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Sample records for affect municipal waste

  1. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  2. 40 CFR 60.1545 - Does this subpart directly affect municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State? 60.1545 Section 60.1545 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion... municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State? (a) No, this subpart does not...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1545 - Does this subpart directly affect municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State? 60.1545 Section 60.1545 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion... municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State? (a) No, this subpart does not...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1560 - Can an affected municipal waste combustion unit reduce its capacity to less than 35 tons per day...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion unit reduce its capacity to less than 35 tons per day rather than comply with my State plan? 60... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1560 Can an affected municipal waste combustion unit reduce its capacity to less than 35...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1560 - Can an affected municipal waste combustion unit reduce its capacity to less than 35 tons per day...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustion unit reduce its capacity to less than 35 tons per day rather than comply with my State plan? 60... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1560 Can an affected municipal waste combustion unit reduce its capacity to less than 35...

  6. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, John L.

    1988-01-01

    Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Pieces of material which become lodged in the openings of the conveyor belt may be removed by cylindrical deraggers or pressurized air. The crushed materials may be fed onto the conveyor belt by a vibrating feed plate which shakes the materials so that they tend to lie flat.

  7. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, John L.

    1989-01-01

    Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Consecutive conveyors may be connected by an intermediate vibratory plate. An air knife can be used to further separate materials based on weight.

  8. Energy from Municipal Waste Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    Each year Americans throw away 3 quads of energy in the form of municipal waste and pay 6 billion dollars for the privilege. Only about 21 percent of our municipal wastes are used productively to generate electricity or produce new products by recycling. In 1990, waste-to-energy (WTE) plants and recycling efforts contributed roughly half a quad of energy in the form of electricity and reduced energy use. This productive use of waste avoided the disposal of about 50 million tons of wastes to landfills in that year. The Administration National Energy Strategy (NES) estimates that with proper Federal, State, local, and private action the electric generating capacity of WTE facilities could increase 600 percent by 2010 and by over 1200 percent by 2030, compared to 1990 capacity. This would result in about 55 gigawatts (GW) of capacity by 2030, up from roughly 4 GW today. The Department of Energy (DOE) supports an integrated approach to waste management that includes source reduction, WTE, recycling, and landfilling as complementary pieces of a solution to the municipal waste disposal problem. The Energy from Municipal Waste Program, described in this plan, seeks to minimize the productive use of municipal waste as an energy resource to improving its economic and environmental characteristics. While the Program focuses on WTE systems, it is conducted as part of a larger Federal effort that includes source reduction and recycling of wastes to save energy.

  9. Composting of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil

    2011-06-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the composting process, which is one of the technological options for the processing of municipal solid wastes (MSWs). The process assumes a great significance, particularly from the point of its economic viability, capability for recycling of nutrients and waste minimization with minimum environmental problems. A number of studies on various aspects of the composting process, including process control and monitoring parameters such as temperature, pH, moisture content, aeration, and porosity are reviewed. Salient observations on microbial properties of composting are described and details of vermicomposting, as well as a detailed analysis of patents on composting of MSW, are presented. PMID:20854128

  10. Ethanol from municipal cellulosic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. J., Jr.; Timbario, T. J.; Mulloney, J. A., Jr.

    This paper addresses the use of municipal cellulosic wastes as a feedstock for producing ethanol fuels, and describes the application of enzymatic hydrolysis technology for their production. The concept incorporates recent process technology developments within the framework of an existing industry familiar with large-scale ethanol fermentation (the brewing industry). Preliminary indications are that the cost of producing ethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis in an existing plant with minimal facility modifications (low capital investment) can be significantly less than that of ethanol from grain fermentation.

  11. Municipal waste thermal oxidation system

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G.M.; Kerr, D.F.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes a municipal waste incinerator. It comprises: a primary combustion chamber for receiving waste materials to be burned to yield combustion gases; means for transporting the combustion gases to a secondary combustion unit for re-igniting the combustion gases; the secondary combustion unit including a chamber having a bottom feed opening for receiving the combustion gases, a top exhaust opening, and an intermediate choke and air mixing section; an air mixing means disposed in the air mixing section for supplying outside air from points around the periphery of the air mixing section, and being directed toward the center thereof; means for forming a flue gas cone having an upwardly directed apex, the cone forming means including the intermediate choke and the air-mixing means; and re-ignition burners.

  12. Municipal solid waste recycling issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, L.B.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Conway-Schempf, N.M.; McMichael, F.C.

    1999-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling targets have been set nationally and in many states. Unfortunately, the definitions of recycling, rates of recycling, and the appropriate components of MSW vary. MSW recycling has been found to be costly for most municipalities compared to landfill disposal. MSW recycling policy should be determined by the cost to the community and to society more generally. In particular, recycling is a good policy only if environmental impacts and the resources used to collect, sort, and recycle a material are less than the environmental impacts and resources needed to provide equivalent virgin material plus the resources needed to dispose of the postconsumer material safely. From a review of the existing economic experience with recycling and an analysis of the environmental benefits (including estimation of external social costs), the authors find that, for most communities, curbside recycling is only justifiable for some postconsumer waste, such as aluminum and other metals. They argue that alternatives to curbside recycling collection should be explored, including product takeback for products with a toxic content (such as batteries) or product redesign to permit more effective product remanufacture.

  13. SOLID WASTE OPTIONS FOR MUNICIPAL PLANNERS - VERSION 3.1 - A SOFTWARE TOOL FOR PRELIMINARY PLANNING - USER DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipalities face many challenges in managing nonhazardous solid waste. For instance, landfills are reaching capacity throughout the country, tipping fees are increasing, and regulations affecting the disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) are being promulgated ...

  14. Municipal solid wastes and their disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, R

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the sources, characteristics, and toxic constituents of municipal solid wastes. Several methods are presented for handling, treating, and disposal of solid wastes. Monitoring the landfill site is necessary; there has been a trend to recognize that municipal solid wastes may be hazardous and to provide separate secure handling, treatment, and disposal for their dangerous constituents. Under current state and Federal regulations, permits are being required to assure that proper handling of conventional solid wastes and more hazardous constituents are carefully managed. PMID:738240

  15. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Stuckey, David C

    2011-07-01

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 °C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) day(-1). Sanitization of the digestate at 65 °C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L(-1) d(-1) and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO(2) at a rate lower than 25 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) d(-1) after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) d(-1). The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR. PMID:21419612

  16. Municipal solid waste characterization, Tehran-Iran.

    PubMed

    Heravi, Helen Morabi; Sabour, Mohammad Reza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2013-08-15

    Effective waste management has been greatly restricted by insufficient statistical data on the generation, processing and waste disposal. This study was undertaken in the municipality of Tehran. A total of 6,060 samples were compared by statistically comparing source generation, destination and intermediate stations. The results from these analyses showed that the average per capita waste generation in Tehran was 589 g day(-1). It was also observed that, of the total amount of waste generated in the municipality of Tehran, 73% was domestic waste and 27% was non-domestic waste. In addition, 68% of total household waste was organic waste, while 41% of non-domestic waste was organic waste. Furthermore, 61% of waste in Tehran was generated at the source, while 72% of the waste coming into the Aradkoh disposal and processing center was organic waste. The physical analysis was showed that there was no significant difference between the wastes generated in 2004 and those generated in 2009 and that there was not equal percentage of wet waste coming into the disposal center with urban service stations. This indicates that active source separation programs in metropolitan Tehran. PMID:24498828

  17. Tapping Resources in Municipal Solid Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal is becoming complex as costs, wastes, and environmental restrictions increase. Recovery and recycling of materials presents problems of financing, ownership, and operation, technology, and marketing. Energy and materials recovery offers long-term economic and environmental incentives in terms of growing shortages and…

  18. Partnerships for development: municipal solid waste management in Kasese, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Christensen, David; Drysdale, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Vanhille, Josefine; Wolf, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management systems of many developing countries are commonly constrained by factors such as limited financial resources and poor governance, making it a difficult proposition to break with complex, entrenched and unsustainable technologies and systems. This article highlights strategic partnerships as a way to affect a distributed agency among several sets of stakeholders to break so-called path dependencies, which occur when such unsustainable pathways arise, stabilize and become self-reinforcing over time. Experiences from a North-South collaborative effort provide some lessons in such partnership building: In Uganda and Denmark, respectively, the World Wildlife Fund and the network organization access2innovation have mobilized stakeholders around improving the municipal solid waste management system in Kasese District. Through a municipal solid waste management system characterization and mapping exercise, some emergent lessons and guiding principles in partnership building point to both pitfalls and opportunities for designing sustainable pathways. First, socio-technical lock-in effects in the municipal solid waste management system can stand in the way of partnerships based on introducing biogas or incineration technologies. However, opportunities in the municipal solid waste management system can exist within other areas, and synergies can be sought with interlinking systems, such as those represented with sanitation. PMID:25378254

  19. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  20. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Trzcinski, Antoine P.; Stuckey, David C.

    2011-07-15

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

  1. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: WASTE CO- FIRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an overview of waste co-firing and auxiliary fuel fired technology and identifies the extent to which co-firing and auxiliary fuel firing are practised. Waste co-firing is defined as the combustion of wastes (e. g., sewage sludge, medical waste, wood waste, and agri...

  2. PYROLYSIS OF MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides a historical overview of some 21 U.S. research and development activities associated with municipal/industrial waste and biomass conversion-to-energy pyrolysis technologies. The history begins in the early 1970's and is brought forward to the present. Of the 21...

  3. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the results of an assessment of fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) to minimize air emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Objectives of the assessment were to identify the population of existing and planned refuse fired FBC facilities in the U.S., exa...

  4. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  5. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation). PMID:21689921

  6. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  7. Biogasification of municipal solid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, L. F.; Savage, G. M.; Trezek, G. J.; Golueke, C. G.

    1981-06-01

    A series of experiments on the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal refuse was performed. The refuse fraction used in the study was one of the portions segregated in a resource recovery system developed at the University of California, Berkeley. The scale of experiments includes 4, 9, and 1600-L digesters. The refuse used as feed was enriched by the addition of raw sewage sludge in various ratios, i.e., from 0-100 percent of the total volatile solids. No other sources of nutrients or chemicals for pH control were introduced into the reactors. Organic loading rates ranging from 1.1-6.4 g of volatile solids/Ld were obtained. Typical hydraulic detention times were 15 to 30 days. Temperatures were kept within the range of 72-104 F (22-40 C). Digestion efficiency was based on energy conversion and gas production.

  8. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato . E-mail: ViriatoSemiao@ist.utl.pt

    2006-07-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

  9. Conversion of municipal solid waste to chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, T.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of waste disposal by municipalities is becoming a growing burden on local communities in the United States. At present, there is very little research being conducted to address the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal even though MSW could be considered a potentially vast resource. There are technically feasible processes available for the conversion of MSW to energy and these processes are being reviewed by local governments with some interest. These processes, however, are typically marginally economical at best. A more promising approach to the problem of MSW disposal might be the conversion of MSW to high value-added chemicals. This dissertation addresses the above problem by exploring the economics of the production of three chemical, ethanol, ethylene glycol and acetic acid, from MSW derived syngas.

  10. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  11. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using prognostic tools and regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghinea, Cristina; Drăgoi, Elena Niculina; Comăniţă, Elena-Diana; Gavrilescu, Marius; Câmpean, Teofil; Curteanu, Silvia; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2016-11-01

    For an adequate planning of waste management systems the accurate forecast of waste generation is an essential step, since various factors can affect waste trends. The application of predictive and prognosis models are useful tools, as reliable support for decision making processes. In this paper some indicators such as: number of residents, population age, urban life expectancy, total municipal solid waste were used as input variables in prognostic models in order to predict the amount of solid waste fractions. We applied Waste Prognostic Tool, regression analysis and time series analysis to forecast municipal solid waste generation and composition by considering the Iasi Romania case study. Regression equations were determined for six solid waste fractions (paper, plastic, metal, glass, biodegradable and other waste). Accuracy Measures were calculated and the results showed that S-curve trend model is the most suitable for municipal solid waste (MSW) prediction. PMID:27454099

  12. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    PubMed

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. PMID:26831564

  13. Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul

    SciTech Connect

    Kanat, Gurdal

    2010-08-15

    Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul.

  14. Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Kanat, Gurdal

    2010-01-01

    Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul. PMID:20185290

  15. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. PMID:26060198

  16. AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

    2003-04-01

    Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

  17. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  18. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsson, O. O.

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  19. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1995-03-01

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  20. Production of hydrogen from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, S.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) includes gasification and the process for producing a gasificable slurry from raw MSW by using high pressures of steam. A potential energy source, MSW is a composite of organic materials such as: paper, wood, food waste, etc. There are different paper grades producing different results with low-quality paper forming better slurries than high-quality papers; making MSW a difficult feedstock for gasification. The objective of the bench-scale laboratory work has been to establish operating conditions for a hydrothermal pre-processing scheme for municipal solid waste (MSW) that produces a good slurry product that can be pumped and atomized to the gasifier for the production of hydrogen. Batch reactors are used to determine product yields as a function of hydrothermal treatment conditions. Various ratios of water-to-paper were used to find out solid product, gas product, and soluble product yields of MSW. Experimental conditions covered were temperature, time, and water to feed ratio. Temperature had the strongest effect on product yields.

  1. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shariatmadari, Nader; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Noorzad, Ali; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran

    2009-12-15

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress.

  2. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis.

    PubMed

    Shariatmadari, Nader; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Noorzad, Ali; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran

    2009-12-01

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress. PMID:19744848

  3. Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-shan; Yang, Lei; Qu, Xiao-Yan; Sui, Yu-mei

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km(2) with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed. PMID:19375298

  4. Hydrological and geochemical factors affecting leachate composition in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Part I: The hydrology of Landfill Lostorf, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. Annette; Richner, Gérald A.; Vitvar, Tomas; Schittli, Nina; Eberhard, Mark

    1998-10-01

    The objective of the investigation of the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash landfill, Landfill Lostorf, was to determine the residence time of water in the landfill and the flow paths through the landfill. Over a period of 22 months, measurements of rainfall, landfill discharge and leachate electrical conductivity were recorded and tracer experiments made. Over the yearly period 1995, approximately 50% of the incident rainfall was measured in the discharge. An analysis of single rain events showed that in winter, 90-100% of rainfall was expressed in the landfill discharge, whereas in summer months, the value was between 9 and 40% depending on the intensity of the rain event. The response to rainfall was rapid. Within 30-100 h, approximately 50% of water discharged in response to a rain event had left the landfill. The discharge was less than 4 l/min for approximately 50% of the measurement periods. Qualitative tracer studies with fluorescein, pyranine and iodide clearly showed the existence of preferential flow paths. This was further substantiated by quantitative tracer studies of single rain events using 18O/ 16O ratios and electrical conductivity measurements. The proportion of rainwater passing directly through the landfill was found to be between 20 and 80% in summer months and around 10% in winter months. The difference has been ascribed to the water content in the landfill. The average residence time of the water within the landfill has been estimated to be roughly 3 years and this water is the predominant component in the discharge over a yearly period.

  5. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  6. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  7. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  8. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  9. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  10. Research challenges in municipal solid waste logistics management.

    PubMed

    Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2016-02-01

    During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems, etc. This paper compares municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in various EU countries to identify the characteristics and key issues from a waste management and reverse logistics point of view. Further, we investigate literature on modelling municipal solid waste logistics in general. Comparing issues addressed in literature with the identified issues in practice result in a research agenda for modelling municipal solid waste logistics in Europe. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem that needs to be considered at different decision levels simultaneously. A holistic view and taking into account the characteristics of different waste types are necessary when modelling a reverse supply chain for MSW recycling. PMID:26704064

  11. Municipal waste-to-energy technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, R.E.; Krause, H.H., Jr.; Engdahl, R.B.; Levy, A.; Oxley, J.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Two major technologies are available to burn municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate steam for the production of electricity: mass-burn and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) systems. Mass-burn systems process as-received waste directly in a combustor, such as a reciprocating, rotary, or roller-grate furnace, with only limited removal of undesirable objects. Refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) systems first process the waste to produce refuse-derived fuel via shredding and other operations before combustion in spreader-stoker, fluidized-bed, and other suitable combustors. Although mass-burn systems with specially designed grates are now considered proven technology, there is much interest in RDF systems, because RDF can be used in a wide range of combustors, including some utility power plants of conventional design. However, a number of technical issues remain for both mass-burn and RDF-firing systems, and further research is warranted. Disposal of the ash residues from the combustor and/or the waste from the air-pollution control equipment is a major issue preventing more widespread use of this technology. Selection of materials of construction is also an important issue. Continuous-emission-monitoring requirements may be exceeding the technical capabilities for reliable, long-term operation. The occasional receipt of biologically active waste or waste containing heavy metals is still a troublesome issue. Dioxin emissions seem to be a problem only in plants of early design, although the issue of dioxin emissions continues to be a major one in permit applications and public relations. 58 refs., 28 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Municipal solid waste (garbage): problems and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, G.I.

    1983-05-01

    The average person in the USA generates from 3 1/2 to 7 lb of garbage/day. The combustible portion of garbage consists primarily of paper products, plastics, textiles, and wood. Problems connected with energy production from municipal solid waste (garbage), and the social, economic, and environmental factors associated with this technology are discussed. The methods for using garbage as a fuel for a combustion process are discussed. One method processes the garbage to produce a fuel that is superior to raw garbage, the other method of using garbage as a fuel is to burn it directly - the mass burning approach. The involvement of the Power Authority of the State of New York in garbage-to-energy technology is discussed.

  13. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  14. Waste washing pre-treatment of municipal and special waste.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    2012-03-15

    Long-term pollution potential in landfills is mainly related to the quality of leachate. Waste can be conveniently treated prior to landfilling with an aim to minimizing future emissions. Washing of waste represents a feasible pre-treatment method focused on controlling the leachable fraction of residues and relevant impact. In this study, non-recyclable plastics originating from source segregation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste (MSW), bottom ash from MSW incineration and automotive shredder residues (ASR) were treated and the removal efficiency of washing pre-treatment prior to landfilling was evaluated. Column tests were performed to simulate the behaviour of waste in landfill under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The findings obtained revealed how waste washing treatment (WWT) allowed the leachability of contaminants from waste to be reduced. Removal rates exceeding 65% were obtained for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN). A percentage decrease of approximately 60% was reached for the leachable fraction of chlorides, sulphates, fluoride and metals, as proved by a reduction in electric conductivity values (70%). PMID:21968117

  15. Environmental diagnosis methodology for municipal waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Calvo, F; Moreno, B; Zamorano, M; Szanto, M

    2005-01-01

    A large number of countries are involved in a process of transformation with regard to the management of municipal solid waste. This process is a consequence of environmental requirements that occasionally materialise in legislation, such as the European Council Directive 31/99/EC on waste release in the European Union. In some cases, the remediation of old landfills can be carried out in compliance with environmental requirements; in other cases, it is necessary to proceed with the closure of the landfill and to assimilate it into its own environment. In both cases, it is necessary to undertake a diagnosis and characterisation of the impacted areas in order to develop an adequate action plan. This study presents a new methodology by which environmental diagnosis of landfill sites may be carried out. The methodology involves the formulation of a series of environmental indeces which provide information concerning the potential environmental problems of the landfills and the particular impact on different environmental elements, as well as information related to location, design and operation. On the basis of these results, it would be possible to draw up action plans for the remediation or closure of the landfill site. By applying the methodology to several landfills in a specific area, it would be possible to prioritize the order of actions required. PMID:15905084

  16. 40 CFR 62.15090 - What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15090 Section 62.15090... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress § 62.15090 What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1635 - What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1635 Section 60.1635... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Increments of Progress § 60.1635 What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1635 - What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1635 Section 60.1635... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Increments of Progress § 60.1635 What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15090 - What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15090 Section 62.15090... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress § 62.15090 What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then...

  20. Source Separation and Composting of Organic Municipal Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mark; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of composting techniques that may be utilized in a municipal level solid waste management program. Suggests how composting system designers should determine the amount and type of organics in the waste stream, evaluate separation approaches and assess collection techniques. Outlines the advantages of mixed waste composting and…

  1. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Kadapa Town: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Sumithra, S; Sunitha, V; Nagaraju, G

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a worldwide phenomenon. It is a big challenge all over the world for human beings. The problem of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is also prevailing in the environment of Kadapa town in India. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to find out the problems and prospects of municipal solid waste in Kadapa town. A detailed investigation was made regarding the methods of practices associated with sources, quantity generated, collection, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste in the study area. The data related to SWM in the study area was obtained through questionnaire, individual field visits, interaction with people and authentic record of municipal corporation. Status of the MSW in Kadapa town was studied. The results indicated that the major constituents of municipal solid waste were organic in nature and approximately one fourth of municipal solid waste was recyclable. Detailed data on solid waste management practices, including collection, recovery and disposal method, has been presented in this paper. PMID:26445765

  2. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: COMBUSTION CONTROL AT NEW FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides the supporting data and rationale used to establish baseline emission levels for model plants that represent portions of the planned and projected population of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). The baseline emissions represent performance levels that are exp...

  3. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: COMBUSTION CONTROL AT EXISTING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides the supporting data and rationale used to establish baseline emission levels for model plants that represent portions of the planned and projected population of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). The baseline emissions represent performance levels that are exp...

  4. A PNEUMATIC CONVEYING TEST RIG FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE FRACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report analyzes the material properties and system parameters relevant to the pneumatic conveying of municipal solid waste and its processed fractions. Comparisons are made with the conveying of conventional industrial feedstocks, and a rationale for sizing and specification...

  5. NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the key design and operating parameters, commercial status, demonstrated performance, and cost of three technologies available for reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), and identifies technology research and developme...

  6. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Technical developments

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic biogasification of organic wastes generates two useful products: a medium-Btu fuel gas and a compost-quality organic residue. Although commercial-scale digestion systems are used to treat municipal sewage wastes, the disposal of solid organic wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), requires a more cost-efficient process. Modern biogasification systems employ high-rate, high-solids fermentation methods to improve process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The design criteria and development stages are discussed. These systems are also compared with conventional low-solids fermentation technology.

  7. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-09-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  8. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-04-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  9. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. H.; Rogers, R. S.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1995-04-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL's focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  10. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  11. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Swapan Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr.

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length.

  12. STUDY OF CODISPOSED MUNICIPAL AND TREATED/UNTREATED INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to determine the long-term effects of codisposal of industrial waste (IW) and municipal solid waste (MSW) under controlled, simulated landfill conditions. Three IW's (treated or untreated by solidification) were disposed with MSW in nine specially designed ...

  13. COMBUSTION CONTROL OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than two decades ago, researchers identified benzo(a)pyrene and other organic species in the emissions from incineration of solid waste. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and-furans (CDD/CDF) were first detected in municipal waste combustor (MWC) emissions in 1977. Since then, C...

  14. Catalytic wet gasification of municipal and animal wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, there is worldwide interest in deriving energy from bio-based materials via gasification. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of wet gasification for treatment/energy conversion of both animal and municipal wastes. Wet wastes such as swine manure and raw sewage sludge could be pro...

  15. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: MEDICAL WASTE COMBUSTION PRACTICES AT MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report defines and characterizes types of medical waste, discusses the impacts of burning medical waste on combustor emissions, and outlines important handling and operating considerations. Facility-specific design, handling, and operating practiced are also discussed for mun...

  16. Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

  17. Geotechnical hazards associated with closed municipal solid waste landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powrie, W.; Richards, D.; Beaven, R.

    2015-09-01

    As pressure for new infrastructure and development grows, it is inevitable that building projects will encounter some of the c20,000 closed former solid waste landfills in the UK, many of which will have accepted municipal solid wastes (MSW). Construction on or across these sites brings a special set of geohazards associated with the potential for large and difficult to predict settlements, gas (and odour) release or generation, contaminated leachate and the breach of containment systems and other environmental controls. The presentation will discuss these issues with reference to recent research into understanding and predicting settlements in municipal solid waste landfills; assessing the total, current and residual gas potential of biodegradable wastes; the role of the hydraulic regime in the flushing of contaminants from the waste and the quality of leachate; and the need or otherwise for the long term integrity of engineered barriers and controls.

  18. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  19. 40 CFR 62.15035 - Is my small municipal waste combustion unit subject to different requirements based on plant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustion capacity greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid waste. (See the definition of municipal... capacity of no more than 250 tons per day of municipal solid waste. (See the definition of municipal waste... small municipal waste combustion unit subject to different requirements based on plant capacity?...

  20. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Gentil, Emmanuel C.; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Influence of prevention on waste management systems, excluding avoided production, is relatively minor. > Influence of prevention on overall supply chain, including avoided production is very significant. > Higher relative benefits of prevention are observed in waste management systems relying mainly on landfills. - Abstract: Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a 'High-tech' waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a 'Low-tech' waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for 'Low-tech' systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.

  1. VITRIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMBUSTION AIR POLLUTION CONTROL RESIDUES USING CORNING, INC. PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration was conducted to vitrify municipal solid waste (MSW) combustor air pollution control residue (APC) under the USEPA Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation Program. uplicate demonstration was conducted using a process developed by Corning Inc. in a cold cr...

  2. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Troschinetz, Alexis M; Mihelcic, James R

    2009-02-01

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors. PMID:18657963

  3. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Troschinetz, Alexis M. Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-02-15

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  4. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel C; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-12-01

    Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a "High-tech" waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a "Low-tech" waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for "Low-tech" systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation. PMID:21924602

  5. Composted municipal waste effect on chosen properties of calcareous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidpour, M.; Afyuni, M.; Khadivi, E.; Zorpas, A.; Inglezakis, V.

    2012-10-01

    A 3-year field study was conducted to assess effects of composted municipal waste on some properties, distribution of Zn, Cu in a calcareous soil and uptake of these metals by wheat. The treatments were 0, 25, 50 and 100 Mg ha-1 of municipal solidwastewhichwas applied in three consecutive years. The application of composted municipal waste increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the aggregate stability,the organic carbon content and electrical conductivity, whereas it slightly decreased the soil pH and bulk density. A significant increase in the concentration of Zn and Cu were observed with increasing number and rate of compost application. The distribution of Zn and Cu between the different fractions in untreated and treated soils showed that the majority of Zn and Cu were in the residual form. Finally, the levels of Zn and Cu were higher in grains of wheat grown in composttreated plots compared to that grown in the control plots.

  6. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On...

  7. 40 CFR 60.56a - Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor... Performance for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.56a Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices....

  8. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity...

  9. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction Is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and On or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On...

  10. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On...

  11. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On...

  12. 40 CFR 60.54b - Standards for municipal waste combustor operator training and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor... Standards of Performance for Large Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After... Standards for municipal waste combustor operator training and certification. (a) No later than the date...

  13. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On...

  14. 40 CFR 60.56a - Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor... Performance for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction Is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and On or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.56a Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices....

  15. 40 CFR 60.1015 - What is a new municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion unit? 60.1015 Section 60.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999... What is a new municipal waste combustion unit? (a) A new municipal waste combustion unit is a...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1010 - Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit? 60.1010 Section 60.1010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30....1010 Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? Yes, if your municipal...

  17. 40 CFR 60.53a - Standard for municipal waste combustor organics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.53a Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. (a) (b) On and after the date... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1010 - Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30... waste combustion unit? 60.1010 Section 60.1010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1010 Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? Yes, if your municipal...

  19. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of existing municipal...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  2. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid...

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Cb of... - Municipal Waste Combustor Operating Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal Waste Combustor Operating... and Compliance Times for Large Municipal Waste Combustors That are Constructed on or Before September 20, 1994 Pt. 60, Subpt. Cb, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart Cb of Part 60—Municipal Waste...

  4. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity...

  5. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure of existing municipal solid... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  6. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure of existing municipal solid... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  7. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity...

  8. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Closure of existing municipal solid... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  9. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity...

  10. 75 FR 53268 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve New Hampshire's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 28, 2010...

  11. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... determination to approve a modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to... amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for Research,...

  12. 76 FR 9772 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to allow the State to issue research, development, and.... Background On March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria...

  13. 78 FR 20073 - Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY... modification to the State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA... certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 14, 2012, Oregon submitted...

  14. 78 FR 5350 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve Massachusetts's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On December 7,...

  15. 75 FR 53220 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to New Hampshire's approved municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) program. The approved... March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria in 40...

  16. 78 FR 20035 - Adequacy of Oregon Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Oregon Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY... to the State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The approved... regulations allowing RD&D Permits to be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved...

  17. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW) COMBUSTOR ASH DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM - "THE BOATHOUSE"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of a research program designed to examine the engineering and environmental acceptability of using municipal solid waste (MSW) combustor ash as an aggregate substitute in the manufacture of construction quality cement blocks. 50 tons of MSW combust...

  18. Characterization of thermal properties of municipal solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Faitli, József; Magyar, Tamás; Erdélyi, Attila; Murányi, Attila

    2015-02-01

    Municipal waste landfills represent not only a source of landfill gases, but a source of thermal energy as well. The heat in landfills is generated by physical, chemical and microbiological processes. The goal of our study was to characterize the thermal properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) samples of the given landfill. A new apparatus was designed and constructed to measure heat flow. A systematic test series of 17 discrete measurements was carried out with municipal waste samples of 1.0-1.7 m(3). The thermal conductivity, heat diffusivity and specific heat capacity of the samples were determined. Analysing the results of the sampling and our experiments it was realized that the theoretical fundaments should be clarified. Two theories were developed for the serial and for the parallel heat flow in three phase disperse systems. The serial and parallel models resulted in different theoretical estimations. The measured thermal conductivity and heat diffusivity were better characterized by the parallel heat flow estimations. The results show that heat can flow parallel in solid, liquid and gas phases. Characterization of thermal properties serves to establish the fundament of heat extraction from municipal waste landfills. PMID:25464944

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF GOOD COMBUSTION PRACTICE FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes the rationale for EPA's good combustion practice (GCP) strategy. OTE: The EPA is developing new air pollution rules for all new and existing municipal waste combustors (MWCs), rules requiring all MWCs to use GCP. The goals of GCP are to maximize furnace destr...

  20. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN ESTUARIES AND COASTAL MARSHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a survey of the existing situation with regards to municipal solid waste disposal in the coastal zone. Both the scientific literature and the regulatory community were surveyed to determine the state-of-knowledge of the impact of such disposal on the environment, p...

  1. EVALUATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL COVER DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) Model was used to evaluate the hydrologic behavior of a series of one-, two-, and three-layer cover designs for municipal solid waste landfill cover designs were chosen to isolate the effects of features such as surface veg...

