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Sample records for affect multiple organ

  1. Poor response of initial steroid therapy for IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis with multiple organs affected

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Weijie; He, Xiaodong; Qu, Qiang; Hong, Tao; Li, Binglu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is a rare biliary manifestation in which many other organs might be affected. The purpose of our study was to investigate the different clinical characteristics and initial steroid response between IgG4-SC patients with and without other organs affected. A series of patients with IgG4-SC in the period from January 2006 to December 2015 at our hospital were included. The pancreas and major salivary glands were screened, and the initial corticosteroid therapy was given. Clinical information was collected and analyzed including demographics, clinical presentation, IgG4 serology, imaging features, and treatment outcomes. The study identified 72 IgG4-SC patients, including 60 males and 12 females. The mean age was 59.8 years old. Among these IgG4-SC patients, 10 patients had only bile duct involved, 42 patients had 2 organs involved and 20 patients had multiple organs involved. In patients with multiple organs involved, more complaints were given (mean 2.9 kinds), higher serum IgG4 levels were found (23458 ± 19402.7 mg/L), and more stricture lesions of biliary tract were shown. All 72 patients exhibited a disease response within 4 to 6 weeks of starting steroids. The remission rate in the multiple lesions group was lower (60%), and the recurrence rate is higher (83.3%). The relapse-free survival was 20.0 months in the single lesion group, which is longer than that in the multiple lesions group (3.1 months, P < 0.05). The IgG4-SC patients with multiple organs affected had more complaints, higher serum IgG4 levels, and poor response to initial steroids. PMID:28328835

  2. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parke, A L; Liu, P T; Parke, D V

    2003-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and renal failure, is described, its clinical features outlined, its origins in tissue oxidative stress following severe infections, surgical trauma, ionizing radiation, high-dosage drugs and chemicals, severe hemorrhage, etc., are defined, and its prevention and treatment prescribed.

  3. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, M. J.; Coursin, D. B.

    1993-01-01

    The multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), though newly described, has manifested itself in intensive care unit (ICU) patients for several decades. As the name implies, it is a syndrome in which more than one organ system fails. Failure of these multiple organ systems may or may not be related to the initial injury or disease process for which the patient was admitted to the ICU. MODS is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in current ICU practice. While the pathophysiology of MODS is not completely known, much evidence indicates that, during the initial injury which precipitates ICU admission, a chain of events is initiated which results in activation of several endogenous metabolic pathways. These pathways release compounds which, in and of themselves, are usually cytoprotective. However, an over exuberant activation of these endogenous systems results in an inflammatory response which can lead to development of failure in distant organs. As these organs fail, they activate and propagate the systemic inflammatory response. No therapy has proven entirely efficacious at modulating this inflammatory response and the incidence and severity of MODS. In current ICU practice, treatment is focused on prevention and treating individual organ dysfunction as it develops. With increased understanding of the pathophysiology of MODS therapy will come newer modalities which inhibit or interfere with the propagation of the endogenous systemic inflammatory response. These newer therapies hold great promise and already some are undergoing clinical investigation. PMID:7825351

  4. [Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cuenca Solanas, M

    1999-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a clinical situation that has been described as a result of the rapid progress and advances that have been made in recent decades in the physiology, diagnosis, and therapeutic support of critically ill patients. In 1991, in view of the confusing terminology used to characterize processes coursing with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), a consensus conference was held. A series of basic definitions were established and the term "multiple organ failure" was replace by MODS. In response to outside aggression, the organism tries to defend itself with two mechanisms: a non-specific humoral and cellular response called inflammation, and a specific antigenic response that modifies the genetic codes of cells of the defense system and constitutes an immunological response. At present it is thought that the inflammatory response is activated (SIRS) in response to an uncontrolled aggression, but an antiinflammatory response syndrome (ARS) exists as well. An exaggerated SIRS can lead to MODS. MODS usually debuts with pulmonary dysfunction. If the aggression persists, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, coagulation, central nervous system, gastrointestinal metabolism, neuroendocrine and musculoskeletal failure follow. A series of causes often trigger this syndrome and certain factors favor it. Prevention of these causes and factors in fundamental for controlling the occurrence of MODS. At present, there is no clear treatment for MODS, although numerous studies designed to block the release of certain proinflammatory mediators or to neutralize antiinflammatory responses are being carried out.

  5. Tumor growth affects the metabonomic phenotypes of multiple mouse non-involved organs in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shan; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Yili; Zhang, Nijia; Hu, Sheng; Song, Dandan; Wu, Zhengshun; Wang, Yulan; Cui, Yanfang; Tang, Huiru

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tumorigenesis and tumor growth on the non-involved organs remain poorly understood although many research efforts have already been made for understanding the metabolic phenotypes of various tumors. To better the situation, we systematically analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of multiple non-involved mouse organ tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model at two different tumor-growth stages using the NMR-based metabonomics approaches. We found that tumor growth caused significant metabonomic changes in multiple non-involved organ tissues involving numerous metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, TCA cycle and metabolisms of amino acids, fatty acids, choline and nucleic acids. Amongst these, the common effects are enhanced glycolysis and nucleoside/nucleotide metabolisms. These findings provided essential biochemistry information about the effects of tumor growth on the non-involved organs. PMID:27329570

  6. Conservation planning with multiple organizations and objectives.

    PubMed

    Bode, Michael; Probert, Will; Turner, Will R; Wilson, Kerrie A; Venter, Oscar

    2011-04-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the number of conservation organizations worldwide. It is now common for multiple organizations to operate in the same landscape in pursuit of different conservation goals. New objectives, such as maintenance of ecosystem services, will attract additional funding and new organizations to conservation. Systematic conservation planning helps in the design of spatially explicit management actions that optimally conserve multiple landscape features (e.g., species, ecosystems, or ecosystem services). But the methods used in its application implicitly assume that a single actor implements the optimal plan. We investigated how organizational behavior and conservation outcomes are affected by the presence of autonomous implementing organizations with different objectives. We used simulation models and game theory to explore how alternative behaviors (e.g., organizations acting independently or explicitly cooperating) affected an organization's ability to protect their feature of interest, and investigated how the distribution of features in the landscape influenced organizations' attitudes toward cooperation. Features with highly correlated spatial distributions, although typically considered an opportunity for mutually beneficial conservation planning, can lead to organizational interactions that result in lower levels of protection. These detrimental outcomes can be avoided by organizations that cooperate when acquiring land. Nevertheless, for cooperative purchases to benefit both organizations' objectives, each must forgo the protection of land parcels that they would consider to be of high conservation value. Transaction costs incurred during cooperation and the sources of conservation funding could facilitate or hinder cooperative behavior.

  7. An allelic series of mice reveals a role for RERE in the development of multiple organs affected in chromosome 1p36 deletions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jun; Zaveri, Hitisha P; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Yu, Zhiyin; Hernández-García, Andrés; Seymour, Michelle L; Oghalai, John S; Pereira, Fred A; Stockton, David W; Justice, Monica J; Lee, Brendan; Scott, Daryl A

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with terminal and interstitial deletions of chromosome 1p36 have a spectrum of defects that includes eye anomalies, postnatal growth deficiency, structural brain anomalies, seizures, cognitive impairment, delayed motor development, behavior problems, hearing loss, cardiovascular malformations, cardiomyopathy, and renal anomalies. The proximal 1p36 genes that contribute to these defects have not been clearly delineated. The arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE) repeats gene (RERE) is located in this region and encodes a nuclear receptor coregulator that plays a critical role in embryonic development as a positive regulator of retinoic acid signaling. Rere-null mice die of cardiac failure between E9.5 and E11.5. This limits their usefulness in studying the role of RERE in the latter stages of development and into adulthood. To overcome this limitation, we created an allelic series of RERE-deficient mice using an Rere-null allele, om, and a novel hypomorphic Rere allele, eyes3 (c.578T>C, p.Val193Ala), which we identified in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-based screen for autosomal recessive phenotypes. Analyses of these mice revealed microphthalmia, postnatal growth deficiency, brain hypoplasia, decreased numbers of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN)-positive hippocampal neurons, hearing loss, cardiovascular malformations-aortic arch anomalies, double outlet right ventricle, and transposition of the great arteries, and perimembranous ventricular septal defects-spontaneous development of cardiac fibrosis and renal agenesis. These findings suggest that RERE plays a critical role in the development and function of multiple organs including the eye, brain, inner ear, heart and kidney. It follows that haploinsufficiency of RERE may contribute-alone or in conjunction with other genetic, environmental, or stochastic factors-to the development of many of the phenotypes seen in individuals with terminal and interstitial deletions that include the proximal region of

  8. Multiple-component covalent organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ning; Zhai, Lipeng; Coupry, Damien E.; Addicoat, Matthew A.; Okushita, Keiko; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Heine, Thomas; Jiang, Donglin

    2016-07-01

    Covalent organic frameworks are a class of crystalline porous polymers that integrate molecular building blocks into periodic structures and are usually synthesized using two-component [1+1] condensation systems comprised of one knot and one linker. Here we report a general strategy based on multiple-component [1+2] and [1+3] condensation systems that enable the use of one knot and two or three linker units for the synthesis of hexagonal and tetragonal multiple-component covalent organic frameworks. Unlike two-component systems, multiple-component covalent organic frameworks feature asymmetric tiling of organic units into anisotropic skeletons and unusually shaped pores. This strategy not only expands the structural complexity of skeletons and pores but also greatly enhances their structural diversity. This synthetic platform is also widely applicable to multiple-component electron donor-acceptor systems, which lead to electronic properties that are not simply linear summations of those of the conventional [1+1] counterparts.

  9. [Risk of affective disorder in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Stage, Kurt Bjerregaard; Stenager, Egon

    2011-01-10

    An increased risk for depression has been found in multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of the present study has been to give suggestions to guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of depression in MS in Denmark based on the international literature and recommendations. The method was a review of the relevant literature. The study recommends assessment of all MS patients for depression. Treatment of depression with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and/or cognitive behavioural therapy is recommended, depending on the severity of the illness. Caution is recommended in patients receiving beta interferon treatment.

  10. [Affective and psychotic disorders in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Pozuelo-Moyano, Beatriz; Benito-León, Julián

    2015-12-01

    Introduccion. La esclerosis multiple (EM) es la segunda causa mas importante de discapacidad de origen neurologico en los adultos jovenes. Tanto la sintomatologia fisica como la psiquiatrica (trastornos afectivos y psicoticos) impactan de manera negativa en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de los pacientes con EM. Objetivo. Elucidar de modo critico la prevalencia y la patogenia de los sintomas afectivos y psicoticos presentes en la EM. Desarrollo. Se incluye una actualizacion de los estudios publicados mas significativos que han analizado la prevalencia y la patogenia de la sintomatologia afectiva y psicotica en los pacientes con EM. Para explorar la asociacion entre los sintomas afectivos y psicoticos con la EM se ha revisado la evidencia disponible hasta el momento. Conclusiones. La depresion es el trastorno psiquiatrico mas frecuente en la EM. Es necesaria mas investigacion para elucidar los mecanismos subyacentes que pueden provocar sintomas afectivos y psicoticos en la EM. El control de dichos sintomas en los pacientes de EM podria mejorar su calidad de vida relacionada con la salud.

  11. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    PubMed

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed.

  12. Multiple-component covalent organic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ning; Zhai, Lipeng; Coupry, Damien E.; Addicoat, Matthew A.; Okushita, Keiko; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Heine, Thomas; Jiang, Donglin

    2016-01-01

    Covalent organic frameworks are a class of crystalline porous polymers that integrate molecular building blocks into periodic structures and are usually synthesized using two-component [1+1] condensation systems comprised of one knot and one linker. Here we report a general strategy based on multiple-component [1+2] and [1+3] condensation systems that enable the use of one knot and two or three linker units for the synthesis of hexagonal and tetragonal multiple-component covalent organic frameworks. Unlike two-component systems, multiple-component covalent organic frameworks feature asymmetric tiling of organic units into anisotropic skeletons and unusually shaped pores. This strategy not only expands the structural complexity of skeletons and pores but also greatly enhances their structural diversity. This synthetic platform is also widely applicable to multiple-component electron donor–acceptor systems, which lead to electronic properties that are not simply linear summations of those of the conventional [1+1] counterparts. PMID:27460607

  13. Do organic ligands affect calcite dissolution rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelkers, Eric H.; Golubev, Sergey V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Bénézeth, Pascale

    2011-04-01

    Steady state Iceland-spar calcite dissolution rates were measured at 25 °C in aqueous solutions containing 0.1 M NaCl and up to 0.05 M dissolved bicarbonate at pH from 7.9 to 9.1 in the presence of 13 distinct dissolved organic ligands in mixed-flow reactors. The organic ligands considered in this study include those most likely to be present in either (1) aquifers at the conditions pertinent to CO 2 sequestration or (2) soil/early diagenetic environments: acetate, phthalate, citrate, EDTA 4-, succinate, D-glucosaminate, L-glutamate, D-gluconate, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, fumarate, malonate, and gallate. Results show that the presence of <0.05 mol/kg of these organic anions changes calcite dissolution rates by less than a factor of 2.5 with the exception of citrate and EDTA 4-. The presence of 0.05 mol/kg citrate and EDTA 4- increases calcite dissolution rates by as much as a factor of 35 and 500, respectively, compared to rates in organic anion-free solutions. Further calcite dissolution experiments were performed in the presence of organic polymers similar to bacterial exudates, cell exopolysaccharides, and analogs of microbial cell envelopes: alginate, lichen extract, humic acid, pectin, and gum xanthan. In no case did the presence of <100 ppm of these organics change calcite dissolution rates by more than a factor of 2.5. Results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of aqueous organic anions negligibly affects calcite forward dissolution rates in most natural environments. Some effect on calcite reactivity may be observed, however, by the presence of organic anions if they change substantially the chemical affinity of the fluid with respect to calcite.

  14. Relapse of Multiple Myeloma Presenting as Extramedullary Plasmacytomas in Multiple Organs

    PubMed Central

    Köse, Murat; Buraniqi, Ersida; Akpinar, Timur Selçuk; Kayacan, Seyit Mehmet; Tükek, Tufan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a neoplastic plasma cell disorder. It is characterized by collections of abnormal plasma cells accumulating in the bone marrow, where they interfere with the production of normal blood cells. It usually presents as a multisystemic involvement, whose symptoms and signs vary greatly. Some patients have slowly progressive disease while others have aggressive clinical behavior by extramedullary involvement. In addition to renal failure, anemia, hypercalcemia, lytic bone lesions, and immunodeficiency, it also affects multiple organ system, such as pancreas, adrenal glands, kidney, skin, lung, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone. To raise awareness of the variable presentations of this disease, we report a 53-year-old male patient, with multiple myeloma in his first remission who relapsed with extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMPs) involving multiple organs, such as pancreas, adrenal glands, kidney, skin, lung, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. PMID:25694834

  15. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  16. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  17. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  18. MORE for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: Multiple Organ REanimation, REgeneration, and REprogramming.

    PubMed

    Cobb, J Perren

    2010-11-01

    Those who care for the critically ill and injured rightfully celebrate the advances made by our field over its first 50 yrs. Advances in systems, tissue, and molecular engineering, together defined as "health engineering," will provide unprecedented opportunities to treat multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in the 21st century. In the future, Multiple Organ REanimation, REgeneration, and REprogramming will be responsible for new treatment approaches for those with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome; several examples are presented here. Thus, as we spent the first 50 yrs of care for the critical ill and injured learning how best to hook humans up to machines, we will spend the next 50 yrs understanding better how to liberate patients from mechanical support. It is difficult to know when these advances will be realized given that the rate of change continues to increase and the seemingly impossible goal of reprogramming fully differentiated cells was accomplished recently by manipulating a few transcription factors. It is not unrealistic to expect that in the next couple of decades that it will be possible to dedifferentiate dysfunctional somatic cells in vivo to a more robust, resistant cell phenotype. Our future should be aimed in part at refining our skill sets and refocusing (even rebranding) critical care as health engineering aimed at Multiple Organ REanimation, REgeneration, and REprogramming.

  19. Antibiotic dosing in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ulldemolins, Marta; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffrey; Rello, Jordi

    2011-05-01

    Although early and appropriate antibiotic therapy remains the cornerstone of success for the treatment of septic shock, few data exist to guide antibiotic dose optimization in critically ill patients, particularly those with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). It is well known that MODS significantly alters the patient's physiology, but the effects of these variations on pharmacokinetics have not been reviewed concisely. Therefore, the aims of this article are to summarize the disease-driven variations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and to provide antibiotic dosing recommendations for critically ill patients with MODS. The main findings of this review are that the two parameters that vary with greatest significance in critically ill patients with MODS are drug volume of distribution and clearance. Disease- and clinician-driven changes lead to an increased volume of distribution and lower-than-expected plasma drug concentrations during the first day of therapy at least. Decreased antibiotic clearance is common and can lead to drug toxicity. In summary, "front-loaded" doses of antibiotic during the first 24 h of therapy should account for the likely increases in the antibiotic volume of distribution. Thereafter, maintenance dosing must be guided by drug clearance and adjusted to the degree of organ dysfunction.

  20. Do affective attitudes predict organ donor registration? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed whether people's affective attitudes predicted organ donor registration at a later time. People who were not registered as an organ donor prior to completing the study (N = 150) first rated their affective attitudes towards organ donation. We then measured whether they clicked on a hyperlink to register as an organ donor. Believing that the body should be kept whole for burial (bodily integrity) was the only affective attitude to predict this organ donation behaviour. Future campaigns should target this concern in order to increase organ donor registration and the availability of donor organs.

  1. Composition of whole and water extractable organic matter of cattle manure affected by management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic matter (OM) is a major component of animal manure. In this chapter, we present two case studies on the multiple spectral features of whole and water extractable organic matter (WEOM) of cattle (beef and dairy) manure affected by differing management practices. Using wet chemistry and Fourie...

  2. Fever with multiple organ failure: not always sepsis.

    PubMed

    Davlouros, P A; Velissaris, D; Tsiola, A; Filos, K S; Alexopoulos, D

    2010-11-01

    We present the case of a 52-year-old female admitted with fever and multiple organ failure, initially treated for presumed sepsis. However the combination of multiple organ failure, hyperthermia and vascular instability raised the suspicion of a phaeochromocytoma multisystem crisis. An emergency abdominal ultrasound in the intensive care unit disclosed a large tumour of the right adrenal. Despite specific medical treatment for the presumed adrenal emergency and multiple organ failure, the patient succumbed. Postmortem examination verified the diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma.

  3. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries.

    PubMed

    Baygeldi, Serdar; Karakose, Oktay; Özcelik, Kazım Caglar; Pülat, Hüseyin; Damar, Sedat; Eken, Hüseyin; Zihni, İsmail; Çalta, Alpaslan Fedai; Baç, Bilsel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3%) and 28 females (25.7%), and the mean age was 37.6 ± 18.28 (15-78) years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3%) traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle), 27 (24.7%) falling from a height, 14 (12.9%) assaults, 5 (4.5%) sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5%) gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3%) of grade I, 32 (46.4%) of grade II, 22 (31.8%) of grade III, and 1 (1.5%) of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in 21

  4. Correlates of Instrumental and Affective Attachment to Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angle, Harold L.

    It has been suggested that different forms of organizational commitment have different outcomes as well as different antecedents. To test the hypothesis that instrumental attachment to an organization is associated with members' investments in the organization, and that affective attachment to an organization is influenced primarily by the way the…

  5. Landscape structure affects the provision of multiple ecosystem services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, T.; Liss, K. N.; Gonzalez, A.; Bennett, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how landscape structure, the composition and configuration of land use/land cover (LULC) types, affects the relative supply of ecosystem services (ES), is critical to improving landscape management. While there is a long history of studies on landscape composition, the importance of landscape configuration has only recently become apparent. To understand the role of landscape structure in the provision of multiple ES, we must understand how ES respond to different measures of both composition and configuration of LULC. We used a multivariate framework to quantify the role of landscape configuration and composition in the provision of ten ES in 130 municipalities in an agricultural region in Southern Québec. We identified the relative influence of composition and configuration in the provision of these ES using multiple regression, and on bundles of ES using canonical redundancy analysis. We found that both configuration and composition play a role in explaining variation in the supply of ES, but the relative contribution of composition and configuration varies significantly among ES. We also identified three distinct ES bundles (sets of ES that regularly appear together on the landscape) and found that each bundle was associated with a unique area in the landscape, that mapped to a gradient in the composition and configuration of forest and agricultural LULC. These results show that the distribution of ES on the landscape depends upon both the overall composition of LULC types and their configuration on the landscape. As ES become more widely used to steer land use decision-making, quantifying the roles of configuration and composition in the provision of ES bundles can improve landscape management by helping us understand when and where the spatial pattern of land cover is important for multiple services.

  6. Triaziflam and Diaminotriazine derivatives affect enantioselectively multiple herbicide target sites.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, K; Tresch, S; Plath, P

    2001-01-01

    Enantiomers of triaziflam and structurally related diaminotriazines were synthesized and their herbicidal mode of action was investigated. The compounds caused light and dark-dependent effects in multiple test systems including heterotrophic cleaver and photoautotrophic algal cell suspensions, the Hill reaction of isolated thylakoids and germinating cress seeds. Dose-response experiments revealed that the (S)-enantiomers of the compounds preferentially inhibited photosystem II electron transport (PET) and algae growth with efficacies similar to that of the herbicide atrazine. In contrast, the (R)-enantiomers of the diaminotriazines were up to 100 times more potent inhibitors of growth in cleaver cell suspensions and cress seedlings in the dark than the (S)-enantiomers. The most active compound, the (R)-enantiomer of triaziflam, inhibited shoot and root elongation of cress and maize seedlings at concentrations below 1 microM. The meristematic root tips swelled into a club shape which is typical for the action of mitotic disrupter herbicides and cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors. Microscopic examination using histochemical techniques revealed that triaziflam (R)-enantiomer blocks cell division in maize root tips 4 h after treatment. The chromosomes proceeded to a condensed state of prometaphase but were unable to progress further in the mitotic cycle. Disruption of mitosis was accompanied by a loss of spindle and phragmoplast micotubule arrays. Concomitantly, cortical microtubules decreased which could lead to isodiametric cell growth and consequently to root swelling. In addition, a decline in cellulose deposition in cell walls was found 24 h after treatment. Compared to the (R)-form, triaziflam (S)-enantiomer was clearly less active. The results suggest that triaziflam and related diaminotriazines affect enantioselectively multiple sites of action which include PET inhibitory activity, mitotic disruption by inhibiting microtubule formation and inhibition of

  7. Neurologic aspects of multiple organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zivković, Saša A

    2014-01-01

    Complex multiorgan failure may require simultaneous transplantation of several organs, including heart-lung, kidney-pancreas, or multivisceral transplantation. Solid organ transplantation can also be combined with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to modulate immunologic response to a solid organ allograft. Combined multiorgan transplantation may offer a lower rate of allograft rejection and lower immunosuppression needs. In recent years, intestinal and multivisceral transplantations became viable as a rescue treatment for patients with irreversible intestinal failure who can no longer tolerate total parenteral nutrition with 70% survival after 5 years which is comparable to other types of solid organ allografts. Post-transplant neurologic complications were reported in up to 86% of allograft recipients and greatly overlap in intestinal and multivisceral allograft recipients, without a significant effect on the outcome of transplantation. Other common organ combinations in multiorgan transplantation include kidney-pancreas, which is mostly used for patients with renal failure and uncontrolled diabetes, and heart-lung for patients with congenital heart disease and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Kidney-pancreas transplantation frequently results in an improvement of diabetic complications, including diabetic neuropathy. Heart-lung allograft recipients have very similar clinical course and spectrum of neurologic complications to lung transplant recipients. At this time there are no reports of an increased risk of graft-versus-host disease with combined transplantation of solid organ allograft and hematopoietic stem cells. Chronic immunosuppression and complex toxic-metabolic disturbances after multiorgan transplantation create a permissive environment for development of a wide spectrum of neurologic complications which largely resemble complications after transplantations of individual components of complex multiorgan allografts.

  8. Pathogenesis of Multiple Organ Failure in Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rossaint, Jan; Zarbock, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a severe critical illness syndrome that arises from infectious insults. While the host immune system is generally beneficial, an overshooting and unregulated immune response can cause serious organ tissue injury. During sepsis, systemic hypotension, disturbed perfusion of the microcirculation, and direct tissue-toxicity caused by inflammatory immune reaction can occur and contribute to organ failure. The failure of two or more vital organ systems is termed multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and resembles a very critical condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. Importantly, no specific treatment strategy exists to efficiently prevent the development of MODS during sepsis. In this review, we aim to identify the relevant molecular immunological pathways involved in the pathogenesis of MODS during sepsis. We believe that a detailed understanding of this mechanism is necessary for the development of new treatment approaches for septic patients. In particular, knowledge of the endogenous regulators keeping the balance between necessary immune system activation to combat infections and prevention of host tissue damage would greatly improve the chances for the development of effective interventions.

  9. Organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-03-27

    An organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers is provided. Each emissive layer may define an exciton formation region, allowing exciton formation to occur across the entire emissive region. By aligning the energy levels of each emissive layer with the adjacent emissive layers, exciton formation in each layer may be improved. Devices incorporating multiple emissive layers with multiple exciton formation regions may exhibit improved performance, including internal quantum efficiencies of up to 100%.

  10. Multiple contributions to clinical presentation of flat affect in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mayer, M; Alpert, M; Stastny, P; Perlick, D; Empfield, M

    1985-01-01

    Flat affect has long been recognized as a central manifestation of schizophrenia, and has more recently been appreciated as a stable and prognostically important attribute of this disorder. Yet, because it is thought to be difficult to evaluate, flat affect has been deemphasized in criterion-based diagnostic systems. Results of this study suggest that the clinical evaluation of flat affect may be contaminated by a number of behaviorally similar processes. The components we identified included right hemisphere dysfunction, retardation and extrapyramidal effects, as well as the sequelae of hospitalization. Thus, in the clinical evaluation of flat affect, a multivariate approach in which these different components are considered separately might improve the reliability of evaluation and make this important sign more useful.

  11. Codependency in nurses. How it affects your organization.

    PubMed

    Wise, B; Ferreiro, B

    1995-09-01

    Codependence in a staff nurse affects both direct patient care and relationships with coworkers, physicians, and supervisors. Codependent behaviors negatively impact the nurse's sphere of influence. The nurse manager's codependency has the same impact, but the sphere of influence is larger and thus, the potential for harm is greater. Codependent behaviors enacted at different levels of an organization can disrupt an entire institution or profession. The author describes how nurses' practices are affected by codependent behaviors and identifies ways in which those behaviors can be modified by good management.

  12. How multiple mating by females affects sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Stephen M.; Briggs, William R.; Dennis, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are successful at multiple mating also sire most or all of each of their mates' offspring, i.e. only when Cov♂(m,o), is positive. Condition 2 is the pattern of female reproductive life-history; specifically, whether female mating number, m, covaries with female offspring number, o. Only semelparity does not erode sexual selection, whereas iteroparity (i.e. when Cov♀(m,o), is positive) always increases the variance in offspring numbers among females, which always decreases the intensity of sexual selection on males. To document the covariance between mating number and offspring number for each sex, it is necessary to assign progeny to all parents, as well as identify mating and non-mating individuals. To document significant fitness gains by females through iteroparity, it is necessary to determine the relative magnitudes of male as well as female contributions to the total variance in relative fitness. We show how such data can be collected, how often they are collected, and we explain the circumstances in which selection favouring multiple mating by females can be strong or weak. PMID:23339237

  13. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    PubMed Central

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  14. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  15. May organic pollutants affect fish populations in the North Sea?

    PubMed

    Hylland, Ketil; Beyer, Jonny; Berntssen, Marc; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Lang, Thomas; Balk, Lennart

    2006-01-08

    The North Sea is a highly productive area with large fish populations that have been extensively harvested over the past century. North Sea fisheries remain important to the surrounding countries despite declining fish stocks over the past decades. The main reason for declining fish stocks is nearly certainly overfishing, but other environmental pressures also affect fish populations, such as eutrophication, climate change, and exposure to metals and organic pollutants, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols, and organochlorine compounds. There are three main sources of organic pollutants in the North Sea: atmospheric, land-based sources, and inputs from offshore gas and oil installations. All three sources contribute to elevated concentrations of organic pollutants in the North Sea compared to the Norwegian Sea. There is evidence that chlorinated organic contaminants were present in sufficiently high concentrations in the southern North Sea two decades ago, to alter embryonal development in fish. The results from extensive, long-term monitoring programs show that some diseases decreased whereas other increased in the southern North Sea and that, among other factors, contaminants may play a role in the temporal changes recorded in disease prevalence. Recent studies demonstrated that components in offshore effluents may affect fish reproduction and that tissues of fish near oil rigs are structurally different to tissues of fish from reference areas. Data on effluents from offshore activities have recently become available through an international workshop (BECPELAG) and follow-up studies.

  16. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR.

  17. How an organism dies affects the fitness of its neighbors.

    PubMed

    Durand, Pierre M; Rashidi, Armin; Michod, Richard E

    2011-02-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD), a genetically regulated cell suicide program, is ubiquitous in the living world. In contrast to multicellular organisms, in which cells cooperate for the good of the organism, in unicells the cell is the organism and PCD presents a fundamental evolutionary problem. Why should an organism actively kill itself as opposed to dying in a nonprogrammed way? Proposed arguments vary from PCD in unicells being maladaptive to the assumption that it is an extreme form of altruism. To test whether PCD could be beneficial to nearby cells, we induced programmed and nonprogrammed death in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Cellular contents liberated during non-PCD are detrimental to others, while the contents released during PCD are beneficial. The number of cells in growing cultures was used to measure fitness. Thermostability studies revealed that the beneficial effect of the PCD supernatant most likely involves simple heat-stable biomolecules. Non-PCD supernatant contains heat-sensitive molecules like cellular proteases and chlorophyll. These data indicate that the mode of death affects the origin and maintenance of PCD. The way in which an organism dies can have beneficial or deleterious effects on the fitness of its neighbors.

  18. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

  19. Chemical ions affect survival of avian cholera organisms in pondwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.; Yandell, B.S.; Porter, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    Avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida) is a major disease of wild waterfowl, but its epizootiology remains little understood. Consequently, we examined whether chemical ions affected survival of avian cholera organisms in water collected from the Nebraska Rainwater Basin where avian cholera is enzootic. We tested the response of P. multocida to ammonium (NH4), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), nitrate (NO3), and ortho-phosphate (PO4) ions individually and in combination using a fractional factorial design divided into 4 blocks. High concentrations of Ca and Mg, singly or in combination, increased survival of P. multocida organisms (P < 0.001). We developed a survival index to predict whether or not specific ponds could be "problem" or "nonproblem" avian cholera sites based on concentrations of these ions in the water.

  20. Absence of cytoglobin promotes multiple organ abnormalities in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Le Thi Thanh; Van Thuy, Tuong Thi; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Hai, Hoang; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Kawada, Norifumi

    2016-01-01

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) was identified in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and pericytes of all organs; however, the effects of Cygb on cellular functions remain unclear. Here, we report spontaneous and age-dependent malformations in multiple organs of Cygb−/− mice. Twenty-six percent of young Cygb−/− mice (<1 year old) showed heart hypertrophy, cystic disease in the kidney or ovary, loss of balance, liver fibrosis and lymphoma. Furthermore, 71.3% (82/115) of aged Cygb−/− mice (1–2 years old) exhibited abnormalities, such as heart hypertrophy and cancer development in multiple organs; by contrast, 5.8% (4/68) of aged wild-type (WT) mice had abnormalities (p < 0.0001). Interestingly, serum and urine analysis demonstrated that the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites increased significantly in Cygb−/− mice, resulting in an imbalance in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defence system that was reversed by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine treatment. A senescent phenotype and evidence of DNA damage were found in primary HSCs and the liver of aged Cygb−/− mice. Moreover, compared with HSC+/+, HSC−/− showed high expression of Il-6 and chemokine mRNA when cocultured with mouse Hepa 1–6 cells. Thus, the absence of Cygb in pericytes provokes organ abnormalities, possibly via derangement of the nitric oxide and antioxidant defence system and through accelerated cellular senescence. PMID:27146058

  1. Rosai-Dorfman Disease Involving Multiple Organs: An Unusual Case with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Ranaivo, Irina Mamisoa; Andrianarison, Malalaniaina; Razanakoto, Naina Harinjara; Ramarozatovo, Lala Soavina

    2016-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare, benign histiocytic proliferative disorder that usually affects the lymph nodes. Although extranodal involvement has been reported in diverse sites, manifestation in the cardiovascular system is extremely rare. Specifically, cardiac involvement in Rosai-Dorfman disease is an extraordinarily infrequent event. We describe a case of a 36-year-old female who presented Rosai-Dorfman disease of multiple organs including the heart, with poor prognosis. PMID:27872644

  2. Supporting Affect Regulation in Children with Multiple Disabilities during Psychotherapy: A Multiple Case Design Study of Therapeutic Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuengel, C.; Sterkenburg, P. S.; Jeczynski, P.; Janssen, C. G. C.; Jongbloed, G.

    2009-01-01

    In a controlled multiple case design study, the development of a therapeutic relationship and its role in affect regulation were studied in 6 children with visual disabilities, severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behavior, and prolonged social deprivation. In the 1st phase, children had sessions with an experimental therapist…

  3. Harmonic competition: a self-organizing multiple criteria optimization.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Y

    1996-01-01

    Harmonic competition is a learning strategy based upon winner-take-all or winner-take-quota with respect to a composite of heterogeneous subcosts. This learning is unsupervised and organizes itself. The subcosts may conflict with each other. Thus, the total learning system realizes a self-organizing multiple criteria optimization. The subcosts are combined additively and multiplicatively using adjusting parameters. For such a total cost, a general successive learning algorithm is derived first. Then, specific problems in the Euclidian space are addressed. Vector quantization with various constraints and traveling salesperson problems are selected as test problems. The former is a typical class of problems where the number of neurons is less than that of the data. The latter is an opposite case. Duality exists in these two classes. In both cases, the combination parameters of the subcosts show wide dynamic ranges in the course of learning. It is possible, however, to decide the parameter control from the structure of the total cost. This method finds a preferred solution from the Pareto optimal set of the multiple object optimization. Controlled mutations motivated by genetic algorithms are proved to be effective in finding near-optimal solutions.

  4. Sorption interactions of organic compounds with soils affected by agricultural olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Keren, Yonatan; Borisover, Mikhail; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda

    2015-11-01

    The organic compound-soil interactions may be strongly influenced by changes in soil organic matter (OM) which affects the environmental fate of multiple organic pollutants. The soil OM changes may be caused by land disposal of various OM-containing wastes. One unique type of OM-rich waste is olive mill-related wastewater (OMW) characterized by high levels of OM, the presence of fatty aliphatics and polyphenolic aromatics. The systematic data on effects of the land-applied OMW on organic compound-soil interactions is lacking. Therefore, aqueous sorption of simazine and diuron, two herbicides, was examined in batch experiments onto three soils, including untreated and OMW-affected samples. Typically, the organic compound-soil interactions increased following the prior land application of OMW. This increase is associated with the changes in sorption mechanisms and cannot be attributed solely to the increase in soil organic carbon content. A novel observation is that the OMW application changes the soil-sorbent matrix in such a way that the solute uptake may become cooperative or the existing ability of a soil sorbent to cooperatively sorb organic molecules from water may become characterized by a larger affinity. The remarkable finding of this study was that in some cases a cooperative uptake of organic molecules by soils makes itself evident in distinct sigmoidal sorption isotherms rarely observed in soil sorption of non-ionized organic compounds; the cooperative herbicide-soil interactions may be characterized by the Hill model coefficients. However, no single trend was found for the effect of applied OMW on the mechanisms of organic compound-soil interactions.

  5. Compromised central tolerance of ICA69 induces multiple organ autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yong; Gualtierotti, Giulio; Tajima, Asako; Grupillo, Maria; Coppola, Antonina; He, Jing; Bertera, Suzanne; Owens, Gregory; Pietropaolo, Massimo; Rudert, William A.; Trucco, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    For reasons not fully understood, patients with an organ-specific autoimmune disease have increased risks of developing autoimmune responses against other organs/tissues. We identified ICA69, a known β-cell autoantigen in Type 1 diabetes, as a potential common target in multi-organ autoimmunity. NOD mice immunized with ICA69 polypeptides exhibited exacerbated inflammation not only in the islets, but also in the salivary glands. To further investigate ICA69 autoimmunity, two genetically modified mouse lines were generated to modulate thymic ICA69 expression: the heterozygous ICA69del/wt line and the thymic medullary epithelial cell-specific deletion Aire-ΔICA69 line. Suboptimal central negative selection of ICA69-reactive T-cells was observed in both lines. Aire-ΔICA69 mice spontaneously developed coincident autoimmune responses to the pancreas, the salivary glands, the thyroid, and the stomach. Our findings establish a direct link between compromised thymic ICA69 expression and autoimmunity against multiple ICA69-expressing organs, and identify a potential novel mechanism for the development of multi-organ autoimmune diseases. PMID:25088457

  6. 78 FR 7659 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Congenital Disorders That Affect Multiple Body Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... impairments that affect multiple body systems in adults and children under titles II and XVI of the Social... eligibility or filing for benefits, call our national toll-free number, 1-800-772-1213, or TTY 1-800-325-0778... the appropriate affected body system(s), such as musculoskeletal, special senses and...

  7. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Leandro M.; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M.; Soares, Cláudio R.F.S.; de Lima, José M.; Olivares, Fabio L.; Moreira, Fatima M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  8. Building an organic computing device with multiple interconnected brains.

    PubMed

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Chiuffa, Gabriela; Lebedev, Mikhail; Yadav, Amol; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Recently, we proposed that Brainets, i.e. networks formed by multiple animal brains, cooperating and exchanging information in real time through direct brain-to-brain interfaces, could provide the core of a new type of computing device: an organic computer. Here, we describe the first experimental demonstration of such a Brainet, built by interconnecting four adult rat brains. Brainets worked by concurrently recording the extracellular electrical activity generated by populations of cortical neurons distributed across multiple rats chronically implanted with multi-electrode arrays. Cortical neuronal activity was recorded and analyzed in real time, and then delivered to the somatosensory cortices of other animals that participated in the Brainet using intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). Using this approach, different Brainet architectures solved a number of useful computational problems, such as discrete classification, image processing, storage and retrieval of tactile information, and even weather forecasting. Brainets consistently performed at the same or higher levels than single rats in these tasks. Based on these findings, we propose that Brainets could be used to investigate animal social behaviors as well as a test bed for exploring the properties and potential applications of organic computers.

  9. Light organization of small particles by multiple scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Zhi Hong

    Optical manipulation is of broad interest in physics, chemistry, and biology. In the literature, most of the studies are focused on the optical trapping on a single object. In this thesis, we investigated the light-induced interaction of a collection of particles. The light-induced interaction between small particles was studied by a hierarchy of methods including the dipole theory, the multiple scattering and Maxwell stress tensor formalism, and the finite-difference-time-domain method. We showed that the multiple scattering between small particles could induce a binding mechanism to stabilize optically organized structures, but at the same time induced an intrinsic unbinding mechanism. The stability of optically organized structure was studied and a concept of "optical density" was introduced to gauge the destabilizing effect. We found that light-induced forces could bind dielectric spheres into extended structures through two mechanisms, each with its own length scale which could be adjusted by the configuration of the external light source. By manipulating the commensurability of the two length scales, these two mechanisms cooperated to bind a large number of spheres. When the two length scales became incommensurate for some particular incident angle, the competition between the two mechanisms led to modulated structures and other complex phenomena such as re-entrant stability. We searched for the possibility for stabilizing larger clusters. For this purpose, we found that circularly polarized light bound dielectric spheres into large-scale two-dimensional hexagonal lattice and multiple scattering also induced a rotation of optically bound structures. We searched for configurations that could induce optical trapping by field enhancement. Enhanced transmission on perforated metallic film system was studied. Surface modes bound on multi perforated perfect metal plate system were analytical solved and related to different high transmittance modes. Near

  10. Multiple microbial activities for volatile organic compounds reduction by biofiltration.

    PubMed

    Civilini, Marcello

    2006-07-01

    In the northeast of Italy, high volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions originate from small-medium companies producing furniture. In these conditions it is difficult to propose a single, efficient, and economic system to reduce pollution. Among the various choices, the biofiltration method could be a good solution, because microbial populations possess multiple VOC degradation potentials used to oxidize these compounds to CO2. Starting from the air emissions of a typical industrial wood-painting plant, a series of experiments studied in vitro microbial degradation of each individual VOC. Isolated strains were then added to a laboratory-scale biofiltration apparatus filled with an organic matrix, and the different VOC behavior demonstrated the potential of single and/or synergic microbial removal actions. When a single substrate was fed, the removal efficiency of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated reactor was 1.1, 1.17, and 0.33 g m(-3) hr(-1), respectively, for xylene, toluene, and ethoxy propyl acetate. A VOC mixture composed of butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, diacetin alcohol, ethoxy propanol acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, and xylene was then fed into a 2-m(3) reactor treating 100 m3 hr(-1) of contaminated air. The reactor was filled with the same mixture of organic matrix, enriched with all of the isolated strains together. During reactor study, different VOC loading rates were used, and the behavior was evaluated continuously. After a short acclimation period, the removal efficiency was > 65% at VOC load of 150-200 g m(-3) hr(-1). Quantification of removal efficiencies and VOC speciation confirmed the relationship among removal efficiencies, compound biodegradability, and the dynamic transport of each mixture component within the organic matrix. Samples of the fixed bed were withdrawn at different intervals and the heterogeneous microbial community evaluated for both total and differential compound counts.

  11. Organic matter loading affects lodgepole pine seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  12. Organic Matter Loading Affects Lodgepole Pine Seedling Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M. J.; Armleder, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  13. From multiple pathogenicity islands to a unique organized pathogenicity archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Bouyioukos, Costas; Reverchon, Sylvie; Képès, François

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity islands are sets of successive genes in a genome that determine the virulence of a bacterium. In a growing number of studies, bacterial virulence appears to be determined by multiple islands scattered along the genome. This is the case in a family of seven plant pathogens and a human pathogen that, under KdgR regulation, massively secrete enzymes such as pectinases that degrade plant cell wall. Here we show that their multiple pathogenicity islands form together a coherently organized, single “archipelago” at the genome scale. Furthermore, in half of the species, most genes encoding secreted pectinases are expressed from the same DNA strand (transcriptional co-orientation). This genome architecture favors DNA conformations that are conducive to genes spatial co-localization, sometimes complemented by co-orientation. As proteins tend to be synthetized close to their encoding genes in bacteria, we propose that this architecture would favor the efficient funneling of pectinases at convergent points within the cell. The underlying functional hypothesis is that this convergent funneling of the full blend of pectinases constitutes a crucial strategy for successful degradation of the plant cell wall. Altogether, our work provides a new approach to describe and predict, at the genome scale, the full virulence complement. PMID:27302835

  14. Soil organic matter composition affected by potato cropping managements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic matter is a small but important soil component. As a heterogeneous mixture of geomolecules and biomolecules, soil organic matter (SOM) can be fractionated into distinct pools with different solubility and lability. Water extractable organic matter (WEOM) fraction is the most labile and mobil...

  15. Linking and Psychological Functioning in a Chinese Sample: The Multiple Mediation of Response to Positive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongfei; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas…

  16. The use of the Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-culture (IdMOC) system for the evaluation of multiple organ toxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Albert P

    2009-09-01

    The application of the Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-culture (IdMOC) system in the evaluation of organ-specific toxicity is reviewed. In vitro approaches to predict in vivo toxicity have met with limited success, mainly because of the complexity of in vivo toxic responses. In vivo properties that are not well-represented in vitro include organ-specific responses, multiple organ metabolism, and multiple organ interactions. The IdMOC system has been developed to address these deficiencies. The system uses a 'wells-within-a-well' concept for the co-culturing of cells or tissue slices from different organs as physically separated (discrete) entities in the small inner wells. These inner wells are nevertheless interconnected (integrated) by overlying culture medium in the large outer containing well. The IdMOC system thereby models the in vivo situation, in which multiple organs are physically separated but interconnected by the systemic circulation, permitting multiple organ interactions. The IdMOC system, with either cells or tissue slices from multiple organs, can be used to evaluate cell type-specific or organ-specific toxicity.

  17. Supporting affect regulation in children with multiple disabilities during psychotherapy: a multiple case design study of therapeutic attachment.

    PubMed

    Schuengel, C; Sterkenburg, P S; Jeczynski, P; Janssen, C G C; Jongbloed, G

    2009-04-01

    In a controlled multiple case design study, the development of a therapeutic relationship and its role in affect regulation were studied in 6 children with visual disabilities, severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behavior, and prolonged social deprivation. In the 1st phase, children had sessions with an experimental therapist stimulating therapeutic attachment, alternating with a control therapist providing positive personal attention only. In the 2nd phase, both therapists applied behavior therapy. Clients sought more proximity to the experimental therapist compared with the control therapist. Psychophysiological arousal (respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pre-ejection period) was lower when the experimental therapist applied behavior modification than when the control therapist did. Despite prolonged social deprivation, the attachment behavioral system appeared responsive to stimulation. The effects on affect regulation may explain the synergy between psychotherapy based on interpersonal and behavior modification approaches.

  18. Multiple factors affect diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in iron mine soil.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yi; Si, Yan-Xiao; Hong, Chen; Li, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia oxidation by microorganisms is a critical process in the nitrogen cycle. In this study, four soil samples collected from a desert zone in an iron-exploration area and others from farmland and planted forest soil in an iron mine surrounding area. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in iron-mining area near the Miyun reservoir using ammonia monooxygenase. A subunit gene (amoA) as molecular biomarker. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to explore the relationships between the abundance of AOA and AOB and soil physicochemical parameters. The results showed that AOA were more abundant than AOB and may play a more dominant role in the ammonia-oxidizing process in the whole region. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the structural changes of AOA and AOB. The results showed that AOB were much more diverse than AOA. Nitrosospira cluster three constitute the majority of AOB, and AOA were dominated by group 1.1b in the soil. Redundancy analysis was performed to explore the physicochemical parameters potentially important to AOA and AOB. Soil characteristics (i.e. water, ammonia, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil type) were proposed to potentially contribute to the distributions of AOB, whereas Cd was also closely correlated to the distributions of AOB. The community of AOA correlated with ammonium and water contents. These results highlight the importance of multiple drivers in microbial niche formation as well as their affect on ammonia oxidizer composition, both which have significant consequences for ecosystem nitrogen functioning.

  19. Improvisation and the self-organization of multiple musical bodies

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Ashley E.; Richardson, Michael J.; Langland-Hassan, Peter; Chemero, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Understanding everyday behavior relies heavily upon understanding our ability to improvise, how we are able to continuously anticipate and adapt in order to coordinate with our environment and others. Here we consider the ability of musicians to improvise, where they must spontaneously coordinate their actions with co-performers in order to produce novel musical expressions. Investigations of this behavior have traditionally focused on describing the organization of cognitive structures. The focus, here, however, is on the ability of the time-evolving patterns of inter-musician movement coordination as revealed by the mathematical tools of complex dynamical systems to provide a new understanding of what potentiates the novelty of spontaneous musical action. We demonstrate this approach through the application of cross wavelet spectral analysis, which isolates the strength and patterning of the behavioral coordination that occurs between improvising musicians across a range of nested time-scales. Revealing the sophistication of the previously unexplored dynamics of movement coordination between improvising musicians is an important step toward understanding how creative musical expressions emerge from the spontaneous coordination of multiple musical bodies. PMID:25941499

  20. Improvisation and the self-organization of multiple musical bodies.

    PubMed

    Walton, Ashley E; Richardson, Michael J; Langland-Hassan, Peter; Chemero, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Understanding everyday behavior relies heavily upon understanding our ability to improvise, how we are able to continuously anticipate and adapt in order to coordinate with our environment and others. Here we consider the ability of musicians to improvise, where they must spontaneously coordinate their actions with co-performers in order to produce novel musical expressions. Investigations of this behavior have traditionally focused on describing the organization of cognitive structures. The focus, here, however, is on the ability of the time-evolving patterns of inter-musician movement coordination as revealed by the mathematical tools of complex dynamical systems to provide a new understanding of what potentiates the novelty of spontaneous musical action. We demonstrate this approach through the application of cross wavelet spectral analysis, which isolates the strength and patterning of the behavioral coordination that occurs between improvising musicians across a range of nested time-scales. Revealing the sophistication of the previously unexplored dynamics of movement coordination between improvising musicians is an important step toward understanding how creative musical expressions emerge from the spontaneous coordination of multiple musical bodies.

  1. Organic electronic devices with multiple solution-processed layers

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.

    2015-08-04

    A method of fabricating a tandem organic photosensitive device involves depositing a first layer of an organic electron donor type material film by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a first solvent; depositing a first layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the first layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process; depositing a conductive layer over the interim stack by a dry deposition process; depositing a second layer of the organic electron donor type material over the conductive layer by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a second solvent, wherein the organic electron acceptor type material and the conductive layer are insoluble in the second solvent; depositing a second layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the second layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process, resulting in a stack.

  2. Effect of organic amendments on bacterial multiplication in lake water.

    PubMed

    Henis, Y; Alexander, M

    1990-01-01

    In Cayuga Lake water amended with 30 micrograms of glucose or amino acids per ml, an added strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens and indigenous bacteria grew extensively, Pseudomonas sp. B4 and two rhizobia multiplied at a moderate extent, and introduced Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae multiplied but to only a slight degree. The amendments did not enhance growth of Micrococcus flavus and Arthrobacter citreus, and an asporogenous strain of Bacillus subtilis decreased in numbers. The pseudomonads, rhizobia, E. coli and K. pneumoniae multiplied extensively when inoculated into sterile lake water amended with amino acids, A. citreus grew to a slight extent, but the numbers of M. flavus and B. subtilis did not change appreciably. In nonsterile lake water amended with 30 micrograms of Trypticase soy broth per ml, the indigenous bacteria greatly increased in abundance, the pseudomonads, rhizobia, and E. coli developed to a lesser extent, the numbers of K. pneumoniae, A. citreus and M. flavus showed little increase, and B. subtilis decreased in numbers. Tests in pure culture containing 2 to 64 micrograms of Trypticase soy broth per ml demonstrated good growth of P. fluorescens, Pseudomonas sp. B4, and the rhizobia at all concentrations; an initial decline followed by growth of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli at low concentrations; little or no growth or decline at the low levels but multiplication at the high levels by A. citreus and B. subtilis; and decline of M. flavus. It is proposed that the apparent Ks value, mumax value, length of lag phase and resistance to stress can be used to predict behavior of bacteria in lake water receiving low levels of organic nutrients.

  3. [Integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters affecting longyan yield in Fujian Province, East China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Jin; Wang, Jia-Yi; Li, Li-Chun; Lin, Jing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Zong-Huan

    2012-03-01

    In this study, an index system for the integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters on the Longyan production in Fujian Province was constructed, based on the analysis of the major environmental factors affecting the Longyan growth and yield, and from the viewpoints of potential hazard of disaster-causing factors, vulnerability of hazard-affected body, and disaster prevention and mitigation capability of Longyan growth regions in the Province. In addition, an integrated evaluation model of multiple disasters was established to evaluate the risks of the major agro-meteorological disasters affecting the Longyan yield, based on the yearly meteorological data, Longyan planting area and yield, and other socio-economic data in Longyan growth region in Fujian, and by using the integral weight of risk indices determined by AHP and entropy weight coefficient methods. In the Province, the Longyan growth regions with light integrated risk of multiple disasters were distributed in the coastal counties (except Dongshan County) with low elevation south of Changle, the regions with severe and more severe integrated risk were mainly in Zhangping of Longyan, Dongshan, Pinghe, Nanjin, and Hua' an of Zhangzhou, Yongchun and Anxi of Quanzhou, north mountainous areas of Putian and Xianyou, Minqing, Minhou, Luoyuan, and mountainous areas of Fuzhou, and Fuan, Xiapu, and mountainous areas of Ninde, among which, the regions with severe integrated risk were in Dongshan, Zhangping, and other mountainous areas with high altitudes, and the regions with moderate integrated risk were distributed in the other areas of the Province.

  4. Exposure to organic solvents. Does it adversely affect pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    McMartin, K. I.; Koren, G.

    1999-01-01

    QUESTION: One of my patients is a laboratory technician who routinely handles organic solvents. She has just learned that she is pregnant, and she depends very much on this job because her husband is unemployed. What is the risk to her unborn baby? ANSWER: Available epidemiologic data indicate your patient's fetus might be at increased risk for malformations. We recommend that she minimize her occupational exposure to organic solvents by routinely using ventilation systems and protective equipment. This is most important during the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:10424263

  5. Schizotypy as An Organizing Framework for Social and Affective Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; Mohr, Christine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Park, Sohee

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypy, defined in terms of commonly occurring personality traits related to the schizophrenia spectrum, has been an important construct for understanding the neurodevelopment and stress-diathesis of schizophrenia. However, as schizotypy nears its sixth decade of application, it is important to acknowledge its impressively rich literature accumulating outside of schizophrenia research. In this article, we make the case that schizotypy has considerable potential as a conceptual framework for understanding individual differences in affective and social functions beyond those directly involved in schizophrenia spectrum pathology. This case is predicated on (a) a burgeoning literature noting anomalies in a wide range of social functioning, affiliative, positive and negative emotional, expressive, and social cognitive systems, (b) practical and methodological features associated with schizotypy research that help facilitate empirical investigation, and (c) close ties to theoretical constructs of central importance to affective and social science (eg, stress diathesis, neural compensation). We highlight recent schizotypy research, ie providing insight into the nature of affective and social systems more generally. This includes current efforts to clarify the neurodevelopmental, neurobiological, and psychological underpinnings of affiliative drives, hedonic capacity, social cognition, and stress responsivity systems. Additionally, we discuss neural compensatory and resilience factors that may mitigate the expression of stress-diathesis and functional outcome, and highlight schizotypy’s potential role for understanding cultural determinants of social and affective functions. PMID:25810057

  6. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide affects human gingival fibroblast cytoskeletal organization.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Contreras-Marmolejo, Luis Arturo; Román-Alvárez, Patricia; Barajas-Torres, Carolina

    2008-04-01

    The cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure that plays a key role in maintaining cell morphology and function. This study investigates the effect of bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a strong inflammatory agent, on the dynamics and organization of actin, tubulin, vimentin, and vinculin proteins in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). A time-dependent study showed a noticeable change in actin architecture after 1.5 h of incubation with LPS (1 microg/ml) with the formation of orthogonal fibers and further accumulation of actin filament at the cell periphery by 24 h. When 0.01-10 microg/ml of LPS was added to human gingival fibroblast cultures, cells acquired a round, flat shape and gradually developed cytoplasmic ruffling. Lipopolysaccharides extracted from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans periodontopathogenic bacteria promoted alterations in F-actin stress fibres of human gingival cells. Normally, human gingival cells have F-actin fibres that are organized in linear distribution throughout the cells, extending along the cell's length. LPS-treated cells exhibited changes in cytoskeletal protein organization, and F-actin was reorganized by the formation of bundles underneath and parallel to the cell membrane. We also found the reorganization of the vimentin network into vimentin bundling after 1.5 h of treatment. HGF cells exhibited diffuse and granular gamma-tubulin stain. There was no change in LPS-treated HGF. However, vinculin plaques distributed in the cell body diminished after LPS treatment. We conclude that the dynamic and structured organization of cytoskeletal filaments and actin assembly in human gingival fibroblasts is altered by LPS treatment and is accompanied by a decrease in F-actin pools.

  7. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS FROM MULTIPLE OSCILLATORS: LESSONS FROM DIVERSE ORGANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Pedersen, Deborah; Cassone, Vincent M.; Earnest, David J.; Golden, Susan S.; Hardin, Paul E.; Thomas, Terry L.; Zoran, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    The organization of biological activities into daily cycles is universal in organisms as diverse as cyanobacteria, fungi, algae, plants, flies, birds and man. Comparisons of circadian clocks in unicellular and multicellular organisms using molecular genetics and genomics have provided new insights into the mechanisms and complexity of clock systems. Whereas unicellular organisms require stand-alone clocks that can generate 24-hour rhythms for diverse processes, organisms with differentiated tissues can partition clock function to generate and coordinate different rhythms. In both cases, the temporal coordination of a multi-oscillator system is essential for producing robust circadian rhythms of gene expression and biological activity. PMID:15951747

  8. Organic electronic devices with multiple solution-processed layers

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.

    2016-07-05

    A method for fabricating an organic light emitting device stack involves depositing a first conductive electrode layer over a substrate; depositing a first set of one or more organic layers, wherein at least one of the first set of organic layers is a first emissive layer and one of the first set of organic layers is deposited by a solution-based process that utilizes a first solvent; depositing a first conductive interlayer by a dry deposition process; and depositing a second set of one or more organic layers, wherein at least one of the second set of organic layers is a second emissive layer and one of the second set of organic layers is deposited by a solution-based process that utilizes a second solvent, wherein all layers that precede the layer deposited using the second solvent are insoluble in the second solvent.

  9. Affective and Normative Commitment to Organization, Supervisor, and Coworkers: Do Collectivist Values Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasti, S. Arzu; Can, Ozge

    2008-01-01

    Employees' commitment to their organization is increasingly recognized as comprising of different bases (affect-, obligation-, or cost-based) and different foci (e.g., supervisor, coworkers). Two studies investigated affective and normative commitment to the organization, supervisor and coworkers in the Turkish context. The results of Study 1…

  10. Dissociated brain organization for single-digit addition and multiplication.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinlin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zang, Yufeng; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chunhui; Qiao, Sibing; Gong, Qiyong

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the patterns of brain activation elicited by single-digit addition and multiplication problems. 20 Chinese undergraduates were asked to verify whether arithmetic equations were true or false during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that both addition and multiplication were supported by a broad neural system that involved regions within SMA, precentral gyrus, intraparietal sulcus, occipital gyri, superior temporal gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus, as well as some subcortical structures. Nevertheless, addition problems elicited more activation in the intraparietal sulcus and middle occipital gyri at the right hemisphere, and superior occipital gyri at both hemispheres, whereas multiplication had more activation in precentral gyrus, supplementary motor areas, and posterior and anterior superior temporal gyrus at the left hemisphere. This pattern of dissociated activation supports our hypothesis that addition has greater reliance on visuospatial processing and multiplication on verbal processing.

  11. Parasites and health affect multiple sexual signals in male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José; Amo, Luisa; López, Pilar

    2008-04-01

    Multiple advertising sexual traits may either advertise different characteristics of male condition or be redundant to reinforce reliability of signals. Research has focused on multiple visual traits. However, in animals that use different multiple additional sensory systems, such as chemoreception, different types of traits might have evolved to signal similar characteristics of a male quality using different sensory channels. We examined whether ventral coloration and chemicals in femoral gland secretions of male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, are affected by their health state (blood-parasite load and cell-mediated immune response). Our results indicated that less parasitized lizards had brighter and more yellowish ventral colorations and also femoral secretions with higher proportions of two esters of octadecenoic acid. In addition, lizards with a greater immune response had more saturated coloration and secretions with higher proportions of octadecenoic acid methyl ester. We suggest that these signals would be reliable because only healthier males seemed able to allocate more carotenoids to coloration and presumably costly chemicals to secretions. The use of multiple sensory channels may provide more opportunities to signal a male quality under different circumstances, but also may reinforce the reliability of the signal when both types of traits may be perceived simultaneously.

  12. Effect of severity disease on the pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime in children with multiple organ system failure.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Hugo Juárez; Asseff, Ismael Lares; Vieyra, Angélica Camacho; Pérez, Adrián Guillé; Saldaña, Napoleón González; Quesada, Argelia Camarillo; Guillé, Gabriela Pérez

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if the severity of illness affected the pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime in 11 children diagnosed with multiple organ system failure. The patients were assigned to a severely ill group (group 1), a very severely ill group (group 2), or a control group (group 0). Blood samples were taken and cefuroxime concentrations were measured in plasma by HPLC after the first intravenous infusion of 100 mg of cefuroxime per kg of body weight. The pharmacokinetic profile of cefuroxime exhibited both one and two compartmental distribution. Statistically significant differences between the pharmacokinetic parameters of the severe (group 1) and the very severe patients (group 2) were found, and significant differences (p<0.05) in the pharmacokinetic parameters between groups 1 and 2 vs. the control group were observed for most of the parameters analyzed. However, there was no statistical difference in clearance between group 1 and the control group. The data indicate that the pharmacokinetic differences determined by severity of disease are useful for establishing an individualized regimen dosage in children with multiple organ system failure.

  13. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  14. Drugs affecting prelamin A processing: Effects on heterochromatin organization

    SciTech Connect

    Mattioli, Elisabetta; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Santi, Spartaco; D'Apice, M. Rosaria; Novelli, Giuseppe; Riccio, Massimo; Squarzoni, Stefano; Lattanzi, Giovanna

    2008-02-01

    Increasing interest in drugs acting on prelamin A has derived from the finding of prelamin A involvement in severe laminopathies. Amelioration of the nuclear morphology by inhibitors of prelamin A farnesylation has been widely reported in progeroid laminopathies. We investigated the effects on chromatin organization of two drugs inhibiting prelamin A processing by an ultrastructural and biochemical approach. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-277 and the non-peptidomimetic drug N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methylester (AFCMe) were administered to cultured control human fibroblasts for 6 or 18 h. FTI-277 interferes with protein farnesylation causing accumulation of non-farnesylated prelamin A, while AFCMe impairs the last cleavage of the lamin A precursor and is expected to accumulate farnesylated prelamin A. FTI-277 caused redistribution of heterochromatin domains at the nuclear interior, while AFCMe caused loss of heterochromatin domains, increase of nuclear size and nuclear lamina thickening. At the biochemical level, heterochromatin-associated proteins and LAP2{alpha} were clustered at the nuclear interior following FTI-277 treatment, while they were unevenly distributed or absent in AFCMe-treated nuclei. The reported effects show that chromatin is an immediate target of FTI-277 and AFCMe and that dramatic remodeling of chromatin domains occurs following treatment with the drugs. These effects appear to depend, at least in part, on the accumulation of prelamin A forms, since impairment of prelamin A accumulation, here obtained by 5-azadeoxycytidine treatment, abolishes the chromatin effects. These results may be used to evaluate downstream effects of FTIs or other prelamin A inhibitors potentially useful for the therapy of laminopathies.

  15. Multiple Whole Genome Alignments Without a Reference Organism

    SciTech Connect

    Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexander; Kislyuk, Andrey; Brudno, Michael

    2009-01-16

    Multiple sequence alignments have become one of the most commonly used resources in genomics research. Most algorithms for multiple alignment of whole genomes rely either on a reference genome, against which all of the other sequences are laid out, or require a one-to-one mapping between the nucleotides of the genomes, preventing the alignment of recently duplicated regions. Both approaches have drawbacks for whole-genome comparisons. In this paper we present a novel symmetric alignment algorithm. The resulting alignments not only represent all of the genomes equally well, but also include all relevant duplications that occurred since the divergence from the last common ancestor. Our algorithm, implemented as a part of the VISTA Genome Pipeline (VGP), was used to align seven vertebrate and sixDrosophila genomes. The resulting whole-genome alignments demonstrate a higher sensitivity and specificity than the pairwise alignments previously available through the VGP and have higher exon alignment accuracy than comparable public whole-genome alignments. Of the multiple alignment methods tested, ours performed the best at aligning genes from multigene families?perhaps the most challenging test for whole-genome alignments. Our whole-genome multiple alignments are available through the VISTA Browser at http://genome.lbl.gov/vista/index.shtml.

  16. Multiple whole-genome alignments without a reference organism.

    PubMed

    Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexander; Kislyuk, Andrey; Brudno, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Multiple sequence alignments have become one of the most commonly used resources in genomics research. Most algorithms for multiple alignment of whole genomes rely either on a reference genome, against which all of the other sequences are laid out, or require a one-to-one mapping between the nucleotides of the genomes, preventing the alignment of recently duplicated regions. Both approaches have drawbacks for whole-genome comparisons. In this paper we present a novel symmetric alignment algorithm. The resulting alignments not only represent all of the genomes equally well, but also include all relevant duplications that occurred since the divergence from the last common ancestor. Our algorithm, implemented as a part of the VISTA Genome Pipeline (VGP), was used to align seven vertebrate and six Drosophila genomes. The resulting whole-genome alignments demonstrate a higher sensitivity and specificity than the pairwise alignments previously available through the VGP and have higher exon alignment accuracy than comparable public whole-genome alignments. Of the multiple alignment methods tested, ours performed the best at aligning genes from multigene families-perhaps the most challenging test for whole-genome alignments. Our whole-genome multiple alignments are available through the VISTA Browser at http://genome.lbl.gov/vista/index.shtml.

