcobalamin (MeCbl) or the combination of hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). OHCbl-based activity was eliminated by depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) but could be rescued by provision of either glutathionylcobalamin (GSCbl) or MeCbl. Pretreatment of cells with lead, arsenic, aluminum, mercury, or the ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal lowered GSH levels and inhibited MS activity in association with decreased uptake of cysteine, which is rate-limiting for GSH synthesis. Thimerosal treatment decreased cellular levels of GSCbl and MeCbl. These findings indicate that the alternatively spliced form of MS expressed in SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells is sensitive to inhibition by thimerosal and neurotoxic metals, and lower GSH levels contribute to their inhibitory action.

  20. Minor class splicing shapes the zebrafish transcriptome during development.

    PubMed

    Markmiller, Sebastian; Cloonan, Nicole; Lardelli, Rea M; Doggett, Karen; Keightley, Maria-Cristina; Boglev, Yeliz; Trotter, Andrew J; Ng, Annie Y; Wilkins, Simon J; Verkade, Heather; Ober, Elke A; Field, Holly A; Grimmond, Sean M; Lieschke, Graham J; Stainier, Didier Y R; Heath, Joan K

    2014-02-25

    Minor class or U12-type splicing is a highly conserved process required to remove a minute fraction of introns from human pre-mRNAs. Defects in this splicing pathway have recently been linked to human disease, including a severe developmental disorder encompassing brain and skeletal abnormalities known as Taybi-Linder syndrome or microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism 1, and a hereditary intestinal polyposis condition, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Although a key mechanism for regulating gene expression, the impact of impaired U12-type splicing on the transcriptome is unknown. Here, we describe a unique zebrafish mutant, caliban (clbn), with arrested development of the digestive organs caused by an ethylnitrosourea-induced recessive lethal point mutation in the rnpc3 [RNA-binding region (RNP1, RRM) containing 3] gene. rnpc3 encodes the zebrafish ortholog of human RNPC3, also known as the U11/U12 di-snRNP 65-kDa protein, a unique component of the U12-type spliceosome. The biochemical impact of the mutation in clbn is the formation of aberrant U11- and U12-containing small nuclear ribonucleoproteins that impair the efficiency of U12-type splicing. Using RNA sequencing and microarrays, we show that multiple genes involved in various steps of mRNA processing, including transcription, splicing, and nuclear export are disrupted in clbn, either through intron retention or differential gene expression. Thus, clbn provides a useful and specific model of aberrant U12-type splicing in vivo. Analysis of its transcriptome reveals efficient mRNA processing as a critical process for the growth and proliferation of cells during vertebrate development.

  1. Regulation of Chemoresistance Via Alternative Messenger RNA Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Eblen, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of drug resistance to chemotherapy is a significant problem in the treatment of cancer, greatly increasing patient morbidity and mortality. Tumors are often sensitive to chemotherapy upon initial treatment, but repeated treatments can select for those cells that have were able to survive initial therapy and have acquired cellular mechanisms to enhance their resistance to subsequent chemotherapy treatment. Many cellular mechanisms of drug resistance have been identified, most of which result from changes in gene and protein expression. While changes at the transcriptional level have been duly noted, it is primarily the post-transcriptional processing of pre-mRNA into mature mRNA that regulates the composition of the proteome and it is the proteome that actually regulates the cell’s response to chemotherapeutic insult, inducing cell survival or death. During pre-mRNA processing, intronic non-protein-coding sequences are removed and protein-coding exons are spliced to form a continuous template for protein translation. Alternative splicing involves the differential inclusion or exclusion of exonic sequences into the mature transcript, generating different mRNA templates for protein production. This regulatory mechanism enables the potential to produce many different protein isoforms from the same gene. In this review I will explain the mechanism of alternative pre-mRNA splicing and look at some specific examples of how splicing factors, splicing factor kinases and alternative splicing of specific pre-mRNAs from genes have been shown to contribute to acquisition of the drug resistant phenotype. PMID:22248731

  2. Prenatal ethanol increases ethanol intake throughout adolescence, alters ethanol-mediated aversive learning, and affects μ but not δ or κ opioid receptor mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Fabio, María Carolina; Macchione, Ana Fabiola; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2015-06-01

    Animal models of prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) have indicated a facilitatory effect of PEE on adolescent ethanol intake, but few studies have assessed the effects of moderate PEE throughout adolescence. The mechanisms underlying this facilitatory effect remain largely unknown. In the present study, we analysed ethanol intake in male and female Wistar rats with or without PEE (2.0 g/kg, gestational days 17-20) from postnatal days 37 to 62. The results revealed greater ethanol consumption in PEE rats than in controls, which persisted throughout adolescence. By the end of testing, ethanol ingestion in PEE rats was nearly 6.0 g/kg. PEE was associated with insensitivity to ethanol-induced aversion. PEE and control rats were further analysed for levels of μ, δ and κ opioid receptor mRNA in the infralimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, and ventral tegmental area. Similar levels of mRNA were observed across most areas and opioid receptors, but μ receptor mRNA in the ventral tegmental area was significantly increased by PEE. Unlike previous studies that assessed the effects of PEE on ethanol intake close to birth, or in only a few sessions during adolescence, the present study observed a facilitatory effect of PEE that lasted throughout adolescence. PEE was associated with insensitivity to the aversive effect of ethanol, and increased levels of μ opioid receptor transcripts. PEE is a prominent vulnerability factor that probably favors the engagement of adolescents in risky trajectories of ethanol use.

  3. Aberrant alternative splicing and extracellular matrix gene expression in mouse models of myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongqing; Cline, Melissa S.; Osborne, Robert J.; Tuttle, Daniel L.; Clark, Tyson A.; Donohue, John Paul; Hall, Megan P.; Shiue, Lily; Swanson, Maurice S.; Thornton, Charles A.; Ares, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is associated with expression of expanded CTG DNA repeats as RNA (CUGexp RNA). To test whether CUGexp RNA creates a global splicing defect, we compared skeletal muscle of two mouse DM1 models, one expressing a CTGexp transgene, and another homozygous for a defective Mbnl1 gene. Strong correlation in splicing changes for ~100 new Mbnl1-regulated exons indicates loss of Mbnl1 explains >80% of the splicing pathology due to CUGexp RNA. In contrast, only about half of mRNA level changes can be attributed to loss of Mbnl1, indicating CUGexp RNA has Mbnl1-independent effects, particularly on mRNAs for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. We propose that CUGexp RNA causes two separate effects: loss of Mbnl1 function, disrupting splicing, and loss of another function that disrupts ECM mRNA regulation, possibly mediated by MBNL2. These findings reveal unanticipated similarities between DM1 and other muscular dystrophies. PMID:20098426

  4. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  5. A conserved intronic U1 snRNP-binding sequence promotes trans-splicing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Li; Fan, Yu-Jie; Wang, Xiu-Ye; Zhang, Yu; Pu, Jia; Li, Liang; Shao, Wei; Zhan, Shuai; Hao, Jianjiang; Xu, Yong-Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Unlike typical cis-splicing, trans-splicing joins exons from two separate transcripts to produce chimeric mRNA and has been detected in most eukaryotes. Trans-splicing in trypanosomes and nematodes has been characterized as a spliced leader RNA-facilitated reaction; in contrast, its mechanism in higher eukaryotes remains unclear. Here we investigate mod(mdg4), a classic trans-spliced gene in Drosophila, and report that two critical RNA sequences in the middle of the last 5' intron, TSA and TSB, promote trans-splicing of mod(mdg4). In TSA, a 13-nucleotide (nt) core motif is conserved across Drosophila species and is essential and sufficient for trans-splicing, which binds U1 small nuclear RNP (snRNP) through strong base-pairing with U1 snRNA. In TSB, a conserved secondary structure acts as an enhancer. Deletions of TSA and TSB using the CRISPR/Cas9 system result in developmental defects in flies. Although it is not clear how the 5' intron finds the 3' introns, compensatory changes in U1 snRNA rescue trans-splicing of TSA mutants, demonstrating that U1 recruitment is critical to promote trans-splicing in vivo. Furthermore, TSA core-like motifs are found in many other trans-spliced Drosophila genes, including lola. These findings represent a novel mechanism of trans-splicing, in which RNA motifs in the 5' intron are sufficient to bring separate transcripts into close proximity to promote trans-splicing.

  6. The neurogenetics of alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Celine K.; Black, Douglas L.; Zheng, Sika

    2016-01-01

    Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that regulate splicing, both during development and in the adult brain. PMID:27094079

  7. Characterisation of unclassified variants in the BRCA1/2 genes with a putative effect on splicing.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Rita Dias; van Roozendaal, Kees; Tserpelis, Demis; Gómez García, Encarna; Blok, Marinus J

    2011-10-01

    A subset of the unclassified variants (UVs) identified during genetic screening of BRCA1/2 genes may affect splicing. We assessed at RNA level the effect of four BRCA1 and ten BRCA2 UVs with a putative splice effect, as predicted in silico. The variants selected for this study were beyond the positions -1, -2 or +1, +2 from the exon, and were not previously described (n = 8) or their effect on splicing was not assessed previously (n = 6). Lymphocytes from UV carriers and healthy controls were cultured and treated with puromycin to prevent nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The relative contribution of each allele to the various transcripts was assessed using combinations of allele-specific and transcript-specific primers. BRCA2 c.425G>T, c.7976+3_7976+4del and c.8754+3G>C give rise to aberrant transcripts BRCA2Δ4, BRCA2Δ17 and retention of 46nt of intron 21, respectively, and were considered pathogenic. BRCA1 c.4987-3C>G gives rise to BRCA1Δ17 that is likely pathogenic; however, residual expression of the full-length transcript from the variant allele could not be excluded. BRCA1 c.692C>T, c.693G>A and BRCA2 c.6935A>T, besides expressing the full-length transcript, increased expression of BRCA1Δ11 and BRCA2Δ12, respectively. As these are naturally occurring isoforms, also observed in controls, the clinical relevance is unclear. The seven remaining UVs did not affect splicing and three intronic variants were therefore classified as neutral. In conclusion, the RNA analysis results clarified the clinical relevance of 6 of the 14 studied UVs and thereby greatly improve the genetic counselling of high-risk breast/ovarian cancer patients carrying these classified variants.

  8. The SPF27 Homologue Num1 Connects Splicing and Kinesin 1-Dependent Cytoplasmic Trafficking in Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Nikola; Heimel, Kai; Obhof, Theresa; Finkernagel, Florian; Kämper, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The conserved NineTeen protein complex (NTC) is an integral subunit of the spliceosome and required for intron removal during pre-mRNA splicing. The complex associates with the spliceosome and participates in the regulation of conformational changes of core spliceosomal components, stabilizing RNA-RNA- as well as RNA-protein interactions. In addition, the NTC is involved in cell cycle checkpoint control, response to DNA damage, as well as formation and export of mRNP-particles. We have identified the Num1 protein as the homologue of SPF27, one of NTC core components, in the basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis. Num1 is required for polarized growth of the fungal hyphae, and, in line with the described NTC functions, the num1 mutation affects the cell cycle and cell division. The num1 deletion influences splicing in U. maydis on a global scale, as RNA-Seq analysis revealed increased intron retention rates. Surprisingly, we identified in a screen for Num1 interacting proteins not only NTC core components as Prp19 and Cef1, but several proteins with putative functions during vesicle-mediated transport processes. Among others, Num1 interacts with the motor protein Kin1 in the cytoplasm. Similar phenotypes with respect to filamentous and polar growth, vacuolar morphology, as well as the motility of early endosomes corroborate the genetic interaction between Num1 and Kin1. Our data implicate a previously unidentified connection between a component of the splicing machinery and cytoplasmic transport processes. As the num1 deletion also affects cytoplasmic mRNA transport, the protein may constitute a novel functional interconnection between the two disparate processes of splicing and trafficking. PMID:24391515

  9. Cloning and characterization of a Leishmania gene encoding a RNA spliced leader sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S I; Landfear, S M; Wirth, D F

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies on leishmania enriettii tubulin mRNAs revealed a 35 nucleotide addition to their 5' end. The gene that codes for this 35 nucleotide leader sequence has now been cloned and sequenced. In the Leishmania genome, the spliced leader gene exists as a tandem repeat of 438 bases. There are approximately 150 copies of this gene comprising 0.1% of the parasite genome. This gene codes for a 85 nucleotide transcript that contains the spliced leader at its 5' end. The 35 nucleotide sequence and the regions immediately 5' and 3' to it are highly conserved across trypanosomatids. We have detected a RNA molecule that is a putative by-product of the processing reaction in which the 35 nucleotide spliced leader has been transferred to mRNA. We suggest that this molecule is the remnant of the spliced leader transcript after removal of the 35 nucleotide spliced leader. Images PMID:2429261

  10. Organ-Specific Splice Variants of Aquaporin Water Channel AgAQP1 in the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Liu, Kun; Linser, Paul J.; Agre, Peter; Rasgon, Jason L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are important for water homeostasis in all organisms. Malaria transmission is dependent on Anopheles mosquitoes. Water balance is a major factor influencing mosquito survival, which may indirectly affect pathogen transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained full-length mRNA sequences for Anopheles gambiae aquaporin 1 (AgAQP1) and identified two splice variants for the gene. In vitro expression analysis showed that both variants transported water and were inhibited by Hg2+. One splice variant (AgAQP1A) was exclusively expressed in adult female ovaries indicating a function in mosquito reproduction. The other splice variant (AgAQP1B) was expressed in the midgut, malpighian tubules and the head in adult mosquitoes. Immunolabeling showed that in malpighian tubules, AgAQP1 is expressed in principal cells in the proximal portion and in stellate cells in the distal portion. Moreover, AgAQP1 is expressed in Johnston’s organ (the “ear”), which is important for courtship behavior. Conclusions And Significance These results suggest that AgAQP1 may play roles associated with mating (courtship) and reproduction in addition to water homeostasis in this important African malaria vector. PMID:24066188

  11. Identification by high-throughput imaging of the histone methyltransferase EHMT2 as an epigenetic regulator of VEGFA alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Salton, Maayan; Voss, Ty C.; Misteli, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence points to a role of chromatin in regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS). In order to identify novel chromatin regulators of AS, we screened an RNAi library of chromatin proteins using a cell-based high-throughput in vivo assay. We identified a set of chromatin proteins that regulate AS. Using simultaneous genome-wide expression and AS analysis, we demonstrate distinct and non-overlapping functions of these chromatin modifiers on transcription and AS. Detailed mechanistic characterization of one dual function chromatin modifier, the H3K9 methyltransferase EHMT2 (G9a), identified VEGFA as a major chromatin-mediated AS target. Silencing of EHMT2, or its heterodimer partner EHMT1, affects AS by promoting exclusion of VEGFA exon 6a, but does not alter total VEGFA mRNA levels. The epigenetic regulatory mechanism of AS by EHMT2 involves an adaptor system consisting of the chromatin modulator HP1γ, which binds methylated H3K9 and recruits splicing regulator SRSF1. The epigenetic regulation of VEGFA is physiologically relevant since EHMT2 is transcriptionally induced in response to hypoxia and triggers concomitant changes in AS of VEGFA. These results characterize a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism of AS and they demonstrate separate roles of epigenetic modifiers in transcription and alternative splicing. PMID:25414343

  12. A distinct mutation on the alternative splice site of APC exon 9 results in attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis phenotype.