  2. PERFORMANCE OF EMISSIONS CONTROL SYSTEMS ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of several EPA-supported field evaluations of data on gaseous pollutant emissions from modern municipal waste combustors/incinerators and emissions control by flue gas cleaning systems. The results are presented in terms of acid gas (HCl and SO2), trace ...

  3. USE OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS AS BIOCHEMICAL REACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) from the nation is managed predominantly in anitary landfills. ue to the physical, chemical and biological makeup f he aste he landfill acts as a biochemical reactor and degrades the organic matter. urrent practices are to use covers and liners as engi...

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  6. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  7. Municipal solid waste disposal in estuaries and coastal marshlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, K. A.; Klein, M. S.; Bazzolo, J. S.; Delaney, M. E.

    1980-12-01

    The existing situation with regards to municipal solid waste disposal in the coastal zone was assessed. Both the scientific literature and the regulatory community were surveyed to determine the state of knowledge of the impact of such disposal on the environment, past and present disposal techniques, and the attitudes of the regulatory community.

  8. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  9. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMBUSTOR ASH DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM - "THE BOATHOUSE"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of a research program designed to examine the engineering and environmental acceptability of using municipal solid waste (MSW) combustor ash as an aggregate substitute in the manufacture of construction quality cement blocks. 50 tons of MSW combust...

  10. HOLISTIC APPROACH TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents results from the application of a new municipal solid waste (MSW) management planning aid to EPA's new facility in the Research Triangle Park, NC. This planning aid, or decision support tool, is computer software that analyzes the cost and environmental impact ...

  11. INVESTIGATION OF FLUID BED COMBUSTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental study was undertaken to burn processed municipal solid waste in a fluid-bed combustor containing water-cooled tubes in the bed. The 300-hour test was performed without incident and terminated on schedule. The combustor and ducting were clean on inspection after th...

  12. Searching quality data for municipal solid waste planning.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Moe

    2009-08-01

    Effective waste reduction and recycling is predicated upon credible data on refuse generation and disposal. Despite improvements in the quality of data for municipal solid wastes (MSW) disposal, dependable generation and recycling statistics to support planning, regulation and administration are lacking. The available aggregates on national waste production from two sources do not conform to each other and fail to serve the requirements of local solid waste planning. As recycling estimates will be difficult to discern, the collection of generation data based on weighing waste samples at generator sites has been portrayed as the key for developing sustainable local databases. The coefficients developed from the databases for the various categories of residential, commercial, industrial and institutional wastes can be used as variables for waste generation models. PMID:19410445

  13. Municipal waste management in Sicily: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Messineo, Antonio Panno, Domenico

    2008-07-01

    There are numerous problems yet to be solved in waste management and although efforts towards waste recovery and recycling have been made, landfills are still the most common method used in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Thermal disposal, particularly incineration, is a tested and viable alternative. In 2004, only 11% of the annual waste production of Italy was incinerated. Sicily, with over five million inhabitants, is the second largest region in Italy where waste management is now a critical problem. The use of landfills can no longer be considered a satisfactory environmental solution; therefore, new methods have to be chosen and waste-to-energy plants could provide an answer. This paper gives details of municipal solid waste management in Sicily following a new Waste Management Plan. Four waste-to-energy plants will generate electricity through a steam cycle; the feedstock will become the residue after material recovery, which is calculated as 20-40% weight of the collected municipal solid waste.

  14. Municipal waste management in Sicily: practices and challenges.

    PubMed

    Messineo, Antonio; Panno, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous problems yet to be solved in waste management and although efforts towards waste recovery and recycling have been made, landfills are still the most common method used in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Thermal disposal, particularly incineration, is a tested and viable alternative. In 2004, only 11% of the annual waste production of Italy was incinerated. Sicily, with over five million inhabitants, is the second largest region in Italy where waste management is now a critical problem. The use of landfills can no longer be considered a satisfactory environmental solution; therefore, new methods have to be chosen and waste-to-energy plants could provide an answer. This paper gives details of municipal solid waste management in Sicily following a new Waste Management Plan. Four waste-to-energy plants will generate electricity through a steam cycle; the feedstock will become the residue after material recovery, which is calculated as 20-40% weight of the collected municipal solid waste. PMID:17604152

  15. Municipal Solid Waste - Sustainable Materials Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The MSW DST was initially developed in the 1990s and has evolved over the years to better account for changes in waste management practices, waste composition, and improvements in decision support tool design and functionality. The most recent version of the tool is publicly ava...

  16. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Elena Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  17. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using artificial intelligence modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Maryam; El Hanandeh, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern to local governments to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. The design and operation of an effective MSW management system requires accurate estimation of future waste generation quantities. The main objective of this study was to develop a model for accurate forecasting of MSW generation that helps waste related organizations to better design and operate effective MSW management systems. Four intelligent system algorithms including support vector machine (SVM), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and k-nearest neighbours (kNN) were tested for their ability to predict monthly waste generation in the Logan City Council region in Queensland, Australia. Results showed artificial intelligence models have good prediction performance and could be successfully applied to establish municipal solid waste forecasting models. Using machine learning algorithms can reliably predict monthly MSW generation by training with waste generation time series. In addition, results suggest that ANFIS system produced the most accurate forecasts of the peaks while kNN was successful in predicting the monthly averages of waste quantities. Based on the results, the total annual MSW generated in Logan City will reach 9.4×10(7)kg by 2020 while the peak monthly waste will reach 9.37×10(6)kg. PMID:27297046

  18. Biodrying for municipal solid waste: volume and weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Melayib; Tulun, Şevket

    2015-01-01

    Biodrying is a variation of aerobic decomposition used for the mechanical-biological treatment organic substances to dry and partially stabilize residual municipal waste. This study focuses on the volume and weight reduction biodegradation of the biodrying process using municipal solid waste and the appearance of a stable, final product. The materials were placed in a reactor with invariant airflow rates of 50 L/h and initial moisture contents of 48.49-50.00%. The laboratory-scale experiments were implemented using a 36-L biodrying reactor equipped with an air supply system, a biomass temperature sensor and air sensors. To determine the effect of temperature on biodrying, the process was repeated at various temperatures between 30 °C and 50 °C. The results obtained indicated that after 13 days, biodrying reduced the volume content of waste by 32% and the final product had a high calorific value (4680 kcal/kg). PMID:25571768

  19. The impact of municipal waste combustion in small heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantúch, Martin; Kaduchová, Katarína; Lenhard, Richard

    2016-06-01

    At present there is a tendency to make greater use for heating houses for burning solid fuel, such as pieces of wood, coal, coke, local sources of heat to burn natural gas. This tendency is given both the high price of natural gas as well as the availability of cheaper solid fuel. In many cases, in the context saving heating costs, respectively in the context of the disposal of waste is co-incinerated with municipal solid fuels and wastes of different composition. This co entails increased production emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide), NOx (nitrogen oxides), particulate matter (particulate matter), PM10, HCl (hydrogen chloride), PCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans), PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and others. The experiment was focused on the emission factors from the combustion of fossil fuels in combination with municipal waste in conventional boilers designed to burn solid fuel.

  20. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: practices and challenges.

    PubMed

    Manaf, Latifah Abd; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-11-01

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal. PMID:19540745

  1. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Manaf, Latifah Abd Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-11-15

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  2. Municipal solid waste development phases: Evidence from EU27.

    PubMed

    Vujić, Goran; Gonzalez-Roof, Alvaro; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Ragossnig, Arne M

    2015-12-01

    Many countries in the European Union (EU) have very developed waste management systems. Some of its members have managed to reduce their landfilled waste to values close to zero during the last decade. Thus, European Union legislation is very stringent regarding waste management for their members and candidate countries, too. This raises the following questions: Is it possible for developing and developed countries to comply with the European Union waste legislation, and under what conditions? How did waste management develop in relation to the economic development in the countries of the European Union? The correlation between waste management practices and economic development was analysed for 27 of the European Union Member States for the time period between 1995 and 2007. In addition, a regression analysis was performed to estimate landfilling of waste in relation to gross domestic product for every country. The results showed a strong correlation between the waste management variables and the gross domestic product of the EU27 members. The definition of the municipal solid waste management development phases followed a closer analysis of the relation between gross domestic product and landfilled waste. The municipal solid waste management phases are characterised by high landfilling rates at low gross domestic product levels, and landfilling rates near zero at high gross domestic product levels. Hence the results emphasize the importance of wider understanding of what is required for developing countries to comply with the European Union initiatives, and highlight the importance of allowing developing countries to make their own paths of waste management development. PMID:26574580

  3. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from -290kg CO2 e (glass) to -19111kg CO2 e (metals - Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186kg CO2 e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard. PMID:23791423

  4. Municipal solid waste management in Rasht City, Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi Moghadam, M.R. Mokhtarani, N. Mokhtarani, B.

    2009-01-15

    Pollution and health risks generated by improper solid waste management are important issues concerning environmental management in developing countries. In most cities, the use of open dumps is common for the disposal of wastes, resulting in soil and water resource contamination by leachate in addition to odors and fires. Solid waste management infrastructure and services in developing countries are far from achieving basic standards in terms of hygiene and efficient collection and disposal. This paper presents an overview of current municipal solid waste management in Rasht city, Gilan Province, Iran, and provides recommendations for system improvement. The collected data of different MSW functional elements were based on data from questionnaires, visual observations of the authors, available reports and several interviews and meetings with responsible persons. Due to an increase in population and changes in lifestyle, the quantity and quality of MSW in Rasht city has changed. Lack of resources, infrastructure, suitable planning, leadership, and public awareness are the main challenges of MSW management of Rasht city. However, the present situation of solid waste management in this city, which generates more than 400 tons/d, has been improved since the establishment of an organization responsible only for solid waste management. Source separation of wastes and construction of a composting plant are the two main activities of the Rasht Municipality in recent years.

  5. Bioaerosols from municipal and animal wastes: background and contemporary issues.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Suresh D; Ricke, Steven C

    2002-08-01

    Global population increases, coupled with intensive animal and livestock production practices, have resulted in the generation, accumulation, and disposal of large amounts of wastes around the world. Aerosolization of microbial pathogens, endotoxins, odors, and dust particles is an inevitable consequence of the generation and handling of waste material. Bioaerosols can be a source of microbial pathogens, endotoxins, and other allergens. Given the close proximity of population centers to concentrated animal-rearing operations and municipal treatment facilities in many parts of the world, there is concern regarding the occupational and public health impacts associated with the exposure to bioaerosols from municipal and animal wastes. Major advances have been made in our understanding of bioaerosol characteristics, identifying the hazards, and identifying possible human and animal health links with aerosolized pathogens and allergens. However, significant knowledge and technology gaps still exist. These include a lack of clear understanding of the fate and transport of bioaerosols, especially within the open environment, an inability to accurately predict the health risks associated with bioaerosolized pathogens, and a lack of standardized bioaerosol sampling protocols, and efficient samplers. This review synthesizes the information related to bioaerosols and addresses the contemporary issues associated with bioaerosols from municipal and animal wastes, with a focus on pathogens. PMID:12381025

  6. Taiwan`s experience with municipal waste recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.

    1998-12-31

    Currently, each person on the average produces 1.15 kg of the municipal waste per day and a total of 9 million metric tons were generated annually in Taiwan. The disposal of such a huge amount of waste presents tremendous challenge for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. EPA of Taiwan, R.O.C. thus takes an active role in promoting waste recycling to reduce the garbage produced in municipalities. In order to efficiently utilize the government`s human and financial resources used in recycling, started from January 31, 1989, EPA has mandated the producer responsibility recycling program for several designated post-consumer products such as PET, PVC bottles, scrap tires, scrap motor vehicles, etc. Producer responsibility recycling program specifies that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of these designated products have the responsibility to retrieve their products and recycle them properly. Several negative effects have been encountered while the implementation of this producer responsibility recycling program in Taiwan which resulted in a modification of this recycling program recently. This paper presents the encountered experiences on the implementation of municipal waste recycling program in Taiwan.

  7. 40 CFR 60.1045 - Are there different subcategories of small municipal waste combustion units within this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... units into two groups based on the aggregate capacity of the municipal waste combustion plant as follows... municipal waste combustion plants with an aggregate plant combustion capacity greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid waste. (See the definition of “municipal waste combustion plant capacity” in §...

  8. Electricity production from municipal solid waste using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, H Y; Pai, T Y; Liu, M H; Chang, C A; Lo, F C; Chang, T C; Lo, H M; Chiang, C F; Chao, K P; Lo, W Y; Lo, S W; Chu, Y L

    2016-07-01

    The organic content of municipal solid waste has long been an attractive source of renewable energy, mainly as a solid fuel in waste-to-energy plants. This study focuses on the potential to use microbial fuel cells to convert municipal solid waste organics into energy using various operational conditions. The results showed that two-chamber microbial fuel cells with carbon felt and carbon felt allocation had a higher maximal power density (20.12 and 30.47 mW m(-2) for 1.5 and 4 L, respectively) than those of other electrode plate allocations. Most two-chamber microbial fuel cells (1.5 and 4 L) had a higher maximal power density than single-chamber ones with corresponding electrode plate allocations. Municipal solid waste with alkali hydrolysis pre-treatment and K3Fe(CN)6 as an electron acceptor improved the maximal power density to 1817.88 mW m(-2) (~0.49% coulomb efficiency, from 0.05-0.49%). The maximal power density from experiments using individual 1.5 and 4 L two-chamber microbial fuel cells, and serial and parallel connections of 1.5 and 4 L two-chamber microbial fuel cells, was found to be in the order of individual 4 L (30.47 mW m(-2)) > serial connection of 1.5 and 4 L (27.75) > individual 1.5 L (20.12) > parallel connection of 1.5 and 4 L (17.04) two-chamber microbial fuel cells . The power density using municipal solid waste microbial fuel cells was compared with information in the literature and discussed. PMID:27231132

  9. Space monitoring of municipal solid waste landfills in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakova, Olga; Shagarova, Lyudmila

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are special facilities designed for waste isolation and disposal ensuring sanitary and epidemiological safety of population. A solid waste landfill is a complex object with its own specific features. Modern remote-sensing methods are an indispensable source of information for the analysis of space images of solid waste landfills in Kazakhstan. Space monitoring of solid waste landfills includes the following tasks: 1. Identification and mapping of landfill areas according to the data of remote earth sensing. 2. Studying of energy and structural characteristics of landfills based on remote sensing data. 3. Analysis of the state of landfills based on a comparison of current and archive remote sensing data. Space monitoring of territories of municipal solid waste landfills uses modern computer technologies. They include satellite imagery combined with sub-satellite research, as well as other sources of information used for identification and mapping of landfill territories. Investigation of municipal solid waste landfills requires targeted survey of landfill areas, remote sensing using operational and archival data including theoretical foundations of physical optics and statistical data. Processing of digital satellite information uses methods of pattern recognition, automated image processing and correlation analysis. Based on spectral energy and textural characteristics of municipal solid waste landfills obtained by remote sensing methods, the technology of space monitoring of landfill areas, including landfill recognition and characterization of solid waste landfills from remote observations was developed. Monitoring of MSW landfills uses satellite images of ultrahigh and medium spatial resolution. Medium-resolution images are used to determine temperature, vegetation cover and soil degradation. High-resolution images are used to detect landfills, to determine forms of soil degradation, to calculate geometrical parameters, and

  10. Evaluation of environmental impacts from municipal solid waste management in the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark (EASEWASTE).

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, Janus T; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund; Christensen, Thomas H; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael

    2006-02-01

    A new computer based life cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) was used to evaluate a municipal solid waste system with the purpose of identifying environmental benefits and disadvantages by anaerobic digestion of source-separated household waste and incineration. The most important processes that were included in the study are optical sorting and pre-treatment, anaerobic digestion with heat and power recovery, incineration with heat and power recovery, use of digested biomass on arable soils and finally, an estimated surplus consumption of plastic in order to achieve a higher quality and quantity of organic waste to the biogas plant. Results showed that there were no significant differences in most of the assessed environmental impacts for the two scenarios. However, the use of digested biomass may cause a potential toxicity impact on human health due to the heavy metal content of the organic waste. A sensitivity analysis showed that the results are sensitive to the energy recovery efficiencies, to the extra plastic consumption for waste bags and to the content of heavy metals in the waste. A model such as EASEWASTE is very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences of different waste management strategies and technologies, and can be used for most waste material fractions existing in household waste. PMID:16496867

  11. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  12. Cytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator ash wastes toward mammalian kidney cell lines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Tsai, Jia-Lin; Liao, Ming-Huei

    2008-05-01

    In this study, three municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash wastes-bottom ash, scrubber residue, and baghouse ash-were extracted using a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) extractant. These so-called final TCLP extracts were applied to African green monkey kidney cells (Vero), baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21), and pig kidney cells (PK-15), multi-well absorption reader analysis was performed to test how the cytotoxicity of the incineration ashes would affect the digestive systems of animals. Ion-coupled plasma analyses indicated that the baghouse ash extract possessed the highest pH and heavy metal concentration, its cytotoxicity was also the highest. In contrast, the bottom ash and the scrubber residue exhibited very low cytotoxicities. The cytotoxicities of mixtures of baghouse ash and scrubber residue toward the three tested cell lines increased as the relative ratio of the baghouse ash increased, especially for the Vero cells. The slight cytotoxicity of the scrubber residue arose mainly from the presence of Cr species, whereas the high cytotoxicity of the baghouse ash resulted from its high content of heavy metals and alkali ions. In addition, it appears that the dissolved total organic carbon content of these ash wastes can reduce the cytotoxicity of ash wastes that collect in animal cells. PMID:18329068

  13. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes.

    PubMed

    Das, Swapan; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr

    2015-09-01

    Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length. PMID:26152365

  14. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission guidelines for municipal solid... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of...

  15. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission guidelines for municipal solid... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of...

  16. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission guidelines for municipal solid... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of...

  17. 78 FR 5288 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to Massachusetts's approved municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) program. The approved... INFORMATION: A. Background On March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule amending the municipal solid...

  18. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...: I. Background On March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule (69 FR 13242) amending the Municipal Solid... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to Alaska's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The...

  19. An analysis of the effects of mandatory recycling on the household production of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Capone, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    The thesis explored in this study is that a local government's approach to achieving recycling of household solid waste affects that household production of both recyclable and non-recyclable solid waste. A household production function is used as the theoretical framework of the thesis. A household faced with mandatory recycling has two main decisions: (1) how much recyclable solid waste to generate, and (2) how much of the recyclable waste to recycle. The decision of how much recyclable solid waste to generate depends not only on the household's level of consumption of solid-waste-generating goods, but on the amount of household labor used for consumption of the goods. The decision of how much of their household solid waste to recycle depends on how much recyclable solid waste the household generates, costs of recycling and not recycling, and the social conscience of the household. The theoretical model's hypotheses are tested empirically using municipal data from New Jersey. 420 municipalities were surveyed on their recycling policies. Conclusions are drawn about the effectiveness of current policies and suggests improvements.

  20. Municipal waste combustor operator training program: Course manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, J.T.; Lanier, W.S.; Lee, S.Y.

    1993-04-01

    The Course Manual, addresses the training needs of municipal waste combustor (MWC) operators. The training program focuses on the knowledge required by operators for understanding the basis for proper operation and maintenance of MWC`s with particular emphasis on the aspects of combustion which are important for environmental control. The training program includes general introductory material relative to municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment and MSW as a fuel. The bulk of the program addresses the principles of good combustion. The potential sources of air pollution emissions and their control are discussed. Instrumentation, automatic control systems, control room operations and practices, and the troubleshooting of upsets are presented. Special system considerations are included: water teatment, electrical theory, and turbines and generators. Finally, risk management procedures such as preventive maintenance and safety considerations are addressed.

  1. Municipal solid waste management in Indian cities - A review.

    PubMed

    Sharholy, Mufeed; Ahmad, Kafeel; Mahmood, Gauhar; Trivedi, R C

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental problems of Indian cities. Improper management of municipal solid waste (MSW) causes hazards to inhabitants. Various studies reveal that about 90% of MSW is disposed of unscientifically in open dumps and landfills, creating problems to public health and the environment. In the present study, an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive review of the characteristics, generation, collection and transportation, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW practiced in India. The study pertaining to MSWM for Indian cities has been carried out to evaluate the current status and identify the major problems. Various adopted treatment technologies for MSW are critically reviewed, along with their advantages and limitations. The study is concluded with a few fruitful suggestions, which may be beneficial to encourage the competent authorities/researchers to work towards further improvement of the present system. PMID:17433664

  2. Mercury in municipal solid wastes and New Jersey mercury prevention and reduction program

    SciTech Connect

    Erdogan, H.; Stevenson, E.

    1994-12-31

    Mercury is a very toxic heavy metal which accumulates in the brain causing neurological damages involving psychasthenic and vegetative syndrome. At high exposure levels it causes behavioral and personality changes, loss of memory and insomnia. Long-term exposure or exposure during pregnancy to mercury or mercury compounds can permanently damage the kidney and fetus. In addition to potential effects on human health, mercury poisoning can also affect other living organisms. Mercury is different than other heavy metals. It consistently biomagnifies and bioaccumulates within the aquatic food chain. Global sources of mercury release are both natural and anthropogenic. Natural sources include volatilization of gaseous-mercury iron soils ana rocks, volcanic releases, evaporation from the ocean and other water bodies. Anthropogenic sources are fuel and coal combustion, mining, smelting, manufacturing activities, disposal of sludge, pesticides, animal and food waste, and incineration of municipal solid waste. Worldwide combustion of municipal solid waste is the second largest source of atmospheric emission of mercury. In New Jersey, incineration of solid waste is the largest source of atmospheric emission of mercury. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) has developed a comprehensive program to control and prevent emission of mercury resulting from combustion municipal solid waste.

  3. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a dramatic resurgence in the US. Several factors are driving this interest in composting including landfill closures, resistance to siting of new landfills and combustion facilities, public support for recycling, and, in general, the overall costs of waste disposal. Starting with only one demonstration project operating in 1980, the total number of projects in the US has increased to sixteen by July 1991. There are approximately 100 projects in some form of planning or development. One reason some communities are sekniing composting as a waste management option is that sewage sludge and MSW can be co-composted thereby recycling a major portion of the overall municipal waste stream. In 1991, five of the operating facilities have incorporated sludge, with a number of new plants also developing systems with this capability. Generic composting technologies are described followed by a comprehensive discussion of operating facilities. Information is presented on the type of processing system, capital and operating costs, and the status of compost markets. A discussion is also included on the operational problems and challenges faced by composting facility developers and operators. Also presented are facility energy usage and a discussion of the energy implications from the use of compost as a soil and fertilizer replacement. A discussion of cost sensitivity shows how facility costs are impacted by waste handling procedures, regulations, reject disposal, and finance charges. The status of, and potential for, integrating composting into the overall waste management strategy is also discussed, including composting's contribution to municipal recycling goals, and the status of public acceptance of the technology. Finally information and research needs are summarized.

  5. Policy for municipality and municipal solid waste CERCLA settlements at NPL co-disposal sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, S.A.

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this policy is to provide a fair, consistent, and efficient settlement methodology for resolving the potential liability under CERCLA of generators and transporters of municipal sewage sludge and/or municipal solid waste at co-disposal landfills on the National Priorities List (NPL), and municipal owners and operators of such sites. This policy is intended to reduce transaction costs, including those associated with third-party litigation, and to encourage global settlements at sites.

  6. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: development of the WASTED model.

    PubMed

    Diaz, R; Warith, M

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models. PMID:16153816

  7. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: Development of the WASTED model

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, R.; Warith, M. . E-mail: mwarith@ryerson.ca

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models.

  8. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  9. Catalytic Wet Gasification of Municipal and Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ro, Kyoung S.; Cantrell, Keri; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hunt, Patrick G.

    2007-02-21

    Applicability of wet gasification technology for various animal and municipal wastes was examined. Wet gasification of swine manure and raw sewage sludge generated high number of net energies. Furthermore, the moisture content of these wastes is ideal for current wet gasification technology. Significant quantities of water must be added to dry feedstock wastes such as poultry litter, feedlot manures and MSW to make the feedstock pumpable. Because of their high ash contents, MSW and unpaved feedlot manure would not generate positive energy return from wet gasification. The costs of a conceptual wet gasification manure management system for a model swine farm were significantly higher than that of the anaerobic lagoon system. However, many environmental advantages of the wet gasification system were identified, which might reduce the costs significantly. Due to high sulfur content of the wastes, pretreatment to prevent the poisoning of catalysts is critically needed.

  10. Charging systems for municipal solid waste: experience from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Petr; Parízková, Libuse; Hadrabová, Alena

    2008-12-01

    The paper presents results of research into municipal waste treatment in the Czech Republic. Its special focus is on the impacts of various municipal solid waste charging systems on separating and recycling efforts of municipalities and households. The municipal solid waste charging systems are shortly described first, including the principles of the relevant Czech legislation. It shows that the Czech waste legislation provides space for implementing Pay-as-You-Throw (PAYT) models in the Czech Republic. The main results of representative surveys conducted by the authors within the EU PAYT project in 2003 in selected Czech municipalities and Prague households are shown. The survey confirmed that in municipalities that apply the PAYT charging system, citizens separate more waste and produce less residual waste. The survey data analysis has also shown which factors contributing to satisfactory waste separation are relevant and should be taken into the account when providing policy recommendations for introducing PAYT charging systems in other cities. PMID:18804364

  11. Heavy metal partitioning in a municipal solid waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sorum, L.; Fossum, M.; Hustad, J.E.; Evensen, E.

    1997-12-01

    Norway has the following priorities for management of municipal solid waste (MSW) (1) Reduce waste generation and toxic components in waste, (2) Encourage re-use, recycling and energy recovery, and (3) Secure an environmentally safe management of residues. MSW consists of household waste and waste from the service and trade industry delivered to municipal waste treatment plants or recycling schemes. In 1995, a total of 2.7 million tons of MSW (1.26 million tons of household waste and 1.44 million tons of waste from service and trade industry) was handled as follows: 68% was deposited on landfills, 18% was combusted, 13% recycled and 1% composted. Combustion of MSW is handled in five larger plants with energy recovery located in different cities in Norway. In addition, a new incinerator for MSW is planned. This incinerator will have to meet the new emission regulations given by the European Union which are more stringent than the present regulations. Hence, Norway is moving towards more stringent regulations, leading to an increased interest in the environmental aspects of MSW incinerators. During 1995 Trondheim Energy Company carried out an investigation program to examine the residues from the incinerator. Primary attention was on the heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and the landfill leacate. The program was conducted in order to establish more information about characteristics of the residues and thus be able to undertake a sounder evaluation of the environmental aspects of the final treatment of these products. This program was supplementary to the emission analysis done periodically for the flue gas and drain water. The objective of this work has been to establish knowledge about the partitioning of heavy metals through the incinerator and calculate the concentrations of heavy metal in the input MSW.

  12. A review on current status of municipal solid waste management in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Kumar, Vinit

    2015-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a major environmental issue in India. Due to rapid increase in urbanization, industrialization and population, the generation rate of municipal solid waste in Indian cities and towns is also increased. Mismanagement of municipal solid waste can cause adverse environmental impacts, public health risk and other socio-economic problem. This paper presents an overview of current status of solid waste management in India which can help the competent authorities responsible for municipal solid waste management and researchers to prepare more efficient plans. PMID:26574106

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Stamps, Blake W; Lyles, Christopher N; Suflita, Joseph M; Masoner, Jason R; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Kolpin, Dana W; Stevenson, Bradley S

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its "built environments." Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of "landfill microbiomes" and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity. PMID:27148222

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity. PMID:27148222

  15. Critical analysis of the integration of residual municipal solid waste incineration and selective collection in two Italian tourist areas.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Ezio; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Masi, Salvatore; Montanaro, Comasia

    2014-05-13

    Municipal solid waste management is not only a contemporary problem, but also an issue at world level. In detail, the tourist areas are more difficult to be managed. The dynamics of municipal solid waste production in tourist areas is affected by the addition of a significant amount of population equivalent during a few months. Consequences are seen in terms of the amount of municipal solid waste to be managed, but also on the quality of selective collection. In this article two case studies are analyzed in order to point out some strategies useful for a correct management of this problem, also taking into account the interactions with the sector of waste-to-energy. The case studies concern a tourist area in the north of Italy and another area in the south. Peak production is clearly visible during the year. Selective collection variations demonstrate that the tourists' behavior is not adequate to get the same results as with the resident population. PMID:24824166

  16. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model

    SciTech Connect

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexity in local waste management calls for more in depth efficiency analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shared-input Data Envelopment Analysis can provide solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable room for the Flemish municipalities to improve their cost efficiency. - Abstract: This paper proposed an adjusted 'shared-input' version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

  17. Municipal solid waste slope failure. 1: Waste and foundation soil properties

    SciTech Connect

    Eid, H.T.; Stark, T.D.; Evans, W.D.; Sherry, P.E.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a slope failure in a municipal solid waste landfill, with lateral and vertical displacements of up to 275 and 61 m, respectively. The waste slide involved approximately 1.2 mill in m{sup 3} of waste, making it the largest landfill slope failure to occur in the US. Failure developed through the weak native soil underlying the waste. The analyses and related studies conducted to determine the cause of the failure are the subject of this and a companion paper by Stark et al. (2000). To facilitate the analyses, this paper investigates shear strength of municipal solid waste using field and laboratory test results and back-analysis of failed waste slopes. It also presents details of a geological study and laboratory testing program undertaken to quantify the mobilized shear strength of the weak native soil.

  18. Leaching of nano-ZnO in municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Sakallioglu, T; Bakirdoven, M; Temizel, I; Demirel, B; Copty, N K; Onay, T T; Uyguner Demirel, C S; Karanfil, T

    2016-11-01

    Despite widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in commercial products and their potential disposal in landfills, the fate of ENMs in solid waste environments are still not well understood. In this study, the leaching behavior of nano ZnO -one of the most used ENMs- in fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) was investigated. Batch reactors containing municipal solid waste samples were spiked with three different types of nano ZnO having different surface stabilization. The leaching of ZnO was examined under acidic, basic and elevated ionic strength (IS) conditions. The results of the 3-day batch tests showed that the percent of the added nano-ZnO mass retained within the solid waste matrix ranged between 80% and 93% on average for the three types of nano-ZnO tested. The pH and IS conditions did not significantly influence the leaching behavior of ZnO. To further analyze the behavior of ZnO in the MSW matrix, a kinetic particle deposition/detachment model was developed. The model was able to reproduce the main trends of the batch experiments. Reaction rate constants for the batch tests ranged from 0.01 to 0.4 1/hr, reflecting the rapid deposition of nano-ZnO within the MSW matrix. PMID:27318728

  19. Batteries called primary source of lead, cadmium in municipal waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency reports that lead-acid batteries, such as those used in automobiles, and rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries used in consumer electronics equipment, are the primary sources of lead and cadmium in municipal trash and garbage. A report prepared for EPA analyzed existing data from 1970 to 1986 and made projections to the year 2000. Lead-acid batteries continue to constitute a major source of lead in garbage even though 80 percent of them are now recycled. As a result, EPA is calling for additional recycling of batteries. This study is an important step in implementing EPA's strategy for helping states and cities achieve the national goal of recycling and reducing 25 percent of all municipal garbage by 1992. The findings on batteries are the result of a study conducted for EPA because of concern over the levels of lead and cadmium found n ash (residue) from municipal waste incinerators. Lead and cadmium are two metals of particular concern in the solid waste stream. The metals can contaminate soil and groundwater when landfilled. They also may be found in some incinerator emissions.