  17. Multiple sublethal chemicals negatively affect tadpoles of the green frog, Rana clamitans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, Michelle D.; Bridges, Christine M.; Fairchild, James F.; Little, Edward E.

    2005-01-01

    Many habitats may be exposed to multiple chemical contaminants, particularly in agricultural areas where fertilizer and pesticide use are common; however, the singular and interactive effects of contaminants are not well understood. The objective of our study was to examine how realistic, sublethal environmental levels of ammonium nitrate fertilizer (0, 10, 20 mg/L and ammonium chloride control) and the common insecticide carbaryl (0 or 2.5 mg/L) individually and interactively affect the development, size, and survival of green frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles. We reared tadpoles for 95 d in outdoor 1,000-L polyethylene ponds. We found that the combination of carbaryl and nitrate had a negative effect on development and mass of tadpoles compared to the positive effect that either contaminant had alone. Presence of carbaryl was generally associated with short-term increases in algal resources, including ponds exposed to both carbaryl and nitrate. However, with exposure to nitrate and carbaryl, tadpole mass and development were not positively affected as with one chemical stressor alone. The combination of these sublethal contaminants may reduce the ability of amphibians to benefit from food-rich environments or have metabolic costs. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering multiple stressors when evaluating population-level responses.

  18. Scientific concepts and applications of integrated discrete multiple organ co-culture technology

    PubMed Central

    Gayathri, Loganathan; Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai; Akbarsha, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Over several decades, animals have been used as models to investigate the human-specific drug toxicity, but the outcomes are not always reliably extrapolated to the humans in vivo. Appropriate in vitro human-based experimental system that includes in vivo parameters is required for the evaluation of multiple organ interaction, multiple organ/organ-specific toxicity, and metabolism of xenobiotic compounds to avoid the use of animals for toxicity testing. One such versatile in vitro technology in which human primary cells could be used is integrated discrete multiple organ co-culture (IdMOC). IdMOC system adopts wells-within-well concept that facilitates co-culture of cells from different organs in a discrete manner, separately in the respective media in the smaller inner wells which are then interconnected by an overlay of a universal medium in the large containing well. This novel in vitro approach mimics the in vivo situation to a great extent, and employs cells from multiple organs that are physically separated but interconnected by a medium that mimics the systemic circulation and provides for multiple organ interaction. Applications of IdMOC include assessment of multiple organ toxicity, drug distribution, organ-specific toxicity, screening of anticancer drugs, metabolic cytotoxicity, etc. PMID:25969651

  19. Autodigestion: Proteolytic Degradation and Multiple Organ Failure in Shock.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, Angelina E; Kistler, Erik B; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2016-05-01

    There is currently no effective treatment for multiorgan failure following shock other than supportive care. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of these sequelae to shock is required. The intestine plays a central role in multiorgan failure. It was previously suggested that bacteria and their toxins are responsible for the organ failure seen in circulatory shock, but clinical trials in septic patients have not confirmed this hypothesis. Instead, we review here evidence that the digestive enzymes, synthesized in the pancreas and discharged into the small intestine as requirement for normal digestion, may play a role in multiorgan failure. These powerful enzymes are nonspecific, highly concentrated, and fully activated in the lumen of the intestine. During normal digestion they are compartmentalized in the lumen of the intestine by the mucosal epithelial barrier. However, if this barrier becomes permeable, e.g. in an ischemic state, the digestive enzymes escape into the wall of the intestine. They digest tissues in the mucosa and generate small molecular weight cytotoxic fragments such as unbound free fatty acids. Digestive enzymes may also escape into the systemic circulation and activate other degrading proteases. These proteases have the ability to clip the ectodomain of surface receptors and compromise their function, for example cleaving the insulin receptor causing insulin resistance. The combination of digestive enzymes and cytotoxic fragments leaking into the central circulation causes cell and organ dysfunction, and ultimately may lead to complete organ failure and death. We summarize current evidence suggesting that enteral blockade of digestive enzymes inside the lumen of the intestine may serve to reduce acute cell and organ damage and improve survival in experimental shock.

  20. Psychotic-affective symptoms and multiple system atrophy expand phenotypes of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai-Hsiang; Lin, Chin-Hsien; Wu, Ruey-Meei

    2012-03-20

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterised by ataxic gait, slow saccades and peripheral neuropathy. Levodopa-responsive parkinsonism could be a clinical phenotype of SCA2, especially those of Chinese origin. In addition to these motor symptoms, SCA2 has been associated with depression and cognitive dysfunction, with only rare reports of psychosis. The authors report the presence of severe psychosis, major depression and multiple system atrophy in affected subjects of a Taiwanese family with intermediate CAG repeats within the ATXN2 gene. The identification of this rare and distinctive SCA2 phenotype expands the current knowledge of the phenotypic variability of SCA2 and suggests that modifier genes could influence the clinical phenotype of SCA2.

  1. Eating in groups: Do multiple social influences affect intake in a fast-food restaurant?

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p < .05), while male diners eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration.

  2. Detecting Differential Item Functioning in the Japanese Version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Lei, Pui-Wa; Suen, Hoi K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the differential item functioning (DIF) of the English version and the Japanese-translated version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised (MAACL-R) using the logistic regression (LR) procedure. The results of the LR are supplemented by multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). A total of five items are…

  3. Use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to identify interactive meteorological conditions affecting relative throughfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stan, John T.; Gay, Trent E.; Lewis, Elliott S.

    2016-02-01

    Forest canopies alter rainfall reaching the surface by redistributing it as throughfall. Throughfall supplies water and nutrients to a variety of ecohydrological components (soil microbial communities, stream water discharge/chemistry, and stormflow pathways) and is controlled by canopy structural interactions with meteorological conditions across temporal scales. This work introduces and applies multiple correspondence analyses (MCAs) to a range of meteorological thresholds (median intensity, median absolute deviation (MAD) of intensity, median wind-driven droplet inclination angle, and MAD of wind speed) for an example throughfall problem: identification of interacting storm conditions corresponding to temporal concentration in relative throughfall beyond the median observation (⩾73% of rain). MCA results from the example show that equalling or exceeding rain intensity thresholds (median and MAD) corresponded with temporal concentration of relative throughfall across all storms. Under these intensity conditions, two wind mechanisms produced significant correspondences: (1) high, steady wind-driven droplet inclination angles increased surface wetting; and (2) sporadic winds shook entrained droplets from surfaces. A discussion is provided showing that these example MCA findings agree well with previous work relying on more historically common methods (e.g., multiple regression and analytical models). Meteorological threshold correspondences to temporal concentration of relative throughfall at our site may be a function of heavy Tillandsia usneoides coverage. Applications of MCA within other forests may provide useful insights to how temporal throughfall dynamics are affected for drainage pathways dependent on different structures (leaves, twigs, branches, etc.).

  4. CB1 receptor affects cortical plasticity and response to physiotherapy in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Francesco; Ljoka, Concetta; Nicoletti, Carolina G.; Kusayanagi, Hajime; Buttari, Fabio; Giordani, Laura; Rossi, Silvia; Foti, Calogero

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Therapeutic effects of physical therapy in neurologic disorders mostly rely on the promotion of use-dependent synaptic plasticity in damaged neuronal circuits. Genetic differences affecting the efficiency of synaptic plasticity mechanisms could explain why some patients do not respond adequately to the treatment. It is known that physical exercise activates the endocannabinoid system and that stimulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) promotes synaptic plasticity in both rodents and humans. We thus tested whether CB1R genetic variants affect responsiveness to exercise therapy. Methods: We evaluated the effect of a genetic variant of the CB1R associated with reduced receptor expression (patients with long AAT trinucleotide short tandem repeats in the CNR1 gene) on long-term potentiation (LTP)–like cortical plasticity induced by transcranial magnetic theta burst stimulation (TBS) of the motor cortex and, in parallel, on clinical response to exercise therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Results: We found that patients with long AAT CNR1 repeats do not express TBS-induced LTP-like cortical plasticity and show poor clinical benefit after exercise therapy. Conclusions: Our results provide the first evidence that genetic differences within the CB1R may influence clinical responses to exercise therapy, and they strengthen the hypothesis that CB1Rs are involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and in the control of spasticity in humans. This information might be of great relevance for patient stratification and personalized rehabilitation treatment programs. PMID:25520956

  5. Climate change and freshwater ecosystems: impacts across multiple levels of organization

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Guy; Perkins, Daniel M.; Brown, Lee E.

    2010-01-01

    Fresh waters are particularly vulnerable to climate change because (i) many species within these fragmented habitats have limited abilities to disperse as the environment changes; (ii) water temperature and availability are climate-dependent; and (iii) many systems are already exposed to numerous anthropogenic stressors. Most climate change studies to date have focused on individuals or species populations, rather than the higher levels of organization (i.e. communities, food webs, ecosystems). We propose that an understanding of the connections between these different levels, which are all ultimately based on individuals, can help to develop a more coherent theoretical framework based on metabolic scaling, foraging theory and ecological stoichiometry, to predict the ecological consequences of climate change. For instance, individual basal metabolic rate scales with body size (which also constrains food web structure and dynamics) and temperature (which determines many ecosystem processes and key aspects of foraging behaviour). In addition, increasing atmospheric CO2 is predicted to alter molar CNP ratios of detrital inputs, which could lead to profound shifts in the stoichiometry of elemental fluxes between consumers and resources at the base of the food web. The different components of climate change (e.g. temperature, hydrology and atmospheric composition) not only affect multiple levels of biological organization, but they may also interact with the many other stressors to which fresh waters are exposed, and future research needs to address these potentially important synergies. PMID:20513717

  6. Affective Temperament Profiles in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Association with Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    ÖZKAN, Adile; ALTINBAŞ, Kürşat; KOÇ, Emine Rabia; ŞEN, Halil Murat; ÖZIŞIK KARAMAN, Handan Işın

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to screen for bipolarity and to investigate the affective temperaments of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and the possible association between the clinical and demographic characteristics of MS patients and temperament profiles. Methods A total of 65 patients with MS and 66 healthy volunteers completed the 32-item hypomania checklist (HCl-32), the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), and the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) tests. The HCl-32, MDQ, and TEMPS-A scores were compared between the patients and healthy volunteers. Results MS patients had significantly higher scores for the depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious domains of the TEMPS-A scale than the control group, whereas relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients had higher MDQ and TEMPS-A hyperthymia scores than secondary progressive MS patients. MS patients who were being treated with interferon beta 1-b therapy had significantly higher MDQ scores than those being treated with interferon beta 1-a, glatiramer acetate, or who were without medication. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were positively correlated with TEMPS-A depressive and hyperthymic temperaments. Conclusion Our results suggest that higher scores for affective temperament in MS patients indicate subclinical manifestations of mood disorders. Higher hyperthymia scores and manic symptoms detected in the RRMS group could shed light on the relationship between bipolarity and MS. Thus, the screening of bipolarity and affective temperament profiles in MS patients could help clinicians predict future mood episodes and decrease their impact on disease severity. PMID:28360804

  7. Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization.

    PubMed

    Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Schlacher, Thomas A; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai

    2009-09-01

    Against a backdrop of rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification which pose global threats to coral reefs, excess nutrients and turbidity continue to be significant stressors at regional and local scales. Because interventions usually require local data on pollution impacts, we measured ecological responses to sewage discharges in Surin Marine Park, Thailand. Wastewater disposal significantly increased inorganic nutrients and turbidity levels, and this degradation in water quality resulted in substantial ecological shifts in the form of (i) increased macroalgal density and species richness, (ii) lower cover of hard corals, and (iii) significant declines in fish abundance. Thus, the effects of nutrient pollution and turbidity can cascade across several levels of ecological organization to change key properties of the benthos and fish on coral reefs. Maintenance or restoration of ecological reef health requires improved wastewater management and run-off control for reefs to deliver their valuable ecosystems services.

  8. [A case of parotid pleomorphic adenoma metastasis to multiple organs].

    PubMed

    Kessoku, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Iino, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, a 64-year-old woman who had undergone tumor resection for pleomorphic adenoma of the left parotid gland four times since her first operation in 1996 visited an orthopedist in our hospital complaining of pain in her right lower limb. Computed tomography (CT) of the whole body showed multiple tumors on the left parotid gland, right kidney, the sacrum, and both lungs. Biopsy of the sacral region and right nephrectomy were performed based on a clinical diagnosis of sacral and pulmonary metastases from renal cell carcinoma, and palliative radiation therapy was immediately begun on the sacral region. Given the definitive pathological diagnosis of metastasis of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland, the recurrent tumor of the left parotid gland and the surrounding lymph nodes were first removed. Postoperative findings demonstrated that the pleomorphic adenoma had metastasized to the lymph nodes. The lung tumors were resected subsequently, and postoperative findings led to the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma. Metastasis of pleomorphic adenoma is known to be extremely rare, and to our knowledge this case of metastasis to a kidney is the first reported in Japan.

  9. Drosophila Brahma complex remodels nucleosome organizations in multiple aspects.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiejun; Zheng, Meizhu; Ye, Youqiong; Li, Min; Chen, Xiaolong; Hu, Xinjie; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Xiaobai; Jiang, Cizhong

    2014-09-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes regulate nucleosome organizations. In Drosophila, gene Brm encodes the core Brahma complex, the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF class of chromatin remodelers. Its role in modulating the nucleosome landscape in vivo is unclear. In this study, we knocked down Brm in Drosophila third instar larvae to explore the changes in nucleosome profiles and global gene transcription. The results show that Brm knockdown leads to nucleosome occupancy changes throughout the entire genome with a bias in occupancy decrease. In contrast, the knockdown has limited impacts on nucleosome position shift. The knockdown also alters another important physical property of nucleosome positioning, fuzziness. Nucleosome position shift, gain or loss and fuzziness changes are all enriched in promoter regions. Nucleosome arrays around the 5' ends of genes are reorganized in five patterns as a result of Brm knockdown. Intriguingly, the concomitant changes in the genes adjacent to the Brahma-dependent remodeling regions have important roles in development and morphogenesis. Further analyses reveal abundance of AT-rich motifs for transcription factors in the remodeling regions.

  10. How does predation affect the bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds in aquatic organisms?

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinghui; Li, Husheng; Yang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Xiaotian; Wang, Haotian

    2015-04-21

    It is well-known that the body burden of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) increases with the trophic level of aquatic organisms. However, the mechanism of HOC biomagnification is not fully understood. To fill this gap, this study investigated the effect of predation on the bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one type of HOC, in low-to-high aquatic trophic levels under constant freely dissolved PAH concentrations (1, 5, or 10 μg L(-1)) maintained by passive dosing systems. The tested PAHs included phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. The test organisms included zebrafish, which prey on Daphnia magna, and cichlids, which prey on zebrafish. The results revealed that for both zebrafish and cichlids, predation elevated the uptake and elimination rates of PAHs. The increase of uptake rate constant ranged from 20.8% to 39.4% in zebrafish with the amount of predation of 5 daphnids per fish per day, and the PAH uptake rate constant increased with the amount of predation. However, predation did not change the final bioaccumulation equilibrium; the equilibrium concentrations of PAHs in fish only depended on the freely dissolved concentration in water. Furthermore, the lipid-normalized water-based bioaccumulation factor of each PAH was constant for fish at different trophic levels. These findings infer that the final bioaccumulation equilibrium of PAHs is related to a partition between water and lipids in aquatic organisms, and predation between trophic levels does not change bioaccumulation equilibrium but bioaccumulation kinetics at stable freely dissolved PAH concentrations. This study suggests that if HOCs have not reached bioaccumulation equilibrium, biomagnification occurs due to enhanced uptake rates caused by predation in addition to higher lipid contents in higher trophic organisms. Otherwise, it is only due to the higher lipid contents in higher trophic organisms.

  11. Multiple Factors Affect Socioeconomics and Wellbeing of Artisanal Sea Cucumber Fishers

    PubMed Central

    Ngaluafe, Poasi; Foale, Simon J.; Cocks, Nicole; Cullis, Brian R.; Lalavanua, Watisoni

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are important to livelihoods and subsistence seafood consumption of millions of fishers. Sea cucumbers are fished worldwide for export to Asia, yet few studies have assessed factors affecting socioeconomics and wellbeing among fishers. We interviewed 476 men and women sea cucumber fishers at multiple villages within multiple locations in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and New Caledonia using structured questionnaires. Low rates of subsistence consumption confirmed a primary role of sea cucumbers in income security. Prices of sea cucumbers sold by fishers varied greatly among countries, depending on the species. Gender variation in landing prices could be due to women catching smaller sea cucumbers or because some traders take advantage of them. Dissatisfaction with fishery income was common (44% of fishers), especially for i-Kiribati fishers, male fishers, and fishers experiencing difficulty selling their catch, but was uncorrelated with sale prices. Income dissatisfaction worsened with age. The number of livelihood activities averaged 2.2–2.5 across countries, and varied significantly among locations. Sea cucumbers were often a primary source of income to fishers, especially in Tonga. Other common livelihood activities were fishing other marine resources, copra production in Kiribati, agriculture in Fiji, and salaried jobs in New Caledonia. Fishing other coastal and coral reef resources was the most common fall-back livelihood option if fishers were forced to exit the fishery. Our data highlight large disparities in subsistence consumption, gender-related price equity, and livelihood diversity among parallel artisanal fisheries. Improvement of supply chains in dispersed small-scale fisheries appears as a critical need for enhancing income and wellbeing of fishers. Strong evidence for co-dependence among small-scale fisheries, through fall-back livelihood preferences of fishers, suggests that resource managers must mitigate concomitant effects on

  12. Do Physical Therapy Interventions Affect Urinary Incontinence and Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Monica; Melnick, Marsha; Allen, Diane D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) presents with many debilitating symptoms, including urinary incontinence (UI), that physical therapy (PT) may address; UI is widely prevalent, but PT management of symptoms lacks consensus. A meta-analysis of long-term nonsurgical and nonpharmaceutical treatment options may supply this deficiency. We analyzed the current evidence for effectiveness of PT to decrease UI and improve quality of life (QOL) in people with MS. Methods: An electronic search conducted through November 26, 2013, included the following search terms: incontinence, bladder dysfunction, urinary incontinence, multiple sclerosis, MS, physical therapy, physiotherapy, therapy, and rehabilitation. Criteria for inclusion were as follows: MS diagnosis, intervention involved PT for UI or bladder dysfunction, outcomes assessed QOL or UI, and at least a 4 of 10 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale or a 2b level of evidence. Outcomes were combined across studies, and effect sizes are depicted in forest plots. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Between-group analysis revealed statistically significant differences in incontinence episodes and QOL, but did not reach significance for functional control mechanisms (eg, electromyography data on strength of contraction, relaxation, and endurance). Incontinence leakage episodes and QOL participation improved within groups. Conclusions: Meta-analysis indicates support for PT for minimizing incontinence compared with pretreatment and affecting incontinence and QOL more than control in people with MS. Protocols were heterogeneous regarding duration and type of PT intervention and were applied in different types of MS. Further research may reveal the most effective combination and variety of PT interventions for people with MS. PMID:26300703

  13. Multiple Factors Affect Socioeconomics and Wellbeing of Artisanal Sea Cucumber Fishers.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Steven W; Ngaluafe, Poasi; Foale, Simon J; Cocks, Nicole; Cullis, Brian R; Lalavanua, Watisoni

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are important to livelihoods and subsistence seafood consumption of millions of fishers. Sea cucumbers are fished worldwide for export to Asia, yet few studies have assessed factors affecting socioeconomics and wellbeing among fishers. We interviewed 476 men and women sea cucumber fishers at multiple villages within multiple locations in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and New Caledonia using structured questionnaires. Low rates of subsistence consumption confirmed a primary role of sea cucumbers in income security. Prices of sea cucumbers sold by fishers varied greatly among countries, depending on the species. Gender variation in landing prices could be due to women catching smaller sea cucumbers or because some traders take advantage of them. Dissatisfaction with fishery income was common (44% of fishers), especially for i-Kiribati fishers, male fishers, and fishers experiencing difficulty selling their catch, but was uncorrelated with sale prices. Income dissatisfaction worsened with age. The number of livelihood activities averaged 2.2-2.5 across countries, and varied significantly among locations. Sea cucumbers were often a primary source of income to fishers, especially in Tonga. Other common livelihood activities were fishing other marine resources, copra production in Kiribati, agriculture in Fiji, and salaried jobs in New Caledonia. Fishing other coastal and coral reef resources was the most common fall-back livelihood option if fishers were forced to exit the fishery. Our data highlight large disparities in subsistence consumption, gender-related price equity, and livelihood diversity among parallel artisanal fisheries. Improvement of supply chains in dispersed small-scale fisheries appears as a critical need for enhancing income and wellbeing of fishers. Strong evidence for co-dependence among small-scale fisheries, through fall-back livelihood preferences of fishers, suggests that resource managers must mitigate concomitant effects on other

  14. BDNF val66met Polymorphism Affects Aging of Multiple Types of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Reese, Elizabeth D.; Horn, Marci M.; Sizemore, April N.; Unni, Asha K.; Meerbrey, Michael E.; Kalich, Allan G.; Rodrigue, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) influences activity-dependent secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the synapse, which is crucial for learning and memory. Individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the met allele have lower BDNF secretion than val homozygotes and may be at risk for reduced declarative memory performance, but it remains unclear which types of declarative memory may be affected and how aging of memory across the lifespan is impacted by the BDNF val66met polymorphism. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of BDNF polymorphism on multiple indices of memory (item, associative, prospective, subjective complaints) in a lifespan sample of 116 healthy adults aged 20-93 years. Advancing age showed a negative effect on item, associative and prospective memory, but not on subjective memory complaints. For item and prospective memory, there were significant age x BDNF group interactions, indicating the adverse effect of age on memory performance across the lifespan was much stronger in the BDNF met carriers than for the val homozygotes. BDNF met carriers also endorsed significantly greater subjective memory complaints, regardless of age, and showed a trend (p < .07) toward poorer associative memory performance compared to val homozygotes. These results suggest that genetic predisposition to the availability of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, by way of the BDNF val66met polymorphism, exerts an influence on multiple indices of episodic memory – in some cases in all individuals regardless of age (subjective memory and perhaps associative memory), in others as an exacerbation of age-related differences in memory across the lifespan (item and prospective memory). PMID:25264352

  15. How proprioceptive impairments affect quiet standing in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rougier, P; Faucher, M; Cantalloube, S; Lamotte, D; Vinti, M; Thoumie, P

    2007-01-01

    To assess if multiple sclerosis patients with proprioceptive impairment are specifically affected during quiet standing with eyes open and how they can develop motor compensatory processes, 56 patients, classified from sensory clinical tests as ataxo-spastic (MS-AS) or only having spasticity (MS-S), were compared to 23 healthy adults matched for age. The postural strategies were assessed from the centre-of-pressure trajectories (CP), measured from a force platform in the eyes open standing condition for a single trial lasting 51.2 s. The vertical projection of the centre of gravity (CGv) and its vertical difference from the CP (CP-CGv) were then estimated through a biomechanical relationship. These two movements permit the characterization of the postural performance and the horizontal acceleration communicated to the CG and from that, the global energy expenditure, respectively. Both MS-AS and MS-S groups demonstrate larger CGv and CP-CGv movements than healthy individuals of the same age. Whilst similar CGv values are noticed in both MS subgroups, suggesting similar postural performances, statistically significant differences are observed for the CP-CGv component. Biomechanically, this feature expresses the necessity for the MS-AS group to develop augmented neuro-muscular means to control their body movements, as compared to the MS-S group. By demonstrating for both groups of patients similar postural performance accompanied by a varying degree of energy expenditure to maintain undisturbed upright stance, this study reveals that MS-AS patients which are affected by proprioceptive loss can compensate for this deficit with more efficient control strategies, when standing still with their eyes open.

  16. A Carbon-XANES Study of IDP Organic Diversity: Evidence for Multiple Sources of Early Solar System Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Wirick, S.; Keller, L. P.

    2013-09-01

    We identified >30 distinct C-XANES spectra, differing in positions, relative areas, and widths of C=O and C=C absorptions, in a single ultramicrotome section of a CP IDP, suggesting multiple sources for organic matter in the early solar system.

  17. The dynamics of finger tremor in multiple sclerosis is affected by whole body position.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S; Sosnoff, J J; Sandroff, B M; Pula, J H; Motl, R W

    2013-01-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that results in widespread damage to the nervous system. One consequence of this disease is the emergence of enhanced tremor. This study was designed to (1) compare the tremor responses of persons with MS to that of healthy adults and to (2) examine the impact of whole body position (i.e., seated/standing) on tremor. Bilateral postural tremor was recorded using accelerometers attached to each index finger. Results revealed some similarity of tremor between groups in regard to the principal features (e.g., presence of peaks in similar frequency ranges). However, significant differences were observed with tremor for the MS persons being of greater amplitude, more regular (lower ApEn) and more strongly coupled across limbs compared to the elderly. The effects of body position were consistent across all subjects, with tremor increasing significantly from sitting-to-standing. However, the tremor increase for the MS group was greater than the elderly. Overall, the tremor for MS group was negatively affected by both this disease process and the nature of the task being performed. This latter result indicates that tremor does not simply reflect the feed-forward output of the neuromotor system but that it is influenced by the task constraints.

  18. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities affected by multiple stressors within tidal creeks in northeastern USA harbors

    SciTech Connect

    Papageorgis, C.; Murray, M.; Danis, C.; Yates, L.

    1995-12-31

    Surveys of water quality, substrate quality and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted in a variety of tidal creeks located in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste landfill prior to the construction of a leachate collection system. In-Situ water quality data indicated high water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen values along with high turbidites. Sediment chemistry data indicated that all sediment within the study area exceed USEPA heavy metal criteria. Grain size and salinity data indicate that the study area lies within the Mesohaline Mud habitat class. Water quality data remained within similar concentrations with respect to indicators of leachate. The benthic macroinvertebrate community was consistently dominated by opportunistic Polychaete and Oligochaete worms. Both Shannon diversity and Rarefaction curves were used to evaluate trends in species diversity over time. The study includes a comparison to data obtained by USEPA R-EMAP monitoring programs. While large scale biomonitoring programs do not focus on small tidal creeks this study provides useful data regarding baseline benthic communities within tidal creeks affected by multiple stressors to include previous exposure and potential exposure to oil spills, continued point and non-point municipal and industrial wastewater discharges and physical stressors such as elevated water temperatures, homogeneous silt/clay substrate, and depressed dissolved oxygen values.

  19. Multiple and diverse structural changes affect the breakpoint regions of polymorphic inversions across the Drosophila genus.

    PubMed

    Puerma, Eva; Orengo, Dorcas J; Aguadé, Montserrat

    2016-10-26

    Chromosomal polymorphism is widespread in the Drosophila genus, with extensive evidence supporting its adaptive character in diverse species. Moreover, inversions are the major contributors to the genus chromosomal evolution. The molecular characterization of a reduced number of polymorphic inversion breakpoints in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila subobscura supports that their inversions would have mostly originated through a mechanism that generates duplications -staggered double-strand breaks- and has thus the potential to contribute to their adaptive character. There is also evidence for inversion breakpoint reuse at different time scales. Here, we have characterized the breakpoints of two inversions of D. subobscura -O4 and O8- involved in complex arrangements that are frequent in the warm parts of the species distribution area. The duplications detected at their breakpoints are consistent with their origin through the staggered-break mechanism, which further supports it as the prevalent mechanism in D. subobscura. The comparative analysis of inversions breakpoint regions across the Drosophila genus has revealed several genes affected by multiple disruptions due not only to inversions but also to single-gene transpositions and duplications.

  20. Multiple and diverse structural changes affect the breakpoint regions of polymorphic inversions across the Drosophila genus

    PubMed Central

    Puerma, Eva; Orengo, Dorcas J.; Aguadé, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal polymorphism is widespread in the Drosophila genus, with extensive evidence supporting its adaptive character in diverse species. Moreover, inversions are the major contributors to the genus chromosomal evolution. The molecular characterization of a reduced number of polymorphic inversion breakpoints in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila subobscura supports that their inversions would have mostly originated through a mechanism that generates duplications —staggered double-strand breaks— and has thus the potential to contribute to their adaptive character. There is also evidence for inversion breakpoint reuse at different time scales. Here, we have characterized the breakpoints of two inversions of D. subobscura —O4 and O8— involved in complex arrangements that are frequent in the warm parts of the species distribution area. The duplications detected at their breakpoints are consistent with their origin through the staggered-break mechanism, which further supports it as the prevalent mechanism in D. subobscura. The comparative analysis of inversions breakpoint regions across the Drosophila genus has revealed several genes affected by multiple disruptions due not only to inversions but also to single-gene transpositions and duplications. PMID:27782210

  1. Altered precipitation regime affects the function and composition of soil microbial communities on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, L H; Bottomley, P J; Jumpponen, A; Rice, C W; Arango, M; Lindsley, A; McGowan, A; Mfombep, P; Myrold, D D

    2013-10-01

    Climate change models predict that future precipitation patterns will entail lower-frequency but larger rainfall events, increasing the duration of dry soil conditions. Resulting shifts in microbial C cycling activity could affect soil C storage. Further, microbial response to rainfall events may be constrained by the physiological or nutrient limitation stress of extended drought periods; thus seasonal or multiannual precipitation regimes may influence microbial activity following soil wet-up. We quantified rainfall-driven dynamics of microbial processes that affect soil C loss and retention, and microbial community composition, in soils from a long-term (14-year) field experiment contrasting "Ambient" and "Altered" (extended intervals between rainfalls) precipitation regimes. We collected soil before, the day following, and five days following 2.5-cm rainfall events during both moist and dry periods (June and September 2011; soil water potential = -0.01 and -0.83 MPa, respectively), and measured microbial respiration, microbial biomass, organic matter decomposition potential (extracellular enzyme activities), and microbial community composition (phospholipid fatty acids). The equivalent rainfall events caused equivalent microbial respiration responses in both treatments. In contrast, microbial biomass was higher and increased after rainfall in the Altered treatment soils only, thus microbial C use efficiency (CUE) was higher in Altered than Ambient treatments (0.70 +/- 0.03 > 0.46 +/- 0.10). CUE was also higher in dry (September) soils. C-acquiring enzyme activities (beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and phenol oxidase) increased after rainfall in moist (June), but not dry (September) soils. Both microbial biomass C:N ratios and fungal:bacterial ratios were higher at lower soil water contents, suggesting a functional and/or population-level shift in the microbiota at low soil water contents, and microbial community composition also differed following wet

  2. The Impact of Conservation Management on the Community Composition of Multiple Organism Groups in Eutrophic Interconnected Man-Made Ponds

    PubMed Central

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Ponds throughout the world are subjected to a variety of management measures for purposes of biodiversity conservation. Current conservation efforts typically comprise a combination of multiple measures that directly and indirectly impact a wide range of organism groups. Knowledge of the relative impact of individual measures on different taxonomic groups is important for the development of effective conservation programs. We conducted a field study of 28 man-made ponds, representing four management types differing in the frequency of periodic pond drainage and the intensity of fish stock management. We disentangled the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of pond management measures on the community composition of phytoplankton, zooplankton, aquatic macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent vascular plants. With the exception of phytoplankton, pond management had strong effects on the community composition of all investigated biota. Whether management affected communities directly or indirectly through its impact on fish communities or local environmental conditions in the pond varied between organism groups. Overall, the impact of pond drainage regime and fish community characteristics on the community composition of target organism groups were more important than local environmental conditions. The majority of taxa were negatively associated with fish density, whereas multiple emergent plant species and several taxa of aquatic macro-invertebrates were positively affected by increased drainage frequency. The effects of fish community and drainage tended to be largely independent. The present study indicates that pond drainage is an important element for biodiversity conservation in eutrophicated shallow and interconnected man-made ponds. PMID:26422390

  3. The Impact of Conservation Management on the Community Composition of Multiple Organism Groups in Eutrophic Interconnected Man-Made Ponds.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A J

    2015-01-01

    Ponds throughout the world are subjected to a variety of management measures for purposes of biodiversity conservation. Current conservation efforts typically comprise a combination of multiple measures that directly and indirectly impact a wide range of organism groups. Knowledge of the relative impact of individual measures on different taxonomic groups is important for the development of effective conservation programs. We conducted a field study of 28 man-made ponds, representing four management types differing in the frequency of periodic pond drainage and the intensity of fish stock management. We disentangled the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of pond management measures on the community composition of phytoplankton, zooplankton, aquatic macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent vascular plants. With the exception of phytoplankton, pond management had strong effects on the community composition of all investigated biota. Whether management affected communities directly or indirectly through its impact on fish communities or local environmental conditions in the pond varied between organism groups. Overall, the impact of pond drainage regime and fish community characteristics on the community composition of target organism groups were more important than local environmental conditions. The majority of taxa were negatively associated with fish density, whereas multiple emergent plant species and several taxa of aquatic macro-invertebrates were positively affected by increased drainage frequency. The effects of fish community and drainage tended to be largely independent. The present study indicates that pond drainage is an important element for biodiversity conservation in eutrophicated shallow and interconnected man-made ponds.

  4. Near-field multiple scattering effects of plasmonic nanospheres embedded into thin-film organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Wei E. I.; Choy, Wallace C. H.; Liu, Yang G.; Cho Chew, Weng

    2011-09-01

    We investigate near-field multiple scattering effects of plasmonic nanospheres (NSPs) embedded into organic solar cells (OSCs). When NSPs are embedded into a spacer layer, the near-field scattering from the NSPs shows strong direction-dependent features, which significantly affects the optical absorption. When NSPs are embedded into an active layer, the absorption enhancement is attributed to the interplay between longitudinal and transverse modes supported by the NSP chain. The breakdown of electrostatic scaling law is confirmed by our theoretical model and should be accounted for optical designs of OSCs. The work provides the fundamental physical understanding and design guidelines for plasmonic photovoltaics.

  5. Circulating Extracellular Histones Are Clinically Relevant Mediators of Multiple Organ Injury.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Chihiro; Kotani, Hirokazu; Miyao, Masashi; Ishida, Tokiko; Jemail, Leila; Abiru, Hitoshi; Tamaki, Keiji

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular histones are a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. The mechanisms of histone-mediated injury in certain organs have been extensively studied, but an understanding of the pathophysiological role of histone-mediated injury in multiple organ injury remains elusive. To elucidate this role, we systemically subjected C57BL/6 mice to various doses of histones and performed a chronological evaluation of the morphological and functional changes in the lungs, liver, and kidneys. Notably, histone administration ultimately led to death after a dose-dependent aggravation of multiple organ injury. In chronological studies, pulmonary and hepatic injuries occurred within 15 minutes, whereas renal injuries presented at a later phase, suggesting that susceptibility to extracellular histones varies among organs. Histones bound to pulmonary and hepatic endothelial cells immediately after administration, leading to endothelial damage, which could be ameliorated by pretreatment with heparin. Furthermore, release of another DAMP, high-mobility group protein box 1, followed the histone-induced tissue damage, and an antibody against the molecule ameliorated hepatic and renal failure in a late phase. These findings indicate that extracellular histones induce multiple organ injury in two progressive stages-direct injury to endothelial cells and the subsequent release of other DAMPs-and that combination therapies against extracellular histones and high-mobility group protein box 1 may be a promising strategy for treating multiple organ injury.

  6. Haff disease complicated by multiple organ failure after crayfish consumption: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Gang; Luo, Qiancheng; Zhuang, Ping; Guo, Enwei; Yao, Yulan; Gao, Zhongyu

    2014-01-01

    Haff disease is a syndrome consisting of unexplained rhabdomyolysis. Patients suffering from Haff disease report having eaten fish within 24 hours before the onset of illness. Most patients survive and recover quickly. The present study is the first report of Haff disease complicated by multiple organ failure after crayfish consumption. A 66-year-old Chinese man ate cooked crayfish on the night of June 23, 2013. He arrived at our hospital 2 days later and was admitted to the intensive care unit. After admission, the patient was diagnosed with Haff disease complicated by multiple organ failure. Despite supportive and symptomatic treatments, the condition of the patient deteriorated, and he died due to his illness. Haff disease is a rare clinical syndrome that is sometimes misdiagnosed. Early diagnosis and proper treatment are essential to prevent progression to multiple organ failure. PMID:25607271

  7. Multi-atlas based segmentation of multiple organs in breast MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xi; Sedai, Suman; Wang, Hongzhi; Liang, Sisi; Hashmi, Naveed; Mcneillie, Patrick; Hashoul, Sharbell

    2015-03-01

    Automatic segmentation of the breast, chest wall and heart is an important pre-processing step for automatic lesion detection of breast MR and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR studies. In this paper, we present a fully automatic segmentation procedure of multiple organs in breast MRI images using multi-atlas based methods. Our method starts by reducing the image inhomogeneity using anisotropic fusion method. We then build multiple atlases with labels of breast, chest wall and heart. These atlases are registered to a target image to obtain warped organ labels that are aligned to the target image. Given the warped organ labels, segmentation is performed via label fusion. In this paper, we evaluate various label fusion methods and compare their performance on segmenting multiple anatomical structures in breast MRI.

  8. Key soil functional properties affected by soil organic matter - evidence from published literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Brian

    2015-07-01

    The effect of varying the amount of soil organic matter on a range of individual soil properties was investigated using a literature search of published information largely from Australia, but also included relevant information from overseas. Based on published pedotransfer functions, soil organic matter was shown to increase plant available water by 2 to 3 mm per 10 cm for each 1% increase in soil organic carbon, with the largest increases being associated with sandy soils. Aggregate stability increased with increasing soil organic carbon, with aggregate stability decreasing rapidly when soil organic carbon fell below 1.2 to 1.5 5%. Soil compactibility, friability and soil erodibility were favourably improved by increasing the levels of soil organic carbon. Nutrient cycling was a major function of soil organic matter. Substantial amounts of N, P and S become available to plants when the soil organic matter is mineralised. Soil organic matter also provides a food source for the microorganisms involved in the nutrient cycling of N, P, S and K. In soils with lower clay contents, and less active clays such as kaolinites, soil organic matter can supply a significant amount of the cation exchange capacity and buffering capacity against acidification. Soil organic matter can have a cation exchange capacity of 172 to 297 cmol(+)/kg. As the cation exchange capacity of soil organic matter varies with pH, the effectiveness of soil organic matter to contribute to cation exchange capacity below pH 5.5 is often minimal. Overall soil organic matter has the potential to affect a range of functional soil properties.

  9. Guidelines for potential multiple organ donors (adult). Part III: organ-specific recommendations.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; Caldeira Filho, Milton; Vieira, Kalinca Daberkow; Zaclikevis, Viviane Renata; Bartz, Miriam Cristine Machado; Wanzuita, Raquel; Réa-Neto, Alvaro; Teixeira, Cassiano; Franke, Cristiano; Machado, Fernando Osni; Andrade, Joel de; Matos, Jorge Dias de; Gerent, Karine Becker; Fiorelli, Alfredo; Gonçalves, Anderson Ricardo Roman; Ferraz Neto, Ben-Hur; Dias, Fernando Suparregui; Carvalho, Frederico Bruzzi de; Costa, Gerson; Camargo, José Jesus; Teles, José Mário Meira; Maia, Marcelo; Nogara, Marcelo; Coelho, Maria Emília; Mazzali, Marilda; Youssef, Nazah Cherif Mohamad; Duarte, Péricles; Souza, Rafael Lisboa de; Fernandes, Rogério; Camargo, Spencer; Garcia, Valter Duro

    2011-12-01

    Brain death (BD) alters the pathophysiology of patients and may damage the kidneys, the lungs, the heart and the liver. To obtain better quality transplant organs, intensive care physicians in charge of the maintenance of deceased donors should attentively monitor these organs. Careful hemodynamic, ventilatory and bronchial clearance management minimizes the loss of kidneys and lungs. The evaluation of cardiac function and morphology supports the transplant viability assessment of the heart. The monitoring of liver function, the management of the patient's metabolic status and the evaluation of viral serology are fundamental for organ selection by the transplant teams and for the care of the transplant recipient.

  10. Natural selection affects multiple aspects of genetic variation at putatively neutral sites across the human genome.

    PubMed

    Lohmueller, Kirk E; Albrechtsen, Anders; Li, Yingrui; Kim, Su Yeon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Vinckenbosch, Nicolas; Tian, Geng; Huerta-Sanchez, Emilia; Feder, Alison F; Grarup, Niels; Jørgensen, Torben; Jiang, Tao; Witte, Daniel R; Sandbæk, Annelli; Hellmann, Ines; Lauritzen, Torsten; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Wang, Jun; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-10-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across the human genome. Previous work has documented a reduction in genetic diversity in regions of the genome with low recombination rates. However, it is unclear whether other summaries of genetic variation, like allele frequencies, are also correlated with recombination rate and whether these correlations can be explained solely by negative selection against deleterious mutations or whether positive selection acting on favorable alleles is also required. Here we attempt to address these questions by analyzing three different genome-wide resequencing datasets from European individuals. We document several significant correlations between different genomic features. In particular, we find that average minor allele frequency and diversity are reduced in regions of low recombination and that human diversity, human-chimp divergence, and average minor allele frequency are reduced near genes. Population genetic simulations show that either positive natural selection acting on favorable mutations or negative natural selection acting against deleterious mutations can explain these correlations. However, models with strong positive selection on nonsynonymous mutations and little negative selection predict a stronger negative correlation between neutral diversity and nonsynonymous divergence than observed in the actual data, supporting the importance of negative, rather than positive, selection throughout the genome. Further, we show that the widespread presence of weakly deleterious alleles, rather than a small number of strongly positively selected mutations, is responsible for the correlation between neutral genetic diversity and recombination rate. This work suggests that natural selection has affected multiple aspects of linked neutral variation throughout the human genome and that positive selection is not required to explain these observations.

  11. Multiple Psychopharmacological Effects of the Traditional Japanese Kampo Medicine Yokukansan, and the Brain Regions it Affects

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Kazushige; Ikarashi, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has indications for use in night crying and irritability in children, as well as neurosis and insomnia. It is currently also used for the remedy of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as aggressiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. In parallel with clinical evidence, a significant amount of fundamental researches have been undertaken to clarify the neuropsychopharmacological efficacies of YKS, with approximately 70 articles, including our own, being published to date. Recently, we reviewed the neuropharmacological mechanisms of YKS, including its effects on glutamatergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission, and pharmacokinetics of the ingredients responsible for the effects. This review is aimed to integrate the information regarding the psychopharmacological effects of YKS with the brain regions known to be affected, to facilitate our understanding of the clinical efficacy of YKS. In this review, we first show that YKS has several effects that act to improve symptoms that are similar to BPSDs, like aggressiveness, hallucinations, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, as well as symptoms like tardive dyskinesia and cognitive deficits. We next provide the evidence showing that YKS can interact with various brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and spinal cord, dysfunctions of which are related to psychiatric symptoms, cognitive deficits, abnormal behaviors, and dysesthesia. In addition, the major active ingredients of YKS, geissoschizine methyl ether and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, are shown to predominantly bind to the frontal cortex and hippocampus, respectively. Our findings suggest that YKS has multiple psychopharmacological effects, and that these are probably mediated by interactions among several brain regions. In this review, we summarize the available information about the valuable effects of a multicomponent medicine YKS on complex

  12. Polymorphisms within beta-catenin encoding gene affect multiple myeloma development and treatment.

    PubMed

    Butrym, Aleksandra; Rybka, Justyna; Łacina, Piotr; Gębura, Katarzyna; Frontkiewicz, Diana; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Mazur, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that cereblon (CRBN) is essential for the anti-myeloma (MM) activity of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), such as thalidomide and lenalidomide, and that dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway may be one of possible reasons of lenalidomide resistance. This prompted us to analyze the effect of polymorphisms within the genes coding for cereblon (CRBN (rs121918368 C>T)) and β-catenin (CTNNB1 (rs4135385 A>G; rs4533622 A>C)). MM patients (n=142) and healthy individuals (n=123) were genotyped using the Light SNiP assays. The presence of the CTNNB1 (rs4533622) A allele was more frequently detected in patients presented with stage II-III disease according to International Staging System (63/82 vs. 26/44, p=0.043) and Durie-Salmon criteria (75/99 vs. 14/26, p=0.049). The CTNNB1 (rs4135385) AA homozygosity was more frequent among patients with better response to CTD, i.e., cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone (18/23 vs. 32/60, p=0.047). Patients carrying the CTNNB1 (rs4533622) AA genotype were better responders to the first line therapy with thalidomide containing regimens (p<0.05). No significant association was observed between the effect of lenalidomide therapy and polymorphisms studied. However, the occurrence of neutropenia during lenalidomide therapy was more frequent among the CTNNB1 (rs4135385) AA carriers (p=0.019), while the CTNNB1 (rs4533622) AA homozygosity characterized patients with high grade (3-4) neutropenia (p=0.044). No association was found for the CRBN polymorphism. These results suggest that the CTNNB1 polymorphisms may affect the clinical course and response to chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma.

  13. Multirate delivery of multiple therapeutic agents from metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    McKinlay, Alistair C.; Allan, Phoebe K.; Renouf, Catherine L.; Duncan, Morven J.; Wheatley, Paul S.; Warrender, Stewart J.; Dawson, Daniel; Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Gil, Barbara; Marszalek, Bartosz; Düren, Tina; Williams, Jennifer J.; Charrier, Cedric; Mercer, Derry K.; Teat, Simon J.; Morris, Russell E.

    2014-12-01

    The highly porous nature of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) offers great potential for the delivery of therapeutic agents. Here, we show that highly porous metal-organic frameworks can be used to deliver multiple therapeutic agents—a biologically active gas, an antibiotic drug molecule, and an active metal ion—simultaneously but at different rates. The possibilities offered by delivery of multiple agents with different mechanisms of action and, in particular, variable timescales may allow new therapy approaches. Here, we show that the loaded MOFs are highly active against various strains of bacteria.

  14. 5 CFR 5502.107 - Supplemental disclosure of financial interests in substantially affected organizations applicable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... investigator, medical advisory investigator, associate investigator, or other subinvestigator in an NIH... with the NIH any financial interest in a substantially affected organization and the value thereof held... agency component, other than the NIH, or of the remainder of HHS who is either a public filer,...

  15. 5 CFR 5502.107 - Supplemental disclosure of financial interests in substantially affected organizations applicable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... investigator, medical advisory investigator, associate investigator, or other subinvestigator in an NIH... with the NIH any financial interest in a substantially affected organization and the value thereof held... agency component, other than the NIH, or of the remainder of HHS who is either a public filer,...

  16. 5 CFR 5502.107 - Supplemental disclosure of financial interests in substantially affected organizations applicable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... investigator, medical advisory investigator, associate investigator, or other subinvestigator in an NIH... with the NIH any financial interest in a substantially affected organization and the value thereof held... agency component, other than the NIH, or of the remainder of HHS who is either a public filer,...

  17. 5 CFR 5502.107 - Supplemental disclosure of financial interests in substantially affected organizations applicable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... investigator, medical advisory investigator, associate investigator, or other subinvestigator in an NIH... with the NIH any financial interest in a substantially affected organization and the value thereof held... agency component, other than the NIH, or of the remainder of HHS who is either a public filer,...

  18. 29 CFR 401.10 - Labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce. 401.10 Section 401.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.10...

  19. Physical and Cognitive-Affective Factors Associated with Fatigue in Individuals with Fibromyalgia: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Veronica; Brooks, Jessica; Tu, Wei-Mo; Moser, Erin; Lo, Chu-Ling; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which physical and cognitive-affective factors are associated with fibromyalgia (FM) fatigue. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using correlation techniques and multiple regression analysis. The participants consisted of 302 members of the National Fibromyalgia &…

  20. Realistic changes in seaweed biodiversity affect multiple ecosystem functions on a rocky shore.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Matthew E S; Williams, Susan L

    2013-09-01

    Given current threats to biodiversity, understanding the effects of diversity changes on the functions and services associated with intact ecosystems is of paramount importance. However, limited realism in most biodiversity studies makes it difficult to link the large and growing body of evidence for important functional consequences of biodiversity change to real-world losses of biodiversity. Here, we explored two methods of incorporating realism into biodiversity research: (1) the use of two-, five-, and eight-species assemblages that mimicked those that we observed in surveys of seaweed biodiversity patterns on a northern California (USA) rocky shore and the explicit comparison of those assemblages to random assemblages compiled from the same local species pool; and (2) the measurement of two fundamental ecosystem functions, nitrate uptake and photosynthesis, both of which contribute to growth of primary producers. Specifically, we measured nitrate uptake rates of seaweed assemblages as a function of initial nitrate concentrations and photosynthetic rates as a function of irradiance levels for both realistic and random assemblages of seaweeds. We only observed changes in ecosystem functioning along a richness gradient for realistic assemblages, and both maximum nitrate uptake rates (V(max)) and photosynthetic light use efficiency values (alpha(p) = P(max)/I(K)) were higher in realistic assemblages than in random assemblages. Furthermore, the parameter affected by changes in richness depended on the function being measured. Both V(max) and alpha(p) declined with increasing richness in nonrandom assemblages due to a combination of species identity effects (for V(max) and overyielding effects (for both V(max) and alpha(p)). In contrast, neither nitrate uptake efficiency values (alpha(N) = V(max)/K(s)), nor maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) changed along the gradient in seaweed species richness. Furthermore, overyielding was only evident in realistic assemblages

  1. Day Services for People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: An Analysis of Thematically Organized Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the recent ideas to emerge in the Netherlands for improving the quality of activities provided for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities is to organize these activities thematically. Among the expected effects was that more activities with a greater variety would be provided and more attention would be offered to each…

  2. Year in review 2006: Critical Care – multiple organ failure, sepsis, and shock

    PubMed Central

    Simkova, Vladislava; Baumgart, Katja; Radermacher, Peter; Barth, Eberhard; Calzia, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, Critical Care provided important and clinically relevant research data in the field of multiple organ failure, sepsis, and shock. This review summarizes the results of the experimental studies and clinical trials and discusses them in the context of the relevant scientific and clinical background. PMID:17764584

  3. Multiple organ histopathological changes in broiler chickens fed on genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Cîrnatu, Daniela; Jompan, A; Sin, Anca Ileana; Zugravu, Cornelia Aurelia

    2011-01-01

    Diet can influence the structural characteristics of internal organs. An experiment involving 130 meat broilers was conducted during 42 days (life term for a meat broiler) to study the effect of feed with protein from genetically modified soy. The 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to five study groups, fed with soy, sunflower, wheat, fish flour, PC starter. In the diet of each group, an amount of protein from soy was replaced with genetically modified soy (I - 0%, II - 25%, III - 50%, IV - 75%, V - 100% protein from genetically modified soy). The level of protein in soy, either modified, or non-modified, was the same. Organs and carcass weights were measured at about 42 days of age of the birds and histopathology exams were performed during May-June 2009. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with genetically modified soybean fractions and those consuming diets produced with near-isoline control soybean fractions. Inflammatory and degenerative liver lesions, muscle hypertrophy, hemorrhagic necrosis of bursa, kidney focal tubular necrosis, necrosis and superficial ulceration of bowel and pancreatic dystrophies were found in tissues from broilers fed on protein from genetically modified soy. Different types of lesions found in our study might be due to other causes (parasites, viral) superimposed but their presence exclusively in groups fed with modified soy raises some serious questions about the consequences of use of this type of feed.

  4. Adsorption of histones on natural polysaccharides: The potential as agent for multiple organ failure in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Takashi; Kofuji, Kyoko; Okada, Kenji; Fujimori, Junya; Murata, Mikio; Shigeyama, Masato; Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Murata, Yoshifumi

    2016-03-01

    Histones are intracellular proteins that are structural elements of nuclear chromatin and regulate gene transcription. However, the extracellular histones released in response to bacterial challenges have been identified as mediators contributing to endothelial dysfunction, organ failure, and death during sepsis. In the present study, the adsorption of histones as well as plasma proteins (α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), albumin, and γ-globulin) on alginic acid, pectin, dextran, and chitosan was examined in order to evaluate the potential of natural polysaccharides as therapeutic agents for multiple organ failure in sepsis. Alginic acid and pectin strongly adsorbed histones, whereas the adsorption abilities of dextran and chitosan toward histones were very low or negligible. Among the natural polysaccharides examined, only alginic acid did not adsorb any of the plasma proteins. These results demonstrated that alginic acid strongly adsorbed histones, but not plasma proteins; therefore, it has potential as a candidate drug for the treatment of multiple organ failure in sepsis.

  5. Soluble organic carbon and pH of organic amendments affect metal mobility and chemical speciation in mine soils.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Esteban, Javier; Escolástico, Consuelo; Masaguer, Alberto; Vargas, Carmen; Moliner, Ana

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of pH and soluble organic carbon affected by organic amendments on metal mobility to find out the optimal conditions for their application in the stabilization of metals in mine soils. Soil samples (pH 5.5-6.2) were mixed with 0, 30 and 60 th a(-1) of sheep-horse manure (pH 9.4) and pine bark compost (pH 5.7). A single-step extraction procedure was performed using 0.005 M CaCl2 adjusted to pH 4.0-7.0 and metal speciation in soil solution was simulated using NICA-Donnan model. Sheep-horse manure reduced exchangeable metal concentrations (up to 71% Cu, 75% Zn) due to its high pH and degree of maturity, whereas pine bark increased them (32% Cu, 33% Zn). However, at increasing dose and hence pH, sheep-horse manure increased soluble Cu because of higher soluble organic carbon, whereas soluble Cu and organic carbon increased at increasing dose and correspondingly decreasing pH in pine bark and non-amended treatments. Near the native pH of these soils (at pH 5.8-6.3), with small doses of amendments, there was minimum soluble Cu and organic carbon. Pine bark also increased Zn solubility, whereas sheep-horse manure reduced it as soluble Zn always decreased with increasing pH. Sheep-horse manure also reduced the proportion of free metals in soil solution (from 41% to 4% Cu, from 97% to 94% Zn), which are considered to be more bioavailable than organic species. Sheep-horse manure amendment could be efficiently used for the stabilization of metals with low risk of leaching to groundwater at low doses and at relatively low pH, such as the native pH of mine soils.

  6. Method development for simultaneous analyses of multiple legacy and emerging organic chemicals in sediments.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiehong; Li, Zhuona; Sandy, Andy L; Li, An

    2014-11-28

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using a single pretreatment procedure for the analyses of multiple groups of organics, which have a wide range of chemical structures and physicochemical properties, in sediment samples. Nine groups of 162 individual compounds (including 11 surrogates) were investigated, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel halogenated flame retardants (nXFRs), musk fragrances (MFs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). The individual and grouped recoveries of spiked analytes from adsorption chromatographic columns using either only fully activated, neutral silica gel (SG) or the combinations of silica gel and alumina (Si/Al) sorbents were compared. The results showed a generally stronger adsorption and more effective fractionation on the Si/Al column than on the SG column. The dependence of fractionation on halogen substitution, molecular planarity, and polar functional groups was discussed. The effects of adding sulfuric acid with two different methods were investigated, and the recoveries of a number of MFs, OCPs, nXFRs and OPFRs were recovered less than 60%. Sodium hydroxide treatment of silica gel had minor effects on some OPFRs. Copper used to remove elemental sulfur did not affect the recoveries of all target analytes except chloroneb. The finalized method was validated by spiking the target analysts into the sediment samples and comparing the analytical results of this work on two standard reference materials for sediment (SRMs 1941b and 1944) with the certified or reference values.

  7. [The forensic medical evaluation of traumatic and spontaneous ruptures of the organs affected by the tumours].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dolzhansky, O V; Pal'tseva, E M; Shilova, M A; Fedorov, D N; Boeva, S E

    2017-01-01

    The present article was designed to report the results of the analysis of the cases of traumatic and spontaneous ruptures of the organs affected by the tumours based on the original observations and the literature data. It is shown that the probability of the tumour rupture depends on its histological type, localization, the size, and the distance from the capsule of the affected organ, the degree of involvement of the major blood vessels, the severity of the necrotic changes, the presence of cysts in the neoplasm, and the regimens of radio- and chemotherapy. Moreover, the rupture can be facilitated by anticoagulation therapy, intake or oral contraceptives, pregnancy, concomitant diseases, alcoholic intoxication, splenomegaly, and hypocoagulation resulting from dissemination of the neoplastic process or the metastatic lesions of the liver. Even a minimal injury to the skin can provoke the tumour rupture associated with the fatal hemorrhage. A delayed rupture within a few hours or days is possible.

  8. The onion skin-like organization of the septum arises from multiple embryonic origins to form multiple adult neuronal fates.

    PubMed

    Wei, B; Huang, Z; He, S; Sun, C; You, Y; Liu, F; Yang, Z

    2012-10-11

    In the past several decades, tremendous progress has been achieved through developmental studies of the central nervous system structures such as the cerebral cortex. The septum, which receives reciprocal connections from a variety of brain structures, contains diverse projection neurons but few interneurons. However, the mechanisms underlying its development remain poorly understood. Here we show that the septum is organized into an onion skin-like structure composed of five groups of neurons. These neurons are parvalbumin, choline acetyltransferase, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, calretinin and calbindin immunoreactive. Using the BrdU birth-dating method, we found that these five groups of neurons in the septum are grossly generated following an outside-in pattern. Interestingly, the distinct molecular identities of these neuronal subtypes correspond to their heterogeneous subpallial origins. Using three specific transgenic mouse lines and focal in utero electroporation of Cre-reporter plasmid, we showed that septal neurons originate from not only local progenitor regions but also neighboring progenitor regions including the medial ganglionic eminence and preoptic area. Thus, the neuronal diversity of the septum is achieved through both temporal and spatial control. Our results also suggest that multiple neuronal subtypes arrive to the septum through both radial and tangential migration. Based on these findings, we proposed a novel developmental model involving multiple spatial-temporal origins of septal neurons. This study presents new perspectives for comprehensively exploring septal functions in brain circuits.

  9. Soil organic matter transformation in cryoturbated horizons of permafrost affected soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capek, Petr; Diakova, Katerina; Dickopp, Jan-Erik; Barta, Jiri; Santruckova, Hana; Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Joerg; Guggenberg, Georg; Gentsch, Norman; Hugelius, Gustaf; Kuhry, Peter; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Gittel, Antje; Schleper, Christa; Mikutta, Robert; Palmtag, Juri; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey; Richter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Cryoturbated soil horizons are special feature of permafrost affected soils. These soils are known to store great amount of organic carbon and cryoturbation undoubtedly contribute to it to large extent. Despite this fact there is almost no information about soil organic matter (SOM) transformation in cryoturbated horizons. Therefore we carried out long term incubation experiment in which we inspect SOM transformation in cryoturbated as well as in organic and mineral soil horizons under different temperature and redox regimes as potential drivers. We found out that lower SOM transformation in cryoturbated horizons compared to organic horizons was mainly limited by the amount of microbial biomass, which is extremely low in absolute numbers or expressed to SOM concentration. The biochemical transformation ensured by extracellular enzymes is relatively high leading to high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in cryoturbated horizons. Nevertheless the final step of SOM transformation leading to C mineralization to CO2 or CH4 seems to be restricted by low microbial biomass. Critical step of biochemical transformation of complex SOM is dominated by phenoloxidases, which break down complex organic compounds to simple ones. Their oxygen consumption greatly overwhelms oxygen consumption of the whole microbial community. However the phenoloxidase activity shows strong temperature response with optimum at 13.7° C. Therefore we suggest that apparent SOM stability in cryoturbated horizons, which is expressed in old C14 dated age, is caused by low amount of microbial biomass and restricted diffusion of oxygen to extracellular enzymes in field.

  10. Thinking Big or Small: Does Mental Abstraction Affect Social Network Organization?

    PubMed Central

    Bacev-Giles, Chantal; Peetz, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Four studies examined how mental abstraction affects how people perceive their relationships with other people, specifically, how these relationships may be categorized in social groups. We expected that individuals induced to think abstractly would report fewer more global social groups, compared to those induced to think concretely, who would report more specific groups. However, induced abstract mindset did not affect how people structured their social groups (Study 2–4), despite evidence that the mindset manipulation changed the level of abstraction in their thoughts (Study 3) and evidence that it changed how people structured groups for a control condition (household objects, Study 4). Together, these studies suggest that while the way people organize their relationships into groups is malleable; cognitive abstraction does not seem to affect how people categorize their relationships into social groups. PMID:26808086

  11. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in drinking water sources impacted by multiple tributaries.

    PubMed

    Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L; Snyder, Shane A; Suffet, I H

    2007-10-01

    The characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in drinking water sources is important as this material contributes to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) and affects how water treatment unit operations are optimized. Drinking water utilities often draw water from sources impacted by multiple tributaries, with possible shifts in DOM concentrations and reactivity over time, depending on specific environmental conditions. In this study, results are presented on the characterization of DOM under varying ambient conditions from the four main tributaries of Lake Mead, a large reservoir in the southwest United States. The tributaries include the Las Vegas Wash (LVW), Muddy River (MR), Virgin River (VR) and the upper Colorado River (UCR). One additional sample was collected at the outflow of the reservoir (lower Colorado River (LCR)). The DOM was characterized by both bulk parameters (specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA)) and specific physicochemical properties, i.e. size, polarity and fluorescence. The analyses were performed emphasizing limited changes in its natural configuration by eliminating analytical preparation steps, excluding sample filtration (0.45 microm filter). Results indicate that each tributary had a different molecular weight distribution, as well as fluorescence properties, which helped in the identification of the relative source of DOM (allochthonous versus autochthonous). The largest apparent molecular weight distribution was observed for DOM samples collected at the MR site, which is fed mostly by groundwater seepage. The smallest apparent molecular weight was observed for DOM collected at the LCR site, suggesting that retention in the reservoir resulted in a decrease in molecular weight as a probable result of photo oxidation and microbial processes. Fluorescence analysis aided the differentiation of DOM by clearly identifying waters that were affected by microbial activity (LVW, UCR, and LCR), either by wastewater influence

  12. The emerging multiple metal nanostructures for enhancing the light trapping of thin film organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Choy, Wallace C H

    2014-10-18

    Recently, various metal nanostructures have been introduced into organic solar cells (OSCs) for performance enhancement. Here, we review the recent progress in OSCs incorporated with multiple metal nanostructures including various metal nanopatterns and metal nanomaterials. Multiple physical effects arise from these incorporated nanostructures, which require careful distinction. Changes induced by the metal nanostructures are examined in detail from the optical and electrical aspects. With the comprehensive understanding of the physical mechanisms for various metal nanostructures, further improvement in device performance and emerging applications can be expected for the new class of nanostructure-incorporated OSCs.

  13. Procainamide Inhibits DNA Methylation and Alleviates Multiple Organ Dysfunction in Rats with Endotoxic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Chih-Chin; Liao, Mei-Hui; Hsiao, Tsan-Seng; Hii, Hiong-Ping; Shen, Ching-Hui; Chen, Shiu-Jen; Ka, Shuk-Man; Chang, Yung-Lung; Wu, Chin-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Excessive inflammatory and oxidative stress lead to circulatory failure, multiple organ dysfunction, and high mortality in patients with sepsis. Microbial infection-induced DNA hypermethylation is associated with the augmentation of inflammation and oxidative stress. In our previous study, the antiarrhythmic drug procainamide inhibits the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and diminishes IL-6 levels in rats with rhabdomyolysis. Thus, we further evaluated the effects of procainamide on the development of circulatory failure and multiple organ dysfunction in rats with endotoxic shock. Male Wistar rats were intravenously infused with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) followed by procainamide administration. The changes of hemodynamics, blood glucose, biochemical variables, and plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels were analyzed during the experimental period. At the end of experiments, animal organs were also obtained for examining superoxide production, neutrophil infiltration, and DNA methylation status. Our results showed that LPS induced circulatory failure, multiple organ dysfunction, and high mortality rate in endotoxemic rats. Overt neutrophil infiltration and superoxide production, accompanied by the elevations of DNMT1 and 5-methylcytosine levels in the lung of endotoxemic rats were also observed. Treatment of endotoxemic animals with procainamide not only inhibited the increased levels of DNMT1 and 5-methylcytosine but also ameliorated neutrophil infiltration and superoxide production in the lung. In addition, the anti-inflammatory gene, IL27RA, was down-regulated in the LPS group and up-regulated in the LPS + Procainamide group. Procainamide also diminished IL27RA methylation in the lung of endotoxemic rat. Moreover, both DNMT inhibitors procainamide and hydralazine improved hypotension, hypoglycemia, and multiple organ dysfunction of LPS-treated rats. Thus, we suggest that the beneficial effects of procainamide could be attributed to the suppression

  14. Multiple time courses of salivary alpha-amylase and dimensions of affect in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Doane, Leah D; Van Lenten, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has illustrated associations among daily experiences, emotions and stress-responding physiological systems. Recently, investigators have examined salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a surrogate marker of the autonomic nervous system, and its associations with affect. The current study examined associations among affective valence, arousal and sAA across three different time courses at the momentary, daily and inter-individual level to understand varying influences of adolescents' daily emotional experiences on sAA reactivity and diurnal sAA activity. Adolescents (N=82) provided salivary samples and diary reports of affect and experiences five times a day for three consecutive days. They also completed self-report questionnaires on trait affect. Findings from multilevel growth curves demonstrated that adolescents in our sample displayed typical sAA diurnal rhythms with levels dropping 30 min after waking and then increasing across the day to a peak in the late afternoon. Within person momentary experiences of high arousal positive affect were associated with momentary sAA reactivity. Prior day experiences of high arousal negative affect were associated with a greater amylase awakening response (i.e., greater decrease) and flatter slopes the next day. Trait positive affect was also associated with flatter sAA slopes. Our findings suggest that both affective arousal and valence should be accounted for when examining differences in sAA reactivity and diurnal patterns. Further, our results indicated that emotion-physiology transactions among adolescents occur over varying time scales for salivary alpha-amylase as well as cortisol.