    PubMed

    Fostira, Florentia; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis

    2010-09-01

    A subset of APC mutation carriers shows a milder familial adenomatous polyposis phenotype (attenuated FAP) developing smaller number of polyps and colorectal cancer at an older age. It seems that a different mechanism to carcinogenesis is initiated according to the initial site of the germline mutation. The APC gene of a female patient with AFAP phenotypic features was analysed. A novel mutation located on the alternatively splice site of exon 9 was identified. This is the first reported mutation in the specific site. Transcripts characterization revealed disruption of splicing occurring within exon 9, resulting in the expression of a shorter mRNA transcript, which surprisingly does not affect the ratio between the two wild type transcripts, as well as the production of wild type short isoform by the mutant allele. The short wild type isoform, produced by the mutant allele, needs to be inactivated, on top of the wild type allele, for colorectal cancer to develop. These observations enhance the 'three hit hypothesis' and indicate that a distinct mechanism for the adenoma to carcinoma sequence should be followed, for truncated mutations taking place on the borderline of the alternatively spliced exon 9 of the APC gene, as well.

  13. scaRNAs regulate splicing and vertebrate heart development.

    PubMed

    Patil, Prakash; Kibiryeva, Nataliya; Uechi, Tamayo; Marshall, Jennifer; O'Brien, James E; Artman, Michael; Kenmochi, Naoya; Bittel, Douglas C

    2015-08-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) plays an important role in regulating mammalian heart development, but a link between misregulated splicing and congenital heart defects (CHDs) has not been shown. We reported that more than 50% of genes associated with heart development were alternatively spliced in the right ventricle (RV) of infants with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the level of 12 small cajal body-specific RNAs (scaRNAs) that direct the biochemical modification of specific nucleotides in spliceosomal RNAs. We sought to determine if scaRNA levels influence patterns of AS and heart development. We used primary cells derived from the RV of infants with TOF to show a direct link between scaRNA levels and splice isoforms of several genes that regulate heart development (e.g., GATA4, NOTCH2, DAAM1, DICER1, MBNL1 and MBNL2). In addition, we used antisense morpholinos to knock down the expression of two scaRNAs (scarna1 and snord94) in zebrafish and saw a corresponding disruption of heart development with an accompanying alteration in splice isoforms of cardiac regulatory genes. Based on these combined results, we hypothesize that scaRNA modification of spliceosomal RNAs assists in fine tuning the spliceosome for dynamic selection of mRNA splice isoforms. Our results are consistent with disruption of splicing patterns during early embryonic development leading to insufficient communication between the first and second heart fields, resulting in conotruncal misalignment and TOF. Our findings represent a new paradigm for determining the mechanisms underlying congenital cardiac malformations.

  14. RNA splicing in a new rhabdovirus from Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Ryusei; Isawa, Haruhiko; Hoshino, Keita; Tsuda, Yoshio; Yanase, Tohru; Sasaki, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sawabe, Kyoko

    2011-07-01

    Among members of the order Mononegavirales, RNA splicing events have been found only in the family Bornaviridae. Here, we report that a new rhabdovirus isolated from the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus replicates in the nuclei of infected cells and requires RNA splicing for viral mRNA maturation. The virus, designated Culex tritaeniorhynchus rhabdovirus (CTRV), shares a similar genome organization with other rhabdoviruses, except for the presence of a putative intron in the coding region for the L protein. Molecular phylogenetic studies indicated that CTRV belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae, but it is yet to be assigned a genus. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that the CTRV virion is extremely elongated, unlike virions of rhabdoviruses, which are generally bullet shaped. Northern hybridization confirmed that a large transcript (approximately 6,500 nucleotides [nt]) from the CTRV L gene was present in the infected cells. Strand-specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses identified the intron-exon boundaries and the 76-nt intron sequence, which contains the typical motif for eukaryotic spliceosomal intron-splice donor/acceptor sites (GU-AG), a predicted branch point, and a polypyrimidine tract. In situ hybridization exhibited that viral RNAs are primarily localized in the nucleus of infected cells, indicating that CTRV replicates in the nucleus and is allowed to utilize the host's nuclear splicing machinery. This is the first report of RNA splicing among the members of the family Rhabdoviridae.

  15. [Perspectives of RNA interference application in the therapy of diseases associated with defects in alternative RNA splicing].

    PubMed

    Wysokiński, Daniel; Błasiak, Janusz

    2012-09-18

    The primary transcript of an eukaryotic gene (pre-mRNA) is composed of coding regions--exons intervened by non-coding introns--which are removed in the RNA splicing process, leading to the formation of mature, intron-free mRNA. Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA is responsible for high complexity of the cellular proteome and expresses effective use of genetic information contained in genomic DNA. Alternative splicing plays important roles in the organism, including apoptosis regulation or development and plasticity of the nervous system. The main role of alternative splicing is differential, dependent on conditions and the cell type, splicing of mRNA, generating diverse transcripts from one gene, and, after the translation, different isoforms of a particular protein. Because of the high complexity of this mechanism, alternative splicing is particularly prone to errors. The perturbations resulting from mutations in the key sequences for splicing regulations are especially harmful. The pathogenesis of numerous diseases results from disturbed alternative RNA splicing, and those include cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The treatment of these conditions is problematic due to their genetic background and currently RNA interference, which is a common mechanism of eukaryotic gene regulation, is being studied. Initial successes in the attempts of silencing the expression of faulty protein isoforms support the idea of using RNA interference in targeting disease related to disturbances in alternative splicing of RNA.

  16. Mutual interdependence of splicing and transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Świeżewski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    Transcription and splicing are intrinsically linked, as splicing needs a pre-mRNA substrate to commence. The more nuanced view is that the rate of transcription contributes to splicing regulation. On the other hand there is accumulating evidence that splicing has an active role in controlling transcription elongation by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We briefly review those mechanisms and propose a unifying model where splicing controls transcription elongation to provide an optimal timing for successive rounds of splicing.

  17. Methods for Characterization of Alternative RNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Samuel E; Cheng, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of alternative splicing to detect the abundance of differentially spliced isoforms of a gene in total RNA can be accomplished via RT-PCR using both quantitative real-time and semi-quantitative PCR methods. These methods require careful PCR primer design to ensure specific detection of particular splice isoforms. We also describe analysis of alternative splicing using a splicing "minigene" in mammalian cell tissue culture to facilitate investigation of the regulation of alternative splicing of a particular exon of interest.

  18. Alternative splicing in the nervous system: an emerging source of diversity and regulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher J; Irizarry, Kris

    2003-10-15

    Alternative splicing is emerging as a major mechanism of functional regulation in the human genome. Previously considered to be an unusual event, it has been detected by many genomics studies in 40%-60% of human genes. Moreover, it appears to be of central importance for neuronal genes and other genes involved in "information processing" functions. In this review, we will summarize alternative splicing's effects on mRNA transcripts, protein products, biological function, and human disease, focusing on genes of neuropsychiatric interest. We will also describe the latest experimental methods and database resources that can help neuroscientists make use of alternative splicing in their own research.

  19. SPACE: an algorithm to predict and quantify alternatively spliced isoforms using microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Miguel A; Gorostiaga, Dorleta; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Segura, Victor; Carmona-Saez, Pedro; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Pio, Ruben; Montuenga, Luis M; Rubio, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Exon and exon+junction microarrays are promising tools for studying alternative splicing. Current analytical tools applied to these arrays lack two relevant features: the ability to predict unknown spliced forms and the ability to quantify the concentration of known and unknown isoforms. SPACE is an algorithm that has been developed to (1) estimate the number of different transcripts expressed under several conditions, (2) predict the precursor mRNA splicing structure and (3) quantify the transcript concentrations including unknown forms. The results presented here show its robustness and accuracy for real and simulated data. PMID:18312629

  20. Repair of Thalassemic Human β -globin mRNA in Mammalian Cells by Antisense Oligonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierakowska, Halina; Sambade, Maria J.; Agrawal, Sudhir; Kole, Ryszard

    1996-11-01

    In one form of β -thalassemia, a genetic blood disorder, a mutation in intron 2 of the β -globin gene (IVS2-654) causes aberrant splicing of β -globin pre-mRNA and, consequently, β -globin deficiency. Treatment of mammalian cells stably expressing the IVS2-654 human β -globin gene with antisense oligonucleotides targeted at the aberrant splice sites restored correct splicing in a dose-dependent fashion, generating correct human β -globin mRNA and polypeptide. Both products persisted for up to 72 hr posttreatment. The oligonucleotides modified splicing by a true antisense mechanism without overt unspecific effects on cell growth and splicing of other pre-mRNAs. This novel approach in which antisense oligonucleotides are used to restore rather than to down-regulate the activity of the target gene is applicable to other splicing mutants and is of potential clinical interest.

  1. Two novel ALDH7A1 (antiquitin) splicing mutations associated with pyridoxine-dependent seizures.

    PubMed

    Striano, Pasquale; Battaglia, Silvia; Giordano, Lucio; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Beccaria, Francesca; Struys, Eduard A; Salomons, Gajja S; Jakobs, Cornelis

    2009-04-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent seizures (PDS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder causing intractable seizures in neonates and infants. Patients are typically resistant to conventional anticonvulsants but respond well to the administration of pyridoxine. We report two unrelated patients affected with PDS as a result of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (alpha-AASA) dehydrogenase deficiency caused by pathogenic ALDH7A1/antiquitin mutations. Two of the three reported mutations are novel and result in erroneous splicing, as showed by messenger RNA (mRNA) studies. So far, the vast majority of the patients clinically diagnosed as PDS show alpha-AASA dehydrogenase deficiency, caused by mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene. However, despite the availability of reliable biomarkers, early consideration of a pyridoxine trial is still the most important issue in a child with therapy-resistant seizures.

  2. Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Caused by Creation of an Ectopic Splice Site within the INS Gene

    PubMed Central

    Gastaldo, Elena; Harries, Lorna W.; Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar; Castaño, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic etiology in a patient who presented with permanent neonatal diabetes at 2 months of age. Methodology/Principal Findings Regulatory elements and coding exons 2 and 3 of the INS gene were amplified and sequenced from genomic and complementary DNA samples. A novel heterozygous INS mutation within the terminal intron of the gene was identified in the proband and her affected father. This mutation introduces an ectopic splice site leading to the insertion of 29 nucleotides from the intronic sequence into the mature mRNA, which results in a longer and abnormal transcript. Conclusions/Significance This study highlights the importance of routinely sequencing the exon-intron boundaries and the need to carry out additional studies to confirm the pathogenicity of any identified intronic genetic variants. PMID:22235272

  3. Convergent origins and rapid evolution of spliced leader trans-splicing in metazoa: insights from the ctenophora and hydrozoa.

    PubMed

    Derelle, Romain; Momose, Tsuyoshi; Manuel, Michael; Da Silva, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Houliston, Evelyn

    2010-04-01

    Replacement of mRNA 5' UTR sequences by short sequences trans-spliced from specialized, noncoding, spliced leader (SL) RNAs is an enigmatic phenomenon, occurring in a set of distantly related animal groups including urochordates, nematodes, flatworms, and hydra, as well as in Euglenozoa and dinoflagellates. Whether SL trans-splicing has a common evolutionary origin and biological function among different organisms remains unclear. We have undertaken a systematic identification of SL exons in cDNA sequence data sets from non-bilaterian metazoan species and their closest unicellular relatives. SL exons were identified in ctenophores and in hydrozoan cnidarians, but not in other cnidarians, placozoans, or sponges, or in animal unicellular relatives. Mapping of SL absence/presence obtained from this and previous studies onto current phylogenetic trees favors an evolutionary scenario involving multiple origins for SLs during eumetazoan evolution rather than loss from a common ancestor. In both ctenophore and hydrozoan species, multiple SL sequences were identified, showing high sequence diversity. Detailed analysis of a large data set generated for the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica revealed trans-splicing of given mRNAs by multiple alternative SLs. No evidence was found for a common identity of trans-spliced mRNAs between different hydrozoans. One feature found specifically to characterize SL-spliced mRNAs in hydrozoans, however, was a marked adenosine enrichment immediately 3' of the SL acceptor splice site. Our findings of high sequence divergence and apparently indiscriminate use of SLs in hydrozoans, along with recent findings in other taxa, indicate that SL genes have evolved rapidly in parallel in diverse animal groups, with constraint on SL exon sequence evolution being apparently rare.

  4. In vivo translation and stability of trans-spliced mRNAs in nematode embryos.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guofeng; Cohen, Leah; Mikhli, Claudette; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Stepinski, Janusz; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Davis, Richard E

    2007-06-01

    Spliced leader trans-splicing adds a short exon, the spliced leader (SL), to pre-mRNAs to generate 5' ends of mRNAs. Addition of the SL in metazoa also adds a new cap to the mRNA, a trimethylguanosine (m(3)(2,2,7)GpppN) (TMG) that replaces the typical eukaryotic monomethylguanosine (m7GpppN)(m7G) cap. Both trans-spliced (m3(2,2,7)GpppN-SL-RNA) and not trans-spliced (m7GpppN-RNA) mRNAs are present in the same cells. Previous studies using cell-free systems to compare the overall translation of trans-spliced versus non-trans-spliced RNAs led to different conclusions. Here, we examine the contribution of m3(2,2,7)GpppG-cap and SL sequence and other RNA elements to in vivo mRNA translation and stability in nematode embryos. Although 70-90% of all nematode mRNAs have a TMG-cap, the TMG cap does not support translation as well as an m7G-cap. However, when the TMG cap and SL are present together, they synergistically interact and translation is enhanced, indicating both trans-spliced elements are necessary to promote efficient translation. The SL by itself does not act as a cap-independent enhancer of translation. The poly(A)-tail synergistically interacts with the mRNA cap enhancing translation and plays a greater role in facilitating translation of TMG-SL mRNAs. In general, recipient mRNA sequences between the SL and AUG and the 3' UTR do not significantly contribute to the translation of trans-spliced mRNAs. Overall, the combination of TMG cap and SL contribute to mRNA translation and stability in a manner typical of a eukaryotic m7G-cap and 5' UTRs, but they do not differentially enhance mRNA translation or stability compared to RNAs without the trans-spliced elements.

  5. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Patrick S.; Scanlan, Aaron T.; Dalbo, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT) may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of HIIT (85% VO2max), versus low intensity aerobic exercise (LIT; 45–50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour (SED), in an animal model of early-stage CKD. Tissue-specific mRNA expression of RAAS-related genes and CKD-related clinical markers were examined. Compared to SED, HIIT resulted in increased plasma albumin (p = 0.001), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.028), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.045). Compared to LIT, HIIT resulted in reduced Agt mRNA expression (p = 0.035), reduced plasma LDL (p = 0.001), triglycerides (p = 0.029), and total cholesterol (p = 0.002), increased plasma albumin (p = 0.047), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.005), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.048). These results suggest HIIT is a more potent regulator of several markers that describe and influence health in CKD. PMID:26090382

  6. Steroid exposure during larval development of Xenopus laevis affects mRNA expression of the reproductive pituitary-gonadal axis in a sex- and stage-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Urbatzka, Ralph; Lorenz, Claudia; Wiedemann, Caterina; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner

    2014-03-01

    Steroids are known to influence the reproductive pituitary-gonadal axis in adult amphibians. Here, we studied the effects of hormones on pituitary and gonadal mRNA expression during the development of Xenopus laevis. Tadpoles at NF 58 (prometamorphosis) and at NF 66 (freshly metamorphosed) were exposed for three days to 17β-estradiol (E2), tamoxifen (TAM), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at 10(-7)M, and flutamide (FLU) at 10(-6)M. In both genders at NF 58 and 66, T and DHT decreased luteinizing hormone beta (lhβ), but increased follicle stimulating hormone beta (fshβ), while FLU induced lhβ specifically in males. In the testis steroidogenic genes (p450 side chain cleavage enzyme, p450scc; steroid acute regulatory protein, star) at NF 58 showed a similar pattern as for lhβ, while the response at NF 66 was only partially present. In females, TAM induced lhβ at NF 58, while E2 decreased lhβ and increased fshβ at NF 66. In the ovaries, no alterations were observed for the steroidogenic genes. Summarizing, gonadotropic and steroidogenic mRNA expression may indicate control of androgen level during testis differentiation in male tadpoles at NF 58. In females the non-responsiveness of steroidogenic genes could be a sign of gonadal quiescence during pre-pubertal stages.