  20. Air emissions assessment and air quality permitting for a municipal waste landfill treating municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a case study into the air quality permitting of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in the San Francisco Bay Area undergoing a proposed expansion in operations to increase the life of the landfill. The operations of this facility include MSW landfilling, the treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge, the aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils, the construction of a new on-site plant to manufacture soil amendment products from waste wood and other organic material diverted from the landfill, and the installation of a vaporator to create steam from leachate for injection into the landfill gas flare. The emissions assessment for each project component relied upon interpretation of source tests from similar operations, incorporation of on-site measurements into emissions models and mass balances, and use of AP-42 procedures for emissions sources such as wind-blown dust, material handling and transfer operations, and fugitive landfill gas. Air permitting issues included best available control technology (BACT), emission offset thresholds, new source performance standards (NSPS), potential air toxics health risk impacts, and compliance with federal Title V operating permit requirements. With the increasing difficulties of siting new landfills, increasing pressures to reduce the rate of waste placement into existing landfills, and expanding regulatory requirements on landfill operations, experiences similar to those described in this paper are likely to increase in the future as permitting scenarios become more complex.

  1. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of...

  2. Ecosystem biomass, carbon, and nitrogen five years after restoration with municipal solid waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escalating municipal solid waste generation coupled with decreasing landfill space needed for disposal has increased the pressure on military installations to evaluate novel approaches to handle this waste. One approach to alleviating the amount of municipal solid waste being landfilled is the use o...

  3. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit... Domenic Calabro, Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics, U.S. EPA, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite...

  4. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs. PMID:17390903

  5. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: current practices, opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi; Savarypour, Gholamreza; Zand, Eskandar; Deihimfard, Reza

    2008-01-01

    Tehran, the capital city of Iran and a metropolis with a population of 8.2 million and containing 2.4 million households, generated 2,626,519 tons of solid waste in 2005. The present study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics and management of solid waste in Tehran. Municipal solid waste comprises more than 97% of Tehran's solid waste, while three other types of solid waste comprise less than 3% of it, namely hospital waste (1.0%), industrial waste (0.6%) and construction and demolition waste (0.5%). The contribution of household solid waste to total municipal solid waste is about 62.5%. The municipality of Tehran is responsible for the solid waste management of the city; the waste is mainly landfilled in three centers in Tehran, with a small part of it usually recycled or processed as compost. However, an informal sector is also active in collecting recyclable materials from solid waste. The municipality has recently initiated some activities to mechanize solid waste management and reduce waste generation. There remain important challenges in solid waste management in Tehran which include: the proper collection and management of hospital waste; public education aimed at reducing and separating household waste and educating municipal workers in order to optimize the waste collection system; and the participation of other related organizations and the private sector in solid waste management. PMID:17881212

  6. Bioremediation of municipal solid waste by windrow composting.

    PubMed

    Manjula, G; Ravikannan, S P; Meenambal, T

    2013-10-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and economic development the urban cities are facing the problem of solid waste management. It is one among the major challenges faced by governing bodies. Bioremediation of municipal solid waste can be effectively done by windrow composting. In this study, a consortium of effective microorganisms was used for the windrow composting process. About 500 kg of shredded waste was placed in two windrows and 1 litre effective microorganisms were sprayed on one of the windrows. The variation in physical and chemical parameters was monitored throughout the process. The results indicate that usage of effective microorganisms not only shortens the stabilization time but also improves product quality. The final product was more stable and homogenous and can be effectively used as soil conditioner. PMID:25906592

  7. Shear strength of municipal solid waste for stability analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Timothy D.; Huvaj-Sarihan, Nejan; Li, Guocheng

    2009-06-01

    This paper investigates the shear strength of municipal solid waste (MSW) using the back analysis of failed waste slopes as well as field and laboratory test results. Shear strength of MSW is a function of many factors such as waste type, composition, compaction, daily cover, moisture conditions, age, decomposition, overburden pressure, etc. These factors together with non-standardized sampling methods, insufficient sample size to be representative of in situ conditions, and limited shear displacement or axial strain imposed during the laboratory shear testing have created considerable scatter in reported results. Based on the data presented herein, large shear displacements are required to mobilize the peak shear strength of MSW which can lead to displacement incompatibility between MSW and the underlying material(s) such as geosynthetic interfaces and foundation soils. The data presented herein are used to develop displacement compatible shear strength parameters for MSW. Recommendations are presented for modeling the displacement and stress dependent strength envelope in stability analyses.

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The overall objective of the study in this report was to gather data on waste management technologies to allow comparison of various alternatives for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objectives of the study were to: 1. Compile detailed data for existing waste management technologies on costs, environmental releases, energy requirements and production, and coproducts such as recycled materials and compost. Identify missing information necessary to make energy, economic, and environmental comparisons of various MSW management technologies, and define needed research that could enhance the usefulness of the technology. 3. Develop a data base that can be used to identify the technology that best meets specific criteria defined by a user of the data base. Volume I contains the report text. Volume II contains supporting exhibits. Volumes III through X are appendices, each addressing a specific MSW management technology. Volumes XI and XII contain project bibliographies.

  9. Does municipal solid waste composting make economic sense?

    SciTech Connect

    Renkow, M.; Rubin, A.R.

    1998-08-01

    Currently there is a widespread interest on the part of local governments in incorporating municipal solid waste (MSW) composting into their integrated solid waste management systems. However, there is little information on the costs of MSW composting and how those costs compare with the costs of alternative forms of waste disposal (especially traditional land disposal). This article begins to fill this information gap by reporting the results of a survey of 19 MSW compositing facilities around the US. Results indicate that MSW composting generally costs around $50 per ton, and that very few facilities receive any revenues from the sale of compost to offset operating costs. Additional economic analysis indicates that, at present, MSW composting cannot be justified on financial grounds in most parts of the US, but may be competitive with land disposal where the cost of landfilling is high (such as the north-east).

  10. Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C; Ribeiro, A; Ottosen, L

    2003-01-31

    The present study focuses on existing practices related to the reuse of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fly ash and identifies new potential uses. Nine possible applications were identified and grouped into four main categories: construction materials (cement, concrete, ceramics, glass and glass-ceramics); geotechnical applications (road pavement, embankments); "agriculture" (soil amendment); and, miscellaneous (sorbent, sludge conditioning). Each application is analysed in detail, including final-product technical characteristics, with a special emphasis on environmental impacts. A comparative analysis of the different options is performed, stressing the advantages but also the weaknesses of each option. This information is systemized in order to provide a framework for the selection of best technology and final products. The results presented here show new possibilities for this waste reuse in a short-term, in a wide range of fields, resulting in great advantages in waste minimization as well as resources conservation. PMID:12493209

  11. Technology assessment: Municipal solid waste as a utility fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neparstek, M. I.; Cymny, G. A.

    1982-05-01

    This study updates a 1974 EPRI technology assessment of municipal solid waste (MSW) as a utility fuel. An independent and consistent assessment of the development status and conceptual design and economics is presented for the following refuse-to-electricity technologies; mass burning of MSW in a dedicated boiler; preparation of coarse RDF and firing in a dedicated boiler; preparation of wet RDF and firing in a dedicated boiler; preparation of fluff RDF and cofiring with coal in a utility boiler; and preparation of dust RDF and cofiring with coal in a utility boiler. The generated steam is used to drive a turbine-generator and produce electricity. Utility ownership and financing are assumed for the coal-fired power plant used for RDF cofiring and the turbine generators driven by refuse-generated steam. Municipal ownership is assumed for the RDF preparation facilities and the MSW mass burning and RDF-fired dedicated boilers.

  12. Composting of municipal waste-water sludges. Seminar pub

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This seminar publication provides practical information on current methods of composting municipal waste-water sludges. It is intended for government and private sector individuals involved in the planning, design, and operation of municipal sludge treatment and disposal systems. Chapter 1 presents general principles of the composting process and system design. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss in depth the experiences at the Dickerson, Western Branch, and Site II static-pile-composting operations in Maryland and at the windrow operation in Los Angeles County. In-vessel composting is reviewed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses current and proposed regulations and guidelines that pertain to sludge composting. The publication is not a design manual nor does it include all the latest knowledge about composting.

  13. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Betzabe González-Campos, J.; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • An optimization approach for the sustainable management of municipal solid waste is proposed. • The proposed model optimizes the entire supply chain network of a distributed system. • A case study for the sustainable waste management in the central-west part of Mexico is presented. • Results shows different interesting solutions for the case study presented. - Abstract: The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits.

  14. Risks of municipal solid waste incineration: an environmental perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, R.A.; Silbergeld, E.K.

    1988-09-01

    The central focus of the debate over incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) has shifted from its apparent management advantages to unresolved risk issues. This shift is a result of the lack of comprehensive consideration of risks associated with incineration. We discuss the need to expand incinerator risk assessment beyond the limited view of incinerators as stationary air pollution sources to encompass the following: other products of incineration, ash in particular, and pollutants other than dioxins, metals in particular; routes of exposure in addition to direct inhalation; health effects in addition to cancer; and the cumulative nature of exposure and health effects induced by many incinerator-associated pollutants. Rational MSW management planning requires that the limitations as well as advantages of incineration be recognized. Incineration is a waste-processing--not a waste disposal--technology, and its products pose substantial management and disposal problems of their own. Consideration of the nature of these products suggests that incineration is ill-suited to manage the municipal wastestream in its entirety. In particular, incineration greatly enhances the mobility and bioavailability of toxic metals present in MSW. These factors suggest that incineration must be viewed as only one component in an integrated MSW management system. The potential for source reduction, separation, and recycling to increase the safety and efficiency of incineration should be counted among their many benefits. Risk considerations dictate that alternatives to the use of toxic metals at the production stage also be examined in designing an effective, long-term MSW management strategy.

  15. Partial stream digestion of residual municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    De Baere, L

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual municipal solid waste (MSW) has become more important than the digestion of source separated biowaste. More than 52% of the capacity available in Europe was designed for digestion of residual municipal waste by the end of 2006, while this was only 13% in 1998. Partial digestion of residual waste organics, by which only a part of the organics is digested, has been implemented to reduce the need for dewatering and subsequent wastewater treatment. The digestate coming from part of the organics is immediately mixed with the non-digested organic fraction. This organic fraction is drier and still contains a lot of energy which can be used to dry the digestate during the aerobic composting of the mixture of digested and undigested organics. Such a MBT-plant has been operating for over a year whereby 2/3 of the organics (including sludge cake) are digested (25,000 t/year) and mixed after digestion with the remaining 1/3 of the organics. Biogas production averages 125.7 Nm2 per ton fed and contained 56.2% of methane. The mixture of digestate and non-digested organics is aerated in tunnels during 4 to 6 weeks. The stabilized end product is landfilled, meeting the stringent German standards for inert landfills. By using a dry fermentation able to produce a digestate at 35% solids, there is no need for dewatering the digestate so that no wastewater is produced. PMID:18441435

  16. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  17. Management of municipal solid waste in the Three Gorges region

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Liao Pei Tingquan Huang Chuan; Yuan Hui

    2009-07-15

    As the fourth phase of the Three Gorges reservoir project commenced in 2008, the rate of water flow in the Yangtze River has obviously decelerated further downstream and water clarity within the storage facility has decreased. Meanwhile, the rate of urbanization in the region is adding to the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) being generated by every day life. The composition of the waste is becoming more diversified and complicated, thereby presenting an increasing threat to the ecological environment and water resources of the Three Gorges region. This paper is a probe into MSW in terms of its characteristics as well as methods of storage, collection, transportation, recycling, treatment and disposal, the protection of environmental ecosystems. Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental problems in the Three Gorges region, and indeed the whole of China. Based on the analysis of the present situation of MSWM and its treatment/disposal, some methods of sorting, recycling, decomposing, incineration and reuse are described, sanitary landfill as the main disposal method in Chongqing city, incineration being the second. Sanitary landfill or dump was also used for MSW treatment in the Three Gorges region, and this paper also provides some suggestions for improving MSWM in the Three Gorges region.

  18. Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in India: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sudha

    2008-10-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the most neglected aspects of India's environment and the recent Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000 have made it mandatory for the administrative authority of any area to undertake responsibility for all activities relating to municipal solid waste management (MSWM). A survey of MSWM practices in Indian urban local bodies (ULBs) and the literature suggest that major problems in MSWM in India are: underestimation of generation rates and therefore, underestimation of resource requirements, lack of technical and managerial inputs, and lack of reliable and updated information to the public and practitioners in the field. India is a developing country whose economy is currently growing at an extremely rapid annual growth rate of 8 to 9%. Based on trends in countries like the US, and China, and European countries, it is clear that a growing economy and population are likely to result in growth rates of 11 to 12% in MSW generation. These growth rates are much higher than the current expert estimates of 1.3 % for per capita MSW generation and 4.2% for total MSW generation. The present ad hoc approach to MSW collection and transport results in inefficient utilization of resources. Modern technology and tools like remote sensing, GIS and mathematical optimatization methods can be used for more efficient allocation and utilization of resources. PMID:19697768

  19. Municipal solid waste management in China: status, problems and challenges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Tan, Soon Keat; Gersberg, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an examination of MSW generation and composition in China, providing an overview of the current state of MSW management, an analysis of existing problems in MSW collection, separation, recycling and disposal, and some suggestions for improving MSW systems in the future. In China, along with urbanization, population growth and industrialization, the quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been increasing rapidly. The total MSW amount increased from 31.3 million tonnes in 1980 to 212 million tonnes in 2006, and the waste generation rate increased from 0.50 kg/capita/day in 1980 to 0.98 kg/capita/year in 2006. Currently, waste composition in China is dominated by a high organic and moisture content, since the concentration of kitchen waste in urban solid waste makes up the highest proportion (at approximately 60%) of the waste stream. The total amount of MSW collected and transported was 148 million tonnes in 2006, of which 91.4% was landfilled, 6.4% was incinerated and 2.2% was composted. The overall MSW treatment rate in China was approximately 62% in 2007. In 2007, there were 460 facilities, including 366 landfill sites, 17 composing plants, and 66 incineration plants. This paper also considers the challenges faced and opportunities for MSW management in China, and a number of recommendations are made aimed at improving the MSW management system. PMID:20413209

  20. Forest products decomposition in municipal solid waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Barlaz, Morton A. . E-mail: barlaz@eos.ncsu.edu

    2006-07-01

    Cellulose and hemicellulose are present in paper and wood products and are the dominant biodegradable polymers in municipal waste. While their conversion to methane in landfills is well documented, there is little information on the rate and extent of decomposition of individual waste components, particularly under field conditions. Such information is important for the landfill carbon balance as methane is a greenhouse gas that may be recovered and converted to a CO{sub 2}-neutral source of energy, while non-degraded cellulose and hemicellulose are sequestered. This paper presents a critical review of research on the decomposition of cellulosic wastes in landfills and identifies additional work that is needed to quantify the ultimate extent of decomposition of individual waste components. Cellulose to lignin ratios as low as 0.01-0.02 have been measured for well decomposed refuse, with corresponding lignin concentrations of over 80% due to the depletion of cellulose and resulting enrichment of lignin. Only a few studies have even tried to address the decomposition of specific waste components at field-scale. Long-term controlled field experiments with supporting laboratory work will be required to measure the ultimate extent of decomposition of individual waste components.

  1. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Rives, Jesus; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-06-15

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  2. Fate of metals contained in waste electrical and electronic equipment in a municipal waste treatment process.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) that is not covered by the recycling laws are treated as municipal solid waste. A part of common metals are recovered during the treatment; however, other metals are rarely recovered and their destinations are not clear. This study investigated the distribution ratios and substance flows of 55 metals contained in WEEE during municipal waste treatment using shredding and separation techniques at a Japanese municipal waste treatment plant. The results revealed that more than half of Cu and most of Al contained in WEEE end up in landfills or dissipate under the current municipal waste treatment system. Among the other metals contained in WEEE, at least 70% of the mass was distributed to the small-grain fraction through the shredding and separation and is to be landfilled. Most kinds of metals were concentrated several fold in the small-grain fraction through the process and therefore the small-grain fraction may be a next target for recovery of metals in terms of both metal content and amount. Separate collection and pre-sorting of small digital products can work as effective way for reducing precious metals and less common metals to be landfilled to some extent; however, much of the total masses of those metals would still end up in landfills and it is also important to consider how to recover and utilize metals contained in other WEEE such as audio/video equipment. PMID:21963338

  3. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1992-08-01

    This study was initiated to compile publicly available data on the five major options commonly used for municipal solid waste MSW management today: Landfilling, mass burning for energy recovery, production and combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and composting. The report also provides some data on energy, environmental releases, and economics for the following less commonly used options: Anaerobic digestion, coining of RDF with coal, gasification/pyrolysis. Because no commercial anaerobic digestion and gasification/pyrolysis facilities have operated in the United States, the data for these options are based on pilot plant results.

  4. USEPA's hierarchy for municipal solid waste management: Theory vs. practice

    SciTech Connect

    Matar, G. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper will address USEPA's hierarchy for municipal solid waste management (MSWM), which places source reduction and recycling above combustion and landfilling. Many have read this to mean that combustion and landfilling should only be considered after all recycling and reduction efforts have been explored. This mentality has not only left many communities in a MSWM capacity crisis, but also created planning problems for many others. Contrary to commonly held beliefs, it will be shown that the last two methods on the hierarchy should be considered from the beginning when planning for MSWM. It will also be shown that these methods are not antithetical to the first two methods, but are actually complimentary.

  5. Analysis of ingredient and heating value of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Tian, W D; Wei, X L; Wu, D Y; Li, J; Sheng, H Z

    2001-01-01

    Great differences between municipal solid wastes (MSW) produced at different places and different times in terms of such parameters as physical ingredient and heating value lead to difficulty in effective handling of MSW. In this paper, ingredient, heating value and their temporal varying trends of typical MSW in Beijing were continuously measured and analyzed. With consideration of the process in pyrolysis and incineration, correlation between physical ingredients and heating values was induced, favorable for evaluation of heating value needed in handling of MSW from simple analysis of physical ingredients of it. PMID:11590726

  6. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily (134)Cs and (137)Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added (133)Cs (stable nuclide) or (134)Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, (133)Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. (134)Cs behaved in a similar fashion as (133)Cs. We found through TG-DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations. PMID:25697082

  7. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission limits listed in table 2 of this subpart for affected...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission limits listed in table 2 of this subpart for affected...

  9. INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND PRETREATMENT IN THE BUFFALO MUNICIPAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The requirements and affects of the combined treatment of industrial and domestic wastewaters were investigated for the Buffalo Sewer Authority's sewerage system. A comprehensive industrial waste survey was performed to obtain the required background information on industrial dis...

  10. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Bimleshwar; Shepherd, Philip

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, recycling'' refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  11. Fundamental objectives of municipal solid waste incinerator ash management

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, R.A. )

    1988-01-01

    Recent data are discussed that corroborate earlier indications that municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator ash is hazardous. These data demonstrate that: ash contains high levels of several highly toxic metals, and can also contain dangerous levels of dioxins; certain of the metals -- lead and cadmium, in particular -- are readily leachable from ash at levels that frequently exceed the limits defining a hazardous waste; incineration concentrates and mobilizes the metals present in MSW, and can create dioxins, opening up several new pathways of exposure to these toxins; and ash is toxic when tested by several means in addition to the EP toxicity test. Each of these findings is especially evident for the fly ash component of MSW incinerator ash. Objectives for environmentally sound ash management are presented and discussed.

  12. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants. PMID:19423581

  13. EVALUATION OF HCL MEASUREMENTS TECHNIQUES AT MUNICIPAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) emission from hazardous waste incinerators are regulated by the EPA, and the Agency is considering HCl regulations for municipal waste combustors. ntil recently, techniques to adequately quantify these emissions using either instrumentation or wet-chemistr...

  14. Municipal solid waste characteristics and management in Allahabad, India.

    PubMed

    Sharholy, Mufeed; Ahmad, Kafeel; Vaishya, R C; Gupta, R D

    2007-01-01

    Increasing population levels, rapid economic growth and rise in community living standard accelerates the generation rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Indian cities. Improper management of MSW causes hazards to inhabitants. The objectives of the study are to determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of MSW along with basic information and to create GIS maps for Allahabad city. The samples have been randomly collected from various locations and analyzed to determine the characteristics of MSW. A questionnaire survey has been carried out to collect data from inhabitants including MSW quantity, collection frequency, satisfaction level, etc. The Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to analyze existing maps and data, to digitize the existing sanitary ward boundaries and to enter the data about the wards and disposal sites. The total quantity of MSW has been reported as 500 ton/day, and the average generation rate of MSW has been estimated at 0.39 kg/capita/day. The generated ArcGis maps give efficient information concerning static and dynamic parameters of the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) problem such as the generation rate of MSW in different wards, collection point locations, MSW transport means and their routes, and the number of disposal sites and their attributes. PMID:16766176

  15. Assessing pollutions of soil and plant by municipal waste dump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changli; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Feng'e.; Zhang, Sheng; Yin, Miying; Ye, Hao; Hou, Hongbing; Dong, Hua; Zhang, Ming; Jiang, Jianmei; Pei, Lixin

    2007-04-01

    Research is few in the literature regarding the investigation and assessment of pollutions of soil and plant by municipal waste dumps. Based upon previous work in seven waste dumping sites (nonsanitary landfills) in Beijing, Shanghai and Shijiazhuang, this study expounds the investigation and assessment method and report major pollutants. Using relative background values, this study assesses soil pollution degree in the seven dumping sites. Preliminary conclusions are: (1) pollution degrees are moderate or heavy; (2) pollution distance by domestic waste that is dumped on a plane ground is 85 m; (3) the horizontal transport distance of pollutants might be up to 120 m if waste leachates are directly connected with water in saturated soils; (4) vertical transport depth is about 3 m in unsaturated silty clayey soils. Furthermore, using relative background values and hygiene standards of food and vegetable this study assesses the pollutions of different parts of reed, sorghum, watermelon and sweet-melon. It is found: (1) in comparison with the relative background values in a large distance to the waste dumping sites, domestic wastes have polluted the roots and stems of reed and sorghum, whereas fine coal ash has polluted the leaves, rattans and fruits of watermelon and sweet-melon; (2) domestic wastes and fine coal ash have heavily polluted the edible parts of sorghum, water melon and sweet-melon. As, Hg, Pb and F have far exceeded standard values, e.g., Hg has exceeded the standard value by up to 650 1,700 times and Cd by 120 275 times, and the comprehensive pollution index is up to 192.9 369.7; (3) the polluted sorghum, watermelon and sweet-melon are inedible.

  16. 40 CFR 62.14106 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor fugitive ash emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... minutes per 3-hour period), as determined by EPA Reference Method 22 observations as specified in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission limits for municipal waste... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Large Municipal Waste...

  17. 40 CFR 60.56a - Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices. 60.56a Section 60.56a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Municipal Waste Combustors...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14106 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor fugitive ash emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... minutes per 3-hour period), as determined by EPA Reference Method 22 observations as specified in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission limits for municipal waste... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Large Municipal Waste...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15010 - Is my municipal waste combustion unit covered by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart, then subpart AAAA of 40 CFR part 60 (New Source Performance Standards for Small Municipal Waste... construction on or before August 30, 1999. (3) Your municipal waste combustion unit is not regulated by an EPA... unit becomes subject to subpart AAAA of 40 CFR part 60 (New Source Performance Standards for...

  20. 40 CFR 60.52a - Standard for municipal waste combustor metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor metals. 60.52a Section 60.52a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... September 20, 1994 § 60.52a Standard for municipal waste combustor metals. (a) On and after the date...

  1. 40 CFR 60.36b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor fugitive ash emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combustor fugitive ash emissions. 60.36b Section 60.36b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... September 20, 1994 § 60.36b Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor fugitive ash emissions. For approval, a State plan shall include requirements for municipal waste combustor fugitive ash emissions...

  2. USE OF BIOASSAY METHODS TO EVALUATE MUTAGENICITY OF AMBIENT AIR COLLECTED NEAR A MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ambient air sampling study was conducted around a municipal waste combustor with a primary goal being to develop procedures to evaluate the emissions of organic mutagens resulting from incomplete combustion of municipal waste. he products of incomplete combustion from incinera...

  3. 40 CFR 60.56a - Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices. 60.56a Section 60.56a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Municipal Waste Combustors...

  4. 40 CFR 60.53a - Standard for municipal waste combustor organics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. 60.53a Section 60.53a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... September 20, 1994 § 60.53a Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. (a) (b) On and after the...

  5. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Betzabe González-Campos, J; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M

    2013-12-01

    The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits. PMID:24035245

  6. Mechanical properties of Municipal Solid Waste by SDMT

    SciTech Connect

    Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The adoption of the SDMT for the measurements of MSW properties is proposed. • A comparison between SDMT results and laboratory tests was carried out. • A good reliability has been found in deriving waste properties by SDMT. • Results seems to be promising for the friction angle and Young’s modulus evaluation. - Abstract: In the paper the results of a geotechnical investigation carried on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) materials retrieved from the “Cozzo Vuturo” landfill in the Enna area (Sicily, Italy) are reported and analyzed. Mechanical properties were determined both by in situ and laboratory large-scale one dimensional compression tests. While among in situ tests, Dilatomer Marchetti Tests (DMT) is used widely in measuring soil properties, the adoption of the DMT for the measurements of MSW properties has not often been documented in literature. To validate its applicability for the estimation of MSW properties, a comparison between the seismic dilatometer (SDMT) results and the waste properties evaluated by laboratory tests was carried out. Parameters for “fresh” and “degraded waste” have been evaluated. These preliminary results seems to be promising as concerns the assessment of the friction angle of waste and the evaluation of the S-wave in terms of shear wave velocity. Further studies are certainly required to obtain more representative values of the elastic parameters according to the SDMT measurements.

  7. Municipal solid waste management in Thailand and disposal emission inventory.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, C; Juanga, J P; Visvanathan, C

    2007-12-01

    The increasing municipal solid waste (MSW) generation along with the high fraction of organic waste and a common disposal of open dumping is the current scenario in many areas in Thailand. As a response to this problem, the country's Pollution Control Department (PCD) aims to reduce the MSW generation rate to less than 1 kg/capita/day, increase the collection efficiency, and improve the recovery of recyclables. For many years, more than 60% of the solid waste disposal system in Thailand has been carried out by open dumping. According to the survey conducted by this study, in 2004 there were 425 disposal sites (95 landfills; 330 open dumps) in Thailand and an estimated methane emission of 115.4 Gg/year was generated based on this practice. It has been estimated that the anticipated methane emission in Thailand will rise from 115.4 Gg/year to 118.5 Gg/year if the largest open dumpsites in provinces with no existing landfill are upgraded to sanitary landfill; and it will increase to 193.5 Gg/year if the existing sanitary landfill is upgraded to integrated waste management facilities. Moreover, Bangkok metropolitan have the highest methane emission (54.83 Gg/year) among all the regions in Thailand. The methane emission forecast of 339 Gg/year by 2020 (based on LandGEM methodology) provides a stimulus to create a comprehensive plan to capture and utilize methane as an energy source. PMID:17492361

  8. Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate.

    PubMed

    Slack, R J; Gronow, J R; Voulvoulis, N

    2005-01-20

    Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste from a number of household products such as paint, garden pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, certain detergents, personal care products, fluorescent tubes, waste oil, heavy metal-containing batteries, wood treated with dangerous substances, waste electronic and electrical equipment and discarded CFC-containing equipment. Data on the amounts of HHW discarded are very limited and are hampered by insufficient definitions of what constitutes HHW. Consequently, the risks associated with the disposal of HHW to landfill have not been fully elucidated. This work has focused on the assessment of data concerning the presence of hazardous chemicals in leachates as evidence of the disposal of HHW in municipal landfills. Evidence is sought from a number of sources on the occurrence in landfill leachates of hazardous components (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds [XOC]) from household products and the possible disposal-to-emissions pathways occurring within landfills. This review demonstrates that a broad range of xenobiotic compounds occurring in leachate can be linked to HHW but further work is required to assess whether such compounds pose a risk to the environment and human health as a result of leakage/seepage or through treatment and discharge. PMID:15626384

  9. 40 CFR 60.1690 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...” (§ 60.1940). (c) If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans... municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions,...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1690 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...” (§ 60.1940). (c) If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans... municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions,...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1690 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...” (§ 60.1940). (c) If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans... municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions,...

  12. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...” (§ 62.15410). (c) If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins... municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions,...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...” (§ 62.15410). (c) If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins... municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions,...

  14. Risks of municipal solid waste incineration: an environmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Denison, R A; Silbergeld, E K

    1988-09-01

    The central focus of the debate over incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) has shifted from its apparent management advantages to unresolved risk issues. This shift is a result of the lack of comprehensive consideration of risks associated with incineration. We discuss the need to expand incinerator risk assessment beyond the limited view of incinerators as stationary air pollution sources to encompass the following: other products of incineration, ash in particular, and pollutants other than dioxins, metals in particular; routes of exposure in addition to direct inhalation; health effects in addition to cancer; and the cumulative nature of exposure and health effects induced by many incinerator-associated pollutants. Rational MSW management planning requires that the limitations as well as advantages of incineration be recognized. Incineration is a waste-processing--not a waste disposal--technology, and its products pose substantial management and disposal problems of their own. Consideration of the nature of these products suggests that incineration is ill-suited to manage the municipal wastestream in its entirety. In particular, incineration greatly enhances the mobility and bioavailability of toxic metals present in MSW. These factors suggest that incineration must be viewed as only one component in an integrated MSW management system. The potential for source reduction, separation, and recycling to increase the safety and efficiency of incineration should be counted among their many benefits. Risk considerations dictate that alternatives to the use of toxic metals at the production stage also be examined in designing an effective, long-term MSW management strategy. PMID:3201012

  15. Municipal solid waste management in Kolkata, India - a review.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Subhasish; Dutta, Amit; Ray, Subhabrata

    2009-04-01

    Kolkata is one of four metropolitan cities in India. With an area of 187.33sqkm and a population of about 8 million, it generates around 3,000td(-1) of municipal solid waste (MSW) at a rate of 450-500g per capita per day. With rapid urbanization as a result of planned and unplanned growth and industrialization, the problems associated with handling MSW have increased at an alarming rate over the past few years. No source segregation arrangement exists; there is only limited (60%) house-to-house collection; and 50-55% open vats are used in the present collection system. The operational efficiency of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) transport system is about 50%, with a fleet composed of about 30-35% old vehicles. The majority (80%) of these, particularly the hired vehicles, are more than 20 years old. The newly added areas covered by KMC have even lower collection efficiencies, and only an informal recycling system exists. The waste collected has a low energy value (3,350-4,200kJkg(-1)) with high moisture and inert content. A 700td(-1) compost plant set up in 2000 has not been functioning effectively since 2003. Open dumping (without liners and without a leachate management facility) and the threat of groundwater pollution, as well as saturation of an existing landfill site (Dhapa) are the most pressing problems for the city today. KMC spends 70-75% of its total expenditures on collection of solid waste, 25-30% on transportation, and less than 5% on final disposal arrangements. The Kolkata Environmental Improvement Project, funded by the Asian Development Bank, is seen as only a partial solution to the problem. A detailed plan should emphasize segregation at the source, investment in disposal arrangements (including the use of liners and leachate collection), and an optimized transport arrangement, among improvements. PMID:19070474

  16. Municipal solid waste management in Kolkata, India - A review

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, Subhasish Dutta, Amit Ray, Subhabrata

    2009-04-15

    Kolkata is one of four metropolitan cities in India. With an area of 187.33 sq km and a population of about 8 million, it generates around 3,000 t d{sup -1} of municipal solid waste (MSW) at a rate of 450-500 g per capita per day. With rapid urbanization as a result of planned and unplanned growth and industrialization, the problems associated with handling MSW have increased at an alarming rate over the past few years. No source segregation arrangement exists; there is only limited (60%) house-to-house collection; and 50-55% open vats are used in the present collection system. The operational efficiency of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) transport system is about 50%, with a fleet composed of about 30-35% old vehicles. The majority (80%) of these, particularly the hired vehicles, are more than 20 years old. The newly added areas covered by KMC have even lower collection efficiencies, and only an informal recycling system exists. The waste collected has a low energy value (3,350-4,200 kJ kg{sup -1}) with high moisture and inert content. A 700 t d{sup -1} compost plant set up in 2000 has not been functioning effectively since 2003. Open dumping (without liners and without a leachate management facility) and the threat of groundwater pollution, as well as saturation of an existing landfill site (Dhapa) are the most pressing problems for the city today. KMC spends 70-75% of its total expenditures on collection of solid waste, 25-30% on transportation, and less than 5% on final disposal arrangements. The Kolkata Environmental Improvement Project, funded by the Asian Development Bank, is seen as only a partial solution to the problem. A detailed plan should emphasize segregation at the source, investment in disposal arrangements (including the use of liners and leachate collection), and an optimized transport arrangement, among improvements.

  17. Municipal waste-to-energy technology assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, R.E.; Krause, H.H., Jr.; Engdahl, R.B.; Levy, A.; Oxley, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Two major technologies are available to burn municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate steam for the production of electricity: mass-burn and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) systems. Mass-burn systems process as-received waste directly in a combustor, such as a reciprocating, rotary, or roller-grate furnace, with only limited removal of undesirable objects. Refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) systems first process the waste to produce refuse-derived fuel via shredding and other operations before combustion in spreader-stoker, fluidized-bed, and other suitable combustors. Although mass-burn systems with specially designed grates are now considered proven technology, there is much interest in RDF systems, because RDF can be used in a wide range of combustors, including some utility power plants of conventional design. However, a number of technical issues remain for both mass-burn and RDF-firing systems, and further research is warranted. Disposal of the ash residues from the combustor and/or the waste from the air-pollution control equipment is a major issue preventing more widespread use of this technology. Selection of materials of construction is also an important issue. Continuous-emission-monitoring requirements may be exceeding the technical capabilities for reliable, long-term operation. The occasional receipt of biologically active waste or waste containing heavy metals is still a troublesome issue. Dioxin emissions seem to be a problem only in plants of early design, although the issue of dioxin emissions continues to be a major one in permit applications and public relations. 58 refs., 28 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. The case for municipal waste combustion. Solid waste managers face numerous planning issues

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, B.W.

    1996-11-01

    As they look to the future of the municipal waste combustion (MWC) and waste-to-energy (WTE) industries, municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion decision-makers face increasingly federal regulations, judicial activity and public scrutiny. Public perception issues remain prodigious hurdles, as the public is undaunted in its opposition to siting new facilities near populated areas. This situation is partly the result of an increased focus by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on combustors, which has led to better informed community leaders and activists. In addition, state and federal legislation and judicial decisions often fail to support expansion of WTE markets, inferring that combustors are unsafe. Major pollutants of concern are the following: NO{sub x}, CO, SO{sub 2}, HCL, Hg, Cd, Pb, Sb, Ar, Be, Cr, chlorides, dioxin, and furans.

  19. Glass phase in municipal and industrial waste incineration bottom ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafał Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Waste incineration bottom ash is a material with rising significance in waste streams in numerous countries. Even if some part of them is now used as raw materials the great amount is still landfilled. High temperature of thermal processes (>1000°C) together with fast cooling results in high content of glass in bottom ash. Its chemical composition is influenced by various factors like composition of raw wastes and used incineration technique. Most of bottom ash grains are composed of glass with large amount of mineral phases and also metallic constituents embedded into it. Glass susceptibility for alteration processes together with the characteristics of glass-based grains can bring environmental risk in time of improper or long term storage on landfill site. In this study bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal and industrial (including hazardous and medical) wastes were studied to determine glass content, its chemical composition with emphasis on metal content (especially potentially hazardous) and its relations to metallic components of grains. Samples were collected from two thermal treatment plants in Poland. Qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used for determination of mineral composition of studied samples. Rietveld method and addition of internal standard for determination of amorphous phase content were used. Scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were used for detailed analysis of glass and glass associated phases. Waste incineration bottom ash is a multi-components material rich in amorphous phase. It dominant part is represented by Si-rich glass. It is a main component of bottom ash grains but it contains minerals present in large quantities and also various forms of metallic elements. Glass within grains is often porous and cracked. In bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal wastes ~ 45-55 wt % of amorphous phase were present, mostly in form of glass with high

  20. Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources of energy; for example to meet heat and electricity demand in the form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil fuels (e.g. coal) upon gas pollutant emissions, whilst energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a beneficial component of an integrated, sustainable waste management programme. Concurrent combustion of these fuels using a fluidised bed combustor may be a successful method of overcoming some of the disadvantages of biomass (high fuel supply and distribution costs, combustion characteristics) and characteristics of municipal solid waste (heterogeneous content, conflict with materials recycling). It should be considered that combustion of municipal solid waste may be a financially attractive disposal route if a 'gate fee' value exists for accepting waste for combustion, which will reduce the net cost of utilising relatively more expensive biomass fuels. Results Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions. Conclusions Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants. PMID:21284885

  1. 40 CFR 60.1550 - What municipal waste combustion units must I address in my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What municipal waste combustion units... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1550 What municipal waste combustion units...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1045 - Are there different subcategories of small municipal waste combustion units within this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... small municipal waste combustion units within this subpart? 60.1045 Section 60.1045 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which... combustion units within this subpart? (a) Yes, this subpart subcategorizes small municipal waste...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1550 - What municipal waste combustion units must I address in my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What municipal waste combustion units... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1550 What municipal waste combustion units...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Fff of... - Municipal Waste Combustor Units (MWC Units) Excluded From Subpart FFF 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Municipal Waste Combustor Units (MWC... FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Large Municipal Waste... Part 62—Municipal Waste Combustor Units (MWC Units) Excluded From Subpart FFF 1 State MWC units...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Fff of... - Municipal Waste Combustor Units (MWC Units) Excluded From Subpart FFF 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal Waste Combustor Units (MWC... FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Large Municipal Waste... Part 62—Municipal Waste Combustor Units (MWC Units) Excluded From Subpart FFF 1 State MWC units...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Fff of... - Municipal Waste Combustor Units (MWC Units) Excluded From Subpart FFF 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Municipal Waste Combustor Units (MWC... FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Large Municipal Waste... Part 62—Municipal Waste Combustor Units (MWC Units) Excluded From Subpart FFF 1 State MWC units...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1565 - What subcategories of small municipal waste combustion units must I include in my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plant combustion capacity greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid waste. (See the definition of... combustion capacity less than or equal to 250 tons per day of municipal solid waste. (See the definition of... of the municipal waste combustion plant as follows: (a) Class I units. Class I units are...

  8. PUBLIC HEALTH, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE RECYCLING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective management of municipal solid waste is a challenge facing the United States as the amount of waste generated per capita increases. n response to this challenge, recycling is actively being promoted and integrated into State solid waste management plans. ith solid waste ...

  9. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. PMID:25882791

  10. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  11. Dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in France.

    PubMed

    Nzihou, Ange; Themelis, Nickolas J; Kemiha, Mohammed; Benhamou, Yohan

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the fear of dioxin/furan emissions from waste-to-energy plants was justified by the 2007 status of emissions of French municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). All emissions were examined, plant by plant, but this paper focuses on the incinerator emission that is most frequently mentioned in the French media, toxic dioxins and furans. The study showed that there are 85 large MSWI that generate electricity or heat, i.e., waste-to-energy (WTE) plants, and 39 smaller MSW incinerators. The results showed that all French MSWI are operated well below the EU and French standard of 0.1 ng TEQ Nm(-3) (toxic equivalent nanograms per standard cubic meter) and that their total dioxin/furan emissions decreased from 435 g TEQ in 1997 to only 1.2g in 2008. All other industrial emissions of dioxins have also decreased and the major source is residential combustion of wood (320 g TEQ). It was extremely difficult to obtain MSWI emission data. This unwarranted lack of transparency has resulted in the public perception that MSWI plants are major contributors to dioxin emissions while in fact they have ceased to be so. PMID:22819593

  12. Municipal solid waste slope failure. 2: Stability analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, T.D.; Eid, H.T.; Evans, W.D.; Sherry, P.E.

    2000-05-01

    Analyses are presented to investigate the case of a large slope failure in a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill that developed through the underlying native soil. The engineering properties of the waste and native soil are described in a companion paper by Eid et al. (2000). Some of the conclusions from this case history include (1) native colluvial/residual soils in the Cincinnati area underlying MSW can mobilize a drained shear strength less than the fully softened value without recent evidence of previous sliding; (2) strain incompatibility and progressive failure can occur between MSW and underlying materials and cause a reduction in the mobilized shear strength; (3) a stability evaluation of interim slopes, especially when the slope toe will be excavated, blasting will be occurring, and waste placement continues at the top of slope, should be conducted, even though it may not be required by regulations; and (4) the reappearance of cracking at the top of an MSW landfill slope is probably an indication of slope instability and not settlement.

  13. Estimation of municipal solid waste generation and landfill area in Asian developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khajuria, Anupam; Yamamoto, Yugo; Morioka, Tohru

    2010-09-01

    In developing Asian countries, the municipal cooperations are unable to handle the increasing amount of municipal solid waste, which into the uncollected waste being spread on roads and in other public areas leading to tremendous pollution and destruction of land and negative impact on human health. Generation of municipal solid waste increases with the rapid urbanization and accelerated economic development with in the rapidly growing advanced technological societies. The nature of municipal solid waste is a term usually applied to a heterogeneous collection group of waste produced in urban areas, the nature of which varies from region to region. The common problem faced by all developing Asian countries, is the disposal of municipal solid waste and availability of land fill site area. Present study explains the correlation analysis of among different factors of municipal solid waste and the objective is to assess the future municipal solid waste stream in Asian developing countries. The other goal of this study was to calculate the future land area that would be required for landfill site disposal in Asian developing countries. PMID:21387916

  14. Municipal solid waste open dumping, implication for land degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, M.; Monavari, M.; Omrani, G. A.; Shariat, M.; Hosseini, M.

    2015-03-01

    Open dumping is the common procedure for final disposal of MSW in Iran. Several environmental pollutions and land degradation have caused because of poor planning, insufficient financial resources, improper organizational chart for MSW management system, and the lack of rules, guidelines and regulations. In Iran standards and regulations of environmental issues are not perfectly attended, evaluation an open dumping can show existing restrictions and troubles in these areas. So recognition of the municipal solid waste landfill state is required to prevent the increase of environmental problems and decrease the negative environmental impacts. The suitability of Tonekabon existing municipal landfill site in the west area of Mazandaran province, located in north of Iran, and the south coast of the Caspian Sea is the significance of the present study as a case study of land degradation. In order to carry out this evaluation, two guidelines are used. After reviewing all the considered criteria in each of the guidelines, the authenticity of the deposit site of the study area and also the entire city was examined; and eventually the appropriate areas were identified. The conclusion of the results indicated the incoherence in appropriateness of the existing landfill site, with two mentioned methods and field work.

  15. The multiple market-exposure of waste management companies: A case study of two Swedish municipally owned companies

    SciTech Connect

    Corvellec, Herve; Bramryd, Torleif

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swedish municipally owned waste management companies are active on political, material, technical, and commercial markets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These markets differ in kind and their demands follow different logics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These markets affect the public service, processing, and marketing of Swedish waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Articulating these markets is a strategic challenge for Swedish municipally owned waste management. - Abstract: This paper describes how the business model of two leading Swedish municipally owned solid waste management companies exposes them to four different but related markets: a political market in which their legitimacy as an organization is determined; a waste-as-material market that determines their access to waste as a process input; a technical market in which these companies choose what waste processing technique to use; and a commercial market in which they market their products. Each of these markets has a logic of its own. Managing these logics and articulating the interrelationships between these markets is a key strategic challenge for these companies.

  16. Health risk assessment of a modern municipal waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Boudet, C.; Zmirou, D.; Laffond, M.; Balducci, F.; Benoit-Guyod, J.L.

    1999-12-01

    During the modernization of the municipal waste incinerator of Metropolitan Grenoble, in France, a risk assessment was conducted, based on four tracer pollutants: two volatile organic compounds (benzene and 1,1,1 trichloroethane) and two heavy metals (nickel and cadmium, measured in particles). A Gaussian plume dispersion model, applied to maximum emissions measured at the MWI stacks, was used to estimate the distribution of these pollutants in the atmosphere throughout the metropolitan area. A random sample telephone survey (570 subjects) gathered data on time-activity patterns, according to demographic characteristics of the population. Life-long exposure was assessed as a time-weighted average of ambient air concentrations. Inhalation alone was considered because, in the Grenoble urban setting, other routes of exposure are not likely. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to describe probability distributions of exposures and risks.

  17. The application of lime sorbents in municipal waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, L.; Licata, A.

    1998-07-01

    Lime is the sorbent most utilized to control acid gas emissions from Municipal Waste Combustors (MWCs) throughout the world. Line is safe, economical, and easy to handle. In addition to acid gas controls, lime has been demonstrated to reduce mercury and dioxin emissions when used in spray dryers. Lime also has applications in controlling the leachability of heavy metals from MWC ash. Although lime is used throughout the industry, the authors see many misapplications and misunderstandings of this technology. They have seen the wrong type of silos used as well as the wrong size silos. Slaking is a major problem for some plants because they use the wrong water and lime products. This paper will discuss the selection criteria and economics for lime handling and feeding systems with design data. Definitions and the chemistry of lime will be presented to enable design engineers to better prepare systems specifications. This paper will be beneficial to plants planning to upgrade to the MACT standards.

  18. An overview of municipal solid waste management in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xudong; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2010-04-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in China warrants particular attention as China has become the largest MSW generator in the world and the total amount of MSW it produces continues to increase. In recent years, central and local governments have made great efforts to improve MSWM in China. New regulations and policies have been issued, urban infrastructure has been improved, and commercialization and international cooperation have been encouraged. Considering these developments, an overview is necessary to analyze the current state as well as new opportunities and challenges regarding MSWM in China. This paper shows that since the late 1990s, the amount of MSW collected has been largely decoupled from economic growth and incineration has become an increasingly widespread treatment method for MSW. We identify and discuss four major challenges and barriers related to China's MSWM, and propose an integrated management framework to improve the overall eco-efficiency of MSWM. PMID:19932016

  19. Process modeling of hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    The ASPEN PLUS commercial simulation software has been used to develop a process model for a conceptual process to convert municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen. The process consists of hydrothermal treatment of the MSW in water to create a slurry suitable as feedstock for an oxygen blown Texaco gasifier. A method of reducing the complicated MSW feed material to a manageable set of components is outlined along with a framework for modeling the stoichiometric changes associated with the hydrothermal treatment process. Model results indicate that 0.672 kmol/s of hydrogen can be produced from the processing of 30 kg/s (2600 tonne/day) of raw MSW. A number of variations on the basic processing parameters are explored and indicate that there is a clear incentive to reduce the inert fraction in the processed slurry feed and that cofeeding a low value heavy oil may be economically attractive.

  20. Mutagenic activity of the leachate of municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Omura, M; Inamasu, T; Ishinishi, N

    1992-12-01

    Organic concentrates were recovered using XAD-2/8 resin adsorption from the leachates of municipal solid waste landfills and their mutagenic activities were tested for 8 months using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. Highly polluted leachates (COD and BOD > or = 40 mg/l) generally had equal or higher mutagenic activities than lightly polluted leachates (COD and BOD < 40 mg/l). But there was no clear difference in mutagenicity per amount of concentrate between the two leachates. These results suggest that the mutagenic activity of landfill leachate is decided to some degree by the organic concentration in the leachate. The mutagenic activities detected even in lightly polluted leachates were not so low as those of various kind of surface waters ever reported. It is suggested that it is important to investigate the mutagenic activity of the leachate for evaluation of the impact of landfill leachate on the environment. PMID:1282208

  1. Municipal solid waste landfill siting using intelligent system

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Jarrah, Omar . E-mail: aljarrah@just.edu.jo; Abu-Qdais, Hani . E-mail: hqdais@just.edu.jo

    2006-07-01

    Historically, landfills have been the dominant alternative for the ultimate disposal of municipal solid waste. This paper addresses the problem of siting a new landfill using an intelligent system based on fuzzy inference. The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including topography and geology, natural resources, socio-cultural aspects, and economy and safety. The system will rank sites on a scale of 0-100%, with 100% being the most appropriate one. A weighting system is used for all of the considered factors. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  2. An overview of municipal solid waste management in China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xudong; Geng Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2010-04-15

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in China warrants particular attention as China has become the largest MSW generator in the world and the total amount of MSW it produces continues to increase. In recent years, central and local governments have made great efforts to improve MSWM in China. New regulations and policies have been issued, urban infrastructure has been improved, and commercialization and international cooperation have been encouraged. Considering these developments, an overview is necessary to analyze the current state as well as new opportunities and challenges regarding MSWM in China. This paper shows that since the late 1990s, the amount of MSW collected has been largely decoupled from economic growth and incineration has become an increasingly widespread treatment method for MSW. We identify and discuss four major challenges and barriers related to China's MSWM, and propose an integrated management framework to improve the overall eco-efficiency of MSWM.

  3. Wasteful waste-reducing policies? The impact of waste reduction policy instruments on collection and processing costs of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    De Jaeger, Simon; Eyckmans, Johan; Rogge, Nicky; Van Puyenbroeck, Tom

    2011-07-01

    We study the impact of some local policies aimed at municipal solid waste (MSW) reduction on the cost efficiency of MSW collection and disposal. We explicitly account for differences between municipalities in background conditions by using a bootstrapped version of the Data Envelopment Analysis methodology in combination with a matching technique. Using data on 299 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2003, our results indicate that municipalities that are member of a waste collection joint venture, or that subscribe to a voluntary agreement to reduce MSW at the highest ambition level, collect and process MSW more efficiently than other municipalities. Weekly instead of two-weekly waste collection, or using a weight-based pricing system appears to have no impact on efficiency. Our results show that aiming at MSW reduction does not lead to lower efficiency of public service provision, even on the contrary. PMID:21429732

  4. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: Changes during the last 5 years.

    PubMed

    Malmir, Tahereh; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2016-05-01

    The situation of waste management in Tehran was a typical example of it in developing countries. The amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing and the city has depended on landfill for municipal solid waste management. However, in recent years, various measures have been taken by the city, such as collecting recyclables at the source and increasing the capacity of waste-processing facilities. As a result, significant changes in the waste stream are starting to occur. This study investigated the nature of, and reasons for, the marked changes in the waste stream from 2008 to 2012 by analysing the municipal solid waste statistics published by the Tehran Waste Management Organization in 2013 and survey data on the physical composition of the municipal solid waste. The following trends were identified: Although the generation of municipal solid waste increased by 10% during the 5-year period, the amount of waste directly disposed of to landfill halved and resource recovery almost doubled. An increase in the capacity of a waste-processing facility contributed significantly to these changes. The biodegradable fraction going to landfill was estimated by using the quantity and the composition of each input to the landfill. The estimated result in 2012 decreased to 49% of its value in 2008. PMID:26922086

  5. Feasibility of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in an integrated municipal energy supply and waste management system.

    PubMed

    Luoranen, Mika; Horttanainen, Mika

    2007-10-01

    A decision-support model for determining the feasibility of a planned energy-from-waste (EfW) investment for an integrated waste management and energy supply system is presented. The aim is to present an easy-to-understand, inexpensive and fast-to-use tool to decision-makers for modelling and evaluating different kinds of processes. Special emphasis is put on forming the model and interpretation of the results of the example case. The simple integrated system management (SISMan) model is presented through a practical example of the use of the model. In the example the viability of the described system is studied by comparing five different cases including different waste-derived fuels (WDF), non-segregated municipal solid waste (MSW) being one of the fuel options. The nominal power output of the EfW plant varied in each case according to the WDF classification. The numeric values for two main variables for each WDF type were determined, the WDF price at the gate of the EfW plant and the waste management fee (WMF) according to the 'polluter pays' -principle. Comparison between the five cases was carried out according to two determinants, the WMF related to each case and the recovery rate related to each case. The numeric values for the constants and variables used in the calculations were chosen as realistically as possible using available data related to the issue. In the example of this paper, the mass-incineration solution ('pure' MSW as a fuel) was found to be the most viable solution for the described system according to the calculations. However, the final decision of the decision-makers might differ from this in the real world due to extra 'fuzzy' information that cannot be reliably included in the calculations. This paper shows that certain key values of modelled systems can be calculated using an easy-to-use tool at the very early stages of a larger design process involving municipal and business partners. The use of this kind of tools could significantly

  6. Co-combustion of shredder residues and municipal solid waste in a Swedish municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Redin, L A; Hjelt, M; Marklund, S

    2001-12-01

    Incinerating automotive shredder residue (ASR) in order to increase the recovery from end of life vehicles (ELVs) is an attractive option when recycling this material. In this study, incineration combined with energy recovery, was investigated. The incineration experiments, where 20% shredder residue (SR) was burnt with conventional municipal solid waste (MSW), were conducted in a full-scale MSW horizontal grate incinerator. Measurements were made before, during and after the incineration. The results showed some minor increases in the emission levels of raw gases sampled after an electrostatic filter, but almost no significant differences when sampled after a wet scrubber. An increased level of 'non-toxic' metals was detected within the bottom ash. It was concluded that refined SR, in small quantities, is suitable to add to MSW. PMID:12201681

  7. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  8. Effect of co-managing organic waste using municipal wastewater and solid waste treatment systems in megacities.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Mizuno, Tadao

    2014-01-01

    A model was developed to calculate the mass and heat balances of wastewater and municipal solid waste treatment plants when these plants operate either separately or together with a mutual dependence on mass and energy. Then the energy consumption, life cycle costs (LCCs), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and effluent quality were evaluated under various scenarios to identify the most effective co-management and treatment system. The results indicated that co-digestion of kitchen waste and sewage sludge, and their co-combustion reduced LCCs by 30%, energy consumption by 54% and GHG emissions by 41% compared to the base case. However, co-digestion increased the total nitrogen load in the wastewater treatment plant effluent. Even if an advanced wastewater treatment system was applied to improve total nitrogen concentration, the above indicators were affected but still reduced compared to the base case. Therefore, it was confirmed that the integrated system was beneficial for megacities. PMID:24647179

  9. Fate of metals contained in waste electrical and electronic equipment in a municipal waste treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fate of 55 metals during shredding and separation of WEEE was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most metals were mainly distributed to the small-grain fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Much of metals in WEEE being treated as municipal waste in Japan end up in landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-sorting of small digital products reduces metals to be landfilled at some level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consideration of metal recovery from other middle-sized WEEE is still important. - Abstract: In Japan, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) that is not covered by the recycling laws are treated as municipal solid waste. A part of common metals are recovered during the treatment; however, other metals are rarely recovered and their destinations are not clear. This study investigated the distribution ratios and substance flows of 55 metals contained in WEEE during municipal waste treatment using shredding and separation techniques at a Japanese municipal waste treatment plant. The results revealed that more than half of Cu and most of Al contained in WEEE end up in landfills or dissipate under the current municipal waste treatment system. Among the other metals contained in WEEE, at least 70% of the mass was distributed to the small-grain fraction through the shredding and separation and is to be landfilled. Most kinds of metals were concentrated several fold in the small-grain fraction through the process and therefore the small-grain fraction may be a next target for recovery of metals in terms of both metal content and amount. Separate collection and pre-sorting of small digital products can work as effective way for reducing precious metals and less common metals to be landfilled to some extent; however, much of the total masses of those metals would still end up in landfills and it is also important to consider how to recover and utilize metals contained in other WEEE such as audio

  10. Post-closure care of engineered municipal solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Amalendu; Bhattacharya, Abhik

    2015-03-01

    Post-closure care is divided into perpetual care (PPC) and long-term care (LTC). Guidelines for post-closure care and associated costs are important for engineered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. In many states in the USA, landfill owners are required to set aside funds for 30-40 years of LTC. Currently there are no guidelines for PPC, which is also required. We undertook a pilot study, using two landfills (note: average landfill capacity 2.5 million MT MSW waste) in Wisconsin, to establish an approach for estimating the LTC period using field data and PPC funding need. Statistical analysis of time versus concentration data of selected leachate parameters showed that the concentration of most parameters is expected to be at or below the preventive action limit of groundwater and leachate volume will be very low, within 40 years of the LTC period. The gas extraction system may need to be continued for more than 100 years. Due to lack of data no conclusion could be made regarding adequacy of the LTC period for the groundwater monitoring system. The final cover must be maintained for perpetuity. The pilot study shows that although technology is available, the financial liability of maintaining a 'Dry Tomb' design for landfills is significantly higher than commonly perceived. The paper will help landfill professionals to estimate realistic post-closure funding and to develop field-based policies for LTC and PPC of engineered MSW landfills. PMID:25687915

  11. Bioreactor landfill technology in municipal solid waste treatment: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Mudhoo, Ackmez

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, due to an advance in knowledge of landfill behaviour and decomposition processes of municipal solid waste, there has been a strong thrust to upgrade existing landfill technologies for optimizing these degradation processes and thereafter harness a maximum of the useful bioavailable matter in the form of higher landfill gas generation rates. Operating landfills as bioreactors for enhancing the stabilization of wastes is one such technology option that has been recently investigated and has already been in use in many countries. A few full-scale implementations of this novel technology are gaining momentum in landfill research and development activities. The publication of bioreactor landfill research has resulted in a wide pool of knowledge and useful engineering data. This review covers leachate recirculation and stabilization, nitrogen transformation and corresponding extensive laboratory- and pilot-scale research, the bioreactor landfill concept, the benefits to be derived from this bioreactor landfill technology, and the design and operational issues and research trends that form the basis of applied landfill research. PMID:20578971

  12. Heavy metals in composts of separated municipal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, W.P.; Huang, W.C.; Fan, W.H.; Hsu, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    This study is to examine the influence of the metal components on the contents of heavy metals in composts of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW). Fresh MSW used in composting was obtained from the city landfill of Taichung in Taiwan. Compost 1 was from as-collected MSW; Compost 2 was from degradable fraction in MSW; Compost 3 was from MSW without metal. The results show that the total concentration of zinc is the highest among the five heavy metals examined. Paper wastes are main sources of lead and copper with average concentrations of 18.53 mg/kg and 26.92 mg/kg of compost on dry weight. The contents of nickel and cadmium are relatively low. The total concentrations of the five heavy metals in composts increase by typical ratios between 1.72 and 2.58 for Composts 2 and 3, but 3.16 to 4.69 for Compost 1. The increase of concentration around a ratio of 2.0 is due to the loss of degraded organic matter. For the ratios above 2.0, fractions of some heavy metals have corroded from the surfaces of metal components into the Compost 1 in the early phase of acidic fermentation.

  13. Factors controlling alkylbenzene sorption to municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Taylor, C M; Knappe, D R; Nanny, M A; Barlaz, M A

    2001-11-15

    The sorption of toluene and o-xylene to individual municipal solid waste (MSW) constituents [office paper, newsprint, model food and yard waste, high density polyethylene, and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)] was evaluated. Effects of sorbent decomposition and solvent composition on alkylbenzene sorption were studied by evaluating biodegradable sorbents in both fresh and anaerobically decomposed form and by complementing single-solute isotherm tests with experiments conducted in acidogenic and methanogenic leachate. Alkylbenzene sorption to plastics was greaterthan to biopolymer composites, and differences in sorbate/sorbent solubility parameter compatibility explained this observation. Alkylbenzene sorption to biopolymer composites yielded linear isotherms, and sorption capacities [log(Koc/Kow)] decreased linearly with increasing sorbent polarity as expressed by the O-alkyl/alkyl ratio. Leachate composition had little effect on alkylbenzene sorption with one exception; volatile fatty acids in acidogenic leachate appeared to convert PVC from a glassy to a rubbery polymer. The results of this study showed that sorbent organic matter affinity for hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) increases with increasing extent of MSW decomposition because of the recalcitrance of plastics and the preferential degradation of polar biopolymers. Furthermore, the plasticizing effect of volatile fatty acids in acidogenic leachate may enhance the bioavailability of HOCs sorbed to glassy organic matter in MSW or in soils contaminated with acidogenic leachate. PMID:11757618

  14. Thermal behaviour of ESP ash from municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Xiao, Y; Wilson, N; Voncken, J H L

    2009-07-15

    Stricter environmental regulations demand safer treatment and disposal of incinerator fly ashes. So far no sound technology or a process is available for a sustainable and ecological treatment of the waste incineration ashes, and only partial treatment is practised for temporary and short-term solutions. New processes and technology need to be developed for comprehensive utilization and detoxification of the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator residues. To explore the efficiency of thermal stabilisation and controlled vitrification, the thermal behaviour of electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash was investigated under controlled conditions. The reaction stages are identified with the initial moisture removal, volatilization, melting and slag formation. At the temperature higher than 1100 degrees C, the ESP ashes have a quicker weight loss, and the total weight loss reaches up to 52%, higher than the boiler ash. At 1400 degrees C a salt layer and a homogeneous glassy slag were formed. The effect of thermal treatment on the leaching characteristics of various elements in the ESP ash was evaluated with the availability-leaching test. The leaching values of the vitrified slag are significantly lowered than that of the original ash. PMID:19150174

  15. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. PMID:25256662

  16. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. PMID:25700606

  17. Evaluation of mixing systems for biogasification of municipal solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    Two mixing systems were tested for the efficiencies prevention of the formation of fibrous mats and stringers during the anaerobic digestion of a slurried mixture of preprocessed municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the production of methane gas. The first system was a mechanical agitation, a vessel centered rotary shaft with four blades at each of two levels to drive the slurry downward. The second system included three equidistantly placed gas gun assemblies that each produced bubbles at a constant rate to draw the slurry upward. The microbial culture was healthy in most tests, however, the mixing systems were not effective in preventing excessive fibrous mat and stringer formations. The energy recovered was only 50% of the energy available in the solid waste, and only four times greater than the mixing energy expended for that test. The solids accumulations were generally the same for the two mixing systems when they had common test conditions. In all tests, the percent solids for the top level were higher than those for the middle and bottom levels.

  18. Environmental implications of municipal solid waste-derived ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kalogo, Youssouf; Habibi, Shiva; MacLean, Heather L; Joshi, Satish V

    2007-01-01

    We model a municipal solid waste (MSW)-to-ethanol facility that employs dilute acid hydrolysis and gravity pressure vessel technology and estimate life cycle energy use and air emissions. We compare our results, assuming the ethanol is utilized as E85 (blended with 15% gasoline) in a light-duty vehicle, with extant life cycle assessments of gasoline, corn-ethanol, and energy crop-cellulosic-ethanol fueled vehicles. We also compare MSW-ethanol production, as a waste management alternative, with landfilling with gas recovery options. We find that the life cycle total energy use per vehicle mile traveled for MSW-ethanol is less than that of corn-ethanol and cellulosic-ethanol; and energy use from petroleum sources for MSW-ethanol is lower than for the other fuels. MSW-ethanol use in vehicles reduces net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 65% compared to gasoline, and by 58% when compared to corn-ethanol. Relative GHG performance with respect to cellulosic ethanol depends on whether MSW classification is included or not. Converting MSW to ethanol will result in net fossil energy savings of 397-1830 MJ/MT MSW compared to net fossil energy consumption of 177-577 MJ/MT MSW for landfilling. However, landfilling with LFG recovery either for flaring or for electricity production results in greater reductions in GHG emissions compared to MSW-to-ethanol conversion. PMID:17265924

  19. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm(3) (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2 e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from -145 to 1016 kg CO2 e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO2 e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation. PMID:23312780

  20. Innovative use of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media.

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Annika; Teo, Kanniainen; Tapio, Salo; Riina, Rantsi

    2016-07-01

    The utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash has been extensively studied, for example, in the unbound layers of roads and the products of cement and concrete industry. On the other hand, less attention has been given to other innovative utilisation possibilities, such as using the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media of plants. The municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash contains useful substances, such as calcium, that can influence plant growth in a positive manner. Therefore, the utilisation of this waste-derived material in the growing media may substitute the use of commercial fertilisers. Since the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash also contains hazardous substances that can be toxic to plants, the main aim of this study was to add different amounts of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in the growing media and to evaluate the effect of this material on plant growth. Based on the obtained results, the concentration of, for example copper and zinc, increased in test plants; ryegrass and barley, when recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash was added in their growing media. On the other hand, this did not have a significant effect on plant growth, if compared with the growth of plants in commercially produced growing medium. Furthermore, the replacement of natural sand with municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash had a positive liming effect in the growing media. Overall, these findings suggest that the utilisation of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media is possible and, thus, may allow more widespread and innovative use of this waste-derived material. PMID:27260785

  1. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  2. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  3. A cost evaluation method for transferring municipalities to solid waste source-separated system.

    PubMed

    Lavee, Doron; Nardiya, Shlomit

    2013-05-01

    Most of Israel's waste is disposed in landfills, threatening scarce land resources and posing environmental and health risks. The aim of this study is to estimate the expected costs of transferring municipalities to solid waste source separation in Israel, aimed at reducing the amount of waste directed to landfills and increasing the efficiency and amount of recycled waste. Information on the expected costs of operating a solid waste source separation system was gathered from 47 municipalities and compiled onto a database, taking into consideration various factors such as costs of equipment, construction adjustments and waste collection and disposal. This database may serve as a model for estimating the costs of entering the waste source separation system for any municipality in Israel, while taking into consideration its specific characteristics, such as size and region. The model was used in Israel for determining municipalities' eligibility to receive a governmental grant for entering an accelerated process of solid waste source separation. This study displays a user-friendly and simple operational tool for assessing municipalities' costs of entering a process of waste source separation, providing policy makers a powerful tool for diverting funds effectively in promoting solid waste source separation. PMID:23465315

  4. Nonisothermal particle modeling of municipal solid waste combustion with heavy metal vaporization

    SciTech Connect

    Mazza, G.; Falcoz, Q.; Gauthier, D.; Flamant, G.; Soria, J.

    2010-12-15

    A particulate model was developed for municipal solid-waste incineration in a fluidized bed combining solid-waste-particle combustion and heavy metal vaporization from the burning particles. Based on a simpler, isothermal version presented previously, this model combines an asymptotic-combustion model for carbonaceous-solid combustion and a shrinking-core model to describe the heavy metal vaporization phenomenon, in which the particle is now considered nonisothermal. A parametric study is presented that shows the influence of temperature on the global metal-vaporization process. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained with a lab-scale fluid bed incinerator and to the results of the simpler isothermal model. It is shown that conduction in the particle strongly affects the variation of the vaporization rate with time and that the present version of the model well fits both the shape of the plots and the maximum heavy metal vaporization rates for all bed temperatures. (author)

  5. Heating value prediction for combustible fraction of municipal solid waste in Semarang using backpropagation neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuriati, Ainie; Setiabudi, Wahyu; Nur, Muhammad; Istadi, Istadi

    2015-12-01

    Backpropgation neural network was trained to predict of combustible fraction heating value of MSW from the physical composition. Waste-to-Energy (WtE) is a viable option for municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The influence of the heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW) is very important on the implementation of WtE systems. As MSW is heterogeneous material, direct heating value measurements are often not feasible. In this study an empirical model was developed to describe the heating value of the combustible fraction of municipal solid waste as a function of its physical composition of MSW using backpropagation neural network. Sampling process was carried out at Jatibarang landfill. The weight of each sorting sample taken from each discharged MSW vehicle load is 100 kg. The MSW physical components were grouped into paper wastes, absorbent hygiene product waste, styrofoam waste, HD plastic waste, plastic waste, rubber waste, textile waste, wood waste, yard wastes, kitchen waste, coco waste, and miscellaneous combustible waste. Network was trained by 24 datasets with 1200, 769, and 210 epochs. The results of this analysis showed that the correlation from the physical composition is better than multiple regression method .

  6. Municipal solid waste characterization and quantification as a measure towards effective waste management in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia; Fei-Baffoe, Bernard; Mensah, Moses Y

    2015-12-01

    Reliable national data on waste generation and composition that will inform effective planning on waste management in Ghana is absent. To help obtain this data on a regional basis, selected households in each region were recruited to obtain data on rate of waste generation, physical composition of waste, sorting and separation efficiency and per capita of waste. Results show that rate of waste generation in Ghana was 0.47 kg/person/day, which translates into about 12,710 tons of waste per day per the current population of 27,043,093. Nationally, biodegradable waste (organics and papers) was 0.318 kg/person/day and non-biodegradable or recyclables (metals, glass, textiles, leather and rubbers) was 0.096 kg/person/day. Inert and miscellaneous waste was 0.055 kg/person/day. The average household waste generation rate among the metropolitan cities, except Tamale, was high, 0.72 kg/person/day. Metropolises generated higher waste (average 0.63 kg/person/day) than the municipalities (0.40 kg/person/day) and the least in the districts (0.28 kg/person/day) which are less developed. The waste generation rate also varied across geographical locations, the coastal and forest zones generated higher waste than the northern savanna zone. Waste composition was 61% organics, 14% plastics, 6% inert, 5% miscellaneous, 5% paper, 3% metals, 3% glass, 1% leather and rubber, and 1% textiles. However, organics and plastics, the two major fractions of the household waste varied considerably across the geographical areas. In the coastal zone, the organic waste fraction was highest but decreased through the forest zone towards the northern savanna. However, through the same zones towards the north, plastic waste rather increased in percentage fraction. Households did separate their waste effectively averaging 80%. However, in terms of separating into the bin marked biodegradables, 84% effectiveness was obtained whiles 76% effectiveness for sorting into the bin labeled other waste was

  7. Recovery of valuable agricultural materials from various industrial and municipal waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    Many agriculturally beneficial materials can be recovered from industrial and municipal waste streams. Processes for conversion of waste by-products as diverse as treated Class A sewage sludge, waste wallboard, fly ash, and synthetic (FGD) gypsum into fertilizers, fillers and amendments are presented.

  8. An industrial ecology approach to municipal solid waste management: I. Methodology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be viewed as a feedstock for industrial ecology inspired conversions of wastes to valuable products and energy. The industrial ecology principle of symbiotic processes using waste streams for creating value-added products is applied to MSW, with e...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that...

  10. An index for quantifying the aerobic reactivity of municipal solid wastes and derived waste products.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    The organic matter contained in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in the MSW fractions obtained by mechanical separation has strong environmental impact when the waste is used as landfill. This is partly due to the biological activity that occurs under anaerobic conditions. Negative effects on the environment include unpleasant odors, biogas, leachate and biomass self-heating. Measuring the biological reactivity of waste with the help of indicators is an important tool to prevent waste impact. The aim of this study was to develop an index capable of describing the aerobic reactivity of waste, using both biological and chemical indicators. To develop this index, 71 MSW and MSW-product samples, including biologically treated MSW and mechanically separated MSW fractions, were analyzed. Fifty of the 71 samples analyzed represented MSWs and their derived products collected from a number of Italian waste plants and sites. The remaining 21 were MSW samples collected at different times during 8 different full-scale aerobic biological processes in four treatment plants used to reduce the biological reactivity of wastes. Five of these processes used the entire (unsorted) MSW, while the remaining three used the organic fraction of the MSW obtained by mechanical pre-treatment (waste sieving). Respirometric activity (Dynamic Respiration Index, DRI) and eluates characterization (chemical oxygen demand--COD, and 5 days biological oxygen demand--BOD5) were used as indicators of waste strength, as they had previously been reported to be indirect measures of waste impact on landfill. Summarizing all studied indicators, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to develop the Putrescibility Index (Ip). The results revealed Ip index of 204+/-33 (mean+/-standard deviation) and 159+/-14 for the organic fraction of MSW and MSW untreated waste respectively, and of 106+/-16 and 101+/-22 for the corresponding biologically treated waste. PMID:18280541

  11. 40 CFR 60.55b - Standards for municipal waste combustor fugitive ash emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor fugitive ash emissions. 60.55b Section 60.55b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Large Municipal...

  12. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Municipal Solid...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15020 - Can my small municipal waste combustion unit be exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Can my small municipal waste combustion... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of This Subpart § 62.15020 Can my small municipal...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15020 - Can my small municipal waste combustion unit be exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can my small municipal waste combustion... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of This Subpart § 62.15020 Can my small municipal...

  15. H.R. 1180: A Bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to provide congressional authorization for restrictions on receipt of out-of-State municipal solid waste and for State control over transportation of municipal solid waste, and to clarify the authority for certain municipal solid waste flow control arrangements, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, March 9, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The report H.R. 1180 is a bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to provide congressional authorization for restrictions on receipt of out-of-State municipal solid waste and for State control over transportation of municipal solid waste, and to clarify the authority for certain municipal solid waste flow control arrangements. The proposed legislative text is provided.

  16. EPA ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article examines EPA technical activities relating to the development of regulations pertaining to the control of both new and existing municipal waste combustion facilities (MWCs). The activities include: (1) assessing combustion and flue gas cleaning technologies, (2) colle...

  17. USER'S GUIDE FOR THE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LIFE-CYCLE DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes how to use the municipal solid waste (MSW) life cycle database, a software application with Microsoft Access interfaces, that provides environmental data for energy production, materials production, and MSW management activities and equipment. The basic datab...

  18. A SURVEY OF PATHOGEN SURVIVAL DURING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AND MANURE TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) and animal manures may contain microorganisms that can cause disease in man and animals. These pathogenic microorganisms include enteric bacteria, fungi, viruses, and human and animal parasites. This report summarizes and discusses various research fin...

  19. THE IMPACT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technological advancements in United States (U.S.) municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and a focus on the environmental advantages of integrated MSW management have greatly reduced the environmental impacts of MSW management, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study ...

  20. CONTROL OF PCDD/PCDF EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of tests on five modern municipal waste combustors (MWCs) to characterize or determine the performance of representative combustor types and associated air emission control systems in the regulatory development process. Test results for uncontrolled (com...

  1. MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

  2. The Effect of Developing Nations’ Municipal Waste Composition on PCDD/PCDF Emissions from Open Burning

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open burning tests of municipal waste from two developing nations, Mexico and China, showed composition-related differences in emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF). 26 burn tests were conducted, comparing results from two laboratory combustion ...

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE IN A BIOREACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research was initiated to determine the feasibility of composting municipal sludge in an aerated tank bioreactor system and to develop baseline data for the rational operation and design of enclosed reactor composting systems. A variety of conditions was tested and various mi...

  4. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ► A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ► These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ► Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from −145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement

  5. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models.

    PubMed

    Intharathirat, Rotchana; Abdul Salam, P; Kumar, S; Untong, Akarapong

    2015-05-01

    In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435-44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177-56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period. PMID:25704925

  6. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  7. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  8. A system dynamics model to evaluate effects of source separation of municipal solid waste management: A case of Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sukholthaman, Pitchayanin; Sharp, Alice

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste has been considered as one of the most immediate and serious problems confronting urban government in most developing and transitional economies. Providing solid waste performance highly depends on the effectiveness of waste collection and transportation process. Generally, this process involves a large amount of expenditures and has very complex and dynamic operational problems. Source separation has a major impact on effectiveness of waste management system as it causes significant changes in quantity and quality of waste reaching final disposal. To evaluate the impact of effective source separation on waste collection and transportation, this study adopts a decision support tool to comprehend cause-and-effect interactions of different variables in waste management system. A system dynamics model that envisages the relationships of source separation and effectiveness of waste management in Bangkok, Thailand is presented. Influential factors that affect waste separation attitudes are addressed; and the result of change in perception on waste separation is explained. The impacts of different separation rates on effectiveness of provided collection service are compared in six scenarios. 'Scenario 5' gives the most promising opportunities as 40% of residents are willing to conduct organic and recyclable waste separation. The results show that better service of waste collection and transportation, less monthly expense, extended landfill life, and satisfactory efficiency of the provided service at 60.48% will be achieved at the end of the simulation period. Implications of how to get public involved and conducted source separation are proposed. PMID:27026497

  9. Remedial strategies for municipal solid waste management in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Nie, Y

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the current status and to identify the problems of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in China to determine appropriate remedial strategies. This is the second of two papers proposed on this topic. Major problems or difficulties identified in MSW management in China include MSW land, air, and water pollution, commingled collection, poor administration, shortage of funds, lack of facilities, and problems of training and public awareness. In order to solve these problems and to improve MSW management in China, remedial strategies in three areas are recommended: institutional reform, technology development, and legislation and administrative improvement. The primary principle involved in institutional reform is unifying legislative responsibilities into one body and developing a market mechanism for handling MSW. Composting, landfills, and incineration should be equally developed in accordance with China's needs. The feasibility of developing technology to handle MSW in China is discussed. Also recommended is the establishment of sound regulatory systems, including a service fee system, a source separation system, and a training program. China is presently undergoing economic and institutional reform at the national and local levels. Results of this study will provide useful information on MSW management in China. PMID:11256501

  10. Subregion districting analysis for municipal solid waste collection privatization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yueh; Kao, Jehng-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Privatization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection can improve service quality and reduce cost. To reduce the risk of an incapable company serving an entire collection area and to establish a competitive market, a large collection area should be divided into two or more subregions, with each subregion served by a different company. The MSW subregion districting is generally done manually, based on the planner's intuition. Major drawbacks of a manual approach include the creation of a districting plan with poor road network integrity for which it is difficult to design an efficient collection route. The other drawbacks are difficulty in finding the optimal districting plan and the lack of a way to consistently measure the differences among subregions to avoid unfair competition. To determine an MSW collection subregion districting plan, this study presents a mixed-integer optimization model that incorporates factors such as compactness, road network integrity, collection cost, and regional proximity. Two cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. In both cases, districting plans with good road network integrity and regional proximity have been generated successfully. PMID:18236800

  11. An overview of food chain impacts from municipal waste combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    Human exposure to pollutants emitted from a municipal waste combustor (MWC) can occur via inhalation, ingestion of contaminated food items, infant consumption of mother's milk, and dermal absorption. Of particular concern, however, are potential exposures from ingesting contaminated food items. The food chain has been shown to be the primary source of human exposure to a large class of organics, including DDT, dioxin, pentachlorophenol, benzo(a)pyrene, and most pesticides. Various measurement and predictive techniques can be used to evaluate the movement and transfer of chemicals within and between environmental media as well as the concentration of organics to which humans are exposed. Since organic chemicals tend to accumulate in the media in which they are most soluble, a few basic physicochemical properties can be used to predict the behavior and fate of chemicals released into the environment. Multimedia transport models estimate the concentration of a pollutant in various environmental media and then use those concentrations to predict the amount of pollutant to which humans are exposed. This paper quantifies the extent of human exposure to 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, commonly referred to as dioxin) and cadmium emitted from an arbitrary MWC in the US. It also provides an innovative perspective on human exposure to facility-emitted pollutants using a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach. 103 refs., 5 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Phosphorus recovery from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Fedje, K Karlfeldt

    2013-06-01

    The potential of phosphorus (P) recycling from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residue is investigated. Vast and ever increasing amounts of incineration residues are produced worldwide; these are an environmental burden, but also a resource, as they are a major sink for the material flows of society. Due to strict environmental regulations, in combination with decreasing landfilling space, the disposal of the MSWI residues is problematic. At the same time, resource scarcity is recognized as a global challenge for the modern world, and even more so for future generations. This paper reports on the methods and efficiency of P extraction from MSWI fly ash by acid and base leaching and precipitation procedures. Phosphorus extracted from the MSWI residues generated each year could meet 30% of the annual demand for mineral phosphorus fertiliser in Sweden, given a recovery rate of 70% achieved in this initial test. The phosphorus content of the obtained product is slightly higher than in sewage sludge, but due to the trace metal content it is not acceptable for application to agricultural land in Sweden, whereas application in the rest of the EU would be possible. However, it would be preferable to use the product as a raw material to replace rock phosphate in fertilizer production. Further development is currently underway in relation to procedure optimization, purification of the phosphorus product, and the simultaneous recovery of other resources. PMID:23490361

  13. A Multistep Chaotic Model for Municipal Solid Waste Generation Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jingwei; He, Jiaying

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study, a univariate local chaotic model is proposed to make one-step and multistep forecasts for daily municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in Seattle, Washington. For MSW generation prediction with long history data, this forecasting model was created based on a nonlinear dynamic method called phase-space reconstruction. Compared with other nonlinear predictive models, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least square–support vector machine (PLS-SVM), and a commonly used linear seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (sARIMA) model, this method has demonstrated better prediction accuracy from 1-step ahead prediction to 14-step ahead prediction assessed by both mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and root mean square error (RMSE). Max error, MAPE, and RMSE show that chaotic models were more reliable than the other three models. As chaotic models do not involve random walk, their performance does not vary while ANN and PLS-SVM make different forecasts in each trial. Moreover, this chaotic model was less time consuming than ANN and PLS-SVM models. PMID:25125942

  14. Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R. III

    1994-05-20

    As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

  15. A Multistep Chaotic Model for Municipal Solid Waste Generation Prediction.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingwei; He, Jiaying

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a univariate local chaotic model is proposed to make one-step and multistep forecasts for daily municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in Seattle, Washington. For MSW generation prediction with long history data, this forecasting model was created based on a nonlinear dynamic method called phase-space reconstruction. Compared with other nonlinear predictive models, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least square-support vector machine (PLS-SVM), and a commonly used linear seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (sARIMA) model, this method has demonstrated better prediction accuracy from 1-step ahead prediction to 14-step ahead prediction assessed by both mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and root mean square error (RMSE). Max error, MAPE, and RMSE show that chaotic models were more reliable than the other three models. As chaotic models do not involve random walk, their performance does not vary while ANN and PLS-SVM make different forecasts in each trial. Moreover, this chaotic model was less time consuming than ANN and PLS-SVM models. PMID:25125942

  16. [Extracting municipal solid waste dumps based on high resolution images].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang-Li; Du, Shi-Hong; Guo, Zhou

    2013-08-01

    The dramatically increasing informal MSW dumps are endangering the urban environment. Remote sensing (RS) technologies are more efficient to monitor and manage municipal solid wastes (MSW) than traditional survey-based methods. In high spatial resolution remotely sensed images, these irregularly distributed dumps have complex compositions and strong heterogeneities, thus it is still hard to extract them automatically no matter the pixel-or object-based image analysis method is used. Therefore, based on the analysis of MSW characteristics, the present study develops a multiresolution strategy to extract MSW dumps by combining image features at both high resolution and resampled low heterogeneity images, while the high resolution images can provide detailed information and the low resolution images can suppress the strong heterogeneities of informal MSW dumps. Taking the QuickBird image covering part of Beijing as an example, this multi-resolution strategy produced a high accuracy (75%), indicating that this multi-resolution strategy is quite effective for extracting the open-air informal MSW dumps. PMID:24159838

  17. Assessing total and volatile solids in municipal solid waste samples.

    PubMed

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is broadly generated in everyday activities and its treatment is a global challenge. Total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) are typical control parameters measured in biological treatments. In this study, the TS and VS were determined using the standard methods, as well as introducing some variants: (i) the drying temperature for the TS assays was 105°C, 70°C and 50°C and (ii) the VS were determined using different heating ramps from room tempature to 550°C. TS could be determined at either 105°C or 70°C, but oven residence time was tripled at 70°C, increasing from 48 to 144 h. The VS could be determined by smouldering the sample (where the sample is burnt without a flame), which avoids the release of fumes and odours in the laboratory. However, smouldering can generate undesired pyrolysis products as a consequence of carbonization, which leads to VS being underestimated. Carbonization can be avoided using slow heating ramps to prevent the oxygen limitation. Furthermore, crushing the sample cores decreased the time to reach constant weight and decreased the potential to underestimate VS. PMID:25244131

  18. Municipal solid waste recycling and the significance of informal sector in urban China.

    PubMed

    Linzner, Roland; Salhofer, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    The informal sector is active in the collection, processing and trading of recyclable materials in urban China. Formal waste management organisations have established pilot schemes for source separation of recyclables, but this strategy is still in its infancy. The amounts of recyclables informally picked out of the municipal solid waste stream are unknown as informal waste workers do not record their activities. This article estimates the size and significance of the current informal recycling system with a focus on the collection of recyclables. A majority of the reviewed literature detects that official data is displaying mainly 'municipal solid waste collected and transported', whereas less information is available on 'real' waste generation rates at the source. Based on a literature review the variables, the 'number of informal waste workers involved in collection activities', the 'amounts collected daily per informal collector' and the 'number of working days' are used to estimate yearly recyclable amounts that are informally diverted from municipal solid waste. The results show an interval of approximately 0.56%-0.93% of the urban population or 3.3-5.6 million people involved in informal waste collection and recycling activities in urban China. This is the equivalent to estimated informal recycling rates of approximately 17-38 w/w% of the municipal solid waste generated. Despite some uncertainties in these assessments, it can be concluded that a significant share of recyclables is collected and processed by informal waste workers. PMID:25106535

  19. A baseline study characterizing the municipal solid waste in the State of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Jarallah, Rawa; Aleisa, Esra

    2014-05-01

    This paper provides a new reference line for municipal solid waste characterization in Kuwait. The baseline data were collected in accordance with the Standard Test Method for the Determination of the Composition of Unprocessed Municipal Solid Waste (ASTM). The results indicated that the average daily municipal waste generation level is 1.01 kg/person. Detailed waste stream surveys were conducted for more than 600 samples of municipal solid waste (MSW). The waste categories included paper, corrugated fibers, PET bottles, film, organic matter, wood, metal, glass, and others. The results indicated that organic waste dominated the characterization (44.4%), followed by film (11.2%) and then corrugated fibers (8.6%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the influence of season and governorate on waste composition. A significant seasonal variation was observed in almost all waste categories. In addition, significant differences in proportions between the current level and 1995 baseline were observed in most waste categories at the 95% confidence level. PMID:24656421

  20. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Burnley, Stephen; Phillips, Rhiannon; Coleman, Terry; Rampling, Terence

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. > For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. > For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. > For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  1. Emissions from a controlled fire in municipal solid waste bales

    SciTech Connect

    Nammari, Diauddin R.; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Nimmermark, Sven; Moutavtchi, Viatcheslav

    2004-07-01

    Environmental and safety aspects of seasonal storage of baled municipal solid waste to be used as fuel for energy production (waste fuel), was investigated and experiments were carried out on burning of bales. The flammability, combustion processes and emissions were studied by simulating, in small-scale, potential effects of a possible fire in full-scale bale storage area. Despite the high water content and the high density of the bales, after setting fire, the bales burned well, even though no risk for self-ignition exists. The following parameters of the combustion product were measured continuously: O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, THC, smoke gas rate and the temperature of the smoke. Soot particles in the smoke were collected and analysed for Hg, Pb, Cd, As, Ni, Cr, Mn, Cu, Co, Sb and V concentrations. The analysis of the moisture content, concentrations of Hg, Cd, HCl, HF, HBr, NH{sub 3}, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated and brominated dioxins (PCDD/F and PBrDD/F, respectively) were carried out. It was found that the PCDD/F levels (TEQs) varied according to the system used: 12.53 ng (I-TEF-88)/Nm{sup 3}; 14.09 ng (I-TEF-99)/Nm{sup 3}; 13.86 ng (Eadons)/Nm{sup 3}. The PAH concentration was 3.04 {mu}g/Nm{sup 3}. The contents of the metals in the smoke (with the exceptions of Pb and Cd with mean values of 1.74 and 0.36 mg/m{sup 3}, respectively) were below the limit values established by the Swedish Ministry of Environment for emissions from incineration plants [Swedish Ministry of Environment, (2002:1060), Foerordning 2002:1060 om avfallsfoerbraenning. Available from http://www.notisum.se/rnp/SLS/LAG/20021060.HTM]/EU-directive [(2000/76/EC), Directive 2000/76/EC, of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 December 2000 on the Incineration of Waste. http://www.Scotland. gov.uk/library5/environment/iecda.pdf]. The HCl concentration was 10 times higher than the limit value (mean value of 99 mg/m{sup 3})

  2. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Paolo S

    2009-07-01

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management. PMID:19318239

  3. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection

    SciTech Connect

    Calabro, Paolo S.

    2009-07-15

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

  4. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    SciTech Connect

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  5. Leaching for recovery of copper from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash: influence of ash properties and metal speciation.

    PubMed

    Lassesson, Henric; Fedje, Karin Karlfeldt; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2014-08-01

    Recovery of metals occurring in significant amounts in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, such as copper, could offer several advantages: a decreased amount of potentially mobile metal compounds going to landfill, saving of natural resources and a monetary value. A combination of leaching and solvent extraction may constitute a feasible recovery path for metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. However, it has been shown that the initial dissolution and leaching is a limiting step in such a recovery process. The work described in this article was focused on elucidating physical and chemical differences between two ash samples with the aim of explaining the differences in copper release from these samples in two leaching methods. The results showed that the chemical speciation is an important factor affecting the release of copper. The occurrence of copper as phosphate or silicate will hinder leaching, while sulphate and chloride will facilitate leaching. PMID:25106538

  6. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combustion units exempt from my State plan? 60.1555 Section 60.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1555 Are any small municipal waste combustion... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustion units exempt from my State plan? 60.1555 Section 60.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1555 Are any small municipal waste combustion... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combustion units exempt from my State plan? 60.1555 Section 60.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1555 Are any small municipal waste combustion... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion units exempt from my State plan? 60.1555 Section 60.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1555 Are any small municipal waste combustion... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combustion units exempt from my State plan? 60.1555 Section 60.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1555 Are any small municipal waste combustion... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1565 - What subcategories of small municipal waste combustion units must I include in my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units must I include in my State plan? 60.1565 Section 60.1565 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion... of small municipal waste combustion units must I include in my State plan? This subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Recordkeeping § 62.15310 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  18. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  2. Municipal solid waste management in Phnom Penh, capital city of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for both technical and regulatory arrangements in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia. Problems with the current MSWM are identified, and challenges and recommendations for future improvement are also given in this paper. MPP is a small city with a total area of approximately 374 km(2) and an urban population of about 1.3 million in 2008. For the last 14 years, average annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in MPP has increased rapidly from 0.136 million tons in 1995 to 0.361 million tons in 2008. The gross generation rate of MSW per capita was 0.74 kg day(-1). However, the per capita household waste generation was 0.487 kg day(- 1). At 63.3%, food waste is the predominant portion of generated waste, followed by plastics (15.5%), grass and wood (6.8%), and paper and cardboard (6.4%). The remaining waste, including metals, glass, rubber/leather, textiles, and ceramic/ stone, accounted for less than 3%. Waste recycling through informal sectors is very active; recycled waste accounted for about 9.3% of all waste generated in 2003. Currently, the overall technical arrangement, including storage and discharge, collection and transport, and disposal, is still in poor condition, which leads to environmental and health risks. These problems should be solved by improving legislation, environmental education, solid waste management facilities, and management of the waste scavengers. PMID:20813763

  3. A review of municipal solid waste composition in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Burnley, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    The move from landfill-based to resource-based waste management systems requires a greater knowledge of the composition of municipal solid waste. This paper draws together the findings of municipal solid waste (MSW) compositional surveys undertaken in the United Kingdom. The results from recent surveys show a good agreement over the composition of household-collected waste, but less agreement over civic amenity site waste composition. There is insufficient data to allow comparisons of the commercial waste element of municipal waste or of the other components, and further work is necessary to produce more reliable estimates of the composition of these streams. The use of questionnaire surveys and analysis of the results suggests that the size and age profile of a household influence the generation of household-collected waste. Some research suggests that the waste container provided by the local authority and the socio-economic classification of a household also influence household-collected waste generation, but other studies failed to find this link. Further research is required to investigate this by surveying all of the waste disposal routes available to specific households. PMID:17011771

  4. Biofuels and bioenergy production from municipal solid waste commingled with agriculturally-derived biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA in partnership with Salinas Valley Solid Waste Authority (SVSWA) and CR3, a technology holding company from Reno, NV, has introduced a biorefinery concept whereby agriculturally- derived biomass is commingled with municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce bioenergy. This team, which originally...

  5. Innovative bioresource management technologies for recovery of ammonia and phosphorus from livestock and municipal wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recovery of nutrients from wastes for re-use as concentrated plant fertilizers is a new paradigm in agricultural and municipal waste management. Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the economy, impacting many sectors that depend on clean water. Treatment technologies have ...

  6. Hydrothermal carbonization of municipal solid waste for carbon sequestration and energy generation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fairly new, innovative technique, called hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), has the potential to change the way municipal solid waste (MSW) is managed. HTC is a wet, low temperature (180-350°C), low pressure (in a closed system) thermochemical waste treatment/conversion technology that has been sho...

  7. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: a survey of recent literature.

    PubMed

    Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Samar, Parviz; Cox, Huub H J; Ahring, Birgitte K; Iranpour, Reza

    2006-06-01

    Codigestion of organic wastes is a technology that is increasingly being applied for simultaneous treatment of several solid and liquid organic wastes. The main advantages of this technology are improved methane yield because of the supply of additional nutrients from the codigestates and more efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrialized countries currently process wastewater sludge in large digesters. Codigestion of organic wastes with municipal wastewater sludge can increase digester gas production and provide savings in the overall energy costs of plant operations. Methane recovery also helps to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The goal of this literature survey was to summarize the research conducted in the last four years on anaerobic codigestion to identify applications of codigestion at WWTPs. Because the solids content in municipal wastewater sludge is low, this survey only focuses on codigestion processes operated at relative low solids content (slurry mode). Semi-solid or solid codigestion processes were not included. Municipal wastewater sludge, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, and cattle manure (CAM) are the main wastes most often used in codigestion processes. Wastes that are codigested with these main wastes are wood wastes, industrial organic wastes, and farm wastes. These are referred to in this survey as codigestates. The literature provides many laboratory studies (batch assays and bench-scale digesters) that assess the digestibility of codigestates and evaluate the performance and monitoring of codigestion, inhibition of digestion by codigestates, the design of the process (e.g., single-stage or two-stage processes), and the operation temperature (e.g., mesophilic or thermophilic). Only a few reports on pilot- and full-scale studies were found. These evaluate general process

  8. Melting of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by waste-derived thermite reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Lin, Kae-Long; Lee, Ching-Hwa

    2009-02-15

    This work describes a novel approach for melting municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, based on self-propagating reactions, by using energy-efficient simulated waste-derived thermite. The self-propagating characteristics, the properties of the recycled alloy and slag and the partitioning of heavy metals during the process are also studied. Experimental results demonstrate that the mix ratio of fly ash to the starting mixture of less than 30% supports the development of the self-propagating reaction with a melting temperature of 1350-2200 degrees C. Furthermore, metallic iron (or alloy) and the slag were retrieved after activation of the thermite reactions among the starting mixtures. It was noted that more than 91wt.% of iron was retrieved as alloy and the rest of non-reductive oxides as slag. During the thermite reactions, the partition of heavy metals to the SFA and flue gas varied with the characteristics of the target metals: Cd was mainly partitioned to flue gas (75-82%), and partition slightly increased with the increasing fly ash ratio; Pb and Zn, were mainly partitioned to the SFA, and the partition increased with increasing fly ash ratio; Cu was partitioned to the SFA (18-31%) and was not found in the flue gas; and moreover stable Cr and Ni were not identified in both the SFA and flue gas. On the other hand, the determined TCLP leaching concentrations were all well within the current regulatory thresholds, despite the various FA ratios. This suggests that the vitrified fly ash samples were environmental safe in heavy metal leaching. The results of this study suggested that melting of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by waste-derived thermite reactions was a feasible approach not only energy-beneficial but also environmental-safe. PMID:18573610

  9. Evaluation of thermophilic fungal consortium for organic municipal solid waste composting.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Khan, Jamaluddin; Bundela, Pushpendra Singh; Wong, Jonathan W C; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2014-09-01

    Influence of fungal consortium and different turning frequency on composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated to produce compost with higher agronomic value. Four piles of OFMSW were prepared: three piles were inoculated with fungal consortium containing 5l each spore suspensions of Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus and with a turning frequency of weekly (Pile 1), twice a week (Pile 2) and daily (Pile 3), while Pile 4 with weekly turning and without fungal inoculation served as control. The fungal consortium with weekly (Pile 1) turning frequency significantly affected temperature, pH, TOC, TKN, C/N ratio and germination index. High degradation of organic matter and early maturity was observed in Pile 1. Results indicate that fungal consortium with weekly turning frequency of open windrows were more cost-effective in comparison with other technologies for efficient composting and yield safe end products. PMID:24507579

  10. Monitoring quantity and characteristics of municipal solid waste in Dhaka City.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Tariq Bin; Rahman, Mostafizur

    2007-12-01

    A reliable estimate of the quantity of solid waste generation in the city is very important for proper solid waste planning and management. However, reported estimates of solid waste generation vary widely and lead to questionability. The reported values have been derived on the assumption of demography, standard rate of waste generation by households, density values, number of trucks engaged for waste transportation and monitoring of truck movement at dump sites, etc. This diverse nature of the available data and the question of accuracy necessitate a rigorous study that has tried to document the waste quantity in the recently formulated master plan of Dhaka City. The socio-economic parameters, behavioral characteristics, generation sources, seasonality, and per capita growth rate are considered in estimating the waste quantity along with its future projections. The findings from the estimation of waste quantities state that seasonal differences in the municipal solid waste stream are not substantial. The most seasonably variable material in the municipal solid waste stream is food waste. Residential waste is relatively homogeneous. Although there are some differences in waste generation depending on demographic and other local factors, most households dispose of essentially similar types of wastes. Variation occurs in waste composition dependent upon income levels and category of sources. Variation also occurs based upon the extent of source reduction and recycling opportunities. As opportunities exist to recycle wastes, the recycling facilities might have to grow at a similar pace to the generation of waste. Physical and chemical characteristics of solid waste are important to implement the waste disposal and management plan for the selection of resource and energy recovery potentials. A number of studies have been conducted to determine the composition of wastes including moisture content and calorific value. The data show that the moisture content in city

  11. Validation of enhanced stabilization of municipal solid waste under controlled leachate recirculation using FTIR and XRD.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sapna; Kothiyal, N C; Nema, Arvind K

    2012-07-01

    Leachate recirculation at neutral PH accompanied with buffer/nutrients addition has been used successfully in earlier stabilization of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills. In the present study, efforts were made to enhance the stabilization rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) and organic solid waste (OSW) in simulated landfill bioreactors by controlling the pH of recirculated leachate towards slightly alkaline side in absence of additional buffer and nutrients addition. Enhanced stabilization in waste samples was monitored with the help of analytical tools like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Predominance of bands assigned to inorganic compounds and comparatively lower intensities of bands for organic compounds in the FTIR spectra of waste samples degraded with leachate recirculation under controlled pH confirmed higher rate of biodegradation and mineralization of waste than the samples degraded without controlled leachate recirculation. XRD spectra also confirmed to a greater extent of mineralization in the waste samples degraded under leachate recirculation with controlled pH. Comparison of XRD spectra of two types of wastes pointed out higher degree of mineralization in organic solid waste as compared to municipal solid waste. PMID:24749191

  12. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models

    SciTech Connect

    Intharathirat, Rotchana; Abdul Salam, P.; Kumar, S.; Untong, Akarapong

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Grey model can be used to forecast MSW quantity accurately with the limited data. • Prediction interval overcomes the uncertainty of MSW forecast effectively. • A multivariate model gives accuracy associated with factors affecting MSW quantity. • Population, urbanization, employment and household size play role for MSW quantity. - Abstract: In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435–44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177–56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period.

  13. Life cycle inventory for municipal solid waste management. Part 2: MSW management scenarios and modeling.

    PubMed

    Wilson, E J

    2002-02-01

    Evaluating the environmental performance of municipal solid waste management options is a complex task. Part 1 of this study presents the municipal solid waste management program of the Pamplona Region in Spain and explores the operational, economic, and environmental factors of the program. In Part 2, alternative waste management scenarios that include the selective collection of organic material and composting are illustrated. The use of a Life Cycle Inventory model for waste management allows for the comparison of the environmental burdens of the different scenarios. This use of a Life Cycle Inventory model for solid waste management lets program managers and decision makers include energy use, final solid waste, and Greenhouse gas emissions in the decision making process. Additionally, the different management scenarios are evaluated on their ability to fulfil Pamplona regional objectives and meet European Packaging and Landfill Directive targets. PMID:12020093

  14. Alternative approaches for better municipal solid waste management in Mumbai, India

    SciTech Connect

    Rathi, Sarika . E-mail: sarika@iri.columbia.edu

    2006-07-01

    Waste is an unavoidable by product of human activities. Economic development, urbanization and improving living standards in cities, have led to an increase in the quantity and complexity of generated waste. Rapid growth of population and industrialization degrades the urban environment and places serious stress on natural resources, which undermines equitable and sustainable development. Inefficient management and disposal of solid waste is an obvious cause of degradation of the environment in most cities of the developing world. Municipal corporations of the developing countries are not able to handle increasing quantities of waste, which results in uncollected waste on roads and in other public places. There is a need to work towards a sustainable waste management system, which requires environmental, institutional, financial, economic and social sustainability. This study explores alternative approaches to municipal solid waste (MSW) management and estimates the cost of waste management in Mumbai, India. Two alternatives considered in the paper are community participation and public private partnership in waste management. Data for the present study are from various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and from the private sector involved in waste management in Mumbai. Mathematical models are used to estimate the cost per ton of waste management for both of the alternatives, which are compared with the cost of waste management by Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). It is found that the cost per ton of waste management is Rs. 1518 (US$35) with community participation; Rs. 1797 (US$41) with public private partnership (PPP); and Rs. 1908 (US$44) when only MCGM handles the waste. Hence, community participation in waste management is the least cost option and there is a strong case for comprehensively involving community participation in waste management.

  15. Alternative approaches for better municipal solid waste management in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Sarika

    2006-01-01

    Waste is an unavoidable by product of human activities. Economic development, urbanization and improving living standards in cities, have led to an increase in the quantity and complexity of generated waste. Rapid growth of population and industrialization degrades the urban environment and places serious stress on natural resources, which undermines equitable and sustainable development. Inefficient management and disposal of solid waste is an obvious cause of degradation of the environment in most cities of the developing world. Municipal corporations of the developing countries are not able to handle increasing quantities of waste, which results in uncollected waste on roads and in other public places. There is a need to work towards a sustainable waste management system, which requires environmental, institutional, financial, economic and social sustainability. This study explores alternative approaches to municipal solid waste (MSW) management and estimates the cost of waste management in Mumbai, India. Two alternatives considered in the paper are community participation and public private partnership in waste management. Data for the present study are from various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and from the private sector involved in waste management in Mumbai. Mathematical models are used to estimate the cost per ton of waste management for both of the alternatives, which are compared with the cost of waste management by Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). It is found that the cost per ton of waste management is Rs. 1518 (35 US dollars) with community participation; Rs. 1797 (41 US dollars) with public private partnership (PPP); and Rs. 1908 (44 US dollars) when only MCGM handles the waste. Hence, community participation in waste management is the least cost option and there is a strong case for comprehensively involving community participation in waste management. PMID:16288861

  16. The behavior of compression and degradation for municipal solid waste and combined settlement calculation method.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianyong; Qian, Xuede; Liu, Xiaodong; Sun, Long; Liao, Zhiqiang

    2016-09-01

    The total compression of municipal solid waste (MSW) consists of primary, secondary, and decomposition compressions. It is usually difficult to distinguish between the three parts of compressions. In this study, the odeometer test was used to distinguish between the primary and secondary compressions to determine the primary and secondary compression coefficient. In addition, the ending time of the primary compressions were proposed based on municipal solid waste compression tests in a degradation-inhibited condition by adding vinegar. The amount of the secondary compression occurring in the primary compression stage has a relatively high percentage to either the total compression or the total secondary compression. The relationship between the degradation ratio and time was obtained from the tests independently. Furthermore, a combined compression calculation method of municipal solid waste for all three parts of compressions including considering organics degradation is proposed based on a one-dimensional compression method. The relationship between the methane generation potential L0 of LandGEM model and degradation compression index was also discussed in the paper. A special column compression apparatus system, which can be used to simulate the whole compression process of municipal solid waste in China, was designed. According to the results obtained from 197-day column compression test, the new combined calculation method for municipal solid waste compression was analyzed. The degradation compression is the main part of the compression of MSW in the medium test period. PMID:26548978

  17. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. PMID:26330401

  18. Municipal waste-water sludge-combustion technology. Seminar pub

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    This publication describes and evaluates the various municipal sludge-combustion systems. It also emphasizes the necessity for considering and evaluating the costs involved in the total sludge-management train, including dewatering, combustion, air pollution control, and ash-disposal processes. It is intended to supplement but not replace EPA technology-transfer publications on sludge treatment and disposal, dewatering municipal wastewater sludges, municipal sludge landfills, and land application of municipal sludge. It also answers questions that have been raised about incineration as a means of processing sludge solids for ultimate disposal and presents factual answers supported by case histories. The primary objectives of the document are: (1) to assess the current status of municipal-sludge-combustion technology as to performance of in-place systems, environmental concerns, and regulatory agency viewpoints; (2) to determine what needs to be done to make municipal-sludge combustion more economical, including upgrading the performance of present and future systems; and (3) to discuss technology in the R and D stage.

  19. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  20. Report to congress: Settlements with municipal waste generators and transporters since 1991 under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-12

    The report to Congress summarizes the status of completed settlements and ongoing negotiations with municipal generators and transporters of municipal solid waste and municipal sewage sludge under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 since 1991.

  1. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  2. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect

    Chiriac, R.; De Araujos Morais, J.; Carre, J.; Bayard, R.; Chovelon, J.M.; Gourdon, R.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from mechanical and biological waste treatment of municipal waste.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J; Cuhls, C

    2003-06-01

    The mechanical and biological waste treatment (MBT) is an increasingly important technology for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) before landfilling. This process includes composting of the material with intensive aeration in order to minimize the organic fraction that may induce methane and leachate emissions after landfilling. The exhaust air is treated by biofilters to remove odorous and volatile organic compounds. The emission of direct and indirect greenhouse gases, namely methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) was studied in four existing treatment plants. All gases except NO were emitted from the composting material. The emission factors were 12 to 185 kg ton(-1) substrate for CO2, 6-12 x 10(3) g ton(-1) substrate for CH4, 1.44 to 378 g ton(-1) substrate for N2O and 18-1150 g ton(-1) for NH3. In general, emission factors increased with increasing treatment time. The biofilters had no net effect on CH4, but removed 13-89% of the NH3. For CO2 the biofilters were a small, for N2O a major and for NO the exclusive source. Approximately 26% of the NH3-N that was removed in the biofilter was transformed into N2O when NH3 was the exclusive nitrogen source. Assuming that all municipal waste was treated by MBT, the emissions would account for 0.3 to 5% of the N2O and for 0.1 to 3% of the CH4 emissions in Germany, respectively. Optimising aeration and removing NH3 before the exhaust gas enters the biofilter could lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:12868530

  4. Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?

    PubMed

    Narayana, Tapan

    2009-03-01

    Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem. PMID:18829290

  5. Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?

    SciTech Connect

    Narayana, Tapan

    2009-03-15

    Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem.

  6. Use of metakaolin to stabilize sewage sludge ash and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash in cement-based materials.

    PubMed

    Cyr, M; Idir, R; Escadeillas, G

    2012-12-01

    The landfilling of municipal incineration residues is an expensive option for municipalities. This work evaluates an alternative way to render waste inert in cement-based materials by combining the reduction of waste content with the immobilization properties of metakaolin (MK). The functional and environmental properties of ternary and quaternary binders using cement, metakaolin, and two industrial by-products from combustion processes (MSWIFA - Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash and SSA - Sewage Sludge Ash) were evaluated. The binders were composed of 75% cement, 22.5% metakaolin and 2.5% residue. Results on the impact of residues on the functional and environmental behavior of mortars showed that the mechanical, dimensional and leaching properties were not affected by the residues. In particular, the use of metakaolin led to a significant decrease in soluble fractions and heavy metals released from the binder matrix. The results are discussed in terms of classification of the leaching behavior, efficiency and role of metakaolin in the immobilization of heavy metals in of MSWIFA and SSA, and the pertinence of the dilution process. PMID:23122733

  7. Characteristics of soot emitted from combustion of municipal waste fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Shemwell, B.E.

    2000-07-01

    This manuscript reports on particulate emissions (mainly soot) from laboratory combustion of typical municipal waste plastics, such as poly(styrene)(PS), poly(propylene)(PP), poly(methylmethacrylate)(PMMA), and poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC). In this experimental study combustion took place in a laboratory-scale, electrically-heated, drop-tube furnace at a gas temperature of 1,500 K, in air. The bulk (global) equivalence ratio, {phi}, was varied in the range of 0.5--1.5 and the gas residence time in the nearly-isothermal radiation zone of the furnace was {approximately}1 sec. The particle emissions were size-classified at the exit of the furnace, using a multi-stage inertial particle impactor. Combustion of PS yielded the highest amounts of soot (most highly agglomerated), several times more than the rest of the polymers. Substantial amounts of soot agglomerates were larger than 10 {micro}m. At this temperature <35% of the soot mass was PM{sub 2.5} (2.5 {micro}m or smaller). Soot yields increased with increasing bulk equivalence ratio in the furnace. The emissions from PE and PP were remarkably similar to each other, but strikingly different than those from PS. These polymers produced very low emissions at {phi} {le} 0.5, but emissions increased drastically with {phi}, and most of the soot was very fine (70--97% of the mass was PM{sub 2.5} depending on {phi}). Emissions from the combustion of PMMA were comparatively low and were the least influenced by the bulk {phi}; 80--95% of the emissions were PM{sub 2.5}. Combustion of PVC yielded relatively low amounts of soot; moreover, only 13--34% of the mass was PM{sub 2.5}. Hence, comparatively, PS produced the highest amounts of fine particulates followed by PP, PE, and PMMA, and then PVC. Burning these materials with excess oxygen drastically reduced the particulate emissions from PE and PP, substantially reduced those from PS, and mildly reduced those from PMMA and PVC.

  8. Municipal solid waste incineration in China and the issue of acidification: A review.

    PubMed

    Ji, Longjie; Lu, Shengyong; Yang, Jie; Du, Cuicui; Chen, Zhiliang; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-04-01

    In China, incineration is essential for reducing the volume of municipal solid waste arising in its numerous megacities. The evolution of incinerator capacity has been huge, yet it creates strong opposition from a small, but vocal part of the population. The characteristics of Chinese municipal solid waste are analysed and data presented on its calorific value and composition. These are not so favourable for incineration, since the sustained use of auxiliary fuel is necessary for ensuring adequate combustion temperatures. Also, the emission standard for acid gases is more lenient in China than in the European Union, so special attention should be paid to the issue of acidification arising from flue gas. Next, the techniques used in flue gas cleaning in China are reviewed and the acidification potential by cleaned flue gas is estimated. Still, acidification induced by municipal solid waste incinerators remains marginal compared with the effects of coal-fired power plants. PMID:26941208

  9. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor report through 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 516,000 metric tons (567,000 tons) of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US DOE. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment.

  10. Co-firing coal in municipal waste combustors may reduce dioxin/furan formation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    While dioxin/furan emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) are a serious concern, coal-fired utility boilers generally do not emit significant amounts of these toxic substances. This difference in emission profiles has led researchers to the hypothesis that co-firing coal and municipal waste could reduce dioxin/furan emissions from MWCs. The hypothesis has proven correct in several studies. Investigators recently studied coal co-firing during pilot-scale tests. The study evaluated the effect of sulfur and investigated specific mechanisms for inhibiting dioxin/furan formation. The experiments substantiated the possibility of reducing MWC dioxin/furan emissions with coal co-firing. However, as noted in the experimental results, coal co-firing under certain conditions may actually increase dioxin/furan formation. Coal type, the ratio of municipal waste to coal, and other operating parameters must be selected carefully to ensure dioxin/furan inhibition. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  11. Environmental performance evaluation of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators using data envelopment analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chang, Ni-Bin; Chen, Jeng-Chung; Tsai, Shu-Ju

    2010-07-01

    Limited to insufficient land resources, incinerators are considered in many countries such as Japan and Germany as the major technology for a waste management scheme capable of dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment in urban regions. The evaluation of these municipal incinerators in terms of secondary pollution potential, cost-effectiveness, and operational efficiency has become a new focus in the highly interdisciplinary area of production economics, systems analysis, and waste management. This paper aims to demonstrate the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA)--a production economics tool--to evaluate performance-based efficiencies of 19 large-scale municipal incinerators in Taiwan with different operational conditions. A 4-year operational data set from 2002 to 2005 was collected in support of DEA modeling using Monte Carlo simulation to outline the possibility distributions of operational efficiency of these incinerators. Uncertainty analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation provides a balance between simplifications of our analysis and the soundness of capturing the essential random features that complicate solid waste management systems. To cope with future challenges, efforts in the DEA modeling, systems analysis, and prediction of the performance of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators under normal operation and special conditions were directed toward generating a compromised assessment procedure. Our research findings will eventually lead to the identification of the optimal management strategies for promoting the quality of solid waste incineration, not only in Taiwan, but also elsewhere in the world. PMID:20181468

  12. Environmental performance evaluation of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators using data envelopment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.-W.; Chang, N.-B.; Chen, J.-C.; Tsai, S.-J.

    2010-07-15

    Limited to insufficient land resources, incinerators are considered in many countries such as Japan and Germany as the major technology for a waste management scheme capable of dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment in urban regions. The evaluation of these municipal incinerators in terms of secondary pollution potential, cost-effectiveness, and operational efficiency has become a new focus in the highly interdisciplinary area of production economics, systems analysis, and waste management. This paper aims to demonstrate the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) - a production economics tool - to evaluate performance-based efficiencies of 19 large-scale municipal incinerators in Taiwan with different operational conditions. A 4-year operational data set from 2002 to 2005 was collected in support of DEA modeling using Monte Carlo simulation to outline the possibility distributions of operational efficiency of these incinerators. Uncertainty analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation provides a balance between simplifications of our analysis and the soundness of capturing the essential random features that complicate solid waste management systems. To cope with future challenges, efforts in the DEA modeling, systems analysis, and prediction of the performance of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators under normal operation and special conditions were directed toward generating a compromised assessment procedure. Our research findings will eventually lead to the identification of the optimal management strategies for promoting the quality of solid waste incineration, not only in Taiwan, but also elsewhere in the world.

  13. Energy recovery from organic fractions of municipal solid waste: A case study of Hyderabad city, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Safar, Korai M; Bux, Mahar R; Aslam, Uqaili M; Ahmed, Memon S; Ahmed, Lashari I

    2016-04-01

    Non-renewable energy sources have remained the choice of the world for centuries. Rapid growth in population and industrialisation have caused their shortage and environmental degradation by using them. Thus, at the present rate of consumption, they will not last very long. In this prospective, this study has been conducted. The estimation of energy in terms of biogas and heat from various organic fractions of municipal solid waste is presented and discussed. The results show that organic fractions of municipal solid waste possess methane potential in the range of 3%-22% and their heat capacity ranges from 3007 to 20,099 kJ kg(-1) Also, theoretical biogas potential of different individual fruit as well as vegetable components and mixed food waste are analysed and estimated in the range of 608-1244 m(3) t(-1) Further, the share of bioenergy from municipal solid waste in the total primary energy supply in Pakistan has been estimated to be 1.82%. About 8.43% of present energy demand of the country could be met from municipal solid waste. The study leads us to the conclusion that the share of imported energy (i.e. 0.1% of total energy supply) and reduction in the amount of energy from fossil fuels can be achieved by adopting a waste-to-energy system in the country. PMID:26821599

  14. Characterisation and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Sangamner City, District Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Thitame, Sunil Namdeo; Pondhe, G M; Meshram, D C

    2010-11-01

    This paper deals with the characteristics and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Sangamner city. The composition of solid waste was studied by segregating it into different component, i.e., kitchen waste, paper, earth and fine material, slaughter house waste, leaves, metals, etc. These components were categorised into organic waste and inorganic waste. It was observed that Sangamner city produces around 61% organic waste, and the rest is inorganic waste. The characteristics of organic solid waste, i.e., pH, electrical conductivity, moisture content, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were evaluated. The analysis of organic content of MSW indicates that it is good source of nutrients for the agriculture sector whereas inorganic material can be used for landfill. PMID:19890729

  15. Characterization of MSW and related waste-derived compost in Zanzibar municipality.

    PubMed

    Vuai, Said Ali Hamad

    2010-02-01

    The spread of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Zanzibar municipality has been associated with environmental pollution, unpleasant city conditions, contamination of water sources and coastal areas together with harbouring of malaria vectors. The contamination has a close relationship with eruption of diarrhoea, cholera and typhoid which claim the lives of the residents. Most of the wastes are of domestic and market origin and have the potential for compost production. This study examined the possibility of composting MSW from Zanzibar municipality as an alternative way of SW management and assessed the nutrient contents of the compost for application in agricultural production. Two major classes of SW were selected for the study: municipal solid waste and rice milling by-products. The samples were composted aerobically and anaerobically. The results showed that aerobic composting reduced about 60% of the waste volume. This volume reduction suggests that composting can be a promising SW management technique by reducing the large demand of space for landfilling. Municipal solid waste composted under anaerobic conditions produced compost with relatively higher concentrations of dissolved species than that produced under aerobic conditions. The trace metal contents were higher in MSW than in rice milling by-products. It was found that the unmanaged compost collected from the dumping site had low nutrient contents and was enriched with trace metals. Generally, physico-chemical characteristics, nutrients and trace metal levels suggest that Zanzibar municipal solid waste can produce high-quality compost for application to a wide range of soil types to improve their fertility, under proper management. PMID:19748949

  16. Municipal Solid Waste Management using Geographical Information System aided methods: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Debishree; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2014-11-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental challenges in developing countries. Many efforts to reduce and recover the wastes have been made, but still land disposal of solid wastes is the most popular one. Finding an environmentally sound landfill site is a challenging task. This paper addresses a mini review on various aspects of MSWM (suitable landfill site selection, route optimization and public acceptance) using the Geographical Information System (GIS) coupled with other tools. The salient features of each of the integrated tools with GIS are discussed in this paper. It is also addressed how GIS can help in optimizing routes for collection of solid wastes from transfer stations to disposal sites to reduce the overall cost of solid waste management. A detailed approach on performing a public acceptance study of a proposed landfill site is presented in this study. The study will help municipal authorities to identify the most effective method of MSWM. PMID:25352293

  17. Life cycle comparison of waste-to-energy alternatives for municipal waste treatment in Chilean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Bezama, Alberto; Douglas, Carla; Méndez, Jacqueline; Szarka, Nóra; Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo; Schock, Steffen; Konrad, Odorico; Ulloa, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The energy system in the Region of Aysén, Chile, is characterized by a strong dependence on fossil fuels, which account for up to 51% of the installed capacity. Although the implementation of waste-to-energy concepts in municipal waste management systems could support the establishment of a more fossil-independent energy system for the region, previous studies have concluded that energy recovery systems are not suitable from an economic perspective in Chile. Therefore, this work intends to evaluate these technical options from an environmental perspective, using life cycle assessment as a tool for a comparative analysis, considering Coyhaique city as a case study. Three technical alternatives were evaluated: (i) landfill gas recovery and flaring without energy recovery; (ii) landfill gas recovery and energy use; and (iii) the implementation of an anaerobic digestion system for the organic waste fraction coupled with energy recovery from the biogas produced. Mass and energy balances of the three analyzed alternatives have been modeled. The comparative LCA considered global warming potential, abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion as impact categories, as well as required raw energy and produced energy as comparative regional-specific indicators. According to the results, the use of the recovered landfill gas as an energy source can be identified as the most environmentally appropriate solution for Coyhaique, especially when taking into consideration the global impact categories. PMID:23988463

  18. Cost recovery of municipal solid waste management in small cities of inland China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xin; Hu, Shunong

    2014-04-01

    Financial performance of waste management, the key for efficiency and sustainability, has rarely been studied in China, especially for small cities. Through questionnaires and interviews, we conducted such a case study in several cities aiming to fill the gap and improve waste service. We found that labour accounts for more than half to three-quarters of the operation cost, followed by fuel and vehicle maintenance. The waste service heavily relies on budget transfer of the municipality. User fees collected recover less than half of total operation cost at best, even if the collection rate is relatively high. The low cost recovery is mainly due to low fee rates, unchanged for years owing to public pressure. Public complaint seems to be justified by the finding that the service only accounts for 5-10% of municipal revenue annually and even lower in government spending. Contrary to general perception, per capita waste generation in small cities is not less than big ones. Waste composition is dominated by kitchen wastes, with fractions of recyclables and combustibles much lower than big cities. These findings have implications on the waste management strategy: commercial incineration or recycling may not be economically viable for small cities. The article concludes that user fees might better serve, and be designed for, behaviour change than for cost recovery. Municipalities need to first improve cost efficiency and transparency of waste services to gain public trust and support in order to tackle the biggest challenge facing developing countries, cost recovery. PMID:24633554

  19. [Application of optimization management model of municipal solid waste from medium or small city of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Tianwei; Yan, Gang; Wang, Yeyao; Ma, Xiaofan; Nie, Yongfeng

    2003-05-01

    According to the basic characteristics of municipal solid waste generated from medium or small city of China, the optimal management principles and programs for optimization management model suitable to them were put forward. By application of the model in case study, the optimal scenarios for the disposal of municipal solid waste from the planning system in 1999, 2005 and 2010 were calculated, which adequately validated and accounted for the advantages of optimization model by comparison of costs between optimization scenarios and former scenarios. PMID:12916219

  20. 40 CFR 60.1025 - Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subpart E of this part does not apply to your municipal waste combustion unit. ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1025 Section 60.1025 Protection...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1025 - Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart E of this part does not apply to your municipal waste combustion unit. ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1025 Section 60.1025 Protection...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1025 - Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart E of this part does not apply to your municipal waste combustion unit. ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1025 Section 60.1025 Protection...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1025 - Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart E of this part does not apply to your municipal waste combustion unit. ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1025 Section 60.1025 Protection...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1025 - Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart E of this part does not apply to your municipal waste combustion unit. ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1025 Section 60.1025 Protection...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1680 - After the required date for operator certification, who may operate the municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certification, who may operate the municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1680 Section 60.1680 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Good Combustion Practices:...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15035 - Is my small municipal waste combustion unit subject to different requirements based on plant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is my small municipal waste combustion... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of This Subpart § 62.15035 Is my small municipal waste combustion unit subject to different requirements based on plant capacity?...

  7. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa...

  8. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion...

  9. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Class I Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Class I Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Limits...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1200 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1200 Section 60.1200 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1200 What are the operating...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1190 - After the required date for operator certification, who may operate the municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certification, who may operate the municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1190 Section 60.1190 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which... June 6, 2001 Good Combustion Practices: Operator Certification § 60.1190 After the required date...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1690 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1690 Section 60.1690 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1690...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15145 Section 62.15145 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 62.15145 What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1190 - After the required date for operator certification, who may operate the municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... certification, who may operate the municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1190 Section 60.1190 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999 or for Which Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1680 - After the required date for operator certification, who may operate the municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... certification, who may operate the municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1680 Section 60.1680 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Good Combustion Practices:...

  16. CLEANING OF MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATOR FLUE GAS IN EUROPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of a substantial ongoing air pollution control program in West Germany, as it relates to emission of acid gases and other pollutants from municipal refuse incineration. It details emission regulations, control means used, and technical advancements acc...

  17. Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction

    SciTech Connect

    Zotos, G.; Karagiannidis, A.; Zampetoglou, S.; Malamakis, A. Antonopoulos, I.-S.; Kontogianni, S.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    2009-05-15

    The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings.

  18. Integrated chemical treatment of municipal wastewater using waste hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmed; Mahmood, Qaisar; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmad; Malik, Amir Haider; Rashid, Naim; Wu, Donglei

    Dilemmas like water shortage, rapid industrialization, growing human population and related issues have seriously affected human health and environmental sustainability. For conservation and sustainable use of our water resources, innovative methods for wastewater treatment are continuously being explored. Advance Oxidation Processes (AOPs) show a promising approach to meet specific objectives of municipal wastewater treatment (MWW). The MWW samples were pretreated with Al 2(SO 4) 4·8H 2O (Alum) at different doses 4, 8, 12-50 mg/L to enhance the sedimentation. The maximum COD removal was observed at alum treatments in range of 28-32 mg/L without increasing total dissolved solids (TDS). TDS were found to increase when the alum dose was increased from 32-40 mg/L. In the present study, the optimum alum dose of 30 mg/L for 3 h of sedimentation and subsequent integrated H 2O 2/UV treatment was applied (using 2.5 mL/L of 40% waste H 2O 2 and 35% fresh H 2O 2 separately). Organic and inorganic pollutants, contributing towards chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), turbidity and total dissolved solids were degraded by H 2O 2/UV. About 93% COD, 90% BOD and 83% turbidity reduction occurred when 40% waste H 2O 2 was used. When using fresh H 2O 2, 63% COD, 68% BOD and 86% turbidity reduction was detected. Complete disinfection of coliform bacteria occurred by using 40% H 2O 2/UV. The most interesting part of this research was to compare the effectiveness of waste H 2O 2 with fresh H 2O 2. Waste H 2O 2 generated from an industrial process of disinfection was found more effective in the treatment of MWW than fresh 35% H 2O 2.

  19. Leachates draining from controlled municipal solid waste landfill: Detailed geochemical characterization and toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Mavakala, Bienvenu K; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mulaji, Crispin K; Laffite, Amandine; Devarajan, Naresh; Biey, Emmanuel M; Giuliani, Gregory; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Kabatusuila, Prosper; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-09-01

    Management of municipal solid wastes in many countries consists of waste disposal into landfill without treatment or selective collection of solid waste fractions including plastics, paper, glass, metals, electronic waste, and organic fraction leading to the unsolved problem of contamination of numerous ecosystems such as air, soil, surface, and ground water. Knowledge of leachate composition is critical in risk assessment of long-term impact of landfills on human health and the environment as well as for prevention of negative outcomes. The research presented in this paper investigates the seasonal variation of draining leachate composition and resulting toxicity as well as the contamination status of soil/sediment from lagoon basins receiving leachates from landfill in Mpasa, a suburb of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, soluble ions, toxic metals, and were then subjected to toxicity tests. Results highlight the significant seasonal difference in leachate physicochemical composition. Affected soil/sediment showed higher values for toxic metals than leachates, indicating the possibility of using lagoon system for the purification of landfill leachates, especially for organic matter and heavy metal sedimentation. However, the ecotoxicity tests demonstrated that leachates are still a significant source of toxicity for terrestrial and benthic organisms. Therefore, landfill leachates should not be discarded into the environment (soil or surface water) without prior treatment. Interest in the use of macrophytes in lagoon system is growing and toxic metal retention in lagoon basin receiving systems needs to be fully investigated in the future. This study presents useful tools for evaluating landfill leachate quality and risk in lagoon systems which can be applied to similar environmental compartments. PMID:27177465

  20. Stakeholder-based SWOT analysis for successful municipal solid waste management in Lucknow, India

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.K. . E-mail: pankaj_riu@yahoo.com; Kulshreshtha, K.; Mohanty, C.S.; Pushpangadan, P.; Singh, A.

    2005-07-01

    The present investigation is a case study of Lucknow, the main metropolis in Northern India, which succumbs to a major problem of municipal solid waste and its management. A qualitative investigation using strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis (SWOT) has been successfully implemented through this community participation study. This qualitative investigation emphasizes the limited capabilities of the municipal corporation's resources to provide proper facilitation of the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) services without community participation in Lucknow city. The SWOT analysis was performed to formulate strategic action plans for MSWM in order to mobilize and utilize the community resources on the one hand and municipal corporation's resources on the other. It has allowed the introduction of a participatory approach for better collaboration between the community and municipal corporation in Lucknow (India). With this stakeholder-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting the possible 'threats' into 'opportunities' and changing the 'weaknesses' into 'strengths' regarding a community-based MSWM programme. By this investigation, concrete strategic action plans were developed for both the community and municipal corporation to improve MSWM in Lucknow.

  1. Bulk deposition close to a Municipal Solid Waste incinerator: one source among many.

    PubMed

    Venturini, Elisa; Vassura, Ivano; Ferroni, Laura; Raffo, Simona; Passarini, Fabrizio; Beddows, David C S; Harrison, Roy M

    2013-07-01

    In order to assess the contribution of a Municipal Solid Waste incinerator to the area's total contamination, metals and soluble ions have been determined in bulk deposition collected at sites affected by different levels of plant emissions, according to the results of the Calpuff air dispersion model. Results show that in general fluxes monitored at the different sites during the same period are quite similar for each analyte. Deposition fluxes of nitrite and ammonium are significantly lower at the more distant site, while copper is significantly higher at this site, possibly because of copper fungicide used on the nearby agriculture land. The presence of sea spray and resuspended soil dust can be inferred from Pearson correlation coefficients, while enrichment factors indicate that Cu, Pb and Zn have a probable anthropogenic origin. A more complete evaluation of the sources affecting the area was obtained with PMF analysis. The sources associated with each factor were identified from the source profile and temporal trends. Six factors were identified, three sources associate with natural matrices, while three factors represent anthropogenic sources. The greatest contribution of heavy metals, the most toxic and persistent components determined, is associated with resuspended soil dust, especially when weighted according to their toxicity. The anthropogenic source contribution is similar at all sites, and therefore the incinerator's relative contribution to the total pollutant load appears to be negligible compared to other sources affecting the area. PMID:23639865

  2. Modelling and evaluating municipal solid waste management strategies in a mega-city: the case of Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    ThiKimOanh, Le; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M; van Buuren, Joost Cl; van der Vorst, Jack Gaj; Rulkens, Wim H

    2015-04-01

    Ho Chi Minh City is a large city that will become a mega-city in the near future. The city struggles with a rapidly increasing flow of municipal solid waste and a foreseeable scarcity of land to continue landfilling, the main treatment of municipal solid waste up to now. Therefore, additional municipal solid waste treatment technologies are needed. The objective of this article is to support decision-making towards more sustainable and cost-effective municipal solid waste strategies in developing countries, in particular Vietnam. A quantitative decision support model is developed to optimise the distribution of municipal solid waste from population areas to treatment plants, the treatment technologies and their capacities for the near future given available infrastructure and cost factors. PMID:25739768

  3. The effects of daily cover soils on shear strength of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Sahadat; Haque, Mohamed A

    2009-05-01

    Bioreactor landfills are operated to enhance refuse decomposition, gas production, and waste stabilization. The major aspect of bioreactor landfill operation is the recirculation of collected leachate back through the refuse mass. Due to the accelerated decomposition and settlement of solid waste, bioreactor landfills are gaining popularity as an alternative to the conventional landfill. The addition or recirculation of leachate to accelerate the waste decomposition changes the geotechnical characteristics of waste mass. The daily cover soils, usually up to 20-30% of total MSW volumes in the landfill, may also influence the decomposition and shear strength behavior of MSW. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of daily covers soils on the shear strength properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) in bioreactor landfills with time and decomposition. Two sets of laboratory-scale bioreactor landfills were simulated in a laboratory, and samples were prepared to represent different phases of decomposition. The state of decomposition was quantified by methane yield, pH, and volatile organic content (VOC). Due to decomposition, the matrix structure of the degradable solid waste component was broken down and contributed to a significant decrease in the reinforcing effect of MSW. However, the daily cover soil, a non-degradable constituent of MSW, remains constant. Therefore, the interaction between daily cover soil particles and MSW particles will affect shear strength behavior. A number of triaxial tests were performed to evaluate the shear strength of MSW. The test results indicated that the shear strength of MSW was affected by the presence of cover soils. The friction angle of MSW with the presence of cover soil is higher than the friction angle of MSW without any cover soils. The friction angle of MSW increased from 27 degrees to 30 degrees due to the presence of cover soils for Phase 1 samples. The increased strength was attributed to the friction nature

  4. Assessment of the Municipal Solid Waste & Status of Implementation of Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling), Rules, 2000 in the State of Madhya Pradesh, 2008 - a case study.

    PubMed

    Lal Patel, Munna; Jain, Rajnikant; Saxena, Alok

    2011-05-01

    The municipal solid waste (MSW), generated from different activities in the township and city areas is a subject of deep concern for its proper management. The improper management of the MSW is a major cause for water, air and soil pollution. The population explosion and sustained drive for economic progress and development have resulted in a remarkable increase/ change in quantity and characteristics of MSW generation over the last 20 years. The local bodies are responsible for the management of the MSW in the State. The Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling), Rules, 2000 came into force from the date of its publication in the official Gazette of India and are applicable to every local body responsible for the proper management of the MSW in the State. The status report of the implementation of the Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling), Rules, 2000 in the State of Madhya Pradesh, is prepared as per the MOU signed by the State Pollution Control Board with the Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi. The necessary data for the preparation of the report, collected from the respective local bodies through the regional offices of the Board during the period February to December 2008. There are 342 local bodies (municipal corporations, 14; municipal committees or municipalities, 86; Nagar Panchyats, 237; and cantonment boards, 5) responsible for the implementation of the MSW, in the State. It is estimated that around 4500 Mt day(-1) MSW is generated from all the 342 local bodies. The local bodies of the State are not well equipped for the proper management of the MSW. A total of 323 local bodies has identified land for the development of the landfill sites as per the provisions of the Rules but only 90 local bodies acquired the same. As an outcome of this assessment, the local bodies are not financially and technically capable for the proper implementation of the Rules. The collection of the waste is around 60-70%. This status report will serve as an

  5. A novel sustainable decision making model for municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, M.-L. . E-mail: d89541004@ntu.edu.tw; Ma Hwongwen . E-mail: hwma@ntu.edu.tw; Yang, W.-F. . E-mail: wfyang@ntu.edu.tw

    2007-07-01

    This paper reviews several models developed to support decision making in municipal solid waste management (MSWM). The concepts underlying sustainable MSWM models can be divided into two categories: one incorporates social factors into decision making methods, and the other includes public participation in the decision-making process. The public is only apprised or takes part in discussion, and has little effect on decision making in most research efforts. Few studies have considered public participation in the decision-making process, and the methods have sought to strike a compromise between concerned criteria, not between stakeholders. However, the source of the conflict arises from the stakeholders' complex web of value. Such conflict affects the feasibility of implementing any decision. The purpose of this study is to develop a sustainable decision making model for MSWM to overcome these shortcomings. The proposed model combines multicriteria decision making (MCDM) and a consensus analysis model (CAM). The CAM is built up to aid in decision-making when MCDM methods are utilized and, subsequently, a novel sustainable decision making model for MSWM is developed. The main feature of CAM is the assessment of the degree of consensus between stakeholders for particular alternatives. A case study for food waste management in Taiwan is presented to demonstrate the practicality of this model.

  6. Destruction of inorganic municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in a DC arc plasma furnace.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Ni, Guohua; Jiang, Yiman; Chen, Longwei; Chen, Mingzhou; Meng, Yuedong

    2010-09-15

    Due to the toxicity of dioxins, furans and heavy metals, there is a growing environmental concern on municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in China. The purpose of this study is directed towards the volume-reduction of fly ash without any additive by thermal plasma and recycling of vitrified slag. This process uses extremely high-temperature in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose complex waste into very simple molecules. For developing the proper plasma processes to treat MSWI fly ash, a new crucible-type plasma furnace was built. The melting process metamorphosed fly ash to granulated slag that was less than 1/3 of the volume of the fly ash, and about 64% of the weight of the fly ash. The safety of the vitrified slag was tested. The properties of the slag were affected by the differences in the cooling methods. Water-cooled and composite-cooled slag showed more excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals and can be utilized as building material without toxicity problems. PMID:20542633

  7. Mercury air-borne emissions from 5 municipal solid waste landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. G.; Feng, X.; Li, P.; Liang, L.; Tang, S. L.; Wang, S. F.; Fu, X. W.; Qiu, G. L.; Shang, L. H.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed study on atmospheric mercury emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in China is necessary to understand mercury behavior in this source category, simply because China disposes of bulk MSW by landfilling and a large quantity of mercury enters into landfills. Between 2003 and 2006, mercury airborne emissions through different pathways, as well as mercury speciation in landfill gas (LFG) were measured at 5 MSW landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China. The results showed that mercury content in the substrate fundamentally affected the magnitude of mercury emissions, resulting in the highest emission rate (as high as 57 651 ng Hg m-2 h-1) at the working face and in un-covered waste areas, and the lowest measured at soil covers and vegetation areas (less than 20 ng Hg m-2 h-1). Meteorological parameters, especially solar radiation, influenced the diurnal pattern of mercury surface-air emissions. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in LFG varied from 2.0 to 1406.0 ng m-3, monomethyl mercury (MMHg) and dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in LFG averaged at 1.93 and 9.21 ng m-3, and accounted for 0.51% and 1.79% of the TGM in the LFG, respectively. Total mercury emitted from the five landfills ranged from 17 to 3285 g yr-1, with the highest from the working face, then soil covering, and finally the vent pipes.

  8. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg(-1) ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg(-1) ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly. PMID:21316210

  9. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-07-15

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly.

  10. Public Health Risks from Mismanagement of Healthcare Wastes in Shinyanga Municipality Health Facilities, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kuchibanda, Kizito; Mayo, Aloyce W.

    2015-01-01

    The increase of healthcare facilities in Shinyanga municipality has resulted in an increase of healthcare wastes, which poses serious threats to the environment, health workers, and the general public. This research was conducted to investigate management practices of healthcare wastes in Shinyanga municipality with a view of assessing health risks to health workers and the general public. The study, which was carried out in three hospitals, involved the use of questionnaires, in-depth interview, and observation checklist. The results revealed that healthcare wastes are not quantified or segregated in all the three hospitals. Healthcare wastes at the Shinyanga Regional Referral Hospital are disposed of by on-site incineration and burning and some wastes are disposed off-site. At Kolandoto DDH only on-site burning and land disposal are practiced, while at Kambarage UHC healthcare solid wastes are incinerated, disposed of on land disposal, and burned. Waste management workers do not have formal training in waste management techniques and the hospital administrations pay very little attention to appropriate management of healthcare wastes. In light of this, it is evident that management of healthcare solid wastes is not practiced in accordance with the national and WHO's recommended standards. PMID:26779565

  11. Municipal solid waste management in Nepal: practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhrel, D.; Viraraghavan, T. . E-mail: t.viraraghavan@uregina.ca

    2005-07-01

    Solid waste management in Kathmandu valley of Nepal, especially concerning the siting of landfills, has been a challenge for over a decade. The current practice of the illegal dumping of solid waste on the river banks has created a serious environmental and public health problem. The focus of this study was to carry out an evaluation of solid waste management in Nepal based on published information. The data showed that 70% of the solid wastes generated in Nepal are of organic origin. As such, composting of the solid waste and using it on the land is the best way of solid waste disposal. This will reduce the waste volume transported to the landfill and will increase its life.

  12. [Health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: findings of the SESPIR Project].

    PubMed

    Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Badaloni, Chiara; Cernigliaro, Achille; Chiusolo, Monica; Parmagnani, Federica; Pizzuti, Renato; Scondotto, Salvatore; Cadum, Ennio; Forastiere, Francesco; Lauriola, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The SESPIR Project (Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants) assessed the impact on health of residents nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants in five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily). The assessment procedure took into account the available knowledge on health effects of waste disposal facilities. Analyses were related to three different scenarios: a Baseline scenario, referred to plants active in 2008-2009; the regional future scenario, with plants expected in the waste regional plans; a virtuous scenario (Green 2020), based on a policy management of municipal solid waste (MSW) through the reduction of production and an intense recovery policy. Facing with a total population of around 24 million for the 5 regions, the residents nearby the plants were more than 380,000 people at Baseline. Such a population is reduced to approximately 330.000 inhabitants and 170.000 inhabitants in the regional and Green 2020 scenarios, respectively. The health impact was assessed for the period 2008-2040. At Baseline, 1-2 cases per year of cancer attributable to MSW plants were estimated, as well as 26 cases per year of adverse pregnancy outcomes (including low birth weight and birth defects), 102 persons with respiratory symptoms, and about a thousand affected from annoyance caused by odours. These annual estimates are translated into 2,725 years of life with disability (DALYs) estimated for the entire period. The DALYs are reduced by approximately 20% and 80% in the two future scenarios. Even in these cases, health impact is given by the greater effects on pregnancy and the annoyance associated with the odours of plants. In spite of the limitations due to the inevitable assumptions required by the present exercise, the proposed methodology is suitable for a first approach to assess different policies that can be adopted in regional planning in

  13. Composting of municipal and sewage wastes. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the composting of sewage and municipal wastes as an alternative to conventional treatments such as landfills. Processing variables are considered, including aeration, heavy-metal cleanup, microbial activity, and temperatures. Applications of this composted product for fertilization of agricultural lands, and productivity measurements of treated soils are considered. Economic comparisons between waste treatment options are examined, and examples are presented for successful sewage and waste composting systems worldwide. Industrial and agricultural waste processing by composting are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Survey of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2010-07-01

    The operations of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan were examined. Input waste, system processes, material flows, quality of char and its utilization, fuel and chemical consumption, control of facility emissions, and trouble areas in facility operation were investigated and analyzed. Although carbonization is a technically available thermochemical conversion method for municipal solid waste treatment, problems of energy efficiency and char utilization must be solved for carbonization to be competitive. Possible solutions include (1) optimizing the composition of input waste, treatment scale, organization of unit processes, operational methods, and quality and yield of char on the basis of analysis and feedback of long-term operating data of present operating facilities and (2) securing stable char demands by linking with local industries such as thermal electric power companies, iron manufacturing plants, and cement production plants. PMID:20149627

  15. Utilization of municipal solid and liquid wastes for bioenergy and bioproducts production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Paul; Xie, Qinglong; Addy, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yunpu; Cheng, Yanling; Li, Kun; Ruan, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Municipal wastes, be it solid or liquid, are rising due to the global population growth and rapid urbanization and industrialization. Conventional management practice involving recycling, combustion, and treatment/disposal is deemed unsustainable. Solutions must be sought to not only increase the capacity but also improve the sustainability of waste management. Research has demonstrated that the non-recyclable waste materials and bio-solids can be converted into useable heat, electricity, or fuel and chemical through a variety of processes, including gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas in addition to combustion, and wastewater streams have the potential to support algae growth and provide other energy recovery options. The present review is intended to assess and analyze the current state of knowledge in the municipal solid wastes and wastewater treatment and utilization technologies and recommend practical solution options and future research and development needs. PMID:26996262

  16. Distribution of aquifers, liquid-waste impoundments, and municipal water-supply sources, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, David F.; Maevsky, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Impoundments of liquid waste are potential sources of ground-water contamination in Massachusetts. The map report, at a scale of 1 inch equals 4 miles, shows the idstribution of aquifers and the locations of municipal water-supply sources and known liquid-waste impoundments. Ground water, an important source of municipal water supply, is produced from shallow sand and gravel aquifers that are generally unconfined, less than 200 feet thick, and yield less than 2,000 gallons per minute to individual wells. These aquifers commonly occupy lowlands and stream valleys and are most extensive in eastern Massachusetts. Surface impoundments of liquid waste are commonly located over these aquifers. These impoundments may leak and allow waste to infiltrate underlying aquifers and alter their water quality. (USGS)

  17. Survey of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2010-07-15

    The operations of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan were examined. Input waste, system processes, material flows, quality of char and its utilization, fuel and chemical consumption, control of facility emissions, and trouble areas in facility operation were investigated and analyzed. Although carbonization is a technically available thermochemical conversion method for municipal solid waste treatment, problems of energy efficiency and char utilization must be solved for carbonization to be competitive. Possible solutions include (1) optimizing the composition of input waste, treatment scale, organization of unit processes, operational methods, and quality and yield of char on the basis of analysis and feedback of long-term operating data of present operating facilities and (2) securing stable char demands by linking with local industries such as thermal electric power companies, iron manufacturing plants, and cement production plants.

  18. Municipal solid waste flow and waste generation characteristics in an urban--rural fringe area in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Ai; Hara, Yuji; Sekiyama, Makiko; Honda, Ryo; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2009-12-01

    In the urban-rural fringe of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, rapid urbanization is creating a land-use mixture of agricultural fields and residential areas. To develop appropriate policies to enhance recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW), current MSW management was investigated in the oboto (local administrative district) of Bang Maenang in Nonthaburi Province, adjoining Bangkok. The authors conducted a structural interview survey with waste-related organizations and local residents, analysed household waste generation, and performed global positioning system (GPS) tracking of municipal garbage trucks. It was found that MSW was collected and treated by local government, private-sector entities, and the local community separately. Lack of integrated management of these entities complicated waste flow in the study area, and some residences were not served by MSW collection. Organic waste, such as kitchen garbage and yard waste, accounted for a large proportion of waste generation but was underutilized. Through GPS/GIS analysis, the waste collection rate of the generated waste amount was estimated to be 45.5- 51.1% of total generation. PMID:19423594

  19. Intermunicipal cooperation, privatization and waste management costs: Evidence from rural municipalities

    SciTech Connect

    Bel, Germa Mur, Melania

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of intermunicipal cooperation and privatization on the delivery costs of urban solid waste services in rural environments. The results of our empirical analysis, which we conducted among a sample of very small municipalities, indicate that small towns that cooperate incur lower costs for their waste collection service. Cooperation also raises collection frequency and improves the quality of the service in small towns. By contrast, the form of production, whether it is public or private, does not result in systematic differences in costs. Interestingly, the degree of population dispersion, that is, the number of population units within the municipal jurisdiction, has a significant positive relation with service costs. No evidence of scale economies is found because small municipalities have likely exploited them by means of intermunicipal cooperation.

  20. 40 CFR 60.1640 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my municipal waste combustion unit and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... close my municipal waste combustion unit and not restart it? 60.1640 Section 60.1640 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion... do if I plan to permanently close my municipal waste combustion unit and not restart it? (a) If...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1640 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my municipal waste combustion unit and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... close my municipal waste combustion unit and not restart it? 60.1640 Section 60.1640 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion... do if I plan to permanently close my municipal waste combustion unit and not restart it? (a) If...

  2. Municipal incineration studies: Sludge, refuse, and solid wastes. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of incineration processes for the destruction of municipal wastes, including sewage sludge, refuse, and solid wastes. Topics include systems design and management, combustion and emissions studies, pollution and toxicity studies, heat recovery operations, pollution control devices, and economic aspects. Analytical methods for pollution identification, marine vessel incinerators, catalytic incineration, and risk assessment studies are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Attitude towards the incorporation of the selective collection of biowaste in a municipal solid waste management system. A case study.

    PubMed

    Bernad-Beltrán, D; Simó, A; Bovea, M D

    2014-12-01

    European waste legislation has been encouraging for years the incorporation of selective collection systems for the biowaste fraction. European countries are therefore incorporating it into their current municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems. However, this incorporation involves changes in the current waste management habits of households. In this paper, the attitude of the public towards the incorporation of selective collection of biowaste into an existing MSWM system in a Spanish municipality is analysed. A semi-structured telephone interview was used to obtain information regarding aspects such as: level of participation in current waste collection systems, willingness to participate in selective collection of biowaste, reasons and barriers that affect participation, willingness to pay for the incorporation of the selective collection of biowaste and the socioeconomic characteristics of citizens who are willing to participate and pay for selective collection of biowaste. The results showed that approximately 81% of the respondents were willing to participate in selective collection of biowaste. This percentage would increase until 89% if the Town Council provided specific waste bins and bags, since the main barrier to participate in the new selective collection system is the need to use specific waste bin and bags for the separation of biowaste. A logit response model was applied to estimate the average willingness to pay, obtaining an estimated mean of 7.5% on top of the current waste management annual tax. The relationship of willingness to participate and willingness to pay for the implementation of this new selective collection with the socioeconomic variables (age, gender, size of the household, work, education and income) was analysed. Chi-square independence tests and binary logistic regression was used for willingness to participate, not being obtained any significant relationship. Chi-square independence tests, ordinal logistic regression and

  4. EMISSION TEST REPORT- FIELD TEST OF CARBON INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL, CAMDEN COUNTY MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of parametric test to evaluate the injection powdered activated carbon to control volatile pollutants in municipal waste combustor (MWC) flue gas. he tests were conducted at a spray dryer absorber/electrostatic precipitator (SD/ESP)-equipped MWC in Camden...

  5. 40 CFR 62.15010 - Is my municipal waste combustion unit covered by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unit becomes subject to subpart AAAA of 40 CFR part 60 (New Source Performance Standards for Small... subpart, then subpart AAAA of 40 CFR part 60 (New Source Performance Standards for Small Municipal Waste... reconstructions under subpart AAAA of 40 CFR part 60. (d) Upon approval of the State or tribal plan, this...

  6. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 4: SESSIONS 9, 10, 11, AND 12

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  7. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 1: SESSIONS 0, 1, 2, AND 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  8. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 3: SESSIONS 7 AND 8

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  9. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 2: SESSIONS 4, 5, AND 6

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  10. 40 CFR 62.14104 - Requirements for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with the municipal waste combustor operating practice requirements listed in 40 CFR 60.53b(b) and (c) of subpart Eb. For calculating the steam (or feedwater) flow required under 40 CFR 60.58(i)(6)(i... of nozzles and orifices required in 40 CFR 60.58(i)(6)(ii), proceed in accordance with...

  11. 40 CFR 62.14104 - Requirements for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for municipal waste combustor operating practices. 62.14104 Section 62.14104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal...

  12. [Distribution and assessment of mercury in the ambient soil of a municipal solid waste incinerator].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui-Ting; Zhang, Cheng-Zhong; Xu, Feng; Li, Hai-Feng; Tian, Zhen-Yu; Tang, Chen; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2014-04-01

    The emission of mercury (Hg) from the municipal solid waste incineration has inspired widespread attention, especially regarding to the deposition of Hg in the surrounding soil, which is issued to be the potential negative factor of ambient environment and human health. This study mainly focused on the distributions of Hg in the ambient soil of a municipal solid waste incinerator located in North China. The pollution of the mercury and its risks to the local environment and human health were assessed. Results showed that Hg levels were in the range of 0.015-0.25 mg x kg(-1), with an average (0.088 +/- 0.064) mg x kg(-1). The concentrations of Hg in the soil were obviously influenced by wind direction and they were relatively higher in the northwest (downwind) comparing with that in the southeast (upwind). The Kriging interpolation method was adopted to create a contour map, which intuitively displayed a spatial mercury distribution in the soil. The regions with a higher Hg concentration are mainly distributed in the north northwest, the north northeast and the west southwest of the municipal solid waste incinerator. According to the evaluation results of single factor pollution index and geoaccumulation Index, some ambient soil samples were polluted by the mercury emission from the municipal solid waste incinerator; however, the results of the health risk assessment showed that the mercury in the soil had not pose a health hazard to the local population. PMID:24946613

  13. FLUE GAS CLEANING OF MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION GASES: PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses available control technologies in the U.S., Japan, and Western Europe and their expected effectiveness in controlling the various pollutants emitted during the combustion of municipal waste. Increasing concern over the potential hazards of landfills for dispos...

  14. RESEARCH AREA -- MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The municipal waste combustion (MWC) program supports the development of revised rules for air pollutant emissions from the MWC source category. Basic research is performed on MWC pollutant formation and control mechanisms for acid gas, trace organic, and trace metal emissions. T...

  15. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for...

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Fff of... - Municipal Waste Combustor Operating Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Operating Requirements Municipal waste combustor technology Carbon monoxide emissions level (parts per... combustor 200 24 a Measured at the combustor outlet in conjunction with a measurement of oxygen concentration, corrected to 7 percent oxygen, dry basis. Calculated as an arithmetic average. b Averaging...

  17. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor reports through 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, P

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 536,000 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes -- an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update. The number of copies of each report originally published varied according to anticipated public demand. However, all reports are available in either microfiche or hard copy form and may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. Explicit information on ordering reports is included in Appendix A.

  18. EMISSION TEST REPORT - FIELD TEST OF CARBON INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL - CAMDEN COUNTY MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of parametric test to evaluate the injection powdered activated carbon to control volatile pollutants in municipal waste combustor (MWC) flue gas. he tests were conducted at a spray dryer absorber/electrostatic precipitator (SD/ESP)-equipped MWC in Camden...

  19. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 2: SESSIONS 4, 5, AND 6

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-l4, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for tile exchange and transfer of informat...

  20. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 4: SESSIONS 9, 10, 11, AND 12

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-l4, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for tile exchange and transfer of informat...

  1. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 1: SESSIONS 0, 1, 2, AND 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-l4, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for tile exchange and transfer of informat...

  2. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 3: SESSIONS 7 AND 8

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-l4, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for tile exchange and transfer of informat...

  3. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  5. EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS IN THE RECOVERY OF ENERGY AND MATERIALS FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the report of a study which set out to determine whether priorities in Western Europe with respect to energy and materials recovery from municipal solid waste are the same as those in the United States, which include (a) the use of refuse as a supplementary fuel, (b) pyro...

  6. OBTAINING IMPROVED PRODUCTS FROM THE ORGANIC FRACTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project has investigated several processes for the conversion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) to a powder. The study concentrated on two types of processes: (1) conversion of MSW to a powdered carbon char by low-temperature pyrolysis, and (2) embrittle...

  7. 76 FR 53897 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... period established in the Federal Register of August 2, 2011 (76 FR 46290?) (FRL-9446-9). In that... AGENCY EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source... management, recycling, measurement, data, data collection, construction and demolition (C&D)...

  8. 76 FR 46290 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... AGENCY EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source... INFORMATION: Background For decades, EPA has been providing information on the recycling, reuse and generation... safe recycling and source reduction. The Agency will consider the information gathered from this...

  9. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  10. 40 CFR 60.54b - Standards for municipal waste combustor operator training and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... unavailable, a provisionally certified control room operator on site at the municipal waste combustion unit... provisionally certified control room operator may perform the duties of the certified chief facility operator or... site, the provisionally certified control room operator may perform the duties of the certified...

  11. 40 CFR 60.54b - Standards for municipal waste combustor operator training and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... unavailable, a provisionally certified control room operator on site at the municipal waste combustion unit... provisionally certified control room operator may perform the duties of the certified chief facility operator or... site, the provisionally certified control room operator may perform the duties of the certified...

  12. 40 CFR 60.54b - Standards for municipal waste combustor operator training and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... unavailable, a provisionally certified control room operator on site at the municipal waste combustion unit... provisionally certified control room operator may perform the duties of the certified chief facility operator or... site, the provisionally certified control room operator may perform the duties of the certified...

  13. 40 CFR 60.54b - Standards for municipal waste combustor operator training and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor operator training and certification. 60.54b Section 60.54b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for...

  14. BIODEGRADATIVE ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN LABORATORY-SCALE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of research to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of the major biodegradable components of municipal solid waste (MSW). Tests were conducted in quadruplicate in 2-L reactors operated to obtain maximum yields. Measured methane (CH4) yields for gra...

  15. RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulations (40 CFR Part 258) went into effect. These regulations are applicable to landfills receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operation, and closure of MSW landfills....

  16. CONTROL OF DIOXIN, FURAN, AND MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a significant public and scientific concern over the potential risks of air pollution emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs). The primary pollutants of concern are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and mercury (Hg). Depending on...

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  18. A LABORATORY STUDY TO INVESTIGATE GASEOUS EMISSIONS AND SOLIDS DECOMPOSITION DURING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a materials flow analysis performed for composting municipal solid waste (MSW) and specific biodegradable organic components of MSW. (NOTE: This work is part of an overall U.S. EPA project providing cost, energy, and materials flow information on diffe...

  19. 40 CFR 62.14104 - Requirements for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with the municipal waste combustor operating practice requirements listed in 40 CFR 60.53b(b) and (c) of subpart Eb. For calculating the steam (or feedwater) flow required under 40 CFR 60.58(i)(6)(i), proceed in accordance with ASME PTC 4.1-1964 (Reaffirmed 1991), Power Test Codes: Test Code for...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14104 - Requirements for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with the municipal waste combustor operating practice requirements listed in 40 CFR 60.53b(b) and (c) of subpart Eb. For calculating the steam (or feedwater) flow required under 40 CFR 60.58(i)(6)(i), proceed in accordance with ASME PTC 4.1-1964 (Reaffirmed 1991), Power Test Codes: Test Code for...

  1. Quantifying Methane Abatement Efficiency at Three Municipal Solid Waste Landfills; Final Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements were conducted at three municipal solid waste landfills to compare fugitive methane emissions from the landfill cells to the quantity of collected gas (i.e., gas collection efficiency). The measurements were conducted over a multi-week sampling campaign using EPA Oth...

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Cb of... - Municipal Waste Combustor Operating Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Municipal Waste Combustor Operating Guidelines 3 Table 3 to Subpart Cb of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for...

  3. National conference on alkaline treatment and utilization of municipal waste water sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This meeting was sponsored by: the National Kiln Dust Management Association, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, the State of Ohio Development Department, and the Medical College of Ohio in Toledo. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for the exchange of information on the treatment of municipal wastes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for selected papers for appropriate data bases.

  4. EFFECTS OF AN UNCOMPOSTED MUNICIPAL WASTE PROCESSING BY-PRODUCT ON PRAIRIE GRASS ESTABLISHMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A garbage processing technology has been developed that sterilizes and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The uncomposted organic byproduct of this process has the potential to be utilized as a soil amendment to improve highly degraded soils. A study was initiated...

  5. Regionalization of municipal solid waste management in Japan: balancing the proximity principle with economic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Itaru; Thomson, Vivian E

    2007-07-01

    The proximity principle - disposing of waste close to its origin - has been a central value in municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Japan for the last 30 years and its widespread adoption has helped resolve numerous "Not in My Backyard" issues related to MSW management. However, MSW management costs have soared, in large part because of aggressive recycling efforts and because most MSW is incinerated in a country that has scarce landfill capacity. In addition, smaller, less sophisticated incinerators have been closed because of high dioxin emissions. Rising costs combined with the closure of smaller incinerators have shifted MSW management policy toward regionalization, which is the sharing of waste management facilities across municipalities. Despite the increased use of regionalized MSW facilities, the proximity principle remains the central value in Japanese MSW management. Municipal solid waste management has become increasingly regionalized in the United States, too, but different driving forces are at work in these two countries. The transition to regionalized MSW management in Japan results from strong governmental control at all levels, with the central government providing funds and policy direction and prefectures and municipalities being the primary implementing authorities. By contrast, market forces are a much stronger force with US MSW management, where local governments - with state government oversight - have primary responsibility for MSW management. We describe recent changes in Japan's MSW programs. We examine the connections between MSW facility regionalization, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the proximity principle, coordination among local governments, central government control, and financing mechanisms. PMID:17530331

  6. Analysis of Indirect Emissions Benefits of Wind, Landfill Gas, and Municipal Solid Waste Generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Techniques are introduced to calculate the hourly indirect emissions benefits of three types of green power resources: wind energy, municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion, and landfill gas (LFG) combustion. These techniques are applied to each of the U.S. EPA's eGRID subregions i...

  7. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    PubMed

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  8. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

  9. The effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Talalaj, Izabela Anna Walery, Maria

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior.

  10. Techno-economic assessment of municipal solid waste management in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu Qdais, H A

    2007-01-01

    Mismanagement of solid waste leads to public health risks, adverse environmental impacts and other socio-economic problems. This is obvious in many developing countries around the world. Currently, several countries have realized that the way they manage their solid wastes does not satisfy the objectives of sustainable development. Therefore, these countries, including Jordan, which forms the case study presented here, have decided to move away from traditional solid waste management (SWM) options to more integrated solid waste management approaches. Unfortunately, in many developing countries like Jordan, the lack of adequate resources to implement the necessary changes is posing a serious obstacle. The present paper discusses the various practices and challenges of solid waste management in Jordan from both a technical and economic perspective. An overview of the current practices and their environmental implications in three major cities of the country, which generate more than 70% of the country's solid waste, is presented. Recent literature on solid waste management in Jordan has been reviewed; and data on the total amount of municipal solid waste generated, compositional variations over the last two decades, and future projections are presented. The necessity, importance and needs of solid waste recovery and reuse are identified. The review of the legal frameworks indicated that there is a need for detailed and clear regulations dealing specifically with solid waste. The service cost analysis revealed that none of the municipalities in Jordan sufficiently recover the cost of the services, with more than 50% being subsidized from the municipalities' budgets. The allocation of the available resources was analyzed and service performance indicators assessed. Factors that should be taken into consideration when making the decision to move from a traditional SWM approach to a more integrated approach are highlighted and suggestions for a more smooth transition are

  11. Retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash under the landfill circumstance.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Kong, Qingna; Zhu, Huayue; Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash could affect its migration in the landfill. In this study, the effect of the dosage of MSWI bottom ash as well as the variation of the landfill environmental parameters including pH, anions and organic matter on the nitrite retention and leaching behavior was investigated by batch experiments. The highest removal percentage (73.0%) of nitrite was observed when the dosage of MSWI bottom ash was 10 g L(-1) in 2 mg L(-1) nitrite solution. Further increase of the dosage would retard the retention, as the nitrite leaching from MSWI bottom ash was enhanced. The optimum retention of nitrite was observed when the pH was 5.0, while the leaching of nitrite showed a consistent reduction with the increase of pH. Besides, the presence of Cl(-), SO4(2)(-) and acetic acid could enhance the leaching of nitrite and mitigate the retention process. However, the retention of nitrite was enhanced by PO4(3)(-), which was probably due to the formation of the apatite, an active material for the adsorption of the nitrite. These results suggested that MSWI bottom ash could affect the migration of nitrite in the landfill, which was related to the variation of the landfill circumstance. PMID:25033242

  12. Assessment of municipal solid waste management scenarios in Irkutsk (Russia) using a life cycle assessment-integrated waste management model.

    PubMed

    Tulokhonova, Alisa; Ulanova, Olga

    2013-05-01

    Continuous growth in the quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) and increasing demands for their environmentally-friendly treatment are one of the main consequences of the growing social and economic development rate in modern society. Despite ecologically sustainable trends in waste management systems around the world, open dumps are still the main waste treatment option in Russia. This study aims to help the local municipality administration in Irkutsk (Russia) identify the most appropriate direction for current waste management and its optimization. Within this study four developed MSW management scenarios were assessed and compared with respect to their ecological, economic and social aspects using a life cycle-based integrated waste management model. The evaluation results of these scenarios show that the development of environmental sustainability and the reduction of social effects lead to an increase in handling of costs of waste. The best scenario, regarding both environmental and social aspects, is scenario four, which includes the separate collection and reprocessing of recyclables in combination with an aerobic mechanical-biological pre-treatment of the residual waste before landfilling. However, this scenario is 3.6 times more expensive than the existing system. The results of all assessed scenarios were further analyzed and recommendations were made to design integrated waste management solutions that are optimal not only from the ecological and social points of view, but which are also realistic within the given economic situation. PMID:23444153

  13. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidenbach, Andrew W.

    To gain more comprehensive knowledge about composting as a solid waste management tool and to better assess the limited information available, the Federal solid waste management program, within the U. S. Public Health Service, entered into a joint experimental windrow composting project in 1966 with the Tennessee Valley Authority and the City of…

  14. Study on the law of heavy metal leaching in municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-Hu; Sang, Shu-Xun

    2010-06-01

    Comparative leaching experiments were carried out using leaching medium with different pH to municipal solid waste in the landfill columns in order to investigate the mobility of heavy metals. The leachate pH and oxidation-reduction potential were measured by oxidation-reduction potential analyzer; the contents of heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It is very different in leaching concentrations of heavy metals; the dynamic leaching of heavy metals decreased with the rise of the leaching amount on the whole. Acid leaching medium had definite influence on the leaching of heavy metals in the early landfill, but it had the obvious inhibition effect on the leaching in the middle and late period of landfill; the neutral and alkaline leaching medium are more beneficial to the leaching of heavy metals. Due to the influence of the environment of landfill, the differences of the results in cumulative leaching amount, leaching rate, and leaching intensity of heavy metals are very big. The calculation results of the release rates of heavy metals prove that the orders of the release rates are not identical under different leaching conditions. Acid rain made heavy metals migrate from municipal solid waste to soil and detain in soil more easily; approached neutral and alkaline leaching mediums are more beneficial to leaching of heavy metals in the municipal solid waste and soil with leachate. The field verification of experimental data showed that the law of heavy metal leaching in municipal solid waste revealed by the experiment has a good consistency with the data obtained by municipal solid waste landfill. PMID:19466573

  15. A study of tritium in municipal solid waste leachate and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mutch Jr, R. D.; Mahony, J. D.

    2008-07-15

    It has become increasingly clear in the last few years that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills produce leachate that contains elevated levels of tritium. The authors recently conducted a study of landfills in New York and New Jersey and found that the mean concentration of tritium in the leachate from ten municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills was 33,800 pCi/L with a peak value of 192,000 pCi/L. A 2003 study in California reported a mean tritium concentration of 99,000 pCi/L with a peak value of 304,000 pCi/L. Studies in Pennsylvania and the UK produced similar results. The USEPA MCL for tritium is 20,000 pCi/L. Tritium is also manifesting itself as landfill gas and landfill gas condensate. Landfill gas condensate samples from landfills in the UK and California were found to have tritium concentrations as high as 54,400 and 513,000 pCi/L, respectively. The tritium found in MSW leachate is believed to derive principally from gaseous tritium lighting devices used in some emergency exit signs, compasses, watches, and even novelty items, such as 'glow stick' key chains. This study reports the findings of recent surveys of leachate from a number of municipal solid waste landfills, both open and closed, from throughout the United States and Europe. The study evaluates the human health and ecological risks posed by elevated tritium levels in municipal solid waste leachate and landfill gas and the implications to their safe management. We also assess the potential risks posed to solid waste management facility workers exposed to tritium-containing waste materials in transfer stations and other solid waste management facilities. (authors)

  16. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: challenges for hazardous substance control and safety.

    PubMed

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6-10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using insulation (tape) on waste batteries to prevent fires, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. Our field study of small WEEE showed that batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE on a weight basis. Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, digital cameras, radios, and remote controls, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. Given the safety issues and the rapid changes occurring with mobile phones or other types of small WEEE, discussion is needed among stakeholders to determine how to safely collect and recycle WEEE and waste batteries. PMID:25716742

  17. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-30

    The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

  18. Constructed wetlands for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peverly, J.; Sanford, W.E.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    1993-11-01

    In 1989, the US Geological Survey and Cornell University, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Tompkins County Solid Waste Department, began a three-year study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Ithaca, New York, to test the effectiveness of leachate treatment with constructed wetlands and to examine the associated treatment processes. Specific objectives of the study were to examine: treatment efficiency as function of substrate composition and grain size, degree of plant growth, and seasonal changes in evapotranspiration rates and microbial activity; effects of leachate and plant growth on the hydraulic characteristics of the substrate; and chemical, biological, and physical processes by which nutrients, metals, and organic compounds are removed from leachate as it flows through the substrate. A parallel study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Fenton, New York was conducted by researchers at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and Hawk Engineering (Trautmann and others, 1989). Results are described.

  19. Production of gaseous fuel by pyrolysis of municipal solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, T. H.; Ringer, H. N.; Bridges, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant tests were conducted on a simulated solid waste which was a mixture of shredded newspaper, wood waste, polyethylene plastics, crushed glass, steel turnings, and water. Tests were conducted at 1400 F in a lead-bath pyrolyser. Cold feed was deaerated by compression and was dropped onto a moving hearth of molten lead before being transported to a sealed storage container. About 80 percent of the feed's organic content was converted to gaseous products which contain over 90 percent of the potential waste energy; 12 percent was converted to water; and 8 percent remained as partially pyrolyzed char and tars. Nearly half of the carbon in the feed is converted to benzene, toluene and medium-quality fuel gas, a potential credit of over $25 per ton of solid waste. The system was shown to require minimal preprocessing and less sorting then other methods.

  20. ECONOMICS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: THE CHICAGO CASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study provides an extension of the theory of demand, with specific application to collection and disposal services for household solid waste. The empirical investigation involving several socioeconomic variables (income, race, household size) repeated the analysis of an earli...

  1. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay.

    PubMed

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-01

    The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation. PMID:25769537

  2. Effect of Unit Pricing System on Household Waste Reduction - Panel Data Analysis of 71 municipalities -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikematsu, Tatsuhito; Moriyasu, Yohei; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-Ichi

    The effect of unit pricing system on household waste reduction was analyzed and confirmed using a panel data on 71 municipalities in Japan during the period 1998-2006. It was estimated that the amount of combustible waste collected would be reduced by 45 g/capita-day if the price of bags for combustible waste were increased by 1 Yen/L. Availability of smaller size (<15L) prepaid bags had significant effect on the reduction of combustible waste. Availability of more than four sizes of prepaid bags had significant effect on the reduction of combustible waste compared to the availability of two or three sizes of prepaid bags. Differences between the price of bags for combustible waste and those for incombustible waste or recyclable waste had significant effects on the amount of combustible waste and recyclable waste. On the other hand, the effects of average price of combustible bags, incombustible bags and recyclable bags on the amount of combustible waste and recyclable waste were insignificant.

  3. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-15

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%)

  4. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-01

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita(-1) day(-1). Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%). PMID:19303762

  5. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  6. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete

    SciTech Connect

    Gidarakos, E. . E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr; Havas, G.; Ntzamilis, P.

    2006-07-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands.

  7. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete.

    PubMed

    Gidarakos, E; Havas, G; Ntzamilis, P

    2006-01-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands. PMID:16207528

  8. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation relevant to changes in municipal solid waste management system.

    PubMed

    Pikoń, Krzysztof; Gaska, Krzysztof

    2010-07-01

    Standard methods for assessing the environmental impact of waste management systems are needed to underpin the development and implementation of sustainable waste management practice. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for comprehensively ensuring such assessment and covers all impacts associated with waste management. LCA is often called "from cradle to grave" analysis. This paper integrates information on the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of various management options for some of the most common materials in municipal solid waste (MSW). Different waste treatment options for MSW were studied in a system analysis. Different combinations of recycling (cardboard, plastics, glass, metals), biological treatment (composting), and incineration as well as land-filling were studied. The index of environmental burden in the global warming impact category was calculated. The calculations are based on LCA methodology. All emissions taking place in the whole life cycle system were taken into account. The analysis included "own emissions," or emissions from the system at all stages of the life cycle, and "linked emissions," or emissions from other sources linked with the system in an indirect way. Avoided emissions caused by recycling and energy recovery were included in the analysis. Displaced emissions of GHGs originate from the substitution of energy or materials derived from waste for alternative sources. The complex analysis of the environmental impact of municipal waste management systems before and after application of changes in MSW systems according to European Union regulations is presented in this paper. The evaluation is made for MSW systems in Poland. PMID:20681425

  9. Municipal Solid Waste Management and its Energy Potential in Roorkee City, Uttarakhand, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Tabish; Kulkarni, Kishore

    2016-03-01

    Energy plays a vital role in the development of any country. With rapid economic growth and multifold urbanization, India faces the problem of municipal solid waste management and disposal. This problem can be mitigate through adoption of environment friendly technologies for treatment and processing of waste before it is disposed off. Currently, urban and industrial wastes throughout India receive partial treatment before its final disposal, except in few exceptional cases. This practice leads to severe environmental pollution problems including major threat to human health. There is an absolute need to provide adequate waste collection and treatment before its disposal. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is getting importance in recent years. The MSW management involves collection, transportation, handling and conversion to energy by biological and thermal routes. Based on the energy potential available, the energy conversion through biogas production using available waste is being carried out. Waste-to-energy is now a clean, renewable, sustainable source of energy. The estimation of energy content of MSW in Roorkee city is discussed in this paper. Furthermore this paper also takes into account the benefits of carbon credits.

  10. Water-related environmental control requirements at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J C; Johnson, L D

    1980-09-01

    Water use and waste water production, water pollution control technology requirements, and water-related limitations to their design and commercialization are identified at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion systems. In Part I, a summary of conclusions and recommendations provides concise statements of findings relative to water management and waste water treatment of each of four municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion categories investigated. These include: mass burning, with direct production of steam for use as a supplemental energy source; mechanical processing to produce a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for co-firing in gas, coal or oil-fired power plants; pyrolysis for production of a burnable oil or gas; and biological conversion of organic wastes to methane. Part II contains a brief description of each waste-to-energy facility visited during the subject survey showing points of water use and wastewater production. One or more facilities of each type were selected for sampling of waste waters and follow-up tests to determine requirements for water-related environmental controls. A comprehensive summary of the results are presented. (MCW)

  11. Geospatial strategy for sustainable management of municipal solid waste for growing urban environment.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Prem Chandra; Sharma, Laxmi Kant; Nathawat, Mahendra Singh

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a Geospatial approach for improving the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal suitability site assessment in growing urban environment. The increasing trend of population growth and the absolute amounts of waste disposed of worldwide have increased substantially reflecting changes in consumption patterns, consequently worldwide. MSW is now a bigger problem than ever. Despite an increase in alternative techniques for disposing of waste, land-filling remains the primary means. In this context, the pressures and requirements placed on decision makers dealing with land-filling by government and society have increased, as they now have to make decisions taking into considerations environmental safety and economic practicality. The waste disposed by the municipal corporation in the Bhagalpur City (India) is thought to be different from the landfill waste where clearly scientific criterion for locating suitable disposal sites does not seem to exist. The location of disposal sites of Bhagalpur City represents the unconsciousness about the environmental and public health hazards arising from disposing of waste in improper location. Concerning about urban environment and health aspects of people, a good method of waste management and appropriate technologies needed for urban area of Bhagalpur city to improve this trend using Multi Criteria Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing for selection of suitable disposal sites. The purpose of GIS was to perform process to part restricted to highly suitable land followed by using chosen criteria. GIS modeling with overlay operation has been used to find the suitability site for MSW. PMID:21660550

  12. Prediction of municipal solid waste generation using nonlinear autoregressive network.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Maulud, K N A

    2015-12-01

    Most of the developing countries have solid waste management problems. Solid waste strategic planning requires accurate prediction of the quality and quantity of the generated waste. In developing countries, such as Malaysia, the solid waste generation rate is increasing rapidly, due to population growth and new consumption trends that characterize society. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) approach using feedforward nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) to predict annual solid waste generation in relation to demographic and economic variables like population number, gross domestic product, electricity demand per capita and employment and unemployment numbers. In addition, variable selection procedures are also developed to select a significant explanatory variable. The model evaluation was performed using coefficient of determination (R(2)) and mean square error (MSE). The optimum model that produced the lowest testing MSE (2.46) and the highest R(2) (0.97) had three inputs (gross domestic product, population and employment), eight neurons and one lag in the hidden layer, and used Fletcher-Powell's conjugate gradient as the training algorithm. PMID:26573690

  13. Analysis of a landfill gas to energy system at the municipal solid waste landfill in Gaziantep, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tercan, Safak Hengirmen; Cabalar, Ali Firat; Yaman, Gokhan

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW), via landfill gas valorization technology, at the landfill of Gaziantep City, Turkey. Rapid increase in population, and industrial developments, throughout the world including Turkey results in larger amount of waste materials generated, increased need for energy, and adverse affects on the environment and human health. Turkey plans to produce 1/3 of its electricity demand using renewable energy sources by the year of 2023. It is recommended to use each year around 25 million tonnes of the MSW generated nationwide for a renewable energy supply. In this study, a concise summary of current status of electricity generation from a MSW landfill gas plant (via biogas harnessing) located in Gaziantep City was analyzed as a case study. PMID:26211632

  14. Guide to land treatment of municipal waste water in Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Skelton, L.W.; Hinesly, T.D.; John, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Waste water is a recyclable commodity. Organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and micronutrients in waste water are generally harmful when discharged to lakes and streams, but these constituents have a positive economic value when applied under properly controlled conditions to vegetated soils. The guide provides an overview of planning for a land-treatment system. It first discusses the potential for land treatment in Illinois, how to modify lagoons for land treatment, economic considerations, health and environmental concerns, regulatory requirements, and public education. It then provides more technical information on land-treatment processes, site and waste-load evaluation, systems for agricultural production, the potential for supplemental irrigation in Illinois, general site management, and system monitoring.

  15. Conversion of municipal solid waste to energy, Jacksonville, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frounfelker, R.; Belencan, H.

    1982-02-01

    A 227 megagram per day prototype auger combustor system is described and performance tests are discussed. The system is a two chamber, starved-air incinerator so named because of the auger located within the primary chamber which tumbles and moves the waste through the system. The feasibility evaluation of resource recovery in the city of Jacksonville, Florida, involved the determination of the following: (1) the amount and characteristics of the solid waste; (2) the location and requirement of candidate energy customers and materials markets; (3) the applicable incineration/heat recovery and resource recovery technologies; and (4) the institutional, legal, and environmental requirements for constructing a facility. The marketing plan developd to define the specific steps required to employ a waste-to-energy technology in the Jacksonville area is also discussed.

  16. Mini-review of the geotechnical parameters of municipal solid waste: Mechanical and biological pre-treated versus raw untreated waste.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Igor

    2016-09-01

    The most viable option for biostabilisation of old sanitary landfills, filled with raw municipal solid waste, is the so-called bioreactor landfill. Even today, bioreactor landfills are viable options in many economically developing countries. However, in order to reduce the biodegradable component of landfilled waste, mechanical and biological treatment has become a widely accepted waste treatment technology, especially in more prosperous countries. Given that mechanical and biological treatment alters the geotechnical properties of raw waste material, the design of sanitary landfills which accepts mechanically and biologically treated waste, should be carried out with a distinct set of geotechnical parameters. However, under the assumption that 'waste is waste', some design engineers might be tempted to use geotechnical parameters of untreated raw municipal solid waste and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste interchangeably. Therefore, to provide guidelines for use and to provide an aggregated source of this information, this mini-review provides comparisons of geotechnical parameters of mechanical and biological pre-treated waste and raw untreated waste at various decomposition stages. This comparison reveals reasonable correlations between the hydraulic conductivity values of untreated and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste. It is recognised that particle size might have a significant influence on the hydraulic conductivity of both municipal solid waste types. However, the compression ratios and shear strengths of untreated and pre-treated municipal solid waste do not show such strong correlations. Furthermore, another emerging topic that requires appropriate attention is the recovery of resources that are embedded in old landfills. Therefore, the presented results provide a valuable tool for engineers designing landfills for mechanical and biological pre-treated waste or bioreactor landfills for untreated raw

  17. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia; Petrovic, Mira; Cecchi, Franco; Barcelo, Damia

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ß-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification-denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 μg/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. <20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (<500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain in

  18. Quantification of parameters influencing methane generation due to biodegradation of municipal solid waste in landfills and laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xunchang; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2016-09-01

    The energy conversion potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposed of in landfills remains largely untapped because of the slow and variable rate of biogas generation, delayed and inefficient biogas collection, leakage of biogas, and landfill practices and infrastructure that are not geared toward energy recovery. A database consisting of methane (CH4) generation data, the major constituent of biogas, from 49 laboratory experiments and field monitoring data from 57 landfills was developed. Three CH4 generation parameters, i.e., waste decay rate (k), CH4 generation potential (L0), and time until maximum CH4 generation rate (tmax), were calculated for each dataset using U.S. EPA's Landfill Gas Emission Model (LandGEM). Factors influencing the derived parameters in laboratory experiments and landfills were investigated using multi-linear regression analysis. Total weight of waste (W) was correlated with biodegradation conditions through a ranked classification scheme. k increased with increasing percentage of readily biodegradable waste (Br0 (%)) and waste temperature, and reduced with increasing W, an indicator of less favorable biodegradation conditions. The values of k obtained in the laboratory were commonly significantly higher than those in landfills and those recommended by LandGEM. The mean value of L0 was 98 and 88L CH4/kg waste for laboratory and field studies, respectively, but was significantly affected by waste composition with ranges from 10 to 300L CH4/kg. tmax increased with increasing percentage of biodegradable waste (B0) and W. The values of tmax in landfills were higher than those in laboratory experiments or those based on LandGEM's recommended parameters. Enhancing biodegradation conditions in landfill cells has a greater impact on improving k and tmax than increasing B0. Optimizing the B0 and Br0 values of landfilled waste increases L0 and reduces tmax. PMID:26525969

  19. MSW (municipal solid waste) subscale rotary combustor R D support program

    SciTech Connect

    Bachovchin, D.M.; Yang, W.C.; D'Amico, N.; Newby, R.A.; Ulerich, N.H.; Keairns, D.L.; Chamberlin, R.M.

    1990-01-29

    The incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is an important source of renewable energy. The objective of the present support studies is to extend our understanding of important hydrodynamic and chemical mechanisms that affect incinerator efficiency and environmental performance. The work is broken down into several tasks, each with specific goals as summarized here. Task 1, Chemical Reaction Phenomena, is intended to develop an understanding of the formation and destruction mechanisms for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). A model basis for examining the effects of incinerator operating conditions and design parameters on the emissions of these species was developed. The objective of Task 2, Hydrodynamics, was to develop an understanding of the solids and gas flow and mixing phenomena in rotary incinerators. The goal of Task 3, Process Design, was to develop the basis for engineering modelling of overall combustor performance, particularly as related to minimization of toxic and regulated emissions. The purpose of Task 5, Monitoring, Instrumentation, and Control, was to make recommendations for the utilization of advanced control techniques, in particular of on-line diagnostics, that can be used to improve rotary combustor operation, particularly with regard to emissions control. 64 refs., 43 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Combined chemical and toxicological evaluation of leachate from municipal solid waste landfill sites of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pooja; Gupta, Asmita; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, landfill leachate of three landfill sites of Delhi, India, was toxico-chemically analyzed for human risk assessment. Raw leachate samples were collected from the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills of Delhi lacking liner systems. Samples were characterized with relatively low concentrations of heavy metals while the organic component exceeded the upper permissible limit by up to 158 times. Qualitative analysis showed the presence of numerous xenobiotics belonging to the group of halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, and other emerging contaminants. Quantitative analysis of PAHs showed that the benzo(a)pyrene-toxic equivalence quotient (BaP-TEQ) ranged from 41.22 to 285.557 ng L(-1). The human risk assessment methodology employed to evaluate the potential adverse effects of PAHs showed that the cancer risk level was lower than the designated acceptable risk of 10(-6). However, significant cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of leachates on HepG2 cell line was observed with MTT EC50 value ranging from 11.58 to 20.44 % and statistically significant DNA damage. Thus, although the leachates contained low concentrations of PAHs with proven carcinogenic potential, but the mixture of contaminants present in leachates are toxic enough to cause synergistic or additive cytotoxicity and genotoxicity and affect human health. PMID:25578612