  15. Soil organic carbon pools and stocks in permafrost-affected soils on the tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Dörfer, Corina; Kühn, Peter; Baumann, Frank; He, Jin-Sheng; Scholten, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau reacts particularly sensitively to possible effects of climate change. Approximately two thirds of the total area is affected by permafrost. To get a better understanding of the role of permafrost on soil organic carbon pools and stocks, investigations were carried out including both discontinuous (site Huashixia, HUA) and continuous permafrost (site Wudaoliang, WUD). Three organic carbon fractions were isolated using density separation combined with ultrasonic dispersion: the light fractions (<1.6 g cm(-3)) of free particulate organic matter (FPOM) and occluded particulate organic matter (OPOM), plus a heavy fraction (>1.6 g cm(-3)) of mineral associated organic matter (MOM). The fractions were analyzed for C, N, and their portion of organic C. FPOM contained an average SOC content of 252 g kg(-1). Higher SOC contents (320 g kg(-1)) were found in OPOM while MOM had the lowest SOC contents (29 g kg(-1)). Due to their lower density the easily decomposable fractions FPOM and OPOM contribute 27% (HUA) and 22% (WUD) to the total SOC stocks. In HUA mean SOC stocks (0-30 cm depth) account for 10.4 kg m(-2), compared to 3.4 kg m(-2) in WUD. 53% of the SOC is stored in the upper 10 cm in WUD, in HUA only 39%. Highest POM values of 36% occurred in profiles with high soil moisture content. SOC stocks, soil moisture and active layer thickness correlated strongly in discontinuous permafrost while no correlation between SOC stocks and active layer thickness and only a weak relation between soil moisture and SOC stocks could be found in continuous permafrost. Consequently, permafrost-affected soils in discontinuous permafrost environments are susceptible to soil moisture changes due to alterations in quantity and seasonal distribution of precipitation, increasing temperature and therefore evaporation.

  16. A steroid-induced bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head in an underage patient affected by multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Carulli, Christian; Nistri, Lorenzo; Bracco, Laura; Giannini, Marta; Amato, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patients affected by Multiple Sclerosis are often treated by pulsed intravenous corticosteroids to manage acute relapses with positive outcomes. The intravenous administration is frequently associated to avascular necrosis of several bones, particularly the femur. The present report regards a case of an underage MS patient with a bilateral ANFH secondary to pulsed administrations of steroids, managed by a conservative approach on a hip, and by a novel surgical technique on the contralateral side. PMID:26811707

  17. Depth stratification of soil organic matter as an indicator of multiple ecosystem services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic matter is a key component of soil quality that sustains many key soil functions by providing the energy, substrates, and biological diversity to support biological activity, which affects aggregation (important for habitat space, oxygen supply, and preventing soil erosion), infiltration...

  18. Demographic and Clinical Findings in Pediatric Patients Affected by Organic Acidemia

    PubMed Central

    NAJAFI, Reza; HASHEMIPOUR, Mahin; MOSTOFIZADEH, Neda; GHAZAVI, Mohammadreza; NASIRI, Jafar; SHAHSANAI, Armindokht; FAMORI, Fatemeh; NAJAFI, Fatemeh; MOAFI, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Metabolic disorders, which involve many different organs, can be ascribed to enzyme deficiency or dysfunction and manifest with a wide range of clinical symptoms. This study evaluated some of the demographic and clinical findings in pediatric patients affected by organic acidemia. Materials & Methods This cross-sectional study was part of a larger study conducted in patients with metabolic disorders during a period of 7 years from 2007 to 2014 in Isfahan Province, Iran. Our study covered a wide range of cases from newborn infants (one-week old) to adolescents (children up to the age of 17 years). This study evaluated patients’ demographic information, history of disease, developmental and educational status, clinical and general conditions. Phone and in-person interviews were used to gather information. Results Out of 5100 patients screened in this study, 392 patients were affected by one of the different metabolic disorders and 167 individuals were diagnosed as organic acidemia. Propionic acidemia/methyl malonic acidemia (PA/MMA) was the most prevalent form of this metabolic disorder. The frequency of consanguinity was 84.7% in the group of patients. The mortality rate was 18.8% in patients with organic academia. Conclusion Each of the metabolic diseases, as a separate entity, is rare; nevertheless, in aggregate they have a somewhat high overall prevalence. These diseases result in mental and developmental disorders in the absence of quick diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Furthermore, more mutations should be identified in societies affected by consanguinity. Further research should also be conducted to determine worthwhile and more-efficient screening methods as well as long term neurological prognosis. PMID:27247587

  19. Characterizing multiple timescales of stream and storage zone interaction that affect solute fate and transport in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, J.; Harvey, J.W.; Conklin, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of contaminants in streams and rivers is affected by exchange and biogeochemical transformation in slowly moving or stagnant flow zones that interact with rapid flow in the main channel. In a typical stream, there are multiple types of slowly moving flow zones in which exchange and transformation occur, such as stagnant or recirculating surface water as well as subsurface hyporheic zones. However, most investigators use transport models with just a single storage zone in their modeling studies, which assumes that the effects of multiple storage zones can be lumped together. Our study addressed the following question: Can a single-storage zone model reliably characterize the effects of physical retention and biogeochemical reactions in multiple storage zones? We extended an existing stream transport model with a single storage zone to include a second storage zone. With the extended model we generated 500 data sets representing transport of nonreactive and reactive solutes in stream systems that have two different types of storage zones with variable hydrologic conditions. The one storage zone model was tested by optimizing the lumped storage parameters to achieve a best fit for each of the generated data sets. Multiple storage processes were categorized as possessing I, additive; II, competitive; or III, dominant storage zone characteristics. The classification was based on the goodness of fit of generated data sets, the degree of similarity in mean retention time of the two storage zones, and the relative distributions of exchange flux and storage capacity between the two storage zones. For most cases (> 90%) the one storage zone model described either the effect of the sum of multiple storage processes (category I) or the dominant storage process (category III). Failure of the one storage zone model occurred mainly for category II, that is, when one of the storage zones had a much longer mean retention time (t(s) ratio > 5.0) and when the dominance of

  20. Lenalidomide affect expression level of cereblon protein in multiple myeloma cell line RPMI8226.

    PubMed

    Yang, D Y; Ren, J H; Guo, X N; Guo, X L; Cai, X Y; Guo, X F; Zhang, J N

    2015-10-29

    We investigated the mechanisms of action of immuno-modulatory drug (lenalidomide) on the protein expression of cereblon (CRBN) and their therapeutic targets in the multiple myeloma cell line RPMI8226. The multiple myeloma cell line RPMI8226 was cultured and treated with different concentrations of lenalidomide and bortezomib to determine the proliferation inhibition rate, apoptosis rate, and protein expression of CRBN. The results revealed that both lenalidomide and bortezomib inhibited the proliferation of RPMI8226 and promoted cell apoptosis. However, the protein expression of CRBN decreased signifi-cantly after treatment with lenalidomide, while bortezomib had no effect on the expression of CRBN. We confirmed that CRBN may be a target of lenalidomide.

  1. Stochastic analysis of multiple-passband spectral classifications systems affected by observation errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsokos, C. P.

    1980-01-01

    The classification of targets viewed by a pushbroom type multiple band spectral scanner by algorithms suitable for implementation in high speed online digital circuits is considered. A class of algorithms suitable for use with a pipelined classifier is investigated through simulations based on observed data from agricultural targets. It is shown that time distribution of target types is an important determining factor in classification efficiency.

  2. [Nursing diagnosis and interventions in a patient with multiple organ failure -- report of a case].

    PubMed

    Gerelli, A M; Soares, M A; Almeida, M A

    1999-07-01

    This study tries to identify Nursing Diagnoses and Interventions. It was done with a patient who was in critical health condition: multiple organs failure, in an Intensive Care Unit of a general hospital in Porto Alegre. The Case Study was the methodology used. Nursing Diagnoses is described mostly using NANDA Taxonomy. They are: Risk for Aspiration, Disuse Syndrome, Diarrhea, Risk for Infection, Impaired Tissue Integrity; and a Collaborative Problem was identified: Hypoglicemia. We have elaborated 34 Nursing Interventions for those diagnoses.

  3. Factors Affecting University Entrants' Performance in High-Stakes Tests: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uy, Chin; Manalo, Ronaldo A.; Cabauatan, Ronaldo R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Philippines, students seeking admission to a university are usually required to meet certain entrance requirements, including passing the entrance examinations with questions on IQ and English, mathematics, and science. This paper aims to determine the factors that affect the performance of entrants into business programmes in high-stakes…

  4. Peer Rated Therapeutic Talent and Affective Sensitivity: A Multiple Regression Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Eugene

    1985-01-01

    Used peer rated measures of Warmth, Understanding and Openness to predict scores on the Kagan Affective Sensitivity Scale-E80 among 66 undergraduates who had participated in interpersonal skills training groups. Results indicated that, as an additively composite index of Therapeutic Talent, they were positively correlated with affective…

  5. Decision Aids for Multiple-Decision Disease Management as Affected by Weather Input Errors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many disease management decision support systems (DSS) rely, exclusively or in part, on weather inputs to calculate an indicator for disease hazard. Error in the weather inputs, typically due to forecasting, interpolation or estimation from off-site sources, may affect model calculations and manage...

  6. Evidence for topographic organization in the cerebellum of motor control versus cognitive and affective processing

    PubMed Central

    Stoodley, Catherine J.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cerebellar damage often present with the cerebellar motor syndrome of dysmetria, dysarthria and ataxia, yet cerebellar lesions can also result in the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, including executive, visual-spatial, and linguistic impairments, and affective dysregulation. We have hypothesized that there is topographic organization in the human cerebellum such that the anterior lobe and lobule VIII contain the representation of the sensorimotor cerebellum; lobules VI and VII of the posterior lobe comprise the cognitive cerebellum; and the posterior vermis is the anatomical substrate of the limbic cerebellum. Here we analyze anatomical, functional neuroimaging, and clinical data to test this hypothesis. We find converging lines of evidence supporting regional organization of motor, cognitive, and limbic behaviors in the cerebellum. The cerebellar motor syndrome results when lesions involve the anterior lobe and parts of lobule VI, interrupting cerebellar communication with cerebral and spinal motor systems. Cognitive impairments occur when posterior lobe lesions affect lobules VI and VII (including Crus I, Crus II, and lobule VIIB), disrupting cerebellar modulation of cognitive loops with cerebral association cortices. Neuropsychiatric disorders manifest when vermis lesions deprive cerebrocerebellar limbic loops of cerebellar input. We consider this functional topography to be a consequence of the differential arrangement of connections of the cerebellum with the spinal cord, brainstem, and cerebral hemispheres, reflecting cerebellar incorporation into the distributed neural circuits subserving movement, cognition, and emotion. These observations provide testable hypotheses for future investigations. PMID:20152963

  7. Insights into the emission reductions of multiple unintentional persistent organic pollutants from industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Yuyang; Zhan, Jiayu

    2016-02-01

    Industrial activities result in unintentional production of multiple types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at various concentrations. Because of the potential adverse effect of these POPs on the environment, biota and human health, methods for controlling emission of POPs are required. Development and application of techniques for controlling emissions of POPs can be a technical and economic burden for the industry involved. Therefore, from the point of view of cost-benefit analysis, reducing emissions of multiple pollutants at the same time is optimal for sustainable industrial development. Although techniques have been developed for reducing the emissions of individual POPs, such as dioxins, further work is required on multi-POP control emissions from industrial activities. This paper discusses three important aspects that need to be taken to achieve multi-POP control. These aspects include the establishment of a comprehensive system for evaluating the risk from emissions of multiple POPs, determination of indicators for total emissions of multiple POPs, and the preparation and application of functional materials to inhibit formation of multiple POPs. These discussion might be helpful for the future research on the multi-POP control in industry.

  8. The Caenorhabditis Elegans Unc-31 Gene Affects Multiple Nervous System-Controlled Functions

    PubMed Central

    Avery, L.; Bargmann, C. I.; Horvitz, H. R.

    1993-01-01

    We have devised a method for selecting Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that execute feeding motions in the absence of food. One mutation isolated in this way is an allele of the gene unc-31, first discovered by S. Brenner in 1974, because of its effects on locomotion. We find that strong unc-31 mutations cause defects in four functions controlled by the nervous system. Mutant worms are lethargic, feed constitutively, are defective in egg-laying and produce dauer larvae that fail to recover. We discuss two extreme models to explain this pleiotropy: either unc-31 affects one or a few neurons that coordinately control several different functions, or it affects many neurons that independently control different functions. PMID:8325482

  9. After the bomb drops: A new look at radiation-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jacqueline P.; McBride, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There is increasing concern that, since the Cold War era, there has been little progress regarding the availability of medical countermeasures in the event of either a radiological or nuclear incident. Fortunately, since much is known about the acute consequences that are likely to be experienced by an exposed population, the probability of survival from the immediate hematological crises after total body irradiation (TBI) has improved in recent years. Therefore focus has begun to shift towards later down-stream effects, seen in such organs as the gastrointestinal tract (GI), skin, and lung. However, the mechanisms underlying therapy-related normal tissue late effects, resulting from localised irradiation, have remained somewhat elusive and even less is known about the development of the delayed syndrome seen in the context of whole body exposures, when it is likely that systemic perturbations may alter tissue microenvironments and homeostasis. Conclusions The sequence of organ failures observed after near-lethal TBI doses are similar in many ways to that of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), leading to multiple organ failure (MOF). In this review, we compare the mechanistic pathways that underlie both MODS and delayed normal tissue effects since these may impact on strategies to identify radiation countermeasures. PMID:21417595

  10. Hydrologic Treatments Affect Gaseous Carbon Loss From Organic Soils, Twitchell Island, California, October 1995-December 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Robin L.; Hastings, Lauren; Fujii, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Subsidence of organic soils in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, has increased the potential for levee failure and flooding in the region. Because oxidation of the peat soils is a primary cause of subsidence, reversion of affected lands to wetlands has been proposed as a mitigation tool. To test this hypothesis, three 10 x 10 meter enclosures were built on Twitchell Island in the Delta and managed as different wetland habitats. Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane were measured in situ from October 1995 through December 1997, from the systems that developed under the different water-management treatments. Treatments included a seasonal control (SC) under current island management conditions; reverse flooding (RF), where the land is intentionally flooded from early dry season until midsummer; permanent shallow flooding (F); and a more deeply flooded, open-water (OW) treatment. Hydrologic treatments affected microbial processes, plant community and temperature dynamics which, in turn, affected carbon cycling. Water-management treatments with a period of flooding significantly decreased gaseous carbon emissions compared to the seasonal control. Permanent flooding treatments showed significantly higher methane fluxes than treatments with some period of aerobic conditions. Shallow flooding treatments created conditions that support cattail [Typha species (spp.)] marshes, while deep flooding precluded emergent vegetation. Carbon inputs to the permanent shallow flooding treatment tended to be greater than the measured losses. This suggests that permanent shallow flooding has the greatest potential for managing subsidence of these soils by generating organic substrate more rapidly than is lost through decomposition. Carbon input estimates of plant biomass compared to measurements of gaseous carbon losses indicate the potential for mitigation of subsidence through hydrologic management of the organic soils in the area.

  11. Pain affects depression through anxiety, fatigue and sleep in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Askew, Robert L.; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Ehde, Dawn M.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Kraft, George H.; Jones, Salene M.; Johnson, Kurt L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Over a quarter million individuals in the US have Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Chronic pain and depression are disproportionately high in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic pain and depression in MS and to examine potentially meditational effects of anxiety, fatigue and sleep. Methods Cross-sectional data from self-reported instruments measuring multiple symptoms and quality of life indicators were used in this study. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to model direct and indirect effects of pain on depression in a sample of 1245 community dwelling individuals with MS. Pain interference, depression, fatigue and sleep disturbance were modeled as latent variables with 2 to 3 indicators each. The model controlled for age, sex, disability status (EDSS) and social support. Results A model with indirect effects of pain on depression had adequate fit and accounted for nearly 80% of the variance in depression. The effects of chronic pain on depression were almost completely mediated by fatigue, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. Higher pain was associated with greater fatigue, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, which in turn were associated with higher levels of depression. The largest mediating effect was through fatigue. Additional analyses excluded items with common content and suggested that the meditational effects observed were not attributable to content overlap across scales. Conclusions Individuals living with MS who report high levels of chronic pain and depressive symptoms may benefit from treatment approaches that can address sleep, fatigue, and anxiety. PMID:25602361

  12. Shade affects responses to drought and flooding - acclimation to multiple stresses in bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L.).

    PubMed

    Visser, E J W; Zhang, Q; De Gruyter, F; Martens, S; Huber, H

    2016-01-01

    Plants exposed to environmental stress often respond by a change in their phenotypic traits. These changes in trait expression may alleviate the negative effect of such stress factors. However, if multiple stresses are present, responses are likely to be less predictable and hence do not necessarily correlate to plant performance. This study tested if this expectation was true, by subjecting Solanum dulcamara plants to various simultaneous stress factors. Plants were grown in well-watered conditions, drought or flooding, and exposed to either full light or shade for 4 weeks. Shoot and root biomass, stem morphological parameters, such as height, number of nodes and length of stem internodes, and leaf traits like length, specific leaf area, chlorophyll content and stomatal conductance were determined. Both variation in light and in water availability typically caused slower growth, and resulted in distinct phenotypic changes in stem, leaf and root traits. However, effects of stresses on the expression of traits were not always additive. Instead, some combined stress responses (e.g. leaf size) appeared to be limited by physical or physiological constraints, whereas other responses were opposite to each other (e.g. root:shoot ratio), resulting in an intermediate phenotype in the combined stress treatment. These data suggest that in natural conditions, where combined stress factors are likely to be present, the optimal phenotype may not necessarily be expressed. Responses of plants to multiple stress factors may therefore not be associated with immediate advantages in terms of increased performance.

  13. Hemoglobinopathic Erythrocytes Affect the Intraerythrocytic Multiplication of Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Glushakova, Svetlana; Balaban, Amanda; McQueen, Philip G.; Coutinho, Rosane; Miller, Jeffery L.; Nossal, Ralph; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background. The mechanisms by which α-thalassemia and sickle cell traits confer protection from severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria are not yet fully elucidated. We hypothesized that hemoglobinopathic erythrocytes reduce the intraerythrocytic multiplication of P. falciparum, potentially delaying the development of life-threatening parasite densities until parasite clearing immunity is achieved. Methods. We developed a novel in vitro assay to quantify the number of merozoites released from an individual schizont, termed the “intraerythrocytic multiplication factor” (IMF). Results. P. falciparum (3D7 line) schizonts produce variable numbers of merozoites in all erythrocyte types tested, with median IMFs of 27, 27, 29, 23, and 23 in control, HbAS, HbSS, and α- and β-thalassemia trait erythrocytes, respectively. IMF correlated strongly (r2 = 0.97; P < .001) with mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and varied significantly with mean corpuscular volume and hemoglobin content. Reduction of IMFs in thalassemia trait erythrocytes was confirmed using clinical parasite isolates with different IMFs. Mathematical modeling of the effect of IMF on malaria progression indicates that the lower IMF in thalassemia trait erythrocytes limits parasite density and anemia severity over the first 2 weeks of parasite replication. Conclusions. P. falciparum IMF, a parasite heritable virulence trait, correlates with erythrocyte indices and is reduced in thalassemia trait erythrocytes. Parasite IMF should be examined in other low-indices erythrocytes. PMID:24688070

  14. Mancozeb adversely affects meiotic spindle organization and fertilization in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gianna; Palmerini, Maria Grazia; Macchiarelli, Guido; Buccione, Roberto; Cecconi, Sandra

    2006-07-01

    In this study the effects of mancozeb, a widely used ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicide, on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and fertilization were analyzed. Oocyte cumulus cell-complexes were matured in vitro with or without increasing concentrations of the fungicide (from 0.001 to 1 microg/ml) that, due to its different stability in organic solvents and in water, was resuspended either in dimethyl sulfoxide or in culture medium. Although, about 95% of oocytes reached the metaphase II stage; mancozeb-exposed oocytes showed a dose-dependent increase of alterations in spindle morphology, and this negative effect was more evident when the fungicide was resuspended in culture medium. Under the latter culture condition, oocytes matured in the presence of 0.1 and 1 microg/ml mancozeb showed a significant reduction also in the formation of male and female pronuclei. These results indicate that mancozeb can adversely affect mammalian reproductive performance, likely by perturbing microtubular organization during meiotic maturation.

  15. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W.; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two 13C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change. PMID:25960162

  16. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W.; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-05-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two 13C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change.

  17. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-05-11

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two (13)C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change.

  18. Soil warming affects soil organic matter chemistry of all density fractions of a mountain forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wanek, Wolfgang; Borken, Werner; Schindlbacher, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Rising temperatures enhance microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and increase thereby the soil CO2 efflux. Elevated microbial activity might differently affect distinct SOM pools, depending on their stability and accessibility. Soil fractions derived from density fractionation have been suggested to represent SOM pools with different turnover times and stability against microbial decomposition. We here investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk soil and three different density fractions of forest soils from a long term warming experiment in the Austrian Alps. At the time of sampling the soils in this experiment had been warmed during the snow-free period for 8 consecutive years. During that time no thermal adaptation of the microbial community could be identified and CO2 release from the soil continued to be elevated by the warming treatment. Our results which included organic C content, total N content, δ13C, δ 14C, δ 15N and the chemical composition, identified by pyrolysis-GC/MS, showed no significant differences in bulk soil between warming treatment and control. The differences in the three individual fractions (free particulate organic matter, occluded particulate organic matter and mineral associated organic matter) were mostly small and the direction of warming induced change was variable with fraction and sampling depth. We did however find statistically significant effects of warming in all density fractions from 0-10 cm depth, 10-20 cm depth or both. Our results also including significant changes in the supposedly more stable mineral associated organic matter fraction where δ 13C values decreased at both sampling depths and the relative proportion of N-bearing compounds decreased at a sampling depth of 10-20 cm. All the observed changes can be attributed to an interplay of enhanced microbial decomposition of SOM and increased root litter input. This study suggests that soil warming destabilizes all density fractions of

  19. Fermentation condition outweighed truffle species in affecting volatile organic compounds analyzed by chromatographic fingerprint system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ya-Jie; Wang, Guan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2009-08-04

    The influences of fermentation conditions and truffle species (i.e., Tuber melanosporum, Tuber sinense, Tuber indicum, and Tuber aestivum) on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originated from truffle fermentation mycelia were studied by using chromatographic fingerprint system for the first time. Gas chromatography combined with statistical methods including similarity analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to develop chromatographic fingerprint system for truffle VOCs evaluation. Fermentation conditions affected the VOCs from truffle fermentation mycelia much more significantly than truffle species. This indicated that it is possible to adjust the aroma of truffle fermentation mycelia similar with the natural fruiting-body through the control of fermentation process.

  20. Mutation of Pten/Mmac1 in mice causes neoplasia in multiple organ systems

    PubMed Central

    Podsypanina, Katrina; Ellenson, Lora Hedrick; Nemes, Adriana; Gu, Jianguo; Tamura, Masahito; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Catoretti, Giorgio; Fisher, Peter E.; Parsons, Ramon

    1999-01-01

    Pten/Mmac1+/− heterozygous mice exhibited neoplasms in multiple organs including the endometrium, liver, prostate, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, and thymus. Loss of the wild-type allele was detected in neoplasms of the thymus and liver. Surprisingly, tumors of the gastrointestinal epithelium developed in association with gut lymphoid tissue. Tumors of the endometrium, thyroid, prostate, and liver were not associated with lymphoid tissue and appeared to be highly mitotic. In addition, these mice have nonneoplastic hyperplasia of lymph nodes that was caused by an inherited defect in apoptosis detected in B cells and macrophages. Examination of peripheral lymphoid tissue including lymphoid aggregates associated with polyps revealed that the normal organization of B and T cells was disrupted in heterozygous animals. Taken together, these data suggest that PTEN is a regulator of apoptosis and proliferation that behaves as a “landscaper” tumor suppressor in the gut and a “gatekeeper” tumor suppressor in other organs. PMID:9990064

  1. Comprehensive Characterization of Atmospheric Organic Carbon using Multiple High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, J. H.; Hunter, J. F.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate modeling of major atmospheric chemical processes (oxidant cycling, aerosol formation, etc.) requires understanding the identity, chemistry, and lifecycle (emission, reaction, and deposition) of atmospheric organic species. Such an understanding is generally limited by the wide diversity in chemical structure, properties, and reactivity of atmospheric organics, posing major challenges in detection and quantification. However the last several years have seen the development of several new techniques for the measurement of a wide range of carbon-containing compounds, including low-volatility, oxidized species that have traditionally been difficult to measure. Many of these new techniques are based on high-resolution mass spectrometry, enabling the unambiguous identification of individual ions, and hence the elemental ratios and carbon oxidation state of the organic species; most also provide information on volatility and/or carbon number distributions of the molecular species. While a single instrument can generally measure only species of a particular class (occupying a localized region of "chemical space"), here we show that the combined measurements from multiple instruments can provide a comprehensive picture of the chemical composition of the entire organic mixture. From these combined measurements, the organic species can be described not only in terms of organic carbon mass but also in terms of distributions of key ensemble properties (such as oxidation state and volatility), and thus can be used to populate and constrain the various reduced-dimensionality chemical spaces that have been put forth as frameworks for describing atmospheric organic chemistry. We apply this general measurement approach both to field data, providing information on ambient organic species, and to laboratory (chamber) studies, providing insight into the chemical transformations that organic species undergo upon atmospheric oxidation.

  2. Soil physical and hydrological properties as affected by long-term addition of various organic amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Marie; Völkel, Jörg; Mercier, Vincent; Labat, Christophe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    The use of organic residues as soil amendments in agriculture not only reduces the amount of waste needing to be disposed of; it may also lead to improvements in soil properties, including physical and hydrological ones. The present study examines a long-term experiment called "Qualiagro", run jointly by INRA and Veolia Environment in Feucherolles, France (near Paris). It was initiated in 1998 on a loess-derived silt loam (787 g/kg silt, 152 g/kg clay) and includes ten treatments: four types of organic amendments and a control (CNT) each at two levels of mineral nitrogen (N) addition: minimal (Nmin) and optimal (Nopt). The amendments include three types of compost and farmyard manure (FYM), which were applied every other year at a rate of ca. 4 t carbon ha-1. The composts include municipal solid waste compost (MSW), co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (GWS), and biowaste compost (BIO). The plots are arranged in a randomized block design and have a size of 450 m²; each treatment is replicated four times (total of 40 plots). Ca. 15 years after the start of the experiment soil organic carbon (OC) had continuously increased in the amended plots, while it remained stable or decreased in the control plots. This compost- or manure-induced increase in OC plays a key role, affecting numerous dependant soil properties like bulk density, porosity and water retention. The water holding capacity (WHC) of a soil is of particular interest to farmers in terms of water supply for plants, but also indicates soil quality and functionality. Addition of OC may affect WHC in different ways: carbon-induced aggregation may increase larger-pore volume and hence WHC at the wet end while increased surface areas may lead to an increased retention of water at the dry end. Consequently it is difficult to predict (e.g. with pedotransfer functions) the impact on the amount of water available for plants (PAW), which was experimentally determined for the soils, along with the entire range

  3. Ubiquitous protective effects of cyclosporine A in preventing cardiac arrest-induced multiple organ failure.

    PubMed

    Cour, Martin; Abrial, Maryline; Jahandiez, Vincent; Loufouat, Joseph; Belaïdi, Elise; Gharib, Abdallah; Varennes, Annie; Monneret, Guillaume; Thibault, Hélène; Ovize, Michel; Argaud, Laurent

    2014-10-15

    Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) appears to be a pivotal event in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Resuscitated cardiac arrest (CA) leads to the post-CA syndrome that encompasses, not only myocardial dysfunction, but also brain injury, failure of other organs (kidney, liver, or lung), and systemic response to I/R. We aimed to determine whether cyclosporine A (CsA) might prevent multiple organ failure following CA through a ubiquitous mPTP inhibition in each distant vital organ. Anesthetized New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to 15 min of CA and 120 min of reperfusion. At the onset of resuscitation, the rabbits received CsA, its non-immunosuppressive derivative NIM811, or vehicle (controls). Survival, hemodynamics, brain damage, organ injuries, and systemic I/R response were analyzed. Fresh mitochondria were isolated from the brain, heart, kidney, liver, and lung to assess both oxidative phosphorylation and permeability transition. CsA analogs significantly improved short-term survival and prevented multiple organ failure, including brain damage and myocardial dysfunction (P < 0.05 vs. controls). Susceptibility of mPTP opening was significantly increased in heart, brain, kidney, and liver mitochondria isolated from controls, while mitochondrial respiration was impaired (P < 0.05 vs. sham). CsA analogs prevented these mitochondrial dysfunctions (P < 0.05 vs. controls). These results suggest that CsA and NIM811 can prevent the post-CA syndrome through a ubiquitous mitochondrial protective effect at the level of each major distant organ.

  4. Arteriolosclerosis that affects multiple brain regions is linked to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing.

    PubMed

    Neltner, Janna H; Abner, Erin L; Baker, Steven; Schmitt, Frederick A; Kryscio, Richard J; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D; Hammack, Eleanor; Kukull, Walter A; Brenowitz, Willa D; Van Eldik, Linda J; Nelson, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of ageing is a prevalent brain disease that afflicts older persons and has been linked with cerebrovascular pathology. Arteriolosclerosis is a subtype of cerebrovascular pathology characterized by concentrically thickened arterioles. Here we report data from multiple large autopsy series (University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Centre, Nun Study, and National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre) showing a specific association between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and arteriolosclerosis. The present analyses incorporate 226 cases of autopsy-proven hippocampal sclerosis of ageing and 1792 controls. Case-control comparisons were performed including digital pathological assessments for detailed analyses of blood vessel morphology. We found no evidence of associations between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and lacunar infarcts, large infarcts, Circle of Willis atherosclerosis, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Individuals with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology did not show increased rates of clinically documented hypertension, diabetes, or other cardiac risk factors. The correlation between arteriolosclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology was strong in multiple brain regions outside of the hippocampus. For example, the presence of arteriolosclerosis in the frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) was strongly associated with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology (P < 0.001). This enables informative evaluation of anatomical regions outside of the hippocampus. To assess the morphology of brain microvasculature far more rigorously than what is possible using semi-quantitative pathological scoring, we applied digital pathological (Aperio ScanScope) methods on a subsample of frontal cortex sections from hippocampal sclerosis of ageing (n = 15) and control (n = 42) cases. Following technical studies to optimize immunostaining methods for small blood vessel visualization, our analyses focused on sections

  5. Self-reported trait mindfulness and affective reactivity: a motivational approach using multiple psychophysiological measures.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Danielle; Wiens, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture

  6. Self-Reported Trait Mindfulness and Affective Reactivity: A Motivational Approach Using Multiple Psychophysiological Measures

    PubMed Central

    Cosme, Danielle; Wiens, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture

  7. Daily estimation of the severity of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in critically ill children

    PubMed Central

    Leteurtre, Stéphane; Duhamel, Alain; Grandbastien, Bruno; Proulx, François; Cotting, Jacques; Gottesman, Ronald; Joffe, Ari; Wagner, Bendicht; Hubert, Philippe; Martinot, Alain; Lacroix, Jacques; Leclerc, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Background Daily evaluation of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome has been performed in critically ill adults. We evaluated the clinical course of multiple organ dysfunction over time in critically ill children using the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) score and determined the optimal days for measuring scores. Methods We prospectively measured daily PELOD scores and calculated the change in scores over time for 1806 consecutive patients admitted to seven pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) between September 1998 and February 2000. To study the relationship between daily scores and mortality in the PICU, we evaluated changes in daily scores during the first four days; the mean rate of change in scores during the entire PICU stay between survivors and nonsurvivors; and Cox survival analyses using a change in PELOD score as a time-dependent covariate to determine the optimal days for measuring daily scores. Results The overall mortality among the 1806 patients was 6.4%. A high PELOD score (≥ 20 points) on day 1 was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for death of 40.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 20.3–81.4); a medium score (10–19 points) on day 1 was associated with an OR for death of 4.2 (95% CI 2.0–8.7). Mortality was 50% when a high score on day 1 increased on day 2. The course of daily PELOD scores differed between survivors and nonsurvivors. A set of seven days (days 1, 2, 5, 8, 12, 16 and 18) was identified as the optimal period for measurement of daily PELOD scores. Interpretation PELOD scores indicating a worsening condition or no improvement over time were indicators of a poor prognosis in the PICU. A set of seven days for measurement of the PELOD score during the PICU stay provided optimal information on the progression of multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome in critically ill children. PMID:20547715

  8. Trypsin is the culprit of multiple organ injury with severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sha, Huanchen; Ma, Qingyong; Jha, Rajiv Kumar

    2009-02-01

    The consistently high proportion of early deaths in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has been associated mainly with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS). So far, scholars believed that the main reasons of MODS with SAP are systemic microcirculation dysfunction and inflammatory mediator induced cascading effect on the basis of pancreas digesting itself. However, there is some special pathological phenomenon in the process of SAP which could not be explained by current theories. First, it has been evident that the pancreatic tissue bleeding and necrosis is special pathological change in pancreas autodigestive effect from digestive enzymes such as trypsin in SAP. However, we found that the liver, the lung, the intestine, the brain and the kidney have the same pathological changes in experimental animal models of SAP. Secondly, unlike the general inflammatory response, a significantly amount of bloody ascites and pleural effusion was often in patients with SAP and in experimental SAP animal models. It indicates that the vascular permeability significantly increased leading to the red blood cells extravasation. Thirdly, apart from dual blood supply, liver bears a strong compensatory function. However, liver has the highest incidence of injury in SAP when compared with other organs. In addition, we found a very interesting phenomenon after reading texts and clinical records. From the pancreatic venous drainage from the point of view, the farther the organ from the pancreas, the lower injury incidence rate observed. How to explain these mysteries? We postulate that the trypsin is the culprit of multiple organs dysfunction in SAP. The activated trypsin destroy the pancreas itself, causing pancreatic tissue bleeding and necrosis, at the same time, through venous flow it flow into the blood circulation and destroy the vascular endothelial barrier, leading to highly increased vascular permeability. So, a large number of bloody exudates

  9. Irrigation agriculture affects organic matter decomposition in semi-arid terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arroita, Maite; Causapé, Jesús; Comín, Francisco A; Díez, Joserra; Jimenez, Juan José; Lacarta, Juan; Lorente, Carmen; Merchán, Daniel; Muñiz, Selene; Navarro, Enrique; Val, Jonatan; Elosegi, Arturo

    2013-12-15

    Many dryland areas are being converted into intensively managed irrigation crops, what can disrupt the hydrological regime, degrade soil and water quality, enhance siltation, erosion and bank instability, and affect biological communities. Still, the impacts of irrigation schemes on the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we assess the effects of irrigation agriculture on breakdown of coarse organic matter in soil and water. We measured breakdown rates of alder and holm oak leaves, and of poplar sticks in terrestrial and aquatic sites following a gradient of increasing irrigation agriculture in a semi-arid Mediterranean basin transformed into irrigation agriculture in 50% of its surface. Spatial patterns of stick breakdown paralleled those of leaf breakdown. In soil, stick breakdown rates were extremely low in non-irrigated sites (0.0001-0.0003 day(-1)), and increased with the intensity of agriculture (0.0018-0.0044 day(-1)). In water, stick breakdown rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.001 day(-1), and increased with the area of the basin subject to irrigation agriculture. Results showed that irrigation agriculture affects functioning of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, accelerating decomposition of organic matter, especially in soil. These changes can have important consequences for global carbon budgets.

  10. Do multiple fires interact to affect vegetation structure in temperate eucalypt forests?

    PubMed

    Haslem, Angie; Leonard, Steve W J; Bruce, Matthew J; Christie, Fiona; Holland, Greg J; Kelly, Luke T; MacHunter, Josephine; Bennett, Andrew F; Clarke, Michael F; York, Alan

    2016-12-01

    Fire plays an important role in structuring vegetation in fire-prone regions worldwide. Progress has been made towards documenting the effects of individual fire events and fire regimes on vegetation structure; less is known of how different fire history attributes (e.g., time since fire, fire frequency) interact to affect vegetation. Using the temperate eucalypt foothill forests of southeastern Australia as a case study system, we examine two hypotheses about such interactions: (1) post-fire vegetation succession (e.g., time-since-fire effects) is influenced by other fire regime attributes and (2) the severity of the most recent fire overrides the effect of preceding fires on vegetation structure. Empirical data on vegetation structure were collected from 540 sites distributed across central and eastern Victoria, Australia. Linear mixed models were used to examine these hypotheses and determine the relative influence of fire and environmental attributes on vegetation structure. Fire history measures, particularly time since fire, affected several vegetation attributes including ground and canopy strata; others such as low and sub-canopy vegetation were more strongly influenced by environmental characteristics like rainfall. There was little support for the hypothesis that post-fire succession is influenced by fire history attributes other than time since fire; only canopy regeneration was influenced by another variable (fire type, representing severity). Our capacity to detect an overriding effect of the severity of the most recent fire was limited by a consistently weak effect of preceding fires on vegetation structure. Overall, results suggest the primary way that fire affects vegetation structure in foothill forests is via attributes of the most recent fire, both its severity and time since its occurrence; other attributes of fire regimes (e.g., fire interval, frequency) have less influence. The strong effect of environmental drivers, such as rainfall and

  11. Comparison of approaches for simulating reactive solute transport involving organic degradation reactions by multiple terminal electron acceptors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Gary P.

    2003-01-01

    Reactive solute transport models are useful tools for analyzing complex geochemical behavior resulting from biodegradation of organic compounds by multiple terminal electron acceptors (TEAPs). The usual approach of simulating the reactions of multiple TEAPs by an irreversible Monod rate law was compared with simulations that assumed a partial local equilibrium or kinetically controlled reactions subject to the requirement that the Gibbs free energy of reaction (Δ G) was either less than zero or less than a threshold value. Simulations were performed using a single organic substrate and O2, FeOOH, SO4-2 and CO2 as the terminal electron acceptors. It was assumed that the organic substrate was slowly and completely fermented to CO2 and H2 and the H2 was oxidized by the TEAPs. Simulations using the Monod approach showed that this irreversible rate law forced the reduction of both FeOOH and CO2 to proceed even when Δ G was positive. This resulted in an over prediction in amount of FeOOH reduced to Fe(II) in parts of the domain and it resulted in large errors in pH. Simulations using mass action kinetics agreed with equilibrium simulations for the case of large rate constants. The extent of reductive dissolution of FeOOH was strongly dependent on the thermodynamic stability of the FeOOH phase. Transport simulations performed assuming that the reactions of the TEAPs stopped when Δ G exceeded a threshold value showed that only simulated H2 concentrations were affected if the threshold value was the same for each TEAP. Simulated H2 concentrations were controlled by the fastest reaction of the TEAP, but it was common for reactions to occur concomitantly rather than sequentially.

  12. Decision aids for multiple-decision disease management as affected by weather input errors.

    PubMed

    Pfender, W F; Gent, D H; Mahaffee, W F; Coop, L B; Fox, A D

    2011-06-01

    Many disease management decision support systems (DSSs) rely, exclusively or in part, on weather inputs to calculate an indicator for disease hazard. Error in the weather inputs, typically due to forecasting, interpolation, or estimation from off-site sources, may affect model calculations and management decision recommendations. The extent to which errors in weather inputs affect the quality of the final management outcome depends on a number of aspects of the disease management context, including whether management consists of a single dichotomous decision, or of a multi-decision process extending over the cropping season(s). Decision aids for multi-decision disease management typically are based on simple or complex algorithms of weather data which may be accumulated over several days or weeks. It is difficult to quantify accuracy of multi-decision DSSs due to temporally overlapping disease events, existence of more than one solution to optimizing the outcome, opportunities to take later recourse to modify earlier decisions, and the ongoing, complex decision process in which the DSS is only one component. One approach to assessing importance of weather input errors is to conduct an error analysis in which the DSS outcome from high-quality weather data is compared with that from weather data with various levels of bias and/or variance from the original data. We illustrate this analytical approach for two types of DSS, an infection risk index for hop powdery mildew and a simulation model for grass stem rust. Further exploration of analysis methods is needed to address problems associated with assessing uncertainty in multi-decision DSSs.

  13. Multiple Polymorphisms Affect Expression and Function of the Neuropeptide S Receptor (NPSR1)

    PubMed Central

    Anedda, Francesca; Zucchelli, Marco; Schepis, Danika; Hellquist, Anna; Corrado, Lucia; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Achour, Adnane; McInerney, Gerald; Bertorello, Alejandro; Lördal, Mikael; Befrits, Ragnar; Björk, Jan; Bresso, Francesca; Törkvist, Leif; Halfvarson, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Background neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor NPSR1 act along the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to modulate anxiety, fear responses, nociception and inflammation. The importance of the NPS-NPSR1 signaling pathway is highlighted by the observation that, in humans, NPSR1 polymorphism associates with asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, panic disorders, and intermediate phenotypes of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Because of the genetic complexity at the NPSR1 locus, however, true causative variations remain to be identified, together with their specific effects on receptor expression or function. To gain insight into the mechanisms leading to NPSR1 disease-predisposing effects, we performed a thorough functional characterization of all NPSR1 promoter and coding SNPs commonly occurring in Caucasians (minor allele frequency >0.02). Principal Findings we identified one promoter SNP (rs2530547 [−103]) that significantly affects luciferase expression in gene reporter assays and NPSR1 mRNA levels in human leukocytes. We also detected quantitative differences in NPS-induced genome-wide transcriptional profiles and CRE-dependent luciferase activities associated with three NPSR1 non-synonymous SNPs (rs324981 [Ile107Asn], rs34705969 [Cys197Phe], rs727162 [Arg241Ser]), with a coding variant exhibiting a loss-of-function phenotype (197Phe). Potential mechanistic explanations were sought with molecular modelling and bioinformatics, and a pilot study of 2230 IBD cases and controls provided initial support to the hypothesis that different cis-combinations of these functional SNPs variably affect disease risk. Significance these findings represent a first step to decipher NPSR1 locus complexity and its impact on several human conditions NPS antagonists have been recently described, and our results are of potential pharmacogenetic relevance. PMID:22216302

  14. Multiple signals and male spacing affect female preference at cocktail parties in treefrogs

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Christina; Lengagne, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Effective acoustic communication in the face of intense conspecific background noise constitutes a constant sensory challenge in chorusing and colonial species. An evolutionary approach suggests that behavioural and environmental constraints in these species should have shaped signal design and signalling behaviour to enable communication in noisy conditions. This could be attained both through the use of multicomponent signals and through short-term adjustments in the spatial separation of calling males. We investigated these two hypotheses in a chorusing anuran, the hylid Hyla arborea, through a series of phonotaxis experiments conducted within a six-speaker arena in a high background noise situation, by presenting females with male calls containing either single or multiple attractive call components, and by modifying distances between speakers. We found that female ability to discriminate attractive calls increased when several attractive call components were available, providing novel evidence that the use of multicomponent signals enhances communication in complex acoustic conditions. Signal discrimination in females also improved with speaker separation, demonstrating that within natural choruses, spatial unmasking conditioned by male density and spatial separation probably improves female discrimination of competing males. Implications of these results for the accuracy of mate choice within choruses are discussed. PMID:20018785

  15. How multiple social networks affect user awareness: The information diffusion process in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihua; Tang, Shaoting; Fang, Wenyi; Guo, Quantong; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-10-01

    The information diffusion process in single complex networks has been extensively studied, especially for modeling the spreading activities in online social networks. However, individuals usually use multiple social networks at the same time, and can share the information they have learned from one social network to another. This phenomenon gives rise to a new diffusion process on multiplex networks with more than one network layer. In this paper we account for this multiplex network spreading by proposing a model of information diffusion in two-layer multiplex networks. We develop a theoretical framework using bond percolation and cascading failure to describe the intralayer and interlayer diffusion. This allows us to obtain analytical solutions for the fraction of informed individuals as a function of transmissibility T and the interlayer transmission rate θ . Simulation results show that interaction between layers can greatly enhance the information diffusion process. And explosive diffusion can occur even if the transmissibility of the focal layer is under the critical threshold, due to interlayer transmission.

  16. How multiple social networks affect user awareness: The information diffusion process in multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihua; Tang, Shaoting; Fang, Wenyi; Guo, Quantong; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-10-01

    The information diffusion process in single complex networks has been extensively studied, especially for modeling the spreading activities in online social networks. However, individuals usually use multiple social networks at the same time, and can share the information they have learned from one social network to another. This phenomenon gives rise to a new diffusion process on multiplex networks with more than one network layer. In this paper we account for this multiplex network spreading by proposing a model of information diffusion in two-layer multiplex networks. We develop a theoretical framework using bond percolation and cascading failure to describe the intralayer and interlayer diffusion. This allows us to obtain analytical solutions for the fraction of informed individuals as a function of transmissibility T and the interlayer transmission rate θ. Simulation results show that interaction between layers can greatly enhance the information diffusion process. And explosive diffusion can occur even if the transmissibility of the focal layer is under the critical threshold, due to interlayer transmission.

  17. Multiplication of certain soil micro-organisms under simulated Martian conditions.

    PubMed

    Imshenetsky, A A; Kusjurina, L A; Jakshina, V M

    1970-01-01

    According to earlier observations, severe UV irradiation kills all micro-organisms in a chamber with simulated Martian conditions. However, even a thin soil layer protects buried micro-organisms from UV irradiation. The chief limiting factor for microbial multiplication under simulated Martian conditions seems to be soil humidity. Several micro-organisms were isolated from harsh environments (e.g., from Arctic, Antarctic desert and high-mountain soil samples). A strain of an oligonitrophilic mycococcus, isolated from Dixon Island, proved to be most resistant to low humidity. It multiplied in a mixture of limonite (maximal hygroscopical humidity 3.8%) + 2% (w/w) garden soil kept in a chamber simulating Martian conditions. Total cell count increased 7.6-fold and, in some experiments, 26-fold in 14 days. The oligonitrophilic mycococcus was able to grow even at a humidity level of 2.5%, that is less than maximal hygroscopical (3.8%). Under these conditions cell count increased 10-fold in 36 days. Thus, it was shown that even in Earth soils there are xerophytic micro-organisms which are able to multiply in limonite of low humidity. These data might correct our current concepts concerning microbial water requirements. One might speculate that Martian micro-organisms belong to xerophytic species.

  18. Observation of Multiple Reconnections during Self-organization Process of High Temperature Fusion Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H. K.; Tobias, B.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Munsat, T.; Donné, A. J. H.; Spakman, G. W.; Textor Team

    2011-10-01

    Images of a high resolution 2-D Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostic shows evidence of multiple magnetic reconnection processes during the internal disruption of a high temperature tokamak plasmas. The disruption induces magnetic self-organization of the toroidal plasma being accompanied by successive or simultaneous multiple layer reconnection. The degree of asymmetric deformation of the internal magnetic structure (m/n=1/1 mode) prior to temperature crash influences the outcome of the disruptive behavior. The observation is critical for the building block of first principle theoretical modeling of the sawtooth oscillation in current driven toroidal plasmas and the understandings can be applied to the impulsive disruptive behavior in flares of the solar, accretion disk and stellar coronae, Earth magnetospheric storms, and controlled fusion. Work supported by the NRF of Korea, the US DOE, the NWO of the Netherlands, and the EURATOM-FOM association.

  19. Do soil organisms affect aboveground litter decomposition in the semiarid Patagonian steppe, Argentina?

    PubMed

    Araujo, Patricia I; Yahdjian, Laura; Austin, Amy T

    2012-01-01

    Surface litter decomposition in arid and semiarid ecosystems is often faster than predicted by climatic parameters such as annual precipitation or evapotranspiration, or based on standard indices of litter quality such as lignin or nitrogen concentrations. Abiotic photodegradation has been demonstrated to be an important factor controlling aboveground litter decomposition in aridland ecosystems, but soil fauna, particularly macrofauna such as termites and ants, have also been identified as key players affecting litter mass loss in warm deserts. Our objective was to quantify the importance of soil organisms on surface litter decomposition in the Patagonian steppe in the absence of photodegradative effects, to establish the relative importance of soil organisms on rates of mass loss and nitrogen release. We estimated the relative contribution of soil fauna and microbes to litter decomposition of a dominant grass using litterboxes with variable mesh sizes that excluded groups of soil fauna based on size class (10, 2, and 0.01 mm), which were placed beneath shrub canopies. We also employed chemical repellents (naphthalene and fungicide). The exclusion of macro- and mesofauna had no effect on litter mass loss over 3 years (P = 0.36), as litter decomposition was similar in all soil fauna exclusions and naphthalene-treated litter. In contrast, reduction of fungal activity significantly inhibited litter decomposition (P < 0.001). Although soil fauna have been mentioned as a key control of litter decomposition in warm deserts, biogeographic legacies and temperature limitation may constrain the importance of these organisms in temperate aridlands, particularly in the southern hemisphere.

  20. Mercury Photolytic Transformation Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Natural Organics in Water

    SciTech Connect

    He, Feng; Zheng, Wang; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms by which dissolved organic matter (DOM) mediates the photochemical reduction of Hg(II) in aquatic ecosystems are not fully understood, owing to the heterogeneous nature and complex structural properties of DOM. In this work, naturally occurring aromatic compounds including salicylic, 4-hydrobenzoic, anthranilic, 4-aminobenzoic, and phthalic acid were systematically studied as surrogates for DOM in order to gain an improved mechanistic understanding of these compounds in the photoreduction of Hg(II) in water. We show that the photoreduction rates of Hg(II) are influenced not only by the substituent functional groups such as OH, NH2 and COOH on the benzene ring, but also the positioning of these functional groups on the ring structure. The Hg(II) photoreduction rate decreases in the order anthranilic acid > salicylic acid > phthalic acid according to the presence of the NH2, OH, COOH functional groups on benzoic acid. The substitution position of the functional groups affects reduction rates in the order anthranilic acid > 4-aminobenzoic acid and salicylic acid > 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Reduction rates correlate strongly with ultraviolet (UV) absorption of these compounds and their concentrations, suggesting that the formation of organic free radicals during photolysis of these compounds is responsible for Hg(II) photoreduction. These results provide insight into the role of low-molecular-weight organic compounds and possibly DOM in Hg photoredox transformation and may thus have important implications for understanding Hg geochemical cycling in the environment.

  1. An olfactory-limbic model of multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: Possible relationships to kindling and affective spectrum disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, I.R.; Miller, C.S.; Schwartz, G.E. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper reviews the clinical and experimental literature on patients with multiple adverse responses to chemicals (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome-MCS) and develops a model for MCS based on olfactory-limbic system dysfunction that overlaps in part with Post's kindling model for affective disorders. MCS encompasses a broad range of chronic polysymptomatic conditions and complaints whose triggers are reported to include low levels of common indoor and outdoor environmental chemicals, such as pesticides and solvents. Other investigators have found evidence of increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatization disorders in MCS patients and have concluded that their psychiatric conditions account for the clinical picture. However, none of these studies has presented any data on the effects of chemicals on symptoms or on objective measures of nervous system function. Synthesis of the MCS literature with large bodies of research in neurotoxicology, occupational medicine, and biological psychiatry, suggests that the phenomenology of MCS patients overlaps that of affective spectrum disorders and that both involve dysfunction of the limbic pathways. Animal studies demonstrate that intermittent repeated low level environmental chemical exposures, including pesticides, cause limbic kindling. Kindling (full or partial) is one central nervous system mechanism that could amplify reactivity to low levels of inhaled and ingested chemicals and initiate persistent affective, cognitive, and somatic symptomatology in both occupational and nonoccupational settings. As in animal studies, inescapable and novel stressors could cross-sensitize with chemical exposures in some individuals to generate adverse responses on a neurochemical basis. The olfactory-limbic model raises testable neurobiological hypotheses that could increase understanding of the multifactorial etiology of MCS and of certain overlapping affective spectrum disorders. 170 refs.

  2. Cereblon and IRF4 Variants Affect Risk and Response to Treatment in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Butrym, Aleksandra; Łacina, Piotr; Rybka, Justyna; Chaszczewska-Markowska, Monika; Mazur, Grzegorz; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna

    2017-01-12

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma-cell malignancy derived from an early precursor of the B-cell lineage characterised by bone-marrow infiltration, lytic bone lesions, and the presence of a monoclonal protein in serum and/or urine. Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is a critical transcriptional regulator in B-cell development and function that is required during immune response for lymphocyte activation and the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells. Immunomodulatory drugs, derivatives of thalidomide, are commonly used in therapy against MM. They are known to target a protein called cereblon (CRBN); however, the exact mechanism remains unknown. The present study aimed to assess the association of two (rs12203592 and rs872071) polymorphisms within the IRF4 gene and two (rs711613 and rs1045433) in the CRBN gene with MM susceptibility, progression, and response to treatment. For this purpose, 144 MM patients and 126 healthy individuals were genotyped for the IRF4 and CRBN alleles. The presence of the IRF4 (rs872071) G allele was more frequently detected in patients than healthy individuals (OR 1.78; P = 0.034), and this relationship was especially pronounced in women (OR 2.83; P = 0.012). The CRBN (rs711613) A allele-carriers were better responders to the treatment (P = 0.012), in particular to thalidomide including therapy (P = 0.023). These results underline the prognostic significance of the IRF4 and CRBN polymorphisms in patients with MM.

  3. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  4. Multiple factors affect a population of Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in the Northwestern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Yee, Julie L.; Coble, Ashley A.; Perry, William M.; Shields, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous factors have contributed to declines in populations of the federally threatened Agassiz's Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and continue to limit recovery. In 2010, we surveyed a low-density population on a military test facility in the northwestern Mojave Desert of California, USA, to evaluate population status and identify potential factors contributing to distribution and low densities. Estimated densities of live tortoises ranged spatially from 1.2/km2 to 15.1/km2. Although only one death of a breeding-age tortoise was recorded for the 4-yr period prior to the survey, remains of 16 juvenile and immature tortoises were found, and most showed signs of predation by Common Ravens (Corvus corax) and mammals. Predation may have limited recruitment of young tortoises into the adult size classes. To evaluate the relative importance of different types of impacts to tortoises, we developed predictive models for spatially explicit densities of tortoise sign and live tortoises using topography (i.e., slope), predators (Common Raven, signs of mammalian predators), and anthropogenic impacts (distances from paved road and denuded areas, density of ordnance fragments) as covariates. Models suggest that densities of tortoise sign increased with slope and signs of mammalian predators and decreased with Common Ravens, while also varying based on interaction effects involving these predictors as well as distances from paved roads, denuded areas, and ordnance. Similarly, densities of live tortoises varied by interaction effects among distances to denuded areas and paved roads, density of ordnance fragments, and slope. Thus multiple factors predict the densities and distribution of this population.

  5. Mobile phones affect multiple sperm quality traits: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-01-01

    As mobile phone usage is growing rapidly, there is a need for a comprehensive analysis of the literature to inform scientific debates about the adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality traits. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of the eligible published research studies on human males of reproductive age. Eleven studies were eligible for this analysis. Based on the meta-analysis, mobile phone use was significantly associated with deterioration in semen quality (Hedges’s g = -0.547; 95% CI: -0.713, -0.382; p < 0.001). The traits particularly affected adversely were sperm concentration, sperm morphology, sperm motility, proportion of non-progressive motile sperm (%), proportion of slow progressive motile sperm (%), and sperm viability. Direct exposure of spermatozoa to mobile phone radiation with in vitro study designs also significantly deteriorated the sperm quality (Hedges’s g = -2.233; 95% CI: -2.758, -1.708; p < 0.001), by reducing straight line velocity, fast progressive motility, Hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test score, major axis (µm), minor axis (µm), total sperm motility, perimeter (µm), area (µm 2), average path velocity, curvilinear velocity, motile spermatozoa, and  acrosome reacted spermatozoa (%). The strength of evidence for the different outcomes varied from very low to very high. The analysis shows that mobile phone use is possibly associated with a number of deleterious effects on the spermatozoa. PMID:24327874

  6. Mutations affecting a putative MutLα endonuclease motif impact multiple mismatch repair functions

    PubMed Central

    Erdeniz, Naz; Nguyen, Megan; Deschênes, Suzanne M.; Liskay, R. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) lead to increased mutation rates and higher recombination between similar, but not identical sequences, as well as resistance to certain DNA methylating agents. Recently, a component of human MMR machinery, MutLα, has been shown to display a latent endonuclease activity. The endonuclease active site appears to include a conserved motif, DQHA(X)2E(X)4E, within the COOH-terminus of human PMS2. Substitution of the glutamic acid residue (E705) abolished the endonuclease activity and mismatch-dependent excision in vitro. Previously, we showed that the PMS2-E705K mutation and the corresponding mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were both recessive loss of function alleles for mutation avoidance in vivo. Here, we show that mutations impacting this endonuclease motif also significantly affect MMR-dependent suppression of homeologous recombination in yeast and responses to Sn1-type methylating agents in both yeast and mammalian cells. Thus, our in vivo results suggest that the endonuclease activity of MutLα is important not only in MMR-dependent mutation avoidance but also for recombination and damage response functions. PMID:17567544

  7. Multiple Trans-Sensing Interactions Affect Meiotically Heritable Epigenetic States at the Maize pl1 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Stephen M.; Hollick, Jay B.

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between specific maize purple plant1 (pl1) alleles result in heritable changes of gene regulation that are manifested as differences in anthocyanin pigmentation. Transcriptionally repressed states of Pl1-Rhoades alleles (termed Pl′) are remarkably stable and invariably facilitate heritable changes of highly expressed states (termed Pl-Rh) in Pl′/Pl-Rh plants. However, Pl′ can revert to Pl-Rh when hemizygous, when heterozygous with pl1 alleles other than Pl1-Rhoades, or in the absence of trans-acting factors required to maintain repressed states. Cis-linked features of Pl1-Rhoades responsible for these trans-sensing behaviors remain unknown. Here, genetic tests of a pl1 allelic series identify two potentially separate cis-linked features: one facilitating repression of Pl-Rh and another stabilizing Pl′ in trans. Neither function is affected in ethyl-methanesulfonate-induced Pl1-Rhoades derivatives that produce truncated PL1 peptides, indicating that PL1 is unlikely to mediate trans interactions. Both functions, however, are impaired in a spontaneous Pl1-Rhoades derivative that fails to produce detectable pl1 RNA. Pl′-like states can also repress expression of a pl1-W22 allele, but this repression is not meiotically heritable. As the Pl′ state is not associated with unique small RNA species representing the pl1-coding region, the available data suggest that interactions between elements required for transcription underlie Pl1-Rhoades epigenetic behaviors. PMID:17435245

  8. Surgical Critical Care for the Patient with Sepsis and Multiple Organ Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kaml, Gary J; Davis, Kimberly A

    2016-12-01

    Sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is common in the surgical intensive care unit. Sepsis involves infection and the patient's immune response. Timely recognition of sepsis and swift application of evidence-based interventions is critical to the success of therapy. This article reviews the nature of the septic process, existing definitions of sepsis, and current evidence-based treatment strategies for sepsis and MODS. An improved understanding of the process of sepsis and its relation to MODS has resulted in clinical definitions and scoring systems that allow for the quantification of disease severity and guidelines for treatment.

  9. Presentation and validation of the multiple sclerosis depression rating scale: a test specifically devised to investigate affective disorders in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Davide; Marra, Camillo; Zinno, Massimiliano; Patanella, Agata Katia; Messina, Maria Josè; Piccininni, Chiara; Batocchi, Anna Paola; Gainotti, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of depression in patients affected by MS is important, as it may be a cause of reduced quality of life and increased suicide risk. We present a new scale, the Multiple Sclerosis Depression Rating Scale (MSDRS), and assess its diagnostic accuracy in comparison to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A total of 94 MS participants were classified as non-depressed (N = 44) or affected by mood disorder associated to MS with depressive manifestations (MSD-MDDM; N = 37) or with a major depression-like episode (MSD-MDL; N = 13). Each participant underwent a psychiatric interview, MSDRS, and BDI; diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using area under the ROC curve (AROC). The diagnostic accuracy of MSDRS and BDI was comparable when diagnosing both MSD-MDDM and MSD-MDL (AROC respectively 0.8998 and 0.8659); the MSDRS showed higher accuracy for the diagnosis of MSD-MDL (AROC respectively 0.9278 and 0.8314; p = .038). The MSDRS may be a reliable tool for the diagnosis of depression in MS.

  10. Biogenic gradients in algal density affect the emergent properties of spatially self-organized mussel beds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Weerman, Ellen J; Gupta, Rohit; Herman, Peter M J; Olff, Han; van de Koppel, Johan

    2014-07-06

    Theoretical models highlight that spatially self-organized patterns can have important emergent effects on the functioning of ecosystems, for instance by increasing productivity and affecting the vulnerability to catastrophic shifts. However, most theoretical studies presume idealized homogeneous conditions, which are rarely met in real ecosystems. Using self-organized mussel beds as a case study, we reveal that spatial heterogeneity, resulting from the large-scale effects of mussel beds on their environment, significantly alters the emergent properties predicted by idealized self-organization models that assume homogeneous conditions. The proposed model explicitly considers that the suspended algae, the prime food for the mussels, are supplied by water flow from the seaward boundary of the bed, which causes in combination with consumption a gradual depletion of algae over the simulated domain. Predictions of the model are consistent with properties of natural mussel patterns observed in the field, featuring a decline in mussel biomass and a change in patterning. Model analyses reveal a fundamental change in ecosystem functioning when this self-induced algal depletion gradient is included in the model. First, no enhancement of secondary productivity of the mussels comparing with non-patterns states is predicted, irrespective of parameter setting; the equilibrium amount of mussels is entirely set by the input of algae. Second, alternate stable states, potentially present in the original (no algal gradient) model, are absent when gradual depletion of algae in the overflowing water layer is allowed. Our findings stress the importance of including sufficiently realistic environmental conditions when assessing the emergent properties of self-organized ecosystems.

  11. Most probable numbers of organisms: revised tables for the multiple tube method.

    PubMed

    Tillett, H E

    1987-10-01

    Estimation of numbers of organisms is often made using dilution series, for example when examining water samples for coliform organisms. In this paper the most probable numbers (MPNs) are calculated for a 15-tube series consisting of five replicates at three consecutive tenfold dilutions. Exact conditional probabilities are computed to replace previous approximations. When growth is observed in several of the tubes it is not realistic to select a single MPN. Instead a most probable range (MPR) should be reported. But using an MPR creates problems when comparison has to be made with a legislated, single-valued Standard. It is suggested that the wording of the Standards should be expressed differently when the multiple tube method is used.