  7. Biophysical characterization of G-quadruplex forming FMR1 mRNA and of its interactions with different fragile X mental retardation protein isoforms.

    PubMed

    Blice-Baum, Anna C; Mihailescu, Mihaela-Rita

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental impairment in humans, is caused by the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) due to a CGG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and subsequent translational silencing of the fragile x mental retardation-1 (FMR1) gene. FMRP, which is proposed to be involved in the translational regulation of specific neuronal messenger RNA (mRNA) targets, contains an arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) box RNA binding domain that has been shown to bind with high affinity to G-quadruplex forming mRNA structures. FMRP undergoes alternative splicing, and the binding of FMRP to a proposed G-quadruplex structure in the coding region of its mRNA (named FBS) has been proposed to affect the mRNA splicing events at exon 15. In this study, we used biophysical methods to directly demonstrate the folding of FMR1 FBS into a secondary structure that contains two specific G-quadruplexes and analyze its interactions with several FMRP isoforms. Our results show that minor splice isoforms, ISO2 and ISO3, created by the usage of the second and third acceptor sites at exon 15, bind with higher affinity to FBS than FMRP ISO1, which is created by the usage of the first acceptor site. FMRP ISO2 and ISO3 cannot undergo phosphorylation, an FMRP post-translational modification shown to modulate the protein translation regulation. Thus, their expression has to be tightly regulated, and this might be accomplished by a feedback mechanism involving the FMRP interactions with the G-quadruplex structures formed within FMR1 mRNA.

  8. A genome-wide survey demonstrates widespread non-linear mRNA in expressed sequences from multiple species

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Richard J.; Eperon, Ian C.; Hall, Laurence; Samani, Nilesh J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe here the results of the first genome-wide survey of candidate exon repetition events in expressed sequences from human, mouse, rat, chicken, zebrafish and fly. Exon repetition is a rare event, reported in <10 genes, in which one or more exons is tandemly duplicated in mRNA but not in the gene. To identify candidates, we analysed database sequences for mRNA transcripts in which the order of the spliced exons does not follow the linear genomic order of the individual gene [events we term rearrangements or repetition in exon order (RREO)]. Using a computational approach, we have identified 245 genes in mammals that produce RREO events. RREO in mRNA occurs predominantly in the coding regions of genes. However, exon 1 is never involved. Analysis of the open reading frames suggests that this process may increase protein diversity and regulate protein expression via nonsense-mediated RNA decay. The sizes of the exons and introns involved around these events suggest a gene model structure that may facilitate non-linear splicing. These findings imply that RREO affects a significant subset of genes within a genome and suggests that non-linear information encoded within the genomes of complex organisms could contribute to phenotypic variation. PMID:16237125

  9. Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wentao; Du, Bojing; Liu, Di; Qi, Xiaoting

    2014-12-12

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerance in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd(2+) uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance.

  10. Relationship between nucleosome positioning and progesterone-induced alternative splicing in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Iannone, Camilla; Pohl, Andy; Papasaikas, Panagiotis; Soronellas, Daniel; Vicent, Guillermo P; Beato, Miguel; ValcáRcel, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Splicing of mRNA precursors can occur cotranscriptionally and it has been proposed that chromatin structure influences splice site recognition and regulation. Here we have systematically explored potential links between nucleosome positioning and alternative splicing regulation upon progesterone stimulation of breast cancer cells. We confirm preferential nucleosome positioning in exons and report four distinct profiles of nucleosome density around alternatively spliced exons, with RNA polymerase II accumulation closely following nucleosome positioning. Hormone stimulation induces switches between profile classes, correlating with a subset of alternative splicing changes. Hormone-induced exon inclusion often correlates with higher nucleosome occupancy at the exon or the preceding intronic region and with higher RNA polymerase II accumulation. In contrast, exons skipped upon hormone stimulation display low nucleosome densities even before hormone treatment, suggesting that chromatin structure primes alternative splicing regulation. Skipped exons frequently harbor binding sites for hnRNP AB, a hormone-induced splicing regulator whose knock down prevents some hormone-induced skipping events. Collectively, our results argue that a variety of chromatin architecture mechanisms can influence alternative splicing decisions.

  11. Alternative splicing, a new target to block cellular gene expression by poliovirus 2A protease

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Enrique; Castello, Alfredo; Carrasco, Luis; Izquierdo, Jose M.

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Novel role for poliovirus 2A protease as splicing modulator. {yields} Poliovirus 2A protease inhibits the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. {yields} Poliovirus 2A protease blocks the second catalytic step of splicing. -- Abstract: Viruses have developed multiple strategies to interfere with the gene expression of host cells at different stages to ensure their own survival. Here we report a new role for poliovirus 2A{sup pro} modulating the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. Expression of 2A{sup pro} potently inhibits splicing of reporter genes in HeLa cells. Low amounts of 2A{sup pro} abrogate Fas exon 6 skipping, whereas higher levels of protease fully abolish Fas and FGFR2 splicing. In vitro splicing of MINX mRNA using nuclear extracts is also strongly inhibited by 2A{sup pro}, leading to accumulation of the first exon and the lariat product containing the unspliced second exon. These findings reveal that the mechanism of action of 2A{sup pro} on splicing is to selectively block the second catalytic step.

  12. Nerve growth factor affects Ca2+ currents via the p75 receptor to enhance prolactin mRNA levels in GH3 rat pituitary cells

    PubMed Central

    López-Domínguez, Adriana M; Espinosa, Juan Luis; Navarrete, Araceli; Avila, Guillermo; Cota, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    In clonal pituitary GH3 cells, spontaneous action potentials drive the opening of Cav1 (L-type) channels, leading to Ca2+ transients that are coupled to prolactin gene transcription. Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been shown to stimulate prolactin synthesis by GH3 cells, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we studied whether NGF influences prolactin gene expression and Ca2+ currents. By using RT-PCR, NGF (50 ng ml−1) was found to augment prolactin mRNA levels by ∼80% when applied to GH3 cells for 3 days. A parallel change in the prolactin content was detected by Western blotting. Both NGF-induced responses were mimicked by an agonist (Bay K 8644) and prevented by a blocker (nimodipine) of L-type channels. In whole-cell patch-clamp experiments, NGF enhanced the L-type Ca2+ current by ∼2-fold within 60 min. This effect reversed quickly upon growth factor withdrawal, but was maintained for days in the continued presence of NGF. In addition, chronic treatment (≥ 24 h) with NGF amplified the T-type current, which flows through Cav3 channels and is thought to support pacemaking activity. Thus, NGF probably increases the amount of Ca2+ that enters per action potential and may also induce a late increase in spike frequency. MC192, a specific antibody for the p75 neurotrophin receptor, but not tyrosine kinase inhibitors (K252a and lavendustin A), blocked the effects of NGF on Ca2+ currents. Overall, the results indicate that NGF activates the p75 receptor to cause a prolonged increase in Ca2+ influx through L-type channels, which in turn up-regulates the prolactin mRNA. PMID:16690703

  13. Alternative splicing variants of carbonic anhydrase IX in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Simi, Lisa; Nannelli, Caterina; Andreani, Matteo; Janni, Alberto; Pastorekova, Silvia; Orlando, Claudio

    2009-06-01

    In human cancers, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) contributes to maintain intracellular and extracellular pH under hypoxic conditions, but also influences regulation of cell proliferation and tumor progression. CaIX was previously indicated as an independent prognostic marker in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Very recently a CAIX alternative splicing isoform, generating a transcript lacking of exons 8-9, was detected in cancer cells independently from the levels of hypoxia. This alternative splicing (AS) generates a truncated protein lacking the transmembrane region, the intracellular tail and the C-terminal of the catalytic domain and competes with the full-length (FL) isoform in the regulation of the extracellular pH, mainly in a mild hypoxic status. In the present study we measured the mRNA expression of FL and AS CAIX isoforms in 101 NSCLC and in paired not affected tissues. The two isoforms were coexpressed in all NSCLC and normal tissues but while AS mRNA was prevalent in normal tissues (66+/-3%), the FL isoform was higher in NSCLC (58+/-2%, p=0.001). FL mRNA, but not AS, was statistically increased in NSCLC (p=0.01) and showed a statistical association with lymphnode involvement (p=0.009) and tumor stage (p=0.04). Global survival analysis of cancer/related death showed that high levels of FL mRNA were predictive of unfavorable outcome (p<0.0001) and shorter disease-free survival (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis indicated that FL is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and higher levels of mRNA in NSCLC sensibly increase hazard ratio ( approximately sixfold). In conclusion, our results seems to indicate that, at least in NSCLC, FL CAIX is the most accurate surrogate of hypoxic stress and represents the only variant with a prognostic role. These data indicate the importance of a separate measurement of the two isoforms in cancer and the need of an accurate re-evaluation of most studies on the clinical role of CAIX in cancer diagnosis.

  14. Splice form-dependent regulation of axonal arbor complexity by FMRP.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Stephanie E; Doll, Steven G; Garcia, A Denise R; Akins, Michael R

    2016-09-19

    The autism-related protein Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA binding protein that plays important roles during both nervous system development and experience dependent plasticity. Alternative splicing of the Fmr1 locus gives rise to 12 different FMRP splice forms that differ in the functional and regulatory domains they contain as well as in their expression profile among brain regions and across development. Complete loss of FMRP leads to morphological and functional changes in neurons, including an increase in the size and complexity of the axonal arbor. To investigate the relative contribution of the FMRP splice forms to the regulation of axon morphology, we overexpressed individual splice forms in cultured wild type rat cortical neurons. FMRP overexpression led to a decrease in axonal arbor complexity that suggests that FMRP regulates axon branching. This reduction in complexity was specific to three splice forms-the full-length splice form 1, the most highly expressed splice form 7, and splice form 9. A focused analysis of splice form 7 revealed that this regulation is independent of RNA binding. Instead this regulation is disrupted by mutations affecting phosphorylation of a conserved serine as well as by mutating the nuclear export sequence. Surprisingly, this mutation in the nuclear export sequence also led to increased localization to the distal axonal arbor. Together, these findings reveal domain-specific functions of FMRP in the regulation of axonal complexity that may be controlled by differential expression of FMRP splice forms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2016.

  15. Alternative Splicing of Type II Procollagen: IIB or not IIB?

    PubMed Central

    McAlinden, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Over two decades ago, two isoforms of the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1) were discovered. These isoforms, named IIA and IIB, are generated in a developmentally-regulated manner by alternative splicing of exon 2. Chondroprogenitor cells synthesize predominantly IIA isoforms (containing exon 2) while differentiated chondrocytes produce mainly IIB transcripts (devoid of exon 2). Importantly, this IIA-to-IIB alternative splicing switch occurs only during chondrogenesis. More recently, two other isoforms have been reported (IIC and IID) that also involve splicing of exon 2; these findings highlight the complexities involving regulation of COL2A1 expression. The biological significance of why different isoforms of COL2A1 exist within the context of skeletal development and maintenance is still not completely understood. This review will provide current knowledge on COL2A1 isoform expression during chondrocyte differentiation and what is known about some of the mechanisms that control exon 2 alternative splicing. Utilization of mouse models to address the biological significance of Col2a1 alternative splicing in vivo will also be discussed. From the knowledge acquired to date, some new questions and concepts are now being proposed on the importance of Col2a1 alternative splicing in regulating extracellular matrix assembly and how this may subsequently affect cartilage and endochondral bone quality and function. PMID:24669942

  16. Functional studies on the ATM intronic splicing processing element.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Marzena A; Stuani, Cristiana; Parvizpur, Alireza; Baralle, Francisco E; Pagani, Franco

    2005-01-01

    In disease-associated genes, the understanding of the functional significance of deep intronic nucleotide variants may represent a difficult challenge. We have previously reported a new disease-causing mechanism that involves an intronic splicing processing element (ISPE) in ATM, composed of adjacent consensus 5' and 3' splice sites. A GTAA deletion within ISPE maintains potential adjacent splice sites, disrupts a non-canonical U1 snRNP interaction and activates an aberrant exon. In this paper, we demonstrate that binding of U1 snRNA through complementarity within a approximately 40 nt window downstream of the ISPE prevents aberrant splicing. By selective mutagenesis at the adjacent consensus ISPE splice sites, we show that this effect is not due to a resplicing process occurring at the ISPE. Functional comparison of the ATM mouse counterpart and evaluation of the pre-mRNA splicing intermediates derived from affected cell lines and hybrid minigene assays indicate that U1 snRNP binding at the ISPE interferes with the cryptic acceptor site. Activation of this site results in a stringent 5'-3' order of intron sequence removal around the cryptic exon. Artificial U1 snRNA loading by complementarity to heterologous exonic sequences represents a potential therapeutic method to prevent the usage of an aberrant CFTR cryptic exon. Our results suggest that ISPE-like intronic elements binding U1 snRNPs may regulate correct intron processing.

  17. Different roles played by periostin splice variants in retinal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Takahito; Yoshida, Shigeo; Ishikawa, Keijiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Katsuragi, Naruto; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Morishita, Ryuichi; Taniyama, Yoshiaki

    2016-12-01

    Retinal neovascularization (NV) due to retinal ischemia is one of the major causes of vision reduction in patients with different types of retinal diseases although anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy can partially reduce the size of the retinal NV. We recently reported that periostin plays an important role in the development of NV and the formation of preretinal fibrovascular membranes, but the role of the splice variants of periostin on retinal NV has not been determined. We examined the expressions of periostin splice variants in the ischemic retinas of a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinal NV. We also studied the function of periostin splice variants on retinal NV using periostin knock out mice, and the effects of anti-periostin antibodies on retinal NV. Our results showed that the expressions of the periostin splice variants were increased in ischemic retinas. The degree of increase of periostin lacking exon 17 was the highest among the periostin splice variants examined. Both genetic ablation of periostin exons 17 and 21 and antibodies for periostin exons 17 and 21 affected preretinal pathological NV. Inhibition of exon 17 of periostin had the greatest effect in reducing preretinal pathological NV. These findings suggest a causal link between periostin splice variants and retinal NV, and an intravitreal injection of antibody for exon 17 and exon 21 of periostin should be considered to inhibit preretinal pathological NV.