  12. Potential electrostatic interactions in multiple regions affect human metapneumovirus F-mediated membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Andres; Hackett, Brent A; Winter, Christine C; Buchholz, Ursula J; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2012-09-01

    The recently identified human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a worldwide respiratory virus affecting all age groups and causing pneumonia and bronchiolitis in severe cases. Despite its clinical significance, no specific antiviral agents have been approved for treatment of HMPV infection. Unlike the case for most paramyxoviruses, the fusion proteins (F) of a number of strains, including the clinical isolate CAN97-83, can be triggered by low pH. We recently reported that residue H435 in the HRB linker domain acts as a pH sensor for HMPV CAN97-83 F, likely through electrostatic repulsion forces between a protonated H435 and its surrounding basic residues, K295, R396, and K438, at low pH. Through site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrated that a positive charge at position 435 is required but not sufficient for F-mediated membrane fusion. Arginine or lysine substitution at position 435 resulted in a hyperfusogenic F protein, while replacement with aspartate or glutamate abolished fusion activity. Studies with recombinant viruses carrying mutations in this region confirmed its importance. Furthermore, a second region within the F(2) domain identified as being rich in charged residues was found to modulate fusion activity of HMPV F. Loss of charge at residues E51, D54, and E56 altered local folding and overall stability of the F protein, with dramatic consequences for fusion activity. As a whole, these studies implicate charged residues and potential electrostatic interactions in function, pH sensing, and overall stability of HMPV F.

  13. Insights into hemolytic uremic syndrome: segregation of three independent predisposition factors in a large, multiple affected pedigree.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Jorge, Elena Goicoechea de; Garrido, Cynthia Abarrategui; Carreras, Luis; López-Trascasa, Margarita; Sánchez-Corral, Pilar; de Córdoba, Santiago Rodríguez

    2006-04-01

    Mutations in the complement regulators factor H, membrane cofactor protein (MCP), and factor I are associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS, MIM 235400), suggesting that the disease develops as a consequence of the inefficient protection of the renal endothelium from damage by the complement system. Incomplete penetrance of the disease in individuals carrying these mutations is, however, relatively frequent. Here, we report the identification of a large, multiple affected aHUS pedigree in which there is independent segregation of three different aHUS risk factors: a MCP missense mutation (c.-598C>T; Pro165Ser) that decreases MCP expression on the cell surface, a dinucleotide insertion in the coding sequence of factor I (c.-1610insAT) that introduces a premature stop codon in the factor I protein, and the MCPggaac SNP haplotype block that was previously shown to decrease the transcription activity from the MCP promoter. Interestingly, individuals affected by aHUS in the pedigree are only those who have inherited the three aHUS risk factors. These data show an additive effect for mutations in MCP and factor I and provide definitive support to the conclusion that aHUS results from a defective protection of cellular surfaces from complement activation. Furthermore, they help to explain the incomplete penetrance of the disease, illustrating that concurrence of multiple hits in complement regulatory proteins may be necessary to significantly impair host tissue protection and to confer susceptibility to aHUS.

  14. Anatomical Organization of Multiple Modulatory Inputs in a Rhythmic Motor System

    PubMed Central

    Swallie, Shanna E.; Monti, Alexis M.; Blitz, Dawn M.

    2015-01-01

    In rhythmic motor systems, descending projection neuron inputs elicit distinct outputs from their target central pattern generator (CPG) circuits. Projection neuron activity is regulated by sensory inputs and inputs from other regions of the nervous system, relaying information about the current status of an organism. To gain insight into the organization of multiple inputs targeting a projection neuron, we used the identified neuron MCN1 in the stomatogastric nervous system of the crab, Cancer borealis. MCN1 originates in the commissural ganglion and projects to the stomatogastric ganglion (STG). MCN1 activity is differentially regulated by multiple inputs including neuroendocrine (POC) and proprioceptive (GPR) neurons, to elicit distinct outputs from CPG circuits in the STG. We asked whether these defined inputs are compact and spatially segregated or dispersed and overlapping relative to their target projection neuron. Immunocytochemical labeling, intracellular dye injection and three-dimensional (3D) confocal microscopy revealed overlap of MCN1 neurites and POC and GPR terminals. The POC neuron terminals form a defined neuroendocrine organ (anterior commissural organ: ACO) that utilizes peptidergic paracrine signaling to act on MCN1. The MCN1 arborization consistently coincided with the ACO structure, despite morphological variation between preparations. Contrary to a previous 2D study, our 3D analysis revealed that GPR axons did not terminate in a compact bundle, but arborized more extensively near MCN1, arguing against sparse connectivity of GPR onto MCN1. Consistent innervation patterns suggest that integration of the sensory GPR and peptidergic POC inputs occur through more distributed and more tightly constrained anatomical interactions with their common modulatory projection neuron target than anticipated. PMID:26566032

  15. Soil organic matter dynamics under Beech and Hornbeam as affected by soil biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooijman, A. M.; Cammeraat, L. H.

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter dynamics are highly affected both the soil fauna as well as the source of organic matter, having important consequences for the spatial heterogeneity of organic matter storage and conversion. We studied oldgrowth mixed deciduous forests in Central-Luxemburg on decalcified dolomitic marl, dominated by high-degradable hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) or low-degradable beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Decomposition was measured both in the laboratory and in the field. Litter decomposition was higher for hornbeam than for beech under laboratory conditions, but especially in the field, which is mainly to be attributed to macro-fauna activity, specifically to earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Allolobophora species). We also investigated differences between beech and hornbeam with regard to litter input and habitat conditions. Total litter input was the same, but contribution of beech and hornbeam litter clearly differed between the two species. Also, mass of the ectorganic horizon and soil C:N ratio were significantly higher for beech, which was reflected in clear differences in the development of ectorganic profiles on top of the soil. Under beech a mull-moder was clearly present with a well developed fermentation and litter horizon, whereas under hornbeam all litter is incorporated into the soil, leaving the mineral soil surface bear in late summer (mull-type of horizon). In addition to litter quality, litter decomposition was affected by pH and soil moisture. Both pH and soil moisture were higher under hornbeam than under beech, which may reflect differences in soil development and litter quality effects over longer time scales. Under beech, dense layers of low-degradable litter may prevent erosion, and increase clay eluviation and leaching of base cations, leading to acid and dry conditions, which further decrease litter decay. Under hornbeam, the soil is not protected by a litter layer, and clay eluviation and acidification may be counteracted by erosion

  16. Feasibility of Multiple Examinations Using 68Ga-Labelled Collagelin Analogues: Organ Distribution in Rat for Extrapolation to Human Organ and Whole-Body Radiation Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Velikyan, Irina; Rosenström, Ulrika; Bulenga, Thomas N.; Eriksson, Olof; Antoni, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fibrosis is involved in many chronic diseases. It affects the functionality of vital organs, such as liver, lung, heart and kidney. Two novel imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of fibrosis have previously pre-clinically demonstrated promising target binding and organ distribution characteristics. However, the relevant disease monitoring in the clinical setup would require multiple repetitive examinations per year. Thus, it is of paramount importance to investigate the absorbed doses and total effective doses and thus, the potential maximum number of examinations per year. Methods: Two cyclic peptide (c[CPGRVMHGLHLGDDEGPC]) analogues coupled via an ethylene glycol linker (EG2) to either 2-(4,7-bis(2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)-1,4,7-triazonan-1-yl)acetic acid (NO2A-Col) or 4-(4,7-bis(2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononan-1-yl)-5-(tert-butoxy)-5-oxopentanoic acid (NODAGA-Col) were labelled with 68Ga. The resulting agents, [68Ga]Ga-NO2A-Col and [68Ga]Ga-NODAGA-Col, were administered in the tail vein of male and female Sprague–Dawley rats (N = 24). An ex vivo organ distribution study was performed at the 5-, 10-, 20-, 40-, 60- and 120-min time points. The resulting data were extrapolated for the estimation of human organ and total body absorbed and total effective doses using Organ Level Internal Dose Assessment Code software (OLINDA/EXM 1.1) assuming a similar organ distribution pattern between the species. Time-integrated radioactivity in each organ was calculated by trapezoidal integration followed by a single-exponential fit to the data points extrapolated to infinity. The resulting values were used for the residence time calculation. Results: Ex vivo organ distribution data revealed fast blood clearance and washout from most of the organs. Although the highest organ absorbed dose was found for kidneys (0.1 mGy/MBq), this organ was not the dose-limiting one and would allow for the administration of over 1460 MBq

  17. A metal-organic cage incorporating multiple light harvesting and catalytic centres for photochemical hydrogen production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sha; Li, Kang; Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Mei; Fan, Yan-Zhong; Guo, Jing; Shi, Jianying; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting is a natural but challenging chemical way of harnessing renewable solar power to generate clean hydrogen energy. Here we report a potential hydrogen-evolving photochemical molecular device based on a self-assembled ruthenium–palladium heterometallic coordination cage, incorporating multiple photo- and catalytic metal centres. The photophysical properties are investigated by absorption/emission spectroscopy, electrochemical measurements and preliminary DFT calculations and the stepwise electron transfer processes from ruthenium-photocentres to catalytic palladium-centres is probed by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. The photocatalytic hydrogen production assessments reveal an initial reaction rate of 380 μmol h−1 and a turnover number of 635 after 48 h. The efficient hydrogen production may derive from the directional electron transfers through multiple channels owing to proper organization of the photo- and catalytic multi-units within the octahedral cage, which may open a new door to design photochemical molecular devices with well-organized metallosupramolecules for homogenous photocatalytic applications. PMID:27827376

  18. A metal-organic cage incorporating multiple light harvesting and catalytic centres for photochemical hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sha; Li, Kang; Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Mei; Fan, Yan-Zhong; Guo, Jing; Shi, Jianying; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-11-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting is a natural but challenging chemical way of harnessing renewable solar power to generate clean hydrogen energy. Here we report a potential hydrogen-evolving photochemical molecular device based on a self-assembled ruthenium-palladium heterometallic coordination cage, incorporating multiple photo- and catalytic metal centres. The photophysical properties are investigated by absorption/emission spectroscopy, electrochemical measurements and preliminary DFT calculations and the stepwise electron transfer processes from ruthenium-photocentres to catalytic palladium-centres is probed by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. The photocatalytic hydrogen production assessments reveal an initial reaction rate of 380 μmol h-1 and a turnover number of 635 after 48 h. The efficient hydrogen production may derive from the directional electron transfers through multiple channels owing to proper organization of the photo- and catalytic multi-units within the octahedral cage, which may open a new door to design photochemical molecular devices with well-organized metallosupramolecules for homogenous photocatalytic applications.

  19. Grinding and sieving soil affects the availability of organic contaminants: a kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    ter Laak, Thomas L; Barendregt, Arjan; Hermens, Joop L M

    2007-09-01

    Field contaminated soils are often homogenized before application in bioassays and chemical assays that estimate the (bio)availability of their contaminants. The homogenization of the soil might affect the availability, and thereby the outcome of a bioassay might not reflect field situations. In this study, uptake kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by a negligible depletive passive sampler exposed to a ground and non-ground field contaminated soil were tested. The measurements illustrate how freely dissolved pore water concentrations of contaminants can be affected by soil treatment. It took more than a month, and over a year to reach steady state in the passive sampler exposed to the ground and non-ground soil, respectively. The uptake rate seemed to be limited by desorption from the soil, even though the fiber only extracted 0.2% of the soil-sorbed PAH at maximum. If these observations are translated to the field situation, where contaminants are not homogeneously distributed and disappear by (bio)degradation or physical transport processes, it is unlikely that pore water concentrations are solely determined by a thermodynamic equilibrium. Hence, exposure of organisms in these soils cannot always be estimated by sorption studies and an equilibrium partitioning approach.

  20. Behaviour of water bound in bone marrow cells affected by organic solvents of different polarity.

    PubMed

    Turov, Vladimir V; Kerus, Sergey V; Gun'ko, Vladimir M

    2009-08-01

    The behaviour of intracellular water affected by organic solvents of different polarity in partially dehydrated marrow cells obtained from tubular bones of broiler chickens was studied using (1)H NMR spectroscopy at 210-290K. The (1)H NMR spectra of intracellular water include two signals which can be assigned to strongly (SAW, chemical shift of the proton resonance delta(H)=4-5ppm) and weakly (WAW, delta(H)=1.2-1.7ppm) associated waters which can be also divided into weakly (WBW, frozen at 250-0.8kJ/mol) and strongly (SBW, unfrozen at T<250K, DeltaG<-0.8kJ/mol) bound intracellular waters. Solvents of different polarity such as dimethylsulfoxide-d(6) (Me(2)SO-d(6)), acetonitrile-d(3), and chloroform-d differently affect structure, Gibbs free energy, and molecular mobility of intracellular water. A maximal fraction of SBW in WAW and a minimal fraction of SBW in SAW are observed on absorption of acetonitrile (0.8g/g) by cells. The opposite results are on addition of Me(2)SO (0.8g/g) which strongly changes organisation of intracellular water and enhances the freezing point depression of SBW.

  1. The addition of organic carbon and nitrate affects reactive transport of heavy metals in sandy aquifers.

    PubMed

    Satyawali, Yamini; Seuntjens, Piet; Van Roy, Sandra; Joris, Ingeborg; Vangeel, Silvia; Dejonghe, Winnie; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien

    2011-04-25

    Organic carbon introduction in the soil to initiate remedial measures, nitrate infiltration due to agricultural practices or sulphate intrusion owing to industrial usage can influence the redox conditions and pH, thus affecting the mobility of heavy metals in soil and groundwater. This study reports the fate of Zn and Cd in sandy aquifers under a variety of plausible in-situ redox conditions that were induced by introduction of carbon and various electron acceptors in column experiments. Up to 100% Zn and Cd removal (from the liquid phase) was observed in all the four columns, however the mechanisms were different. Metal removal in column K1 (containing sulphate), was attributed to biological sulphate reduction and subsequent metal precipitation (as sulphides). In the presence of both nitrate and sulphate (K2), the former dominated the process, precipitating the heavy metals as hydroxides and/or carbonates. In the presence of sulphate, nitrate and supplemental iron (Fe(OH)(3)) (K3), metal removal was also due to precipitation as hydroxides and/or carbonates. In abiotic column, K4, (with supplemental iron (Fe(OH)(3)), but no nitrate), cation exchange with soil led to metal removal. The results obtained were modeled using the reactive transport model PHREEQC-2 to elucidate governing processes and to evaluate scenarios of organic carbon, sulphate and nitrate inputs.

  2. Mobility of prometryne in soil as affected by dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Huang, Jing; Liang, Lu; Zheng, Peng Yu; Yang, Hong

    2008-12-24

    Incorporation of organic fertilizers/amendments in soils has been, and will continue to be, a popular strategy for improving the quality of arable soils. However, the mechanism by which the dissolved organic matters (DOMs) affect soil properties or interact with other substances in soils is largely unknown. In this study, a batch equilibrium experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of two types of DOMs on the behavior of prometryne (a herbicide) in soils. Two sorts of DOMs were derived from lakebed sludge (SL) and rice straw (ST), respectively. The results show that sorption capacity in one soil for prometryne was significantly reduced by application of DOMs, whereas desorption of prometryne was promoted by DOM treatments. To understand the mobility behavior of prometryne in soils with DOMs, a column leaching experiment was carried out. It is shown that both DOMs enhanced the solubility and migration of prometryne in soils. To confirm the role of DOMs in regulating the mobility of prometryne in soils, a soil thin-layer chromatography was performed. The migration of prometryne was promoted by DOMs, which were used as a developing solvent or directly incorporated in the soil thin layer. The data indicate that DOM extracts can modify the mobility of prometryne in soil.

  3. Reciprocal projections in hierarchically organized evolvable neural circuits affect EEG-like signals.

    PubMed

    Shaposhnyk, Vladyslav; Villa, Alessandro E P

    2012-01-24

    Modular architecture is a hallmark of many brain circuits. In the cerebral cortex, in particular, it has been observed that reciprocal connections are often present between functionally interconnected areas that are hierarchically organized. We investigate the effect of reciprocal connections in a network of modules of simulated spiking neurons. The neural activity is recorded by means of virtual electrodes and EEG-like signals, called electrochipograms (EChG), analyzed by time- and frequency-domain methods. A major feature of our approach is the implementation of important bio-inspired processes that affect the connectivity within a neural module: synaptogenesis, cell death, spike-timing-dependent plasticity and synaptic pruning. These bio-inspired processes drive the build-up of auto-associative links within each module, which generate an areal activity, recorded by EChG, that reflect the changes in the corresponding functional connectivity within and between neuronal modules. We found that circuits with intra-layer reciprocal projections exhibited enhanced stimulus-locked response. We show evidence that all networks of modules are able to process and maintain patterns of activity associated with the stimulus after its offset. The presence of feedback and horizontal projections was necessary to evoke cross-layer coherence in bursts of -frequency at regular intervals. These findings bring new insights to the understanding of the relation between the functional organization of neural circuits and the electrophysiological signals generated by large cell assemblies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Neural Coding".

  4. Sorption of dissolved organic matter in salt-affected soils: effect of salinity, sodicity and texture.

    PubMed

    Mavi, Manpreet S; Sanderman, Jonathan; Chittleborough, David J; Cox, James W; Marschner, Petra

    2012-10-01

    Loss of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils can have negative effects on soil fertility and water quality. It is known that sodicity increases DOM solubility, but the interactive effect of sodicity and salinity on DOM sorption and how this is affected by soil texture is not clear. We investigated the effect of salinity and sodicity on DOM sorption in soils with different clay contents. Four salt solutions with different EC and SAR were prepared using combinations of 1M NaCl and 1M CaCl(2) stock solutions. The soils differing in texture (4, 13, 24 and 40% clay, termed S-4, S-13, S-24 and S-40) were repeatedly leached with these solutions until the desired combination of EC and SAR (EC(1:5) 1 and 5dSm(-1) in combination with SAR <3 or >20) was reached. The sorption of DOC (derived from mature wheat straw) was more strongly affected by SAR than by EC. High SAR (>20) at EC1 significantly decreased sorption in all soils. However, at EC5, high SAR did not significantly reduce DOC sorption most likely because of the high electrolyte concentration of the soil solution. DOC sorption was greatest in S-24 (which had the highest CEC) at all concentrations of DOC added whereas DOC sorption did not differ greatly between S-40 and S-4 or S-13 (which had higher concentrations of Fe/Al than S-40). DOC sorption in salt-affected soil is more strongly controlled by CEC and Fe/Al concentration than by clay concentration per se except in sodic soils where DOC sorption is low due to the high sodium saturation of the exchange complex.

  5. Seagrasses are negatively affected by organic matter loading and Arenicola marina activity in a laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Govers, Laura L; Pieck, Timon; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Suykerbuyk, Wouter; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Katwijk, Marieke M

    2014-06-01

    When two ecosystem engineers share the same natural environment, the outcome of their interaction will be unclear if they have contrasting habitat-modifying effects (e.g., sediment stabilization vs. sediment destabilization). The outcome of the interaction may depend on local environmental conditions such as season or sediment type, which may affect the extent and type of habitat modification by the ecosystem engineers involved. We mechanistically studied the interaction between the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii and the bioturbating and sediment-destabilizing lugworm Arenicola marina, which sometimes co-occur for prolonged periods. We investigated (1) if the negative sediment destabilization effect of A. marina on Z. noltii might be counteracted by positive biogeochemical effects of bioirrigation (burrow flushing) by A. marina in sulfide-rich sediments, and (2) if previously observed nutrient release by A. marina bioirrigation could affect seagrasses. We tested the individual and combined effects of A. marina presence and high porewater sulfide concentrations (induced by organic matter addition) on seagrass biomass in a full factorial lab experiment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find an effect of A. marina on porewater sulfide concentrations. A. marina activities affected the seagrass physically as well as by pumping nutrients, mainly ammonium and phosphate, from the porewater to the surface water, which promoted epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves in our experimental set-up. We conclude that A. marina bioirrigation did not alleviate sulfide stress to seagrasses. Instead, we found synergistic negative effects of the presence of A. marina and high sediment sulfide levels on seagrass biomass.

  6. Heterogeneous processes affecting metal ion transport in the presence of organic ligands: Reactive transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Cetin

    2007-04-01

    The development of models to accurately simulate metal ion transport through saturated systems under variable chemical conditions, e.g., in systems containing organic ligands (L) such as natural organic matter (NOM), has two essential aspects: (1) establishing the ability to simulate metal ion sorption to aquifer solids over a range of metal/ligand ratios; and (2) to incorporate this ability to simulate metal speciation over a range in chemical conditions (e.g., pH, ligand activity) into mass transport models. Modeling approaches to evaluate metal ion sorption and transport in the presence of NOM include: (1) isotherm-based transport models, and (2) multicomponent (MC) transport models. The accuracy of transport models depends on how well the chemical interactions affecting metal ion transport in the presence of organic ligands (e.g., metal/ligand complexation) are described in transport equations. The isotherm-based transport models often fail to accurately describe metal ion transport in the presence of NOM since these models treat NOM as a single solute despite the fact that NOM is a multicomponent mixture of subcomponents with different chemical and polyfunctional behavior. On the other hand, the calculations presented in this study suggest that a multicomponent reactive transport model, in conjunction with a mechanistic modeling approach for the description of metal ion binding by NOM in a manner conducive to the application of surface complexation modeling (SCM), can effectively be used as an important predictive tool in simulating metal ion sorption and transport under variable chemical conditions in the presence of NOM.

  7. Orchid bees as bio-indicators for organic coffee farms in Costa Rica: does farm size affect their abundance?

    PubMed

    Hedström, Ingemar; Denzel, Andrew; Owens, Gareth

    2006-09-01

    The potential of Euglossini bees, especially Euglossa, as biological indicators of organic vs nonorganic coffee farms was studied in Atenas and San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica using 1.8-cineole as lure. Observations were made for three days at each of four farms and complemented with data from a year of observations. Orchid bees were in greater abundance in the organic farms (t-Student test). However, lower abundances suggest that an organic farm may be negatively affected by the proximity of non-organic farms, depending on its size and distance. Orchid bees may be indicators of organic coffee farms.

  8. Building Affective Commitment to Organization among Chinese University Teachers: The Roles of Organizational Justice and Job Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yongzhan

    2014-01-01

    In view of the benefit of improving employees' organization commitment, it is important to study the major influencing factors of organization commitment. According to previous literature, organizational justice and job burnout have been considered two major influencing variables of affective commitment; however, little empirical research can be…

  9. Understanding the Lifecycle of Organic Carbon Through Multiple Generations of Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Franklin, J. P.; OBrien, R. E.; Lim, C. Y.; Massoli, P.; Lambe, A. T.; Nowak, J. B.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Roscioli, J. R.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Su, L.; Knopf, D. A.; Misztal, P. K.; Arata, C.; Goldstein, A. H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kroll, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions of organic carbon to the atmosphere undergo oxidation reactions to yield hundreds of products, forming a multiphase, chemically dynamic system of organic aerosol and gas-phase products that span a wide range of volatilities. A complete understanding of the fate and transformations of organic carbon in the atmosphere therefore requires a detailed quantitative description of both gas- and particle-phase carbon, but attempts to understand the evolution of carbon through atmospheric oxidation has in nearly all cases resulted in a large fraction of "missing" or unidentified carbon. In our work, a large suite of state-of-the-art mass spectrometric and spectroscopic instrumentation was brought to bear on the oxidation by both ozone and OH of common biogenic emissions (α-pinene, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene), with OH concentrations spanning hours to days of simulated atmospheric aging. Organic carbon across all volatilities and functionalities was measured, from aerosols to high-volatility gases, including CO and formic acid. New chemical ionization and electron-impact ionization mass spectrometric instruments allowed for the characterization and quantification of low-volatility gases, which are observed to form quickly then decrease with growth in aerosol mass. Reaction conditions were varied to better understand the role played by measurement artifacts, such as loss of vapor to the walls, in typical laboratory oxidation experiments. By observing all carbon through multiple generations of oxidation, we examine the transitions between particles and lower-volatility gases with unprecedented detail and place them in the context of current simplified (i.e. two-dimensional) model frameworks, providing a more complete understanding of the evolution of organics in the atmosphere.

  10. In vivo imaging of zebrafish digestive organ function using multiple quenched fluorescent reporters.

    PubMed

    Hama, Kotaro; Provost, Elayne; Baranowski, Timothy C; Rubinstein, Amy L; Anderson, Jennifer L; Leach, Steven D; Farber, Steven A

    2009-02-01

    Optical clarity of larvae makes the zebrafish ideal for real-time analyses of vertebrate organ function through the use of fluorescent reporters of enzymatic activities. A key function of digestive organs is to couple the generation of enzymes with mechanical processes that enable nutrient availability and absorption. However, it has been extremely difficult, and in many cases not possible, to directly observe digestive processes in a live vertebrate. Here we describe a new method to visualize intestinal protein and lipid processing simultaneously in live zebrafish larvae using a quenched fluorescent protein (EnzChek) and phospholipid (PED6). By employing these reagents, we found that wild-type larvae exhibit significant variation in intestinal phospholipase and protease activities within a group but display a strong correlation between the activities within individuals. Furthermore, we found that pancreas function is essential for larval digestive protease activity but not for larval intestinal phospholipase activity. Although fat-free (ffr) mutant larvae were previously described to exhibit impaired lipid processes, we found they also had significantly reduced protease activity. Finally, we selected and evaluated compounds that were previously suggested to have altered phospholipase activity and are known or suspected to have inflammatory effects in the intestinal tract including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and identified a compound that significantly increases intestinal phospholipid processing. Thus the multiple fluorescent reporter-based methodology facilitates the rapid analysis of digestive organ function in live zebrafish larvae.

  11. Precise segmentation of multiple organs in CT volumes using learning-based approach and information theory.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Zheng, Yefeng; Birkbeck, Neil; Zhang, Jingdan; Kohlberger, Timo; Tietjen, Christian; Boettger, Thomas; Duncan, James S; Zhou, S Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method by incorporating information theory into the learning-based approach for automatic and accurate pelvic organ segmentation (including the prostate, bladder and rectum). We target 3D CT volumes that are generated using different scanning protocols (e.g., contrast and non-contrast, with and without implant in the prostate, various resolution and position), and the volumes come from largely diverse sources (e.g., diseased in different organs). Three key ingredients are combined to solve this challenging segmentation problem. First, marginal space learning (MSL) is applied to efficiently and effectively localize the multiple organs in the largely diverse CT volumes. Second, learning techniques, steerable features, are applied for robust boundary detection. This enables handling of highly heterogeneous texture pattern. Third, a novel information theoretic scheme is incorporated into the boundary inference process. The incorporation of the Jensen-Shannon divergence further drives the mesh to the best fit of the image, thus improves the segmentation performance. The proposed approach is tested on a challenging dataset containing 188 volumes from diverse sources. Our approach not only produces excellent segmentation accuracy, but also runs about eighty times faster than previous state-of-the-art solutions. The proposed method can be applied to CT images to provide visual guidance to physicians during the computer-aided diagnosis, treatment planning and image-guided radiotherapy to treat cancers in pelvic region.

  12. The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES Complex Employs Multiple Modes of Regulation to Affect Adaxial-Abaxial Patterning and Leaf Complexity[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Husbands, Aman Y.; Benkovics, Anna H.; Nogueira, Fabio T.S.; Lodha, Mukesh; Timmermans, Marja C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Flattened leaf architecture is not a default state but depends on positional information to precisely coordinate patterns of cell division in the growing primordium. This information is provided, in part, by the boundary between the adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) domains of the leaf, which are specified via an intricate gene regulatory network whose precise circuitry remains poorly defined. Here, we examined the contribution of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES (AS) pathway to adaxial-abaxial patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana and demonstrate that AS1-AS2 affects this process via multiple, distinct regulatory mechanisms. AS1-AS2 uses Polycomb-dependent and -independent mechanisms to directly repress the abaxial determinants MIR166A, YABBY5, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3), as well as a nonrepressive mechanism in the regulation of the adaxial determinant TAS3A. These regulatory interactions, together with data from prior studies, lead to a model in which the sequential polarization of determinants, including AS1-AS2, explains the establishment and maintenance of adaxial-abaxial leaf polarity. Moreover, our analyses show that the shared repression of ARF3 by the AS and trans-acting small interfering RNA (ta-siRNA) pathways intersects with additional AS1-AS2 targets to affect multiple nodes in leaf development, impacting polarity as well as leaf complexity. These data illustrate the surprisingly multifaceted contribution of AS1-AS2 to leaf development showing that, in conjunction with the ta-siRNA pathway, AS1-AS2 keeps the Arabidopsis leaf both flat and simple. PMID:26589551

  13. The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES Complex Employs Multiple Modes of Regulation to Affect Adaxial-Abaxial Patterning and Leaf Complexity.

    PubMed

    Husbands, Aman Y; Benkovics, Anna H; Nogueira, Fabio T S; Lodha, Mukesh; Timmermans, Marja C P

    2015-12-01

    Flattened leaf architecture is not a default state but depends on positional information to precisely coordinate patterns of cell division in the growing primordium. This information is provided, in part, by the boundary between the adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) domains of the leaf, which are specified via an intricate gene regulatory network whose precise circuitry remains poorly defined. Here, we examined the contribution of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES (AS) pathway to adaxial-abaxial patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana and demonstrate that AS1-AS2 affects this process via multiple, distinct regulatory mechanisms. AS1-AS2 uses Polycomb-dependent and -independent mechanisms to directly repress the abaxial determinants MIR166A, YABBY5, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3), as well as a nonrepressive mechanism in the regulation of the adaxial determinant TAS3A. These regulatory interactions, together with data from prior studies, lead to a model in which the sequential polarization of determinants, including AS1-AS2, explains the establishment and maintenance of adaxial-abaxial leaf polarity. Moreover, our analyses show that the shared repression of ARF3 by the AS and trans-acting small interfering RNA (ta-siRNA) pathways intersects with additional AS1-AS2 targets to affect multiple nodes in leaf development, impacting polarity as well as leaf complexity. These data illustrate the surprisingly multifaceted contribution of AS1-AS2 to leaf development showing that, in conjunction with the ta-siRNA pathway, AS1-AS2 keeps the Arabidopsis leaf both flat and simple.

  14. Release of a single neurotransmitter from an identified interneuron coherently affects motor output on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Dacks, Andrew M; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2013-05-01

    Neurotransmitters can have diverse effects that occur over multiple time scales often making the consequences of neurotransmission difficult to predict. To explore the consequences of this diversity, we used the buccal ganglion of Aplysia to examine the effects of GABA release by a single interneuron, B40, on the intrinsic properties and motor output of the radula closure neuron B8. B40 induces a picrotoxin-sensitive fast IPSP lasting milliseconds in B8 and a slow EPSP lasting seconds. We found that the excitatory effects of this slow EPSP are also mediated by GABA. Together, these two GABAergic actions structure B8 firing in a pattern characteristic of ingestive programs. Furthermore, we found that repeated B40 stimulation induces a persistent increase in B8 excitability that was occluded in the presence of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen, suggesting that GABA affects B8 excitability over multiple time scales. The phasing of B8 activity during the feeding motor programs determines the nature of the behavior elicited during that motor program. The persistent increase in B8 excitability induced by B40 biased the activity of B8 during feeding motor programs causing the motor programs to become more ingestive in nature. Thus, a single transmitter released from a single interneuron can have consequences for motor output that are expressed over multiple time scales. Importantly, despite the differences in their signs and temporal characteristics, the three actions of B40 are coherent in that they promote B8 firing patterns that are characteristic of ingestive motor outputs.

  15. Loss of HITS (FAM107B) expression in cancers of multiple organs: tissue microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hideo; Koizumi, Keita; Tanaka, Takuji; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Yoshitake, Yoshino; Yonekura, Hideto; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Umehara, Hisanori; Ueno, Soichiro; Minamoto, Toshinari; Motoo, Yoshiharu

    2012-10-01

    Family with sequence similarity 107 (FAM107) proteins consist of two subtypes, FAM107A and FAM107B in mammals, possessing a conserved N-terminal domain of unknown function. Recently we found that FAM107B, an 18 kDa nuclear protein, is expressed in a broad range of tissues and is downregulated in gastrointestinal cancer. Because FAM107B expression is amplified by heat-shock stimulation, we designated it heat shock-inducible tumor small protein (HITS). Although data related to FAM107A as a candidate tumor suppressor have been accumulated, little biological information is available for HITS. In the present study, we examined HITS expression using immunohistochemistry with tissue microarrays and performed detailed statistical analyses. By screening a high-density multiple organ tumor and normal tissue microarray, HITS expression was decreased in tumor tissues of the breast, thyroid, testis and uterine cervix as well as the stomach and colon. Further analysis of tissue microarrays of individual organs showed that loss of HITS expression in cancer tissues was statistically significant and commonly observed in distinct organs in a histological type-specific manner. The HITS expression intensity was inversely correlated with the primary tumor size in breast and thyroid cancers. In addition, effects of tetracycline-inducible HITS expression on tumor growth were investigated in vivo. Forced expression of HITS inhibited tumor xenograft proliferation, compared with the mock-treated tumor xenograft model. These results show that loss of HITS expression is a common phenomenon observed in cancers of distinct organs and involved in tumor development and proliferation.

  16. Investigating changes of electrical characteristics of the saturated zone affected by hazardous organic waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, Reinhard K.; Barosh, Patrick J.; Boving, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The Picillo Farm, EPA Superfund Site, in western Rhode Island was an unauthorized disposal site of hazardous organic chemicals. Predominantly organic contaminants have entered an aquifer comprised of layered glacial deposits and fractured bedrock and spread past the site boundaries with groundwater flow. Hydraulic conductivities in the glacial deposits range over two orders of magnitude and fractures and faults in the granitic bedrock further complicate the spreading of contaminants. Monitoring wells delineate two plumes that extend towards a fault-controlled valley with lakes and wetlands; one to the northwest and the other to the southwest. In this investigation we studied the electrical characteristics of both plumes. One dimensional Schlumberger depth soundings were conducted along several profile lines over the plumes and compared to those over non-contaminated sections of the site. With regard to the southwestern plume, high formation factors (ratio of bulk layer to pore water resistivity) between 12 and 45 were observed compared to values between 2.5 and 7.7 measured over the non-contaminated sections. Also, high values (> 5) of vertical electrical anisotropy (ratio of geoelectrically determined depth to high resistivity bedrock to drilled depth to bedrock) were measured over the contaminated part of the site. These values are extremely high compared to other non-contaminated sites (range: 2 to 3) in glacial stream channels of southern Rhode Island. Geoelectric measurements were affected by lateral effects. However, the consistency of high formation factors (11 to 35) and high vertical anisotropies (3 to 5) over the southwestern plume in comparison to low formation factors (3 to 8) and vertical anisotropies (1 to 1.5) over non-contaminated sites represents a marked difference between both sites. Overall, the Schlumberger depth soundings are less susceptible to near-surface lateral inhomogeneities than expected from other geoelectrical methods. Also, the

  17. Organizational leadership: A study on the affects of certification to International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowart, Jewel S.

    Compliance to requirements of ISO is an important leadership problem for the International Aerospace Quality Group (IAQG) and the Aviation, Space and Defense (AS&D) companies. Furthermore, the IAQG seeks to understand the valuation of ISO/AS9100 requirements (2009), audit practices, management functions, business performance, customer satisfaction, and potential future concepts for the standard to assure quality. Since the release of the AS9100C total certification growth surpassed 1,100,000 organizations in 2010 with ISO 9001 series adoption and implementation governing business operations (ASQ, 2012b; ISO, 2011; Bernardo, Llach, & Marimon, 2011). Historians such as Crosby, Juran, Deming, and others established the foundation for quality assurance. Several researchers explored the issues which complicate overall benefits of ISO certification (Iwaro & Mwasha, 2012; Karthi et al., 2012; Sampaio et al., 2009). This study examined the effects on AS&D industries from ISO compliance to identify the implications (of ever-changing requirements) through an online survey of 15,000 practitioners. The research illuminated how ISO affects AS&D industries with current and future requirements for certification. The data showed that 75% of survey respondents report implementation of the AS9100C requirements still has benefits that outweigh the cost. Findings suggest that AS&D industries perceive significant value in the AS9100C document as part of the overall ISO 9000 series. In general, the comments from the survey can provide insight into the affects of ISO certification. The study concludes by recommending continued research to learn of further impacts from ISO certification within AS&D industries to improve the AS9100 document requirements for quality management systems.

  18. Transformation of terrestrial organic matter along thermokarst-affected permafrost coasts in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Tanski, George; Lantuit, Hugues; Ruttor, Saskia; Knoblauch, Christian; Radosavljevic, Boris; Strauss, Jens; Wolter, Juliane; Irrgang, Anna M; Ramage, Justine; Fritz, Michael

    2017-03-01

    The changing climate in the Arctic has a profound impact on permafrost coasts, which are subject to intensified thermokarst formation and erosion. Consequently, terrestrial organic matter (OM) is mobilized and transported into the nearshore zone. Yet, little is known about the fate of mobilized OM before and after entering the ocean. In this study we investigated a retrogressive thaw slump (RTS) on Qikiqtaruk - Herschel Island (Yukon coast, Canada). The RTS was classified into an undisturbed, a disturbed (thermokarst-affected) and a nearshore zone and sampled systematically along transects. Samples were analyzed for total and dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (TOC, DOC, TN, DN), stable carbon isotopes (δ(13)C-TOC, δ(13)C-DOC), and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), which were compared between the zones. C/N-ratios, δ(13)C signatures, and ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations were used as indicators for OM degradation along with biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-fatty acids, n-alcohols). Our results show that OM significantly decreases after disturbance with a TOC and DOC loss of 77 and 55% and a TN and DN loss of 53 and 48%, respectively. C/N-ratios decrease significantly, whereas NH4-N concentrations slightly increase in freshly thawed material. In the nearshore zone, OM contents are comparable to the disturbed zone. We suggest that the strong decrease in OM is caused by initial dilution with melted massive ice and immediate offshore transport via the thaw stream. In the mudpool and thaw stream, OM is subject to degradation, whereas in the slump floor the nitrogen decrease is caused by recolonizing vegetation. Within the nearshore zone of the ocean, heavier portions of OM are directly buried in marine sediments close to shore. We conclude that RTS have profound impacts on coastal environments in the Arctic. They mobilize nutrients from permafrost, substantially decrease OM contents and provide fresh water and nutrients at a point source.

  19. Exercise preconditioning modulates genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in multiple organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Martins, Renato Almeida; Minari, André Luis; Chaves, Marcelo Donizetti; dos Santos, Ronaldo Wagner Thomatieli; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise in multiple organs of rats treated with doxorubicin. Male adult Wistar rats were distributed into the following groups: sedentary + NaCl; exercise + NaCl; sedentary + doxorubicin; and exercise + doxorubicin. Animals were sacrificed 2 days following injections. Central fragments from heart, liver, and kidney were collected and minced in 0.9% NaCl being cellular suspensions used for the single-cell gel (comet) assay. The results showed that exercise was able to prevent genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in heart cells. By contrast, exercise was not able to prevent genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in liver cells. The same occurred to kidney cells, i.e. no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were found when compared with groups not exposed to doxorubicin. Taken together, our results support the idea that exercise could contribute to the protective effect against genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in heart cells.

  20. Generalized Additive Mixed-Models for Pharmacology Using Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-Culture.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Thomas; Cole, Stephanie; Madren-Whalley, Janna; Booker, Lamont; Dorsey, Russell; Li, Albert; Salem, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-culture (IDMOC) is emerging as an in-vitro alternative to in-vivo animal models for pharmacology studies. IDMOC allows dose-response relationships to be investigated at the tissue and organoid levels, yet, these relationships often exhibit responses that are far more complex than the binary responses often measured in whole animals. To accommodate departure from binary endpoints, IDMOC requires an expansion of analytic techniques beyond simple linear probit and logistic models familiar in toxicology. IDMOC dose-responses may be measured at continuous scales, exhibit significant non-linearity such as local maxima or minima, and may include non-independent measures. Generalized additive mixed-modeling (GAMM) provides an alternative description of dose-response that relaxes assumptions of independence and linearity. We compared GAMMs to traditional linear models for describing dose-response in IDMOC pharmacology studies.

  1. Generalized Additive Mixed-Models for Pharmacology Using Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ingersoll, Thomas; Cole, Stephanie; Madren-Whalley, Janna; Booker, Lamont; Dorsey, Russell; Li, Albert; Salem, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-culture (IDMOC) is emerging as an in-vitro alternative to in-vivo animal models for pharmacology studies. IDMOC allows dose-response relationships to be investigated at the tissue and organoid levels, yet, these relationships often exhibit responses that are far more complex than the binary responses often measured in whole animals. To accommodate departure from binary endpoints, IDMOC requires an expansion of analytic techniques beyond simple linear probit and logistic models familiar in toxicology. IDMOC dose-responses may be measured at continuous scales, exhibit significant non-linearity such as local maxima or minima, and may include non-independent measures. Generalized additive mixed-modeling (GAMM) provides an alternative description of dose-response that relaxes assumptions of independence and linearity. We compared GAMMs to traditional linear models for describing dose-response in IDMOC pharmacology studies. PMID:27110941

  2. The relationship between gut-derived bacteria and the development of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijzen, G A; Deitch, E A; Goris, R J

    1996-01-01

    Abnormal colonisation, infections of gut origin and bacterial translocation are all signs of gut failure that have been hypothesised as being implicated in the pathogenesis of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). We have summarised published experimental and clinical studies that have tried to correlate the occurrence or prevention of these phenomena with the development of MODS. We conclude that in some patients loss of intestinal barrier function or the onset of infection precedes the development of MODS. In other patients, however, this relationship is not so clear and it seems that these are epiphenoma of critical illness and may reflect a failure of the host's immune and mechanical defence systems. The causal relationship between these phenomena and the development of MODS is complex and needs further clarification. PMID:8982828

  3. Persistent inflammatory, immunosuppressed, catabolic syndrome (PICS): A new phenotype of multiple organ failure

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Martin D.; Moore, Frederick A.

    2015-01-01

    A new phenotype of multiple organ failure has appeared: Persistent Inflammatory, Immunosuppressed, Catabolic Syndrome (PICS). Comorbidities and age >65 years have been established as the leading risk factors for PICS. As the percentage of elderly people continues to increase the prevalence of PICS in our ICUs will surely grow. Malnutrition (despite appropriate supplementation), recurrent nosocomial infections, frailty, ventilator dependence, and an indolent death depicts the central theme that plagues PICS patients. Aligned with the recently awarded P50 grant by NIGMS entitled, “PICS: A New Horizon for Surgical Critical Care”, and the University Of Florida’s Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center will investigate the genetic make-up of PICS patients, better understand frailty and the implication in trauma patients, and hopefully elucidate new therapies. Currently, there are no therapies to combat PICS aside from nutritional inference elaborated after reviewing the literature on Burns, Cachexia, and Sarcopenia. PMID:26086042

  4. [Efficiency of emoxipine in treatment of multiple organ failure in newborns].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Minochkin, P I; Volosnikov, D K

    2010-09-01

    Prospective, placebo-controlled, simple "blind" randomized study of the effect of emoxipine (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-oxypyridine hydrochloride) on the dynamics of central hemodynamics, content of lipid peroxidation products in tracheo-bronchial lavage, and severity of clinical sickness was performed in newborn children with multiple organ failures (MOF). The obtained results showed that a 10-day course of the intravenous administration of emoxipine in a single dose of 10 mg/kg improved the systolic function of myocardium of left ventricle, limited lipid peroxidation in broncho-pulmonary system, and increased oxygen delivery to tissues. These effects of emoxipine were accompanied by a clinically significant improvement of neurological status, reduction of the need for artificial ventilation of lungs, and decrease of mortality in newborns with MOF diagnosis.

  5. Mutations in Nonconserved Domains of Ty3 Integrase Affect Multiple Stages of the Ty3 Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Nymark-McMahon, M. Henrietta; Sandmeyer, Suzanne B.

    1999-01-01

    Ty3, a retroviruslike element of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transposes into positions immediately upstream of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes. The Ty3 integrase (IN) protein is required for integration of the replicated, extrachromosomal Ty3 DNA. In retroviral IN, a conserved core region is sufficient for strand transfer activity. In this study, charged-to-alanine scanning mutagenesis was used to investigate the roles of the nonconserved amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of Ty3 IN. Each of the 20 IN mutants was defective for transposition, but no mutant was grossly defective for capsid maturation. All mutations affecting steady-state levels of mature IN protein resulted in reduced levels of replicated DNA, even when polymerase activity was not grossly defective as measured by exogenous reverse transcriptase activity assay. Thus, IN could contribute to nonpolymerase functions required for DNA production in vivo or to the stability of the DNA product. Several mutations in the carboxyl-terminal domain resulted in relatively low levels of processed 3′ ends of the replicated DNA, suggesting that this domain may be important for binding of IN to the long terminal repeat. Another class of mutants produced wild-type amounts of DNA with correctly processed 3′ ends. This class could include mutants affected in nuclear entry and target association. Collectively, these mutations demonstrate that in vivo, within the preintegration complex, IN performs a central role in coordinating multiple late stages of the retrotransposition life cycle. PMID:9847351

  6. Chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects multiple protein-coding genes and can result in severe congenital abnormalities in offspring.

    PubMed

    de Pagter, Mirjam S; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Baas, Annette F; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen J; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Hochstenbach, Ron; van der Veken, Lars T; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard P

    2015-04-02

    Chromothripsis represents an extreme class of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) with major effects on chromosomal architecture. Although recent studies have associated chromothripsis with congenital abnormalities, the incidence and pathogenic effects of this phenomenon require further investigation. Here, we analyzed the genomes of three families in which chromothripsis rearrangements were transmitted from a mother to her child. The chromothripsis in the mothers resulted in completely balanced rearrangements involving 8-23 breakpoint junctions across three to five chromosomes. Two mothers did not show any phenotypic abnormalities, although 3-13 protein-coding genes were affected by breakpoints. Unbalanced but stable transmission of a subset of the derivative chromosomes caused apparently de novo complex copy-number changes in two children. This resulted in gene-dosage changes, which are probably responsible for the severe congenital phenotypes of these two children. In contrast, the third child, who has a severe congenital disease, harbored all three chromothripsis chromosomes from his healthy mother, but one of the chromosomes acquired de novo rearrangements leading to copy-number changes. These results show that the human genome can tolerate extreme reshuffling of chromosomal architecture, including breakage of multiple protein-coding genes, without noticeable phenotypic effects. The presence of chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects reproduction and is expected to substantially increase the risk of miscarriages, abortions, and severe congenital disease.

  7. Multiple system organ response induced by hyperoxia in a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, Raquel; Martín-Barrasa, José Luis; Ramos-Nuez, Ángela; Cañas-Pedrosa, Ana María; Martínez-Saavedra, María Teresa; García-Bello, Miguel Ángel; López-Aguilar, Josefina; Baluja, Aurora; Álvarez, Julián; Slutsky, Arthur S; Villar, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Oxygen therapy is currently used as a supportive treatment in septic patients to improve tissue oxygenation. However, oxygen can exert deleterious effects on the inflammatory response triggered by infection. We postulated that the use of high oxygen concentrations may be partially responsible for the worsening of sepsis-induced multiple system organ dysfunction in an experimental clinically relevant model of sepsis. We used Sprague-Dawley rats. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Sham-septic controls (n = 16) and septic animals (n = 32) were randomly assigned to four groups and placed in a sealed Plexiglas cage continuously flushed for 24 h with medical air (group 1), 40% oxygen (group 2), 60% oxygen (group 3), or 100% oxygen (group 4). We examined the effects of these oxygen concentrations on the spread of infection in blood, urine, peritoneal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage, and meninges; serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers and reactive oxygen species production; and hematological parameters in all experimental groups. In cecal ligation and puncture animals, the use of higher oxygen concentrations was associated with a greater number of infected biological samples (P < 0.0001), higher serum levels of interleukin-6 (P < 0.0001), interleukin-10 (P = 0.033), and tumor necrosis factor-α (P = 0.034), a marked decrease in platelet counts (P < 0.001), and a marked elevation of reactive oxygen species serum levels (P = 0.0006) after 24 h of oxygen exposure. Oxygen therapy greatly influences the progression and clinical manifestation of multiple system organ dysfunction in experimental sepsis. If these results are extrapolated to humans, they suggest that oxygen therapy should be carefully managed in septic patients to minimize its deleterious effects.

  8. Multiple descent cost competition: restorable self-organization and multimedia information processing.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Y

    1998-01-01

    Multiple descent cost competition is a composition of learning phases for minimizing a given measure of total performance, i.e., cost. If these phases are heterogeneous toward each other, the total learning algorithm shows a variety of extraordinary abilities; especially in regards to multimedia information processing. In the first phase of descent cost learning, elements of source data are grouped. Simultaneously, a weight vector for minimal learning, (i.e., a winner), is found. Then, the winner and its partners are updated for further cost reduction. Therefore, two classes of self-organizing feature maps are generated. One is called a grouping feature map, which partitions the source data. The other is an ordinary weight vector feature map. The grouping feature map, together with the winners, retains most of the source data information. This feature map is able to assist in a high quality approximation of the original data. Traditional weight vector feature maps lack this ability. Another important capacity of the grouping feature map is that it can change its shape. Thus, the grouping pattern can accept external directions in order to metamorphose. In the text, the total algorithm of the multiple descent cost competition is explained first. In that section, image processing concepts are introduced in order to assist in the description of this algorithm. Then, a still image is first data-compressed (DC). Next, a restored image is morphed using the grouping feature map by receiving directions given by an external intelligence. Next, an interpolation of frames is applied in order to complete animation coding (AC). Thus, multiple descent cost competition bridges "DC to AC." Examples of multimedia processing on virtual digital movies are given.

  9. Pericytes of Multiple Organs Do Not Behave as Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Camboa, Nuno; Cattaneo, Paola; Sun, Yunfu; Moore-Morris, Thomas; Gu, Yusu; Dalton, Nancy D; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer; Peterson, Kirk L; Stallcup, William B; Chen, Ju; Evans, Sylvia M

    2017-03-02

    Pericytes are widely believed to function as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), multipotent tissue-resident progenitors with great potential for regenerative medicine. Cultured pericytes isolated from distinct tissues can differentiate into multiple cell types in vitro or following transplantation in vivo. However, the cell fate plasticity of endogenous pericytes in vivo remains unclear. Here, we show that the transcription factor Tbx18 selectively marks pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells in multiple organs of adult mouse. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-purified Tbx18-expressing cells behaved as MSCs in vitro. However, lineage-tracing experiments using an inducible Tbx18-CreERT2 line revealed that pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells maintained their identity in aging and diverse pathological settings and did not significantly contribute to other cell lineages. These results challenge the current view of endogenous pericytes as multipotent tissue-resident progenitors and suggest that the plasticity observed in vitro or following transplantation in vivo arises from artificial cell manipulations ex vivo.

  10. Transcription factor organic cation transporter 1 (OCT-1) affects the expression of porcine Klotho (KL) gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiawei

    2016-01-01

    Klotho (KL), originally discovered as an aging suppressor, is a membrane protein that shares sequence similarity with the β-glucosidase enzymes. Recent reports showed Klotho might play a role in adipocyte maturation and systemic glucose metabolism. However, little is known about the transcription factors involved in regulating the expression of porcine KL gene. Deletion fragment analysis identified KL-D2 (−418 bp to −3 bp) as the porcine KL core promoter. MARC0022311SNP (A or G) in KL intron 1 was detected in Landrace × DIV pigs using the Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. The pGL-D2-A and pGL-D2-G were constructed with KL-D2 and the intron fragment of different alleles and relative luciferase activity of pGL3-D2-G was significantly higher than that of pGL3-D2-A in the PK cells and ST cells. This was possibly the result of a change in KL binding ability with transcription factor organic cation transporter 1 (OCT-1), which was confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP). Moreover, OCT-1 regulated endogenous KL expression by RNA interference experiments. Our study indicates SNP MARC0022311 affects porcine KL expression by regulating its promoter activity via OCT-1. PMID:27478698

  11. Non-defendable resources affect peafowl lek organization: a male removal experiment.

    PubMed

    Loyau, Adeline; Jalme, Michel Saint; Sorci, Gabriele

    2007-01-10

    A lekking mating system is typically thought to be non-resource based with male providing nothing to females but genes. However, males are thought to clump their display sites on areas where they are more likely to encounter females, which may depend on non-defendable resource location. We tested this hypothesis on a feral population of peacocks. In agreement, we found that, within the lek, display site proximity to food resources had an effect on female visitation rate and male mating success. The attractiveness of display sites to male intruders was explained by the distance to the feeding place and by the female visitation rate. We randomly removed 29 territorial males from their display sites. Display sites that were more attractive to male intruders before removal remained highly attractive after removal and display sites closer to the feeding area attracted the attention of intruders significantly more after removal. Similarly, display sites that were more visited by females before removal remained more visited after removal, suggesting again that the likelihood of encountering females is determined by the display site location. Overall, these results are in agreement with non-defendable resources affecting lek spatial organization in the peafowl.

  12. An Arabidopsis Stomatin-Like Protein Affects Mitochondrial Respiratory Supercomplex Organization1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gehl, Bernadette; Lee, Chun Pong; Bota, Pedro; Blatt, Michael R.; Sweetlove, Lee J.

    2014-01-01

    Stomatins belong to the band-7 protein family, a diverse group of conserved eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane proteins involved in the formation of large protein complexes as protein-lipid scaffolds. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome contains two paralogous genes encoding stomatin-like proteins (SLPs; AtSLP1 and AtSLP2) that are phylogenetically related to human SLP2, a protein involved in mitochondrial fusion and protein complex formation in the mitochondrial inner membrane. We used reverse genetics in combination with biochemical methods to investigate the function of AtSLPs. We demonstrate that both SLPs localize to mitochondrial membranes. SLP1 migrates as a large (approximately 3 MDa) complex in blue-native gel electrophoresis. Remarkably, slp1 knockout mutants have reduced protein and activity levels of complex I and supercomplexes, indicating that SLP affects the assembly and/or stability of these complexes. These findings point to a role for SLP1 in the organization of respiratory supercomplexes in Arabidopsis. PMID:24424325

  13. FODA: a novel efficient multiple access protocol for highly dynamic self-organizing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hantao; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jun

    2005-11-01

    Based on the concept of contention reservation for polling transmission and collision prevention strategy for collision resolution, a fair on-demand access (FODA) protocol for supporting node mobility and multihop architecture in highly dynamic self-organizing networks is proposed. In the protocol, a distributed clustering network architecture formed by self-organizing algorithm and a main idea of reserving channel resources to get polling service are adopted, so that the hidden terminal (HT) and exposed terminal (ET) problems existed in traffic transmission due to multihop architecture and wireless transmission can be eliminated completely. In addition, an improved collision prevention scheme based on binary countdown algorithm (BCA), called fair collision prevention (FCP) algorithm, is proposed to greatly eliminate unfair phenomena existed in contention access of newly active ordinary nodes and completely resolve access collisions. Finally, the performance comparison of the FODA protocol with carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and polling protocols by OPNET simulation are presented. Simulation results show that the FODA protocol can overcome the disadvantages of CSMA/CA and polling protocols, and achieve higher throughput, lower average message delay and less average message dropping rate.

  14. Primed neutrophil infiltrations into multiple organs in child physical abuse cases: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahito; Nakamae, Takuma; Higo, Eri; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Ogata, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    Physical abuse of the elderly induces a massive primed neutrophil infiltration into the lung and liver through chemotaxis by interleukin (IL)-8, similar to cases of traumatic or hemorrhagic shock. Here, we used immunohistochemical analyses to investigate this infiltration in cases of physically abused children. In addition, we examined the expression of neutrophil elastase (NE) as the inflammatory mediator and α1-antitrypsin (AAT) as the elastase inhibitor. The number of neutrophils in the abuse cases was increased significantly in the heart, lung, liver, and kidney, compared with that of control cases. IL-8-positive cells and NE-positive cells in all organs of abuse cases were significantly greater than those in control cases. Large quantities of oxidized AAT, which fails to inactivate NE and results in tissue damage, was detected in the liver of abuse cases. Neutrophil infiltration showed positive correlation with the degree of systemic accumulation of non-fatal injuries caused by repetitive abusive behavior. Although further investigation using more autopsy samples is necessary, results of our preliminary study indicate that massive neutrophil infiltration induced by IL-8 in multiple organs is a new complementary diagnostic indicator of physical abuse in children. Moreover, the demonstration of NE-positive cells and oxidized AAT provides firm evidence of tissue damage.

  15. Sepsis, systemic inflammatory response, and multiple organ dysfunction: the mystery continues.

    PubMed

    Fry, Donald E

    2012-01-01

    Human sepsis is thought to be systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that is activated by invasive infection. The multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is the identified failure of critical organ function in patients that have sustained SIRS. Because SIRS and MODS are consequences of the excessive activation of inflammation, extensive research and numerous clinical trials have pursued treatments that would modify the inflammatory response. This presentation reviews the normal local mechanisms of inflammation and provides a theoretical framework for the transition of the inflammatory process to a systemic level. Clinical trials with biomodulators to block or inhibit inflammation have generally failed to improve the outcomes in patients with severe sepsis, septic shock, and MODS. The role of counter-inflammatory signaling and the newer concept of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway are being investigated, and newer hypotheses are focusing upon the balancing of proinflammatory and counter-inflammatory mechanisms as important directions for newer therapies. It is concluded that failure to define novel and effective treatments reflects fundamental gaps in our understanding of inflammation and its regulation.

  16. Multiple organ damage caused by tumor necrosis factor and prevented by prior neutrophil depletion.

    PubMed

    Mallick, A A; Ishizaka, A; Stephens, K E; Hatherill, J R; Tazelaar, H D; Raffin, T A

    1989-05-01

    The effect of TNF on nonpulmonary multiple organ damage (MOD) was studied. Since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are thought to play an important role in septic or TNF-induced MOD, we investigated both neutrophil sufficient (PMN+) and neutropenic (PMN-) guinea pigs. Sepsis was induced by Escherichia coli administration (2 x 10(9)/kg) or recombinant human TNF (1.4 x 10(6) U/kg) was infused into PMN+ and PMN- guinea pigs. During necropsy, the PMN+/TNF and PMN+/E coli animals exhibited marked damage in the adrenal glands, kidneys and liver as evidenced by hemorrhage, congestion, and PMN sequestration on histopathologic examination. There was also increased tissue albumin accumulation in the adrenal glands, kidneys, spleen, heart, and liver as demonstrated by 125I-labeled albumin determinations. In contrast, the PMN-/TNF group did not reveal histopathologic damage in any organ system and there was no abnormal organ accumulation of 125I-albumin. However, in PMN-/E coli animals, marked histopathologic damage in the adrenal glands and liver was evident. Furthermore, there were marked accumulations of 125I-albumin in the adrenals, heart, kidneys, liver, and spleen. Moreover, the PMN-/E coli guinea pigs had a much greater accumulation (p less than 0.01) of 125I-albumin in the kidneys than any other group including the PMN+/E coli group. Thus, nonpulmonary MOD in guinea pigs is caused by TNF administration and can be prevented by PMN depletion. However, while E coli administration also caused marked nonpulmonary MOD in neutrophil sufficient guinea pigs, equivalent or greater damage was produced in neutropenic animals. This suggests that while TNF-induced MOD may be primarily mediated by PMN, E coli-induced MOD seems to be mediated by more than PMN.

  17. Hierarchical pictorial structures for simultaneously localizing multiple organs in volumetric pre-scan CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montillo, Albert; Song, Qi; Das, Bipul; Yin, Zhye

    2015-03-01

    Parsing volumetric computed tomography (CT) into 10 or more salient organs simultaneously is a challenging task with many applications such as personalized scan planning and dose reporting. In the clinic, pre-scan data can come in the form of very low dose volumes acquired just prior to the primary scan or from an existing primary scan. To localize organs in such diverse data, we propose a new learning based framework that we call hierarchical pictorial structures (HPS) which builds multiple levels of models in a tree-like hierarchy that mirrors the natural decomposition of human anatomy from gross structures to finer structures. Each node of our hierarchical model learns (1) the local appearance and shape of structures, and (2) a generative global model that learns probabilistic, structural arrangement. Our main contribution is twofold. First we embed the pictorial structures approach in a hierarchical framework which reduces test time image interpretation and allows for the incorporation of additional geometric constraints that robustly guide model fitting in the presence of noise. Second we guide our HPS framework with the probabilistic cost maps extracted using random decision forests using volumetric 3D HOG features which makes our model fast to train and fast to apply to novel test data and posses a high degree of invariance to shape distortion and imaging artifacts. All steps require approximate 3 mins to compute and all organs are located with suitably high accuracy for our clinical applications such as personalized scan planning for radiation dose reduction. We assess our method using a database of volumetric CT scans from 81 subjects with widely varying age and pathology and with simulated ultra-low dose cadaver pre-scan data.

  18. Multiple organ damage caused by tumor necrosis factor and prevented by prior neutrophil depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, A.A.; Ishizaka, A.; Stephens, K.E.; Hatherill, J.R.; Tazelaar, H.D.; Raffin, T.A. )

    1989-05-01

    The effect of TNF on nonpulmonary multiple organ damage (MOD) was studied. Since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are thought to play an important role in septic or TNF-induced MOD, we investigated both neutrophil sufficient (PMN+) and neutropenic (PMN-) guinea pigs. Sepsis was induced by Escherichia coli administration (2 x 10(9)/kg) or recombinant human TNF (1.4 x 10(6) U/kg) was infused into PMN+ and PMN- guinea pigs. During necropsy, the PMN+/TNF and PMN+/E coli animals exhibited marked damage in the adrenal glands, kidneys and liver as evidenced by hemorrhage, congestion, and PMN sequestration on histopathologic examination. There was also increased tissue albumin accumulation in the adrenal glands, kidneys, spleen, heart, and liver as demonstrated by {sup 125}I-labeled albumin determinations. In contrast, the PMN-/TNF group did not reveal histopathologic damage in any organ system and there was no abnormal organ accumulation of {sup 125}I-albumin. However, in PMN-/E coli animals, marked histopathologic damage in the adrenal glands and liver was evident. Furthermore, there were marked accumulations of {sup 125}I-albumin in the adrenals, heart, kidneys, liver, and spleen. Moreover, the PMN-/E coli guinea pigs had a much greater accumulation (p less than 0.01) of {sup 125}I-albumin in the kidneys than any other group including the PMN+/E coli group. Thus, nonpulmonary MOD in guinea pigs is caused by TNF administration and can be prevented by PMN depletion. However, while E coli administration also caused marked nonpulmonary MOD in neutrophil sufficient guinea pigs, equivalent or greater damage was produced in neutropenic animals. This suggests that while TNF-induced MOD may be primarily mediated by PMN, E coli-induced MOD seems to be mediated by more than PMN.

  19. Challenges facing translational research organizations in China: a qualitative multiple case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Translational medicine is attracting much attention worldwide and many translational research organizations (TROs) have been established. In China, translational medicine has developed rapidly, but faces many challenges. This study was aimed at exploring these challenges faced by emerging TROs in China. Method A qualitative, multiple case study approach was used to assess the challenges faced by TROs in China. Data were collected between May and August 2012. Results Eight cases were identified. Overall, four themes that characterized TROs in China emerged from analyses: 1. objectives, organizer, and funding resources, 2. participating partners and research teams, 3. management, and 4. achievements. All TROs had objectives related to translating basic discovery to clinic treatment and cultivating translational researchers. In terms of organizer and funding resources, 7 out of 8 TROs were launched only by universities and/or hospitals, and funded mostly through research grants. As for participating partners and multidisciplinary research teams, all but one of the TROs only involved biomedical research institutions who were interested in translational research, and characterized as clinical research centers; 7 out of 8 TROs involved only researchers from biomedicine and clinical disciplines and none involved disciplines related to education, ethnicity, and sociology, or engaged the community. Current management of the TROs were generally nested within the traditional research management paradigms, and failed to adapt to the tenets of translational research. Half of the TROs were at developmental stages defined as infrastructure construction and recruitment of translational researchers. Conclusions TROs in China face the challenge of attracting sustainable funding sources, widening multidisciplinary cooperation, cultivating multi-disciplinary translational researchers and adapting current research management to translational research. Greater emphasis should

  20. Exudation of organic acids by Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius as affected by phosphorus supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In phytomining and phytoremediation research mixed cultures of bioenergy crops with legumes hold promise to enhance availability of trace metals and metalloids in the soil plant system. This is due to the ability of certain legumes to mobilize trace elements during acquisition of nutrients making these elements available for co-cultured species. The legumes achieve this element mobilization by exudating carboxylates and enzymes as well as by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. The aim of our research was to determine characteristics and differences in the exudation of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius regarding to quantitative as to qualitative aspects. Especially the affection by phosphorus (P) supply was a point of interest. Thus we conducted laboratory batch experiments, wherein the plants were grown over four weeks under controlled light, moisture and nutritional conditions on sand as substrate. Half of the plants were supplied with 12 mg P per kg substrate, the other half were cultivated under a total lack of P. After cultivation the plants were transferred from the cultivation substrate into a 0,05 mmolṡL-1 CaCl2 solution. After two hours the plants were removed, moist and dry mass off shoots and roots were measured together with the root length (Tennants' method). Concentrations of exudated carboxylates in the CaCl2 solution were determined via IC (column: Metrosept OrganicAcids, eluent 0.5 molṡL-1 H2SO4 + 15% acetone, pH=3; 0.5 mLṡmin-1). As a result four different organic acids were identified (citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid) in concentration ranges of 0.15 mgṡL-1 (fumaric acid) to 9.21 mgṡL-1 (citric acid). Lupinus angustifolius showed a higher exudation rate (in nmol per cm root length per hour) than Lupinus albus in the presence of phosphorus (e.g. regarding citric acid: 1.99 vs 0.64 nmolṡ(gṡh)-1). However, as the root complexity and length of L. albus were far higher than of L. angustifolius, the total

  1. Planarity and multiple components promote organic photovoltaic efficiency by improving electronic transport.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Matthew B; Reid, Daniel; de Pablo, Juan; Galli, Giulia

    2016-11-23

    Establishing how the conformation of organic photovoltaic (OPV) polymers affects their electronic and transport properties is critical in order to determine design rules for new OPV materials and in particular to understand the performance enhancements recently reported for ternary blends. We report coupled classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showing that polymer linkage twisting significantly reduces optical absorption efficiency, as well as hole transport rates in donor polymers. We predict that blends with components favoring planar geometries contribute to the enhancement of the overall efficiency of ternary OPVs. Furthermore, our electronic structure calculations for the PTB7-PID2-PC71BM system show that hole transfer rates are enhanced in ternary blends with respect to their binary counterpart. Finally, our results point at thermal disorder in the blend as a key reason responsible for device voltage losses and at the need to carry out electronic structure calculations at finite temperature to reliably compare with experiments.