  18. Functional studies on the ATM intronic splicing processing element

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowska, Marzena A.; Stuani, Cristiana; Parvizpur, Alireza; Baralle, Francisco E.; Pagani, Franco

    2005-01-01

    In disease-associated genes, the understanding of the functional significance of deep intronic nucleotide variants may represent a difficult challenge. We have previously reported a new disease-causing mechanism that involves an intronic splicing processing element (ISPE) in ATM, composed of adjacent consensus 5′ and 3′ splice sites. A GTAA deletion within ISPE maintains potential adjacent splice sites, disrupts a non-canonical U1 snRNP interaction and activates an aberrant exon. In this paper, we demonstrate that binding of U1 snRNA through complementarity within a ∼40 nt window downstream of the ISPE prevents aberrant splicing. By selective mutagenesis at the adjacent consensus ISPE splice sites, we show that this effect is not due to a resplicing process occurring at the ISPE. Functional comparison of the ATM mouse counterpart and evaluation of the pre-mRNA splicing intermediates derived from affected cell lines and hybrid minigene assays indicate that U1 snRNP binding at the ISPE interferes with the cryptic acceptor site. Activation of this site results in a stringent 5′–3′ order of intron sequence removal around the cryptic exon. Artificial U1 snRNA loading by complementarity to heterologous exonic sequences represents a potential therapeutic method to prevent the usage of an aberrant CFTR cryptic exon. Our results suggest that ISPE-like intronic elements binding U1 snRNPs may regulate correct intron processing. PMID:16030351

  19. SKAR links pre-mRNA splicing to mTOR/S6K1-mediated enhanced translation efficiency of spliced mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoju Max; Yoon, Sang-Oh; Richardson, Celeste J; Jülich, Kristina; Blenis, John

    2008-04-18

    Different protein complexes form on newly spliced mRNA to ensure the accuracy and efficiency of eukaryotic gene expression. For example, the exon junction complex (EJC) plays an important role in mRNA surveillance. The EJC also influences the first, or pioneer round of protein synthesis through a mechanism that is poorly understood. We show that the nutrient-, stress-, and energy-sensing checkpoint kinase, mTOR, contributes to the observed enhanced translation efficiency of spliced over nonspliced mRNAs. We demonstrate that, when activated, S6K1 is recruited to the newly synthesized mRNA by SKAR, which is deposited at the EJC during splicing, and that SKAR and S6K1 increase the translation efficiency of spliced mRNA. Thus, SKAR-mediated recruitment of activated S6K1 to newly processed mRNPs serves as a conduit between mTOR checkpoint signaling and the pioneer round of translation when cells exist in conditions supportive of protein synthesis.

  20. Alternative Splicing, DNA Damage and Modulating Drugs in Radiation Therapy for Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jen-Yang; Li, Ruei-Nian; Chen, Ping-Ho; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy effectively destroys cancer cells in many sites of the body, but several limitations remain. This study investigated alternative splicing, which is a common mechanism of increased diversity in mRNAs and proteins. The relationships of alternative splicing to DNA damage and radiation such as UV and ionizing radiation were analyzed. The DNA damage responses of many genes involved in alternative splicing were compared between non-radiation and radiation treatments. Drugs that affect radioresistence or radiosensitization by modulating the effects of alternative splicing and radiation were also reviewed.

  1. A secreted form of the human lymphocyte cell surface molecule CD8 arises from alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Giblin, P.; Kavathas, P. ); Ledbetter, J.A. )

    1989-02-01

    The human lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD8 is encoded by a single gene that gives rise to a 33- to 34-kDa glycoprotein expressed on the cell surface as a dimer and in higher molecular mass forms. The authors demonstrate that the mRNA is alternatively spliced so that an exon encoding a transmembrane domain is deleted. This gives rise to a 30-kDa molecule that is secreted and exists primarily as a monomer. mRNA corresponding to both forms is present in peripheral blood lymphocytes, Con A-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes, and three CD8{sup +} T-cell lines, with the membrane form being the major species. However, differences in the ratio of mRNA for membrane CD8 and secreted CD8 exist. In addition, the splicing pattern observed differs from the pattern found for the mouse CD8 gene. This mRNA is also alternatively spliced, but an exon encoding a cytoplasmic region is deleted, giving rise to a cell surface molecule that differs in its cytoplasmic tail from the protein encoded by the longer mRNA. Neither protein is secreted. This is one of the first examples of a different splicing pattern between two homologous mouse and human genes giving rise to very different proteins. This represents one mechanism of generating diversity during speciation.

  2. A Combinatorial Code for Splicing Silencing: UAGG and GGGG Motifs

    PubMed Central

    An, Ping; Burge, Christopher B

    2005-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is widely used to regulate gene expression by tuning the levels of tissue-specific mRNA isoforms. Few regulatory mechanisms are understood at the level of combinatorial control despite numerous sequences, distinct from splice sites, that have been shown to play roles in splicing enhancement or silencing. Here we use molecular approaches to identify a ternary combination of exonic UAGG and 5′-splice-site-proximal GGGG motifs that functions cooperatively to silence the brain-region-specific CI cassette exon (exon 19) of the glutamate NMDA R1 receptor (GRIN1) transcript. Disruption of three components of the motif pattern converted the CI cassette into a constitutive exon, while predominant skipping was conferred when the same components were introduced, de novo, into a heterologous constitutive exon. Predominant exon silencing was directed by the motif pattern in the presence of six competing exonic splicing enhancers, and this effect was retained after systematically repositioning the two exonic UAGGs within the CI cassette. In this system, hnRNP A1 was shown to mediate silencing while hnRNP H antagonized silencing. Genome-wide computational analysis combined with RT-PCR testing showed that a class of skipped human and mouse exons can be identified by searches that preserve the sequence and spatial configuration of the UAGG and GGGG motifs. This analysis suggests that the multi-component silencing code may play an important role in the tissue-specific regulation of the CI cassette exon, and that it may serve more generally as a molecular language to allow for intricate adjustments and the coordination of splicing patterns from different genes. PMID:15828859

  3. Identification of a splicing enhancer in MLH1 using COMPARE, a new assay for determination of relative RNA splicing efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Qing; Mattox, William

    2006-01-15

    Exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) are sequences that facilitate recognition of splice sites and prevent exon-skipping. Because ESEs are often embedded within protein-coding sequences, alterations in them can also often be interpreted as nonsense, missense or silent mutations. To correctly interpret exonic mutations and their roles in diseases, it is important to develop strategies that identify ESE mutations. Potential ESEs can be found computationally in many exons but it has proven difficult to predict whether a given mutation will have effects on splicing based on sequence alone. Here, we describe a flexible in vitro method that can be used to functionally compare the effects of multiple sequence variants on ESE activity in a single in vitro splicing reaction. We have applied this method in parallel with conventional splicing assays to test for a splicing enhancer in exon 17 of the human MLH1 gene. Point mutations associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have previously been found to correlate with exon-skipping in both lymphocytes and tumors from patients. We show that sequences from this exon can replace an ESE from the mouse IgM gene to support RNA splicing in HeLa nuclear extracts. ESE activity was reduced by HNPCC point mutations in codon 659, indicating that their primary effect is on splicing. Surprisingly, the strongest enhancer function mapped to a different region of the exon upstream of this codon. Together, our results indicate that HNPCC point mutations in codon 659 affect an auxillary element that augments the enhancer function to ensure exon inclusion.

  4. Modulation of splicing of the preceding intron by antisense oligonucleotide complementary to intra-exon sequence deleted in dystrophin Kobe

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshima, Y.; Matuso, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Nishio, H.

    1994-09-01

    Molecular analysis of dystrophin Kobe showed that exon 19 of the dystrophin gene bearing a 52 bp deletion was skipped during splicing, although the known consensus sequences at the 5{prime} and 3{prime} splice site of exon 19 were maintained. These data suggest that the deleted sequence of exon 19 may function as a cis-acting factor for exact splicing for the upstream intron. To investigate this potential role, an in vitro splicing system using dystrophin precursors was established. A two-exon precursor containing exon 18, truncated intron 18, and exon 19 was accurately spliced. However, splicing of intron 18 was dramatically inhibited when wild exon 19 was replaced with mutated exon 19. Even though the length of exon 19 was restored to normal by replacing the deleted sequence with other sequence, splicing of intron 18 was not fully reactivated. Characteristically, splicing of intron 18 was inactivated more markedly when the replaced sequence contained less polypurine stretches. These data suggested that modification of the exon sequence would result in a splicing abnormality. Antisense 31 mer 2`-O-methyl ribonucleotide was targeted against 5{prime} end of deleted region of exon 19 to modulate splicing of the mRNA precursor. Splicing of intron 18 was inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This is the first in vitro evidence to show splicing of dystrophin pre-mRNA can be managed by antisense oligonucleotides. These experiments represent an approach in which antisense oligonucleotides are used to restore the function of a defective dystrophin gene in Duchenne muscular dystrophy by inducing skipping of certain exons during splicing.

  5. Detecting tissue-specific alternative splicing and disease-associated aberrant splicing of the PTCH gene with exon junction microarrays.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Kazuaki; Togawa, Naoyuki; Fujii, Katsunori; Uchikawa, Hideki; Kohno, Yoichi; Yamada, Masao; Miyashita, Toshiyuki

    2005-11-15

    Mutations in the human ortholog of Drosophila patched (PTCH) have been identified in patients with autosomal dominant nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), characterized by minor developmental anomalies and an increased incidence of cancers such as medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma. We identified many isoforms of PTCH mRNA involving exons 1-5, exon 10 and a novel exon, 12b, generated by alternative splicing (AS), most of which have not been deposited in GenBank nor discussed earlier. To monitor splicing events of the PTCH gene, we designed oligonucleotide arrays on which exon probes and exon-exon junction probes as well as a couple of intron probes for the PTCH gene were placed in duplicate. Probe intensities were normalized on the basis of the total expression of PTCH and probe sensitivity. Tissue-specific regulation of AS identified with the microarrays closely correlated with the results obtained by RT-PCR. Of note, the novel exon, exon 12b, was specifically expressed in the brain and heart, especially in the cerebellum. Additionally, using these microarrays, we were able to detect disease-associated aberrant splicings of the PTCH gene in two patients with NBCCS. In both cases, cryptic splice donor sites located either in an exon or in an intron were activated because of the partial disruption of the consensus sequence for the authentic splice donor sites due to point mutations. Taken together, oligonucleotide microarrays containing exon junction probes are demonstrated to be a powerful tool to investigate tissue-specific regulation of AS and aberrant splicing taking place in genetic disorders.

  6. Moonlight affects mRNA abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase in the retina of a lunar-synchronized spawner, the goldlined spinefoot.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Tomomi; Park, Yong-Ju; Park, Ji-Gweon; Imamura, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Yuki; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Takemura, Akihiro

    2013-11-01

    Melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland and retina shows a rhythmic fashion with high levels at night and is controlled by a rate-limiting enzyme, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). A previous study revealed that moonlight suppresses the plasma melatonin levels of the goldlined spinefoot (Siganus guttatus), which exhibits a lunar cycle in its reproductive activity and repeats gonadal development toward and spawning around the first quarter moon. Whether the retina of this species responds to moonlight is unknown. To clarify the photoperceptive ability of this species, we aimed to clone the full-length cDNA of Aanat1 (sgAanat1) from the retina and examine its transcriptional pattern under several daylight and moonlight regimes. The full-length sgAanat1 cDNA (1,038 bp) contained a reading frame encoding a protein of 225 amino acids, which was highly homologous to AANAT1 of other teleosts. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that among the tissues tested, sgAanat1 fragments were expressed exclusively in the retina. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that sgAanat1 fluctuated with high abundance at night under light-dark cycle and at subjective night under constant darkness, but not under constant light. These results suggest that sgAanat1 is regulated by both the external light signal and internal clock system. The abundance of sgAanat1 in the retina was higher at the culmination time around new moon than full moon phase. Additionally, exposing fish to brightness around the full moon period suppressed sgAanat1 mRNA abundance. Thus, moonlight is perceived by fish and has an impact on melatonin fluctuation in the retina.

  7. Oxygen concentration and cysteamine supplementation during in vitro production of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos affect mRNA expression of BCL-2, BCL-XL, MCL-1, BAX and BID.

    PubMed

    Elamaran, G; Singh, K P; Singh, M K; Singla, S K; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Palta, P

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effects of O(2) concentration (5% vs 20%) during in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC) or supplementation of IVM and IVC media with cysteamine (50 and 100 μm, respectively; IVM, IVF and IVC carried out in 20% O(2)), on blastocyst rate and relative mRNA abundance of some apoptosis-related genes measured by real-time qPCR in immature and in vitro-matured buffalo oocytes and in embryos at 2-, 4-, 8- to 16-cell, morula and blastocyst stages. The blastocyst rate was significantly higher (p < 0.05) while the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly lower (p < 0.05) under 5% O(2) than that under 20% O(2). The mRNA expression of anti-apoptotic genes BCL-2 and MCL-1 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) and that of pro-apoptotic genes BAX and BID was lower (p < 0.05) under 5% O(2) than that under 20% O(2) concentration at many embryonic stages. Following cysteamine supplementation, the blastocyst rate and the relative mRNA abundance of BCL-XL and MCL-1 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) and that of BAX but not BID was lower (p < 0.05) at many stages of embryonic development, although it did not affect the percentage of TUNEL positive cells in the blastocysts significantly. The mRNA expression pattern of these genes during embryonic development was different in 5% vs 20% O(2) groups and in cysteamine supplemented vs controls. At the 8- to 16-cell stage, where developmental block occurs in buffalo, the relative mRNA abundance of BCL-2 and MCL-1 was highest under 5% O(2) concentration and that of BAX and BID was highest (p < 0.05) under 20% O(2) concentration. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms through which beneficial effects of low O(2) concentration and cysteamine supplementation are mediated during in vitro embryo production is through an increase in the expression of anti-apoptotic and a decrease in the expression of pro-apoptotic genes.

  8. Alternatively spliced, spliceosomal twin introns in Helminthosporium solani.

    PubMed

    Ág, Norbert; Flipphi, Michel; Karaffa, Levente; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Fekete, Erzsébet

    2015-12-01

    Spliceosomal twin introns, "stwintrons", have been defined as complex intervening sequences that carry a second intron ("internal intron") interrupting one of the conserved sequence domains necessary for their correct splicing via consecutive excision events. Previously, we have described and experimentally verified stwintrons in species of Sordariomycetes, where an "internal intron" interrupted the donor sequence of an "external intron". Here we describe and experimentally verify two novel stwintrons of the potato pathogen Helminthosporium solani. One instance involves alternative splicing of an internal intron interrupting the donor domain of an external intron and a second one interrupting the acceptor domain of an overlapping external intron, both events leading to identical mature mRNAs. In the second case, an internal intron interrupts the donor domain of the external intron, while an alternatively spliced intron leads to an mRNA carrying a premature chain termination codon. We thus extend the stwintron concept to the acceptor domain and establish a link of the occurrence of stwintrons with that of alternative splicing.