  2. Cinacalcet therapy in patients affected by primary hyperparathyroidism associated to Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome type 1 (MEN1).

    PubMed

    Giusti, Francesca; Cianferotti, Luisella; Gronchi, Giorgio; Cioppi, Federica; Masi, Laura; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Colao, Annamaria; Ferolla, Piero; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-06-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is the main endocrinopathy associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome. Cinacalcet is a calcimimetic agent licensed for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with end-stage renal disease, and for the reduction of marked hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma and sporadic hyperparathyroidism requiring surgery but for whom parathyroidectomy is contraindicated. It may provide a medical alternative for the management of primary hyperparathyroidism in subjects affected by Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1. In this longitudinal, intervention study, 33 MEN1 patients had been enrolled, 10 males and 23 females with a mean age of 40 ± 11.9 years, range 20-63. Primary hyperparathyroidism was the first clinical manifestation in 12 patients. All subjects commenced with Cinacalcet 30 mg/day, 22 patients starting therapy with calcimimetics as an alternative to surgery, and 11 patients opting for the medication after the onset of persistent post-surgical primary hyperparathyroidism. Duration of follow-up was 12 months. The results of this study show significant reductions in serum calcium. The changes in hormonal secretions of pituitary and gastroenteropancreatic glands were not significant, demonstrating the overall safety of this drug in this disease. Cinacalcet has been well tolerated by 28 patients, whereas five individuals complained of heartburn and grade 1 nausea, which did not prevent the completion of the study. In conclusion, Cinacalcet has resulted to be well tolerated and safe in patients with MEN1 syndrome and the calcium homeostasis was stabilized.

  3. Literature Review and Global Consensus on Management of Acute Radiation Syndrome Affecting Nonhematopoietic Organ Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dainiak, Nicholas; Gent, Robert Nicolas; Carr, Zhanat; Schneider, Rita; Bader, Judith; Buglova, Elena; Chao, Nelson; Coleman, C. Norman; Ganser, Arnold; Gorin, Claude; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Huff, L. Andrew; Lillis-Hearne, Patricia; Maekawa, Kazuhiko; Nemhauser, Jeffrey; Powles, Ray; Schünemann, Holger; Shapiro, Alla; Stenke, Leif; Valverde, Nelson; Weinstock, David; White, Douglas; Albanese, Joseph; Meineke, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The World Health Organization convened a panel of experts to rank the evidence for medical countermeasures for management of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in a hypothetical scenario involving the hospitalization of 100 to 200 victims. The goal of this panel was to achieve consensus on optimal management of ARS affecting nonhematopoietic organ systems based upon evidence in the published literature. Methods English-language articles were identified in MEDLINE and PubMed. Reference lists of retrieved articles were distributed to conferees in advance of and updated during the meeting. Published case series and case reports of ARS, publications of randomized controlled trials of relevant interventions used to treat nonirradiated individuals, reports of studies in irradiated animals, and prior recommendations of subject matter experts were selected. Studies were extracted using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation system. In cases in which data were limited or incomplete, a narrative review of the observations was made. Results No randomized controlled trials of medical countermeasures have been completed for individuals with ARS. Reports of countermeasures were often incompletely described, making it necessary to rely on data generated in nonirradiated humans and in experimental animals. A strong recommendation is made for the administration of a serotonin-receptor antagonist prophylactically when the suspected exposure is >2 Gy and topical steroids, antibiotics, and antihistamines for radiation burns, ulcers, or blisters; excision and grafting of radiation ulcers or necrosis with intractable pain; provision of supportive care to individuals with neurovascular syndrome; and administration of electrolyte replacement therapy and sedatives to individuals with significant burns, hypovolemia, and/ orshock. A strong recommendation is made against the use of systemic steroids in the absence of a specific indication. A weak

  4. Salinity affects microbial activity and soil organic matter content in tidal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Ember M; Gillespie, Jaimie L; Morina, Joseph C; Franklin, Rima B

    2014-04-01

    Climate change-associated sea level rise is expected to cause saltwater intrusion into many historically freshwater ecosystems. Of particular concern are tidal freshwater wetlands, which perform several important ecological functions including carbon sequestration. To predict the impact of saltwater intrusion in these environments, we must first gain a better understanding of how salinity regulates decomposition in natural systems. This study sampled eight tidal wetlands ranging from freshwater to oligohaline (0-2 ppt) in four rivers near the Chesapeake Bay (Virginia). To help isolate salinity effects, sites were selected to be highly similar in terms of plant community composition and tidal influence. Overall, salinity was found to be strongly negatively correlated with soil organic matter content (OM%) and C : N, but unrelated to the other studied environmental parameters (pH, redox, and above- and below-ground plant biomass). Partial correlation analysis, controlling for these environmental covariates, supported direct effects of salinity on the activity of carbon-degrading extracellular enzymes (β-1, 4-glucosidase, 1, 4-β-cellobiosidase, β-D-xylosidase, and phenol oxidase) as well as alkaline phosphatase, using a per unit OM basis. As enzyme activity is the putative rate-limiting step in decomposition, enhanced activity due to salinity increases could dramatically affect soil OM accumulation. Salinity was also found to be positively related to bacterial abundance (qPCR of the 16S rRNA gene) and tightly linked with community composition (T-RFLP). Furthermore, strong relationships were found between bacterial abundance and/or composition with the activity of specific enzymes (1, 4-β-cellobiosidase, arylsulfatase, alkaline phosphatase, and phenol oxidase) suggesting salinity's impact on decomposition could be due, at least in part, to its effect on the bacterial community. Together, these results indicate that salinity increases microbial decomposition rates

  5. [Factors affecting formation of THMs during dissolved organic nitrogen acetamide chlorination in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Chu, Wen-Hai; Gao, Nai-Yun; Zhao, Shi-Jia; Li, Qing-Song

    2009-05-15

    Chlorination disinfection greatly reduced bacteria and virus in drinking water. However, there is an unintended consequence of disinfection, the generation of chemical disinfection by-products (DBPs). Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) as the important precursor of DBPs is of current concern. As acetamide (AcAm) occur in important bimolecular, we studied formation pathways for THMs during chlorination of model AcAm. The experiments are designed by Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken methods. Factors affecting formation of THMs such as AcAm initial concentration, chlorine dosage, pH, temperature, Br(-) concentration and contact time were investigated. The results indicate that AcAm initial concentration, pH and temperature have little effects on formation of THMs. On the contrary, three other factors have important effects on formation of THMs, especially Br(-) concentration. The capacity of THMs generation varies very little when Br(-) has a constant concentration. Generation amount of THMs attach maximum under the condition that dosage of active chlorine, Br(-) concentration and contact time is 8.77 mg/L, 0.77 mg/L and 6.20 h respectively. Bromine ion plays a catalysis role on THMs formation. Controlling the concentration of bromine ion can reduce total generation amount of THMs via AcAm. Bromine partition coefficient tends to increasing along with contact time lapse. Controlling chlorination reaction time can lower the cancer risk. At last, the pathway is proposed for THMs formation via AcAm, and the catalysis mechanism of Br(-) was addressed.

  6. Screening of genotoxicity and mutagenicity in extractable organics from oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zetouni, Nikolas C; Siraki, Arno G; Weinfeld, Michael; Pereira, Alberto Dos Santos; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-11-01

    Large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are produced by the oil sands surface mining industry during alkaline hot-water extraction of bitumen. It is well documented that the acid extractable organics (AEOs) in OSPW, a highly complex mixture of acidic and polar neutral substances, are acutely toxic; but few studies have examined the genotoxicity or mutagenicity of this mixture. In the present study, the in vitro SOS Chromotest and the Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) were used to evaluate genotoxicity and mutagenicity for whole OSPW AEOs in the presence and absence of biotransformation by rat S9 liver enzymes. Two subfractions were also examined in the same assays: neutral extractable fraction (F1-NE), and the subsequent acid extractable fraction (F2-AE). In the SOS assay, whole AEO was cytotoxic when concentrated 2× (i.e., twice as concentrated as the environmental sample) and showed increasing genotoxic response above 6×. Co-exposure with S9 had a protective effect on the cell SOS-inducing factor and survival but did not eliminate genotoxicity above 6× concentrations. Most of the cytotoxicity was attributable to F2-AE, but both F1-NE and F2-AE had similar genotoxic dose-responses above 6×. In the Ames test without S9, whole AEO was mutagenic in both strains above 10× concentrations. Co-incubation with S9 had little effect on the TA100 strain but with TA98 resulted in bioactivation at midlevel doses (1.5-6.3×) and protection at higher doses (10-25×). The 2 subfractions were mutagenic in both strains but with different dose-responses. Further research in vivo or in more relevant cells is warranted to investigate the carcinogenic risks of OSPW. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-8. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Assessment of advective porewater movement affecting mass transfer of hydrophobic organic contaminants in marine intertidal sediment.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Werner, David; Moffett, Kevan B; Luthy, Richard G

    2010-08-01

    Advective porewater movement and molecular diffusion are important factors affecting the mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in marsh and mudflat sediments. This study assessed porewater movement in an intertidal mudflat in South Basin adjacent to Hunters Point Shipyard, San Francisco, CA, where a pilot-scale test of sorbent amendment assessed the in situ stabilization of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To quantify advective porewater movement within the top 0-60 cm sediment layer, we used temperature as a tracer and conducted heat transport analysis using 14-day data from multidepth sediment temperature logging stations and one-dimensional heat transport simulations. The best-fit conditions gave an average Darcy velocity of 3.8cm/d in the downward vertical direction for sorbent-amended sediment with a plausible range of 0 cm/d to 8 cm/d. In a limiting case with no net advection, the best-fit depth-averaged mechanical dispersion coefficient was 2.2x10(-7) m2/s with a range of 0.9x10(-7) m2/s to 5.6x10(-7) m2/s. The Peclet number for PCB mobilization showed that molecular diffusion would control PCB mass transfer from sediment to sorbent particles for the case of uniform distribution of sorbent. However, the advective flow and mechanical dispersion in the test site would significantly benefit the stabilization effect of heterogeneously distributed sorbent by acting to smooth out the heterogeneities and homogenizing pollutant concentrations across the entire bioactive zone. These measurements and modeling techniques on intertidal sediment porewater transport could be useful for the development of more reliable mass transfer models for the prediction of contaminant release within the sediment bed, the movement of HOCs in the intertidal aquatic environment, and in situ sequestration by sorbent addition.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING REDUCTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN ANOXIC SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reductive transformations are important processes for determining the fate of organic pollutants in anoxic environments. These processes are most often microbially mediated by both direct and indirect means. For example, specific bacteria transform organic pollutants directly as ...

  9. Biological control of soilborne diseases in organic potato production as affected by varying environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne diseases are persistent problems in potato production and alternative management practices are needed, particularly in organic production, where control options are limited. Selected biocontrol organisms, including two naturally-occurring hypovirulent strains of Rhizoctonia solani (Rhs1a1 ...

  10. Prey dispersal rate affects prey species composition and trait diversity in response to multiple predators in metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Howeth, Jennifer G; Leibold, Mathew A

    2010-09-01

    1. Recent studies indicate that large-scale spatial processes can alter local community structuring mechanisms to determine local and regional assemblages of predators and their prey. In metacommunities, this may occur when the functional diversity represented in the regional predator species pool interacts with the rate of prey dispersal among local communities to affect prey species diversity and trait composition at multiple scales. 2. Here, we test for effects of prey dispersal rate and spatially and temporally heterogeneous predation from functionally dissimilar predators on prey structure in pond mesocosm metacommunities. An experimental metacommunity consisted of three pond mesocosm communities supporting two differentially size-selective invertebrate predators and their zooplankton prey. In each metacommunity, two communities maintained constant predation and supported either Gyrinus sp. (Coleoptera) or Notonecta ungulata (Hemiptera) predators generating a spatial prey refuge while the third community supported alternating predation from Gyrinus sp. and N. ungulata generating a temporal prey refuge. Mesocosm metacommunities were connected at either low (0.7% day(-1)) or high (10% day(-1)) planktonic prey dispersal. The diversity, composition and body size of zooplankton prey were measured at local and regional (metacommunity) scales. 3. Metacommunities experiencing the low prey dispersal rate supported the greatest regional prey species diversity (H') and evenness (J'). Neither dispersal rate nor predation regime affected local prey diversity or evenness. The spatial prey refuge at low dispersal maintained the largest difference in species composition and body size diversity between communities under Gyrinus and Notonecta predation, suggesting that species sorting was operating at the low dispersal rate. There was no effect of dispersal rate on species diversity or body size distribution in the temporal prey refuge. 4. The frequency distribution, but not

  11. CO2 and nutrient-driven changes across multiple levels of organization in Zostera noltii ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Crego, B.; Olivé, I.; Santos, R.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing evidence emphasizes that the effects of human impacts on ecosystems must be investigated using designs that incorporate the responses across levels of biological organization as well as the effects of multiple stressors. Here we implemented a mesocosm experiment to investigate how the individual and interactive effects of CO2 enrichment and eutrophication scale-up from changes in primary producers at the individual (biochemistry) or population level (production, reproduction, and/or abundance) to higher levels of community (macroalgae abundance, herbivory, and global metabolism), and ecosystem organization (detritus release and carbon sink capacity). The responses of Zostera noltii seagrass meadows growing in low- and high-nutrient field conditions were compared. In both meadows, the expected CO2 benefits on Z. noltii leaf production were suppressed by epiphyte overgrowth, with no direct CO2 effect on plant biochemistry or population-level traits. Multi-level meadow response to nutrients was faster and stronger than to CO2. Nutrient enrichment promoted the nutritional quality of Z. noltii (high N, low C : N and phenolics), the growth of epiphytic pennate diatoms and purple bacteria, and shoot mortality. In the low-nutrient meadow, individual effects of CO2 and nutrients separately resulted in reduced carbon storage in the sediment, probably due to enhanced microbial degradation of more labile organic matter. These changes, however, had no effect on herbivory or on community metabolism. Interestingly, individual effects of CO2 or nutrient addition on epiphytes, shoot mortality, and carbon storage were attenuated when nutrients and CO2 acted simultaneously. This suggests CO2-induced benefits on eutrophic meadows. In the high-nutrient meadow, a striking shoot decline caused by amphipod overgrazing masked the response to CO2 and nutrient additions. Our results reveal that under future scenarios of CO2, the responses of seagrass ecosystems will be complex and

  12. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 μg/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 μg/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production

  13. The Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237 affects multiple mitotic processes and induces dose-dependent mitotic abnormalities and aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Asteriti, Italia Anna; Di Cesare, Erica; De Mattia, Fabiola; Hilsenstein, Volker; Neumann, Beate; Cundari, Enrico; Lavia, Patrizia; Guarguaglini, Giulia

    2014-08-15

    Inhibition of Aurora kinase activity by small molecules is being actively investigated as a potential anti-cancer strategy. A successful therapeutic use of Aurora inhibitors relies on a comprehensive understanding of the effects of inactivating Aurora kinases on cell division, a challenging aim given the pleiotropic roles of those kinases during mitosis. Here we have used the Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237, currently under phase-I/III clinical trials, in dose-response assays in U2OS human cancer cells synchronously proceeding towards mitosis. By following the behaviour and fate of single Aurora-inhibited cells in mitosis by live microscopy, we show that MLN8237 treatment affects multiple processes that are differentially sensitive to the loss of Aurora-A function. A role of Aurora-A in controlling the orientation of cell division emerges. MLN8237 treatment, even in high doses, fails to induce efficient elimination of dividing cells, or of their progeny, while inducing significant aneuploidy in daughter cells. The results of single-cell analyses show a complex cellular response to MLN8237 and evidence that its effects are strongly dose-dependent: these issues deserve consideration in the light of the design of strategies to kill cancer cells via inhibition of Aurora kinases.

  14. The Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237 affects multiple mitotic processes and induces dose-dependent mitotic abnormalities and aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Asteriti, Italia Anna; Cesare, Erica Di; Mattia, Fabiola De; Hilsenstein, Volker; Neumann, Beate; Cundari, Enrico; Lavia, Patrizia; Guarguaglini, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Aurora kinase activity by small molecules is being actively investigated as a potential anti-cancer strategy. A successful therapeutic use of Aurora inhibitors relies on a comprehensive understanding of the effects of inactivating Aurora kinases on cell division, a challenging aim given the pleiotropic roles of those kinases during mitosis. Here we have used the Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237, currently under phase-I/III clinical trials, in dose-response assays in U2OS human cancer cells synchronously proceeding towards mitosis. By following the behaviour and fate of single Aurora-inhibited cells in mitosis by live microscopy, we show that MLN8237 treatment affects multiple processes that are differentially sensitive to the loss of Aurora-A function. A role of Aurora-A in controlling the orientation of cell division emerges. MLN8237 treatment, even in high doses, fails to induce efficient elimination of dividing cells, or of their progeny, while inducing significant aneuploidy in daughter cells. The results of single-cell analyses show a complex cellular response to MLN8237 and evidence that its effects are strongly dose-dependent: these issues deserve consideration in the light of the design of strategies to kill cancer cells via inhibition of Aurora kinases. PMID:25153724

  15. A non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with multiple sclerosis risk affects the EVI5 interactome

    PubMed Central

    Didonna, Alessandro; Isobe, Noriko; Caillier, Stacy J.; Li, Kathy H.; Burlingame, Alma L.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Baranzini, Sergio E.; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress in the characterization of genetic loci associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk, the ubiquitous linkage disequilibrium operating across the genome has stalled efforts to distinguish causative variants from proxy single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Here, we have identified through fine mapping and meta-analysis EVI5 as the most plausible disease risk gene within the 1p22.1 locus. We further show that an exonic SNP associated with risk induces changes in superficial hydrophobicity patterns of the coiled-coil domain of EVI5, which, in turns, affects the EVI5 interactome. Immunoprecipitation of wild-type and mutated EVI5 followed by mass spectrometry generated a roster of disease-specific interactors functionally linked to lipid metabolism. Among the exclusive binding partners of the risk variant, we describe the novel interaction with sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1)—a key enzyme for the creation of the sphingosine-1 phosphate gradient, which is relevant to the pathogenic process and therapeutic management of MS. PMID:26433934

  16. A dynamic RNA loop in an IRES affects multiple steps of elongation factor-mediated translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ruehle, Marisa D; Zhang, Haibo; Sheridan, Ryan M; Mitra, Somdeb; Chen, Yuanwei; Gonzalez, Ruben L; Cooperman, Barry S; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are powerful model systems to understand how the translation machinery can be manipulated by structured RNAs and for exploring inherent features of ribosome function. The intergenic region (IGR) IRESs from the Dicistroviridae family of viruses are structured RNAs that bind directly to the ribosome and initiate translation by co-opting the translation elongation cycle. These IRESs require an RNA pseudoknot that mimics a codon-anticodon interaction and contains a conformationally dynamic loop. We explored the role of this loop and found that both the length and sequence are essential for translation in different types of IGR IRESs and from diverse viruses. We found that loop 3 affects two discrete elongation factor-dependent steps in the IRES initiation mechanism. Our results show how the IRES directs multiple steps after 80S ribosome placement and highlights the often underappreciated significance of discrete conformationally dynamic elements within the context of structured RNAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08146.001 PMID:26523395

  17. Evaluating the fate of organic leachate contaminants by use of multiple chemical tools in a clay till setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosevic, N.; Qiu, S.; Elsner, M.; Albrechtsen, H.-J.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    Leachate from old landfills situated in the vicinity of surface water bodies may affect the groundwater and subsequently surface water quality. It is suspected that the transition zone between groundwater and surface water can attenuate landfill leachate compounds, but the attenuation processes for organic leachate has not been studied in detail so far. Landfills are complex pollution sources and in particular in heterogeneous geologic settings evaluation of attenuation processes is the major challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of key organic contaminants by use of chemical assessment tools in the anaerobic subsurface in the close vicinity of a local stream at Risby Landfill. The landfill leachate was mostly methanogenic and sulphate reducing or iron reducing with high concentrations of inorganic species. Phenoxy acid pesticides, chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons (mainly BTEX) were identified as key contaminants beneath the landfill, but only pesticides were found in the leachate plume, in the groundwater/surface water transition zone and in the local stream. Analysis of metabolites, enantiomers and compound-specific isotopes (CSIA) (13C/12C) were used to assess attenuation processes and anaerobic degradation potentials, whereas aerobic microbial degradation was investigated for pesticides in a parallel study. The phenoxy acid 4-CPP, a potential transformation product of the pesticide dichlorprop, migrated to the aerobic stream sediments in high concentrations, where the parallel microbial study showed high degradation potential. Interestingly, 4-CPP/dichlorprop ratios were far higher than expected if 4-CPP originated as impurity in dichlorprop production. This indicates that in situ transformation of dichlorprop to 4-CPP or other unidentified compounds took place. Enantiomer fractions, measured along the groundwater flowpath, were associated with stable anaerobic conditions when >0.5, whereas values <0.5 in shallow groundwater

  18. Acquisition Of Organ Slice Images In Nuclear Medicine By The Multiple-Incidence Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danet, B.; Hatzigiannaki, A.; Percheron, M.; Morucci, J. P.; Guiraud, R.

    1983-08-01

    In the development of devices to represent the three-dimensional structure of radio-activated organs, Nuclear Medicine has been following the progress in Radiology. That parallelism could be observed with all principles used to get three-dimensional data : - analogical systems working by simultaneous displacement of the detector and the object, - coded-aperture imaging devices which consist of special collimators designed to obtain a dependance between the object-to-code distance and the detector response, - multiple-incidence techniques, the 3D reconstruction being extracted from the whole set of projections of the object at different orientations. That last principle was chosen in the studies that we are working on now. It is close to the principle used in Radio-Tomo-densitometry : a detector gets a set of projections as it turns around the object. From these projections, the classical reconstruction algorithms can be used : ART, SIRT, Convolution algorithms... But we have to take into account here some more specific properties : the statistic noise, the self attenuation of the radiation, the distance-dependant resolution. In this paper some correction process will be considered which can be more or less easily implemented depending of the algorithm used. Different compromises can be proposed : they depend strongly not only of the algorithm and the data-processing but also of the detector performances. In this field, this method will greatly take profit of the powerful calculators designed for the Radiographic tomodensitometry.

  19. Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nana; Cheng, Lu; Ge, Rui; Zhang, Shuting; Miao, Yanfeng; Zou, Wei; Yi, Chang; Sun, Yan; Cao, Yu; Yang, Rong; Wei, Yingqiang; Guo, Qiang; Ke, You; Yu, Maotao; Jin, Yizheng; Liu, Yang; Ding, Qingqing; di, Dawei; Yang, Le; Xing, Guichuan; Tian, He; Jin, Chuanhong; Gao, Feng; Friend, Richard H.; Wang, Jianpu; Huang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Organometal halide perovskites can be processed from solutions at low temperatures to form crystalline direct-bandgap semiconductors with promising optoelectronic properties. However, the efficiency of their electroluminescence is limited by non-radiative recombination, which is associated with defects and leakage current due to incomplete surface coverage. Here we demonstrate a solution-processed perovskite light-emitting diode (LED) based on self-organized multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with excellent film morphologies. The MQW-based LED exhibits a very high external quantum efficiency of up to 11.7%, good stability and exceptional high-power performance with an energy conversion efficiency of 5.5% at a current density of 100 mA cm-2. This outstanding performance arises because the lower bandgap regions that generate electroluminescence are effectively confined by perovskite MQWs with higher energy gaps, resulting in very efficient radiative decay. Surprisingly, there is no evidence that the large interfacial areas between different bandgap regions cause luminescence quenching.

  20. Spatial Self-Organization of Ecosystems: Integrating Multiple Mechanisms of Regular-Pattern Formation.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Robert M; Tarnita, Corina E

    2017-01-31

    Large-scale regular vegetation patterns are common in nature, but their causes are disputed. Whereas recent theory focuses on scale-dependent feedbacks as a potentially universal mechanism, earlier studies suggest that many regular spatial patterns result from territorial interference competition between colonies of social-insect ecosystem engineers, leading to hexagonally overdispersed nest sites and associated vegetation. Evidence for this latter mechanism is scattered throughout decades of disparate literature and lacks a unified conceptual framework, fueling skepticism about its generality in debates over the origins of patterned landscapes. We review these mechanisms and debates, finding evidence that spotted and gapped vegetation patterns generated by ants, termites, and other subterranean animals are globally widespread, locally important for ecosystem functioning, and consistent with models of intraspecific territoriality. Because these and other mechanisms of regular-pattern formation are not mutually exclusive and can coexist and interact at different scales, the prevailing theoretical outlook on spatial self-organization in ecology must expand to incorporate the dynamic interplay of multiple processes.

  1. Genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid in multiples organs of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Larangeira, Paula Martins; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2016-11-01

    The ionic liquid or melted salt 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium is an alternative process to extract natural pigments, such as carotenoids. Lycopene represents 80-90% of total of carotenoids presents in tomatoes and it has been widely studied due its potent antioxidant action. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid using experimental model in vivo. For this purpose, a total of 20 male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups (n=5), as follows: control group; received a corresponding amount of corn oil for 7days by intragastric gavage (i.g.), ionic liquid group, received 10mgkg(-1) body weight for 7days by gavage; 10mg carotenoids group, received 10mgkg(-1) bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage and 500mg carotenoids group, received 500mgkg(-1) bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage. Rat liver treated with ionic liquid exhibited moderate histopathological changes randomly distributed in the parenchyma, such as cytoplasmic eosinophilia, apoptotic bodies, inflammatory infiltrate and focal necrosis. DNA damage was found in peripheral blood and liver cells of rats treated with ionic liquid or carotenoids at 500mg. An increase of micronucleated cells and 8-OhDG immunopositive cells were also detected in rats treated with carotenoids at 500mg. In summary, our results demonstrate that recommended dose for human daily intake of carotenoids extracted by ionic liquid did not induce genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in multiple organs of rats.

  2. Kynurenine–3–monooxygenase inhibition prevents multiple organ failure in rodent models of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mole, Damian J; Webster, Scott P; Uings, Iain; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Binnie, Margaret; Wilson, Kris; Hutchinson, Jonathan P; Mirguet, Olivier; Walker, Ann; Beaufils, Benjamin; Ancellin, Nicolas; Trottet, Lionel; Bénéton, Véronique; Mowat, Christopher G; Wilkinson, Martin; Rowland, Paul; Haslam, Carl; McBride, Andrew; Homer, Natalie ZM; Baily, James E; Sharp, Matthew GF; Garden, O James; Hughes, Jeremy; Howie, Sarah EM; Holmes, Duncan S; Liddle, John; Iredale, John P

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common and devastating inflammatory condition of the pancreas that is considered to be a paradigm of sterile inflammation leading to systemic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death1,2 Acute mortality from AP-MODS exceeds 20%3 and for those who survive the initial episode, their lifespan is typically shorter than the general population4. There are no specific therapies available that protect individuals against AP-MODS. Here, we show that kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), a key enzyme of tryptophan metabolism5, is central to the pathogenesis of AP-MODS. We created a mouse strain deficient for Kmo with a robust biochemical phenotype that protected against extrapancreatic tissue injury to lung, kidney and liver in experimental AP-MODS. A medicinal chemistry strategy based on modifications of the kynurenine substrate led to the discovery of GSK180 as a potent and specific inhibitor of KMO. The binding mode of the inhibitor in the active site was confirmed by X-ray co-crystallography at 3.2 Å resolution. Treatment with GSK180 resulted in rapid changes in levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites in vivo and afforded therapeutic protection against AP-MODS in a rat model of AP. Our findings establish KMO inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of AP-MODS and open up a new area for drug discovery in critical illness. PMID:26752518

  3. Visual detection of multiple genetically modified organisms in a capillary array.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ning; Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Jiaying; Li, Rong; Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Shujuan; Hui, Junhou; Liu, Peng; Yang, Litao; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2017-01-31

    There is an urgent need for rapid, low-cost multiplex methodologies for the monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Here, we report a C[combining low line]apillary A[combining low line]rray-based L[combining low line]oop-mediated isothermal amplification for M[combining low line]ultiplex visual detection of nucleic acids (CALM) platform for the simple and rapid monitoring of GMOs. In CALM, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primer sets are pre-fixed to the inner surface of capillaries. The surface of the capillary array is hydrophobic while the capillaries are hydrophilic, enabling the simultaneous loading and separation of the LAMP reaction mixtures into each capillary by capillary forces. LAMP reactions in the capillaries are then performed in parallel, and the results are visually detected by illumination with a hand-held UV device. Using CALM, we successfully detected seven frequently used transgenic genes/elements and five plant endogenous reference genes with high specificity and sensitivity. Moreover, we found that measurements of real-world blind samples by CALM are consistent with results obtained by independent real-time PCRs. Thus, with an ability to detect multiple nucleic acids in a single easy-to-operate test, we believe that CALM will become a widely applied technology in GMO monitoring.

  4. Myosin-Va Mediates RNA Distribution in Primary Fibroblasts From Multiple Organs

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Verônica P.; Calliari, Aldo; William Provance, D.; Sotelo-Silveira, José R.; Sotelo, José R.; Mercer, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Myosin-Va has been shown to have multiple functions in a variety of cell types, including a role in RNA transport in neurons. Using primary cultures of cells from organs of young dilute-lethal (Myo5ad-l/Myo5ad-l) null mutant mice and wild-type controls, we show that in some, but not all, tissues, RNA distribution is dramatically different in the homozygous null mutant cells. The dependence of RNA localization on myosin-Va correlates with the relative abundance of the brain-specific splicing pattern of the myosin-Va tail. We also show that myosin-Va is involved in RNA localization soon after synthesis, because the effects of its absence are diminished for RNAs that are more than 30 min old. Finally, we show that localization of β-actin mRNA is significantly changed by the absence of myosin-Va. These results suggest that myosin-Va is involved in a transient transport or tethering function in the perinuclear region. Cell Motil. PMID:18357619

  5. Precision Construction of 2D Heteropore Covalent Organic Frameworks by a Multiple-Linking-Site Strategy.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cheng; Xu, Shun-Qi; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Zhan, Tian-Guang; Zhao, Xin

    2016-12-05

    Integrating different kinds of pores into one covalent organic framework (COF) endows it with hierarchical porosity and thus generates a member of a new class of COFs, namely, heteropore COFs. Whereas the construction of COFs with homoporosity has already been well developed, the fabrication of heteropore COFs still faces great challenges. Although two strategies have recently been developed to successfully construct heteropore COFs from noncyclic building blocks, they suffer from the generation of COF isomers, which decreases the predictability and controllability of construction of this type of reticular materials. In this work, this drawback was overcome by a multiple-linking-site strategy that offers precision construction of heteropore COFs containing two kinds of hexagonal pores with different shapes and sizes. This strategy was developed by designing a building block in which double linking sites are introduced at each branch of a C3 -symmetric skeleton, the most widely used scaffold to construct COFs with homogeneous porosity. This design provides a general way to precisely construct heteropore COFs without formation of isomers. Furthermore, the as-prepared heteropore COFs have hollow-spherical morphology, which has rarely been observed for COFs, and an uncommon staggered AB stacking was observed for the layers of the 2D heteropore COFs.

  6. Risk Factors for Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome in Severe Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuna; Li, Yue; Yuan, Junliang; Yang, Lei; Li, Shujuan; Hu, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe stroke patients have poor clinical outcome which may be associated with development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate independent risk factors for development of MODS in severe stroke patients. Methods Ninety seven severe stroke patients were prospective recruited from Jan 2011 to Jun 2015. The development of MODS was identified by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (score ≥ 3, at least two organs), which was assessed on day 1, 4, 7, 10 and 14 after admission. Baseline characteristics, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Glasgow coma score (GCS) and cerebral imaging parameters were collected at admission. Cox regression was performed to determine predictors for the development of MODS. Medical complications after admission and in-hospital mortality were also investigated. Results 33 (34%) patients were in MODS group and 64 (66%) were in non-MODS group within 14 days after admission. Patients in MODS group had more smoker (51.5% vs 28.1%, p = 0.023), higher NIHSS score (23.48 ± 6.12 vs 19.81 ± 4.83, p = 0.004), higher APACHE II score (18.70 ± 5.18 vs 15.64 ± 4.36, p = 0.003) and lower GCS score (6.33 ± 2.48 vs 8.14 ± 2.73, p = 0.002). They also had higher rate of infarction in multi vascular territories (36.4% vs 10.9%, p = 0.003). The most common complication in all patients was pulmonary infection, while complication scores were comparable between two groups. Patients with MODS had higher in-hospital mortality (69.7% vs 9.4%, p = 0.000). In Cox regression, NIHSS score (RR = 1.084, 95% CI 1.019–1.153) and infarction in multi vascular territories (RR = 2.345 95% CI 1.105–4.978) were independent risk factors for development of MODS. Conclusions In acute phase of stroke, NIHSS score and infarction in multi vascular territories predicted MODS in severe stroke patients. Moreover, patients with MODS had higher in-hospital mortality

  7. The levels and composition of persistent organic pollutants in alluvial agriculture soils affected by flooding.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Kordybach, Barbara; Smreczak, Bozena; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in alluvial soils subjected to heavy flooding in a rural region of Poland. Soil samples (n = 30) were collected from the upper soil layer from a 70-km(2) area. Chemical determinations included basic physicochemical properties and the contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds). The median concentrations of Σ7PCB (PCB28 + PCB52 + PCB101 + PCB118 + PCB138 + PCB153 + PCB180), Σ3HCH (α-HCH + β-HCH + γ-HCH) and Σ3pp'(DDT + DDE + DDD) were 1.60 ± 1.03, 0.22 ± 0.13 and 25.18 ± 82.70 μg kg(-1), respectively. The median concentrations of the most abundant PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene were 50 ± 37, 38 ± 27, 29 ± 30, 45 ± 36 and 24 ± 22 μg kg(-1), respectively. Compared with elsewhere in the world, the overall level of contamination with POPs was low and similar to the levels in agricultural soils from neighbouring countries, except for benzo[a]pyrene and DDT. There was no evidence that flooding affected the levels of POPs in the studied soils. The patterns observed for PAHs and PCBs indicate that atmospheric deposition is the most important long-term source of these contaminants. DDTs were the dominant organochlorine pesticides (up to 99%), and the contribution of the parent pp' isomer was up to 50 % of the ΣDDT, which indicates the advantage of aged contamination. A high pp'DDE/pp'DDD ratio suggests the prevalence of aerobic transformations of parent DDT. Dominance of the γ isomer in the HCHs implies historical use of lindane in the area. The effect of soil properties on the POP concentrations was rather weak, although statistically significant links with the content of the <0.02-mm fraction, Ctotal or Ntotal were observed for some individual compounds in the PCB group.

  8. Isoreticular Expansion of Metal-Organic Frameworks with Multiple Functionalities and Controlled Pore Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hexiang

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are made by linking organic and inorganic molecular building blocks into extended structures through strong bonds. With a judicious choice of inorganic joints and various functional groups available in organic links, a large number of MOFs have been synthesized in the past decade. Along with the fast expansion of the family of MOFs, important applications emerge including hydrogen storage and carbon dioxide capture, both of which address the most pressing societal demand for clean and sustainable energy resources. Although numerous MOFs are now known and they have found widespread applications, the introduction of more than one kind of building block into their crystal structures remains challenging. One of the main objectives of this study is to demonstrate the successful incorporating of multiple functional groups into MOFs. Here, a new strategy has been developed to achieve the synthesis of a series of eighteen multivariate MOFs (MTV-MOFs) containing up to eight distinct functional groups, while their parent topologies were fully preserved. The backbone of these MTV-MOFs was found to be ordered, while the orientation, number, relative position and ratio of the functionalities along the backbone could be controlled by virtue of the unchanged length of the link and its unaltered connectivity. This strategy allows us to endow the pores of these MOFs with a new level of complexity which far exceeds any held by that of the original mono-functional MOFs---an aspect that makes it possible to fine-tune the pore environment of a porous crystal with favorable implications. Indeed, one member of these MTV-MOFs has already shown an 87% improvement of the hydrogen uptake while another member demonstrated a 400% increase in CO2 selectivity comparing to their mono-functional counterparts. Another goal of this study has been to maximize MOF porosity and pore size. There were three major obstacles against expanding the pore size of porous crystals

  9. Comparison of organic matter composition in agricultural versus forest affected headwaters with special emphasis on organic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Marlen; Graeber, Daniel; Zak, Dominik; Zwirnmann, Elke; Gelbrecht, Joerg; Pusch, Martin T

    2015-02-17

    Agricultural management practices promote organic matter (OM) turnover and thus alter both the processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils and presumably also the export of DOM to headwater streams, which intimately connect the terrestrial with the aquatic environment. Size-exclusion chromatography, in combination with absorbance and emission matrix fluorometry, was applied to assess how agricultural land use alters the amount and composition of DOM, as well as dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) forms in headwater streams, including temporal variations, in a temperate region of NE Germany. By comparing six agriculturally and six forest-impacted headwater streams, we demonstrated that agriculture promotes increased DOC and DON concentrations, entailing an even more pronounced effect on DON. The major part of DOC and DON in agricultural and forest reference streams is exported in the form of humic-like material with high molecular weight, which indicates terrestrial, i.e., allochthonous sources. As an obvious difference in agricultural streams, the contribution of DOC and particularly DON occurring in the form of nonhumic high-molecular-weight, presumably proteinous material is clearly elevated. Altogether, DOM in agricultural headwaters is mainly complex-soil-derived and aromatic material with a low C:N ratio, which is more microbial processed than its counterpart from forest reference catchments. Our results emphasize the importance of agricultural land use on DOM loss from soils and identify agricultural soils as important DOC and particularly DON sources to headwater streams.

  10. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  11. Herding: a new phenomenon affecting medical decision-making in multiple sclerosis care? Lessons learned from DIScUTIR MS

    PubMed Central

    Saposnik, Gustavo; Maurino, Jorge; Sempere, Angel P; Ruff, Christian C; Tobler, Philippe N

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Herding is a phenomenon by which individuals follow the behavior of others rather than deciding independently on the basis of their own private information. A herding-like phenomenon can occur in multiple sclerosis (MS) when a neurologist follows a therapeutic recommendation by a colleague even though it is not supported by best practice clinical guidelines. Limited information is currently available on the role of herding in medical care. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence (and its associated factors) of herding in the management of MS. Methods We conducted a study among neurologists with expertise in MS care throughout Spain. Participants answered questions regarding the management of 20 case scenarios commonly encountered in clinical practice and completed 3 surveys and 4 experimental paradigms based on behavioral economics. The herding experiment consisted of a case scenario of a 40-year-old woman who has been stable for 3 years on subcutaneous interferon and developed a self-limited neurological event. There were no new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions. Her neurological examination and disability scores were unchanged. She was advised by an MS neurologist to switch from interferon to fingolimod against best practice guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate factors associated with herding. Results Out of 161 neurologists who were invited to participate, 96 completed the study (response rate: 60%). Herding was present in 75 (78.1%), having a similar prevalence in MS experts and general neurologists (68.8% vs 82.8%; P=0.12). In multivariate analyses, the number of MS patients seen per week was positively associated with herding (odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.14). Conversely, physician’s age, gender, years of practice, setting of practice, or risk preferences were not associated with herding. Conclusion Herding was a common phenomenon affecting nearly 8 out of 10

  12. The Drosophila Transcription Factor Dimmed Affects Neuronal Growth and Differentiation in Multiple Ways Depending on Neuron Type and Developmental Stage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiting; Luo, Jiangnan; Nässel, Dick R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of postmitotic neurons occurs during different stages of development, including metamorphosis, and may also be part of neuronal plasticity and regeneration. Recently we showed that growth of post-mitotic neuroendocrine cells expressing the basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor Dimmed (Dimm) in Drosophila could be regulated by insulin/IGF signaling and the insulin receptor (dInR). Dimm is also known to confer a secretory phenotype to neuroendocrine cells and can be part of a combinatorial code specifying terminal differentiation in peptidergic neurons. To further understand the mechanisms of Dimm function we ectopically expressed Dimm or Dimm together with dInR in a wide range of Dimm positive and Dimm negative peptidergic neurons, sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons, and gut endocrine cells. We provide further evidence that dInR mediated cell growth occurs in a Dimm dependent manner and that one source of insulin-like peptide (DILP) for dInR mediated cell growth in the CNS is DILP6 from glial cells. Expressing both Dimm and dInR in Dimm negative neurons induced growth of cell bodies, whereas dInR alone did not. We also found that Dimm alone can regulate cell growth depending on specific cell type. This may be explained by the finding that the dInR is a direct target of Dimm. Conditional gene targeting experiments showed that Dimm alone could affect cell growth in certain neuron types during metamorphosis or in the adult stage. Another important finding was that ectopic Dimm inhibits apoptosis of several types of neurons normally destined for programmed cell death (PCD). Taken together our results suggest that Dimm plays multiple transcriptional roles at different developmental stages in a cell type-specific manner. In some cell types ectopic Dimm may act together with resident combinatorial code transcription factors and affect terminal differentiation, as well as act in transcriptional networks that participate in long term maintenance

  13. The organic precursors affecting the formation of disinfection by-products with chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Chang, C Y; Hsieh, Y H; Lin, Y M; Hu, P Y; Liu, C C; Wang, K H

    2001-08-01

    The object of this research was to study the formation of disinfection by-products by using chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as a disinfectant reacting with different properties of organic substance in natural aquatic environment. The adsorbent resin (XAD-4, XAD-7) was used to divide the organic matters in raw water into three groups. The influence of the function groups on structure, reaction tendency, and formation of disinfection by-products generated by the reaction of these organic substances with chlorine dioxide was explored. The experimental results show that the three different organic groups formed using adsorbent resin were hydrophobic substance, hydrophilic acid, and non-acid hydrophilics in proportions of 43%, 41%, and 16%, respectively. Within the raw water in our study, the hydrophilic substance had a higher distribution proportion than that described in general articles and journals, which indicates that this water was contaminated with pollution from human beings. The exploration of the reactivity of the three different organic substances with chlorine dioxide shows that the unit consumption of disinfection agent per unit organic matters (represented by ClO2/DOC) is in the following sequence hydrophobic substance > hydrophilic substance > non-acid hydrophilics. It indicated that larger molecular organic precursors had larger consumption of disinfectant. We also discovered that after the reaction of the three different organic substances with chlorine dioxide, the largest amount of disinfection by-products were generated by the non-acid hydrophilics.

  14. Disease severity of organic rice as affected by host resistance, fertility and tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies were conducted to determine the effect of fertilizer inputs and tillage methods on disease incidence in an organic rice production system. The results of these studies suggest that organically produced rice is more vulnerable to infection of narrow brown leaf spot and brown spot. Thi...

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sunlight-absorbing (colored) component of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in aquatic environments is widely distributed in freshwaters and coastal regions where it influences the fate and transport of toxic organic substances and biologically-important metals such as mercury,...

  16. To Fish or Not to Fish: Factors at Multiple Scales Affecting Artisanal Fishers' Readiness to Exit a Declining Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Tim M.; Cinner, Joshua E.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Brown, Katrina; Stead, Selina M.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Maina, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance

  17. HMGB1 and Histones Play a Significant Role in Inducing Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Dysfunctions in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tenhunen, Jyrki; Tonnessen, Tor Inge

    2017-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) starts as a local inflammation of pancreatic tissue that induces the development of multiple extrapancreatic organs dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Ischemia-reperfusion, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and possible bile cytokines significantly contribute to gut mucosal injury and intestinal bacterial translocation (BT) during SAP. Circulating HMGB1 level is significantly increased in SAP patients and HMGB1 is an important factor that mediates (at least partly) gut BT during SAP. Gut BT plays a critical role in triggering/inducing systemic inflammation/sepsis in critical illness, and profound systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) during SAP, and systemic inflammation with multiorgan dysfunction is the cause of death in experimental SAP. Therefore, HMGB1 is an important factor that links gut BT and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, HMGB1 significantly contributes to multiple organ injuries. The SAP patients also have significantly increased circulating histones and cell-free DNAs levels, which can reflect the disease severity and contribute to multiple organ injuries in SAP. Hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs) are the predominant source of circulating inflammatory cytokines in SAP, and new evidence indicates that hepatocyte is another important source of circulating HMGB1 in SAP; therefore, treating the liver injury is important in SAP. PMID:28316860

  18. The Development of Multiple Intelligence Capabilities for Early Childhood Development Center, Local Administration Organization in Chaiyaphum Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siphai, Sunan; Supandee, Terdsak; Raksapuk, Chunpit; Poopayang, Piangkhae; Kratoorerk, Sangsan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to promote multiple intelligence capabilities for Early Childhood Care Center of a Sub-district Administration Organization in Chaiyaphum Province. The sample applied were 61 children aging between 3 and 5 years old at Child Development Center, Tambon Ban Kok, Amphoe Chaturus, Chaiyaphum Province, who were selected…

  19. Bioavailability of organic phosphorus to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata as affected by phosphorus starvation: an isotope dilution study.

    PubMed

    Van Moorleghem, Christoff; De Schutter, Nynke; Smolders, Erik; Merckx, Roel

    2013-06-01

    Phosphorus (P) starved algae have a capacity to rapidly take up P when resupplied to P. This study was set-up to measure to what extent P starvation enhances the potential of algae to utilize organic P forms. The initial (<0.5 h) PO4 uptake rates of cells of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata increased up to 18-fold with increasing starvation. Algae from different levels of P starvation were subsequently exposed to different model organic P forms and carrier-free (33)PO4. Uptake (1h) of P from organic P-increased up to 5-fold with increasing P starvation. The bioavailability of organic P, relative to PO4, was calculated from uptake of (31)P and (33)P isotopes assuming no isotopic exchange with organic P-forms. This relative bioavailability ranged from 0 to 57% and remained generally unaffected by the extent of P-starvation. This result was found for cells that were either or not treated by a wash method to remove extracellular phosphatases. Short-term P uptake rate sharply increases with decreasing internal P content of the algal cells but the bioavailability of organic P, relative to PO4, is not enhanced. Such finding suggests that P-starvation enhances PO4 uptake capacity and organic P hydrolysis capacity to about the same extent.

  20. Energy production through organic fraction of municipal solid waste-A multiple regression modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, N; Ramesh, S; Vennila, G; Abdul Bari, J; MageshKumar, P

    2016-12-01

    In the 21st century, people migrated from rural to urban areas for several reasons. As a result, the populations of Indian cities are increasing day by day. On one hand, the country is developing in the field of science and technology and on the other hand, it is encountering a serious problem called 'Environmental degradation'. Due to increase in population, the generation of solid waste is also increased and is being disposed in open dumps and landfills which lead to air and land pollution. This study is attempted to generate energy out of organic solid waste by the bio- fermentation process. The study was conducted for a period of 7 months at Erode, Tamilnadu and the reading on various parameters like Hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate, sludge loading rate, influent pH, effluent pH, inlet volatile acids, out let volatile fatty acids, inlet VSS/TS ratio, outlet VSS/TS ratio, influent COD, effluent COD and % of COD removal are recorded for every 10 days. The aim of the present study is to develop a model through multiple linear regression analysis with COD as dependent variable and various parameters like HRT, OLR, SLR, influent, effluent, VSS/TS ratio, influent COD, effluent COD, etc as independent variables and to analyze the impact of these parameters on COD. The results of the model developed through step-wise regression method revealed that only four parameters Influent COD, effluent COD, VSS/TS and Influent/pH were main influencers of COD removal. The parameters influent COD and VSS/TS have positive impact on COD removal and the parameters effluent COD and Influent/pH have negative impact. The parameter Influent COD has the highest order of impact, followed by effluent COD, VSS/TS and influent pH. The other parameters HRT, OLR, SLR, INLET VFA and OUTLET VFA were not significantly contributing to the removal of COD. The implementation of the process suggested through this study might bring in dual benefit to the community, viz treatment of solid

  1. Sequence heterogeneity, multiplicity, and genomic organization of alpha- and beta-tubulin genes in sea urchins.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandraki, D; Ruderman, J V

    1981-01-01

    We analyzed the multiplicity, heterogeneity, and organization of the genes encoding the alpha and beta tubulins in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus by using cloned complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and genomic tubulin sequences. cDNA clones were constructed by using immature spermatogenic testis polyadenylic acid-containing ribonucleic acid as a template. alpha- and beta-tubulin clones were identified by hybrid selection and in vitro translation of the corresponding messenger ribonucleic acids, followed by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the translation products. The alpha cDNA clone contains a sequence that encodes the 48 C-terminal amino acids of alpha tubulin and 104 base pairs of the 3' nontranslated portion of the messenger ribonucleic acid. The beta cDNA insertion contains the coding sequence for the 100-C terminal amino acids of beta tubulin and 83 pairs of the 3' noncoding sequence. Hybrid selections performed at different criteria demonstrated the presence of several heterogeneous, closely related tubulin messenger ribonucleic acids, suggesting the existence of heterogeneous alpha- and beta-tubulin genes. Hybridization analyses indicated that there are at least 9 to 13 sequences for each of the two tubulin gene families per haploid genome. Hybridization of the cDNA probes to both total genomic DNA and cloned germline DNA fragments gave no evidence for close physical linkage of alpha-tubulin genes with beta-tubulin genes at the DNA level. In contrast, these experiments indicated that some genes within the same family are clustered. Images PMID:6287219

  2. Sequence heterogeneity, multiplicity, and genomic organization of. cap alpha. - and. beta. -tubulin genes in Sea Urchins

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandraki, D.; Ruderman, J.V.

    1981-12-01

    The authors analyzed the multiplicity, heterogeneity, and organization of the genes encoding the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. tubulins in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus by using cloned complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and genomic tubulin sequences. cDNA clones were constructed by using immature spermatogenic testis polyadenylic acid-containing ribonucleic acid as a template. ..cap alpha.. and ..beta..-tubulin clones were identified by hybrid selection and in vitro translation of the corresponding messenger ribonucleic acids, followed by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the translation products. The ..cap alpha.. cDNA clone contains a sequence that encodes the 48 C-terminal amino acids of ..cap alpha.. tubulin and 104 base pairs of the 3' nontranslated portion of the messenger ribonucleic acid. The ..beta.. cDNA insertion contains the coding sequence for the 100 C-terminal amino acids of ..beta.. tubulin and 83 base pairs of the 3' noncoding sequence. Hybrid selections performed at different criteria demonstrated the presence of several heterogeneous, closely related tubulin messenger ribonucleic acids, suggesting the existence of heterogeneous ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-tubulin genes. Hybridization analyses indicated that there are at least 9 to 13 sequences for each of the two tubulin gene families per haploid genome. Hybridization of the cDNA probes to both total genomic DNA and cloned germline DNA fragments gave no evidence for close physical linkage of ..cap alpha..-tubulin genes with ..beta..-tubulin genes at the DNA level. In contrast, these experiments indicated that some genes within the same family are clustered.

  3. Combinatorial pharmacophore modeling of organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) inhibitors: insights into multiple inhibitory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Liu, Xian; Li, Shanshan; Zhou, Nannan; Gong, Likun; Luo, Cheng; Luo, Xiaomin; Zheng, Mingyue; Jiang, Hualiang; Chen, Kaixian

    2013-12-02

    Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) is responsible for the entry step of many drugs in renal elimination, of which the changing activity may cause unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs). To develop drugs with favorable safety profile and provide instruction for rational clinical drug administration, it is of great interest to investigate the multiple mechanisms of OCT2 inhibition. In this study, we designed a combinatorial scheme to screen the optimum combination of pharmacophores from a pool of hypotheses established based on 162 OCT2 inhibitors. Among them, one single pharmacophore hypothesis represents a potential binding mode that may account for one unique inhibitory mechanism, and the obtained pharmacophore combination describes the multimechanisms of OCT2 inhibition. The final model consists of four individual pharmacophores, i.e., DHPR18, APR2, PRR5 and HHR4. Given a query ligand, it is considered as an inhibitor if it matches at least one of the hypotheses, or a noninhibitor if it fails to match any of four hypotheses. Our combinatorial pharmacophore model performs reasonably well to discriminate inhibitors and noninhibitors, yielding an overall accuracy around 0.70 for a test set containing 81 OCT2 inhibitors and 218 noninhibitors. Intriguingly, we found that the number of matched hypotheses was positively correlated with inhibition rate, which coincides with the pharmacophore modeling result of P-gp substrate binding. Further analysis suggested that the hypothesis PRR5 was responsible for competitive inhibition of OCT2, and other hypotheses were important for interaction between the inhibitor and OCT2. In light of the results, a hypothetical model for inhibiting transporting mediated by OCT2 was proposed.

  4. Systemic Inflammatory Response and Serum Lipopolysaccharide Levels Predict Multiple Organ Failure and Death in Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Michelena, Javier; Altamirano, José; Abraldes, Juan G.; Affò, Silvia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Dominguez, Marlene; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Javier; Arroyo, Vicente; Ginès, Pere; Louvet, Alexandre; Mathurin, Philippe; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Caballería, Juan; Bataller, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) frequently progresses to multiple organ failure (MOF) and death. However, the driving factors are largely unknown. At admission, patients with AH often show criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) even in the absence of an infection. We hypothesize that the presence of SIRS may predispose to MOF and death. To test this hypothesis, we studied a cohort including 162 patients with biopsy-proven AH. The presence of SIRS and infections was assessed in all patients, and multivariate analyses identified variables independently associated with MOF and 90-day mortality. At admission, 32 (19.8%) patients were diagnosed with a bacterial infection, while 75 (46.3%) fulfilled SIRS criteria; 58 patients (35.8%) developed MOF during hospitalization. Short-term mortality was significantly higher among patients who developed MOF (62.1% versus 3.8%, P <0.001). The presence of SIRS was a major predictor of MOF (odds ratio = 2.69, P=0.025) and strongly correlated with mortality. Importantly, the course of patients with SIRS with and without infection was similar in terms of MOF development and short-term mortality. Finally, we sought to identify serum markers that differentiate SIRS with and without infection. We studied serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lipopolysaccharide at admission. All of them predicted mortality. Procalcitonin, but not high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum levels identified those patients with SIRS and infection. Lipopolysaccharide serum levels predicted MOF and the response to prednisolone. Conclusion In the presence or absence of infections, SIRS is a major determinant of MOF and mortality in AH, and the mechanisms involved in the development of SIRS should be investigated; procalcitonin serum levels can help to identify patients with infection, and lipopolysaccharide levels may help to predict mortality and the response to steroids. PMID:25761863

  5. Multiple receptor subtypes mediate the effects of serotonin on rat subfornical organ neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scrogin, K. E.; Johnson, A. K.; Schmid, H. A.

    1998-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) receives significant serotonergic innervation. However, few reports have examined the functional effects of serotonin on SFO neurons. This study characterized the effects of serotonin on spontaneously firing SFO neurons in the rat brain slice. Of 31 neurons tested, 80% responded to serotonin (1-100 microM) with either an increase (n = 15) or decrease (n = 10) in spontaneous activity. Responses to serotonin were dose dependent and persisted after synaptic blockade. Excitatory responses could also be mimicked by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI; 1-10 microM) and could be blocked by the 5-HT2A/2C-receptor antagonist LY-53,857 (10 microM). LY-53,857 unmasked inhibitory responses to serotonin in 56% of serotonin-excited cells tested. Serotonin-inhibited cells were also inhibited by the 5-HT1A-receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; 1-10 microM; n = 7). The data indicate that SFO neurons are responsive to serotonin via postsynaptic activation of multiple receptor subtypes. The results suggest that excitatory responses to serotonin are mediated by 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors and that inhibitory responses may be mediated by 5-HT1A receptors. In addition, similar percentages of serotonin-excited and -inhibited cells were also sensitive to ANG II. As such the functional relationship between serotonin and ANG II in the SFO remains unclear.

  6. Response of oxidative enzyme activities to nitrogen deposition affects soil concentrations of dissolved organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that atmospheric nitrate (NO3- ) deposition can alter soil carbon (C) storage by directly affecting the activity of lignin-degrading soil fungi. In a laboratory experiment, we studied the direct influence of increasing soil NO 3- concentration on microbial C cycling in three different ecosystems: black oak-white oak (BOWO), sugar maple-red oak (SMRO), and sugar maple-basswood (SMBW). These ecosystems span a broad range of litter biochemistry and recalcitrance; the BOWO ecosystem contains the highest litter lignin content, SMRO had intermediate lignin content, and SMBW leaf litter has the lowest lignin content. We hypothesized that increasing soil solution NO 3- would reduce lignolytic activity in the BOWO ecosystem, due to a high abundance of white-rot fungi and lignin-rich leaf litter. Due to the low lignin content of litter in the SMBW, we further reasoned that the NO3- repression of lignolytic activity would be less dramatic due to a lower relative abundance of white-rot basidiomycetes; the response in the SMRO ecosystem should be intermediate. We increased soil solution NO3- concentrations in a 73-day laboratory incubation and measured microbial respiration and soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenolics concentrations. At the end of the incubation, we measured the activity of ??-glucosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase, which are extracellular enzymes involved with cellulose and lignin degradation. We quantified the fungal biomass, and we also used fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) to gain insight into fungal community composition. In the BOWO ecosystem, increasing NO 3- significantly decreased oxidative enzyme activities (-30% to -54%) and increased DOC (+32% upper limit) and phenolic (+77% upper limit) concentrations. In the SMRO ecosystem, we observed a significant decrease in phenol oxidase activity (-73% lower limit) and an increase in soluble phenolic concentrations

  7. Organic carbon stocks in permafrost-affected soils from Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simas, F.N.B.; Schaefer, C.E.G.R.; Mendonça, E.S.; Silva, I.R.; Santana, R.M.; Ribeiro, A.S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Recent works show that organic matter accumulation in some soils from coastal Antarctica is higher than previously expected. The objective of the present work was to estimate the organic C stocks for soils from maritime Antarctica. Cryosols from subpolar desert landscapes presented the lowest organic C stocks. Ornithogenic soils are the most important C reservoirs in terrestrial ecosystems in this part of Antarctica. Although these soils correspond to only 2.5 % of the ice-free areas at Admiralty Bay, they contain approximately 20 % of the estimated C stock. Most of the organic C in the studied soils is stored in the active layer but in some cases the C is also stored in the permafrost.

  8. Characterizing Soil Organic Matter Degradation Levels in Permafrost-affected Soils using Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamala, R.; Jastrow, J. D.; Calderon, F.; Liang, C.; Miller, R. M.; Ping, C. L.; Michaelson, G. J.; Hofmann, S.

    2014-12-01

    Diffuse-reflectance Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (MidIR) was used to (1) investigate soil quality along a latitudinal gradient of Alaskan soils, and in combination with soil incubations, (2) to assess the relative lability of soil organic matter in the active layer and upper permafrost for some of those soils. Twenty nine sites were sampled along a latitudinal gradient (78.79 N to 55.35 N deg). The sites included 8 different vegetation types (moss/lichen, non-acidic and acidic tundra, shrub areas, deciduous forests, mixed forests, coniferous forests, and grassland). At each site, soils were separated by soil horizons and analyzed for pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic and inorganic C, and total N. Samples were also scanned to obtain MidIR spectra, and ratios of characteristic bands previously suggested as indicators of organic matter quality or degradation level were calculated. Principal component analysis showed that axis 1 explained 70% of the variation and was correlated with the general Organic:Mineral ratio, soil organic C, total N, and CEC, but not with vegetation type. Axis 2 explained 25% of the variation and was correlated with most of the band ratios, with negative values for the condensation index (ratio of aromatic to aliphatic organic matter) and positive values for all humification ratios (HU1: ratio of aliphatic to polysaccharides; HU2: ratio of aromatics to polysaccharides; and HU3 ratio of lignin/phenols to polysaccharides) suggesting that axis 2 variations were related to differences in level of soil organic matter degradation. Active organic, active mineral and permafrost layers from selected tundra sites were incubated for two months at -1, 1, 4, 8 and 16 ⁰C. The same band ratios were correlated with total CO2 mineralized during the incubations. Data from 4⁰C showed that the cumulative respired CO2 from the active organic layer across all sites was negatively correlated with the HU1 humification ratio, suggesting

  9. Multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphoma: organ-specific relationships and the prognostic factors. Consortium for improving survival of lymphoma study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung Yong; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Jin Seok; Kim, Seok Jin; Lee, Suee; Lee, Dae Ho; Won, Jong-Ho; Hwang, In Gyu; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Soon Il; Chae, Yee Soo; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kang, Hye Jin; Choi, Chul Won; Park, Jinny; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kwon, Jung Hye; Lee, Ho Sup; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Lee, Won Sik; Suh, Cheolwon; Kim, Hyo-Jin

    2010-10-01

    According to a previous review, multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphomas (MZLs) are present in 10-30% of patients. However, the clinical features and specific relationships among involved organs are yet to be clearly identified. In this study, we conducted retrospective analyses of multiple MALT organs involving MZLs (MM-MZLs) to identify their clinical features, treatment, prognosis, and specific relationships among involved organs. For analysis, between June 1987 and June 2009, a total of 55 patients from 17 different institutions in Korea, all of whom were histologically diagnosed with MM-MZL, were included in this study. MM-MZL was defined as MZL involving more than 2 different MALT organs. Multiple involvements within one MALT organ (e.g. both side ocular lesions, multiple lung nodules, and multiple stomach lesions, etc.) were excluded from this study. The male/female ratio of the 55 patients was 41/14. The median age of our subjects was 59 years (range 30-82 years). MM-MZL without lymph node (LN) was detected only in 9 patients (36.2%). Bone marrow (BM) involvement was observed in 17 patients (30.9%). The most common site of involvement was the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (25 patients, 45.5%) followed by the lung (40%), Waldeyer's ring (WR) (27.3%), and ocular area (25.5%). Ocular MZLs were commonly accompanied with WR- or lung-MZLs. GI-MZLs were WR or GI-MZLs. Lung-MZLs were frequently observed with ocular and GI-MZLs. WR-MZLs were ocular or GI-MZLs. A total of 53 patients were treated, and 2 on watchful wait. As much as 48 patients received chemotherapy-based treatment. Among them, CR or PR was achieved in 38 patients (79.2%, 95% CI 67-91%). Median time to progression (TTP) was 2.3 years (95% CI 1.4-3.2 years). Cause-specific overall survival (OS) did not reach the median value. The 5-year OS rate was 84.9%. MM-MZLs tend to be an indolent disease, characterized by prolonged survival with frequent

  10. Tracing the sources of refractory dissolved organic matter in a large artificial lake using multiple analytical tools.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hang Vo-Minh; Hur, Jin

    2011-10-01

    Structural and chemical characteristics of refractory dissolved organic matter (RDOM) from seven different sources (algae, leaf litter, reed, compost, field soil, paddy water, treated sewage) were examined using multiple analytical tools, and they were compared with those of RDOM in a large artificial lake (Lake Paldang, Korea). Treated sewage, paddy water, and field soil were distinguished from the other sources investigated by their relatively low specific UV absorbance (SUVA) values and more pronounced fulvic-like versus humic-like fluorescence of the RDOM samples. Microbial derived RDOM from algae and treated sewage showed relatively low apparent molecular weight and a higher fraction of hydrophilic bases relative to the total hydrophilic fraction. For the biopolymer types, the presence of polyhydroxy aromatics with the high abundance of proteins was observed only for vascular plant-based RDOM (i.e., leaf litter and reed). Molecular weight values exhibited positive correlations with the SUVA and the hydrophobic content among the different RDOM, suggesting that hydrophobic and condensed aromatic structures may be the main components of high molecular weight RDOM. Principal component analysis revealed that approximately 77% of the variance in the RDOM characteristics might be explained by the source difference (i.e., terrestrial and microbial derived) and a tendency of further microbial transformation. Combined results demonstrated that the properties of the lake RDOM were largely affected by the upstream sources of field soil, paddy water, and treated sewage, which are characterized by low molecular weight UV-absorbing and non-aromatic structures with relatively high resistance to further degradation.

  11. Organ heterogeneity of host-derived matrix metalloproteinase expression and its involvement in multiple-organ metastasis by lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shiraga, Minoru; Yano, Seiji; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Goto, Hisatsugu; Miki, Toyokazu; Miki, Keisuke; Zhang, Helong; Sone, Saburo

    2002-10-15

    Cancer metastasis is tightly regulated by the interaction of tumor cells and host organ microenvironments. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), produced by both tumor cells and host stromal cells, play a central role in tumor invasion and angiogenesis. We determined whether metastatic potential of lung cancer to multiple organs is dependent solely on the expression of MMPs by tumor cells, using two metastasis models of human lung cancer cell lines expressing various levels of MMPs and a MMP inhibitor (ONO-4817). In the lung metastasis model, tumor cells (PC14, PC14PE6, H226, A549) inoculated i.v. into nude or SCID mice metastasized only in the lung. In the multiple-organ metastasis model, tumor cells (RERF-LC-AI, SBC-3/DOX, H69/VP, which express low levels of MMPs) inoculated i.v. into natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice metastasized into the liver, kidneys, and systemic lymph nodes. Film in situ zymography analysis revealed that the nontumor parenchyma of the lung had no gelatinolytic activity, whereas gelatinolytic activity of the liver and kidney was high and low, respectively. In the lung metastasis model, gelatinolytic activity of lung nodules directly correlated with the in vitro expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by tumor cells. Inhibition of MMP activity by ONO-4817 suppressed lung metastasis by the cell lines that expressed MMPs, but not those that did not express MMP, via the inhibition of MMP activity of lung tumors. In the multiple-organ metastasis model, liver parenchyma, but not liver nodules, showed gelatinolytic activity. The MMP inhibition reduced metastasis to the liver, but not to the kidney or lymph nodes, via inhibition of MMP activity of liver parenchyma. These findings suggest that MMP expression varies among the host organ microenvironments and that stromal MMPs may promote metastasis of lung cancer. Therefore, antimetastatic effects based on MMP inhibition may be dependent on MMPs derived not only from tumor cells but also from organ

  12. Technology-Aided Leisure and Communication Opportunities for Two Post-Coma Persons Emerged from a Minimally Conscious State and Affected by Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed technology-aided programs for helping two post-coma persons, who had emerged from a minimally conscious state and were affected by multiple disabilities, to (a) engage with leisure stimuli and request caregiver's procedures, (b) send out and listen to text messages for communication with distant partners, and (c) combine…

  13. How organic farming of wheat may affect the sourdough and the nutritional and technological features of leavened baked goods.

    PubMed

    Pontonio, Erica; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Dousset, Xavier; Clément, Héliciane; Filannino, Pasquale; Onno, Bernard; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-19

    Organic farming is gaining broad recognition as a system that complies well with sustainability, an overarching principle that should drive agriculture now and in the coming year. Different cultivars and products can harbour different abundances of specific bacterial groups, farming system may influence the composition and abundances of microbial communities found on food product. Despite the growing interest towards organic foods, we still have a limited understanding of the diversity of food-associated microbial communities and the factors that influence the composition of these communities. Consumers in developed nations are commonly exposed to differences in farming practices through their choice between organic and conventionally farmed foods. Organic farming practices can differ from conventional farming practices in a variety of ways, including the types of fertilizer and pesticides that are used. This review aiming to gather current knowledge on chemical, technological, toxicological and functional properties and microbiota composition of wheat flours originating from organic and conventional farming systems and how the use of these may affect the sourdough fermentation and breadmaking. Sourdough fermentation is the most natural and best-performing process to ensure optimal sensory and functional characteristics. It fits perfectly into the processing chain that starts with the organic farming, especially for old wheat varieties with weaker technological properties. Recently, organic and sourdough microbiota diversity was investigated and in some case a comparison between organic and conventional microbial ecosystem was also carried out. Opposites evidences arise. Once a higher diversity of lactic acid bacteria species was found in conventional wheat sourdoughs, while when the diversity of Firmicutes was investigated, organic sourdoughs showed the highest complexity. When occurring, the differences between conventional and organic sourdough microbiota and

  14. ZIP8 Zinc Transporter: Indispensable Role for Both Multiple-Organ Organogenesis and Hematopoiesis In Utero

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez-Peralta, Marina; He, Lei; Jorge-Nebert, Lucia F.; Wang, Bin; Miller, Marian L.; Eppert, Bryan L.; Afton, Scott; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2012-01-01

    Previously this laboratory characterized Slc39a8-encoded ZIP8 as a Zn2+/(HCO3–)2 symporter; yet, the overall physiological importance of ZIP8 at the whole-organism level remains unclear. Herein we describe the phenotype of the hypomorphic Slc39a8(neo/neo) mouse which has retained the neomycin-resistance gene in intron 3, hence causing significantly decreased ZIP8 mRNA and protein levels in embryo, fetus, placenta, yolk sac, and several tissues of neonates. The Slc39a8(neo) allele is associated with diminished zinc and iron uptake in mouse fetal fibroblast and liver-derived cultures; consequently, Slc39a8(neo/neo) newborns exhibit diminished zinc and iron levels in several tissues. Slc39a8(neo/neo) homozygotes from gestational day(GD)-11.5 onward are pale, growth-stunted, and die between GD18.5 and 48 h postnatally. Defects include: severely hypoplastic spleen; hypoplasia of liver, kidney, lung, and lower limbs. Histologically, Slc39a8(neo/neo) neonates show decreased numbers of hematopoietic islands in yolk sac and liver. Low hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, serum iron, and total iron-binding capacity confirmed severe anemia. Flow cytometry of fetal liver cells revealed the erythroid series strikingly affected in the hypomorph. Zinc-dependent 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, required for heme synthesis, was not different between Slc39a8(+/+) and Slc39a8(neo/neo) offspring. To demonstrate further that the mouse phenotype is due to ZIP8 deficiency, we bred Slc39a8(+/neo) with BAC-transgenic BTZIP8-3 line (carrying three extra copies of the Slc39a8 allele); this cross generated viable Slc39a8(neo/neo)_BTZIP8-3(+/+) pups showing none of the above-mentioned congenital defects–proving Slc39a8(neo/neo) causes the described phenotype. Our study demonstrates that ZIP8-mediated zinc transport plays an unappreciated critical role during in utero and neonatal growth, organ morphogenesis, and hematopoiesis. PMID:22563477

  15. ZIP8 zinc transporter: indispensable role for both multiple-organ organogenesis and hematopoiesis in utero.

    PubMed

    Gálvez-Peralta, Marina; He, Lei; Jorge-Nebert, Lucia F; Wang, Bin; Miller, Marian L; Eppert, Bryan L; Afton, Scott; Nebert, Daniel W

    2012-01-01

    Previously this laboratory characterized Slc39a8-encoded ZIP8 as a Zn(2+)/(HCO(3)(-))(2) symporter; yet, the overall physiological importance of ZIP8 at the whole-organism level remains unclear. Herein we describe the phenotype of the hypomorphic Slc39a8(neo/neo) mouse which has retained the neomycin-resistance gene in intron 3, hence causing significantly decreased ZIP8 mRNA and protein levels in embryo, fetus, placenta, yolk sac, and several tissues of neonates. The Slc39a8(neo) allele is associated with diminished zinc and iron uptake in mouse fetal fibroblast and liver-derived cultures; consequently, Slc39a8(neo/neo) newborns exhibit diminished zinc and iron levels in several tissues. Slc39a8(neo/neo) homozygotes from gestational day(GD)-11.5 onward are pale, growth-stunted, and die between GD18.5 and 48 h postnatally. Defects include: severely hypoplastic spleen; hypoplasia of liver, kidney, lung, and lower limbs. Histologically, Slc39a8(neo/neo) neonates show decreased numbers of hematopoietic islands in yolk sac and liver. Low hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, serum iron, and total iron-binding capacity confirmed severe anemia. Flow cytometry of fetal liver cells revealed the erythroid series strikingly affected in the hypomorph. Zinc-dependent 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, required for heme synthesis, was not different between Slc39a8(+/+) and Slc39a8(neo/neo) offspring. To demonstrate further that the mouse phenotype is due to ZIP8 deficiency, we bred Slc39a8(+/neo) with BAC-transgenic BTZIP8-3 line (carrying three extra copies of the Slc39a8 allele); this cross generated viable Slc39a8(neo/neo)_BTZIP8-3(+/+) pups showing none of the above-mentioned congenital defects-proving Slc39a8(neo/neo) causes the described phenotype. Our study demonstrates that ZIP8-mediated zinc transport plays an unappreciated critical role during in utero and neonatal growth, organ morphogenesis, and hematopoiesis.

  16. Clinical and Autopsy Diagnoses of Visceral Affections of Patients Who Died Because of Complicated Burns with Multi-organ Failure

    PubMed Central

    Taran, A.; Baciu, N.; Rafulea, V.; German, A.

    2005-01-01

    Summary The anatomicopathological investigations carried out in a total number of 186 cadavers during the last decade were reviewed. In these retrospective studies of necropsy protocols related to different affections of visceral organ systems that evolved asymptomatically, 30.1% involved the neurological system, 36.0% the uropoiesis system, 34.4% the gastrointestinal system, 52.0% the hepatobiliary system, and 39.7% the cardiovascular system, with a prevalence in the pulmonary system of 64.2%. A comparative analysis of the incidence of affections detected in various visceral organs (on the basis of necropsy data in the 186 burn patients) and the incidence of their clinical manifestations showed that in 35% of patients with extensive and deep burns all of these conditions developed asymptomatically and were diagnosed only through autopsy. PMID:21991003

  17. How Color Coding Formulaic Writing Enhances Organization: A Qualitative Approach for Measuring Student Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geigle, Bryce A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate and present the status of student synthesis with color coded formula writing for grade level six through twelve, and to make recommendations for educators to teach writing structure through a color coded formula system in order to increase classroom engagement and lower students' affect. The thesis first…

  18. Solubility and Leaching Risks of Organic Carbon in Paddy Soils as Affected by Irrigation Managements

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shihong; Wei, Qi; Gao, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Influence of nonflooding controlled irrigation (NFI) on solubility and leaching risk of soil organic carbon (SOC) were investigated. Compared with flooding irrigation (FI) paddies, soil water extractable organic carbon (WEOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in NFI paddies increased in surface soil but decreased in deep soil. The DOC leaching loss in NFI field was 63.3 kg C ha−1, reduced by 46.4% than in the FI fields. It indicated that multi-wet-dry cycles in NFI paddies enhanced the decomposition of SOC in surface soils, and less carbon moved downward to deep soils due to less percolation. That also led to lower SOC in surface soils in NFI paddies than in FI paddies, which implied that more carbon was released into the atmosphere from the surface soil in NFI paddies. Change of solubility of SOC in NFI paddies might lead to potential change in soil fertility and sustainability, greenhouse gas emission, and bioavailability of trace metals or organic pollutants. PMID:23935423

  19. Water and salt extractable organic matter as affected by soil depth and tillage system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soluble organic matter (OM) has been suggested to reflect shifts in soil management. We characterized the pool size and properties of soluble OM along a soil profile to 125 cm in a maize-based agricultural system that was managed under conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) systems for 23 yea...

  20. Which molecular features affect the intrinsic hepatic clearance rate of ionizable organic chemicals in fish?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greater knowledge of biotransformation rates for ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) in fish is required to properly assess the bioaccumulation potential of many environmentally relevant contaminants. In this study we measured in vitro hepatic clearance rates for 50 IOCs using a p...

  1. Solubility and leaching risks of organic carbon in paddy soils as affected by irrigation managements.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong; Peng, Shizhang; Wei, Qi; Gao, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Influence of nonflooding controlled irrigation (NFI) on solubility and leaching risk of soil organic carbon (SOC) were investigated. Compared with flooding irrigation (FI) paddies, soil water extractable organic carbon (WEOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in NFI paddies increased in surface soil but decreased in deep soil. The DOC leaching loss in NFI field was 63.3 kg C ha⁻¹, reduced by 46.4% than in the FI fields. It indicated that multi-wet-dry cycles in NFI paddies enhanced the decomposition of SOC in surface soils, and less carbon moved downward to deep soils due to less percolation. That also led to lower SOC in surface soils in NFI paddies than in FI paddies, which implied that more carbon was released into the atmosphere from the surface soil in NFI paddies. Change of solubility of SOC in NFI paddies might lead to potential change in soil fertility and sustainability, greenhouse gas emission, and bioavailability of trace metals or organic pollutants.

  2. Emission of volatile organic compounds as affected by rate of application of cattle manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle manure can serve as a valuable nutrient source for crop production. However, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) following land application may pose a potential off-site odor concern. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of land application method, N- application...

  3. Purple Nutsedge Tuber Productivity as Affected by Organic Mulches in a Watermelon Production System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted in Isabela, Puerto Rico, to determine the tuber productivity of the weed purple nutsedge (PN) and the yield of ‘Crimson Sweet' watermelon when grown with or without organic soil bed mulches [hays of millet (Pennisetum glaucum), nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), sunnhemp (Crotalaria...

  4. Soil profile organic carbon as affected by tillage and cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports on the long-term effects of tillage and cropping systems on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in the entire rooting profile are limited. A long-term experiment with three cropping systems [continuous corn (CC), continuous soybean (CSB), and soybean-corn (SB-C)] in six primary tillage s...

  5. Blast furnace slag can effectively remediate coastal marine sediments affected by organic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji

    2010-04-01

    There is an urgent need to control nutrient release fluxes from organically-enriched sediments into overlying waters to alleviate the effects of eutrophication. This study aims to characterize blast furnace slag (BFS) and evaluate its remediation performance on organically-enriched sediments in terms of suppressing nutrient fluxes and reducing acid volatile sulfide. BFS was mainly composed of inorganic substances such as CaO, SiO(2), Al(2)O(3) and MgO in amorphous crystal phase. Container experiments showed that the phosphate concentration in the overlying water, its releasing flux from sediment and AVS of the sediment decreased by 17-23%, 39% and 16% compared to the control without BFS, respectively. The loss on ignition was significantly decreased by 3.6-11% compared to the control. Thus, the application of BFS to organically-enriched sediment has a suppressive role on organic matter, AVS concentration and phosphate releasing flux from sediments and therefore, is a good candidate as an effective environmental remediation agent.

  6. Biogeography of soil organic matter molecular structure across multiple soil size fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, C. L.; Neff, J.

    2009-12-01

    Recent work suggests that there is a common soil decomposition sequence whereby plant inputs are metabolized into a physiologically constrained set of compounds originating from microbes that may persist in soil over relatively long time-scales. Plant inputs tend to be found in coarse particulate fractions (>180 μm) with relatively fast turnover times, while microbially derived compounds tend to accrue in the finer silt + clay fractions (<53 μm) with relatively long turnover times. To investigate whether a common decomposition sequence exists, we used pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) to characterize the molecular structure of soil organic matter (SOM) in three size fractions (590-180 μm, 180-53 μm, and <53 μm), using soils sampled from multiple biomes (alpine tundra, sub-alpine forest, boreal forest, temperate coniferous, temperate deciduous, dry desert/savannah, and tropical forest). We hypothesized that: 1) regardless of biome, fractions >180 μm would be chemically similar, and would be characterized by lignin and other plant-derived compounds; and 2) fractions <53 μm would also be similar across biomes but would be dominated by microbially-derived compounds like polysaccharides. Across all biomes, we found that there was significantly less lignin in <53 μm fractions compared to >180 μm fractions (p<0.0001), providing some support for the idea that plant material is not incorporated into soil C pools with relatively long turnover times. However, a principal components analysis (PCA) showed that the >180 μm coarse particulate fractions also contained compounds associated with microbial origins, indicating that microbial C is not limited to <53 μm size fractions. The PCA also revealed that samples within each of the three size fractions did not cluster together (i.e. they did not share a common molecular structure), but we did note that: 1) cold alpine and sub-alpine sites were unique and chemically similar; and 2) tropical

  7. In vivo bioluminescence and reflectance imaging of multiple organs in bioluminescence reporter mice by bundled-fiber-coupled microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Yoriko; Sakurai, Takashi; Koida, Kowa; Tei, Hajime; Hida, Akiko; Nakao, Kazuki; Natsume, Mistuo; Numano, Rika

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is used in biomedical research to monitor biological processes within living organisms. Recently, fiber bundles with high transmittance and density have been developed to detect low light with high resolution. Therefore, we have developed a bundled-fiber-coupled microscope with a highly sensitive cooled-CCD camera that enables the BLI of organs within the mouse body. This is the first report of in vivo BLI of the brain and multiple organs in luciferase-reporter mice using bundled-fiber optics. With reflectance imaging, the structures of blood vessels and organs can be seen clearly with light illumination, and it allowed identification of the structural details of bioluminescence images. This technique can also be applied to clinical diagnostics in a low invasive manner. PMID:27231601

  8. Coastal sediments under the influence of multiple organic enrichment sources: An evaluation using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Leandro; Freitas, Rosa; Máguas, Cristina; Rodrigues, Ana; Quintino, Victor

    2010-02-01

    Sediment descriptors (grain size, total volatile solids, redox potential) and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to trace the origin of organic matter in a coastal area under multiple organic enrichment sources (urban outfall and a major estuary). The sediments fines content and total volatile solids were similar to outfall pre-operation period (1994), but the incorporation of terrestrial organic matter within the sediments located closer to the outfall was diagnosed by depleted (13)C values (-24.2+/-0.38 per thousand) and (15)N values (2.4+/-0.93 per thousand). Data also indicated depleted nitrogen signature at larger distances from the outfall than the carbon signature, due to confounding sediment grain size properties. Analysis in the bivalve Abra alba gave the same results for both isotopes and thus allowed a coherent interpretation of the spatial extent of the organic enrichment, highlighting the importance of bringing a biological element into the environmental assessment.

  9. In vivo bioluminescence and reflectance imaging of multiple organs in bioluminescence reporter mice by bundled-fiber-coupled microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yoriko; Sakurai, Takashi; Koida, Kowa; Tei, Hajime; Hida, Akiko; Nakao, Kazuki; Natsume, Mistuo; Numano, Rika

    2016-03-01

    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is used in biomedical research to monitor biological processes within living organisms. Recently, fiber bundles with high transmittance and density have been developed to detect low light with high resolution. Therefore, we have developed a bundled-fiber-coupled microscope with a highly sensitive cooled-CCD camera that enables the BLI of organs within the mouse body. This is the first report of in vivo BLI of the brain and multiple organs in luciferase-reporter mice using bundled-fiber optics. With reflectance imaging, the structures of blood vessels and organs can be seen clearly with light illumination, and it allowed identification of the structural details of bioluminescence images. This technique can also be applied to clinical diagnostics in a low invasive manner.

  10. Conventional and organic soil fertility management practices affect corn plant nutrition and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval performance.

    PubMed

    Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition.

  11. National Institutes of Health chronic graft-versus-host disease staging in severely affected patients: organ and global scoring correlate with established indicators of disease severity and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Baird, Kristin; Steinberg, Seth M; Grkovic, Lana; Pulanic, Drazen; Cowen, Edward W; Mitchell, Sandra A; Williams, Kirsten M; Datiles, Manuel B; Bishop, Rachel; Bassim, Carol W; Mays, Jacqueline W; Edwards, Dean; Cole, Kristen; Avila, Daniele N; Taylor, Tiffany; Urban, Amanda; Joe, Galen O; Comis, Leora E; Berger, Ann; Stratton, Pamela; Zhang, Dan; Shelhamer, James H; Gea-Banacloche, Juan C; Sportes, Claude; Fowler, Daniel H; Gress, Ronald E; Pavletic, Steven Z

    2013-04-01

    Between 2004 and 2010, 189 adult patients were enrolled on the National Cancer Institute's cross-sectional chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) natural history study. Patients were evaluated by multiple disease scales and outcome measures, including the 2005 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Project cGVHD severity scores. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the NIH scoring variables as determinants of disease severity in severely affected patients in efforts to standardize clinician evaluation and staging of cGVHD. Out of 189 patients enrolled, 125 met the criteria for severe cGVHD on the NIH global score, 62 of whom had moderate disease, with a median of 4 (range, 1-8) involved organs. Clinician-assigned average NIH organ score and the corresponding organ scores assigned by subspecialists were highly correlated (r = 0.64). NIH global severity scores showed significant associations with nearly all functional and quality of life outcome measures, including the Lee Symptom Scale, Short Form-36 Physical Component Scale, 2-minute walk, grip strength, range of motion, and Human Activity Profile. Joint/fascia, skin, and lung involvement affected function and quality of life most significantly and showed the greatest correlation with outcome measures. The final Cox model with factors jointly predictive for survival included the time from cGVHD diagnosis (>49 versus ≤49 months, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.23; P = .0011), absolute eosinophil count at the time of NIH evaluation (0-0.5 versus >0.5 cells/μL, HR = 3.95; P = .0006), and NIH lung score (3 versus 0-2, HR = 11.02; P < .0001). These results demonstrate that NIH organs and global severity scores are reliable measures of cGVHD disease burden. The strong association with subspecialist evaluation suggests that NIH organ and global severity scores are appropriate for clinical and research assessments, and may serve as a surrogate for more complex subspecialist examinations. In this

  12. Financing Terror: Analysis and Simulation to Affect Terrorist Organizations’ Financial Infrastructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-15

    due to its possible dependence on those external sources of funds. On the other hand, internalizing the fundraising function takes resources away from... Fundraisers " Daily News (Canada) 17 June 2000. 87 SVIK Organization. Available on-line at http://www.svik.org/ltte.htm as of 18 May 2004. "Svik" in Norwegian...sponsorship is not part of the group’s infrastructure. The bulk of fundraising appears to be through mechanisms the LTTE completely or largely controls

  13. Archaeal community composition affects the function of anaerobic co-digesters in response to organic overload

    SciTech Connect

    Lerm, S.; Kleyboecker, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Alawi, M.; Kasina, M.; Liebrich, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two types of methanogens are necessary to respond successfully to perturbation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diversity of methanogens correlates with the VFA concentration and methane yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aggregates indicate tight spatial relationship between minerals and microorganisms. - Abstract: Microbial community diversity in two thermophilic laboratory-scale and three full-scale anaerobic co-digesters was analysed by genetic profiling based on PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. In parallel operated laboratory reactors a stepwise increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) resulted in a decrease of methane production and an accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). However, almost threefold different OLRs were necessary to inhibit the gas production in the reactors. During stable reactor performance, no significant differences in the bacterial community structures were detected, except for in the archaeal communities. Sequencing of archaeal PCR products revealed a dominance of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila, while hydrogenotrophic methanogens were of minor importance and differed additionally in their abundance between reactors. As a consequence of the perturbation, changes in bacterial and archaeal populations were observed. After organic overload, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanospirillum hungatei and Methanoculleus receptaculi) became more dominant, especially in the reactor attributed by a higher OLR capacity. In addition, aggregates composed of mineral and organic layers formed during organic overload and indicated tight spatial relationships between minerals and microbial processes that may support de-acidification processes in over-acidified sludge. Comparative analyses of mesophilic stationary phase full-scale reactors additionally indicated a correlation between the diversity of methanogens and the VFA concentration combined with the methane yield. This study

  14. Is lack of antibiotic usage affecting udder health status of organic dairy cattle?

    PubMed

    Orjales, Inmaculada; López-Alonso, Marta; Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Ruth; Rey-Crespo, Francisco; Villar, Ana; Miranda, Marta

    2016-11-01

    This research communication aimed to compare somatic cell count (SCC), the main marker of udder health status, in organic farms not using antibiotics (O, n = 6), organic farms using antibiotics (OA, n = 7) and conventional farms (CA, n = 5) using antibiotic treatments, all of them at pasture. SCC was statistically significantly higher in O (173780) compared to CA (93325) and OA (107152). Milk yield had a significant diluting effect on SCC and differences between groups increased with parities. Stratified analysis of SCC depending on lactation number and % of monthly SCC test with different linear scores (LS) indicated that there is no difference in udder health in the primiparous heifers from the three groups of farms, but it deteriorates in older cows because of chronic infections in O (possibly due to lack of antibiotic use). Our results suggest that the non-use of antibiotics had an effect in udder health leading to higher occurrence of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Therefore, preventive management practices for mastitis control are essential in organic farms.

  15. The sorption characteristics of mercury as affected by organic matter content and/or soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šípková, Adéla; Šillerová, Hana; Száková, Jiřina

    2014-05-01

    The determination and description of the mercury sorption extend on soil is significant for potential environmental toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mercury sorption at different soil samples and vermicomposts. Mercury interactions with soil organic matter were studied using three soils with different physical-chemical properties - fluvisol, cambisol, and chernozem. Moreover, three different vermicomposts based on various bio-waste materials with high organic matter content were prepared in special fermentors. First was a digestate, second was represented by a mixture of bio-waste from housing estate and woodchips, and third was a garden bio-waste. In the case of vermicompost, the fractionation of organic matter was executed primarily using the resin SuperliteTM DAX-8. Therefore, the representation of individual fractions (humic acid, fulvic acid, hydrophilic compounds, and hydrophobic neutral organic matter) was known. The kinetics of mercury sorption onto materials of interest was studied by static sorption experiments. Samples were exposed to the solution with known Hg concentration of 12 mg kg-1 for the time from 10 minutes to 24 hours. Mercury content in the solutions was measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Based on this data, the optimum conditions for following sorption experiments were chosen. Subsequently, the batch sorption tests for all soil types and vermicomposts were performed in solution containing variable mercury concentrations between 1 and 12 mg kg-1. Equilibrium concentration values measured in the solution after sorption and calculated mercury content per kilogram of the soil or the vermi-compost were plotted. Two basic models of sorption isotherm - Langmuir and Freundlich, were used for the evaluation of the mercury sorption properties. The results showed that the best sorption properties from studied soil were identified in chernozem with highest cation exchange

  16. How does pyrogenic organic matter affect the N dynamic in agricultural soils? An incubation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Rosa, José M.; Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    Besides other environmental factors, N availability drives the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles in grasslands. Since grass-dominated ecosystems cover approximately 40% of the terrestrial surface and store more than 30% of global soil organic carbon (SOC), alterations to those ecosystems could have significant consequences and potential implications for global C and N cycles and climate (Schlesinger et al., 1990). Understanding the processes that govern the efficient cycling of nutrients through soil/plant systems remains an important topic to underpin the choice of strategies aimed at ensuring the long-term sustainability of ecosystems. In Mediterranean ecosystems, wild-fires occur frequently. Whereas factors such as water shortage or erosion contribute to reduced N-availability by lowering the litter input, burning additionally increase the refractory N and C-pools by charring litter and humic material (charred pyrogenic organic matter-PyOM) (Gonzalez-Pérez, 2004). In general, the addition of organic matter either as plant residues or farmyard manure has been shown to significantly increase biological activity, microbial biomass and enzyme activity in soil (Dick, 1992). Even in situations where microbial biomass appears to be unaffected, the activity of specific processes (e.g. N mineralization) can be significantly influenced by the addition of organic residues). However, little is known about the changes of the N cycle caused by the addition of PyOM. Therefore, the interest of our research was to study the impact of 15N enriched-biochars either alone or in conjunction with a 15N enriched fertilizer (K15NO3) on aggregate stability and organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) distribution among the different soil fractions. The latter may help to elucidate both, the quality of the stored organic matter and if the accumulation is related to interaction with the mineral matter. Therefore, biochar derived from grass material grown on 15N-enriched fertilizer was added

  17. Digestive Organ in the Female Reproductive Tract Borrows Genes from Multiple Organ Systems to Adopt Critical Functions

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Camille; Plakke, Melissa S.; Deutsch, Aaron B.; Small, Brandon S.; Morehouse, Nathan I.; Clark, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent adaptive challenges are often met with the evolution of novel physiological traits. Although there are specific examples of single genes providing new physiological functions, studies on the origin of complex organ functions are lacking. One such derived set of complex functions is found in the Lepidopteran bursa copulatrix, an organ within the female reproductive tract that digests nutrients from the male ejaculate or spermatophore. Here, we characterized bursa physiology and the evolutionary mechanisms by which it was equipped with digestive and absorptive functionality. By studying the transcriptome of the bursa and eight other tissues, we revealed a suite of highly expressed and secreted gene products providing the bursa with a combination of stomach-like traits for mechanical and enzymatic digestion of the male spermatophore. By subsequently placing these bursa genes in an evolutionary framework, we found that the vast majority of their novel digestive functions were co-opted by borrowing genes that continue to be expressed in nonreproductive tissues. However, a number of bursa-specific genes have also arisen, some of which represent unique gene families restricted to Lepidoptera and may provide novel bursa-specific functions. This pattern of promiscuous gene borrowing and relatively infrequent evolution of tissue-specific duplicates stands in contrast to studies of the evolution of novelty via single gene co-option. Our results suggest that the evolution of complex organ-level phenotypes may often be enabled (and subsequently constrained) by changes in tissue specificity that allow expression of existing genes in novel contexts, such as reproduction. The extent to which the selective pressures encountered in these novel roles require resolution via duplication and sub/neofunctionalization is likely to be determined by the need for specialized reproductive functionality. Thus, complex physiological phenotypes such as that found in the bursa offer

  18. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-04-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non fertilized cereal reference during the GM year (2009). Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+ 0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) resulting in generally higher N2O emissions during barley production. Addition of biogas residue (80 kg N ha-1) in 2010 to previously non mulched GM and unfertilized cereal plots (2009) had no significant effect on cumulative N2O emissions relative to a treatment receiving the same amount of N in form of mulched aboveground GM. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, organic amendments (previously mulched or harvested GM, biorest) increased N2O emissions relative to a reference treatment with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  19. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-07-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and return as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilised cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (60 kg NH4+-N + 50 kg organic N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilised cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Based on measurements covering the growing season 2010, organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilisation (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  20. Low operational stability of enzymes in dry organic solvents: changes in the active site might affect catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Vibha; Delgado, Yamixa; Legault, Marc; Barletta, Gabriel

    2012-02-14

    The potential of enzyme catalysis in organic solvents for synthetic applications has been overshadowed by the fact that their catalytic properties are affected by organic solvents. In addition, it has recently been shown that an enzyme's initial activity diminishes considerably after prolonged exposure to organic media. Studies geared towards understanding this last drawback have yielded unclear results. In the present work we decided to use electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) to study the motion of an active site spin label (a nitroxide free radical) during 96 h of exposure of the serine protease subtilisin Carlsberg to four different organic solvents. Our EPR data shows a typical two component spectra that was quantified by the ratio of the anisotropic and isotropic signals. The isotropic component, associated with a mobile nitroxide free radical, increases during prolonged exposure to all solvents used in the study. The maximum increase (of 43%) was observed in 1,4-dioxane. Based on these and previous studies we suggest that prolonged exposure of the enzyme to these solvents provokes a cascade of events that could induce substrates to adopt different binding conformations. This is the first EPR study of the motion of an active-site spin label during prolonged exposure of an enzyme to organic solvents ever reported.

  1. Organic-geochemical investigations on soil layers affected by theTohoku-oki tsunami (March 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reicherter, Klaus; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Jaffe, Bruce; Szczucinski, Witold

    2014-05-01

    Geochemical investigations on tsunami deposits, in particular palaeotsunamites, have mainly focused on inorganic indicators that have been used to distinguish between terrestrial and marine matter in sedimentary archives. Observable tsunami deposits may also be characterised by organic-geochemical parameters reflecting the mixture and unexpected transport of marine and terrestrial matter. The application of organic substances with indicative properties has so far not been used, although the approach of using specific indicators to determine prehistoric, historic and recent processes and impacts (so-called biomarker and anthropogenic marker approach) already exists. In particular, for recent tsunami deposit the analysis of anthropogenic or even xenobiotic compounds as indicators for assessing the impact of tsunamis has been neglected so far. The Tohoku-oki tsunami in March 2011 showed the huge threat that tsunamis, and subsequent flooding of coastal lowlands, pose to society. The mainly sandy deposits of this mega-tsunami reach more than 4.5 km inland as there were run-up heights of ca. 10 m (wave height). The destruction of infrastructure by wave action and flooding is accompanied by the release of environmental pollutants (e.g. fuels, fats, tarmac, plastics, heavy metals, etc.) contaminating the coastal areas and ocean. To characterize this event in the sedimentary deposits, we analyzed several soil archives from the Bay of Sendai area. Soil layers representing the tsunami deposits have been contrasted with unaffected pre-tsunami samples by means of organic-geochemical analyses based on GC/MS. Natural compounds and their diagenetic transformation products have been tested as marker compounds for monitoring this recent tsunami. The relative composition of fatty acids, n-alkanes, sesquiterpenes and further substances pointed to significant variations before and after the tsunami event. Additionally, anthropogenic marker compounds (such as soil derived pesticides

  2. Characterization of Plant-derived Dissolved Organic Matter by Multiple Spectroscopic Techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from fresh or early-stage decomposing soil amendment materials may play an important role in the process of organic matter accumulation. In this study, eight DOM samples from alfalfa, corn, crimson clover, hairy vetch, lupin, soybean, wheat and dairy manure wer...

  3. Temporal variations of low molecular mass organic acids during vegetation period in temperate forest soil affected by acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejnecky, V.; Drabek, O.; Bradová, M.; Němeček, K.; Šebek, O.; Zenáhlíková, J.; Boruvka, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Low Molecular Mass Organic Acids (LMMOA) are essential in processes affecting the soils and represent reactive fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). LMMOA influence soil-chemistry behaviour, participate in transport of mineral nutrition and reduce potential toxicity of selected elements like Al. The aim of this research was to assess behaviour, amount and composition of LMMOA in forest soil under different vegetation cover. The researched area is located in the naturally acid Jizera Mountains (Czech Republic), which was further affected by acid deposition and improper forest management. Soil samples from organic F and H horizons, organo-mineral A horizon and spodic or cambic mineral B horizons were taken under beech and spruce stands monthly (from April to October). Both stands were located immediately next to each other. The collected soil samples were analyzed immediately in a "fresh" state. Contents of LMMOA in deionised water extract were determined by means of ion-exchange chromatography (ICS-1600, Dionex, USA) with suppressed conductivity and gradient elution of KOH mobile phase. The contents of LMMOAS were also determined in precipitation samples. In addition, other selected elements (Al, Fe, Ca, Na, Mg and K), Al speciation and main inorganic anions were determined in water extract and precipitation samples. The highest amounts of LMMOA (mainly lactic, acetic, formic, malic and oxalic acid) were observed in organic F and H horizons and measured amounts decreased with increasing soil profile depth. Higher contents were determined in soil under spruce forest than under beech forest. External inputs of LMMOA in a form of precipitation were assessed as less significant in comparison with the soil processes (e.g. soil biological activity, soil organic matter decomposition processes). LMMOA amounts were higher in spring and summer (from April to August), caused by increased biological activity, while lower amounts were observed during the autumn period

  4. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A.; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P.; Robbins, Robert C.; Naesens, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design. PMID:24127489

  5. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P; Robbins, Robert C; Naesens, Maarten; Butte, Atul J; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2013-10-21

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design.

  6. [Psycho-organic diseases in children and adolescents affected by pediatric neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Clerici, C A; Giacon, B; Veneroni, L; Ferrari, A; Luksch, R; Meazza, C; Polastri, D; Simonetti, F; Massimino, M

    2013-12-01

    At Pediatric Oncology Centers, psychological intervention and psychotherapy are generally offered to children and adolescents for supporting their adjustment to disease and treatment. The clinical practice, however, point out that cognitive and emotional symptoms, such as psychic distortions, fatigue, anxiety, irritability and depression, are sustained by biological mechanisms connected with disease and treatment and not respondent to psychological consultation and to other psychosocial resources. These manifestations could interfere with treatment or with the long-term adjustment and call for psychopharmacological treatments. Biological factors able to cause these alterations are not yet studied in depth in clinical tradition and scientific literature on the integration of psychological and psychopharmacological intervention in pediatric oncology is still poor. In this paper organic components of psychic and behavioral alterations in the course of disease are illustrated, considering the symptoms, causes and possible remedies in the light of the most recent interdisciplinary views. The main mechanism connected with oncologic treatments - chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy - and responsible for psycho-organic alterations in children and adolescent with cancer are also described.

  7. Do NK-cell receptors and alloreactivity affect solid organ transplantation?

    PubMed

    Vilches, Carlos; Parham, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Although natural killer cells lyse targets without pre-sensitization, and in an MHC-unrestricted manner, they can also respond to healthy allogeneic cells of different MHC type. Such alloreactivity is a consequence of NK cells using clonally distributed, inhibitory MHC class I receptors to achieve tolerance to healthy autologous cells. Absence of an appropriate MHC class I ligand on an allogeneic cell erroneously informs the NK cell that the allogeneic cell has lost MHC class I expression and should be killed. Potential NK-cell allo-reactivities are common in non-HLA-identical hematopoietic cell transplants and can have both beneficial and detrimental effects. Less is known of NK-cell allo-reactivities in solid organ transplantation. In animal models NK cells are neither necessary nor sufficient for acute transplant rejection, but they can make a contribution by helping activate T cells. Genes encoding NK-cell receptors for polymorphic MHC class I molecules are also highly polymorphic, contributing to variability of the NK-cell repertoire and response in the human population. These receptors could represent intrinsic patient factors that influence the success of their transplanted solid organs.

  8. Quality of dissolved organic matter affects planktonic but not biofilm bacterial production in streams.

    PubMed

    Kamjunke, Norbert; Herzsprung, Peter; Neu, Thomas R

    2015-02-15

    Streams and rivers are important sites of organic carbon mineralization which is dependent on the land use within river catchments. Here we tested whether planktonic and epilithic biofilm bacteria differ in their response to the quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Thus, planktonic and biofilm bacterial production was compared with patterns of DOC along a land-use gradient in the Bode catchment area (Germany). The freshness index of DOC was positively related to the proportion of agricultural area in the catchment. The humification index correlated with the proportion of forest area. Abundance and production of planktonic bacteria were lower in headwaters than at downstream sites. Planktonic production was weakly correlated to the total concentration of DOC but more strongly to quality-measures as revealed by spectra indexes, i.e. positively to the freshness index and negatively to the humification index. In contrast to planktonic bacteria, abundance and production of biofilm bacteria were independent of DOC quality. This finding may be explained by the association of biofilm bacteria with benthic algae and an extracellular matrix which represent additional substrate sources. The data show that planktonic bacteria seem to be regulated at a landscape scale controlled by land use, whereas biofilm bacteria are regulated at a biofilm matrix scale controlled by autochthonous production. Thus, the effects of catchment-scale land use changes on ecosystem processes are likely lower in small streams dominated by biofilm bacteria than in larger streams dominated by planktonic bacteria.

  9. Factors affecting the uptake of 14C-labeled organic chemicals by plants from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Topp, E.; Scheunert, I.; Attar, A.; Korte, F.

    1986-04-01

    The uptake of /sup 14/C from various /sup 14/C-labeled organic chemicals from different chemical classes by barley and cress seedlings from soil was studied for 7 days in a closed aerated laboratory apparatus. Uptake by roots and by leaves via the air was determined separately. Although comparative long-term outdoor studies showed that an equilibrium is not reached within a short time period, plant concentration factors after 7 days could be correlated to some physicochemical and structural substance properties. Barley root concentration factors due to root uptake, expressed as concentration in roots divided by concentration in soil, gave a fairly good negative correlation to adsorption coefficients based on soil organic carbon. Barley root concentration factors, expressed as concentration in roots divided by concentration in soil liquid, gave a positive correlation to the n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Uptake of chemicals by barley leaves via air was strongly positively correlated to volatilization of chemicals from soil. Both root and foliar uptake by barley could be correlated well to the molecular weight of 14 chemicals. Uptake of chemicals by cress differed from that by barley, and correlations to physicochemical substance properties mostly were poor.

  10. Gene Expression in Gut Symbiotic Organ of Stinkbug Affected by Extracellular Bacterial Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Futahashi, Ryo; Tanaka, Kohjiro; Tanahashi, Masahiko; Nikoh, Naruo; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-01-01

    The bean bug Riptortus pedestris possesses a specialized symbiotic organ in a posterior region of the midgut, where numerous crypts harbor extracellular betaproteobacterial symbionts of the genus Burkholderia. Second instar nymphs orally acquire the symbiont from the environment, and the symbiont infection benefits the host by facilitating growth and by occasionally conferring insecticide resistance. Here we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses of insect genes expressed in symbiotic and non-symbiotic regions of the midgut dissected from Burkholderia-infected and uninfected R. pedestris. Expression sequence tag analysis of cDNA libraries and quantitative reverse transcription PCR identified a number of insect genes expressed in symbiosis- or aposymbiosis-associated patterns. For example, genes up-regulated in symbiotic relative to aposymbiotic individuals, including many cysteine-rich secreted protein genes and many cathepsin protease genes, are likely to play a role in regulating the symbiosis. Conversely, genes up-regulated in aposymbiotic relative to symbiotic individuals, including a chicken-type lysozyme gene and a defensin-like protein gene, are possibly involved in regulation of non-symbiotic bacterial infections. Our study presents the first transcriptomic data on gut symbiotic organ of a stinkbug, which provides initial clues to understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the insect-bacterium gut symbiosis and sheds light on several intriguing commonalities between endocellular and extracellular symbiotic associations. PMID:23691247

  11. PMF Determination of Factors Affecting Organic Pollutant Distributions in the Baltimore Harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, R. K.; Schneider, A.; Baker, J. E.

    2002-05-01

    The E.P.A. has declared the Baltimore Harbor as an impaired waterway, due to elevated levels of persistent pollutants. This concern coupled with recent changes to TMDL permitting requirements has made it essential to understand and quantify the sources of organic contamination. To complement ongoing hydrodynamic modeling efforts, an advanced multivariate statistical method was employed to assess the major factors influencing the distribution of organic contaminants in the harbor. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was used to interpret the seasonal and spatial patterns of 30 PAHs and 10 PCB homolog groups in Baltimore Harbor. Both the particulate and dissolved PAH and PCB homolog fractions, as well as, water quality parameters such as POC, DOC and chlorophyll a were incorporated in this three-dimensional analysis. PMF has been used successfully several times to determine sources of atmospheric pollutants, but only once in water quality analysis. PMF offers several advantages over traditional source modeling including constraints on non-negative solutions. The data used in this analysis was collected as part of the Comprehensive Harbor Assessment and Regional Modeling Study (CHARM) in which water and particulate samples were collected from 26 sites in Baltimore Harbor during the fall and winter of 1999 and spring and summer of 2000.

  12. Interplay of gene expression noise and ultrasensitive dynamics affects bacterial operon organization.

    PubMed

    Ray, J Christian J; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are organized into polycistronic cotranscribed operons, but the evolutionary pressures maintaining them are unclear. We hypothesized that operons alter gene expression noise characteristics, resulting in selection for or against maintaining operons depending on network architecture. Mathematical models for 6 functional classes of network modules showed that three classes exhibited decreased noise and 3 exhibited increased noise with same-operon cotranscription of interacting proteins. Noise reduction was often associated with a decreased chance of reaching an ultrasensitive threshold. Stochastic simulations of the lac operon demonstrated that the predicted effects of transcriptional coupling hold for a complex network module. We employed bioinformatic analysis to find overrepresentation of noise-minimizing operon organization compared with randomized controls. Among constitutively expressed physically interacting protein pairs, higher coupling frequencies appeared at lower expression levels, where noise effects are expected to be dominant. Our results thereby suggest an important role for gene expression noise, in many cases interacting with an ultrasensitive switch, in maintaining or selecting for operons in bacterial chromosomes.

  13. Organic matter protection as affected by the mineral soil matrix: allophanic vs. non-allophanic volcanic ash soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nierop, K. G. J.; Kaal, J.; Jansen, B.; Naafs, D. F. W.

    2009-04-01

    Volcanic ash soils (Andosols) contain the largest amounts of organic carbon of all mineral soil types. Chemical (complexes of organic matter with allophane, Al/Fe) and physical (aggregation) mechanisms are protecting the carbon from decomposition. While allophanic Andosols are dominated by short range order minerals such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite, organic matter-Al/Fe complexes dominate non-allophanic Andosols. Consequently, chemical interactions between the mineral soil matrix and organic matter differ between these two soil types. This difference could potentially lead to different organic matter compositions. In this study, the organic matter of Ah horizons of an allophanic Andosol with a non-allophanic Andosol from Madeira Island is compared using analytical pyrolysis. Both volcanic soil types showed a relative decrease of lignin-derived pyrolysis products with depth, but this decrease was more pronounced in the allophanic Andosol. Polysaccharides were more abundant in the allophanic Ah horizon, particularly at lower depth, and this was also the case for the non-plant-derived N-containing polysaccharide chitin. Most likely, these biopolymers are adsorbed onto short range order minerals such as allophane and therefore were better protected in the allophanic Andosol. In addition, the higher chitin contents combined with the more pronounced lignin degradation suggests a higher fungal activity. Aliphatic pyrolysis products (n-alkenes/n-alkanes, fatty acids) were relatively more enriched in the non-allophanic Andosol. Lower microbial activity caused by the more acidic pH and higher levels of (toxic) aluminium are the most plausible reasons for the accumulation of these compounds in the non-allophanic Andosol. Although the allophanic and non-allophanic Andosol resembled each other in containing biopolymer groups of the same orders of magnitudes, in particular the contents of chitin and aliphatic compounds were distinctly affected by the differences in

  14. Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A-549 ATCC Is Differentially Affected by Supranutritional Organic and Inorganic Selenium

    PubMed Central

    Flores Villavicencio, Lérida Liss; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Kornhauser-Araujo, Carlos; Mendoza-Garrido, M. Eugenia; de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Sabanero-López, Myrna

    2014-01-01

    The effects of organic and inorganic forms of selenium (Se) on human cells have been extensively studied for nutritional concentrations; however, to date, little is known about the potential toxicity at supranutritional levels. In the present study we determined the effects of sodium selenite (SSe) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on cell growth and intracellular structures in lung cancer cells exposed at Se concentrations between 0 and 3 mM. Our results showed that SSe affected cell growth more rapidly than SeMet (24 h and 48 h, resp.). After 24 h of cells exposure to 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mM SSe, cell growth was reduced by 10, 50, and 60%, as compared to controls. After 48 h, nuclear fragmentation was evident in cells exposed to SSe, suggesting an induction to cell death. In contrast, SeMet did not affect cell proliferation, and the cells were phenotypically similar to controls. Microtubules and microfilaments structures were also affected by both Se compounds, again SSe being more toxic than SeMet. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the differential effects of organic and inorganic Se in supranutritional levels in lung cancer cells. PMID:25477771

  15. Evidence for rostro-caudal functional organization in multiple brain areas related to goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Matthew L; Fox, Kieran C R; Christoff, Kalina

    2014-07-14

    The functional organization of brain areas supporting goal-directed behavior is debated. Some accounts suggest a rostro-caudal organization, while others suggest a broad recruitment as part of a multiple demand network. We used fMRI and an anatomical region of interest (ROI) approach to test which account better characterizes the organization of key brain areas related to goal-directed behavior: the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), cingulate cortex, and insula. Subjects performed a cognitive control task with distinct trial events corresponding to rule representation, rule maintenance, action execution, and monitoring progress towards an overarching motivational goal. The use of ROIs allowed us to look for evidence of rostro-caudal gradients during each event separately. Our results provide strong evidence for rostro-caudal gradients in all regions. During the action execution period, activation was robust in caudal ROIs and decreased linearly moving to rostral ROIs in the LPFC, cingulate cortex, and MPFC. Conversely, during the goal monitoring period, activation was weak in caudal ROIs and increased linearly moving to the rostral ROIs in the aforementioned regions. The insula exhibited the reverse pattern. These findings provide evidence for rostro-caudal organization in multiple regions within the same study. More importantly, they demonstrate that rostro-caudal gradients can be observed during individual trial events, ruling out confounding factors such as task difficulty.

  16. Shifts in vegetation affect organic carbon quality in a coastal marsh along the Hudson River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A. H.; Corbett, J. E.; Tfaily, M. M.; Martin, I.; Ho, L.; Sun, E.; Sevilla, L.; Vincent, S.; Newton, R.; Peteet, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand carbon storage in coastal salt marshes, samples were collected from Piermont Marsh, NY (40 ̊00' N, 73 ̊55'W) located within the Hudson River Estuary. Porewater from three different vegetation sites was analyzed to compare the quality of the dissolved organic carbon. Sites contained either native or invasive vegetation with variations in live plant root depth. Porewater was taken from 0-3m in 50cm intervals, and sites were dominated either by invasive Phragmites australis, native Eleocharis , or native mixed vegetation (Spartina patens, Scirpus, and Typha angustifolia). Sites dominated by invasive Phragmites australis were found to have lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, lower cDOM absorption values, and more labile organic carbon compounds. The molecular composition of the DOC was determined with Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Labile DOC components were defined as proteins, carbohydrates, and amino sugars while recalcitrant DOC components were defined as lipids, unsaturated hydrocarbons, lignins, tannins, and condensed hydrocarbons. For the Phragmites, Eleocharis, and mixed vegetation sites, average DOC concentrations with depth were found to be 1.71 ± 1.06, 4.64 ± 1.73, and 4.62 ± 3.5 (mM), respectively and cDOM absorption values with depth were found to be 13.22 ± 4.81, 49.42 ± 10.8, and 35.74 ± 17.49 (m-1). Additionally, DOC concentrations increased with depth in the mixed vegetation and Eleocharis sites, but remained relatively constant in the Phragmites site. The percent of labile compounds in the surface samples were found to be 19.02, 14.64, and 14.07% for the Phragmites, Eleocharis, and mixed vegetation sites, respectively. These findings suggest that sites dominated by Phragmites may have more reactive DOC substrates than sites dominated by native vegetation. These results indicate that the carbon storage in marshes invaded by Phragmites would be expected to decrease over time.

  17. Distribution of organic carbon in physical fractions of soils as affected by agricultural management

    SciTech Connect

    Sindhu, Jagadamma; Lal, Dr. Rattan

    2010-08-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed heterogeneously among different-sized primary particles and aggregates. Further, the SOC associated with different physical fractions respond differently to managements. Therefore, this study was conducted with the objective to quantify the SOC associated with all the three structural levels of SOC (particulate organic matter, soil separates and aggregate-size fractions) as influenced by long-term change in management. The study also aims at reevaluating the concept that the SOC sink capacity of individual size-fractions is limited. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on distribution of SOC among fractions were compared with soil from adjacent undisturbed area under native vegetation for the mixed, mesic, Typic Fragiudalf of Wooster, OH. Forty five years of no-till (NT) management resulted in more SOC accumulation in soil surface (0 7.5 cm) than in chisel tillage and plow tillage (PT) treatments. However, PT at this site resulted in a redistribution of SOC from surface to deeper soil layers. The soils under continuous corn accumulated significantly more SOC than those under corn soybean rotation at 7.5 45 cm depth. Although soil texture was dominated by the silt-sized particles, most of the SOC pool was associated with the clay fraction. Compared to PT, the NT treatment resulted in (i) significantly higher proportion of large macroaggregates (>2,000 m) and (ii) 1.5 2.8 times higher SOC concentrations in all aggregate-size classes. A comparative evaluation using radar graphs indicated that among the physical fractions, the SOC associated with sand and silt fractions quickly changed with a land use conversion from native vegetation to agricultural crops. A key finding of this study is the assessment of SOC sink capacity of individual fractions, which revealed that the clay fraction of agricultural soils continues to accumulate more SOC, albeit at a slower rate, with progressive increase in total SOC concentration

  18. Using Multiple Calibration Indices in Order to Capture the Complex Picture of What Affects Students' Accuracy of Feeling of Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekaerts, Monique; Rozendaal, Jeroen S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used multiple calibration indices to capture the complex picture of fifth graders' calibration of feeling of confidence in mathematics. Specifically, the effects of gender, type of mathematical problem, instruction method, and time of measurement (before and after problem solving) on calibration skills were investigated. Fourteen…

  19. Predicting probability of occurrence and factors affecting distribution and abundance of three Ozark endemic crayfish species at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolen, Matthew S.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; DiStefano, Robert J.; Imhoff, Emily M.; Wagner, Brian K.

    2014-01-01

    We found that a range of environmental variables were important in predicting crayfish distribution and abundance at multiple spatial scales and their importance was species-, response variable- and scale dependent. We would encourage others to examine the influence of spatial scale on species distribution and abundance patterns.

  20. Soil organic carbon dynamics as affected by topography in southern California hillslopes systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fissore, C.; Dalzell, B. J.; Berhe, A. A.; Evans, M.; Voegtle, M.; Wu, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Active topography is a predominant feature of Southern California's landscapes where intense erosion and depositional processes can influence SOC translocation and accumulation and where changes in chemical, physical, and topographic conditions may affect long-term stability of SOC. Considering the large variability in SOC content across areas with active topography, it is necessary to develop landscape-scale stratifications of sampling that capture SOC variability due to erosion and deposition processes at different topographic locations. To achieve this goal, landscape SOC needs to be assessed based on more than just slope position by taking into account specific topographic indices, such as slope class, curvature, and catchment area. In this work, we used a series of analytical approaches, including total and water extractable C fractions, ultraviolet absorbance, infrared spectroscopy and a radio-isotope tracer (137Cs) in combination with GIS and digital terrain attributes analyses to investigate the quality and distribution of SOC along the sloping landscape of Puente Hills Preserve, in Whittier, CA. The complex interaction of terrain attributes on erosion and depositional processes was evident from 137Cs analysis, which allowed us to identify depositional and eroding areas. Our findings indicate that greater SOC accumulation is associated with concave profile and plane curvature, when combined with low slope class. Slope appears to be the terrain attribute that most affects SOC content and slope effects persist at depth. Ultraviolet absorbance of water extractable OC and infrared spectroscopy of SOC allowed the identification of different levels of aromaticity and distribution of SOC moieties that have been correlated to rates of mineralization. Southern California, like other Mediterranean regions around the world, is expected to experience increasingly severe droughts, more intense erosion and more frequent fire perturbation - which can exacerbate erosion

  1. Electrical performance of silicon-on-insulator field-effect transistors with multiple top-gate organic layers in electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Khamaisi, Bassam; Vaknin, Oshri; Shaya, Oren; Ashkenasy, Nurit

    2010-08-24

    The utilization of field-effect transistor (FET) devices in biosensing applications have been extensively studied in recent years. Qualitative and quantitative understanding of the contribution of the organic layers constructed on the device gate, and the electrolyte media, on the behavior of the device is thus crucial. In this work we analyze the contribution of different organic layers on the pH sensitivity, threshold voltage, and gain of a silicon-on-insulator based FET device. We further monitor how these properties change as function of the electrolyte screening length. Our results show that in addition to electrostatic effects, changes in the amphoteric nature of the surface also affect the device threshold voltage. These effects were found to be additive for the first (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane linker layer and second biotin receptor layer. For the top streptavidin protein layer, these two effects cancel each other. The number and nature of amphoteric groups on the surface, which changes upon the formation of the layers, was shown also to affect the pH sensitivity of the device. The pH sensitivity reduces with the construction of the first two layers. However, after the formation of the streptavidin protein layer, the protein's multiple charged side chains induce an increase in the sensitivity at low ionic strengths. Furthermore, the organic layers were found to influence the device gain due to their dielectric properties, reducing the gain with the successive construction of each layer. These results demonstrate the multilevel influence of organic layers on the behavior of the FET devices.

  2. Does the addition of proteases affect the biogas yield from organic material in anaerobic digestion?

    PubMed

    Müller, Liane; Kretzschmar, Jörg; Pröter, Jürgen; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Scholwin, Frank

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical disintegration effect of hydrolytic enzymes in lab scale experiments. Influences of enzyme addition on the biogas yield as well as effects on the process stability were examined. The addition of proteases occurred with low and high dosages in batch and semi-continuous biogas tests. The feed mixture consisted of maize silage, chicken dung and cow manure. Only very high concentrated enzymes caused an increase in biogas production in batch experiments. In semi-continuous biogas tests no positive long-term effects (100 days) were observed. Higher enzyme-dosage led to a reduced biogas-yield (13% and 36% lower than the reference). Phenylacetate and -propionate increased (up to 372 mgl(-1)) before the other volatile fatty acids did. Volatile organic acids rose up to 6.8 gl(-1). The anaerobic digestion process was inhibited.

  3. Living in history: how war, terrorism, and natural disaster affect the organization of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Brown, Norman R; Lee, Peter J; Krslak, Mirna; Conrad, Frederick G; G B Hansen, Tia; Havelka, Jelena; Reddon, John R

    2009-04-01

    Memories of war, terrorism, and natural disaster play a critical role in the construction of group identity and the persistence of group conflict. Here, we argue that personal memory and knowledge of the collective past become entwined only when public events have a direct, forceful, and prolonged impact on a population. Support for this position comes from a cross-national study in which participants thought aloud as they dated mundane autobiographical events. We found that Bosnians often mentioned their civil war and that Izmit Turks made frequent reference to the 1999 earthquake in their country. In contrast, public events were rarely mentioned by Serbs, Montenegrins, Ankara Turks, Canadians, Danes, or Israelis. Surprisingly, historical references were absent from (post-September 11) protocols collected in New York City and elsewhere in the United States. Taken together, these findings indicate that it is personal significance, not historical importance, that determines whether public events play a role in organizing autobiographical memory.

  4. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-02-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilized cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010 all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (110 kg N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilized cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  5. Aging and soil organic matter content affect the fate of silver nanoparticles in soil.

    PubMed

    Coutris, Claire; Joner, Erik Jautris; Oughton, Deborah Helen

    2012-03-15

    Sewage sludge application on soils represents an important potential source of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to terrestrial ecosystems, and it is thus important to understand the fate of Ag NPs once in contact with soil components. Our aim was to compare the behavior of three different forms of silver, namely silver nitrate, citrate stabilized Ag NPs (5nm) and uncoated Ag NPs (19nm), in two soils with contrasting organic matter content, and to follow changes in binding strength over time. Soil samples were spiked with silver and left to age for 2h, 2 days, 5 weeks or 10 weeks before they were submitted to sequential extraction. The ionic silver solution and the two Ag NP types were radiolabeled so that silver could be quantified by gamma spectrometry by measuring the (110m)Ag tracer in the different sequential extraction fractions. Different patterns of partitioning of silver were observed for the three forms of silver. All types of silver were more mobile in the mineral soil than in the soil rich in organic matter, although the fractionation patterns were very different for the three silver forms in both cases. Over 20% of citrate stabilized Ag NPs was extractible with water in both soils the first two days after spiking (compared to 1-3% for AgNO(3) and uncoated Ag NPs), but the fraction decreased to trace levels thereafter. Regarding the 19nm uncoated Ag NPs, 80% was not extractible at all, but contrary to AgNO(3) and citrate stabilized Ag NPs, the bioaccessible fraction increased over time, and by day 70 was between 8 and 9 times greater than that seen in the other two treatments. This new and unexpected finding demonstrates that some Ag NPs can act as a continuous source of bioaccessible Ag, while AgNO(3) is rapidly immobilized in soil.

  6. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems.

    PubMed

    Bu, Rongyan; Lu, Jianwei; Ren, Tao; Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaokun; Cong, Rihuan

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N) mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM) and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN) contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR)/cotton-rapeseed (CR) rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile), intermediate (25th and 75th percentiles), and high (90th percentile) levels of soil PMN were selected to further study the effects of POM on soil N mineralization by quantifying the net N mineralization in original soils and soils from which POM was removed. Both soil POM carbon (POM-C) and N (POM-N) contents were 45.8% and 55.8% higher under the RR rotation compared to the CR rotation, respectively. The PMN contents were highly correlated with the POM contents. The PMN and microbial biomass N (MBN) contents concurrently and significantly decreased when POM was removed. The reduction rate of PMN was positively correlated with changes in MBN after the removal of POM. The reduction rates of PMN and MBN after POM removal are lower under RR rotations (38.0% and 16.3%, respectively) than CR rotations (45.6% and 19.5%, respectively). Furthermore, infrared spectroscopy indicated that compounds with low-bioavailability accumulated (e.g., aromatic recalcitrant materials) in the soil POM fraction under the RR rotation but not under the CR rotation. The results of the present study demonstrated that POM plays a vital role in soil N mineralization under different rotation systems. The discrepancy between POM content and composition resulting from different crop rotation systems caused differences in N mineralization in soils.

  7. ["Multiple organ failure syndrome". Nature of the concept and correctness of the nomenclature].

    PubMed

    Eriukhin, I A

    2000-01-01

    The syndrome principle of studying complex pathological processes is justified if the key link of the pathogenesis is determined. The multi-organ systemic dysfunction is due to altered synergism of all visceral functions rather than to the sum of functional alterations of several organs. The main ideas and regularities of the synergism as the fundamental theoretical directions determine the coordination of vital activity and the probability of its disturbance depending on genetically determined and other factors. Grounds are presented for the prospects of using the Mandelbroth's fractals and regularities of synergism in creation of the prognostic dynamic models in the organism's extreme states.

  8. Pathological complete response in a patient affected by multiple synchronous, breast and lung primary malignancies: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nottegar, A; Luchini, C; Cingarlini, S; Beccari, S; Grego, E; Gilioli, E; Manfrin, E; Bonetti, F

    2016-12-01

    A pathological complete response in a patient affected by multiple synchronous, breast and lung primary malignancies is reported. A 63-year-old woman presented with an invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and a lung adenocarcinoma. After multidisciplinary discussion, the patient underwent pulmonary left lower lobectomy followed by radio-chemotherapy with cisplatin and vinorelbine and started hormone therapy with letrozole. Ten months later, a left mastectomy with axillary lymph nodes dissection was performed. Histologically, a pathological complete response (pCR) was documented. With a review of the Literature, we discuss the issue of multiple primary malignancies, with its diagnostic and therapeutic implications. In cases of multiple synchronous malignancies it has been highlighted the importance of the choice of the best therapeutic approach for both the malignancies, reducing collateral individual effects.

  9. Determinants of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an experimental model of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Park, Marcelo; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Maciel, Alexandre Toledo; Silva, Débora Prudêncio E; Friedrich, Natalia; Barbosa, Edzangela Vasconcelos Santos; Hirota, Adriana Sayuri; Schettino, Guilherme; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2013-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has gained renewed interest in the treatment of respiratory failure since the advent of the modern polymethylpentene membranes. Limited information exists, however, on the performance of these membranes in terms of gas transfers during multiple organ failure (MOF). We investigated determinants of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer as well as biochemical alterations after the circulation of blood through the circuit in a pig model under ECMO support before and after induction of MOF. A predefined sequence of blood and sweep flows was tested before and after the induction of MOF with fecal peritonitis and saline lavage lung injury. In the multivariate analysis, oxygen transfer had a positive association with blood flow (slope = 66, P<0.001) and a negative association with pre-membrane PaCO(2) (slope = -0.96, P = 0.001) and SatO(2) (slope = -1.7, P<0.001). Carbon dioxide transfer had a positive association with blood flow (slope = 17, P<0.001), gas flow (slope = 33, P<0.001), pre-membrane PaCO(2) (slope = 1.2, P<0.001) and a negative association with the hemoglobin (slope = -3.478, P = 0.042). We found an increase in pH in the baseline from 7.50[7.46,7.54] to 7.60[7.55,7.65] (P<0.001), and during the MOF from 7.19[6.92,7.32] to 7.41[7.13,7.5] (P<0.001). Likewise, the PCO(2) fell in the baseline from 35 [32,39] to 25 [22,27] mmHg (P<0.001), and during the MOF from 59 [47,91] to 34 [28,45] mmHg (P<0.001). In conclusion, both oxygen and carbon dioxide transfers were significantly determined by blood flow. Oxygen transfer was modulated by the pre-membrane SatO(2) and CO(2), while carbon dioxide transfer was affected by the gas flow, pre-membrane CO(2) and hemoglobin.