  9. Huntington’s Disease Protein Huntingtin Associates with its own mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Culver, Brady P.; DeClercq, Josh; Dolgalev, Igor; Yu, Man Shan; Ma, Bin; Heguy, Adriana; Tanese, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Huntington’s disease (HD) protein huntingtin (Htt) plays a role in multiple cellular pathways. Deregulation of one or more of these pathways by the mutant Htt protein has been suggested to contribute to the disease pathogenesis. Our recent discovery-based proteomics studies have uncovered RNA binding proteins and translation factors associated with the endogenous Htt protein purified from mouse brains, suggesting a potential new role for Htt in RNA transport and translation. Objective: To investigate how Htt might affect RNA metabolism we set out to purify and analyze RNA associated with Htt. Methods: RNA was extracted from immunopurified Htt-containing protein complexes and analyzed by microarrays and RNA-Seq. Results: Surprisingly, the most enriched mRNA that co-purified with Htt was Htt mRNA itself. The association of Htt protein and Htt mRNA was detected independent of intact ribosomes suggesting that it is not an RNA undergoing translation. Furthermore, we identified the recently reported mis-spliced Htt mRNA encoding a truncated protein comprised of exon 1 and a portion of the downstream intron in the immunoprecipitates containing mutant Htt protein. We show that Htt protein co-localizes with Htt mRNA and that wild-type Htt reduces expression of a reporter construct harboring the Htt 3’ UTR. Conclusions: HD protein is found in a complex with its own mRNA and RNA binding proteins and translation factors. Htt may be involved in modulating its expression through post-transcriptional pathways. It is possible that Htt shares mechanistic properties similar to RNA binding proteins such as TDP-43 and FUS implicated in other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26891106

  10. Myocardial alternative RNA splicing and gene expression profiling in early stage hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Marco; Xu, Yanji; Hammond, Harriet L; Willoughby, David A; Nathanson, Lubov; Rodriguez, Maria M; Vatta, Matteo; Lipshultz, Steven E; Lincoln, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital defect characterized by underdevelopment of the left ventricle and pathological compensation of the right ventricle. If untreated, HLHS is invariably lethal due to the extensive increase in right ventricular workload and eventual failure. Despite the clinical significance, little is known about the molecular pathobiological state of HLHS. Splicing of mRNA transcripts is an important regulatory mechanism of gene expression. Tissue specific alterations of this process have been associated with several cardiac diseases, however, transcriptional signature profiles related to HLHS are unknown. In this study, we performed genome-wide exon array analysis to determine differentially expressed genes and alternatively spliced transcripts in the right ventricle (RV) of six neonates with HLHS, compared to the RV and left ventricle (LV) from non-diseased control subjects. In HLHS, over 180 genes were differentially expressed and 1800 were differentially spliced, leading to changes in a variety of biological processes involving cell metabolism, cytoskeleton, and cell adherence. Additional hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that differential gene expression and mRNA splicing patterns identified in HLHS are unique compared to non-diseased tissue. Our findings suggest that gene expression and mRNA splicing are broadly dysregulated in the RV myocardium of HLHS neonates. In addition, our analysis identified transcriptome profiles representative of molecular biomarkers of HLHS that could be used in the future for diagnostic and prognostic stratification to improve patient outcome.

  11. mRNA stability in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J

    1995-01-01

    This review concerns how cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives are regulated and how mRNA decay rates influence gene expression. mRNA stability influences gene expression in virtually all organisms, from bacteria to mammals, and the abundance of a particular mRNA can fluctuate manyfold following a change in the mRNA half-life, without any change in transcription. The processes that regulate mRNA half-lives can, in turn, affect how cells grow, differentiate, and respond to their environment. Three major questions are addressed. Which sequences in mRNAs determine their half-lives? Which enzymes degrade mRNAs? Which (trans-acting) factors regulate mRNA stability, and how do they function? The following specific topics are discussed: techniques for measuring eukaryotic mRNA stability and for calculating decay constants, mRNA decay pathways, mRNases, proteins that bind to sequences shared among many mRNAs [like poly(A)- and AU-rich-binding proteins] and proteins that bind to specific mRNAs (like the c-myc coding-region determinant-binding protein), how environmental factors like hormones and growth factors affect mRNA stability, and how translation and mRNA stability are linked. Some perspectives and predictions for future research directions are summarized at the end. PMID:7565413

  12. FOXP3 mRNA expression at 6 months of age is higher in infants who develop atopic dermatitis, but is not affected by giving probiotics from birth.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Angie L; Hale, Jasmine; Hales, Belinda J; Dunstan, Janet A; Thomas, Wayne R; Prescott, Susan L

    2007-02-01

    Factors that influence immune regulation in early life may be implicated in the rise in allergic disease, including reduced microbial burden. The aim of the study was to examine the infant regulatory T-cell function in relation to (a) probiotic supplementation for the first 6 months of life and (b) the subsequent development of an early allergic phenotype. Two hundred and thirty-one allergic, pregnant women were recruited into a randomized, controlled trial. The infants received either a probiotic or placebo daily for the first 6 months of life. One hundred and seventy-eight children completed the study, with blood samples available from 118 (60 placebo; 58 probiotic). CD4(+)CD25(+)CTLA4(+)T-regulatory phenotype and allergen-induced FOXP3 mRNA expression were compared in relation to this intervention as well as according to evidence of early disease (atopic dermatitis). The administration of probiotics was not associated with any significant differences in the proportion of circulating CD4(+)CD25(+)CTLA4(+)cells, or in the resting expression of FOXP3. There were also no relationships between these parameters and patterns of gut colonization, and this probiotic did not reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis. Children who developed atopic dermatitis (n = 36/118) had significantly higher induced FOXP3 expression following stimulation with both house dust mite (HDM) (p = 0.017) and ovalbumin (OVA) allergens (p = 0.021) than those that did not develop atopic dermatitis. Although this relationship was seen in both the probiotic and placebo groups, it was more pronounced in the probiotic group. However, regression analysis demonstrated that higher allergen-induced FOXP3 expression was predicted by the presence of atopic dermatitis (p = 0.018) rather than probiotics supplementation (p = 0.217). The higher levels of allergen-induced FOXP3 in atopic dermatitis suggest activation of these compensatory mechanisms rather than a primary defect in this pathway. Probiotic

  13. Alternatively spliced T-cell receptor transcripts are up-regulated in response to disruption of either splicing elements or reading frame.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Fu; Chan, Wai-Kin; Imam, J Saadi; Wilkinson, Miles F

    2007-10-12

    Nonsense mutations create premature termination codons (PTCs), leading to the generation of truncated proteins, some of which have deleterious gain-of-function or dominant-negative activity. Protecting cells from such aberrant proteins is non-sense-mediated decay (NMD), an RNA surveillance pathway that degrades transcripts harboring PTCs. A second response to nonsense mutations is the up-regulation of alternatively spliced transcripts that skip the PTC. This nonsense-associated altered splicing (NAS) response has the potential to rescue protein function, but the mechanism by which it is triggered has been controversial. Some studies suggest that, like NMD, NAS is triggered as a result of nonsense mutations disrupting reading frame, whereas other studies suggest that NAS is triggered when nonsense mutations disrupt exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs). Using T-cell receptor-beta (TCRbeta), which naturally acquires PTCs at high frequency, we provide evidence that both mechanisms act on a single type of mRNA. Mutations that disrupt consensus ESE sites up-regulated an alternatively spliced TCRbeta transcript that skipped the mutations independently of reading frame disruption and the NMD factor UPF1. In contrast, reading frame-disrupting mutations that did not disrupt consensus ESE sites elicited UPF1-dependent up-regulation of the alternatively spliced TCRbeta transcript. Restoration of reading frame prevented this up-regulation. Our results suggest that the response of an mRNA to a nonsense mutation depends on its context.

  14. The CEA/CD3-Bispecific Antibody MEDI-565 (MT111) Binds a Nonlinear Epitope in the Full-Length but Not a Short Splice Variant of CEA

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiaqi; Brohawn, Philip; Morehouse, Chris; Lekstrom, Kristen; Baeuerle, Patrick A.; Wu, Herren; Yao, Yihong; Coats, Steven R.; Dall’Acqua, William; Damschroder, Melissa; Hammond, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    MEDI-565 (also known as MT111) is a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE®) antibody in development for the treatment of patients with cancers expressing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). MEDI-565 binds CEA on cancer cells and CD3 on T cells to induce T-cell mediated killing of cancer cells. To understand the molecular basis of human CEA recognition by MEDI-565 and how polymorphisms and spliced forms of CEA may affect MEDI-565 activity, we mapped the epitope of MEDI-565 on CEA using mutagenesis and homology modeling approaches. We found that MEDI-565 recognized a conformational epitope in the A2 domain comprised of amino acids 326–349 and 388–410, with critical residues F326, T328, N333, V388, G389, P390, E392, I408, and N410. Two non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs10407503, rs7249230) were identified in the epitope region, but they are found at low homozygosity rates. Searching the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank® database, we further identified a single, previously uncharacterized mRNA splice variant of CEA that lacks a portion of the N-terminal domain, the A1 and B1 domains, and a large portion of the A2 domain. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of multiple cancers showed widespread expression of full-length CEA in these tumors, with less frequent but concordant expression of the CEA splice variant. Because the epitope was largely absent from the CEA splice variant, MEDI-565 did not bind or mediate T-cell killing of cells solely expressing this form of CEA. In addition, the splice variant did not interfere with MEDI-565 binding or activity when co-expressed with full-length CEA. Thus MEDI-565 may broadly target CEA-positive tumors without regard for expression of the short splice variant of CEA. Together our data suggest that MEDI-565 activity will neither be impacted by SNPs nor by a splice variant of CEA. PMID:22574157

  15. A single-base change at a splice site in a beta 0-thalassemic gene causes abnormal RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Treisman, R; Proudfoot, N J; Shander, M; Maniatis, T

    1982-07-01

    We have studied the structure and transcription of a cloned human beta-globin gene from a fetus diagnosed for beta 0 thalassemia. The sequence of the beta 0 gene differs from that of a normal beta-globin gene at positions 1 and 74 of the second intervening sequence (IVS2). The position 1 change alters the GT dinucleotide conserved at 5' splice sites, while the position 74 change is a common sequence polymorphism. When the cloned beta 0 gene is introduced into HeLa cells by use of an SV40-derived plasmid vector, two abnormally spliced cytoplasmic beta-globin RNAs are detected. The predominant RNA differs from normal beta-globin mRNA by the insertion of the first 47 nucleotides of IVS2 between exons 2 and 3. The less abundant RNA comprises the normal first exon spliced directly to the third. Analysis of nuclear RNA suggests that the beta 0 transcript is inefficiently spliced and that the removal of the two intervening sequences is coupled.

  16. Specific transcription and RNA splicing defects in five cloned beta-thalassaemia genes.

    PubMed

    Treisman, R; Orkin, S H; Maniatis, T

    1983-04-14

    Transcriptional analysis of five different cloned beta-thalassaemia genes introduced into cultured mammalian cells revealed specific defects in transcription and RNA splicing. A single base change 87 base pairs to the 5' side of the mRNA cap site significantly lowers the level of transcription and therefore appears to represent a promoter mutation. Three genes contain different single base changes in the first intervening sequence (IVS) 5' splice site. One mutation, at IVS1 position 1, inactivates the splice site completely; the other two, at IVS1 positions 5 and 6, reduce its activity. Each mutation activates the same three cryptic splice sites. The fifth gene contains a single base change within IVS2 at position 745, which results in the formation of abnormal beta-globin RNA that contains an extra exon.

  17. Unmasking alternative splicing inside protein-coding exons defines exitrons and their role in proteome plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Yamile; Höpfler, Markus; Ayatollahi, Zahra; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) diversifies transcriptomes and proteomes and is widely recognized as a key mechanism for regulating gene expression. Previously, in an analysis of intron retention events in Arabidopsis, we found unusual AS events inside annotated protein-coding exons. Here, we also identify such AS events in human and use these two sets to analyse their features, regulation, functional impact, and evolutionary origin. As these events involve introns with features of both introns and protein-coding exons, we name them exitrons (exonic introns). Though exitrons were detected as a subset of retained introns, they are clearly distinguishable, and their splicing results in transcripts with different fates. About half of the 1002 Arabidopsis and 923 human exitrons have sizes of multiples of 3 nucleotides (nt). Splicing of these exitrons results in internally deleted proteins and affects protein domains, disordered regions, and various post-translational modification sites, thus broadly impacting protein function. Exitron splicing is regulated across tissues, in response to stress and in carcinogenesis. Intriguingly, annotated intronless genes can be also alternatively spliced via exitron usage. We demonstrate that at least some exitrons originate from ancestral coding exons. Based on our findings, we propose a “splicing memory” hypothesis whereby upon intron loss imprints of former exon borders defined by vestigial splicing regulatory elements could drive the evolution of exitron splicing. Altogether, our studies show that exitron splicing is a conserved strategy for increasing proteome plasticity in plants and animals, complementing the repertoire of AS events. PMID:25934563

  18. The exon junction complex controls transposable element activity by ensuring faithful splicing of the piwi transcript

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Colin D.; Mestdagh, Claire; Akhtar, Junaid; Kreim, Nastasja; Deinhard, Pia; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Treisman, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The exon junction complex (EJC) is a highly conserved ribonucleoprotein complex that binds RNAs during splicing and remains associated with them following export to the cytoplasm. While the role of this complex in mRNA localization, translation, and degradation has been well characterized, its mechanism of action in splicing a subset of Drosophila and human transcripts remains to be elucidated. Here, we describe a novel function for the EJC and its splicing subunit, RnpS1, in preventing transposon accumulation in both Drosophila germline and surrounding somatic follicle cells. This function is mediated specifically through the control of piwi transcript splicing, where, in the absence of RnpS1, the fourth intron of piwi is retained. This intron contains a weak polypyrimidine tract that is sufficient to confer dependence on RnpS1. Finally, we demonstrate that RnpS1-dependent removal of this intron requires splicing of the flanking introns, suggesting a model in which the EJC facilitates the splicing of weak introns following its initial deposition at adjacent exon junctions. These data demonstrate a novel role for the EJC in regulating piwi intron excision and provide a mechanism for its function during splicing. PMID:25104425

  19. Splicing of intron 3 of human BACE requires the flanking introns 2 and 4.

    PubMed

    Annies, Maik; Stefani, Muriel; Hueber, Andreas; Fischer, Frauke; Paganetti, Paolo

    2009-10-16

    Regulation of proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein by the aspartic protease BACE may occur by alternative splicing and the generation of enzymatically inactive forms. In fact, the presence of exonic donor and acceptor sites for intron 3 generates the two deficient variants BACE457 and BACE476. In HEK293 cells, when introns are inserted separately in the BACE cDNA, we found that whilst introns 2 and 4 are efficiently spliced out, intron 3 is not removed. On the other hand, splicing to wild-type BACE is restored when intron 3 is flanked by the two other introns. The presence of all three introns also leads to alternative splicing of intron 3 and the generation of BACE476. In contrast, BACE457 expression takes place only after mutating the donor splice site of intron 3, indicating that additional regulatory elements are necessary for the use of the splicing site within exon 4. Overall, our data demonstrate that a complex splicing of intron 3 regulates the maturation of the BACE mRNA. This appears orchestrated by domains present in the exons and introns flanking intron 3. Excessive BACE activity is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, therefore this complex regulation might guarantee low neuronal BACE activity and disease prevention.

  20. Dose-Dependent Regulation of Alternative Splicing by MBNL Proteins Reveals Biomarkers for Myotonic Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Struck, Adam J.; Gupta, Riti; Farnsworth, Dylan R.; Mahady, Amy E.; Eichinger, Katy; Thornton, Charles A.; Wang, Eric T.; Berglund, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a regulated process that results in expression of specific mRNA and protein isoforms. Alternative splicing factors determine the relative abundance of each isoform. Here we focus on MBNL1, a splicing factor misregulated in the disease myotonic dystrophy. By altering the concentration of MBNL1 in cells across a broad dynamic range, we show that different splicing events require different amounts of MBNL1 for half-maximal response, and respond more or less steeply to MBNL1. Motifs around MBNL1 exon 5 were studied to assess how cis-elements mediate the MBNL1 dose-dependent splicing response. A framework was developed to estimate MBNL concentration using splicing responses alone, validated in the cell-based model, and applied to myotonic dystrophy patient muscle. Using this framework, we evaluated the ability of individual and combinations of splicing events to predict functional MBNL concentration in human biopsies, as well as their performance as biomarkers to assay mild, moderate, and severe cases of DM. PMID:27681373

  1. Functional characterization of NIPBL physiological splice variants and eight splicing mutations in patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    PubMed

    Teresa-Rodrigo, María E; Eckhold, Juliane; Puisac, Beatriz; Dalski, Andreas; Gil-Rodríguez, María C; Braunholz, Diana; Baquero, Carolina; Hernández-Marcos, María; de Karam, Juan C; Ciero, Milagros; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Lapunzina, Pablo; Wierzba, Jolanta; Casale, César H; Ramos, Feliciano J; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Kaiser, Frank J; Pié, Juan

    2014-06-10

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a congenital developmental disorder characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, growth retardation, cognitive impairment, limb defects, hirsutism, and multisystem involvement. Mutations in five genes encoding structural components (SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21) or functionally associated factors (NIPBL, HDAC8) of the cohesin complex have been found in patients with CdLS. In about 60% of the patients, mutations in NIPBL could be identified. Interestingly, 17% of them are predicted to change normal splicing, however, detailed molecular investigations are often missing. Here, we report the first systematic study of the physiological splicing of the NIPBL gene, that would reveal the identification of four new splicing isoforms ΔE10, ΔE12, ΔE33,34, and B'. Furthermore, we have investigated nine mutations affecting splice-sites in the NIPBL gene identified in twelve CdLS patients. All mutations have been examined on the DNA and RNA level, as well as by in silico analyses. Although patients with mutations affecting NIPBL splicing show a broad clinical variability, the more severe phenotypes seem to be associated with aberrant transcripts resulting in a shift of the reading frame.

  2. Functional Characterization of NIPBL Physiological Splice Variants and Eight Splicing Mutations in Patients with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Teresa-Rodrigo, María E.; Eckhold, Juliane; Puisac, Beatriz; Dalski, Andreas; Gil-Rodríguez, María C.; Braunholz, Diana; Baquero, Carolina; Hernández-Marcos, María; de Karam, Juan C.; Ciero, Milagros; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Lapunzina, Pablo; Wierzba, Jolanta; Casale, César H.; Ramos, Feliciano J.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Kaiser, Frank J.; Pié, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a congenital developmental disorder characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, growth retardation, cognitive impairment, limb defects, hirsutism, and multisystem involvement. Mutations in five genes encoding structural components (SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21) or functionally associated factors (NIPBL, HDAC8) of the cohesin complex have been found in patients with CdLS. In about 60% of the patients, mutations in NIPBL could be identified. Interestingly, 17% of them are predicted to change normal splicing, however, detailed molecular investigations are often missing. Here, we report the first systematic study of the physiological splicing of the NIPBL gene, that would reveal the identification of four new splicing isoforms ΔE10, ΔE12, ΔE33,34, and B’. Furthermore, we have investigated nine mutations affecting splice-sites in the NIPBL gene identified in twelve CdLS patients. All mutations have been examined on the DNA and RNA level, as well as by in silico analyses. Although patients with mutations affecting NIPBL splicing show a broad clinical variability, the more severe phenotypes seem to be associated with aberrant transcripts resulting in a shift of the reading frame. PMID:24918291

  3. CYP2B6 non-coding variation associated with smoking cessation is also associated with differences in allelic expression, splicing, and nicotine metabolism independent of common amino-acid changes.

    PubMed

    Bloom, A Joseph; Martinez, Maribel; Chen, Li-Shiun; Bierut, Laura J; Murphy, Sharon E; Goate, Alison

    2013-01-01

    The Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) enzyme makes a small contribution to hepatic nicotine metabolism relative to CYP2A6, but CYP2B6 is the primary enzyme responsible for metabolism of the smoking cessation drug bupropion. Using CYP2A6 genotype as a covariate, we find that a non-coding polymorphism in CYP2B6 previously associated with smoking cessation (rs8109525) is also significantly associated with nicotine metabolism. The association is independent of the well-studied non-synonymous variants rs3211371, rs3745274, and rs2279343 (CYP2B6*5 and *6). Expression studies demonstrate that rs8109525 is also associated with differences in CYP2B6 mRNA expression in liver biopsy samples. Splicing assays demonstrate that specific splice forms of CYP2B6 are associated with haplotypes defined by variants including rs3745274 and rs8109525. These results indicate differences in mRNA expression and splicing as potential molecular mechanisms by which non-coding variation in CYP2B6 may affect enzymatic activity leading to differences in metabolism and smoking cessation.

  4. Detection of circulating prostate tumor cells: alternative spliced variant of PSM induced false-positive result.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Hisashi; Nagao, Kumi; Kawakita, Mutsuji; Matsuda, Tadashi; Hirata, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Nakamoto, Takaaki; Harasawa, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Noboru; Hikiji, Kazumasa; Tsukada, Yutaka

    2002-11-01

    RT-nested PCR has been introduced as a highly specific and sensitive assay method to detect the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSM) mRNA in peripheral blood. However, appreciable percentages of false-positive cases have been reported. Additionally, primer sets reported previously could not discriminate between PSM and PSM', an alternatively spliced variant, mRNA. These isoforms can be produced from a single gene. Switches in alternative splicing patterns are often controlled with strict cell-type or developmental-stage specificity. Therefore, it is most important to discriminate between PSM mRNA and PSM' mRNA. Using our highly specific primer sets, PSM mRNA was detected in 3 of 24 peripheral blood samples of normal male volunteers (12.5%) and was not detected in peripheral blood of 11 normal female volunteers. PSM' mRNA was detected in 5 of 24 peripheral blood samples of normal male volunteers (20.8%) and in 4 of 11 of normal female volunteers (36.4%). PSM' mRNA induced false-positive results, it is important for genetic diagnosis of prostate cancer to discriminate between PSM and PSM' using our primer sets with high specificity. The advances in the uniquely designed primer sets may allow researchers to detect a real PSM mRNA without PSM' mRNA.

  5. Conserved RNA cis-elements regulate alternative splicing of Lepidopteran doublesex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Ye; Zheng, Zeng-Zhang; Song, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Yong-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Doublesex (dsx) is a downstream key regulator in insect sex determination pathway. In Drosophila, alternative splicing of Dm-dsx gene is sex-specifically regulated by transformer (tra), in which the functional TRA promotes female-specific Dm-dsx. However, the sex determination pathway in Lepidoptera is not well understood; here we focused on alternative splicing of doublesex (dsx) in two agricultural pests, Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), as well as the silkworm (Bombyx mori). More than a dozen new alternative splicing isoforms of dsx were found in the Lepidopteran females, which exist in all tested developmental stages and differentiated tissues. Alignment of mRNA and protein sequences of doublesex revealed high conservation of this gene in Lepidoptera. Strength analysis of splice sites revealed a weak 5' splice site at intron 3 in Lepidopteran dsx, which was experimentally confirmed. Furthermore, we identified highly conserved RNA sequences in the Lepidopteran dsx, including RNA elements I (14 nt), II (11 nt), III (26 nt), IV (17 nt), 3E-1 (8 nt) and 3E-2 (8 nt). The RNA elements III and IV were previously found in exon 4 of B. mori dsx and bound with Bm-PSI, which suppressed the inclusion of exons 3 & 4 into the male-specific Bm-dsx. Then we identified and analyzed the homologous genes of Bm-psi in the two Lepidopteran pests, which expressed at similar levels and exhibited a unique isoform in the males and females from each Lepidoptera. Importantly, mutagenesis of Bm-dsx mini-genes and their expression in BmN cell line demonstrated that three RNA elements are involved in the female-specific alternative splicing of Bm-dsx. Mutations in the RNA cis-elements 3E-1 and 3E-2 resulted in decreased inclusion of exon 3 into the female-specific dsx mRNA, suggesting that these two elements would be exonic splicing enhancers that facilitate the recognition of the weak 5' splice site at intron 3 of Lepidopteran dsx. We

  6. Yin Yang 1 Intronic Binding Sequences and Splicing Elicit Intron-Mediated Enhancement of Ubiquitin C Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Marzia; Crinelli, Rita; Giacomini, Elisa; Carloni, Elisa; Radici, Lucia; Magnani, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    In a number of organisms, introns affect expression of the gene in which they are contained. Our previous studies revealed that the 5′-UTR intron of human ubiquitin C (UbC) gene is responsible for the boost of reporter gene expression and is able to bind, in vitro, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) trans-acting factor. In this work, we demonstrate that intact YY1 binding sequences are required for maximal promoter activity and YY1 silencing causes downregulation of luciferase mRNA levels. However, YY1 motifs fail to enhance gene expression when the intron is moved upstream of the proximal promoter, excluding the typical enhancer hypothesis and supporting a context-dependent action, like intron-mediated enhancement (IME). Yet, almost no expression is seen in the construct containing an unspliceable version of UbC intron, indicating that splicing is essential for promoter activity. Moreover, mutagenesis of YY1 binding sites and YY1 knockdown negatively affect UbC intron removal from both endogenous and reporter transcripts. Modulation of splicing efficiency by YY1 cis-elements and protein factor may thus be part of the mechanism(s) by which YY1 controls UbC promoter activity. Our data highlight the first evidence of the involvement of a sequence-specific DNA binding factor in IME. PMID:23776572

  7. Role of rs3846662 and HMGCR alternative splicing in statin efficacy and baseline lipid levels in familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Valerie; Bourque, Lucienne; Poirier, Judes; Dufour, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the contribution of the rs3846662 polymorphism of HMGCR on serum lipid levels and statin efficacy, we measured in vivo HMGCR mRNA and lipid levels in French Canadian individuals affected by heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia due to the deletion of more than 15 kb of the LDLR gene. Results Men and women carrying the AA genotype at rs3846662, and no APOE4 allele, had higher levels of total cholesterol (5.43 vs. 4.58 mmol/l, P <0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (5.20 vs. 4.39 mmol/l, P <0.05) at baseline. However, with regard to statin efficacy, the penetrance of the AA genotype was sex dependent. Indeed, the percentage reduction in LDL-cholesterol upon statin treatment was significantly decreased in women with the AA genotype compared with women without it (38.4 vs. 46.2%, P <0.05), whereas this was not observed in men. Although both men and women bearing the AA genotype showed a higher ratio of full-length HMGCR mRNA/total HMGCR mRNA compared with individuals without it (n =37, P <0.05), overall transcription of HMGCR was decreased and increased in men and women carrying this genotype, respectively (n =37, P <0.01 and P <0.05). Finally, in our familial hypercholesterolemia cohort, HMGCR alternative splicing explained between 22 and 55% of the variance in statin response. Conclusion rs3846662 polymorphism and the alternative splicing of HMGCR mRNA significantly impact women’s response to statin therapy. PMID:26466344

  8. Quantification of co-transcriptional splicing from RNA-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Herzel, Lydia; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2015-09-01

    During gene expression, protein-coding transcripts are shaped by multiple processing events: 5' end capping, pre-mRNA splicing, RNA editing, and 3' end cleavage and polyadenylation. These events are required to produce mature mRNA, which can be subsequently translated. Nearly all of these RNA processing steps occur during transcription, while the nascent RNA is still attached to the DNA template by RNA polymerase II (i.e. co-transcriptionally). Polyadenylation occurs after 3' end cleavage or post-transcriptionally. Pre-mRNA splicing - the removal of introns and ligation of exons - can be initiated and concluded co-transcriptionally, although this is not strictly required. Recently, a number of studies using global methods have shown that the majority of splicing is co-transcriptional, yet not all published studies agree in their conclusions. Short read sequencing of RNA (RNA-Seq) is the prevailing approach to measuring splicing levels in nascent RNA, mRNA or total RNA. Here, we compare four different strategies for analyzing and quantifying co-transcriptional splicing. To do so, we reanalyze two nascent RNA-Seq datasets of the same species, but different cell type and RNA isolation procedure. Average co-transcriptional splicing values calculated on a per intron basis are similar, independent of the strategy used. We emphasize the technical requirements for identifying co-transcriptional splicing events with high confidence, e.g. how to calculate co-transcriptional splicing from nascent RNA- versus mRNA-Seq data, the number of biological replicates needed, depletion of polyA+RNA, and appropriate normalization. Finally, we present guidelines for planning a nascent RNA-Seq experiment.

  9. Spliced-leader trans-splicing in freshwater planarians.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Ricardo M; Bold, Tyler D; Newmark, Phillip A

    2005-10-01

    trans-Splicing, in which a spliced-leader (SL) RNA is appended to the most 5' exon of independently transcribed pre-mRNAs, has been described in a wide range of eukaryotes, from protozoans to chordates. Here we describe trans-splicing in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, a free-living member of the phylum Platyhelminthes. Analysis of an expressed sequence tag (EST) collection from this organism showed that over 300 transcripts shared one of two approximately 35-base sequences (Smed SL-1 and SL-2) at their 5' ends. Examination of genomic sequences encoding representatives of these transcripts revealed that these shared sequences were transcribed elsewhere in the genome. RNA blot analysis, 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, as well as genomic sequence data showed that 42-nt SL sequences were derived from small RNAs of approximately 110 nt. Similar sequences were also found at the 5' ends of ESTs from the planarian Dugesia japonica. trans-Splicing has already been described in numerous representatives of the phylum Platyhelminthes (trematodes, cestodes, and polyclads); its presence in two representatives of the triclads supports the hypothesis that this mode of RNA processing is ancestral within this group. The upcoming complete genome sequence of S. mediterranea, combined with this animal's experimental accessibility and susceptibility to RNAi, provide another model organism in which to study the function of the still-enigmatic trans-splicing.

  10. Correction of a Cystic Fibrosis Splicing Mutation by Antisense Oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Igreja, Susana; Clarke, Luka A; Botelho, Hugo M; Marques, Luís; Amaral, Margarida D

    2016-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life-threatening genetic disease in Caucasians, is caused by ∼2,000 different mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. A significant fraction of these (∼13%) affect pre-mRNA splicing for which novel therapies have been somewhat neglected. We have previously described the effect of the CFTR splicing mutation c.2657+5G>A in IVS16, showing that it originates transcripts lacking exon 16 as well as wild-type transcripts. Here, we tested an RNA-based antisense oligonucleotide (AON) strategy to correct the aberrant splicing caused by this mutation. Two AONs (AON1/2) complementary to the pre-mRNA IVS16 mutant region were designed and their effect on splicing was assessed at the RNA and protein levels, on intracellular protein localization and function. To this end, we used the 2657+5G>A mutant CFTR minigene stably expressed in HEK293 Flp-In cells that express a single copy of the transgene. RNA data from AON1-treated mutant cells show that exon 16 inclusion was almost completely restored (to 95%), also resulting in increased levels of correctly localized CFTR protein at the plasma membrane (PM) and with increased function. A novel two-color CFTR splicing reporter minigene developed here allowed the quantitative monitoring of splicing by automated microscopy localization of CFTR at the PM. The AON strategy is thus a promising therapeutic approach for the specific correction of alternative splicing.

  11. Alternative splicing may be responsible for heterogeneity of thyroglobulin structure.

    PubMed

    Mercken, L; Simons, M J; Brocas, H; Vassart, G

    1989-02-01

    During the cloning of the bovine thyroglobulin cDNA, the restriction map of one of the recombinant plasmids was in disagreement with that of the full-length double-stranded thyroglobulin cDNA. When compared to the bovine Tg mRNA sequence, this cDNA clone exhibits a 333-nucleotide deletion which corresponds precisely to 2 exons of the Tg gene. It is thus likely that alternative processing of the premessenger RNA is at the origin of the deletion. The presence of giant introns in the vicinity of the dispensable exons may also reflect some error level in the splicing mechanism. Together with previous results the alternative splicing described in this study indicates that alternative processing of the Tg transcripts may be at the origin of thyroglobulin isoforms.