  10. Organization of Functional Postural Responses Following Perturbations in Multiple Directions in Elderly Fallers Standing Quietly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matjacic, Zlatko; Sok, David; Jakovljevic, Miroljub; Cikajlo, Imre

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess functional postural responses by analyzing the center-of-pressure trajectories resulting from perturbations delivered in multiple directions to elderly fallers. Ten elderly individuals were standing quietly on two force platforms while an apparatus delivered controlled perturbations at the level of pelvis…

  11. Scaling and systems biology for integrating multiple organs-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Wikswo, John P; Curtis, Erica L; Eagleton, Zachary E; Evans, Brian C; Kole, Ayeeshik; Hofmeister, Lucas H; Matloff, William J

    2013-09-21

    Coupled systems of in vitro microfabricated organs-on-a-chip containing small populations of human cells are being developed to address the formidable pharmacological and physiological gaps between monolayer cell cultures, animal models, and humans that severely limit the speed and efficiency of drug development. These gaps present challenges not only in tissue and microfluidic engineering, but also in systems biology: how does one model, test, and learn about the communication and control of biological systems with individual organs-on-chips that are one-thousandth or one-millionth of the size of adult organs, or even smaller, i.e., organs for a milliHuman (mHu) or microHuman (μHu)? Allometric scaling that describes inter-species variation of organ size and properties provides some guidance, but given the desire to utilize these systems to extend and validate human pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models in support of drug discovery and development, it is more appropriate to scale each organ functionally to ensure that it makes the suitable physiological contribution to the coupled system. The desire to recapitulate the complex organ-organ interactions that result from factors in the blood and lymph places a severe constraint on the total circulating fluid (~5 mL for a mHu and ~5 μL for a μHu) and hence on the pumps, valves, and analytical instruments required to maintain and study these systems. Scaling arguments also provide guidance on the design of a universal cell-culture medium, typically without red blood cells. This review presents several examples of scaling arguments and discusses steps that should ensure the success of this endeavour.

  12. Soil organic matter and salinity affect copper bioavailability in root zone and uptake by Vicia faba L. plants.

    PubMed

    Matijevic, Lana; Romic, Davor; Romic, Marija

    2014-10-01

    Processes that control the mobility, transformation and toxicity of metals in soil are of special importance in the root-developing zone. For this reason, there is a considerable interest in understanding trace elements (TEs) behavior in soil, emphasising the processes by which plants take them up. Increased root-zone salinity can affect plant TEs uptake and accumulation in plant tissue. Furthermore, copper (Cu) complexation by soil organic matter (SOM) is an effective mechanism of Cu retention in soils, controlling thus its bioavailability. Therefore, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of soil Cu contamination in a saline environment on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) element uptake. Treatment with NaCl salinity was applied (control, 50 mM NaCl and 100 mM NaCl) on faba bean plants grown in a control and in a soil spiked with Cu (250 and 500 mg kg(-1)). Low and high SOM content trial variants were studied. Cu accumulation occurred in faba bean leaf, pod and seed. Cu contamination affected plant element concentrations in leaves (Na, Ca, Mg, Mn), pod (Zn, Mn) and seed (Mn, Mo, Zn). Root-zone salinity also affected faba bean element concentrations. Furthermore, Cu contamination-salinity and salinity-SOM interactions were significant for pod Cu concentration, suggesting that Cu phytoavailability could be affected by these interactions. Future research will be focused on the mechanisms of Cu translocation in plant and adaptation aspects of abiotic stress.

  13. [Inhibitory effect of DMPP on soil nitrification as affected by soil moisture content, pH and organic matter].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yan; Wu, Zhi-Jie; Zhang, Li-Li; Gong, Ping; Dong, Xin-Xin; Nie, Yan-Xia

    2012-10-01

    A laboratory incubation test with meadow brown soil was conducted to study the inhibitory effect of 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on soil nitrification as affected by soil moisture content (40%, 60% and 80% of the maximum field capacity), pH (4, 7 and 10), and organic matter (retained and removal). With the decrease of soil moisture content, the degradation of DMPP in soil tended to slow down, and the oxidation of soil NH4+ was more inhibited. At pH 10, more DMPP was remained in soil, and had the greatest inhibitory effect; at pH 7 and pH 4, the DMPP was lesser remained, with a smaller inhibitory effect. The removal of organic matter prolonged the remaining time of DMPP in soil, and decreased the apparent soil nitrification rate significantly.

  14. Organic accumulation in lacustrine rift basin: constraints from mineralogical and multiple geochemical proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiugen; Jian, Wang; Chen, Wenbin; Feng, Xinglei; Wang, Dong; Song, Chunyan; Zeng, Shengqiang

    2015-03-01

    The Lunpola Basin in the central Tibet is the highest petroliferous basin in the world. The basin is a Cenozoic lacustrine rift basin with widespread oil shale depositions, which provide a valuable example for understanding the mechanisms of organic accumulation. Thirty-five samples of oil shale and mudstone were collected from one of the organic-rich oil shale intervals in the Lunpola Basin to discuss the controlling factors of organic enrichment. In the investigated oil shale interval, many redox proxies, including V/(V + Ni) ratios, Mo-U covariations, and pyrite framboid size distribution suggest anoxic conditions. However, the almost consistent variation patterns of TOC, P and Mo contents indicate that organic matter accumulation was controlled mainly by primary productivity. The relatively low Sr/Ba (average 0.74) and Sr/Cu ratios (average 4.75) suggest a warm-humid climate during the oil shale deposition. These conditions are suitable for living of organisms, which would raise the initial productivity of lake and in turn could have led to the oxygen-depleted conditions. The detrital input together with fast sedimentary rate during the oil shale deposition would result in dilution of organic matter.

  15. Production of biochar out of organic urban waste to amend salt affected soils in the basin of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Garcia, Elizabeth; Siebe, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Biochar is widely recognized as an efficient tool for carbon sequestration and soil fertility. The understanding of its chemical and physical properties, strongly related to the biomass and production conditions, is central to identify the most suitable application of biochar. On the other hand, salt affected soils reduce the value and productivity of extensive areas worldwide. One feasible option to recover them is to add organic amendments, which improve water holding capacity and increase sorption sites for cations as sodium. The former lake Texcoco in the basin of Mexico has been a key area for the control of surface run-off and air quality of Mexico City. However, the high concentrations of soluble salts in their soils do not allow the development of a vegetation cover that protects the soil from wind erosion, being the latter the main cause of poor air quality in the metropolitan area during the dry season. On the other hand, the population of the city produces daily 2000 t of organic urban wastes, which are currently composted. Thus, we tested if either compost or biochar made out of urban organic waste can improve the salt affected soils of former lake Texcoco to grow grass and avoid wind erosion. We examined the physico-chemical properties of biochar produced from urban organic waste under pyrolysis conditions. We also set up a field experiment to evaluate the addition of these amendments into the saline soils of Texcoco. Our preliminary analyses show biochar yield was ca. 40%, it was mainly alkaline (pH: 8-10), with a moderate salt content (electrical conductivity: 0.5-3 mS/cm). We show also results of the initial phase of the field experiment in which we monitor the electrical conductivity, pH, water content, water tension and soil GHG fluxes on small plots amended with either biochar or compost in three different doses.

  16. Microstructural Characterization of Red Mud as Affected by Inorganic and Organic Chemicals Permeation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinos, David A.; Valcárcel, Víctor; Spagnoli, Giovanni; Barral, María Teresa

    2017-03-01

    The microstructural characteristics of red mud (RM), especially specific surface area (SSA) and mesoporosity, and the effects of various representative fluids, namely methanol (80% v/v), trichloroethylene (TCE) (1100 mg/L), acetic acid (pH 2), and CaCl2 (5% w/v) aqueous solutions, were studied using N2-gas adsorption. The effect of compaction was also assessed. RM powder exhibited a moderate Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET)-SSA and is mostly a mesoporous (large mesopores, 200-500 Å) and a macroporous material. Compaction affected the macro and large, but not the fine, mesopores. Among the fluids, CaCl2 and acetic acid induced notable and opposing changes in RM microstructural characteristics. CaCl2 decreased SSA and suppressed fine mesoporosity, whereas acetic acid greatly enhanced them. Fractal analysis further indicated increasing surface roughness and heterogeneity of pore structure during acid exposure, altogether envisaging an improvement of adsorption capacity and a decrease of permeability of the RM.

  17. Parameters affecting organization and transfection efficiency of amphiphilic copolymers/DNA carriers.

    PubMed

    Roques, Caroline; Bouchemal, Kawthar; Ponchel, Gilles; Fromes, Yves; Fattal, Elias

    2009-08-19

    Amphiphilic block copolymers are attracting increasing interest in the field of gene therapy, especially for transfection of striated muscles. However, little is known about the parameters affecting their transfection efficiency in vivo. These copolymers can self-assemble as micelles in certain conditions. Since micellization strongly depends on the temperature and ionic content of the preparation medium, the present paper aimed at investigating the influence of these parameters in the context of gene delivery. We first assessed the micellization of pluronic L64 and tetronic 304 at various temperatures in water, saline or Tyrode's salts solution. Pluronic L64 can form micelles at temperatures above 37 degrees C in water or at 37 degrees C in the Tyrode's salts solution, in the range of concentration investigated. For tetronic 304, CMC was found to be far below the concentrations used to transfer DNA. Pluronic L64 interacted with DNA only in the presence of micelles. Moreover, in vivo evaluation demonstrated that significantly improved transfection efficiency was obtained at 37 degrees C in Tyrode's salts solution for pluronic L64 based formulations, compared to 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Such differences were not recorded with tetronic 304. Finally, optimized formulations of both tetronic 304 and pluronic L64 were able to mediate efficient transfection in dystrophic muscles.

  18. Developmental changes affecting lectin binding in the vomeronasal organ of domestic pigs, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Park, Junwoo; Lee, Wonho; Jeong, Chanwoo; Kim, Hwangryong; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental changes of glycoconjugate patterns in the porcine vomeronasal organs (VNOs) and associated glands (Jacobson's glands) from prenatal (9 weeks of gestation) and postnatal (2 days after birth) to the sexually mature stage (6 months old). The VNO of pigs (Sus scrofa) was examined using the following: Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin isolectin B4 (BSI-B4), Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and soybean agglutinin (SBA). At the fetal stage, all lectins examined were detected mainly in the free border of the vomeronasal epithelium, but few (WGA and UEA-I) and or absent in the VNO cell bodies. At the postnatal and sexually mature stages, the reactivity of some lectins, including WGA, UEA-I, DBA and SBA, were shown to increase in the VNO sensory epithelium as well as the free border. The increased reactivity of lectins as development progressed was also observed in Jacobson's gland acini. These findings suggest that binding sites of lectins, including those of WGA, UEA-I, DBA, and SBA, increase during development from fetal to postnatal growth, possibly contributing to the increased ability of chemoreception in the pig.

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in Mediterranean seawater and processes affecting their accumulation in plankton.

    PubMed

    Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Dachs, Jordi; Del Vento, Sabino; Ojeda, María José; Valle, María Carmen; Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Mariani, Giulio; Wollgast, Jan; Hanke, Georg

    2011-05-15

    The Mediterranean and Black Seas are unique marine environments subject to important anthropogenic pressures due to riverine and atmospheric inputs of organic pollutants. Here, we report the results obtained during two east-west sampling cruises in June 2006 and May 2007 from Barcelona to Istanbul and Alexandria, respectively, where water and plankton samples were collected simultaneously. Both matrixes were analyzed for hexaclorochyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 41 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. The comparison of the measured HCB and HCHs concentrations with previously reported dissolved phase concentrations suggests a temporal decline in their concentrations since the 1990s. On the contrary, PCB seawater concentrations did not exhibit such a decline, but show a significant spatial variability in dissolved concentrations with lower levels in the open Western and South Eastern Mediterranean, and higher concentrations in the Black, Marmara, and Aegean Seas and Sicilian Strait. PCB and OCPs (organochlorine pesticides) concentrations in plankton were higher at lower plankton biomass, but the intensity of this trend depended on the compound hydrophobicity (K(OW)). For the more persistent PCBs and HCB, the observed dependence of POP concentrations in plankton versus biomass can be explained by interactions between air-water exchange, particle settling, and/or bioaccumulation processes, whereas degradation processes occurring in the photic zone drive the trends shown by the more labile HCHs. The results presented here provide clear evidence of the important physical and biogeochemical controls on POP occurrence in the marine environment.

  20. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M.L.; Bentley, A.J.; Dunkin, K.A.; Hodgson, A.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Sextro, R.G.; Daisey, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    We report a field study of soil gas transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into a slab-on-grade building found at a site contaminated with gasoline. Although the high VOC concentrations (30-60 g m{sup -3}) measured in the soil gas at depths of 0.7 m below the building suggest a potential for high levels of indoor VOC, the measured indoor air concentrations were lower than those in the soil gas by approximately six orders of magnitude ({approx} 0.03 mg m{sup -3}). This large ratio is explained by (1) the expected dilution of soil gas entering the building via ambient building ventilation (a factor of {approx}1000), and (2) an unexpectedly sharp gradient in soil gas VOC concentration between the depths of 0.1 and 0.7 m (a factor of {approx}1000). Measurements of the soil physical and biological characteristics indicate that a partial physical barrier to vertical transport in combination with microbial degradation provides a likely explanation for this gradient. These factors are likely to be important to varying degrees at other sites.

  1. Multiple micronutrient-fortified rice affects physical performance and plasma vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations of Indian school children.

    PubMed

    Thankachan, Prashanth; Rah, Jee Hyun; Thomas, Tinku; Selvam, Sumithra; Amalrajan, Vani; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Steiger, Georg; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-05-01

    Fortifying rice with multiple micronutrients could be a promising strategy for combat micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. We determined the efficacy of extruded rice grains fortified with multiple micronutrients on the prevalence of anemia, micronutrient status, and physical and cognitive performance in 6- to 12-y-old, low-income school children in Bangalore, India. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 258 children were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups to receive rice-based lunch meals fortified with multiple micronutrients with either low-iron (6.25 mg) or high-iron (12.5 mg) concentrations or identical meals with unfortified rice. The meals were provided 6 d/wk for 6 mo. Anthropometric, biochemical, physical performance, and cognitive assessments were taken at baseline and endpoint. At baseline, study groups were comparable, with 61% of the children being anemic. However, only <10% were deficient in iron, vitamin A, and zinc. After 6 mo, plasma vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations (both P < 0.001) as well as physical performance (P < 0.05) significantly improved in the intervention arms. No between-group differences were observed in hemoglobin concentration, anemia, and deficiencies of other micronutrients or cognitive function after 6 mo, but paired analyses revealed a small reduction in anemia prevalence in children in the low-iron group. The fortified rice was efficacious in improving vitamin B-12 status and physical performance in Indian school children.

  2. Nutrient omission in Bt cotton affects soil organic carbon and nutrients status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aladakatti, Y. R.; Biradar, D. P.; Satyanarayana, T.; Majumdar, K.; Shivamurthy, D.

    2012-04-01

    Studies carried out at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, in medium black soils assessed the effect of nutrient omission in Bt cotton and its effect on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and available nutrients at the end of second consecutive year of nutrient omission. The study also assessed the extent of contribution of the macro and micronutrients towards seed cotton yield. The experiment consisting 11 treatments omitting a nutrient in each treatment including an absolute control without any nutrients was conducted in a Randomised Block Design with three replications. Cotton crop sufficiently fertilized with macro and micro nutrients (165 : 75 : 120 NPK kg ha-1 and 20 kg each of CaSO4, and MgSO4, 10 kg of S, 20 kg each of ZnSO4, FeSO4 and 0.1 per cent Boron twice as foliar spray) was taken as a standard check to assess the contribution of each nutrient in various nutrient omission treatments. Soils of each treatment were analysed initially and after each crop of cotton for SOC and available nutrient status. Results indicated that the SOC decreased after each crop of cotton in absolute control where no nutrients were applied (0.50 % to 0.38 %) and also in the N omission treatment (0.50 % to 0.35 %). But there was no significant impact of omission of P, K and other nutrients on soil organic carbon. Soil available N, P and K in the soil were reduced as compared to the initial soil status after first and second crop of cotton in the respective treatment where these nutrients were omitted. The soil available N, P and K were reduced to the extent of 61 kg ha-1, 7.1 kg ha-1 and 161.9 kg ha-1 in the respective nutrient omission treatment at end of second crop of cotton as compared to the initial status of these nutrients in the soil. This might be due to the mining of these nutrients from the soil nutrient pool with out addition of these nutrients extraneously. The nutrient status of N, P and K remained almost similar in omission of other nutrients

  3. Factors affecting the isotopic composition of organic matter. (1) Carbon isotopic composition of terrestrial plant materials.

    PubMed

    Yeh, H W; Wang, W M

    2001-07-01

    The stable isotope composition of the light elements (i.e., H, C, N, O and S) of organic samples varies significantly and, for C, is also unique and distinct from that of inorganic carbon. This is the result of (1) the isotope composition of reactants, (2) the nature of the reactions leading to formation and post-formational modification of the samples, (3) the environmental conditions under which the reactions took place, and (4) the relative concentration of the reactants compared to that of the products (i.e., [products]/[reactants] ratio). This article will examine the carbon isotope composition of terrestrial plant materials and its relationship with the above factors. delta13C(PDB) values of terrestrial plants range approximately from -8 to -38%, inclusive of C3-plants (-22 to -38%), C4-plants (-8 to -15%) and CAM-plants (-13 to -30%). Thus, the delta13C(PDB) values largely reflect the photosynthesis pathways of a plant as well as the genetics (i.e., species difference), delta13C(PDB) values of source CO2, relevant humidity, CO2/O2 ratios, wind and light intensity etc. Significant variations in these values also exist among different tissues, different portions of a tissue and different compounds. This is mainly a consequence of metabolic reactions. Animals mainly inherit the delta13C(PDB) values of the foods they consume; therefore, their delta13C(PDB) values are similar. The delta13C(PDB) values of plant materials, thus, contain information regarding the inner workings of the plants, the environmental conditions under which they grow, the delta13C(PDB) values of CO2 sources etc., and are unique. Furthermore, this uniqueness is passed on to their derivative matter, such as animals, humus etc. Hence, they are very powerful tools in many areas of research, including the ecological and environmental sciences.

  4. Microbial Activity in Organic Soils as Affected by Soil Depth and Crop †

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    The microbial activity of Pahokee muck, a lithic medisaprist, and the effect of various environmental factors, such as position in the profile and type of plant cover, were examined. Catabolic activity for [7-14C]salicylic acid, [1,4-14C]succinate, and [1,2-14C]acetate remained reasonably constant in surface (0 to 10 cm) soil samples from a fallow (bare) field from late in the wet season (May to September) through January. Late in January, the microbial activity toward all three compounds decreased approximately 50%. The microbial activity of the soil decreased with increasing depth of soil. Salicylate catabolism was the most sensitive to increasing moisture deep in the soil profile. At the end of the wet season, a 90% decrease in activity between the surface and the 60- to 70-cm depth occurred. Catabolism of acetate and succinate decreased approximately 75% in the same samples. Little effect of crop was observed. Variation in the microbial activity, as measured by the catabolism of labeled acetate, salicylate, or succinate, was not significant between a sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) field and a fallow field. The activity with acetate was insignificantly different in a St. Augustine grass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt) Kuntz] field, whereas the catabolism of the remaining substrates was elevated in the grass field. These results indicate that the total carbon evolved from the different levels of the soil profile by the microbial community oxidizing the soil organic matter decreased as the depth of the soil column increased. However, correction of the amount of carbon yielded at each level for the bulk density of that level reveals that the microbial contribution to the soil subsidence is approximately equivalent throughout the soil profile above the water table. PMID:16345393

  5. Colloidal behavior of aluminum oxide nanoparticles as affected by pH and natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saikat; Mashayekhi, Hamid; Pan, Bo; Bhowmik, Prasanta; Xing, Baoshan

    2008-11-04

    The colloidal behavior of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated as a function of pH and in the presence of two structurally different humic acids (HAs), Aldrich HA (AHA) and the seventh HA fraction extracted from Amherst peat soil (HA7). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to determine the colloidal behavior of the NPs. Influence of pH and HAs on the surface charges of the NPs was determined. zeta-Potential data clearly showed that the surface charge of the NPs decreased with increasing pH and reached the point of zero charge (ZPC) at pH 7.9. Surface charge of the NPs also decreased with the addition of HAs. The NPs tend to aggregate as the pH of the suspension approaches ZPC, where van der Waals attraction forces dominate over electrostatic repulsion. However, the NP colloidal suspension was stable in the pHs far from ZPC. Colloidal stability was strongly enhanced in the presence of HAs at the pH of ZPC or above it, but in acidic conditions NPs showed strong aggregation in the presence of HAs. AFM imaging revealed the presence of long-chain fractions in HA7, which entangled with the NPs to form large aggregates. The association of HA with the NP surface can be assumed to follow a two-step process, possibly the polar fractions of the HA7 sorbed on the NP surface followed by entanglement with the long-chain fractions. Thus, our study demonstrated that the hydrophobic nature of the HA molecules strongly influenced the aggregation of colloidal NPs, possibly through their conformational behavior in a particular solution condition. Therefore, various organic matter samples will result in different colloidal behavior of NPs, subsequently their environmental fate and transport.

  6. Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by afforestation: the Darab Kola forest (north of Iran) case study.

    PubMed

    Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Zaccone, Claudio; Jalilvand, Hamid; Hojjati, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of formerly arable lands and/or degraded areas has been acknowledged as a land-use change contributing to the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere. In the present work, we study the soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCS) in 21 year old stands of maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.), and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in the Darab Kola region, north of Iran. Soil samples were collected at four different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm), and characterized with respect to bulk density, water content, electrical conductivity, pH, texture, lime content, total organic C, total N, and earthworm density and biomass. Data showed that afforested stands significantly affected soil characteristics, also raising SOCS phenomena, with values of 163.3, 120.6, and 102.1 Mg C ha(-1) for red pine, oak and maple stands, respectively, vs. 83.0 Mg C ha(-1) for the control region. Even if the dynamics of organic matter (OM) in soil is very complex and affected by several pedo-climatic factors, a stepwise regression method indicates that SOCS values in the studied area could be predicted using the following parameters, i.e., sand, clay, lime, and total N contents, and C/N ratio. In particular, although the chemical and physical stabilization capacity of organic C by soil is believed to be mainly governed by clay content, regression analysis showed a positive correlation between SOCS and sand (R = 0.86(**)), whereas a negative correlation with clay (R = -0.77(**)) was observed, thus suggesting that most of this organic C occurs as particulate OM instead of mineral-associated OM. Although the proposed models do not take into account possible changes due to natural and anthropogenic processes, they represent a simple way that could be used to evaluate and/or monitor the potential of each forest plantation in immobilizing organic C in soil (thus

  7. Gender-specific differences in the process of coping in families with a parent affected by a chronic somatic disease (e.g. multiple sclerosis).

    PubMed

    Steck, B; Amsler, F; Kappos, L; Bürgin, D

    2001-01-01

    Based on the investigation of 52 families and their 87 offspring by means of semistructured interviews, we evaluated the coping abilities of the parent affected by multiple sclerosis (MS), the healthy parent and their children. The results show that the gender of the child significantly influences his or her coping behaviour. Daughters cope better than sons, independently of the gender of the MS-affected parent. Only the daughter's coping is positively affected by age and disease variables. The correlation between the coping behaviour of parents and children is significant between children and their healthy parents and even stronger between children and healthy parents of the same gender. Healthy mothers and daughters cope better with the increasing disability of the father. This is not the case for healthy fathers and sons. Gender seems to be an important moderating factor in chronic parental disease and it has complex effects on the coping capacity of children.

  8. Scaling and systems biology for integrating multiple organs-on-a-chip†

    PubMed Central

    Wikswo, John P.; Curtis, Erica L.; Eagleton, Zachary E.; Evans, Brian C.; Kole, Ayeeshik; Hofmeister, Lucas H.; Matloff, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Coupled systems of in vitro microfabricated organs-on-a-chip containing small populations of human cells are being developed to address the formidable pharmacological and physiological gaps between monolayer cell cultures, animal models, and humans that severely limit the speed and efficiency of drug development. These gaps present challenges not only in tissue and microfluidic engineering, but also in systems biology: how does one model, test, and learn about the communication and control of biological systems with individual organs-on-chips that are one-thousandth or one-millionth of the size of adult organs, or even smaller, i.e., organs for a milliHuman (mHu) or microHuman (μHu)? Allometric scaling that describes inter-species variation of organ size and properties provides some guidance, but given the desire to utilize these systems to extend and validate human pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models in support of drug discovery and development, it is more appropriate to scale each organ functionally to ensure that it makes the suitable physiological contribution to the coupled system. The desire to recapitulate the complex organorgan interactions that result from factors in the blood and lymph places a severe constraint on the total circulating fluid (~5 mL for a mHu and ~5 μL for a μHu) and hence on the pumps, valves, and analytical instruments required to maintain and study these systems. Scaling arguments also provide guidance on the design of a universal cell-culture medium, typically without red blood cells. This review presents several examples of scaling arguments and discusses steps that should ensure the success of this endeavour. PMID:23828456

  9. Long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents affects color vision, contrast sensitivity and visual fields.

    PubMed

    Costa, Thiago Leiros; Barboni, Mirella Telles Salgueiro; Moura, Ana Laura de Araújo; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Gualtieri, Mirella; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of chronic occupational exposure to a mixture of organic solvents by measuring color discrimination, achromatic contrast sensitivity and visual fields in a group of gas station workers. We tested 25 workers (20 males) and 25 controls with no history of chronic exposure to solvents (10 males). All participants had normal ophthalmologic exams. Subjects had worked in gas stations on an average of 9.6 ± 6.2 years. Color vision was evaluated with the Lanthony D15d and Cambridge Colour Test (CCT). Visual field assessment consisted of white-on-white 24-2 automatic perimetry (Humphrey II-750i). Contrast sensitivity was measured for sinusoidal gratings of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 cycles per degree (cpd). Results from both groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The number of errors in the D15d was higher for workers relative to controls (p<0.01). Their CCT color discrimination thresholds were elevated compared to the control group along the protan, deutan and tritan confusion axes (p<0.01), and their ellipse area and ellipticity were higher (p<0.01). Genetic analysis of subjects with very elevated color discrimination thresholds excluded congenital causes for the visual losses. Automated perimetry thresholds showed elevation in the 9°, 15° and 21° of eccentricity (p<0.01) and in MD and PSD indexes (p<0.01). Contrast sensitivity losses were found for all spatial frequencies measured (p<0.01) except for 0.5 cpd. Significant correlation was found between previous working years and deutan axis thresholds (rho = 0.59; p<0.05), indexes of the Lanthony D15d (rho=0.52; p<0.05), perimetry results in the fovea (rho= -0.51; p<0.05) and at 3, 9 and 15 degrees of eccentricity (rho= -0.46; p<0.05). Extensive and diffuse visual changes were found, suggesting that specific occupational limits should be created.

  10. Long-Term Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents Affects Color Vision, Contrast Sensitivity and Visual Fields

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Thiago Leiros; Barboni, Mirella Telles Salgueiro; Moura, Ana Laura de Araújo; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Gualtieri, Mirella; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of chronic occupational exposure to a mixture of organic solvents by measuring color discrimination, achromatic contrast sensitivity and visual fields in a group of gas station workers. We tested 25 workers (20 males) and 25 controls with no history of chronic exposure to solvents (10 males). All participants had normal ophthalmologic exams. Subjects had worked in gas stations on an average of 9.6±6.2 years. Color vision was evaluated with the Lanthony D15d and Cambridge Colour Test (CCT). Visual field assessment consisted of white-on-white 24–2 automatic perimetry (Humphrey II-750i). Contrast sensitivity was measured for sinusoidal gratings of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 cycles per degree (cpd). Results from both groups were compared using the Mann–Whitney U test. The number of errors in the D15d was higher for workers relative to controls (p<0.01). Their CCT color discrimination thresholds were elevated compared to the control group along the protan, deutan and tritan confusion axes (p<0.01), and their ellipse area and ellipticity were higher (p<0.01). Genetic analysis of subjects with very elevated color discrimination thresholds excluded congenital causes for the visual losses. Automated perimetry thresholds showed elevation in the 9°, 15° and 21° of eccentricity (p<0.01) and in MD and PSD indexes (p<0.01). Contrast sensitivity losses were found for all spatial frequencies measured (p<0.01) except for 0.5 cpd. Significant correlation was found between previous working years and deutan axis thresholds (rho = 0.59; p<0.05), indexes of the Lanthony D15d (rho = 0.52; p<0.05), perimetry results in the fovea (rho = −0.51; p<0.05) and at 3, 9 and 15 degrees of eccentricity (rho = −0.46; p<0.05). Extensive and diffuse visual changes were found, suggesting that specific occupational limits should be created. PMID:22916187

  11. Assessing Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Fire-Affected Pinus Palustris Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butnor, J. R.; Johnsen, K. H.; Jackson, J. A.; Anderson, P. H.; Samuelson, L. J.; Lorenz, K.

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to quantify the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its biochemically resistant fraction (SOCR; defined as residual SOC following H2O2 treatment and dilute HNO3 digestion) in managed longleaf pine (LLP) stands located at Fort Benning, Georgia, USA (32.38 N., 84.88 W.). Although it is unclear how to increase SOCR via land management, it is a relatively stable carbon (C) pool that is important for terrestrial C sequestration. SOC concentration declines with soil depth on upland soils without a spodic horizon; however, the portion that is SOCR and the residence time of this fraction on LLP stands is unknown. Soils were collected by depth at five sites with common land use history, present use for active military training and a three-year prescribed fire return cycle. Soils were treated with H2O2 and dilute HNO3 to isolate SOCR. In the upper 1-m of soil SOC stocks averaged 72.1 ± 6.6 Mg C ha-1 and SOCR averaged 25.8 ± 3.2 Mg C ha-1. Depending on the site, the ratio of SOCR:SOC ranged from 0.25 to 0.50 in the upper 1-m of soil. On clayey soils the ratio of SOCR:SOC increased with soil depth. One site containing 33% clay at 50 to 100 cm depth had a SOCR:SOC ratio of 0.68. The radiocarbon age of SOCR increased with soil depth, ranging from approximately 2,000 years before present (YBP) at 0 to 10 cm to over 5,500 YBP at 50 to 100 cm depth. Across all sites, SOCR makes up a considerable portion of SOC. What isn't clear is the proportion of SOCR that is of pyrogenic origin (black carbon), versus SOCR that is stabilized by association with the mineral phase. Ongoing analysis with 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will provide data on the degree of aromaticity of the SOCR and some indication of the nature of its biochemical stability.

  12. Canopy light cues affect emission of constitutive and methyl jasmonate-induced volatile organic compounds in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kegge, Wouter; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Soler, Roxina; Eijk, Marleen Vergeer-Van; Dicke, Marcel; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The effects of plant competition for light on the emission of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were studied by investigating how different light qualities that occur in dense vegetation affect the emission of constitutive and methyl-jasmonate-induced VOCs. Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia (Col-0) plants and Pieris brassicae caterpillars were used as a biological system to study the effects of light quality manipulations on VOC emissions and attraction of herbivores. VOCs were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and the effects of light quality, notably the red : far red light ratio (R : FR), on expression of genes associated with VOC production were studied using reverse transcriptase–quantitative PCR. The emissions of both constitutive and methyl-jasmonate-induced green leaf volatiles and terpenoids were partially suppressed under low R : FR and severe shading conditions. Accordingly, the VOC-based preference of neonates of the specialist lepidopteran herbivore P. brassicae was significantly affected by the R : FR ratio. We conclude that VOC-mediated interactions among plants and between plants and organisms at higher trophic levels probably depend on light alterations caused by nearby vegetation. Studies on plant–plant and plant–insect interactions through VOCs should take into account the light quality within dense stands when extrapolating to natural and agricultural field conditions. PMID:23845065

  13. Intuitive Judgments Govern Students' Answering Patterns in Multiple-Choice Exercises in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graulich, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Research in chemistry education has revealed that students going through their undergraduate and graduate studies in organic chemistry have a fragmented conceptual knowledge of the subject. Rote memorization, rule-based reasoning, and heuristic strategies seem to strongly influence students' performances. There appears to be a gap between what we…

  14. Binding of the wheat germ lectin to Cryptococcus neoformans chitooligomers affects multiple mechanisms required for fungal pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Guimarães, Allan J.; Kmetzsch, Lívia; Dutra, Fabianno F.; Silva, Fernanda D.; Taborda, Carlos P.; Araujo, Glauber de S.; Frases, Susana; Staats, Charley C.; Bozza, Marcelo T.; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2015-01-01

    The principal capsular component of Cryptococcus neoformans, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), interacts with surface glycans, including chitin-like oligomers. Although the role of GXM in cryptococcal infection has been well explored, there is no information on how chitooligomers affect fungal pathogenesis. In this study, surface chitooligomers of C. neoformans were blocked through the use of the wheat germ lectin (WGA) and the effects on animal pathogenesis, interaction with host cells, fungal growth and capsule formation were analyzed. Treatment of C. neoformans cells with WGA followed by infection of mice delayed mortality relative to animals infected with untreated fungal cells. This observation was associated with reduced brain colonization by lectin-treated cryptococci. Blocking chitooligomers also rendered yeast cells less efficient in their ability to associate with phagocytes. WGA did not affect fungal viability, but inhibited GXM release to the extracellular space and capsule formation. In WGA-treated yeast cells, genes that are involved in capsule formation and GXM traffic had their transcription levels decreased in comparison with untreated cells. Our results suggest that cellular pathways required for capsule formation and pathogenic mechanisms are affected by blocking chitin-derived structures at the cell surface of C. neoformans. Targeting chitooligomers with specific ligands may reveal new therapeutic alternatives to control cryptococcosis. PMID:23608320

  15. Biochar affects soil organic matter cycling and microbial functions but does not alter microbial community structure in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Wang, Jingyuan; Dippold, Michaela; Gao, Yang; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-06-15

    The application of biochar (BC) in conjunction with mineral fertilizers is one of the most promising management practices recommended to improve soil quality. However, the interactive mechanisms of BC and mineral fertilizer addition affecting microbial communities and functions associated with soil organic matter (SOM) cycling are poorly understood. We investigated the SOM in physical and chemical fractions, microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and functions (by analyzing enzymes involved in C and N cycling and Biolog) in a 6-year field experiment with BC and NPK amendment. BC application increased total soil C and particulate organic C for 47.4-50.4% and 63.7-74.6%, respectively. The effects of BC on the microbial community and C-cycling enzymes were dependent on fertilization. Addition of BC alone did not change the microbial community compared with the control, but altered the microbial community structure in conjunction with NPK fertilization. SOM fractions accounted for 55% of the variance in the PLFA-related microbial community structure. The particulate organic N explained the largest variation in the microbial community structure. Microbial metabolic activity strongly increased after BC addition, particularly the utilization of amino acids and amines due to an increase in the activity of proteolytic (l-leucine aminopeptidase) enzymes. These results indicate that microorganisms start to mine N from the SOM to compensate for high C:N ratios after BC application, which consequently accelerate cycling of stable N. Concluding, BC in combination with NPK fertilizer application strongly affected microbial community composition and functions, which consequently influenced SOM cycling.

  16. Dandelion root extract affects colorectal cancer proliferation and survival through the activation of multiple death signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ovadje, Pamela; Ammar, Saleem; Guerrero, Jose-Antonio; Arnason, John Thor; Pandey, Siyaram

    2016-11-08

    Dandelion extracts have been studied extensively in recent years for its anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory activity. Recent work from our lab, with in-vitro systems, shows the anti-cancer potential of an aqueous dandelion root extract (DRE) in several cancer cell models, with no toxicity to non-cancer cells. In this study, we examined the cancer cell-killing effectiveness of an aqueous DRE in colon cancer cell models. Aqueous DRE induced programmed cell death (PCD) selectively in > 95% of colon cancer cells, irrespective of their p53 status, by 48 hours of treatment. The anti-cancer efficacy of this extract was confirmed in in-vivo studies, as the oral administration of DRE retarded the growth of human colon xenograft models by more than 90%. We found the activation of multiple death pathways in cancer cells by DRE treatment, as revealed by gene expression analyses showing the expression of genes implicated in programmed cell death. Phytochemical analyses of the extract showed complex multi-component composition of the DRE, including some known bioactive phytochemicals such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol and taraxasterol. This suggested that this natural extract could engage and effectively target multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells. Therefore, DRE could be a non-toxic and effective anti-cancer alternative, instrumental for reducing the occurrence of cancer cells drug-resistance.

  17. Dandelion root extract affects colorectal cancer proliferation and survival through the activation of multiple death signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ovadje, Pamela; Ammar, Saleem; Guerrero, Jose-Antonio; Arnason, John Thor; Pandey, Siyaram

    2016-01-01

    Dandelion extracts have been studied extensively in recent years for its anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory activity. Recent work from our lab, with in-vitro systems, shows the anti-cancer potential of an aqueous dandelion root extract (DRE) in several cancer cell models, with no toxicity to non-cancer cells. In this study, we examined the cancer cell-killing effectiveness of an aqueous DRE in colon cancer cell models. Aqueous DRE induced programmed cell death (PCD) selectively in > 95% of colon cancer cells, irrespective of their p53 status, by 48 hours of treatment. The anti-cancer efficacy of this extract was confirmed in in-vivo studies, as the oral administration of DRE retarded the growth of human colon xenograft models by more than 90%. We found the activation of multiple death pathways in cancer cells by DRE treatment, as revealed by gene expression analyses showing the expression of genes implicated in programmed cell death. Phytochemical analyses of the extract showed complex multi-component composition of the DRE, including some known bioactive phytochemicals such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol and taraxasterol. This suggested that this natural extract could engage and effectively target multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells. Therefore, DRE could be a non-toxic and effective anti-cancer alternative, instrumental for reducing the occurrence of cancer cells drug-resistance. PMID:27564258

  18. Disruption of biomolecule function by nanoparticles: how do gold nanoparticles affect Phase I biotransformation of persistent organic pollutants?

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe; Ma, Guibin; Veinot, Jonathan G C; Wong, Charles S

    2013-09-01

    The potential influence of nanoparticles on cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozyme mediated Phase I biotransformation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in vitro was investigated using citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) as the probe nanoparticle and compound, respectively. AuNPs affected the biotransformation activity of rat CYP2B1 and changed the atropisomeric composition of PCB 95, depending on the incubation time and the AuNP concentration. Electrostatic repulsion between citrate-coated AuNPs and rat CYP2B1 may influence the active conformation of the isozyme and consequently affect its activity and stereoselectivity. In addition, the effects of AuNPs on rat CYP2B1 activity also appeared to be through interference with the CYP catalytic cycle's electron transfer chain. Incubations with AuNPs had a decline in buffer conductance and an absorbance band red shift of AuNPs, from electrostatic interactions of K(+) with negatively-charged AuNP aggregates. These ionic strength changes affected the formation rate of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, which provides electrons for the oxidative reaction cycle, and the biotransformation activity and stereoselectivity of CYP. This study suggests that charged nanoparticles may be able to alter the functions of biomolecules directly, by electrostatic interaction, or indirectly, by changes to the surrounding ionic strength. These factors should be taken into account for further understanding and prediction of the environmental behavior and fate of POPs and nanoparticles.

  19. Thrombocytopenia-associated multiple organ failure or severe haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count in a postpartum case.

    PubMed

    Jagia, Manish; Taqi, Salah; Hanafi, Mahmoud; Aisha, Fakeir

    2013-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia-associated multiple organ failure (TAMOF) is a thrombotic microangiopathic syndrome that includes thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, secondary thrombotic microangiopathy, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. We report a case of postpartum female who presented with TAMOF or severe Haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count (HELLP) which was managed with plasma exchange. This case report is to make clinicians aware that TAMOF, severe HELLP, and other differential diagnosis in a postpartum case have a thin differentiating line and plasma exchange can be considered as one of the management options.

  20. Molecular crowding affects diffusion and binding of nuclear proteins in heterochromatin and reveals the fractal organization of chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Bancaud, Aurélien; Huet, Sébastien; Daigle, Nathalie; Mozziconacci, Julien; Beaudouin, Joël; Ellenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The nucleus of eukaryotes is organized into functional compartments, the two most prominent being heterochromatin and nucleoli. These structures are highly enriched in DNA, proteins or RNA, and thus thought to be crowded. In vitro, molecular crowding induces volume exclusion, hinders diffusion and enhances association, but whether these effects are relevant in vivo remains unclear. Here, we establish that volume exclusion and diffusive hindrance occur in dense nuclear compartments by probing the diffusive behaviour of inert fluorescent tracers in living cells. We also demonstrate that chromatin-interacting proteins remain transiently trapped in heterochromatin due to crowding induced enhanced affinity. The kinetic signatures of these crowding consequences allow us to derive a fractal model of chromatin organization, which explains why the dynamics of soluble nuclear proteins are affected independently of their size. This model further shows that the fractal architecture differs between heterochromatin and euchromatin, and predicts that chromatin proteins use different target-search strategies in the two compartments. We propose that fractal crowding is a fundamental principle of nuclear organization, particularly of heterochromatin maintenance. PMID:19927119

  1. Repeated application of composted tannery sludge affects differently soil microbial biomass, enzymes activity, and ammonia-oxidizing organisms.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira; Lima, Luciano Moura; Santos, Vilma Maria; Schmidt, Radomir

    2016-10-01

    Repeated application of composted tannery sludge (CTS) changes the soil chemical properties and, consequently, can affect the soil microbial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the responses of soil microbial biomass and ammonia-oxidizing organisms to repeated application of CTS. CTS was applied repeatedly during 6 years, and, at the sixth year, the soil microbial biomass, enzymes activity, and ammonia-oxidizing organisms were determined in the soil. The treatments consisted of 0 (without CTS application), 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 t ha(-1) of CTS (dry basis). Soil pH, EC, SOC, total N, and Cr concentration increased with the increase in CTS rate. Soil microbial biomass did not change significantly with the amendment of 2.5 Mg ha(-1), while it decreased at the higher rates. Total and specific enzymes activity responded differently after CTS application. The abundance of bacteria did not change with the 2.5-Mg ha(-1) CTS treatment and decreased after this rate, while the abundance of archaea increased significantly with the 2.5-Mg ha(-1) CTS treatment. Repeated application of different CTS rates for 6 years had different effects on the soil microbial biomass and ammonia-oxidizing organisms as a response to changes in soil chemical properties.

  2. Molecular crowding affects diffusion and binding of nuclear proteins in heterochromatin and reveals the fractal organization of chromatin.

    PubMed

    Bancaud, Aurélien; Huet, Sébastien; Daigle, Nathalie; Mozziconacci, Julien; Beaudouin, Joël; Ellenberg, Jan

    2009-12-16

    The nucleus of eukaryotes is organized into functional compartments, the two most prominent being heterochromatin and nucleoli. These structures are highly enriched in DNA, proteins or RNA, and thus thought to be crowded. In vitro, molecular crowding induces volume exclusion, hinders diffusion and enhances association, but whether these effects are relevant in vivo remains unclear. Here, we establish that volume exclusion and diffusive hindrance occur in dense nuclear compartments by probing the diffusive behaviour of inert fluorescent tracers in living cells. We also demonstrate that chromatin-interacting proteins remain transiently trapped in heterochromatin due to crowding induced enhanced affinity. The kinetic signatures of these crowding consequences allow us to derive a fractal model of chromatin organization, which explains why the dynamics of soluble nuclear proteins are affected independently of their size. This model further shows that the fractal architecture differs between heterochromatin and euchromatin, and predicts that chromatin proteins use different target-search strategies in the two compartments. We propose that fractal crowding is a fundamental principle of nuclear organization, particularly of heterochromatin maintenance.

  3. Estimates of Octanol-Water Partitioning for Thousands of Dissolved Organic Species in Oil Sands Process-Affected Water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Pereira, Alberto S; Martin, Jonathan W

    2015-07-21

    In this study, the octanol-water distribution ratios (DOW, that is, apparent KOW at pH 8.4) of 2114 organic species in oil sands process-affected water were estimated by partitioning to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated stir bars and analysis by ultrahigh resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry in electrospray positive ((+)) and negative ((-)) ionization modes. At equilibrium, the majority of species in OSPW showed negligible partitioning to PDMS (i.e., DOW <1), however estimated DOW's for some species ranged up to 100,000. Most organic acids detected in ESI- had negligible partitioning, although some naphthenic acids (O2(-) species) had estimated DOW ranging up to 100. Polar neutral and basic compounds detected in ESI+ generally partitioned to PDMS to a greater extent than organic acids. Among these species, DOW was greatest among 3 groups: up to 1000 for mono-oxygenated species (O(+) species), up to 127,000 for NO(+) species, and up to 203,000 for SO(+) species. A positive relationship was observed between DOW and carbon number, and a negative relationship was observed with the number of double bonds (or rings). The results highlight that nonacidic compounds in OSPW are generally more hydrophobic than naphthenic acids and that some may be highly bioaccumulative and contribute to toxicity.

  4. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, an unusual complication of heroin intoxication: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gang; Luo, Qiancheng; Guo, Enwei; Yao, Yulan; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Bingyu; Li, Longxuan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) has rarely been described in patients with heroin intoxication. Here, we report a rare case of MODS involving six organs, due to heroin intoxication. The patient was a 32-year-old Chinese man with severe heroin intoxication complicated by acute pulmonary edema and respiratory insufficiency, shock, myocardial damage and cardiac insufficiency, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal insufficiency, acute liver injury and hepatic insufficiency, toxic leukoencephalopathy, and hypoglycemia. He managed to survive and was discharged after 10 weeks of intensive care. The possible pathogenesis and therapeutic measures of MODS induced by heroin intoxication and some suggestions for preventing and treating severe complications of heroin intoxication, based on clinical evidence and the pertinent literature, are discussed in this report.

  5. Hypereosinophilic syndrome presenting with multiple organ infiltration and deep venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Su-jun; Wei, Wei; Chen, Jiang-tao; Tan, Ye-hui; Yu, Cheng-bao; Litzow, Mark Robert; Liu, Qiu-ju

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) can be fatal, particularly when eosinophils infiltrate vital organs and/or if extensive thrombosis develops. However there are no standard recommendations for the use of anticoagulant therapy of HES in the setting of thrombosis. Methods: We herein present a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with marked peripheral eosinophilia with symptoms of multi-organ infiltration and extensive deep venous thrombosis (DVT). In this case, evaluation was carried out before the diagnosis was established, and timely standard-dose corticosteroids combined with a new oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy were carried out. Results: These measures resulted in a rapid response and long-term disease control. Conclusion: Although there are no data to support which anticoagulant is preferred in this setting, this case indicates that the new oral anticoagulants may play an important role in the treatment of thrombosis in HES. PMID:27583887

  6. How many is too many? Collaboration of multiple nursing organizations for professional development.

    PubMed

    Redding, Donna A; Anglin, Linda T

    2002-01-01

    Representatives of 11 nursing organizations developed a unique consortium to produce an ongoing series of annual conferences focused on promoting professional nursing leadership among nurses in diverse practice areas including acute care, long-term care, community health, and nursing education. The consortium strategically added members and refined the format of the conferences based on participant feedback. The conferences feature a keynote speaker and practice-based breakout sessions designed to facilitate futuristic thinking among nurses. The conference is associated with a legislative roundtable to support interaction between nurses and legislators. Future expansion of the consortium will include representation of advanced practice nurses. The development of the consortium and its highly efficient methods of operation are described in this article as an example of multi-organizational collaboration to promote professional nursing leadership. Bonds have been formed between the consortium member organizations that are mutually beneficial to the members of all.

  7. Aggressive Digital Papillary Adenocarcinoma With Multiple Organ Metastases: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hiura, Azusa; Oishi, Kyosuke; Maeda, Shintaro; Le Pavoux, Andres James; Ohara, Kuniaki; Uruga, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (ADPA) is a rare sweat gland neoplasm with a high recurrence rate and metastatic potential. In this study, the authors describe a case that originally appeared to benign spiradenoma, but took an ominous course eventually resulting in the diagnosis of ADPA. A 73-year-old woman developed a gradually growing nodule on the second toe of her left foot, which she had first noticed 4 years previously. An excisional biopsy was performed followed by histological examination. The authors initially considered the tumor to be a benign spiradenoma and did not perform reexcision. However, she experienced local recurrence 24 months later, and multiple pulmonary metastasis 31 months later. On histological examination, both the primary and locally recurrent tumors were found to be composed of discrete and well-circumscribed solid nodules, lacking cystic space. All tumors (the primary tumor, locally recurrent tumor, and lung metastases) presented with a pattern of fused back-to-back tubular structures and myoepithelial differentiation confirmed by immunohistochemical examination. On the basis of these findings, the authors finally diagnosed ADPA with multiple pulmonary metastases. The patient underwent chemotherapy, but died of disease 49 months later. This case highlights the importance of high clinical suspicion of ADPA when digital lesions present. PMID:27870729

  8. Stacking multiple connecting functional materials in tandem organic light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Deng-Ke; Jiang, Nan; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Tandem device is an important architecture in fabricating high performance organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. The key element in making a high performance tandem device is the connecting materials stack, which plays an important role in electric field distribution, charge generation and charge injection. For a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a simple Liq/Al/MoO3 stack, we discovered that there is a significant current lateral spreading causing light emission over an extremely large area outside the OLED pixel when the Al thickness exceeds 2 nm. This spread light emission, caused by an inductive electric field over one of the device unit, limits one’s ability to fabricate high performance tandem devices. To resolve this issue, a new connecting materials stack with a C60 fullerene buffer layer is reported. This new structure permits optimization of the Al metal layer in the connecting stack and thus enables us to fabricate an efficient tandem OLED having a high 155.6 cd/A current efficiency and a low roll-off (or droop) in current efficiency. PMID:28225028

  9. Stacking multiple connecting functional materials in tandem organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Deng-Ke; Jiang, Nan; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-02-22

    Tandem device is an important architecture in fabricating high performance organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. The key element in making a high performance tandem device is the connecting materials stack, which plays an important role in electric field distribution, charge generation and charge injection. For a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a simple Liq/Al/MoO3 stack, we discovered that there is a significant current lateral spreading causing light emission over an extremely large area outside the OLED pixel when the Al thickness exceeds 2 nm. This spread light emission, caused by an inductive electric field over one of the device unit, limits one's ability to fabricate high performance tandem devices. To resolve this issue, a new connecting materials stack with a C60 fullerene buffer layer is reported. This new structure permits optimization of the Al metal layer in the connecting stack and thus enables us to fabricate an efficient tandem OLED having a high 155.6 cd/A current efficiency and a low roll-off (or droop) in current efficiency.

  10. Multiple brain parenchymal neurocysticercosis with extraocular muscle cysticercosis affecting levator palpebral superioris and superior rectus complex: an unusual association

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented to the neurology department with a complaint of insidious onset of left-sided ptosis and restricted elevation of the left eye. A CT scan orbit and brain revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the levator palpebral superioris (LPS) and superior rectus (SR) muscle complex of the left eye and left parietal and right temporal region. She was started on steroid, followed by albendazole with improvement. The LPS/SR complex is the least common site of involvement among extraocular muscles in ocular cysticercosis. Specially, with brain neurocysticercosis (NCC), it is extremely rare. We report an unusual association of multiple brain NCC with ocular cysticercosis involving LPS and SR muscle. PMID:23355567

  11. Source Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds Affecting the Air Quality in a Coastal Urban Area of South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-01-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%). PMID:19139530

  12. Source characterization of volatile organic compounds affecting the air quality in a coastal urban area of South Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-09-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%).

  13. Organic matter characteristics of food processing industry wastewaters affecting their C and N mineralization in soil incubation.

    PubMed

    Parnaudeau, Virginie; Nicolardot, Bernard; Robert, Philippe; Alavoine, Gonzague; Pagès, Jérôme; Duchiron, Francis

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed at determining food processing wastewater composition factors that regulate their carbon and nitrogen mineralization when added to soil. Twenty three different wastewaters from various food processing industries were characterized by C and N concentrations, liquid and solid physical separation and acid solubility. They were also incubated in a calcareous soil during six months at 28 degrees C. The C and N concentrations were low but covered a wide range. Carbon and nitrogen were variously distributed in the liquid and solid fractions and much C was present in the acid-soluble fraction in which C to N ratios were low. The C and N mineralization measured during soil incubation covered a wide range of decomposition pathways. Carbon mineralization was linked significantly (p=0.05) with the C to N ratio of the acid soluble fraction and C present in the liquid fraction. N mineralization was significantly correlated (p=0.05) with the organic C to organic N ratio and the C to N ratio of the acid soluble fraction. Multiple factor analysis and clustering also enabled defining clusters which partially overlap the various origins of the wastewaters.

  14. Hexachlorobenzene dechlorination as affected by organic fertilizer and urea applications in two rice planted paddy soils in a pot experiment.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Y; Jiang, X; Yang, X L; Song, Y

    2010-01-15

    Reductive dechlorination is a crucial pathway for HCB degradation, the applications of organic materials and nitrogen can alter microbial activity and redox potential of soils, thus probably influence HCB dechlorination. To evaluate hexachlorobenzene (HCB) dechlorination as affected by organic fertilizer (OF) and urea applications in planted paddy soils, a pot experiment was conducted in two types of soils, Hydragric Acrisols (Ac) and Gleyi-Stagnic Anthrosols (An). After 18 weeks of experiment, HCB residues decreased by 28.2-37.5% of the initial amounts in Ac, and 42.1-70.9% in An. The amounts of HCB metabolites showed that dechlorination rates in An were higher than in Ac, which was mainly attributed to the higher pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of An. Both in Ac and An, the additions of 1% and 2% OF had negative effect on HCB dechlorination, which was probably because excessive nitrogen in OF decreased degraders' activity and the degradation of organic carbon in OF accepted electrons. The application of 0.03% urea could enhance HCB dechlorination rates slightly, while 0.06% urea accelerated HCB dechlorination significantly both in Ac and An. It could be assumed that urea served as an electron donor and stimulated degraders to dechlorinate HCB. In addition, the methanogenic bacteria were involved in dechlorination process, and reductive dechlorination in planted paddy soil might be impeded for the aerenchyma and O(2) supply into the rhizosphere. Results indicated that soil types, rice root system, methanogenic bacteria, OF and urea applications all had great effects on dechlorination process.

  15. Cell Number Regulator1 affects plant and organ size in maize: implications for crop yield enhancement and heterosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei; Rupe, Mary A; Dieter, Jo Ann; Zou, Jijun; Spielbauer, Daniel; Duncan, Keith E; Howard, Richard J; Hou, Zhenglin; Simmons, Carl R

    2010-04-01

    Genes involved in cell number regulation may affect plant growth and organ size and, ultimately, crop yield. The tomato (genus Solanum) fruit weight gene fw2.2, for instance, governs a quantitative trait locus that accounts for 30% of fruit size variation, with increased fruit size chiefly due to increased carpel ovary cell number. To expand investigation of how related genes may impact other crop plant or organ sizes, we identified the maize (Zea mays) gene family of putative fw2.2 orthologs, naming them Cell Number Regulator (CNR) genes. This family represents an ancient eukaryotic family of Cys-rich proteins containing the PLAC8 or DUF614 conserved motif. We focused on native expression and transgene analysis of the two maize members closest to Le-fw2.2, namely, CNR1 and CNR2. We show that CNR1 reduced overall plant size when ectopically overexpressed and that plant and organ size increased when its expression was cosuppressed or silenced. Leaf epidermal cell counts showed that the increased or decreased transgenic plant and organ size was due to changes in cell number, not cell size. CNR2 expression was found to be negatively correlated with tissue growth activity and hybrid seedling vigor. The effects of CNR1 on plant size and cell number are reminiscent of heterosis, which also increases plant size primarily through increased cell number. Regardless of whether CNRs and other cell number-influencing genes directly contribute to, or merely mimic, heterosis, they may aid generation of more vigorous and productive crop plants.

  16. Reverse osmosis sampling does not affect the protective effect of dissolved organic matter on copper and zinc toxicity to freshwater organisms.

    PubMed

    De Schamphelaere, K A C; Unamuno, V I R; Tack, F M G; Vanderdeelen, J; Janssen, C R

    2005-02-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a significant role in protecting freshwater organisms against metal toxicity. To study this, reverse osmosis (RO) has been widely used as a highly efficient method for rapid collection of large quantities of DOM from natural surface waters. The objective of this study was to examine the potential impact of the RO isolation technique on the protective effects of DOM on the toxicity of copper and zinc to the cladoceran Daphnia magna and the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. DOM was concentrated from a natural surface water using RO and at the same time a natural (unconcentrated) surface water was taken. The concentrated DOM was rediluted to the level of the natural water to obtain the so-called reconstituted water. Chemical analyses and toxicity tests were performed with both the natural surface water and the reconstituted water. First, most chemical parameters were not significantly changed by the RO sampling. For both copper and zinc, no significant differences were observed in 48 h-EC50s for D. magna and in 72 h-EC50s for P. subcapitata between the reconstituted water and the natural water. Hence, it may be concluded that reverse osmosis does not significantly affect the protective effect of natural DOM against copper and zinc toxicity.

  17. How do landscape composition and configuration, organic farming and fallow strips affect the diversity of bees, wasps and their parasitoids?

    PubMed

    Holzschuh, Andrea; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2010-03-01

    1. Habitat destruction and increasing land use intensity result in habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation, and subsequently in the loss of species diversity. The fact that these factors are often highly confounded makes disentangling their effects extremely difficult, if not impossible, and their relative impact on species loss is mostly speculative. 2. In a two-year study, we analysed the relative importance of changed landscape composition (increased areas of cropped habitats), reduced habitat connectivity and reduced habitat quality on nest colonization of cavity-nesting bees, wasps and their parasitoids. We selected 23 pairs of conventional and organic wheat fields in the centre of landscape circles (500 m radius) differing in edge densities (landscape configuration) and % non-crop habitats (landscape composition). Standardized trap nests were established in the field centres and in neighbouring permanent fallow strips (making a total of 92 nesting sites). 3. Factors at all three scales affected nest colonization. While bees were enhanced by high proportions of non-crop habitat in the landscape, wasps profited from high edge densities, supporting our hypothesis that wasps are enhanced by connecting corridors. Colonization of herbivore-predating wasps was lower in field centres than in fallow strips for conventional sites, but not for organic sites, indicating a fallow-like connectivity value of organic fields. The relative importance of habitat type and farming system varied among functional groups suggesting that their perception of crop-non-crop boundaries or the availability of their food resources differed. 4. Local and landscape effects on parasitoids were mainly mediated by their hosts. Parasitism rates were marginally affected by local factors. A specialist parasitoid was more sensitive to high land use intensity than its host, whereas generalist parasitoids were less sensitive. 5. We conclude that the conversion of cropland into non-crop habitat

  18. Dynamics of aggregate stability and soil organic C distribution as affected by climatic aggressiveness: a mesocosm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Sergio; Elio Agnelli, Alessandro; Costanza Andrenelli, Maria; Barbetti, Roberto; Castelli, Fabio; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Pasqui, Massimiliano; Tomozeiu, Rodica; Razzaghi, Somayyeh; Vignozzi, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    changed at the end of the trial, depending of soil types. In CAS and MED a decrease of C content was observed in fractions larger than 0.250 mm, while an accumulation occurred only in CAS microaggregates. BOV showed a singular pattern, with an increase of organic C in all fractions. In this site an improvement of aggregation, involving the coarser fractions, seems to have been favoured during the experiment. Overall, the imposed climate did not affect significantly these trends, except in CAS, where TYP and SIM climates showed an increase of macroaggregates and their C concentration. Soil pedoclimatic characteristics showed to be the main factors affecting C and aggregates dynamics in this mesocosm experiment.

  19. Environmental occurrence and risk of organic UV filters and stabilizers in multiple matrices in Norway.

    PubMed

    Langford, Katherine H; Reid, Malcolm J; Fjeld, Eirik; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Thomas, Kevin V

    2015-07-01

    Eight organic UV filters and stabilizers were quantitatively determined in wastewater sludge and effluent, landfill leachate, sediments, and marine and freshwater biota. Crab, prawn and cod from Oslofjord, and perch, whitefish and burbot from Lake Mjøsa were selected in order to evaluate the potential for trophic accumulation. All of the cod livers analysed were contaminated with at least 1 UV filter, and a maximum concentration of almost 12 μg/g wet weight for octocrylene (OC) was measured in one individual. 80% of the cod livers contained OC, and approximately 50% of cod liver and prawn samples contained benzophenone (BP3). Lower concentrations and detection frequencies were observed in freshwater species and the data of most interest is the 4 individual whitefish that contained both BP3 and ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate (EHMC) with maximum concentrations of almost 200 ng/g wet weight. The data shows a difference in the loads of UV filters entering receiving water dependent on the extent of wastewater treatment. Primary screening alone is insufficient for the removal of selected UV filters (BP3, Padimate, EHMC, OC, UV-234, UV-327, UV-328, UV-329). Likely due in part to the hydrophobic nature of the majority of the UV filters studied, particulate loading and organic carbon content appear to be related to concentrations of UV filters in landfill leachate and an order of magnitude difference in these parameters correlates with an order of magnitude difference in the effluent concentrations of selected UV filters (Fig. 2). From the data, it is possible that under certain low flow conditions selected organic UV filters may pose a risk to surface waters but under the present conditions the risk is low, but some UV filters will potentially accumulate through the trophic food chain.

  20. Estimation of nutrients and organic matter in Korean swine slurry using multiple regression analysis of physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Arumuganainar; Choi, Hong Lim

    2011-10-01

    Swine waste land application has increased due to organic fertilization, but excess application in an arable system can cause environmental risk. Therefore, in situ characterizations of such resources are important prior to application. To explore this, 41 swine slurry samples were collected from Korea, and wide differences were observed in the physico-biochemical properties. However, significant (P<0.001) multiple property correlations (R²) were obtained between nutrients with specific gravity (SG), electrical conductivity (EC), total solids (TS) and pH. The different combinations of hydrometer, EC meter, drying oven and pH meter were found useful to estimate Mn, Fe, Ca, K, Al, Na, N and 5-day biochemical oxygen demands (BOD₅) at improved R² values of 0.83, 0.82, 0.77, 0.75, 0.67, 0.47, 0.88 and 0.70, respectively. The results from this study suggest that multiple property regressions can facilitate the prediction of micronutrients and organic matter much better than a single property regression for livestock waste.

  1. Effectiveness of combining plasma exchange with continuous hemodiafiltration on acute Fatty liver of pregnancy complicated by multiple organ dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yu-Feng; Meng, Mei; Zeng, Juan; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Jin-Jiao; Ren, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Ji-Cheng; Zhu, Wen-Ying; Wang, Chun-Ting

    2012-06-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare disease of progressive hepatic insufficiency and secondary systemic complications that induce significant maternal risk. The application of combining plasma exchange (PE) and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) is a novel concept for patients with AFLP. Since 2002, we have utilized the combination of PE with CHDF as adjunctive medical therapy for 11 AFLP patients with multiple organ dysfunction. Before PE and CHDF initiation, four patients had signs and symptoms of encephalopathy, four required ventilatory support, and all 11 were developing liver failure, significant renal compromise, and coagulopathy. PE combined with CHDF for patients was initiated a mean of 2 days postpartum (range, days 0-3). Daily or every other day PE combined with CHDF was undertaken on two to eight occasions for each of the 11 patients. Ten patients responded with composite clinical and laboratory improvement and were discharged to the ward, then cured and discharged from hospital; one patient died of septic shock. Average duration of hospitalization was 17 days (range, days 9-38) from time of admission to discharge; the average duration of intensive care unit was 10 days (range, days 4-23). No significant PE- and CHDF-related complications occurred. These results indicate that combing PE and CHDF in a series-parallel circuit is an effective and safe treatment for patients with severe AFLP. This finding may have important implications for the development of an effective treatment for patients with AFLP suffering multiple organ dysfunction.