  12. Branchio-Oto-Renal Syndrome (BOR) associated with focal glomerulosclerosis in a patient with a novel EYA1 splice site mutation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by branchial, ear, and renal anomalies. The most common gene mutated in BOR patients is EYA1, the human homolog of the Drosophila eyes absent gene, while mutations in SIX1 gene, the human homolog of sine oculis, encoding a DNA binding protein interacting with EYA1, have been reported less frequently. Recently, mutations in another SIX family member, SIX5, have been described in BOR patients, however, this association has not been confirmed by other groups. Case presentation In this study, we have clinically and genetically characterized a proband that displayed hearing loss, pre-auricular pits, branchial fistulae, hypoplasia of the left kidney, bilateral mild hydronephrosis, progressive proteinuria and focal glomerulosclerosis. Mutational analysis of EYA1 gene revealed a novel splice site mutation, c.1475 + 1G > C, that affects EYA1 splicing and produces an aberrant mRNA transcript, lacking exon 15, which is predicted to encode a truncated protein of 456 aa. Conclusion This report provided the functional description of a novel EYA1 splice site mutation and described for the first time a case of BOR syndrome associated with the atypical renal finding of focal glomerulosclerosis, highlighting the importance of molecular testing and detailed clinical evaluation to provide accurate diagnosis and appropriate genetic counselling. PMID:23506628

  13. A chloroplast retrograde signal regulates nuclear alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Ezequiel; Herz, Micaela A. Godoy; Fuchs, Armin; Reifer, Dominik; Fuller, John; Yanovsky, Marcelo J.; Simpson, Craig; Brown, John W. S.; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.

    2015-01-01

    Light is a source of energy and also a regulator of plant physiological adaptations. We show here that light/dark conditions affect alternative splicing of a subset of Arabidopsis genes preferentially encoding proteins involved in RNA processing. The effect requires functional chloroplasts and is also observed in roots when the communication with the photosynthetic tissues is not interrupted, suggesting that a signaling molecule travels through the plant. Using photosynthetic electron transfer inhibitors with different mechanisms of action we deduce that the reduced pool of plastoquinones initiates a chloroplast retrograde signaling that regulates nuclear alternative splicing and is necessary for proper plant responses to varying light conditions. PMID:24763593

  14. Oncogenes and RNA splicing of human tumor viruses.

    PubMed

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 10.8% of human cancers are associated with infection by an oncogenic virus. These viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). These oncogenic viruses, with the exception of HCV, require the host RNA splicing machinery in order to exercise their oncogenic activities, a strategy that allows the viruses to efficiently export and stabilize viral RNA and to produce spliced RNA isoforms from a bicistronic or polycistronic RNA transcript for efficient protein translation. Infection with a tumor virus affects the expression of host genes, including host RNA splicing factors, which play a key role in regulating viral RNA splicing of oncogene transcripts. A current prospective focus is to explore how alternative RNA splicing and the expression of viral oncogenes take place in a cell- or tissue-specific manner in virus-induced human carcinogenesis.

  15. Cryptic splicing events in the iron transporter ABCB7 and other key target genes in SF3B1-mutant myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Dolatshad, H; Pellagatti, A; Liberante, F G; Llorian, M; Repapi, E; Steeples, V; Roy, S; Scifo, L; Armstrong, R N; Shaw, J; Yip, B H; Killick, S; Kušec, R; Taylor, S; Mills, K I; Savage, K I; Smith, C W J; Boultwood, J

    2016-12-01

    The splicing factor SF3B1 is the most frequently mutated gene in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and is strongly associated with the presence of ring sideroblasts (RS). We have performed a systematic analysis of cryptic splicing abnormalities from RNA sequencing data on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) of SF3B1-mutant MDS cases with RS. Aberrant splicing events in many downstream target genes were identified and cryptic 3' splice site usage was a frequent event in SF3B1-mutant MDS. The iron transporter ABCB7 is a well-recognized candidate gene showing marked downregulation in MDS with RS. Our analysis unveiled aberrant ABCB7 splicing, due to usage of an alternative 3' splice site in MDS patient samples, giving rise to a premature termination codon in the ABCB7 mRNA. Treatment of cultured SF3B1-mutant MDS erythroblasts and a CRISPR/Cas9-generated SF3B1-mutant cell line with the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) inhibitor cycloheximide showed that the aberrantly spliced ABCB7 transcript is targeted by NMD. We describe cryptic splicing events in the HSCs of SF3B1-mutant MDS, and our data support a model in which NMD-induced downregulation of the iron exporter ABCB7 mRNA transcript resulting from aberrant splicing caused by mutant SF3B1 underlies the increased mitochondrial iron accumulation found in MDS patients with RS.

  16. Cryptic splicing events in the iron transporter ABCB7 and other key target genes in SF3B1-mutant myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Dolatshad, H; Pellagatti, A; Liberante, F G; Llorian, M; Repapi, E; Steeples, V; Roy, S; Scifo, L; Armstrong, R N; Shaw, J; Yip, B H; Killick, S; Kušec, R; Taylor, S; Mills, K I; Savage, K I; Smith, C W J; Boultwood, J

    2016-01-01

    The splicing factor SF3B1 is the most frequently mutated gene in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and is strongly associated with the presence of ring sideroblasts (RS). We have performed a systematic analysis of cryptic splicing abnormalities from RNA sequencing data on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) of SF3B1-mutant MDS cases with RS. Aberrant splicing events in many downstream target genes were identified and cryptic 3′ splice site usage was a frequent event in SF3B1-mutant MDS. The iron transporter ABCB7 is a well-recognized candidate gene showing marked downregulation in MDS with RS. Our analysis unveiled aberrant ABCB7 splicing, due to usage of an alternative 3′ splice site in MDS patient samples, giving rise to a premature termination codon in the ABCB7 mRNA. Treatment of cultured SF3B1-mutant MDS erythroblasts and a CRISPR/Cas9-generated SF3B1-mutant cell line with the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) inhibitor cycloheximide showed that the aberrantly spliced ABCB7 transcript is targeted by NMD. We describe cryptic splicing events in the HSCs of SF3B1-mutant MDS, and our data support a model in which NMD-induced downregulation of the iron exporter ABCB7 mRNA transcript resulting from aberrant splicing caused by mutant SF3B1 underlies the increased mitochondrial iron accumulation found in MDS patients with RS. PMID:27211273

  17. RNA Splicing Factors and RNA-Directed DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao-Feng; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2014-03-26

    RNA-directed histone and/or DNA modification is a conserved mechanism for the establishment of epigenetic marks from yeasts and plants to mammals. The heterochromation formation in yeast is mediated by RNAi-directed silencing mechanism, while the establishment of DNA methylation in plants is through the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Recently, splicing factors are reported to be involved in both RNAi-directed heterochromatin formation in yeast and the RdDM pathway in plants. In yeast, splicing factors may provide a platform for facilitating the siRNA generation through an interaction with RDRC and thereby affect the heterochromatin formation, whereas in plants, various splicing factors seem to act at different steps in the RdDM pathway.

  18. Autistic-like phenotypes in Cadps2-knockout mice and aberrant CADPS2 splicing in autistic patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadakata, Tetsushi; Washida, Miwa; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Shoji, Satoshi; Sato, Yumi; Ohkura, Takeshi; Katoh-Semba, Ritsuko; Nakajima, Mizuho; Sekine, Yukiko; Tanaka, Mika; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Mori, Norio; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2007-01-01

    Autism, characterized by profound impairment in social interactions and communicative skills, is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder, and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CADPS2; also known as CAPS2) mediates the exocytosis of dense-core vesicles, and the human CADPS2 is located within the autism susceptibility locus 1 on chromosome 7q. Here we show that Cadps2-knockout mice not only have impaired brain-derived neurotrophic factor release but also show autistic-like cellular and behavioral phenotypes. Moreover, we found an aberrant alternatively spliced CADPS2 mRNA that lacks exon 3 in some autistic patients. Exon 3 was shown to encode the dynactin 1–binding domain and affect axonal CADPS2 protein distribution. Our results suggest that a disturbance in CADPS2-mediated neurotrophin release contributes to autism susceptibility. PMID:17380209

  19. Aberrant Splicing and Transcription Termination Caused by P Element Insertion into the Intron of a Drosophila Gene

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, H.; Berg, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis screens using the P[lacZ, rosy(+)] (PZ) transposable element have provided thousands of mutant lines for analyzing genes of varied function in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. As has been observed with other P elements, many of the PZ-induced mutations result from insertion of the P element into the promoter or 5' untranslated regions of the affected gene. We document here a novel mechanism for mutagenesis by this element. We show that sequences present within the element direct aberrant splicing and termination events that produce a mRNA composed of 5' sequences from the mutated gene (in this case, pipsqueak) and 3' sequences from within the P[lacZ, rosy(+)] element. These truncated RNAs could yield proteins with dominant mutant effects. PMID:7705633

  20. Aberrant splicing and transcription termination caused by P element insertion into the intron of a Drosophila gene

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, H.; Berg, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis screens using the P[lacZ, rosy{sup +}] (PZ) transposable element have provided thousands of mutant lines for analyzing genes of varied function in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. As has been observed with other P elements, many of the PZ-induced mutations result from insertion of the P element into the promoter or 5{prime} untranslated regions of the affected gene. We document here a novel mechanism for mutagenesis by this element. We show that sequences present within the element direct aberrant splicing and termination events that produce an mRNA composed of 5{prime} sequences from the mutated gene (in this case, pipsqueak) and 3{prime} sequences from within the P[lacZ, rosy{sup +}] element. These truncated RNAs could yield proteins with dominant mutant effects. 43 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Aberrant splicing in maize rough endosperm3 reveals a conserved role for U12 splicing in eukaryotic multicellular development

    PubMed Central

    Barbazuk, W. Brad

    2017-01-01

    RNA splicing of U12-type introns functions in human cell differentiation, but it is not known whether this class of introns has a similar role in plants. The maize ROUGH ENDOSPERM3 (RGH3) protein is orthologous to the human splicing factor, ZRSR2. ZRSR2 mutations are associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and cause U12 splicing defects. Maize rgh3 mutants have aberrant endosperm cell differentiation and proliferation. We found that most U12-type introns are retained or misspliced in rgh3. Genes affected in rgh3 and ZRSR2 mutants identify cell cycle and protein glycosylation as common pathways disrupted. Transcripts with retained U12-type introns can be found in polysomes, suggesting that splicing efficiency can alter protein isoforms. The rgh3 mutant protein disrupts colocalization with a known ZRSR2-interacting protein, U2AF2. These results indicate conserved function for RGH3/ZRSR2 in U12 splicing and a deeply conserved role for the minor spliceosome to promote cell differentiation from stem cells to terminal fates. PMID:28242684

  2. Epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 and 2 paralogues correlate with splice signatures and favorable outcome in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deloria, Abigail J.; Höflmayer, Doris; Kienzl, Philip; Łopatecka, Justyna; Sampl, Sandra; Klimpfinger, Martin; Braunschmid, Tamara; Bastian, Fabienne; Lu, Lingeng; Marian, Brigitte; Stättner, Stefan; Holzmann, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    ESRPs are master splice regulators implicated in alternative mRNA splicing programs important for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor progression. ESRP1 was identified in some tumors as good or worse predictor of outcome, but in colorectal cancer (CRC) the prognostic value of ESRPs and relation with mesenchymal splice variants is not clear. Here, we studied 68 CRC cases, compared tissue expression of ESRPs with clinical data and with EMT gene splice patterns of conditional CRC cells with deficient ESRP1 expression. Around 72% of patients showed global decreased transcript expression of both ESRPs in tumor as compared to matched non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium. Reduction of ESRP1 in tumor cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, associated with microsatellite stability and switch to mesenchymal splice signatures of FGFRs, CD44, ENAH and CTNND1(p120-catenin). Expression of ESRPs was significantly associated with favorable overall survival (log-rank test, P=0.0186 and 0.0408), better than prognostic stratification by tumor staging; and for ESRP1 confirmed with second TCGA cohort (log-rank test, P=0.0435). Prognostic value is independent of the pathological stage and microsatellite instability (ESRP1: HR=0.36, 95%CI 0.15–0.91, P=0.032; ESRP2: HR=0.23, 95%CI 0.08–0.65, P=0.006). Our study supports the role of ESRP1 as tumor suppressor and strongly suggests that ESRPs are candidate markers for early detection, diagnosis, and prognosis of CRC. PMID:27650542

  3. Tissue Restricted Splice Junctions Originate Not Only from Tissue-Specific Gene Loci, but Gene Loci with a Broad Pattern of Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Zeng, Zheng; Coleman, Stephen J.; Liu, Jinze; MacLeod, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular mechanisms that achieve protein diversity in eukaryotes are multifaceted, including transcriptional components such as RNA splicing. Through alternative splicing, a single protein-coding gene can generate multiple mRNA transcripts and protein isoforms, some of which are tissue-specific. We have conducted qualitative and quantitative analyses of the Bodymap 2.0 messenger RNA-sequencing data from 16 human tissue samples and identified 209,363 splice junctions. Of these, 22,231 (10.6%) were not previously annotated and 21,650 (10.3%) were expressed in a tissue-restricted pattern. Tissue-restricted alternative splicing was found to be widespread, with approximately 65% of expressed multi-exon genes containing at least one tissue-specific splice junction. Interestingly, we observed many tissue-specific splice junctions not only in genes expressed in one or a few tissues, but also from gene loci with a broad pattern of expression. PMID:26713731

  4. Innovations in Proteomic Profiling of Cancers: Alternative Splice Variants as a New Class of Cancer Biomarker Candidates and Bridging of Proteomics with Structural Biology

    PubMed Central

    Omenn, Gilbert S.; Menon, Rajasree; Zhang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing allows a single gene to generate multiple RNA transcripts which can be translated into functionally diverse protein isoforms. Current knowledge of splicing is derived mainly from RNA transcripts, with very little known about the expression level, 3D structures, and functional differences of the proteins. Splicing is a remarkable phenomenon of molecular and biological evolution. Studies which simply report up-regulation or down-regulation of protein or mRNA expression are confounded by the effects of mixtures of these isoforms. Besides understanding the net biological effects of the mixtures, we may be able to develop biomarker tests based on the observable differential expression of particular splice variants or combinations of splice variants in specific disease states. Here we review our work on differential expression of splice variant proteins in cancers and the feasibility of integrating proteomic analysis with structure-based conformational predictions of the differences between such isoforms. PMID:23603631

  5. MYCN controls an alternative RNA splicing program in high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shile; Wei, Jun S.; Li, Samuel Q.; Badgett, Tom C.; Song, Young K.; Agarwal, Saurabh; Coarfa, Cristian; Tolman, Catherine; Hurd, Laura; Liao, Hongling; He, Jianbin; Wen, Xinyu; Liu, Zhihui; Thiele, Carol J.; Westermann, Frank; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Seeger, Robert C.; Maris, John M.; Auvil, Jamie M Guidry; Smith, Malcolm A; Kolaczyk, Eric D; Shohet, Jason; Khan, Javed

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the aggressive behavior of MYCN driven neuroblastoma (NBL) is under intense investigation; however, little is known about the impact of this family of transcription factors on the splicing program. Here we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to systematically study the expression of RNA isoforms in stage 4 MYCN-amplified NBL, an aggressive subtype of metastatic NBL. We show that MYCN-amplified NBL tumors display a distinct gene splicing pattern affecting multiple cancer hallmark functions. Six splicing factors displayed unique differential expression patterns in MYCN-amplified tumors and cell lines, and the binding motifs for some of these splicing factors are significantly enriched in differentially-spliced genes. Direct binding of MYCN to promoter regions of the splicing factors PTBP1 and HNRNPA1 detected by ChIP-seq demonstrates MYCN controls the splicing pattern by direct regulation of the expression of these key splicing factors. Furthermore, high expression of PTBP1 and HNRNPA1 was significantly associated with poor overall survival of stage4 NBL patients (p≤0.05). Knocking down PTBP1, HNRNPA1 and their downstream target PKM2, an isoform of pro-tumor-growth, result in repressed growth of NBL cells. Therefore, our study reveals a novel role of MYCN in controlling global splicing program through regulation of splicing factors in addition to its well-known role in the transcription program. These findings suggest a therapeutically potential to target the key splicing factors or gene isoforms in high-risk NBL with MYCN-amplification. PMID:26683771

  6. MYCN controls an alternative RNA splicing program in high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shile; Wei, Jun S; Li, Samuel Q; Badgett, Tom C; Song, Young K; Agarwal, Saurabh; Coarfa, Cristian; Tolman, Catherine; Hurd, Laura; Liao, Hongling; He, Jianbin; Wen, Xinyu; Liu, Zhihui; Thiele, Carol J; Westermann, Frank; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Seeger, Robert C; Maris, John M; Guidry Auvil, Jamie M; Smith, Malcolm A; Kolaczyk, Eric D; Shohet, Jason; Khan, Javed

    2016-02-28

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the aggressive behavior of MYCN driven neuroblastoma (NBL) is under intense investigation; however, little is known about the impact of this family of transcription factors on the splicing program. Here we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to systematically study the expression of RNA isoforms in stage 4 MYCN-amplified NBL, an aggressive subtype of metastatic NBL. We show that MYCN-amplified NBL tumors display a distinct gene splicing pattern affecting multiple cancer hallmark functions. Six splicing factors displayed unique differential expression patterns in MYCN-amplified tumors and cell lines, and the binding motifs for some of these splicing factors are significantly enriched in differentially-spliced genes. Direct binding of MYCN to promoter regions of the splicing factors PTBP1 and HNRNPA1 detected by ChIP-seq demonstrates that MYCN controls the splicing pattern by direct regulation of the expression of these key splicing factors. Furthermore, high expression of PTBP1 and HNRNPA1 was significantly associated with poor overall survival of stage4 NBL patients (p ≤ 0.05). Knocking down PTBP1, HNRNPA1 and their downstream target PKM2, an isoform of pro-tumor-growth, result in repressed growth of NBL cells. Therefore, our study reveals a novel role of MYCN in controlling global splicing program through regulation of splicing factors in addition to its well-known role in the transcription program. These findings suggest a therapeutically potential to target the key splicing factors or gene isoforms in high-risk NBL with MYCN-amplification.

  7. Biological Applications of Protein Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Vila-Perelló, Miquel; Muir, Tom W.

    2010-01-01

    Protein splicing is a naturally-occurring process in which a protein editor, called an intein, performs a molecular disappearing act by cutting itself out of a host protein in a traceless manner. In the two decades since its discovery, protein splicing has been harnessed for the development of several protein-engineering methods. Collectively, these technologies help bridge the fields of chemistry and biology, allowing hitherto impossible manipulations of protein covalent structure. These tools and their application are the subject of this Primer. PMID:20946979

  8. Interaction of the yeast DExH-box RNA helicase prp22p with the 3' splice site during the second step of nuclear pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    McPheeters, D S; Schwer, B; Muhlenkamp, P

    2000-03-15

    Using site-specific incorporation of the photo-chemical cross-linking reagent 4-thiouridine, we demonstrate the previously unknown association of two proteins with yeast 3' splice sites. One of these is an unidentified approximately 122 kDa protein that cross-links to 3' splice sites during formation of the pre--spliceosome. The other factor is the DExH-box RNA helicase, Prp22p. With substrates functional in the second step of splicing, only very weak cross-linking of Prp22p to intron sequences at the 3' splice site is observed. In contrast, substrates blocked at the second step exhibit strong cross-linking of Prp22 to intron sequences at the 3' splice site, but not to adjacent exon sequences. In vitro reconstitution experiments also show that the association of Prp22p with intron sequences at the 3' splice site is dependent on Prp16p and does not persist when release of mature mRNA from the spliceosome is blocked. Taken together, these results suggest that the 3' splice site of yeast introns is contacted much earlier than previously envisioned by a protein of approximately 120 kDa, and that a transient association of Prp22p with the 3' splice site occurs between the first and second catalytic steps.

  9. Genetic variations and alternative splicing: the Glioma associated oncogene 1, GLI1

    PubMed Central

    Zaphiropoulos, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional regulatory process that is attaining stronger recognition as a modulator of gene expression. Alternative splicing occurs when the primary RNA transcript is differentially processed into more than one mature RNAs. This is the result of a variable definition/inclusion of the exons, the sequences that are excised from the primary RNA to form the mature RNAs. Consequently, RNA expression can generate a collection of differentially spliced RNAs, which may distinctly influence subsequent biological events, such as protein synthesis or other biomolecular interactions. Still the mechanisms that control exon definition and exon inclusion are not fully clarified. This mini-review highlights advances in this field as well as the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in affecting splicing decisions. The Glioma-associated oncogene 1, GLI1, is taken as an example in addressing the role of nucleotide substitutions for splicing regulation. PMID:22833753

  10. Genetic variations and alternative splicing: the Glioma associated oncogene 1, GLI1.

    PubMed

    Zaphiropoulos, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional regulatory process that is attaining stronger recognition as a modulator of gene expression. Alternative splicing occurs when the primary RNA transcript is differentially processed into more than one mature RNAs. This is the result of a variable definition/inclusion of the exons, the sequences that are excised from the primary RNA to form the mature RNAs. Consequently, RNA expression can generate a collection of differentially spliced RNAs, which may distinctly influence subsequent biological events, such as protein synthesis or other biomolecular interactions. Still the mechanisms that control exon definition and exon inclusion are not fully clarified. This mini-review highlights advances in this field as well as the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in affecting splicing decisions. The Glioma-associated oncogene 1, GLI1, is taken as an example in addressing the role of nucleotide substitutions for splicing regulation.

  11. Spinal morphine but not ziconotide or gabapentin analgesia is affected by alternative splicing of voltage-gated calcium channel CaV2.2 pre-mRNA.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Qiu; Andrade, Arturo; Lipscombe, Diane

    2013-12-26

    Presynaptic voltage-gated calcium Ca(V)2.2 channels play a privileged role in spinal level sensitization following peripheral nerve injury. Direct and indirect inhibitors of Ca(V)2.2 channel activity in spinal dorsal horn are analgesic in chronic pain states. Ca(V)2.2 channels represent a family of splice isoforms that are expressed in different combinations according to cell-type. A pair of mutually exclusive exons in the Ca(V)2.2 encoding Cacna1b gene, e37a and e37b, differentially influence morphine analgesia. In mice that lack exon e37a, which is enriched in nociceptors, the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal morphine against noxious thermal stimuli is reduced. Here we ask if sequences unique to e37a influence: the development of abnormal thermal and mechanical sensitivity associated with peripheral nerve injury; and the actions of two other classes of analgesics that owe part or all of their efficacy to Ca(V)2.2 channel inhibition. We find that: i) the analgesic efficacy of morphine, but not ziconotide or gabapentin, is reduced in mice lacking e37a, ii) the induction and maintenance of behaviors associated with sensitization that accompany peripheral nerve injury, do not require e37a-specific sequence, iii) intrathecal morphine, but not ziconotide or gabapentin analgesia to thermal stimuli is significantly lower in wild-type mice after peripheral nerve injury, iv) the analgesic efficacy of ziconotide and gabapentin to mechanical stimuli is reduced following nerve injury, and iv) intrathecal morphine analgesia to thermal stimuli in mice lacking e37a is not further reduced by peripheral nerve injury. Our findings show that the analgesic action of morphine, but not ziconotide or gabapentin, to thermal stimuli is linked to which Cacna1b exon, e37a or e37b, is selected during alternative pre-mRNA splicing.

  12. A computational and experimental approach toward a priori identification of alternatively spliced exons

    PubMed Central

    PHILIPPS, DANA L.; PARK, JUNG W.; GRAVELEY, BRENTON R.

    2004-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a powerful means of regulating gene expression and enhancing protein diversity. In fact, the majority of metazoan genes encode pre-mRNAs that are alternatively spliced to produce anywhere from two to tens of thousands of mRNA isoforms. Thus, an important part of determining the complete proteome of an organism is developing a catalog of all mRNA isoforms. Alternatively spliced exons are typically identified by aligning EST clusters to reference mRNAs or genomic DNA. However, this approach is not useful for genomes that lack robust EST coverage, and tools that enable accurate prediction of alternatively spliced exons would be extraordinarily useful. Here, we use comparative genomics to identify, and experimentally verify, potential alternative exons based solely on their high degree of conservation between Drosophila melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura. At least 40% of the exons that fit our prediction criteria are in fact alternatively spliced. Thus, comparative genomics can be used to accurately predict certain classes of alternative exons without relying on EST data. PMID:15525709

  13. Emerging functions of SRSF1, splicing factor and oncoprotein, in RNA metabolism and cancer.

    PubMed

    Das, Shipra; Krainer, Adrian R

    2014-09-01

    Serine/Arginine Splicing Factor 1 (SRSF1) is the archetype member of the SR protein family of splicing regulators. Since its discovery over two decades ago, SRSF1 has been repeatedly surprising and intriguing investigators by the plethora of complex biologic pathways it regulates. These include several key aspects of mRNA metabolism, such as mRNA splicing, stability, and translation, as well as other mRNA-independent processes, such as miRNA processing, protein sumoylation, and the nucleolar stress response. In this review, the structural features of SRSF1 are discussed as they relate to the intricate mechanism of splicing and the multiplicity of functions it performs. Similarly, a list of relevant alternatively spliced transcripts and SRSF1 interacting proteins is provided. Finally, emphasis is given to the deleterious consequences of overexpression of the SRSF1 proto-oncogene in human cancers, and the complex mechanisms and pathways underlying SRSF1-mediated transformation. The accumulated knowledge about SRSF1 provides critical insight into the integral role it plays in maintaining cellular homeostasis and suggests new targets for anticancer therapy. Mol Cancer Res; 12(9); 1195-204. ©2014 AACR.

  14. RBFOX1 regulates both splicing and transcriptional networks in human neuronal development

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Brent L.; Wexler, Eric; Wahnich, Amanda; Friedrich, Tara; Vijayendran, Chandran; Gao, Fuying; Parikshak, Neelroop; Konopka, Genevieve; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    RNA splicing plays a critical role in the programming of neuronal differentiation and, consequently, normal human neurodevelopment, and its disruption may underlie neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. The RNA-binding protein, fox-1 homolog (RBFOX1; also termed A2BP1 or FOX1), is a neuron-specific splicing factor predicted to regulate neuronal splicing networks clinically implicated in neurodevelopmental disease, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but only a few targets have been experimentally identified. We used RNA sequencing to identify the RBFOX1 splicing network at a genome-wide level in primary human neural stem cells during differentiation. We observe that RBFOX1 regulates a wide range of alternative splicing events implicated in neuronal development and maturation, including transcription factors, other splicing factors and synaptic proteins. Downstream alterations in gene expression define an additional transcriptional network regulated by RBFOX1 involved in neurodevelopmental pathways remarkably parallel to those affected by splicing. Several of these differentially expressed genes are further implicated in ASD and related neurodevelopmental diseases. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis demonstrates a high degree of connectivity among these disease-related genes, highlighting RBFOX1 as a key factor coordinating the regulation of both neurodevelopmentally important alternative splicing events and clinically relevant neuronal transcriptional programs in the development of human neurons. PMID:22730494

  15. Functional analysis of three splicing mutations identified in the PMM2 gene: toward a new therapy for congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia.

    PubMed

    Vega, Ana I; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Desviat, Lourdes R; Matthijs, Gert; Ugarte, Magdalena; Pérez, Belén

    2009-05-01

    The congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of diseases caused by genetic defects affecting N-glycosylation. The most prevalent form of CDG-type Ia-is caused by defects in the PMM2 gene. This work reports the study of two new nucleotide changes (c.256-1G>C and c.640-9T>G) identified in the PMM2 gene in CDG1a patients, and of a previously described deep intronic nucleotide change in intron 7 (c.640-15479C>T). Cell-based splicing assays strongly suggest that all these are disease-causing splicing mutations. The c.256-1G>C mutation was found to cause the skipping of exons 3 and 4 in fibroblast cell lines and in a minigene expression system. The c.640-9T>G mutation was found responsible for the activation of a cryptic intronic splice-site in fibroblast cell lines and in a hybrid minigene when cotransfected with certain serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins. Finally, the deep intronic change c.640-15479C>T was found to be responsible for the activation of a pseudoexon sequence in intron 7. The use of morpholino oligonucleotides allowed the production of correctly spliced mRNA that was efficiently translated into functional and immunoreactive PMM protein. The present results suggest a novel mutation-specific approach for the treatment of this genetic disease (for which no effective treatment is yet available), and open up therapeutic possibilities for several genetic disorders in which deep intronic changes are seen.

  16. Activation and repression functions of an SR splicing regulator depend on exonic versus intronic-binding position.

    PubMed

    Shen, Manli; Mattox, William

    2012-01-01

    SR proteins and related factors play widespread roles in alternative pre-mRNA splicing and are known to promote splice site recognition through their Arg-Ser-rich effector domains. However, binding of SR regulators to some targets results in repression of splice sites through a distinct mechanism. Here, we investigate how activated and repressed targets of the Drosophila SR regulator Transformer2 elicit its differing effects on splicing. We find that, like activation, repression affects early steps in the recognition of splice sites and spliceosome assembly. Repositioning of regulatory elements reveals that Tra2 complexes that normally repress splicing from intronic positions activate splicing when located in an exon. Protein tethering experiments demonstrate that this position dependence is an intrinsic property of Tra2 and further show that repression and activation are mediated by separate effector domains of this protein. When other Drosophila SR factors (SF2 and Rbp1) that activate splicing from exonic positions were tethered intronically they failed to either activate or repress splicing. Interestingly, both activities of Tra2 favor the exonic identity of the RNA sequences that encompass its binding sites. This suggests a model in which these two opposite functions act in concert to define both the position and extent of alternatively spliced exons.

  17. Spliced XBP1 promotes macrophage survival and autophagy by interacting with Beclin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Ping-Ge; Jiang, Zhi-Xin; Li, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Qing-Hua

    2015-08-07

    Macrophage autophagy plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, but the precise mechanism mediating this process is unclear. The potential role of the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a crucial transduction factor that is involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response, in bone marrow-derived macrophage autophagy is unknown. This study mainly explores the roles of XBP1 mRNA splicing in bone marrow-derived macrophage autophagy. The present study shows that the transient overexpression of spliced XBP1 via adenovirus-mediated gene transfer induces autophagy and promotes proliferation in bone marrow-derived macrophages via the down-regulation of Beclin-1, but that the sustained overexpression of spliced XBP1 leads to apoptosis. When XBP1 is down-regulated in bone marrow-derived macrophages using siRNA, rapamycin-induced autophagosome formation is ablated. Furthermore, we have detected the overexpression of XBP1 in areas of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries of ApoE−/− mice. These results demonstrate that XBP1 mRNA splicing plays an important role in maintaining the function of bone marrow-derived macrophages and provide new insight into the study and treatment of atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • XBP1 was up-regulated in atherosclerotic plaques of ApoE−/− mice. • Transient spliced XBP1 overexpression induced macrophages autophagy via Beclin-1. • Sustained spliced XBP1 overexpression triggered macrophages apoptosis. • Spliced XBP1 plays a key role in maintaining the macrophages survival.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cell contact promotes CCN1 splicing and transcription in myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Dotterweich, Julia; Ebert, Regina; Kraus, Sabrina; Tower, Robert J; Jakob, Franz; Schütze, Norbert

    2014-06-25

    CCN family member 1 (CCN1), also known as cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61), belongs to the extracellular matrix-associated CCN protein family. The diverse functions of these proteins include regulation of cell migration, adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and survival/apoptosis,