  2. Ringer's malate solution protects against the multiple organ injury and dysfunction caused by hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhong-Liang; Wu, Jing; Meng, Chen; Zeng, Fang; Yang, Yan; Yao, Shang-Long

    2012-08-01

    Malic acid, in the form of its anion malate, is a key intermediate in the major biochemical energy-producing cycle known as the citric acid or Krebs cycle. In this study, the authors investigated the protective effect of a novel crystalloid solution of Ringer's malate following fluid resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock using a rat model. Under general anesthesia, Sprague-Dawley male rats were subjected to 60 min of hemorrhagic shock (40 mmHg for 60 min) followed by crystalloid resuscitation. Groups were as follows: (1) sham shock, (2) normal saline, (3) Ringer's lactate, and (4) Ringer's malate. The experiment was terminated at 4 h after resuscitation. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and blood biophysical parameters were monitored during the experiment. The alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, creatinine, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde levels in plasma were detected. The intestine, liver, lung, and renal histopathology were measured. It was found that Ringer's malate could increase MAP immediately and maintain MAP for a long time. Ringer's malate could reduce the level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, and creatinine. At the same time, the activity of superoxide dismutase was increased, and the level of malondialdehyde was decreased. Histopathology indicated that Ringer's malate can protect against the multiple organ injury caused by hemorrhagic shock in rats. Ringer's malate prevented circulatory failure and alleviated multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in animals with hemorrhagic shock. The study suggests that Ringer's malate solution could be a potential novel therapeutic agent for fluid resuscitation.

  3. Common inversion polymorphism at 17q21.31 affects expression of multiple genes in tissue-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromosome 17q21.31 contains a common inversion polymorphism of approximately 900 kb in populations with European ancestry. Two divergent MAPT haplotypes, H1 and H2 are described with distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns across the region reflecting the inversion status at this locus. The MAPT H1 haplotype has been associated with progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, while the H2 is linked to recurrent deletion events associated with the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, a disease characterized by developmental delay and learning disability. Results In this study, we investigate the effect of the inversion on the expression of genes in the 17q21.31 region. We find the expression of several genes in and at the borders of the inversion to be affected; specific either to whole blood or different regions of the human brain. The H1 haplotype was found to be associated with an increased expression of LRRC37A4, PLEKH1M and MAPT. In contrast, a decreased expression of MGC57346, LRRC37A and CRHR1 was associated with H1. Conclusions Studies thus far have focused on the expression of MAPT in the inversion region. However, our results show that the inversion status affects expression of other genes in the 17q21.31 region as well. Given the link between the inversion status and different neurological diseases, these genes may also be involved in disease pathology, possibly in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:22950410

  4. Identification of multiple cellular uptake pathways of polystyrene nanoparticles and factors affecting the uptake: relevance for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Firdessa, Rebuma; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Moll, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles may address challenges by human diseases through improving diagnosis, vaccination and treatment. The uptake mechanism regulates the type of threat a particle poses on the host cells and how a cell responds to it. Hence, understanding the uptake mechanisms and cellular interactions of nanoparticles at the cellular and subcellular level is a prerequisite for their effective biomedical applications. The present study shows the uptake mechanisms of polystyrene nanoparticles and factors affecting their uptake in bone marrow-derived macrophages, 293T kidney epithelial cells and L929 fibroblasts. Labeling with the endocytic marker FM4-64 and transmission electron microscopy studies show that the nanoparticles were internalized rapidly via endocytosis and accumulated in intracellular vesicles. Soon after their internalizations, nanoparticles trafficked to organelles with acidic pH. Analysis of the ultrastructural morphology of the plasma membrane invaginations or extravasations provides clear evidence for the involvement of several uptake routes in parallel to internalize a given type of nanoparticles by mammalian cells, highlighting the complexity of the nanoparticle-cell interactions. Blocking the specific endocytic pathways by different pharmacological inhibitors shows similar outcomes. The potential to take up nanoparticles varies highly among different cell types in a particle sizes-, time- and energy-dependent manner. Furthermore, infection and the activation status of bone marrow-derived macrophages significantly affect the uptake potential of the cells, indicating the need to understand the diseases' pathogenesis to establish effective and rational drug-delivery systems. This study enhances our understanding of the application of nanotechnology in biomedical sciences.

  5. Target enhancement and distractor inhibition affect transitory surround suppression in dual tasks using multiple rapid serial visual presentation streams.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Greenwood, Pamela; Fu, Shimin

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the interaction between temporal and spatial dimensions on selective attention using dual tasks in the multiple rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. A phenomenon that the surround suppression in space changes over time (termed transitory surround suppression, TSS, in the present study) has been observed, suggesting the existence of this time-space interaction. However, it is still unclear whether target enhancement or distractor inhibition modulates TSS. Four behavioural experiments were conducted to investigate the mechanism of TSS by manipulating the temporal lag and spatial distance factors between two targets embedded in six RSVP streams. The TSS effect was replicated in a study that eliminated confounds of perceptual effects and attentional switch (Experiment 1). However, the TSS disappeared when two targets shared the same colour in a between-subjects design (Experiment 2a) and a within-subject design (Experiment 2b), suggesting the impact of target enhancement on TSS. Moreover, the TSS was larger for within-category than for between-category distractors (Experiment 3), indicating the impact of distractor inhibition on TSS. These two influences on TSS under different processing demands of target and distractor processing were further confirmed in a skeletal design (Experiment 4). Overall, combinative effects of target enhancement and distractor suppression contribute to the mechanisms of time-space interaction in selective attention during visual search.

  6. Statistical evaluation of biogeochemical variables affecting spatiotemporal distributions of multiple free metal ion concentrations in an urban estuary.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhao; Lewis, Christopher G; Burgess, Robert M; Coull, Brent; Shine, James P

    2016-05-01

    Free metal ion concentrations have been recognized as a better indicator of metal bioavailability in aquatic environments than total dissolved metal concentrations. However, our understanding of the determinants of free ion concentrations, especially in a metal mixture, is limited, due to underexplored techniques for measuring multiple free metal ions simultaneously. In this work, we performed statistical analyses on a large dataset containing repeated measurements of free ion concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd, the most commonly measured metals in seawater, at five inshore locations in Boston Harbor, previously collected using an in-situ equilibrium-based multi-metal free ion sampler, the 'Gellyfish'. We examined correlations among these five metals by season, and evaluated effects of 10 biogeochemical variables on free ion concentrations over time and location through multivariate regressions. We also explored potential clustering among the five metals through a principal component analysis. We found significant correlations among metals, with varying patterns over season. Our regression results suggest that instead of dissolved metals, pH, salinity, temperature and rainfall were the most significant determinants of free metal ion concentrations. For example, a one-unit decrease in pH was associated with a 2.2 (Cd) to 99 (Cu) times increase in free ion concentrations. This work is among the first to reveal key contributors to spatiotemporal variations in free ion concentrations, and demonstrated the usefulness of the Gellyfish sampler in routine sampling of free ions within metal mixtures and in generating data for statistical analyses.

  7. Quantitative proteome analysis of an antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli exposed to tetracycline reveals multiple affected metabolic and peptidoglycan processes.

    PubMed

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Moura, Inês Barata; Manageiro, Vera; Igrejas, Gilberto; Caniça, Manuela; Matthiesen, Rune

    2017-03-06

    Tetracyclines are among the most commonly used antibiotics administrated to farm animals for disease treatment and prevention, contributing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance in animal and human pathogens. Although tetracycline mechanisms of resistance are well known, the role of metabolism in bacterial reaction to antibiotic stress is still an important assignment and could contribute to the understanding of tetracycline related stress response. In this study, spectral counts-based label free quantitative proteomics has been applied to study the response to tetracycline of the environmental-borne Escherichia coli EcAmb278 isolate soluble proteome. A total of 1484 proteins were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry at a false discovery rate threshold of 1%, of which 108 were uniquely identified under absence of tetracycline whereas 126 were uniquely identified in presence of tetracycline. These proteins revealed interesting difference in e.g. proteins involved in peptidoglycan-based cell wall proteins and energy metabolism. Upon treatment, 12 proteins were differentially regulated showing more than 2-fold change and p<0.05 (p value corrected for multiple testing). This integrated study using high resolution mass spectrometry based label-free quantitative proteomics to study tetracycline antibiotic response in the soluble proteome of resistant E. coli provides novel insight into tetracycline related stress.

  8. Cr(Vi) reduction capacity of activated sludge as affected by nitrogen and carbon sources, microbial acclimation and cell multiplication.

    PubMed

    Ferro Orozco, A M; Contreras, E M; Zaritzky, N E

    2010-04-15

    The objectives of the present work were: (i) to analyze the capacity of activated sludge to reduce hexavalent chromium using different carbon sources as electron donors in batch reactors, (ii) to determine the relationship between biomass growth and the amount of Cr(VI) reduced considering the effect of the nitrogen to carbon source ratio, and (iii) to determine the effect of the Cr(VI) acclimation stage on the performance of the biological chromium reduction assessing the stability of the Cr(VI) reduction capacity of the activated sludge. The highest specific Cr(VI) removal rate (q(Cr)) was attained with cheese whey or lactose as electron donors decreasing in the following order: cheese whey approximately lactose>glucose>citrate>acetate. Batch assays with different nitrogen to carbon source ratio demonstrated that biological Cr(VI) reduction is associated to the cell multiplication phase; as a result, maximum Cr(VI) removal rates occur when there is no substrate limitation. The biomass can be acclimated to the presence of Cr(VI) and generate new cells that maintain the ability to reduce chromate. Therefore, the activated sludge process could be applied to a continuous Cr(VI) removal process.

  9. SUMF1 mutations affecting stability and activity of formylglycine generating enzyme predict clinical outcome in multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schlotawa, Lars; Ennemann, Eva Charlotte; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Chakrapani, Anupam; Christen, Hans-Jürgen; Moser, Hugo; Steinmann, Beat; Dierks, Thomas; Gärtner, Jutta

    2011-03-01

    Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency (MSD) is caused by mutations in the sulfatase-modifying factor 1 gene encoding the formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE). FGE post translationally activates all newly synthesized sulfatases by generating the catalytic residue formylglycine. Impaired FGE function leads to reduced sulfatase activities. Patients display combined clinical symptoms of single sulfatase deficiencies. For ten MSD patients, we determined the clinical phenotype, FGE expression, localization and stability, as well as residual FGE and sulfatase activities. A neonatal, very severe clinical phenotype resulted from a combination of two nonsense mutations leading to almost fully abrogated FGE activity, highly unstable FGE protein and nearly undetectable sulfatase activities. A late infantile mild phenotype resulted from FGE G263V leading to unstable protein but high residual FGE activity. Other missense mutations resulted in a late infantile severe phenotype because of unstable protein with low residual FGE activity. Patients with identical mutations displayed comparable clinical phenotypes. These data confirm the hypothesis that the phenotypic outcome in MSD depends on both residual FGE activity as well as protein stability. Predicting the clinical course in case of molecularly characterized mutations seems feasible, which will be helpful for genetic counseling and developing therapeutic strategies aiming at enhancement of FGE.

  10. Fatal Outcome of Multiple Clinical Presentations of Human Herpesvirus 8-related Disease After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vijgen, Sandrine; Wyss, Caroline; Meylan, Pascal; Bisig, Bettina; Letovanec, Igor; Manuel, Oriol; Pascual, Manuel; de Leval, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is the most common human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)-related disease described after solid organ transplantation. Multicentric Castleman disease and hemophagocytic syndrome are other potential HHV-8-induced entities but are less frequently reported. We describe the case of a liver transplant recipient who presented with an acute febrile illness 1 year after transplantation with a rapidly fatal outcome. Autopsy revealed 3 distinct HHV-8-related entities: Kaposi sarcoma, HHV-8-associated multicentric Castleman disease with microlymphomas and a severe hemophagocytic syndrome. Retrospective serologic tests suggested that HHV-8 was likely transmitted by the seropositive donor at the time of transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of copresentation of 3 clinical presentations of HHV-8-mediated human disease in the post-transplant setting. Considering the absence of systematic screening of organ donors/recipients for HHV-8 infection, HHV-8-related illness should be suspected in transplant recipients who present with acute febrile illness, systemic symptoms, lymphadenopathies, and/or multiorgan failure to rapidly document the diagnosis and provide timely an adequate treatment.

  11. Effects of multiple levels of social organization on survival and abundance.

    PubMed

    Ward, Eric J; Semmens, Brice X; Holmes, Elizabeth E; Balcomb Iii, Ken C

    2011-04-01

    Identifying how social organization shapes individual behavior, survival, and fecundity of animals that live in groups can inform conservation efforts and improve forecasts of population abundance, even when the mechanism responsible for group-level differences is unknown. We constructed a hierarchical Bayesian model to quantify the relative variability in survival rates among different levels of social organization (matrilines and pods) of an endangered population of killer whales (Orcinus orca). Individual killer whales often participate in group activities such as prey sharing and cooperative hunting. The estimated age-specific survival probabilities and survivorship curves differed considerably among pods and to a lesser extent among matrilines (within pods). Across all pods, males had lower life expectancy than females. Differences in survival between pods may be caused by a combination of factors that vary across the population's range, including reduced prey availability, contaminants in prey, and human activity. Our modeling approach could be applied to demographic rates for other species and for parameters other than survival, including reproduction, prey selection, movement, and detection probabilities.

  12. Multiple Cranial Organ Defects after Conditionally Knocking Out Fgf10 in the Neural Crest

    PubMed Central

    Teshima, Tathyane H. N.; Lourenco, Silvia V.; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2016-01-01

    Fgf10 is necessary for the development of a number of organs that fail to develop or are reduced in size in the null mutant. Here we have knocked out Fgf10 specifically in the neural crest driven by Wnt1cre. The Wnt1creFgf10fl/fl mouse phenocopies many of the null mutant defects, including cleft palate, loss of salivary glands, and ocular glands, highlighting the neural crest origin of the Fgf10 expressing mesenchyme surrounding these organs. In contrast tissues such as the limbs and lungs, where Fgf10 is expressed by the surrounding mesoderm, were unaffected, as was the pituitary gland where Fgf10 is expressed by the neuroepithelium. The circumvallate papilla of the tongue formed but was hypoplastic in the conditional and Fgf10 null embryos, suggesting that other sources of FGF can compensate in development of this structure. The tracheal cartilage rings showed normal patterning in the conditional knockout, indicating that the source of Fgf10 for this tissue is mesodermal, which was confirmed using Wnt1cre-dtTom to lineage trace the boundary of the neural crest in this region. The thyroid, thymus, and parathyroid glands surrounding the trachea were present but hypoplastic in the conditional mutant, indicating that a neighboring source of mesodermal Fgf10 might be able to partially compensate for loss of neural crest derived Fgf10. PMID:27826253

  13. How organic carbon derived from multiple sources contributes to carbon sequestration processes in a shallow coastal system?

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenta; Kuwae, Tomohiro

    2015-04-16

    Carbon captured by marine organisms helps sequester atmospheric CO2 , especially in shallow coastal ecosystems, where rates of primary production and burial of organic carbon (OC) from multiple sources are high. However, linkages between the dynamics of OC derived from multiple sources and carbon sequestration are poorly understood. We investigated the origin (terrestrial, phytobenthos derived, and phytoplankton derived) of particulate OC (POC) and dissolved OC (DOC) in the water column and sedimentary OC using elemental, isotopic, and optical signatures in Furen Lagoon, Japan. Based on these data analysis, we explored how OC from multiple sources contributes to sequestration via storage in sediments, water column sequestration, and air-sea CO2 exchanges, and analyzed how the contributions vary with salinity in a shallow seagrass meadow as well. The relative contribution of terrestrial POC in the water column decreased with increasing salinity, whereas autochthonous POC increased in the salinity range 10-30. Phytoplankton-derived POC dominated the water column POC (65-95%) within this salinity range; however, it was minor in the sediments (3-29%). In contrast, terrestrial and phytobenthos-derived POC were relatively minor contributors in the water column but were major contributors in the sediments (49-78% and 19-36%, respectively), indicating that terrestrial and phytobenthos-derived POC were selectively stored in the sediments. Autochthonous DOC, part of which can contribute to long-term carbon sequestration in the water column, accounted for >25% of the total water column DOC pool in the salinity range 15-30. Autochthonous OC production decreased the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon in the water column and thereby contributed to atmospheric CO2 uptake, except in the low-salinity zone. Our results indicate that shallow coastal ecosystems function not only as transition zones between land and ocean but also as carbon sequestration filters. They function

  14. Combined Hydration and Antibiotics with Lisinopril to Mitigate Acute and Delayed High-dose Radiation Injuries to Multiple Organs.

    PubMed

    Fish, Brian L; Gao, Feng; Narayanan, Jayashree; Bergom, Carmen; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Cohen, Eric P; Moulder, John E; Orschell, Christie M; Medhora, Meetha

    2016-11-01

    The NIAID Radiation and Nuclear Countermeasures Program is developing medical agents to mitigate the acute and delayed effects of radiation that may occur from a radionuclear attack or accident. To date, most such medical countermeasures have been developed for single organ injuries. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used to mitigate radiation-induced lung, skin, brain, and renal injuries in rats. ACE inhibitors have also been reported to decrease normal tissue complication in radiation oncology patients. In the current study, the authors have developed a rat partial-body irradiation (leg-out PBI) model with minimal bone marrow sparing (one leg shielded) that results in acute and late injuries to multiple organs. In this model, the ACE inhibitor lisinopril (at ~24 mg m d started orally in the drinking water at 7 d after irradiation and continued to ≥150 d) mitigated late effects in the lungs and kidneys after 12.5-Gy leg-out PBI. Also in this model, a short course of saline hydration and antibiotics mitigated acute radiation syndrome following doses as high as 13 Gy. Combining this supportive care with the lisinopril regimen mitigated overall morbidity for up to 150 d after 13-Gy leg-out PBI. Furthermore, lisinopril was an effective mitigator in the presence of the growth factor G-CSF (100 μg kg d from days 1-14), which is FDA-approved for use in a radionuclear event. In summary, by combining lisinopril (FDA-approved for other indications) with hydration and antibiotics, acute and delayed radiation injuries in multiple organs were mitigated.

  15. Iron biofortification of wheat grains through integrated use of organic and chemical fertilizers in pH affected calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Ramzani, Pia Muhammad Adnan; Khalid, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Incidence of iron (Fe) deficiency in human populations is an emerging global challenge. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of iron sulphate combined with biochar and poultry manure for Fe biofortification of wheat grains in pH affected calcareous soil. In first two incubation studies, rates of sulfur (S) and Fe combined with various organic amendments for lowering pH and Fe availability in calcareous soil were optimized. In pot experiment, best rate of Fe along with biochar (BC) and poultry manure (PM) was evaluated for Fe biofortification of wheat in normal and S treated low pH calcareous soil. Fe applied with BC provided fair increase in root-shoot biomass and photosynthesis up to 79, 53 and 67%, respectively in S treated low pH soil than control. Grain Fe and ferritin concentration was increased up to 1.4 and 1.2 fold, respectively while phytate and polyphenol was decreased 35 and 44%, respectively than control in treatment where Fe was applied with BC and S. In conclusion, combined use of Fe and BC could be an effective approach to improve growth and grain Fe biofortification of wheat in pH affected calcareous soil.

  16. Vitamin D Status Does Not Affect Disability Progression of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis over Three Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Joost; Rolf, Linda; Klinkenberg, Lieke J. J.; van der Linden, Noreen; Meex, Steven; Damoiseaux, Jan; Hupperts, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as MS disease activity is associated with vitamin D (25(OH)D) status. The relationship between the main functional disability hallmark of MS, disability progression, and 25(OH)D status is less well established though, especially not in MS patients with progressive disease. Methods This retrospective follow-up study included 554 MS patients with a serum baseline 25(OH)D level and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) with a minimum follow-up of three years. Logistic regressions were performed to assess the effect of baseline 25(OH)D status on relapse rate. Repeated measures linear regression analyses were performed to assess the effect on disability and disability progression. Results Baseline deseasonalized 25(OH)D status was associated with subsequent relapse risk (yes/no), but only in the younger MS patients (≤ 37.5 years; OR = 0.872, per 10 nmol/L 25(OH)D, p = 0.041). Baseline 25(OH)D status was not significantly associated with either disability or disability progression, irrespective of MS phenotype. Conclusion Within the physiological range, 25(OH)D status is just significantly associated with the occurrence of relapses in younger MS patients, but is not associated with disability or disability progression over three years follow-up. Whether high dose supplementation to supra physiological 25(OH)D levels prevents disability progression in MS should become clear from long term follow-up of supplementation studies. PMID:27276080

  17. Calpain Cleaves Most Components in the Multiple Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Complex and Affects Their Functions.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hui-Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Sun, Wei-Cheng; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

    2015-10-23

    Nine aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and three scaffold proteins form a super multiple aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) in the human cytoplasm. Domains that have been added progressively to MSC components during evolution are linked by unstructured flexible peptides, producing an elongated and multiarmed MSC structure that is easily attacked by proteases in vivo. A yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins interacting with LeuRS, a representative MSC member, identified calpain 2, a calcium-activated neutral cysteine protease. Calpain 2 and calpain 1 could partially hydrolyze most MSC components to generate specific fragments that resembled those reported previously. The cleavage sites of calpain in ArgRS, GlnRS, and p43 were precisely mapped. After cleavage, their N-terminal regions were removed. Sixty-three amino acid residues were removed from the N terminus of ArgRS to form ArgRSΔN63; GlnRS formed GlnRSΔN198, and p43 formed p43ΔN106. GlnRSΔN198 had a much weaker affinity for its substrates, tRNA(Gln) and glutamine. p43ΔN106 was the same as the previously reported p43-derived apoptosis-released factor. The formation of p43ΔN106 by calpain depended on Ca(2+) and could be specifically inhibited by calpeptin and by RNAi of the regulatory subunit of calpain in vivo. These results showed, for the first time, that calpain plays an essential role in dissociating the MSC and might regulate the canonical and non-canonical functions of certain components of the MSC.

  18. Incorporating allelic variation for reconstructing the evolutionary history of organisms from multiple genes: An example from Rosa in North America.

    PubMed

    Joly, Simon; Bruneau, Anne

    2006-08-01

    Allelic variation within individuals holds information regarding the relationships of organisms, which is expected to be particularly important for reconstructing the evolutionary history of closely related taxa. However, little effort has been committed to incorporate such information for reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Haplotype trees represent a solution when one nonrecombinant marker is considered, but there is no satisfying method when multiple genes are to be combined. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that converts a distance matrix of alleles to a distance matrix among organisms. This algorithm allows the incorporation of allelic variation for reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms from one or more genes. The method is applied to reconstruct the phylogeny of the seven native diploid species of Rosa sect. Cinnamomeae in North America. The glyceralgehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), and the malate synthase (MS) genes were sequenced for 40 individuals from these species. The three genes had little genetic variation, and most species showed incomplete lineage sorting, suggesting these species have a recent origin. Despite these difficulties, the networks (NeighborNet) of organisms reconstructed from the matrix obtained with the algorithm recovered groups that more closely match taxonomic boundaries than did the haplotype trees. The combined network of individuals shows that species west of the Rocky Mountains, Rosa gymnocarpa and R. pisocarpa, form exclusive groups and that together they are distinct from eastern species. In the east, three groups were found to be exclusive: R. nitida-R. palustris, R. foliolosa, and R. blanda-R. woodsii. These groups are congruent with the morphology and the ecology of species. The method is also useful for representing hybrid individuals when the relationships are reconstructed using a phylogenetic network.

  19. [Surgical therapeutic strategy in vital risk polytrauma with multiple organ injuries, case report].

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Iulia; Stefan, S; Isloi, Anca; Coca, I C; Baroi, Genoveva; Radu, L; Lăpuşneanu, A; Tamaş, Camelia

    2008-01-01

    The medical interest for trauma pathology is incresing, due to the gravity of the given injuries. The surgical therapeutic strategy used is directly related to the localization and to the type of the trauma. The supplementary lesions and their vital risk also matter. The multidisciplinary team approach is the key to resolve this type of lesions with a good outcome. We recently observed an increasing tendency toward the rise of number and variety of patients with trauma, due to the great diversity of the etiopathogenic agents. The most important factor, during the assessment of a politraumatised patient is to diagnose correctly the functional deficits of vital organs and establish the vital prognosis. It is necessary to adopt the best and fast therapeutic strategy in order to obtain rapid life-saving decisions.

  20. Anomalous temperature dependent magneto-conductance in organic light-emitting diodes with multiple emissive states

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chen-xiao; Jia, Wei-yao; Huang, Ke-Xun; Zhang, Qiao-ming; Yang, Xiao-hui; Xiong, Zu-hong

    2015-07-13

    The temperature dependence of the magneto-conductance (MC) in organic electron donor-acceptor hybrid and layer heterojunction diodes was studied. The MC value increased with temperature in layer heterojunction and in 10 wt. % hybrid devices. An anomalous decrease of the MC with temperature was observed in 25 wt. %–50 wt. % hybrid devices. Further increasing donor concentration to 75 wt. %, the MC again increased with temperature. The endothermic exciplex-exciton energy transfer and the change in electroplex/exciton ratio caused by change in charge transport with temperature may account for these phenomena. Comparative studies of the temperature evolutions of the IV curves and the electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra back our hypothesis.

  1. Maternal administration of flutamide during late gestation affects the brain and reproductive organs development in the rat male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pallarés, M E; Adrover, E; Imsen, M; González, D; Fabre, B; Mesch, V; Baier, C J; Antonelli, M C

    2014-10-10

    We have previously demonstrated that male rats exposed to stress during the last week of gestation present age-specific impairments of brain development. Since the organization of the fetal developing brain is subject to androgen exposure and prenatal stress was reported to disrupt perinatal testosterone surges, the aim of this research was to explore whether abnormal androgen concentrations during late gestation affects the morphology of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), three major areas that were shown to be affected by prenatal stress in our previous studies. We administered 10-mg/kg/day of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (4'nitro-3'-trifluoromethylsobutyranilide) or vehicle injections to pregnant rats from days 15-21 of gestation. The antiandrogenic effects of flutamide were confirmed by the analysis of androgen-dependent developmental markers: flutamide-exposed rats showed reduced anogenital distance, delay in the completion of testis descent, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and atrophied seminal vesicles. Brain morphological studies revealed that prenatal flutamide decreased the number of MAP2 (a microtubule-associated protein type 2, present almost exclusively in dendrites) immunoreactive neuronal processes in all evaluated brain areas, both in prepubertal and adult offspring, suggesting that prenatal androgen disruption induces long-term reductions of the dendritic arborization of several brain structures, affecting the normal connectivity between areas. Moreover, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive neurons in the VTA of prepubertal offspring was reduced in flutamide rats but reach normal values at adulthood. Our results demonstrate that the effects of prenatal flutamide on the offspring brain morphology resemble several prenatal stress effects suggesting that the mechanism of action of prenatal stress might be related to the impairment of the organizational role of androgens on brain

  2. Different Organization of Type I Collagen Immobilized on Silanized and Nonsilanized Titanium Surfaces Affects Fibroblast Adhesion and Fibronectin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Marín-Pareja, Nathalia; Cantini, Marco; González-García, Cristina; Salvagni, Emiliano; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel; Ginebra, Maria-Pau

    2015-09-23

    Silanization has emerged in recent years as a way to obtain a stronger and more stable attachment of biomolecules to metallic substrates. However, its impact on protein conformation, a key aspect that influences cell response, has hardly been studied. In this work, we analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the distribution and conformation of type I collagen on plasma-treated surfaces before and after silanization. Subsequently, we investigated the effect of the different collagen conformations on fibroblasts adhesion and fibronectin secretion by immunofluorescence analyses. Two different organosilanes were used on plasma-treated titanium surfaces, either 3-chloropropyl-triethoxy-silane (CPTES) or 3-glycidyloxypropyl-triethoxy-silane (GPTES). The properties and amount of the adsorbed collagen were assessed by contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and AFM. AFM studies revealed different conformations of type I collagen depending on the silane employed. Collagen was organized in fibrillar networks over very hydrophilic (plasma treated titanium) or hydrophobic (silanized with CPTES) surfaces, the latter forming little globules with a beads-on-a-string appearance, whereas over surfaces presenting an intermediate hydrophobic character (silanized with GPTES), collagen was organized into clusters with a size increasing at higher protein concentration in solution. Cell response was strongly affected by collagen conformation, especially at low collagen density. The samples exhibiting collagen organized in globular clusters (GPTES-functionalized samples) favored a faster and better fibroblast adhesion as well as better cell spreading, focal adhesions formation, and more pronounced fibronectin fibrillogenesis. In contrast, when a certain protein concentration was reached at the material surface, the effect of collagen conformation was masked, and similar fibroblast response was observed in all samples.

  3. Denitrification potential and organic matter as affected by vegetation community, wetland age, and plant introduction in created wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Maria E; Mitsch, William J

    2007-01-01

    Denitrification potential (DP) and organic matter (OM) in soils were compared in three different vegetation communities-emergent macrophyte, open water, and forested edge-in two 10-yr-old created riverine wetlands. Organic matter, cold water-extractable organic matter (CWEOM), anaerobic mineralizable carbon (AnMC), and DP varied significantly (P<0.05) among vegetation communities. The surface (0 to 9 cm) soils in the emergent macrophyte community (EMC) showed highest DP (0.07+/-0.01 mg N h-1 kg-1), OM (84.90+/-5.60 g kg-1), CWEOM (1.12+/-0.20 g kg-1), and AnMC (1.50+/-0.10 mg C h-1 kg-1). In the deeper layer (9 to 18 cm), DP and CWEOM (0.04+/-0.01 mg N h-1 kg-1 and 1.13+/-0.20 g kg-1, respectively) were significantly higher in the open water community (OWC) than in the emergent macrophyte and forested edge communities. Plant introduction did not affect DP or OM content and characteristics. After 10 yr of wetland development, mean DP increased 25-fold in the surface layer (from 0.002 to 0.053 mg N h-1 kg-1); OM content more than doubled to 90.80+/-19.22 g kg-1, and CWEOM and HWEOM increased 2.5 and 2.7 times respectively from 1993 (prewetland conditions) to 2004. Humic acids were the most abundant form of OM in 2004 and 1993 samples. Significant (P<0.05) positive relationships between DP and OM, CWEOM, and AnMC were found in the surface layer; in the 9- to 18-cm layer, significant positive relationships were found between DP and CWEOM and AnMC.

  4. Factors affecting fluoride and natural organic matter (NOM) removal from natural waters in Tanzania by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Junjie; Schäfer, Andrea I

    2015-09-15

    This study examined the feasibility of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in treating challenging natural tropical waters containing high fluoride and natural organic matter (NOM). A total of 166 water samples were collected from 120 sources within northern Tanzania over a period of 16 months. Chemical analysis showed that 81% of the samples have fluoride levels exceeding the WHO drinking guideline of 1.5mg/L. The highest fluoride levels were detected in waters characterized by high ionic strength, high inorganic carbon and on some occasions high total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. Bench-scale experiments with 22 representative waters (selected based on fluoride concentration, salinity, origin and in some instances organic matter) and 6 NF/RO membranes revealed that ionic strength and recovery affected fluoride retention and permeate flux. This is predominantly due to osmotic pressure and hence the variation of diffusion/convection contributes to fluoride transport. Different membranes had distinct fluoride removal capacities, showing different raw water concentration treatability limits regarding the WHO guideline compliance. BW30, BW30-LE and NF90 membranes had a feed concentration limit of 30-40 mg/L at 50% recovery. NOM retention was independent of water matrices but is governed predominantly by size exclusion. NOM was observed to have a positive impact on fluoride removal. Several mechanisms could contribute but further studies are required before a conclusion could be drawn. In summary, NF/RO membranes were proved to remove both fluoride and NOM reliably even from the most challenging Tanzanian waters, increasing the available drinking water sources.

  5. Cocktail-Dosing Microdialysis Study to Simultaneously Assess Delivery of Multiple Organic-Cationic Drugs to the Brain.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Atsushi; Okura, Takashi; Higuchi, Kei; Deguchi, Yoshiharu

    2016-02-01

    Brain microdialysis is a powerful tool to estimate brain-to-plasma unbound concentration ratio at the steady state (Kp,uu) of compounds by direct measurement of the unbound concentration in brain interstitial fluid. Here, we evaluated a method to estimate Kp,uu values of multiple organic-cationic drugs simultaneously, by means of brain microdialysis combined with cocktail dosing. Five cationic drugs (diphenhydramine, memantine, oxycodone, pyrilamine, and tramadol), substrates of the proton-coupled organic cation antiport system, were selected as model drugs, and compared under single-dosing and cocktail-dosing conditions. We selected doses of the drugs at which no significant drug-drug interaction occurs at the proton-coupled organic cation antiport system in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This was confirmed by uptake studies in hCMEC/D3 cells, an in vitro BBB model. The Kp,uu values after cocktail administration were in the range of 1.8-5.2, and were in good agreement with those after single administration. These results suggest that the microdialysis method with cocktail dosing is suitable to estimate Kp,uu values of several cationic drugs simultaneously, if there is no drug-drug interaction during BBB transport. The method could be useful for evaluating drug candidates with high Kp,uu values at an early stage in the development of central nervous system-acting drugs.

  6. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, L.E.; Cox, M.H.; Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- 'reference' tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentrations measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  7. Multiple Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes in the Mouse Amygdala Regulate Affective Behaviors and Response to Social Stress.

    PubMed

    Mineur, Yann S; Fote, Gianna M; Blakeman, Sam; Cahuzac, Emma L M; Newbold, Sylvia A; Picciotto, Marina R

    2016-05-01

    Electrophysiological and neurochemical studies implicate cholinergic signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in behaviors related to stress. Both animal studies and human clinical trials suggest that drugs that alter nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity can affect behaviors related to mood and anxiety. Clinical studies also suggest that abnormalities in cholinergic signaling are associated with major depressive disorder, whereas pre-clinical studies have implicated both β2 subunit-containing (β2*) and α7 nAChRs in the effects of nicotine in models of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. We therefore investigated whether nAChR signaling in the amygdala contributes to stress-mediated behaviors in mice. Local infusion of the non-competitive non-selective nAChR antagonist mecamylamine or viral-mediated downregulation of the β2 or α7 nAChR subunit in the amygdala all induced robust anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in several mouse behavioral models. Further, whereas α7 nAChR subunit knockdown was somewhat more effective at decreasing anxiety-like behavior, only β2 subunit knockdown decreased resilience to social defeat stress and c-fos immunoreactivity in the BLA. In contrast, α7, but not β2, subunit knockdown effectively reversed the effect of increased ACh signaling in a mouse model of depression. These results suggest that signaling through β2* nAChRs is essential for baseline excitability of the BLA, and a decrease in signaling through β2 nAChRs alters anxiety- and depression-like behaviors even in unstressed animals. In contrast, stimulation of α7 nAChRs by acetylcholine may mediate the increased depression-like behaviors observed during the hypercholinergic state observed in depressed individuals.

  8. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Cox, Marisa H.; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.

    2006-08-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- reference tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentratis measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  9. Organ dose measurements from multiple-detector computed tomography using a commercial dosimetry system and tomographic, physical phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Lindsey K.

    The technology of computed tomography (CT) imaging has soared over the last decade with the use of multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanners that are capable of performing studies in a matter of seconds. While the diagnostic information obtained from MDCT imaging is extremely valuable, it is important to ensure that the radiation doses resulting from these studies are at acceptably safe levels. This research project focused on the measurement of organ doses resulting from modern MDCT scanners. A commercially-available dosimetry system was used to measure organ doses. Small dosimeters made of optically-stimulated luminescent (OSL) material were analyzed with a portable OSL reader. Detailed verification of this system was performed. Characteristics studied include energy, scatter, and angular responses; dose linearity, ability to erase the exposed dose and ability to reuse dosimeters multiple times. The results of this verification process were positive. While small correction factors needed to be applied to the dose reported by the OSL reader, these factors were small and expected. Physical, tomographic pediatric and adult phantoms were used to measure organ doses. These phantoms were developed from CT images and are composed of tissue-equivalent materials. Because the adult phantom is comprised of numerous segments, dosimeters were placed in the phantom at several organ locations, and doses to select organs were measured using three clinical protocols: pediatric craniosynostosis, adult brain perfusion and adult cardiac CT angiography (CTA). A wide-beam, 320-slice, volumetric CT scanner and a 64-slice, MDCT scanner were used for organ dose measurements. Doses ranged from 1 to 26 mGy for the pediatric protocol, 1 to 1241 mGy for the brain perfusion protocol, and 2-100 mGy for the cardiac protocol. In most cases, the doses measured on the 64-slice scanner were higher than those on the 320-slice scanner. A methodology to measure organ doses with OSL dosimeters received from CT

  10. Role of PPAR-δ in the development of zymosan-induced multiple organ failure: an experiment mice study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-beta/delta is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that regulates gene expression in many important biological processes. It is expressed ubiquitously, especially white adipose tissue, heart, muscle, intestine, placenta and macrophages but many of its functions are unknown. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids activate PPAR-beta/delta, but physiological ligands have not yet been identified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of PPAR-beta/delta activation, through the use of GW0742 (0,3 mg/kg 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) i.p), a synthetic high affinity ligand, on the development of zymosan-induced multiple organ failure (MOF). Methods Multiple organ failure (MOF) was induced in mice by administration of zymosan (given at 500 mg/kg, i.p. as a suspension in saline). The control groups were treated with vehicle (0.25 ml/mouse saline), while the pharmacological treatment was the administration of GW0742 (0,3 mg/kg 10% DMSO i.p. 1 h and 6 h after zymosan administration). MOF and systemic inflammation in mice was assessed 18 hours after administration of zymosan. Results Treatment with GW0742 caused a significant reduction of the peritoneal exudate formation and of the neutrophil infiltration caused by zymosan resulting in a reduction in myeloperoxidase activity. The PPAR-beta/delta agonist, GW0742, at the dose of 0,3 mg/kg in 10% DMSO, also attenuated the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome caused by zymosan. In pancreas, lung and gut, immunohistochemical analysis of some end points of the inflammatory response, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine, poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR), TNF- and IL-1as well as FasL, Bax, Bcl-2 and apoptosis, revealed positive staining in sections of tissue obtained from zymosan-injected mice. On the contrary, these parameters were markedly reduced in samples obtained from mice treated with GW0742 Conclusions In this study

  11. Examining the Interplay of Processes Across Multiple Time-Scales: Illustration With the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB)

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lorek, Amy; Rebar, Amanda; Roche, Michael J.; Coccia, Michael; Morack, Jennifer; Feldman, Josh; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Human development is characterized by the complex interplay of processes that manifest at multiple levels of analysis and time-scales. We introduce the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB) as a model for how multiple time-scale study designs facilitate more precise articulation of developmental theory. Combining age heterogeneity, longitudinal panel, daily diary, and experience sampling protocols, the study made use of smartphone and web-based technologies to obtain intensive longitudinal data from 150 persons age 18–89 years as they completed three 21-day measurement bursts (t = 426 bursts, t = 8,557 days) wherein they provided reports on their social interactions (t = 64,112) as they went about their daily lives. We illustrate how multiple time-scales of data can be used to articulate bioecological models of development and the interplay among more ‘distal’ processes that manifest at ‘slower’ time-scales (e.g., age-related differences and burst-to-burst changes in mental health) and more ‘proximal’ processes that manifest at ‘faster’ time-scales (e.g., changes in context that progress in accordance with the weekly calendar and family influence processes). PMID:26989350

  12. Stanniocalcin-1 Protects a Mouse Model from Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Affecting ROS-Mediated Multiple Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dajun; Shang, Huiping; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI). However, the molecular mechanisms remain widely unknown. STC-1 inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas most ROS-mediated pathways are associated with ischemic injury. Therefore, to explore the mechanism, the effects of STC-1 on ROS-medicated pathways were studied. Non-traumatic vascular clamps were used to establish RIRI mouse models. The serum levels of STC-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon (IFN) γ, P53, and capase-3 were measured by ELISA kits. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by fluorescence spectrofluorometer. All these molecules changed significantly in a RIRI model mouse when compared with those in a sham control. Kidney cells were isolated from sham and model mice. STC-1 was overexpressed or knockout in these kidney cells. The molecules in ROS-medicated pathways were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results showed that STC-1 is an effective ROS scavenger. The serum levels of STC-1, MDA and SOD activity were increased while the serum levels of IL-6, iIFN-γ, P53, and capase-3 were decreased in a model group when compared with a sham control (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of STC-1,p53, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (p-MEKK-1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), IkB kinase (p-IKK), nuclear factor (NF) κB, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1) and caspase-3 changed significantly in kidney cells isolated from a RIRI model when compared to those isolated from a sham control (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, STC-1 overexpression or silence caused significant changes of the levels of these ROS-mediated molecules. Therefore, STC-1 maybe improve anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis activities by affecting ROS-mediated pathways, especially the phospho-modifications of the respective proteins, resulting in the increase of SOD and

  13. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Goswami, Rashmi S; Singh, Rajesh R; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2015-08-28

    Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) (Life Technologies), a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects.

  14. Using multiple combined analytical techniques to characterize water extractable organic nitrogen from Lake Erhai sediment.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhang; Shengrui, Wang; Haichao, Zhao; Yanping, Li; Shouliang, Huo; Weibin, Qian; Yanli, Yang; Jie, Cheng

    2016-01-15

    In this study, UV-vis absorbance, fluorescence, and FT-IR spectroscopy were combined to characterize the components and structure of the water extractable organic nitrogen (WEON) in Lake Erhai sediment. Lake Erhai sediment WEON comprised predominantly high molecular weight WEON, with the fraction with a molecular weight>1kDa accounting for 87.7% of the total. It was mainly composed of humic acid-like substances, with fewer simple aromatic proteins. Large amounts of aliphatic and amide compounds were detected by IR in the sediments. There were more polymerizable aromatic rings and carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and ester compounds in the high molecular weight WEON than in the low molecular weight WEON. Additionally, fluorescence regional integration results implied that the ratio PIII+V,n/PI+II+IV,n can be indirectly taken as an indicator for WEON content in Erhai sediments. Furthermore, the composition and structural characteristics of the WEON were found to be closely related with their properties in the sediment. The large amount of aliphatic compounds in the sediment as well as the relatively high humification and aromatic degree in high molecular weight WEON, stabilizes the WEON in Lake Erhai sediment. Compared with other lake sediments of different trophic statues (such as Lake Dianchi, Lake Poyang, Lake Taihu and Lake Donghu), Erhai sediment exhibited a higher degree of humification, which benefited for reducing sediment WEON releasing risk. And it can be regarded as the reason why the nutrient content in Erhai sediment is very high, but its water quality is still good.

  15. A pH-Dependent Kinetic Model of Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase from Multiple Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Michael A.; Beard, Daniel A.; Bazil, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase is a flavoenzyme that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of reduced lipoyl substrates with the reduction of NAD+ to NADH. In vivo, the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3) is associated with the pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, and glycine dehydrogenase complexes. The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex connects the glycolytic flux to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and is central to the regulation of primary metabolism. Regulation of PDH via regulation of the E3 component by the NAD+/NADH ratio represents one of the important physiological control mechanisms of PDH activity. Furthermore, previous experiments with the isolated E3 component have demonstrated the importance of pH in dictating NAD+/NADH ratio effects on enzymatic activity. Here, we show that a three-state mechanism that represents the major redox states of the enzyme and includes a detailed representation of the active-site chemistry constrained by both equilibrium and thermodynamic loop constraints can be used to model regulatory NAD+/NADH ratio and pH effects demonstrated in progress-curve and initial-velocity data sets from rat, human, Escherichia coli, and spinach enzymes. Global fitting of the model provides stable predictions to the steady-state distributions of enzyme redox states as a function of lipoamide/dihydrolipoamide, NAD+/NADH, and pH. These distributions were calculated using physiological NAD+/NADH ratios representative of the diverse organismal sources of E3 analyzed in this study. This mechanistically detailed, thermodynamically constrained, pH-dependent model of E3 provides a stable platform on which to accurately model multicomponent enzyme complexes that implement E3 from a variety of organisms. PMID:25517164

  16. On the multiplication of xerophilic micro-organisms under simulated Martian conditions.

    PubMed

    Imshenetsky, A A; Kouzyurina, L A; Jakshina, V M

    1973-01-01

    The environmental conditions prevailing on Mars would supposedly favour the existence there of micro-organisms belonging to xerophiles, anaerobes, or micro-aerophiles, oligonitrophiles, which are able to grow in wide temperature intervals. From soil samples taken in deserts and tundra, antarctic halophilic bacteria, able to grow in liquid media containing 20-25% of sodium chloride, were isolated. Some of these cultures appeared to be also osmophilic (growth on media with 50% glucose); they grew at temperatures from 5 degrees C to 50 degrees C, and developed on media without a nitrogen source (oligonitrophiles). Of special interest was the halophilic and osmophilic form of Bacillus megaterium isolated from the Nubian desert. In experiments with this bacterium the following technique was used. A thin film of potato extract agar was prepared on a glass slide and dried over a saturated K2SO4 solution in a closed container up to the level of maximal hygroscopic moisture. The cell suspension was then sprayed on to the agar surface, the film dried again at 45 degrees C, and the glass slide put in the test tube over the saturated solution of K2SO4. The test tube was evacuated, flushed three times with a gas mixture containing 80% CO2 plus 20% Ar, and sealed. Under these conditions the water content of the agar film was equal to the maximal hygroscopic moisture; only the xerophilic form of bacteria are able to develop at this moisture level. This halophilic strain of Bac. megaterium grew satisfactorily under these conditions, as did a halophilic and osmophilic strain of Mycococcus ruber isolated in Antarctica. Both the halophilic strain of Bac. megaterium and that of M. ruber were able to grow under simulated Martian conditions. Xerophily and halophily may be linked. This assumption was supported by relatively high incidence of xerophilic forms among halophilic bacteria isolated from different soils of both high and low salt content as well as from salty muds.

  17. Environmental exposure to pesticides and cancer risk in multiple human organ systems.

    PubMed

    Parrón, Tesifón; Requena, Mar; Hernández, Antonio F; Alarcón, Raquel

    2014-10-15

    There is growing evidence on the association between long-term exposure to pesticides in occupational settings and an elevated rate of chronic diseases, including different types of cancer. However, data on non-occupational exposures are scarce to draw any conclusion. The objective of this study was to investigate the putative associations of environmental pesticide exposures in the general population with several cancer sites and to discuss potential carcinogenic mechanisms by which pesticides develop cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted among people residing in 10 Health districts from Andalusia (South Spain) to estimate the risk of cancer at different sites. Health districts were categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on two quantitative criteria: number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. The study population consisted of 34,205 cancer cases and 1,832,969 age and health district matched controls. Data were collected by computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of cancer at most organ sites were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use related to those with lower pesticide use. Conditional logistic regression analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk of cancer at all sites studied (odds ratios between 1.15 and 3.45) with the exception of Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The results of this study support and extend previous evidence from occupational studies indicating that environmental exposure to pesticides may be a risk factor for different types of cancer at the level of the general population.

  18. Importance of within-lake processes in affecting the dynamics of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen in an Adirondack forested lake/watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Phil-Goo; Mitchell, Myron J.; McHale, Patrick J.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Inamdar, Shreeram; Park, Ji-Hyung

    2016-05-01

    Lakes nested in forested watersheds play an important role in mediating the concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic matter. We compared long-term patterns of concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic (DON) and inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in aquatic ecosystems of the Arbutus Lake watershed to evaluate how a lake nested in a forested watershed affects the sources (e.g., production) and sinks (e.g., retention) of DOC and DON in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, USA. We observed no significant long-term changes of DOC and DON in the lake outlet since 1983 and 1994, respectively. However, the temporal patterns of DOC and DON concentrations in the lake inlet showed significant seasonality such as increases during the vegetation-growing season along with notable decreases in the dormant season. A comparison of mass balances between inlet and outlet for the period from 2000 to 2009 suggested that the lake was a sink of DOC (mean of influx minus outflux: +1140 mol C ha-1 yr-1). In contrast, the difference of discharge-weighted DON concentrations (mean of inlet minus outlet: -1.0 µmol N L-1) between inlet and outlet was much smaller than the discharge-weighted DOC concentrations (average of inlet minus outlet: + 87 µmol C L-1). DON fluxes showed considerable variation among years (mean of influx minus outflux: +8 mol N ha-1 yr-1; range of differences: -15 to 27 mol N ha-1 yr-1). DON exhibited low percent retention ((influx-outflux)/influx) (mean: 6.9 %, range: -34.8 to +31.2) compared to DOC (mean: 30.1 %, range: +9.2 to +44.1). The resultant increase of DON within the lake was closely linked with a net decrease of DIN through monthly Pearson correlation analysis, suggesting the importance of biotic factors in mediating lake DON dynamics. Our results show different relative retentions of DOC compared with DON, along with a larger retention of DIN than DON, suggesting that DOC and DON might display substantially different

  19. Quantitative determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in milk by multiple dynamic headspace extraction and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ciccioli, Paolo; Brancaleoni, Enzo; Frattoni, Massimiliano; Fedele, Vincenzo; Claps, Salvatore; Signorelli, Federica

    2004-01-01

    A method for the accurate determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in milk samples has been developed and tested. It combines multiple dynamic headspace extraction with GC-MS. Absolute amounts of VOC in the liquid phase are obtained by determining the first order kinetic dependence of the stepwise extraction of the analytes and internal standards from the liquid matrix. Compounds released from milk were collected on a train of traps filled with different solid sorbents to cover all components having a number of carbon atoms ranging from 4 to 15. They were analysed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of VOC from the collecting traps. Quantification of VOC in milk was performed using deuterated compounds as internal standards. The method was used to follow seasonal variations of monoterpenes in goat milk and to detect the impact of air pollution on the quality of milk.

  20. Organized Emergence of Multiple-Generations of Teeth in Snakes Is Dysregulated by Activation of Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Gaete, Marcia; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to mammals, most reptiles constantly regenerate their teeth. In the snake, the epithelial dental lamina ends in a successional lamina, which proliferates and elongates forming multiple tooth generations, all linked by a permanent dental lamina. To investigate the mechanisms used to control the initiation of new tooth germs in an ordered sequential pattern we utilized the polyphodont (multiple-generation) corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus). We observed that the dental lamina expressed the transcription factor Sox2, a multipotent stem cell marker, whereas the successional lamina cells expressed the transcription factor Lef1, a Wnt/β-catenin pathway target gene. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in culture increased the number of developing tooth germs, in comparison to control untreated cultures. These additional tooth germs budded off from ectopic positions along the dental lamina, rather than in an ordered sequence from the successional lamina. Wnt/β-catenin activation enhanced cell proliferation, particularly in normally non-odontogenic regions of the dental lamina, which widely expressed Lef1, restricting the Sox2 domain. This suggests an expansion of the successional lamina at the expense of the dental lamina. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in cultured snake dental organs, therefore, led to changes in proliferation and to the molecular pattern of the dental lamina, resulting in loss of the organised emergence of tooth germs. These results suggest that epithelial compartments are critical for the arrangement of organs that develop in sequence, and highlight the role of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in such processes. PMID:24019968

  1. Pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome--endotoxin, inflammatory cells, and their mediators: cytokines and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Maier, R V

    2000-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is caused by an overwhelming, uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response that is activated by a number of hostile stimuli including sepsis, hypovolemic shock, and severe trauma resulting in massive tissue injury. The indiscriminate activation of the inflammatory response due to these insults causes loss of the host's ability to localize the inflammation to the focus of the problem, leading to systemic inflammation and severe host tissue damage and subsequent MODS. While the major players, namely neutrophils, macrophages, endotoxin, cytokines, and oxidants have been known for some time, the disease processes responsible for the pathogenesis of MODS have only recently been elucidated. Our newly found knowledge has resulted in the development of novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat MODS, such as scavenging toxic oxygen species and inhibiting endotoxin, or cytokine production, or cytokine activity. Unfortunately, these strategies have not resulted in improved mortality rates among patients with MODS. The complex nature of the host response to severe insults combined with the fact that the host has multiple, redundant parallel systems to deal with various insults has made it difficult for clinical interventions to adequately ameliorate the disease process among patients at risk for MODS. The purpose of this article is to attempt to "dissect out" several individual components of the inflammatory response that play important roles in the development of MODS and to review some potentially beneficial approaches to combat these harmful processes.

  2. Analysis of matrix effects critical to microbial transport in organic waste-affected soils across laboratory and field scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unc, Adrian; Goss, Michael J.; Cook, Simon; Li, Xunde; Atwill, Edward R.; Harter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Organic waste applications to soil (manure, various wastewaters, and biosolids) are among the most significant sources of bacterial contamination in surface and groundwater. Transport of bacteria through the vadose zone depends on flow path geometry and stability and is mitigated by interaction between soil, soil solution, air-water interfaces, and characteristics of microbial surfaces. After initial entry, the transport through soil depends on continued entrainment of bacteria and resuspension of those retained in the porous structure. We evaluated the retention of bacteria-sized artificial microspheres, varying in diameter and surface charge and applied in different suspending solutions, by a range of sieved soils contained in minicolumns, the transport of hydrophobic bacteria-sized microspheres through undisturbed soil columns as affected by waste type under simulated rainfall, and the field-scale transport of Enterococcus spp. to an unconfined sandy aquifer after the application of liquid manure. Microsphere retention reflected microsphere properties. The soil type and suspending solution affected retention of hydrophilic but not hydrophobic particles. Retention was not necessarily facilitated by manure-microsphere-soil interactions but by manure-soil interactions. Undisturbed column studies confirmed the governing role of waste type on vadose-zone microsphere transport. Filtration theory applied as an integrated analysis of transport across length scales showed that effective collision efficiency depended on the distance of travel. It followed a power law behavior with the power coefficient varying from ˜0.4 over short distances to >0.9 over 1 m (i.e., very little filtration for a finite fraction of biocolloids), consistent with reduced influence of soil solution and biocolloid properties at longer travel distances.

  3. Effects of the oestrogen receptor antagonist Fulvestrant on expression of genes that affect organization of the epididymal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M F N; Fernandes, S A F; Nascimento, A R; Siu, E R; Hess, R A; Oliveira, C A; Porto, C S; Lazari, M F M

    2014-07-01

    The role of oestrogens in epididymal function is still unclear. Knockout of the oestrogen receptor ESR1 (Esr1(-/-) ) or treatment with the anti-oestrogen Fulvestrant affect epididymal milieu and sperm motility. We investigated the effect of in vivo treatment of rats with Fulvestrant on: (i) expression of genes that may be important for the architecture and function of the epididymal epithelium: prominins 1 and 2, metalloproteinase 7, claudin 7, beta-catenin and cadherin 13, and (ii) levels of oestradiol and testosterone, and expression of oestrogen and androgen receptors, in the initial segment (IS), caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. Fulvestrant (i) reduced gene expression of prominin 1 (variant 1) in the caput, reduced prominin 1 protein content in the caput epididymis and in the efferent ductules, and increased the localization of prominin 1 in microvilli of the caput and corpus; (ii) reduced gene expression of prominin 2 in the corpus and cauda epididymis; (iii) increased the metalloproteinase 7 content in the apical region of principal cells from IS/caput; (iv) reduced in the corpus epididymis, but increased in the efferent ductules, the cadherin 13 mRNA level; (v) reduced testosterone but increased oestradiol levels in the corpus and cauda; (vi) increased the androgen receptor protein content in all regions of the epididymis, and the oestrogen receptor GPER in the corpus and cauda epididymis. In conclusion, treatment with Fulvestrant induced regional-specific changes in hormonal and steroid receptor content, and affected expression of proteins important for epithelial organization and absorption/secretion. The mechanisms of oestrogen action may differ among epididymal regions, which may contribute to determine region-specific sperm functions.

  4. High-throughput screening of Australian marine organism extracts for bioactive molecules affecting the cellular storage of neutral lipids.

    PubMed

    Rae, James; Fontaine, Frank; Salim, Angela A; Lo, Harriet P; Capon, Robert J; Parton, Robert G; Martin, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian cells store excess fatty acids as neutral lipids in specialised organelles called lipid droplets (LDs). Using a simple cell-based assay and open-source software we established a high throughput screen for LD formation in A431 cells in order to identify small bioactive molecules affecting lipid storage. Screening an n-butanol extract library from Australian marine organisms we identified 114 extracts that produced either an increase or a decrease in LD formation in fatty acid-treated A431 cells with varying degrees of cytotoxicity. We selected for further analysis a non-cytotoxic extract derived from the genus Spongia (Heterofibria). Solvent partitioning, HPLC fractionation and spectroscopic analysis (NMR, MS) identified a family of related molecules within this extract with unique structural features, a subset of which reduced LD formation. We selected one of these molecules, heterofibrin A1, for more detailed cellular analysis. Inhibition of LD biogenesis by heterofibrin A1 was observed in both A431 cells and AML12 hepatocytes. The activity of heterofibrin A1 was dose dependent with 20 µM inhibiting LD formation and triglyceride accumulation by ∼50% in the presence of 50 µM oleic acid. Using a fluorescent fatty acid analogue we found that heterofibrin A1 significantly reduces the intracellular accumulation of fatty acids and results in the formation of distinct fatty acid metabolites in both cultured cells and in embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio. In summary we have shown using readily accessible software and a relatively simple assay system that we can identify and isolate bioactive molecules from marine extracts, which affect the formation of LDs and the metabolism of fatty acids both in vitro and in vivo.

  5. TRANSFORMATION AND ALLELOPATHY OF NATURAL DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON AND TANNIC ACID ARE AFFECTED BY SOLAR RADIATION AND BACTERIA(1).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nadine; Zwirnmann, Elke; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Hilt, Sabine

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether abiotic and biotic factors may affect allelopathic properties. Therefore, we investigated how solar radiation and bacteria influence allelopathic effects of the plant-derived, polyphenolic tannic acid (TA) on microalgae. Using a block design, lake water samples with and without TA were exposed to solar radiation or kept in darkness with or without bacteria for 3 weeks. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific size fractions of DOC analyzed by chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), and concentrations of total phenolic compounds (TPC) were measured to follow the fate of TA in lake water with natural DOC exposed to photolytic and microbial degradation. DOC and TPC decreased in dark-incubated lake water with TA and bacteria indicating microbial degradation. In contrast, exposure to solar radiation of lake water with TA and bacteria did not decrease DOC. Chromatographic analyses documented an accumulation of DOC mean size fraction designated as humic substances (HS) in sunlit water samples with TA. The recalcitrance of the humic fraction indicates that photolytic degradation may contribute to a DOC less available for bacterial degradation. Subsequent growth tests with Desmodesmus armatus (Chodat) E. Hegewald showed low but reproducible difference in algal growth with lower algal growth rate cultured in photolytically and microbially degraded TA in lake water than cultured in respective dark treatments. This finding highlights the importance of photolytic processes and microbial degradation influencing allelopathic effects and may explain the high potential of allelochemicals for structuring the phytoplankton community composition in naturally illuminated surface waters.

  6. Mutations in epidermis-specific HD-ZIP IV genes affect floral organ identity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Naoko; Okada, Hitomi; Komeda, Yoshibumi; Takahashi, Taku

    2013-08-01

    Development of the epidermis involves members of the class-IV homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP IV) transcription factors. The Arabidopsis HD-ZIP IV family consists of 16 members, among which PROTODERMAL FACTOR 2 (PDF2) and ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA MERISTEM LAYER 1 (ATML1) play an indispensable role in the differentiation of shoot epidermal cells; however, the functions of other HD-ZIP IV genes that are also expressed specifically in the shoot epidermis remain to be fully elucidated. We constructed double mutant combinations of these HD-ZIP IV mutant alleles and found that the double mutants of pdf2-1 with homeodomain glabrous1-1 (hdg1-1), hdg2-3, hdg5-1 and hdg12-2 produced abnormal flowers with sepaloid petals and carpelloid stamens in association with the reduced expression of the petal and stamen identity gene APETALA 3 (AP3). Expression of another petal and stamen identity gene PISTILATA (PI) was less affected in these mutants. We confirmed that AP3 expression in pdf2-1 hdg2-3 was normally induced at the initial stages of flower development, but was attenuated both in the epidermis and internal cell layers of developing flowers. As the expression of PDF2 and these HD-ZIP IV genes during floral organ formation is exclusively limited to the epidermal cell layer, these double mutations may have non-cell-autonomous effects on AP3 expression in the internal cell layers. Our results suggest that cooperative functions of PDF2 and other members of the HD-ZIP IV family in the epidermis are crucial for normal development of floral organs in Arabidopsis.

  7. Do soil Fe transformation and secretion of low-molecular-weight organic acids affect the availability of Cd to rice?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Yang, Yazhou; Liu, Danqing; Zhang, Chunhua; Ge, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) to rice may be complicated by chemical and biological factors in the rhizosphere. The aim of this work is to investigate how soil iron (Fe) redox transformations and low-molecular-weight organic acid (LMWOA) exudation from root affect Cd accumulation in rice. Two soils (a paddy soil and a saline soil) with different physicochemical properties were used in this study. Soil redox conditions were changed by flooding and addition of organic matter (OM). Two days after the soil treatments, rice seedlings were transplanted in a vermiculite-soil system and grown for 10 days. We measured pH and Eh, LMWOA, Fe and Cd contents in rice, and their fractions in the soils and vermiculite. Cadmium accumulation in rice declined in both soils upon the flooding and OM treatment. Iron dissolution in the paddy soil and its deposition in the rhizosphere significantly increased upon the OM addition, but the concentration of Fe plaque on the rice root significantly declined. Conversely, although Fe transformed into less active fractions in the saline soil, Fe accumulation on the surface and in the tissue of root was considerably enhanced. The secretion of LMWOA was remarkably induced when the OM was amended in the saline soil, but the same effect was not observed in the paddy soil. Reduction of Cd uptake by rice could be attributed to different factors in the two soils. For the paddy soil, the lowered Cd bioavailability was likely due to the competition of Fe and Cd for the binding sites on the vermiculite surface. For the saline soil, however, rice responded to the low Fe mobility through more LMWOA exudation and Fe plaque formation, and their increases could explain the decrease of rice Cd.

  8. Quantitative superresolution microscopy reveals differences in nuclear DNA organization of multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

    PubMed

    Sathitruangsak, Chirawadee; Righolt, Christiaan H; Klewes, Ludger; Tammur, Pille; Ilus, Tiiu; Tamm, Anu; Punab, Mari; Olujohungbe, Adebayo; Mai, Sabine

    2015-05-01

    The mammalian nucleus has a distinct substructure that cannot be visualized directly by conventional microscopy. In this study, the organization of the DNA within the nucleus of multiple myeloma (MM) cells, their precursor cells (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance; MGUS) and control lymphocytes of the representative patients is visualized and quantified by superresolution microscopy. Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) increases the spatial resolution beyond the limits of conventional widefield fluorescence microscopy. 3D-SIM reveals new insights into the nuclear architecture of cancer as we show for the first time that it resolves organizational differences in intranuclear DNA organization of myeloma cells in MGUS and in MM patients. In addition, we report a significant increase in nuclear submicron DNA structure and structure of the DNA-free space in myeloma nuclei compared to normal lymphocyte nuclei. Our study provides previously unknown details of the nanoscopic DNA architecture of interphase nuclei of the normal lymphocytes, MGUS and MM cells. This study opens new avenues to understanding the disease progression from MGUS to MM.

  9. The Parenteral Vitamin C Improves Sepsis and Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome via Preventing Cellular Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yan-Fen

    2017-01-01

    Cellular immunosuppression appears to be involved in sepsis and sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Recent evidence showed that parenteral vitamin C (Vit C) had the ability to attenuate sepsis and sepsis-induced MODS. Herein, we investigated the impact of parenteral Vit C on cellular immunosuppression and the therapeutic value in sepsis. Using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), sepsis was induced in WT and Gulo−/− mice followed with 200 mg/Kg parenteral Vit C administration. The immunologic functions of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4+CD25− T cells, as well as the organ functions, were determined. Administration of parenteral Vit C per se markedly improved the outcome of sepsis and sepsis-induced MODS of WT and Gulo−/− mice. The negative immunoregulation of Tregs was inhibited, mainly including inhibiting the expression of forkhead helix transcription factor- (Foxp-) 3, cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen- (CTLA-) 4, membrane associated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-βm+), and the secretion of inhibitory cytokines [including TGF-β and interleukin- (IL-) 10], as well as CD4+ T cells-mediated cellular immunosuppression which was improved by parenteral Vit C in WT and Gulo−/− septic mice. These results suggested that parenteral Vit C has the ability to improve the outcome of sepsis and sepsis-induced MODS and is associated with improvement in cellular immunosuppression. PMID:28210072

  10. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  11. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimick