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Sample records for affect nuclear criticality

  1. Nuclear criticality safety: 2-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1997-02-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used as Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; have participated in conducting two critical experiments; be asked to complete a critique of the nuclear criticality safety training course.

  2. Nuclear criticality information system

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1981-11-30

    The nuclear criticality safety program at LLNL began in the 1950's with a critical measurements program which produced benchmark data until the late 1960's. This same time period saw the rapid development of computer technology useful for both computer modeling of fissile systems and for computer-aided management and display of the computational benchmark data. Database management grew in importance as the amount of information increased and as experimental programs were terminated. Within the criticality safety program at LLNL we began at that time to develop a computer library of benchmark data for validation of computer codes and cross sections. As part of this effort, we prepared a computer-based bibliography of criticality measurements on relatively simple systems. However, it is only now that some of these computer-based resources can be made available to the nuclear criticality safety community at large. This technology transfer is being accomplished by the DOE Technology Information System (TIS), a dedicated, advanced information system. The NCIS database is described.

  3. Nuclear criticality safety: 5-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course`s primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; be able to identify examples of computer codes used by the nuclear criticality safety specialist; be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  4. Nuclear criticality safety: 5-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; be able to identify examples of computer codes used by the nuclear criticality safety specialist; be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  5. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  6. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course`s primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  7. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D`Aquila, D.M.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  8. NCIS - a Nuclear Criticality Information System (overview)

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1983-07-01

    A Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) is being established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in order to serve personnel responsible for safe storage, transport, and handling of fissile materials and those concerned with the evaluation and analysis of nuclear, critical experiments. Public concern for nuclear safety provides the incentive for improved access to nuclear safety information.

  9. Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

    2010-02-19

    This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

  10. Courses and Instruction Affecting Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    Using data from a national follow-up study of freshmen (n=24,837), a study investigated how different types of courses and instructional techniques affect college students' self-reported growth in critical thinking. Results revealed that taking writing, interdisciplinary, history, science, women's studies, math, foreign language, and ethnic…

  11. Nuclear data needs for application in nuclear criticality safety programs

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Westfall, R.M.; Jordan, W.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    1995-09-01

    In nuclear criticality safety applications, a number of important uncertainties have to be addressed to establish the required criticality safety margin of a nuclear system. One source of these uncertainties is the basic nuclear data used to calculate the effective multiplication factor of the system. Before criticality safety calculations are performed, the bias and uncertainties of the codes and cross sections that are used must be determined. Cross-section data are measured, evaluated, and tested prior to their inclusion in nuclear data libraries. Traditionally, nuclear data evaluations are performed to support the analysis and design of thermal and fast reactors. The neutron spectra characteristic of the thermal and fast systems used for data testing are predominantly in the low- and high-energy ranges, with a relatively minor influence from the intermediate-energy range. In the area of nuclear criticality safety, nuclear systems involving spent fuel elements from reactors can lead to situations very different from those most commonly found in reactor analysis and design. These systems are not limited to thermal or fast neutron spectra and may have their most significant influence from the intermediate energy range. This requires extending the range of applicability of the nuclear data evaluation beyond thermal and fast systems. The aim here is to focus on the evaluated nuclear data pertaining to applications in nuclear criticality safety.

  12. Neutron absorbing coating for nuclear criticality control

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Wright, Richard N.; Swank, William D.; Lister, Tedd E.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2007-10-23

    A neutron absorbing coating for use on a substrate, and which provides nuclear criticality control is described and which includes a nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and gadolinium alloy having less than about 5% boron, by weight.

  13. The Nuclear Criticality Information System: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.

    1991-07-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) has served the criticality community for the past ten years with publications and with an online information system. NCIS provides a mean for widely distributed nuclear criticality specialists to communicate and work together instantly. Users of the system may receive assistance from all members of the NCIS community, which provides a much broader base of support than is available at any single site. When unified by NCIS, these diverse specialists provide a resource that has proven to be very useful in the safe handling of fissile material. NCIS also is a source of current nuclear criticality safety information; the rapid access of such up-to-date information on the handling of fissile materials outside of nuclear reactors is international in scope, extending beyond political and geographical boundaries.

  14. The Nuclear Criticality Information System: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.

    1991-07-01

    The US Department of Energy's Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) has served the criticality community for the past ten years with publications and with an online information system. NCIS provides a mean for widely distributed nuclear criticality specialists to communicate and work together instantly. Users of the system may receive assistance from all members of the NCIS community, which provides a much broader base of support than is available at any single site. When unified by NCIS, these diverse specialists provide a resource that has proven to be very useful in the safe handling of fissile material. NCIS also is a source of current nuclear criticality safety information; the rapid access of such up-to-date information on the handling of fissile materials outside of nuclear reactors is international in scope, extending beyond political and geographical boundaries.

  15. Nuclear criticality safety department training implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1996-09-06

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Department (NCSD) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The NCSD Qualification Program is described in Y/DD-694, Qualification Program, Nuclear Criticality Safety Department This document provides a listing of the roles and responsibilities of NCSD personnel with respect to training and details of the Training Management System (TMS) programs, Mentoring Checklists and Checksheets, as well as other documentation utilized to implement the program. This document supersedes Y/DD-696, Revision 2, dated 3/27/96, Training Implementation, Nuclear Criticality Safety Department. There are no backfit requirements associated with revisions to this document.

  16. Nuclear data for criticality safety - current issues

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Jordan, W.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    1995-06-01

    Traditionally, nuclear data evaluations have been performed in support of the analysis and design of thermal and fast reactors. In general, the neutron spectra characteristic of the thermal and fast systems used for data testing are predominantly in the low- and high-energy range with a relatively small influence from the intermediate-energy range. In the area of nuclear criticality safety, nuclear systems arising from applications involving fissionable materials outside reactors can lead to situations very different from those most commonly found in reactor analysis and design. These systems are not limited to thermal or fast and may have significant influence from the intermediate energy range. The extension of the range of applicability of the nuclear data evaluation beyond thermal and fast systems is therefore needed to cover problems found in nuclear criticality safety. Before criticality safety calculations are performed, the bias and uncertainties of the codes and cross sections that are used must be determined. The most common sources of uncertainties, in general, are the calculational methodologies and the uncertainties related to the nuclear data, such as the microscopic cross sections, entering into the calculational procedure. The aim here is to focus on the evaluated nuclear data pertaining to applications in nuclear criticality safety.

  17. Why Critical Literacy Should Turn to "The Affective Turn": Making a Case for Critical Affective Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.

    2016-01-01

    The central argument of this essay is that critical literacy with a rationalistic bent may not enable us to cope with ethical dilemmas in our responsiveness to human sufferings. I argue that critical literacy education would benefit from turning to the recent scholarship on affect/emotion studies. I draw upon the works of Sara Ahmed--one of the…

  18. Training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.G.

    1997-06-01

    The site specific analysis of nuclear criticality training needs is very briefly described. Analysis indicated that the four major components required were analysis, surveillance, business practices or administration, and emergency preparedness. The analysis component was further divided into process analysis, accident analysis, and transportation analysis. Ten subject matter areas for the process analysis component were identified as candidates for class development. Training classes developed from the job content analysis have demonstrated that the specialized information can be successfully delivered to new entrants. 1 fig.

  19. Review of critical factors affecting crude corrosivity

    SciTech Connect

    Tebbal, S.; Kane, R.D.

    1996-08-01

    Lower quality opportunity crudes are now processed in most refineries and the source of the crudes may vary daily. These feedstocks, if not properly handled, can result in reduction in service life of equipment as well as costly failure and downtime. Analytical tools are needed to predict their high temperature corrosivity toward distillation units. Threshold in total sulfur and total acid number (TAN) have been used for many years as rules of thumb for predicting crude corrosivity, However, it is now realized that they are not accurate in their predictive ability. Crudes with similar composition and comparable with respect to process considerations have been found to be entirely different in their impact on corrosion. Naphthenic acid content, sulfur content, velocity, temperature, and materials of construction are the main factors affecting the corrosion process, Despite progress made in elucidating the role of the different parameters on the crude corrosivity process, the main problem is in calculating their combined effect, especially when the corroding stream is such a complex mixture. The TAN is usually related directly to naphthenic acid content. However, discrepancies between analytical methods and interference of numerous components of the crude itself lead to unreliable reported content of naphthenic acid. The sulfur compounds, with respect to corrosivity, appear to relate more to their decomposition at elevated temperature to form hydrogen sulfide than to their total content in crude. This paper reviews the present situation regarding crude corrosivity in distillation units, with the aim of indicating the extent of available information, and areas where further research is necessary.

  20. Status, plans, and capabilities of the Nuclear Criticality Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.

    1984-01-06

    The Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS), in preparation since 1981, has substantially evolved and now contains a growing number of resources pertinent to nuclear criticality safety. These resources include bibliographic compilations, experimental data, communications media, and the International Directory of Nuclear Criticality Safety Personnel. These resources are part of the LLNL Technology Information System (TIS) which provides the host computer for NCIS. The TIS provides nationwide access to authorized members of the nuclear criticality community via interactive dial-up from computer terminals that utilize communication facilities such as commercial and federal telephone networks, toll-free WATS lines, TYMNET, and the ARPANET/MILNET computer network.

  1. Nuclear Criticality Information System. Database examples

    SciTech Connect

    Foret, C.A.

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide our users with a guide to using the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS). It is comprised of an introduction, an information and resources section, a how-to-use section, and several useful appendices. The main objective of this report is to present a clear picture of the NCIS project and its available resources as well as assisting our users in accessing the database and using the TIS computer to process data. The introduction gives a brief description of the NCIS project, the Technology Information System (TIS), online user information, future plans and lists individuals to contact for additional information about the NCIS project. The information and resources section outlines the NCIS database and describes the resources that are available. The how-to-use section illustrates access to the NCIS database as well as searching datafiles for general or specific data. It also shows how to access and read the NCIS news section as well as connecting to other information centers through the TIS computer.

  2. PRELIMINARY NUCLEAR CRITICALITY NUCLEAR SAFETY EVLAUATION FOR THE CONTAINER SURVEILLANCE AND STORAGE CAPABILITY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Low, M; Matthew02 Miller, M; Thomas Reilly, T

    2007-04-30

    Washington Safety Management Solutions (WSMS) provides criticality safety services to Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) at the Savannah River Site. One activity at SRS is the Container Surveillance and Storage Capability (CSSC) Project, which will perform surveillances on 3013 containers (hereafter referred to as 3013s) to verify that they meet the Department of Energy (DOE) Standard (STD) 3013 for plutonium storage. The project will handle quantities of material that are greater than ANS/ANSI-8.1 single parameter mass limits, and thus required a Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE). The WSMS methodology for conducting an NCSE is outlined in the WSMS methods manual. The WSMS methods manual currently follows the requirements of DOE-O-420.1B, DOE-STD-3007-2007, and the Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) SCD-3 manual. DOE-STD-3007-2007 describes how a NCSE should be performed, while DOE-O-420.1B outlines the requirements for a Criticality Safety Program (CSP). The WSRC SCD-3 manual implements DOE requirements and ANS standards. NCSEs do not address the Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) of non-reactor nuclear facilities that may be affected by overt or covert activities of sabotage, espionage, terrorism or other security malevolence. Events which are beyond the Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) are outside the scope of a double contingency analysis.

  3. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  4. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  5. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  6. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  7. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  8. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  9. The Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felty, James R.

    2005-05-01

    This paper broadly covers key events and activities from which the Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) evolved. The NCSP maintains fundamental infrastructure that supports operational criticality safety programs. This infrastructure includes continued development and maintenance of key calculational tools, differential and integral data measurements, benchmark compilation, development of training resources, hands-on training, and web-based systems to enhance information preservation and dissemination. The NCSP was initiated in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 97-2, Criticality Safety, and evolved from a predecessor program, the Nuclear Criticality Predictability Program, that was initiated in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 93-2, The Need for Critical Experiment Capability. This paper also discusses the role Dr. Sol Pearlstein played in helping the Department of Energy lay the foundation for a robust and enduring criticality safety infrastructure.

  10. Providing Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis Education through Benchmark Experiment Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; David W. Nigg

    2009-11-01

    One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.

  11. Negotiating Critical Geographies through a "Feel-Trip": Experiential, Affective and Critical Learning in Engaged Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubchikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes the notion of a "critical feel-trip" as a pedagogical narrative to entertain the relationships of experiential, affective and critical learning in field-based studies. It is argued that explicit mobilization of the triadic relations of these three modes of learning is a powerful way to strengthen students'…

  12. A Web-Based Nuclear Criticality Safety Bibliographic Database

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B L; Huang, S

    2007-02-22

    A bibliographic criticality safety database of over 13,000 records is available on the Internet as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) website. This database is easy to access via the Internet and gets substantial daily usage. This database and other criticality safety resources are available at ncsp.llnl.gov. The web database has evolved from more than thirty years of effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), beginning with compilations of critical experiment reports and American Nuclear Society Transactions.

  13. Proceedings of the Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the proceedings of the annual Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project (NCTSP) Workshop held in Monterey, California, on April 16--28, 1993. The NCTSP was sponsored by the Department of Energy and organized by the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility. The report is divided into six sections reflecting the sessions outlined on the workshop agenda.

  14. Web-based nuclear criticality safety bibliographic database

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B L; Huang, S T

    2000-06-21

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has prepared a Nuclear Criticality Safety Bibliographic Database that is now available via the Internet. This database is a component of the U.S. DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) Web site. This WWW resource was developed as part of the DOE response to the DNFSB Recommendation 97-2, which reflected the need to make criticality safety information available to a wide audience. To the extent possible, the hyperlinks on the Web pages direct the user to original source of the reference material in order to ensure accuracy and access to the latest versions. A master index is in place for simple navigation through the site. A search capability is available to assist in locating the on-line reference materials. Among the features included are: A user-friendly site map for ease of use; A personnel registry; Links to all major laboratories and organizations involved in the many aspects of criticality safety; General help for new criticality safety practitioners, including basic technical references and training modules; A discussion of computational methods; An interactive question and answer forum for the criticality safety community; and Collections of bibliographic references mdvahdation experiments. This paper will focus on the bibliographic database. This database evolved from earlier work done by the DOE's Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) maintained at LLNL during the 1980s. The bibliographic database at the time of the termination of NCIS were composed principally of three parts: (1) A critical experiment bibliography of 1067 citations (reported in UCRL-52769); (2) A compilation of criticality safety papers from Volumes 1 through 41 of the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society (reported in UCRL-53369); and (3) A general criticality bibliography of several thousand citations (unpublished). When the NCIS project was terminated the database was nearly lost but, fortunately, several years later

  15. Seminar in Critical Inquiry Twenty-first Century Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    LeMone, D. V.

    2002-02-25

    Critical Inquiry, has not only been successful in increasing university student retention rate but also in improving student academic performance beyond the initial year of transition into the University. The seminar course herein reviewed is a balanced combination of student personal and academic skill development combined with a solid background in modern nuclear systems. It is a valid premise to assume that entering students as well as stakeholders of the general public demonstrate equal levels of capability. Nuclear systems is designed to give a broad and basic knowledge of nuclear power, medical, industrial, research, and military systems (nuclear systems) in 20-25 hours.

  16. Criticality's Affective Entanglements: Rethinking Emotion and Critical Thinking in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danvers, Emily Clair

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking is often understood as a set of tangible, transferrable and measurable skills and competencies. Yet, it is also an intensely affective experience that is complex, contingent and contextualised. Using interview, focus group and observation data conducted with 15 first-year undergraduate social science students at a UK…

  17. Proceedings of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Rene G. Sanchez

    1998-04-01

    This document contains summaries of most of the papers presented at the 1995 Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project (NCTSP) meeting, which was held May 16 and 17 at San Diego, Ca. The meeting was broken up into seven sessions, which covered the following topics: (1) Criticality Safety of Project Sapphire; (2) Relevant Experiments For Criticality Safety; (3) Interactions with the Former Soviet Union; (4) Misapplications and Limitations of Monte Carlo Methods Directed Toward Criticality Safety Analyses; (5) Monte Carlo Vulnerabilities of Execution and Interpretation; (6) Monte Carlo Vulnerabilities of Representation; and (7) Benchmark Comparisons.

  18. Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization training implementation. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-05-19

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization (NCSO) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document provides a listing of the roles and responsibilities of NCSO personnel with respect to training and details of the Training Management System (TMS) programs, Mentoring Checklists and Checksheets, as well as other documentation utilized to implement the program. This Training Implementation document is applicable to all technical and managerial NCSO personnel, including temporary personnel, sub-contractors and/or LMES employees on loan to the NCSO, who are in a qualification program.

  19. Nuclear criticality research at the University of New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    Two projects at the University of New Mexico are briefly described. The university`s Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department has completed the final draft of a primer for MCNP4A, which it plans to publish soon. The primer was written to help an analyst who has little experience with the MCNP code to perform criticality safety analyses. In addition, the department has carried out a series of approach-to-critical experiments on the SHEBA-II, a UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} solution critical assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The results obtained differed slightly from what was predicted by the TWODANT code.

  20. Proceedings of the nuclear criticality technology safety project

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.G.

    1997-06-01

    This document contains summaries of the most of the papers presented at the 1994 Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project (NCTSP) meeting, which was held May 10 and 11 at Williamsburg, Va. The meeting was broken up into seven sessions, which covered the following topics: (1) Validation and Application of Calculations; (2) Relevant Experiments for Criticality Safety; (3) Experimental Facilities and Capabilities; (4) Rad-Waste and Weapons Disassembly; (5) Criticality Safety Software and Development; (6) Criticality Safety Studies at Universities; and (7) Training. The minutes and list of participants of the Critical Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup meeting, which was held on May 9 at the same venue, has been included as an appendix. A second appendix contains the names and addresses of all NCTSP meeting participants. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this proceedings.

  1. Postanalysis of the CNPS (Compact Nuclear Power Source) critical experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The Compact Nuclear Power Source (CNPS) was designed to produce electric power for remote sites where fuel logistics and costs would justify a remotely sited nuclear power plant. Since the reactor was of novel design with no appropriate benchmarks, a series of critical experiments was carried out at LANL. This paper describes the methodology and reports the results of the postanalysis that was performed on the critical experiments, which included several distinct critical configurations, the measurement of the isothermal temperature coefficient of reactivity and various material worths. Comparisons with measurements indicate that current methods and cross sections are adequate for calculating at least the beginning of life conditions in low enriched /sup 235/U-graphite cores. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.; SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; TRELLUE,HOLLY R.

    2000-04-01

    Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low.

  3. Nuclear criticality safety basics for personnel working with nuclear fissionable materials. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Vausher, A.L.

    1984-10-01

    DOE order 5480.1A, Chapter V, ''Safety of Nuclear Facilities,'' establishes safety procedures and requirements for DOE nuclear facilities. The ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Basic Program - Phase I'' is documented in this report. The revised program has been developed to clearly illustrate the concept of nuclear safety and to help the individual employee incorporate safe behavior in his daily work performance. Because of this, the subject of safety has been approached through its three fundamentals: scientific basis, engineering criteria, and administrative controls. Only basics of these three elements were presented. 5 refs.

  4. Iterative methods for solving nonlinear problems of nuclear reactor criticality

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz'min, A. M.

    2012-12-15

    The paper presents iterative methods for calculating the neutron flux distribution in nonlinear problems of nuclear reactor criticality. Algorithms for solving equations for variations in the neutron flux are considered. Convergence of the iterative processes is studied for two nonlinear problems in which macroscopic interaction cross sections are functionals of the spatial neutron distribution. In the first problem, the neutron flux distribution depends on the water coolant density, and in the second one, it depends on the fuel temperature. Simple relationships connecting the vapor content and the temperature with the neutron flux are used.

  5. Does utility spent nuclear fuel storage affect local property values?

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, W.C.; Allison, T.; Clark, D.E.

    1997-05-01

    With federal policy apparently forcing more utilities to store their spent nuclear fuel at their reactor sites for the foreseeable future, the question arises whether residential sale prices will be affected because of the public perceptions of risk and negative imagery. This article discusses the question using the following topic areas: estimates of economic consequences; california plant case studies; real estate data used in the analyses; hedonic modeling; iterative hedonic modeling; 25-mile analyses; 15 mile analyses; news coverage analysis. 3 figs.

  6. The Nuclear Criticality Information System's project to archive unpublished critical experiment data

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L. ); Clayton, E.D.; Doherty, A.L. )

    1991-07-01

    Critical experiment facilities produced a large amount of important data during the past forty-five years. However, much useful data remains unpublished. The unpublished material exists in the form of experimenters' logbooks, notes, photographs, material descriptions, etc. These data could be important for computer code validation, understanding the physics of criticality, facility design, or for setting process limits. In the past, criticality specialists have been able to obtain unpublished details by direct contact with the experimenters. Obviously, this will not be possible indefinitely. Most of the US critical experiment facilities are now closed, the experimenters are moving the other jobs, retiring, or otherwise becoming unavailable for this informal assistance. The closure of the facilities and the loss of personnel is likely to lead to the loss of the facility records unless an effort is made to assure that the records are preserved. It has been recognized for some time that the unpublished records of critical experiment facilities comprise a valuable resource, thus the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) is working to insure that the records are preserved and made available via NCIS. As a first step in the archiving project, we identified criteria to help judge which series of experiments should be considered for archiving. Data that are used for validating calculations or the basis for subcritical limits in standards, handbooks, and guides are of particular importance. In this paper we will discuss the criteria for archiving, the priority list of experiments for archiving, and progress in developing an NCIS image database using current CD-ROM technology.

  7. The Nuclear Criticality Information System`s project to archive unpublished critical experiment data

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.; Clayton, E.D.; Doherty, A.L.

    1991-07-01

    Critical experiment facilities produced a large amount of important data during the past forty-five years. However, much useful data remains unpublished. The unpublished material exists in the form of experimenters` logbooks, notes, photographs, material descriptions, etc. These data could be important for computer code validation, understanding the physics of criticality, facility design, or for setting process limits. In the past, criticality specialists have been able to obtain unpublished details by direct contact with the experimenters. Obviously, this will not be possible indefinitely. Most of the US critical experiment facilities are now closed, the experimenters are moving the other jobs, retiring, or otherwise becoming unavailable for this informal assistance. The closure of the facilities and the loss of personnel is likely to lead to the loss of the facility records unless an effort is made to assure that the records are preserved. It has been recognized for some time that the unpublished records of critical experiment facilities comprise a valuable resource, thus the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) is working to insure that the records are preserved and made available via NCIS. As a first step in the archiving project, we identified criteria to help judge which series of experiments should be considered for archiving. Data that are used for validating calculations or the basis for subcritical limits in standards, handbooks, and guides are of particular importance. In this paper we will discuss the criteria for archiving, the priority list of experiments for archiving, and progress in developing an NCIS image database using current CD-ROM technology.

  8. 48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... nuclear criticality. 952.223-72 Section 952.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality. As prescribed in 923.7003 the clause set forth... contract or subcontract rather than by reliance upon Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing...

  9. 48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nuclear criticality. 952.223-72 Section 952.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality. As prescribed in 923.7003 the clause set forth... contract or subcontract rather than by reliance upon Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing...

  10. 48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nuclear criticality. 952.223-72 Section 952.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality. As prescribed in 923.7003 the clause set forth... contract or subcontract rather than by reliance upon Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing...

  11. 48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nuclear criticality. 952.223-72 Section 952.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality. As prescribed in 923.7003 the clause set forth... contract or subcontract rather than by reliance upon Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing...

  12. 48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... nuclear criticality. 952.223-72 Section 952.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality. As prescribed in 923.7003 the clause set forth... contract or subcontract rather than by reliance upon Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing...

  13. Training and qualification program for nuclear criticality safety technical staff

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1996-10-22

    A training and qualification program for nuclear criticality safety technical staff personnel has been developed and implemented. The program is compliant with requirements and provides evidence that a systematic approach has been taken to indoctrinate new technical staff. Development involved task analysis to determine activities where training was necessary and the standard which must be attained to qualify. Structured mentoring is used where experienced personnel interact with candidates using checksheets to guide candidates through various steps and to provide evidence that steps have been accomplished. Credit can be taken for the previous experience of personnel by means of evaluation boards which can credit or modify checksheet steps. Considering just the wealth of business practice and site specific information a new person at a facility needs to assimilate, the program has been effective in indoctrinating new technical staff personnel and integrating them into a productive role. The program includes continuing training.

  14. Critical Review on Affect of Personality on Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…

  15. Preservation and Dissemination of the Hardcopy Documentation Portion of the NCSP Nuclear Criticality Bibliographic Database

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B L; Heinrichs, D

    2009-05-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy supports a nuclear criticality safety bibliographic internet database that contains approximately 15,000 records. We are working to ensure that a substantial portion of the corresponding hardcopy documents are preserved, digitized, and made available to criticality safety practitioners via the Nuclear Criticality Safety Program web site.

  16. Virtuous Subjects: A Critical Analysis of the Affective Substance of Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmsing, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This essay invites social studies educators to consider critical theoretical insights related to affect, emotions, and feelings from what has been termed "the affective turn" in social sciences and humanities scholarship. Developments in theorizing affect and recent research in social studies education are related to affective elements…

  17. Cofilin nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling affects cofilin-actin rod formation during stress.

    PubMed

    Munsie, Lise Nicole; Desmond, Carly R; Truant, Ray

    2012-09-01

    Cofilin protein is involved in regulating the actin cytoskeleton during typical steady state conditions, as well as during cell stress conditions where cofilin saturates F-actin, forming cofilin-actin rods. Cofilin can enter the nucleus through an active nuclear localization signal (NLS), accumulating in nuclear actin rods during stress. Here, we characterize the active nuclear export of cofilin through a leptomycin-B-sensitive, CRM1-dependent, nuclear export signal (NES). We also redefine the NLS of cofilin as a bipartite NLS, with an additional basic epitope required for nuclear localization. Using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) between cofilin moieties and actin, as well as automated image analysis in live cells, we have defined subtle mutations in the cofilin NLS that allow cofilin to bind actin in vivo and affect cofilin dynamics during stress. We further define the requirement of cofilin-actin rod formation in a system of cell stress by temporal live-cell imaging. We propose that cofilin nuclear shuttling is critical for the cofilin-actin rod stress response with cofilin dynamically communicating between the nucleus and cytoplasm during cell stress.

  18. Critical processes affecting Cryptosporidium oocyst survival in the environment.

    PubMed

    King, B J; Monis, P T

    2007-03-01

    Cryptosporidium are parasitic protozoans that cause gastrointestinal disease and represent a significant risk to public health. Cryptosporidium oocysts are prevalent in surface waters as a result of human, livestock and native animal faecal contamination. The resistance of oocysts to the concentrations of chlorine and monochloramine used to disinfect potable water increases the risk of waterborne transmission via drinking water. In addition to being resistant to commonly used disinfectants, it is thought that oocysts can persist in the environment and be readily mobilized by precipitation events. This paper will review the critical processes involved in the inactivation or removal of oocysts in the terrestrial and aquatic environments and consider how these processes will respond in the context of climate change. PMID:17096874

  19. Reassessing culture media and critical metabolites that affect adenovirus production.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chun Fang; Voyer, Robert; Tom, Roseanne; Kamen, Amine

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus production is currently operated at low cell density because infection at high cell densities still results in reduced cell-specific productivity. To better understand nutrient limitation and inhibitory metabolites causing the reduction of specific yields at high cell densities, adenovirus production in HEK 293 cultures using NSFM 13 and CD 293 media were evaluated. For cultures using NSFM 13 medium, the cell-specific productivity decreased from 3,400 to 150 vp/cell (or 96% reduction) when the cell density at infection was increased from 1 to 3 x 10(6) cells/mL. In comparison, only 50% of reduction in the cell-specific productivity was observed under the same conditions for cultures using CD 293 medium. The effect of medium osmolality was found critical on viral production. Media were adjusted to an optimal osmolality of 290 mOsm/kg to facilitate comparison. Amino acids were not critical limiting factors. Potential limiting nutrients including vitamins, energy metabolites, bases and nucleotides, or inhibitory metabolites (lactate and ammonia) were supplemented to infected cultures to further investigate their effect on the adenovirus production. Accumulation of lactate and ammonia in a culture infected at 3 x 10(6) cells/mL contributed to about 20% reduction of the adenovirus production yield, whereas nutrient limitation appeared primarily responsible for the decline in the viral production when NSFM 13 medium was used. Overall, the results indicate that multiple factors contribute to limiting the specific production yield at cell densities beyond 1 x 10(6) cells/mL and underline the need to further investigate and develop media for better adenoviral vector productions.

  20. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  1. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  2. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  3. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  4. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  5. Nuclear criticality safety calculational analysis for small-diameter containers

    SciTech Connect

    LeTellier, M.S.; Smallwood, D.J.; Henkel, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents calculations performed to establish a technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of favorable geometry containers, sometimes referred to as 5-inch containers, in use at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A list of containers currently used in the plant is shown in Table 1.0-1. These containers are currently used throughout the plant with no mass limits. The use of containers with geometries or material types other than those addressed in this evaluation must be bounded by this analysis or have an additional analysis performed. The following five basic container geometries were modeled and bound all container geometries in Table 1.0-1: (1) 4.32-inch-diameter by 50-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (2) 5.0-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (3) 5.25-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high steel can ({open_quotes}F-can{close_quotes}); (4) 5.25-inch-diameter by 15-inch-high steel can ({open_quotes}Z-can{close_quotes}); and (5) 5.0-inch-diameter by 9-inch-high polybottle ({open_quotes}CO-4{close_quotes}). Each container type is evaluated using five basic reflection and interaction models that include single containers and multiple containers in normal and in credible abnormal conditions. The uranium materials evaluated are UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O and UF{sub 4}+oil materials at 100% and 10% enrichments and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and H{sub 2}O at 100% enrichment. The design basis safe criticality limit for the Portsmouth facility is k{sub eff} + 2{sigma} < 0.95. The KENO study results may be used as the basis for evaluating general use of these containers in the plant.

  6. Nuclear criticality safety program for environmental restoration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is located on a 1050 acre site approximately twenty miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. The production area of the site covers approximately 136 acres in the central portion of the site. Surrounding the core production area is a buffer consisting of leased grazing land, reforested land, and unused areas. The uranium processing facility was designed and constructed in the early 1950s. During the period from 1952 to 1989 the site produced uranium feed material and uranium products used in the United States weapons complex. Production at the site ended in 1989, when the site was shut down for what was expected to be a short period of time. However, the FUTC was permanently shut down in 1991, and the site`s mission was changed from production to environmental restoration. The objective of this paper is to give an update on activities at the Fernald Site and to describe the Nuclear Criticality Safety issues that are currently being addressed.

  7. Critical nuclear charge for two-electron atoms.

    PubMed

    Estienne, C S; Busuttil, M; Moini, A; Drake, G W F

    2014-05-01

    The critical nuclear charge Z(c) required to bind a nucleus plus two electrons in a heliumlike atom has recently been an area of active study, resulting in a disagreement with earlier calculations and with the value obtained from the radius of convergence 1/Z* of a 1/Z expansion of the energy. In order to resolve the disagreement, have performed high-precision variational calculations in Hylleraas coordinates. With the double basis set method, we have been able to obtain good convergence for Z very close to Z(c), which together with the Hellmann-Feynman theorem yields the value Z(c) = 0.911,028,224,077,255,73(4), corresponding to 1/Z(c) = 1.097,660,833,738,559,80(5). This value is in agreement with the value obtained by Baker et al. [Phys. Rev. A 41, 1247 (1990)]. A significant feature of the results is that the outer electron remains localized near the nucleus, even at Z = Z(c), and the bound state evidently changes smoothly into a shape resonance for Z

  8. Critical nuclear charge for two-electron atoms.

    PubMed

    Estienne, C S; Busuttil, M; Moini, A; Drake, G W F

    2014-05-01

    The critical nuclear charge Z(c) required to bind a nucleus plus two electrons in a heliumlike atom has recently been an area of active study, resulting in a disagreement with earlier calculations and with the value obtained from the radius of convergence 1/Z* of a 1/Z expansion of the energy. In order to resolve the disagreement, have performed high-precision variational calculations in Hylleraas coordinates. With the double basis set method, we have been able to obtain good convergence for Z very close to Z(c), which together with the Hellmann-Feynman theorem yields the value Z(c) = 0.911,028,224,077,255,73(4), corresponding to 1/Z(c) = 1.097,660,833,738,559,80(5). This value is in agreement with the value obtained by Baker et al. [Phys. Rev. A 41, 1247 (1990)]. A significant feature of the results is that the outer electron remains localized near the nucleus, even at Z = Z(c), and the bound state evidently changes smoothly into a shape resonance for Z

  9. 75 FR 29479 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Proposed Changes Affecting Hospital and Critical Access Hospital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... and Medicaid Programs: Proposed Changes Affecting Hospital and Critical Access Hospital (CAH... proposed rule would revise the conditions of participation (CoPs) for both hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs). These revisions would allow for a new credentialing and privileging process for...

  10. 76 FR 25550 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Changes Affecting Hospital and Critical Access Hospital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... May 26, 2010 (75 FR 29479). In that rule, we proposed to revise both the hospital and CAH... and Medicaid Programs: Changes Affecting Hospital and Critical Access Hospital Conditions of...) for both hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs). The final rule will implement a...

  11. Consideration of criticality in a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Sanchez, L.C.; Stockman, C.T.; Ramsey, J.L. Jr.; Martell, M.

    1995-07-01

    The preliminary criticality analysis that was done suggests that the possibility of achieving critical conditions cannot be easily ruled out without looking at the geochemical process of assembly or the dynamics of the operation of a critical assembly. The evaluation of a critical assembly requires an integrated, consistent approach that includes evaluating the following: (1) the alteration rates of the layers of the container and spent fuel, (2) the transport of fissile material or neutron absorbers, and (3) the assembly mechanisms that can achieve critical conditions. The above is a non-trivial analysis and preliminary work suggests that with the loading assumed, enough fissile mass will leach from the HEU multi-purpose canisters to support a criticality. In addition, the consequences of an unpressurized Oklo type criticality would be insignificant to the performance of an unsaturated, tuff repository.

  12. Training and qualification program for nuclear criticality safety technical staff. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-03-05

    A training and qualification program for nuclear criticality safety technical staff personnel has been developed and implemented. All personnel who are to perform nuclear criticality safety technical work are required to participate in the program. The program includes both general nuclear criticality safety and plant specific knowledge components. Advantage can be taken of previous experience for that knowledge which is portable such as performance of computer calculations. Candidates step through a structured process which exposes them to basic background information, general plant information, and plant specific information which they need to safely and competently perform their jobs. Extensive documentation is generated to demonstrate that candidates have met the standards established for qualification.

  13. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear criticality safety evaluation 94-02, uranium solidification facility pencil tank module spacing

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, R.

    1994-04-26

    Review of NMP-NCS-94-0087, ``Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 94-02: Uranium Solidification Facility Pencil Tank Module Spacing (U), April 18, 1994,`` was requested of the SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to show that the USF process module spacing, as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045, remains safe for operation. The NCSE under review concludes that the module spacing as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045 remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion.

  14. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed.

  15. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses: 1958 to 1982. Volume 1. Lookup tables

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains - in chronological order - the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  16. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of SRS 9971 shipping package

    SciTech Connect

    Vescovi, P.J.

    1993-02-01

    This evaluation is requested to revise the criticality evaluation used to generate Chapter 6 (Criticality Evaluation) of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for shipment Of UO{sub 3} product from the Uranium Solidification Facility (USF) in the SRS 9971 shipping package. The pertinent document requesting this evaluation is included as Attachment I. The results of the evaluation are given in Attachment II which is written as Chapter 6 of a NRC format SARP.

  17. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  18. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE non-reactor nuclear facilities. Adherence to these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.24.

  19. Environmental assessment for consolidation of certain materials and machines for nuclear criticality experiments and training

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-21

    In support of its assigned missions and because of the importance of avoiding nuclear criticality accidents, DOE has adopted a policy to reduce identifiable nuclear criticality safety risks and to protect the public, workers, government property and essential operations from the effects of a criticality accident. In support of this policy, the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area (TA) 18, provides a program of general purpose critical experiments. This program, the only remaining one of its kind in the United States, seeks to maintain a sound basis of information for criticality control in those physical situations that DOE will encounter in handling and storing fissionable material in the future, and ensuring the presence of a community of individuals competent in practicing this control.

  20. Fractality in momentum space: A signal of criticality in nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, N. G.; Davis, N.; Diakonos, F. K.

    2016-01-01

    We show that critical systems of finite size develop a fractal structure in momentum space with anomalous dimension given in terms of the isotherm critical exponent δ of the corresponding infinite system. The associated power laws of transverse momentum correlations, in high-energy nuclear collisions, provide us with a signature of a critical point in strongly interacting matter according to the laws of QCD.

  1. The Nuclear Education and Staffing Challenge: Rebuilding Critical Skills in Nuclear Science and Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Wogman, Ned A.; Bond, Leonard J.; Waltar, Alan E.; Leber, R. E.

    2005-01-01

    The United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its National Laboratories, including the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), are facing a serious attrition of nuclear scientists and engineers and their capabilities through the effects of aging staff. Within the DOE laboratories, 75% of nuclear personnel will be eligible to retire by 2010. It is expected that there will be a significant loss of senior nuclear science and technology staff at PNNL within five years. PNNL's nuclear legacy is firmly rooted in the DOE Hanford site, the World War II Manhattan Project, and subsequent programs. Historically, PNNL was a laboratory where 70% of its activities were nuclear/radiological, and now just under 50% of its current business science and technology are nuclear and radiologically oriented. Programs in the areas of Nuclear Legacies, Global Security, Nonproliferation, Homeland Security and National Defense, Radiobiology and Nuclear Energy still involve more than 1,000 of the 3,800 current laboratory staff, and these include more than 420 staff who are certified as nuclear/radiological scientists and engineers. This paper presents the current challenges faced by PNNL that require an emerging strategy to solve the nuclear staffing issues through the maintenance and replenishment of the human nuclear capital needed to support PNNL nuclear science and technology programs.

  2. The Nuclear Education and Staffing Challenge: Rebuilding Critical Skills in Nuclear Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wogman, Ned A.; Bond, Leonard J.; Waltar, Alan E.; Leber, R E.

    2005-01-01

    The United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its National Laboratories, including the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), are facing a serious attrition of nuclear scientists and engineers and their capabilities through the effects of aging staff. Within the DOE laboratories, 75% of nuclear personnel will be eligible to retire by 2010. It is expected that there will be a significant loss of senior nuclear science and technology staff at PNNL within five years. PNNL's nuclear legacy is firmly rooted in the DOE Hanford site, the World War II Manhattan Project, and subsequent programs. Historically, PNNL was a laboratory were 70% of its activities were nuclear/radiological, and now just under 50% of its current business science and technology are nuclear and radiologically oriented. Programs in the areas of Nuclear Legacies, Global Security, Nonproliferation, Homeland Security and National Defense, Radiobiology and Nuclear Energy still involve more than 1,000 of the 3,800 current laboratory staff, and these include more than 420 staff who are certified as nuclear/radiological scientists and engineers. This paper presents the current challenges faced by PNNL that require an emerging strategy to solve the nuclear staffing issues through the maintenance and replenishment of the human nuclear capital needed to support PNNL nuclear science and technology programs.

  3. Factors affecting recognition of cancer risks of nuclear workers.

    PubMed Central

    Kneale, G W; Stewart, A M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To discover whether direct estimates of the risks of cancer for nuclear workers agree with indirect estimates based on survivors of the atomic bomb; whether relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer are the same for workers and survivors, and whether dosimetry standards are sufficiently uniform to allow pooling of data from different nuclear industrial sites. METHOD--Data from five nuclear sites in the United States were included in a cohort analysis that as well as controlling for all the usual factors also allowed for possible effects of three cancer modulating factors (exposure age, cancer latency, and year of exposure). This analysis was first applied to three distinct cohorts, and then to two sets of pooled data. RESULTS--From each study cohort there was evidence of a risk of cancer related to dose, and evidence that the extra radiogenic cancers had the same overall histological manifestations as naturally occurring cancers and were largely the result of exposures after 50 years of age causing deaths after 70 years. There were, however, significant differences between the five sets of risk estimates. CONCLUSIONS--Although the risks of cancer in nuclear workers were appreciably higher than estimates based on the cancer experiences of survivors of the atomic bomb, some uncertainties remained as there were non-uniform standards of dosimetry in the nuclear sites. The differences between nuclear workers and survivors of the atomic bomb were largely the result of relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer being totally different for workers and survivors and, in the occupational data, there were no signs of the special risks of leukaemia found in atomic bomb data and other studies of effects of high doses. PMID:7663636

  4. Importance of Nuclear Data Uncertainties in Criticality Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceresio, C.; Cabellos, O.; Martínez, J. S.; Diez, C. J.

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the importance of nuclear data uncertainties in the prediction of the uncertainties in keff for LWR (Light Water Reactor) unit-cells. The first part of this work is focused on the comparison of different sensitivity/uncertainty propagation methodologies based on TSUNAMI and MCNP codes; this study is undertaken for a fresh-fuel at different operational conditions. The second part of this work studies the burnup effect where the indirect contribution due to the uncertainty of the isotopic evolution is also analyzed.

  5. Nuclear cyclophilins affect spliceosome assembly and function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Adams, B M; Coates, Miranda N; Jackson, S RaElle; Jurica, Melissa S; Davis, Tara L

    2015-07-15

    Cyclophilins are ubiquitously expressed proteins that bind to prolines and can catalyse cis/trans isomerization of proline residues. There are 17 annotated members of the cyclophilin family in humans, ubiquitously expressed and localized variously to the cytoplasm, nucleus or mitochondria. Surprisingly, all eight of the nuclear localized cyclophilins are found associated with spliceosomal complexes. However, their particular functions within this context are unknown. We have therefore adapted three established assays for in vitro pre-mRNA splicing to probe the functional roles of nuclear cyclophilins in the context of the human spliceosome. We find that four of the eight spliceosom-associated cyclophilins exert strong effects on splicing in vitro. These effects are dose-dependent and, remarkably, uniquely characteristic of each cyclophilin. Using both qualitative and quantitative means, we show that at least half of the nuclear cyclophilins can act as regulatory factors of spliceosome function in vitro. The present work provides the first quantifiable evidence that nuclear cyclophilins are splicing factors and provides a novel approach for future work into small molecule-based modulation of pre-mRNA splicing.

  6. SRTC criticality technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-18 Uranium Solidification Facility`s Waste Handling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-10-01

    Separate review of NMP-NCS-930058, {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-18 Uranium Solidification Facility`s Waste Handling Facility (U), August 17, 1993,{close_quotes} was requested of SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine waste container uranium limits in the Uranium Solidification Facility`s Waste Handling Facility. The NCSE under review concludes that the NDA room remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. The ability to make this conclusion is highly dependent on array limitation and inclusion of physical barriers between 2{times}2{times}1 arrays of boxes containing materials contaminated with uranium. After a thorough review of the NCSE and independent calculations, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion.

  7. Composite neutron absorbing coatings for nuclear criticality control

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Richard N.; Swank, W. David; Mizia, Ronald E.

    2005-07-19

    Thermal neutron absorbing composite coating materials and methods of applying such coating materials to spent nuclear fuel storage systems are provided. A composite neutron absorbing coating applied to a substrate surface includes a neutron absorbing layer overlying at least a portion of the substrate surface, and a corrosion resistant top coat layer overlying at least a portion of the neutron absorbing layer. An optional bond coat layer can be formed on the substrate surface prior to forming the neutron absorbing layer. The neutron absorbing layer can include a neutron absorbing material, such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium phosphate, dispersed in a metal alloy matrix. The coating layers may be formed by a plasma spray process or a high velocity oxygen fuel process.

  8. Nuclear criticality safety staff training and qualifications at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, S.P.; McLaughlin, T.P.

    1997-05-01

    Operations involving significant quantities of fissile material have been conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory continuously since 1943. Until the advent of the Laboratory`s Nuclear Criticality Safety Committee (NCSC) in 1957, line management had sole responsibility for controlling criticality risks. From 1957 until 1961, the NCSC was the Laboratory body which promulgated policy guidance as well as some technical guidance for specific operations. In 1961 the Laboratory created the position of Nuclear Criticality Safety Office (in addition to the NCSC). In 1980, Laboratory management moved the Criticality Safety Officer (and one other LACEF staff member who, by that time, was also working nearly full-time on criticality safety issues) into the Health Division office. Later that same year the Criticality Safety Group, H-6 (at that time) was created within H-Division, and staffed by these two individuals. The training and education of these individuals in the art of criticality safety was almost entirely self-regulated, depending heavily on technical interactions between each other, as well as NCSC, LACEF, operations, other facility, and broader criticality safety community personnel. Although the Los Alamos criticality safety group has grown both in size and formality of operations since 1980, the basic philosophy that a criticality specialist must be developed through mentoring and self motivation remains the same. Formally, this philosophy has been captured in an internal policy, document ``Conduct of Business in the Nuclear Criticality Safety Group.`` There are no short cuts or substitutes in the development of a criticality safety specialist. A person must have a self-motivated personality, excellent communications skills, a thorough understanding of the principals of neutron physics, a safety-conscious and helpful attitude, a good perspective of real risk, as well as a detailed understanding of process operations and credible upsets.

  9. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the proposed CFC replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.; Dyer, H.R.

    1993-12-01

    The neutron multiplication characteristics of refrigerant-114 (R-114) and proposed replacement coolants perfluorobutane (C{sub 4}F{sub 10}) and cycloperfluorobutane C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) have been compared by evaluating the infinite media multiplication factors of UF{sub 6}/H/coolant systems and by replacement calculations considering a 10-MW freezer/sublimer. The results of these comparisons demonstrate that R-114 is a neutron absorber, due to its chlorine content, and that the alternative fluorocarbon coolants are neutron moderators. Estimates of critical spherical geometries considering mixtures of UF{sub 6}/HF/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} indicate that the flourocarbon-moderated systems are large compared with water-moderated systems. The freezer/sublimer calculations indicate that the alternative coolants are more reactive than R-114, but that the reactivity remains significantly below the condition of water in the tubes, which was a limiting condition. Based on these results, the alternative coolants appear to be acceptable; however, several follow-up tasks have been recommended, and additional evaluation will be required on an individual equipment basis.

  10. Criticality benchmark calculations using PARTISN: Comparisons using MENDF5 and MENDF6 nuclear data libraries.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Ronald J.; Yugo, James J.; Frankle, S. C.; Little, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    A project was undertaken to assess the MENDF5 and MENDF6 nuclear data libraries through the analysis of 86 critical assembly benchmarks using the LANL discrete ordinates transport code PARTISN. As an initial analysis of the effects of some limitations in the MENDF libraries, this current work assesses differences in k,,a calculations between the PARTISN cases (with MENDF5 and MENDF6 nuclear data libraries) and MCNP cases, and compares these results to the experimental data.

  11. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of large cylinder cleaning operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.; Lutz, H.F.

    1995-06-01

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for large cylinder cleaning operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current cleaning procedures and required hardware/equipment is presented, and documentation for large cylinder cleaning operations is identified and described. Control parameters, design features, administrative controls, and safety systems relevant to nuclear criticality are discussed individually, followed by an overall assessment based on the Double Contingency Principle. Recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested, and issues for increased efficiency are presented.

  12. Criticality safety aspects of decontamination and decommissioning at defense nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Croucher, D.W.

    1994-02-01

    Defense nuclear facilities have operated for forty years with a well-defined mission to produce weapons components for the nation. With the end of the cold war, the facilities` missions have changed to one of decontamination and decommissioning. Off-normal operations and use of new procedures, such as will exist during these activities, have often been among the causal factors in previous criticality accidents at process facilities. This paper explores the similarities in causal factors in previous criticality accidents to the conditions existing in current defense nuclear facilities undergoing the transition to decontamination and decommissioning. Practices to reduce the risk to workers, the public, and the environment are recommended.

  13. Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Mueller, Don; Goluoglu, Sedat; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Fox, Patricia B

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this calculation report, Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, is to validate the computational method used to perform postclosure criticality calculations. The validation process applies the criticality analysis methodology approach documented in Section 3.5 of the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report. The application systems for this validation consist of waste packages containing transport, aging, and disposal canisters (TAD) loaded with commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) of varying assembly types, initial enrichments, and burnup values that are expected from the waste stream and of varying degree of internal component degradation that may occur over the 10,000-year regulatory time period. The criticality computational tool being evaluated is the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The nuclear cross-section data distributed with MCNP 5.1.40 and used to model the various physical processes are based primarily on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version VI (ENDF/B-VI) library. Criticality calculation bias and bias uncertainty and lower bound tolerance limit (LBTL) functions for CSNF waste packages are determined based on the guidance in ANSI/ANS 8.1-1998 (Ref. 4) and ANSI/ANS 8.17-2004 (Ref. 5), as described in Section 3.5.3 of Ref. 1. The development of this report is consistent with Test Plan for: Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality. This calculation report has been developed in support of licensing activities for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the results of the calculation may be used in the criticality evaluation for CSNF waste packages based on a conceptual TAD canister.

  14. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the Consolidated Edison Uranium-Solidification Program Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear criticality assessment of the Consolidated Edison Uranium-Solidification Program facility confirms that all operations involved in the process may be conducted with an acceptable margin of subcriticality. Normal operation presents no concern since subcriticality is maintained by design. Several recommendations are presented to prevent, or mitigate the consequences of, any abnormal events that might occur in the various portions of the process. These measures would also serve to reduce to a minimum the administrative controls required to prevent criticality.

  15. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) is approved for use by all components of DOE. It contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. Adherence with these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with DOE Order 5480.24 requirements as they pertain to CSEs.

  16. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    SciTech Connect

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies.

  17. Regression analysis of technical parameters affecting nuclear power plant performances

    SciTech Connect

    Ghazy, R.; Ricotti, M. E.; Trueco, P.

    2012-07-01

    Since the 80's many studies have been conducted in order to explicate good and bad performances of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs), but yet no defined correlation has been found out to be totally representative of plant operational experience. In early works, data availability and the number of operating power stations were both limited; therefore, results showed that specific technical characteristics of NPPs were supposed to be the main causal factors for successful plant operation. Although these aspects keep on assuming a significant role, later studies and observations showed that other factors concerning management and organization of the plant could instead be predominant comparing utilities operational and economic results. Utility quality, in a word, can be used to summarize all the managerial and operational aspects that seem to be effective in determining plant performance. In this paper operational data of a consistent sample of commercial nuclear power stations, out of the total 433 operating NPPs, are analyzed, mainly focusing on the last decade operational experience. The sample consists of PWR and BWR technology, operated by utilities located in different countries, including U.S. (Japan)) (France)) (Germany)) and Finland. Multivariate regression is performed using Unit Capability Factor (UCF) as the dependent variable; this factor reflects indeed the effectiveness of plant programs and practices in maximizing the available electrical generation and consequently provides an overall indication of how well plants are operated and maintained. Aspects that may not be real causal factors but which can have a consistent impact on the UCF, as technology design, supplier, size and age, are included in the analysis as independent variables. (authors)

  18. Critical temperature for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition (from multifragmentation and fission)

    SciTech Connect

    Karnaukhov, V. A.; Oeschler, H.; Budzanowski, A.; Avdeyev, S. P.; Botvina, A. S.; Cherepanov, E. A.; Karcz, W.; Kirakosyan, V. V.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Skwirczynska, I.; Norbeck, E.

    2008-12-15

    Critical temperature T{sub c} for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is estimated from both the multifragmentation and fission data. In the first case, the critical temperature is obtained by analysis of the intermediate-mass-fragment yields in p(8.1 GeV) + Au collisions within the statistical model of multifragmentation. In the second case, the experimental fission probability for excited {sup 188}Os is compared with the calculated one with T{sub c} as a free parameter. It is concluded for both cases that the critical temperature is higher than 15 MeV.

  19. Factors affecting the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear transfer is a complex multistep procedure that includes oocyte maturation, cell cycle synchronization of donor cells, enucleation, cell fusion, oocyte activation and embryo culture. Therefore, many factors are believed to contribute to the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer. Numerous attempts to improve cloning efficiency have been conducted since the birth of the first sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the efficiency of somatic cell cloning has remained low, and applications have been limited. In this review, we discuss some of the factors that affect the developmental ability of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in cattle.

  20. Reassessment of selected factors affecting siting of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.E.; Hanson, A.L.; Mubayi, V.; Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1997-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has performed a series of probabilistic consequence assessment calculations for nuclear reactor siting. This study takes into account recent insights into severe accident source terms and examines consequences in a risk based format consistent with the quantitative health objectives (QHOs) of the NRC`s Safety Goal Policy. Simplified severe accident source terms developed in this study are based on the risk insights of NUREG-1150. The results of the study indicate that both the quantity of radioactivity released in a severe accident as well as the likelihood of a release are lower than those predicted in earlier studies. The accident risks using the simplified source terms are examined at a series of generic plant sites, that vary in population distribution, meteorological conditions, and exclusion area boundary distances. Sensitivity calculations are performed to evaluate the effects of emergency protective action assumptions on the risk of prompt fatality and latent cancers fatality, and population relocation. The study finds that based on the new source terms the prompt and latent fatality risks at all generic sites meet the QHOs of the NRC`s Safety Goal Policy by margins ranging from one to more than three orders of magnitude. 4 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. PML isoform II plays a critical role in nuclear lipid droplet formation

    PubMed Central

    Ohsaki, Yuki; Kawai, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Yukichika; Cheng, Jinglei; Jokitalo, Eija

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) in the nucleus of hepatocyte-derived cell lines were found to be associated with premyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) and type I nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR) or the extension of the inner nuclear membrane. Knockdown of PML isoform II (PML-II) caused a significant decrease in both nuclear LDs and type I NR, whereas overexpression of PML-II increased both. Notably, these effects were evident only in limited types of cells, in which a moderate number of nuclear LDs exist intrinsically, and PML-II was targeted not only at PML NBs, but also at the nuclear envelope, excluding lamins and SUN proteins. Knockdown of SUN proteins induced a significant increase in the type I NR and nuclear LDs, but these effects were cancelled by simultaneous knockdown of PML-II. Nuclear LDs harbored diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 and CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α and incorporated newly synthesized lipid esters. These results corroborated that PML-II plays a critical role in generating nuclear LDs in specific cell types. PMID:26728854

  2. Nuclear waste criticality analysis. Final report, 1 July 1995--30 June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Culbreth, W.G.

    1996-07-03

    The natural reactors that occurred in Gabon, Africa over 2 billion years ago present an interesting analog to the underground repositories proposed around the world for the long-term storage of high-level spent nuclear fuel. Many articles have been written concerning the low migration rates of actinides and fission products from the Oklo reactor sites, but Oklo also presents researchers with an opportunity to discover the conditions that led to nuclear criticality in uranium oxides with low enrichments. A computer model was developed to predict the conditions that were necessary to lead to criticality in the Oklo reactors. Critical core dimensions and infinite multiplication factors are presented as a function of time, the porosity of the host rock, and the water and uranium content of the sandstone deposits at Oklo.

  3. Educating Next Generation Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bess; J. B. Briggs; A. S. Garcia

    2011-09-01

    One of the challenges in educating our next generation of nuclear safety engineers is the limitation of opportunities to receive significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Such training is generally restricted to on-the-job-training before this new engineering workforce can adequately provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) can provide students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills. The ICSBEP and IRPhEP publish annual handbooks that contain evaluations of experiments along with summarized experimental data and peer-reviewed benchmark specifications to support the validation of neutronics codes, nuclear cross-section data, and the validation of reactor designs. Participation in the benchmark process not only benefits those who use these Handbooks within the international community, but provides the individual with opportunities for professional development, networking with an international community of experts, and valuable experience to be used in future employment. Traditionally students have participated in benchmarking activities via internships at national laboratories, universities, or companies involved with the ICSBEP and IRPhEP programs. Additional programs have been developed to facilitate the nuclear education of students while participating in the benchmark projects. These programs include coordination with the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) Next Degree Program, the Collaboration with the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to train nuclear and criticality safety engineers, and student evaluations as the basis for their Master's thesis in nuclear engineering.

  4. Identifying critical road geometry parameters affecting crash rate and crash type.

    PubMed

    Othman, Sarbaz; Thomson, Robert; Lannér, Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this traffic safety investigation was to find critical road parameters affecting crash rate (CR). The study was based on crash and road maintenance data from Western Sweden. More than 3000 crashes, reported from 2000 to 2005 on median-separated roads, were collected and combined with road geometric and surface data. The statistical analysis showed variations in CR when road elements changed confirming that road characteristics affect CR. The findings indicated that large radii right-turn curves were more dangerous than left curves, in particular, during lane changing manoeuvres. However sharper curves are more dangerous in both left and right curves. Moreover, motorway carriageways with no or limited shoulders have the highest CR when compared to other carriageway widths, while one lane carriageway sections on 2+1 roads were the safest. Road surface results showed that both wheel rut depth and road roughness have negative impacts on traffic safety.

  5. Factors affecting ED length-of-stay in surgical critical care patients.

    PubMed

    Davis, B; Sullivan, S; Levine, A; Dallara, J

    1995-09-01

    To determine what patient characteristics are associated with prolonged emergency department (ED) length-of-stay (LOS) for surgical critical care patients, the charts of 169 patients admitted from the ED directly to the operating room (OR) or intensive care unit (ICU) during a 6-week period in 1993 were reviewed. The ED record was reviewed for documentation of factors that might be associated with prolonged ED LOS, such as use of computed tomographic (CT), radiology special procedures, and the number of plain radiographs and consultants. ED LOS was considered to be the time from triage until a decision was made to admit the patient. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, use of CT and special procedures were the strongest independent predictors of prolonged ED length-of-stay. The number of plain radiographs and consultants had only a minimal effect. Use of a protocol-driven trauma evaluation system was associated with a shorter ED LOS. In addition to external factors that affect ED overcrowding, ED patient management decisions may also be associated with prolonged ED length-of-stay. Such ED-based factors may be more important in surgical critical care patients, whose overall ED LOS is affected more by the length of the ED work-up rather than the time spent waiting for a ICU bed or operating suite.

  6. De-alerting of U.S. nuclear forces: a critical appraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K C; Barish, F

    1998-08-21

    Since the end of the Cold War, there have been pressures by disarmament advocates to move more quickly to draw down, toward zero, the number of nuclear weapons in U.S. and Russian arsenals. They criticize the process of negotiating arms control agreements as being too slow, and point out that treaty implementation is hampered by the necessity of ratification by the U.S. Senate and Russian Duma. One method of moving more rapidly toward nuclear abolition suggested by some analysts is de-alerting of nuclear-weapon delivery systems. De-alerting is defined as taking steps that increase significantly the time required to launch a given delivery vehicle armed with a nuclear warhead. Although there is little inclination by the U.S. Government to de-alert its nuclear forces at present, some academic literature and press stories continue to advocate such steps. This paper offers a critique of de-alerting proposals together with an assessment of the dangers of accidental, unauthorized, or unintended use of nuclear weapons. It concludes that de-alerting nuclear forces would be extremely de-stabilizing, principally because it would increase the value to an opponent of launching a first strike.

  7. BAF53 Forms Distinct Nuclear Complexes and Functions as a Critical c-Myc-Interacting Nuclear Cofactor for Oncogenic Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeonghyeon; Wood, Marcelo A.; Cole, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The c-Myc oncoprotein functions as a transcription factor that can transform normal cells into tumor cells, as well as playing a direct role in normal cell proliferation. The c-Myc protein transactivates cellular promoters by recruiting nuclear cofactors to chromosomal sites through an N-terminal transactivation domain. We have previously reported the identification and functional characterization of four different c-Myc cofactors: TRRAP, hGCN5, TIP49, and TIP48. Here we present the identification and characterization of the actin-related protein BAF53 as a c-Myc-interacting nuclear cofactor that forms distinct nuclear complexes. In addition to the human SWI/SNF-related BAF complex, BAF53 forms a complex with TIP49 and TIP48 and a separate biochemically distinct complex containing TRRAP and a histone acetyltransferase which does not contain TIP60. Using deletion mutants of BAF53, we show that BAF53 is critical for c-Myc oncogenic activity. Our results indicate that BAF53 plays a functional role in c-Myc-interacting nuclear complexes. PMID:11839798

  8. Investigation of criticality safety control infraction data at a nuclear facility

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Merhege, James F.; Costa, David A.; Art, Blair M.; Gubernatis, David C.

    2014-10-27

    Chemical and metallurgical operations involving plutonium and other nuclear materials account for most activities performed at the LANL's Plutonium Facility (PF-4). The presence of large quantities of fissile materials in numerous forms at PF-4 makes it necessary to maintain an active criticality safety program. The LANL Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Program provides guidance to enable efficient operations while ensuring prevention of criticality accidents in the handling, storing, processing and transportation of fissionable material at PF-4. In order to achieve and sustain lower criticality safety control infraction (CSCI) rates, PF-4 operations are continuously improved, through the use of Lean Manufacturing andmore » Six Sigma (LSS) business practices. Employing LSS, statistically significant variations (trends) can be identified in PF-4 CSCI reports. In this study, trends have been identified in the NCS Program using the NCS Database. An output metric has been developed that measures ADPSM Management progress toward meeting its NCS objectives and goals. Using a Pareto Chart, the primary CSCI attributes have been determined in order of those requiring the most management support. Data generated from analysis of CSCI data help identify and reduce number of corresponding attributes. In-field monitoring of CSCI's contribute to an organization's scientific and technological excellence by providing information that can be used to improve criticality safety operation safety. This increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.« less

  9. Investigation of criticality safety control infraction data at a nuclear facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Merhege, James F.; Costa, David A.; Art, Blair M.; Gubernatis, David C.

    2014-10-27

    Chemical and metallurgical operations involving plutonium and other nuclear materials account for most activities performed at the LANL's Plutonium Facility (PF-4). The presence of large quantities of fissile materials in numerous forms at PF-4 makes it necessary to maintain an active criticality safety program. The LANL Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Program provides guidance to enable efficient operations while ensuring prevention of criticality accidents in the handling, storing, processing and transportation of fissionable material at PF-4. In order to achieve and sustain lower criticality safety control infraction (CSCI) rates, PF-4 operations are continuously improved, through the use of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma (LSS) business practices. Employing LSS, statistically significant variations (trends) can be identified in PF-4 CSCI reports. In this study, trends have been identified in the NCS Program using the NCS Database. An output metric has been developed that measures ADPSM Management progress toward meeting its NCS objectives and goals. Using a Pareto Chart, the primary CSCI attributes have been determined in order of those requiring the most management support. Data generated from analysis of CSCI data help identify and reduce number of corresponding attributes. In-field monitoring of CSCI's contribute to an organization's scientific and technological excellence by providing information that can be used to improve criticality safety operation safety. This increases technical knowledge and augments operational safety.

  10. Reactor Physics and Criticality Benchmark Evaluations for Advanced Nuclear Fuel - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Anderson; James Tulenko; Bradley Rearden; Gary Harms

    2008-09-11

    The nuclear industry interest in advanced fuel and reactor design often drives towards fuel with uranium enrichments greater than 5 wt% 235U. Unfortunately, little data exists, in the form of reactor physics and criticality benchmarks, for uranium enrichments ranging between 5 and 10 wt% 235U. The primary purpose of this project is to provide benchmarks for fuel similar to what may be required for advanced light water reactors (LWRs). These experiments will ultimately provide additional information for application to the criticality-safety bases for commercial fuel facilities handling greater than 5 wt% 235U fuel.

  11. The nucleotide-binding domain of NLRC5 is critical for nuclear import and transactivation activity

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, Torsten B.; Li, Amy; Liu, Yuen-Joyce; Gagnon, Etienne; Kobayashi, Koichi S.

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NLRC5 requires an intact NLS for its function as MHC class I transactivator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear presence of NLRC5 is required for MHC class I induction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nucleotide-binding controls nuclear import and transactivation activity of NLRC5. -- Abstract: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II are crucial for the function of the human adaptive immune system. A member of the NLR (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat) protein family, NLRC5, has recently been identified as a transcriptional regulator of MHC class I and related genes. While a 'master regulator' of MHC class II genes, CIITA, has long been known, NLRC5 specifically associates with and transactivates the proximal promoters of MHC class I genes. In this study, we analyzed the molecular requirements of NLRC5 nuclear import and transactivation activity. We show that NLRC5-mediated MHC class I gene induction requires an intact nuclear localization signal and nuclear distribution of NLRC5. In addition, we find that the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of NLRC5 is critical not only for nuclear translocation but also for the transactivation of MHC class I genes. Changing the cellular localization of NLRC5 is likely to immediately impact MHC class I expression as well as MHC class I-mediated antigen presentation. NLRC5 may thus provide a promising target for the modulation of MHC class I antigen presentation, especially in the setting of transplant medicine.

  12. Migration of nuclear criticality safety software from a mainfram to a workstation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, L.J.; Robinson, R.C.; Cain, V.R. )

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear criticality safety department (NCSD), Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, has undergone the transition of executing the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Nuclear Criticality Safety Software (NCSS) on IBM mainframes to a Hewlett Packard (HP) 9000/730 workstation (NCSSHP). NCSSHP contains the following configuration-controlled modules and cross-section libraries: BONAMI, CSAS, GEOMCHK, ICE, KENO IV, KENO V.a, MODIFY, NITAWL, SCALE, SUBLIB, XSDRN, UNIXLIB, albedos library, weights library, 16-group HANSEN-ROACH master library, 27-group ENDF/B-IV master library, and standard composition library. This paper discusses the method used to choose the workstation, the hardware setup of the chosen workstation, an overview of Y-12 software quality assurance and configuration control methodology, code validation, difficulties encountered in migrating the codes, and advantages to migrating to a workstation environment.

  13. Migration of nuclear criticality safety software from a mainframe to a workstation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, L.J.; Robinson, R.C.; Cain, V.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Department (NCSD), Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has undergone the transition of executing the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Nuclear Criticality Safety Software (NCSS) on IBM mainframes to a Hewlett-Packard (HP) 9000/730 workstation (NCSSHP). NCSSHP contains the following configuration controlled modules and cross-section libraries: BONAMI, CSAS, GEOMCHY, ICE, KENO IV, KENO Va, MODIIFY, NITAWL SCALE, SLTBLIB, XSDRN, UNIXLIB, albedos library, weights library, 16-Group HANSEN-ROACH master library, 27-Group ENDF/B-IV master library, and standard composition library. This paper will discuss the method used to choose the workstation, the hardware setup of the chosen workstation, an overview of Y-12 software quality assurance and configuration control methodology, code validation, difficulties encountered in migrating the codes, and advantages to migrating to a workstation environment.

  14. Critical temperature for {alpha}-particle condensation in asymmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sogo, Takaaki; Roepke, Gerd; Schuck, Peter

    2010-09-15

    The critical temperature for {alpha}-particle condensation in nuclear matter with Fermi surface imbalance between protons and neutrons is determined. The in-medium four-body Schroedinger equation, generalizing the Thouless criterion of the BCS transition, is applied using a Hartree-Fock wave function for the quartet projected onto zero total momentum in matter with different chemical potentials for protons and neutrons.

  15. Fostering Critical Thinking in the Geosciences: Combining Geoethics, the Affective Domain, Metacognition, and Systems Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogk, D. W.; Geissman, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is a compelling need to develop the geoscience workforce of the future to address the "grand challenges" that face humanity. This workforce must have a strong understanding of Earth history, processes and materials and be able to communicate effectively and responsibly to inform public policy and personal and societal actions, particularly with regard to geohazards and natural resources. Curricula to train future geoscientists must be designed to help students develop critical thinking skills across the curriculum, from introductory to senior capstone courses. Students will be challenged in their pre-professional training as geoscientists as they encounter an incomplete geologic record, ambiguity and uncertainty in observed and experimental results, temporal reasoning ("deep time", frequency, recurrence intervals), spatial reasoning (from microns to mountains), and complex system behavior. Four instructional approaches can be combined to address these challenges and help students develop critical thinking skills: 1) Geoethics and ethical decision making includes review and integration of the context/facts of the situation, stakeholders, decision-makers, and possible alternative actions and expected outcomes; 2) The affective domain which encompasses factors such as student motivation to learn, curiosity, fear, attitudes, perceptions, social barriers and values; 3) Metacognition which encourages students to be aware about their own thinking processes, and to develop self-monitoring and self-regulating behaviors; and 4) Systems thinking which requires integrative thinking about the interactions between physical, chemical, biological and human processes, feedback mechanisms and emergent phenomena. Guided inquiry and scaffolded exercises can be used to present increasingly complex situations that require a thorough understanding of geologic principles and processes as applied to issues of societal concern. These approaches are not "owned" by any single course or

  16. Critical Factors Affecting the Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes: A Delphi Study of the Opinions of Community College Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify critically important factors that affect the meaningful assessment of student learning outcomes and study why these factors were critically important. A three-round Delphi process was used to solicit the opinions of individuals who were actively involved in student learning outcomes assessment…

  17. Validation of Nuclear Criticality Safety Software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.L. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The validation documented in this report is based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992, and was completed in June 1993. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Martin Marietta Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM 3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. When the validation results are treated as a single group, there is 95% confidence that 99.9% of future calculations of similar critical systems will have a calculated K{sub eff} > 0.9616. Based on this result the Portsmouth Nuclear Criticality Safety Department has adopted the calculational acceptance criteria that a k{sub eff} + 2{sigma} {le} 0.95 is safety subcritical. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25.

  18. Initial conceptual design study of self-critical nuclear pumped laser systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical study of self-critical nuclear pumped laser system concepts was performed. Primary emphasis was placed on reactor concepts employing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) as the fissionable material. Relationships were developed between the key reactor design parameters including reactor power level, critical mass, neutron flux level, reactor size, operating pressure, and UF6 optical properties. The results were used to select a reference conceptual laser system configuration. In the reference configuration, the 3.2 m cubed lasing volume is surrounded by a graphite internal moderator and a region of heavy water. Results of neutronics calculations yield a critical mass of 4.9 U(235) in the form (235)UF6. The configuration appears capable of operating in a continuous steady-state mode. The average gas temperature in the core is 600 K and the UF6 partial pressure within the lasing volume is 0.34 atm.

  19. Real-time software use in nuclear materials handling criticality safety control

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.; Lappa, D.; Chiao, T.; Parrish, C.; Carlson, R.; Lewis, J.; Shikany, D.; Woo, H.

    1997-06-01

    This paper addresses the use of real-time software to assist handlers of fissionable nuclear material. We focus specifically on the issue of workstation mass limits, and the need for handlers to be aware of, and check against, those mass limits during material transfers. Here ``mass limits`` generally refer to criticality safety mass limits; however, in some instances, workstation mass limits for some materials may be governed by considerations other than criticality, e.g., fire or release consequence limitation. As a case study, we provide a simplified reliability comparison of the use of a manual two handler system with a software-assisted two handler system. We identify the interface points between software and handlers that are relevant to criticality safety.

  20. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses - 1958 to 1982. Volume 2. Summaries. Complilation of papers from the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains-in chronological order-the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  1. Test Suite for Nuclear Data I: Deterministic Calculations for Critical Assemblies and Replacement Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Brown, D A; Descalle, M

    2006-05-22

    The authors describe tools developed by the Computational Nuclear Physics group for testing the quality of internally developed nuclear data and the fidelity of translations from ENDF formatted data to ENDL formatted data used by Livermore. These tests include S{sub n} calculations for the effective k value characterizing critical assemblies and for replacement coefficients of different materials embedded in the Godiva and Jezebel critical assemblies. For those assemblies and replacement materials for which reliable experimental information is available, these calculations provide an integral check on the quality of data. Because members of the ENDF and reactor communities use calculations for these same assemblies in their validation process, a comparison between their results with ENDF formatted data and their results with data translated into the ENDL format provides a strong check on the accuracy of translations. As a first application of the test suite they present a study comparing ENDL 99 and ENDF/B-V. They also consider the quality of the ENDF/B-V translation previously done by the Computational Nuclear Physics group. No significant errors are found.

  2. The Development, Content, Design, and Conduct of the 2011 Piloted US DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program Criticality Safety Engineering Training and Education Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    In May 1973 the University of New Mexico conducted the first nationwide criticality safety training and education week-long short course for nuclear criticality safety engineers. Subsequent to that course, the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) developed very successful 'hands-on' subcritical and critical training programs for operators, supervisors, and engineering staff. Since the inception of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project (NCT&SP) in 1983, the DOE has stimulated contractor facilities and laboratories to collaborate in the furthering of nuclear criticality as a discipline. That effort included the education and training of nuclear criticality safety engineers (NCSEs). In 1985 a textbook was written that established a path toward formalizing education and training for NCSEs. Though the NCT&SP went through a brief hiatus from 1990 to 1992, other DOE-supported programs were evolving to the benefit of NCSE training and education. In 1993 the DOE established a Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) and undertook a comprehensive development effort to expand the extant LACEF 'hands-on' course specifically for the education and training of NCSEs. That successful education and training was interrupted in 2006 for the closing of the LACEF and the accompanying movement of materials and critical experiment machines to the Nevada Test Site. Prior to that closing, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was commissioned by the US DOE NCSP to establish an independent hands-on NCSE subcritical education and training course. The course provided an interim transition for the establishment of a reinvigorated and expanded two-week NCSE education and training program in 2011. The 2011 piloted two-week course was coordinated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and jointly conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) classroom education and facility training, the Sandia National

  3. Improbability of igneous intrusion promoting a critical event in spent nuclear fuel disposed in unsaturated tuff.

    PubMed

    Rechard, Rob P; Tierney, Martin S

    2005-08-01

    In their regulations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission permit the omission of features, events, or processes with probabilities of <10(-4) in 10(4) yr (e.g., a constant frequency of <10(-8) per yr) in assessments of the performance of radioactive waste disposal systems. Igneous intrusion (or "volcanism") of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain for radioactive waste is one disruptive event that has a probability with a range of uncertainty that straddles this regulatory criterion and is considered directly in performance assessment calculations. A self-sustained nuclear chain reaction (or "criticality") is another potentially disruptive event to consider, although it was never found to be important when evaluating the efficacy of radioactive waste disposal since the early 1970s. The thesis of this article is that the consideration of the joint event--volcanism and criticality--occurring in any 10,000-year period following closure can be eliminated from performance calculations at Yucca Mountain. The probability of the joint event must be less than the fairly well-accepted but low probability of volcanism. Furthermore, volcanism does not "remove" or "fail" existing hydrologic or geochemical constraints at Yucca Mountain that tend to prevent concentration of fissile material. Prior to general corrosion failure of waste packages, the mean release of fissile mass caused by a low-probability, igneous intrusive event is so small that the probability of a critical event is remote, even for highly enriched spent nuclear fuel owned by the U.S. Department of Energy. After widespread failure of packages occurs, the probability of the joint event is less than the probability of criticality because of the very small influence of volcanism on the mean fissile mass release. Hence, volcanism plays an insignificant role in inducing criticality over any 10(4)-yr period. We also argue that the Oklo reactors serve as a natural

  4. Non-muscle myosin IIB is critical for nuclear translocation during 3D invasion

    PubMed Central

    Yenepalli, Aishwarya; Denais, Celine Marie; Rape, Andrew; Beach, Jordan R.; Wang, Yu-li; Schiemann, William P.; Baskaran, Harihara; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II (NMII) is reported to play multiple roles during cell migration and invasion. However, the exact biophysical roles of different NMII isoforms during these processes remain poorly understood. We analyzed the contributions of NMIIA and NMIIB in three-dimensional (3D) migration and in generating the forces required for efficient invasion by mammary gland carcinoma cells. Using traction force microscopy and microfluidic invasion devices, we demonstrated that NMIIA is critical for generating force during active protrusion, and NMIIB plays a major role in applying force on the nucleus to facilitate nuclear translocation through tight spaces. We further demonstrate that the nuclear membrane protein nesprin-2 is a possible linker coupling NMIIB-based force generation to nuclear translocation. Together, these data reveal a central biophysical role for NMIIB in nuclear translocation during 3D invasive migration, a result with relevance not only to cancer metastasis but for 3D migration in other settings such as embryonic cell migration and wound healing. PMID:26261182

  5. Simulated environmental criticalities affect transglutaminase of Malus and Corylus pollens having different allergenic potential.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Rosa Anna; Di Sandro, Alessia; Paris, Roberta; Pagliarani, Giulia; Tartarini, Stefano; Ricci, Giampaolo; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Verderio, Elisabetta; Del Duca, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Increases in temperature and air pollution influence pollen allergenicity, which is responsible for the dramatic raise in respiratory allergies. To clarify possible underlying mechanisms, an anemophilous pollen (hazel, Corylus avellana), known to be allergenic, and an entomophilous one (apple, Malus domestica), the allergenicity of which was not known, were analysed. The presence also in apple pollen of known fruit allergens and their immunorecognition by serum of an allergic patient were preliminary ascertained, resulting also apple pollen potentially allergenic. Pollens were subjected to simulated stressful conditions, provided by changes in temperature, humidity, and copper and acid rain pollution. In the two pollens exposed to environmental criticalities, viability and germination were negatively affected and different transglutaminase (TGase) gel bands were differently immunodetected with the polyclonal antibody AtPng1p. The enzyme activity increased under stressful treatments and, along with its products, was found to be released outside the pollen with externalisation of TGase being predominant in C. avellana, whose grain presents a different cell wall composition with respect to that of M. domestica. A recombinant plant TGase (AtPng1p) stimulated the secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) activity, that in vivo is present in human mucosa and is involved in inflammation. Similarly, stressed pollen, hazel pollen being the most efficient, stimulated to very different extent sPLA(2) activity and putrescine conjugation to sPLA(2). We propose that externalised pollen TGase could be one of the mediators of pollen allergenicity, especially under environmental stress induced by climate changes.

  6. Anorectal Cancer: Critical Anatomic and Staging Distinctions That Affect Use of Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shanna A; Mamon, Harvey J; Fuchs, Charles S; Doyle, Leona A; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Rosenthal, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Although rectal and anal cancers are anatomically close, they are distinct entities with different histologic features, risk factors, staging systems, and treatment pathways. Imaging is at the core of initial clinical staging of these cancers and most commonly includes magnetic resonance imaging for local-regional staging and computed tomography for evaluation of metastatic disease. The details of the primary tumor and involvement of regional lymph nodes are crucial in determining if and how radiation therapy should be used in treatment of these cancers. Unfortunately, available imaging modalities have been shown to have imperfect accuracy for identification of nodal metastases and imaging features other than size. Staging of nonmetastatic rectal cancers is dependent on the depth of invasion (T stage) and the number of involved regional lymph nodes (N stage). Staging of nonmetastatic anal cancers is determined according to the size of the primary mass and the combination of regional nodal sites involved; the number of positive nodes at each site is not a consideration for staging. Patients with T3 rectal tumors and/or involvement of perirectal, mesenteric, and internal iliac lymph nodes receive radiation therapy. Almost all anal cancers warrant use of radiation therapy, but the extent and dose of the radiation fields is altered on the basis of both the size of the primary lesion and the presence and extent of nodal involvement. The radiologist must recognize and report these critical anatomic and staging distinctions, which affect use of radiation therapy in patients with anal and rectal cancers.

  7. DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Group in Support of Criticality, DBE, TSPA-LA

    SciTech Connect

    Henry Loo

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the basis for grouping the over 250 Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) types in support of analyses for final repository disposal. For each of the required analyses, the parameters needed in conducting the analyses were identified and reviewed. The grouping proposed for the three types of analyses (criticality, design basis events, and total system performance assessment) are based on the similarities of DOE SNF as a function of these parameters. As necessary, further justifications are provided to further reduce the DOE SNF grouping in support of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System’s preclosure and postclosure safety cases.

  8. Nuclear waste criticality analysis. Quarterly progress report, 1 October--31 December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Culbreth, W.G.

    1996-01-19

    The work to date includes the preparation of a report related to criticality in spent fuel, a report on the Oklo reactors and their relevance to Yucca Mountain, and the creation of a computer program to model the Oklo reactors. The objective of the program includes a computational model of the only known natural analogue to an underground nuclear waste repository and the possible application of the model to predict the long-term behavior of Yucca Mountain. A final summary of all work completed will be presented after the end of the project on February 29, 1996.

  9. Impact of Fuel Failure on Criticality Safety of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wagner, John C

    2012-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for considerably longer periods than originally intended (e.g., <40 years). Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation of nuclear fuel to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, can result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. This effort is primarily motivated by concerns related to the potential for fuel degradation during ES periods and transportation following ES. The criticality analyses consider representative UNF designs and cask systems and a range of fuel enrichments, burnups, and cooling times. The various failed-fuel configurations considered are designed to bound the anticipated effects of individual rod and general cladding failure, fuel rod deformation, loss of neutron absorber materials, degradation of canister internals, and gross assembly failure. The results quantify the potential impact on criticality safety associated with fuel reconfiguration and may be used to guide future research, design, and regulatory activities. Although it can be concluded that the criticality safety impacts of fuel reconfiguration during transportation subsequent to ES are manageable, the results indicate that certain configurations can result in a large increase in the effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}. Future work to inform decision making relative to which configurations are credible, and therefore need to be considered in a safety evaluation, is recommended.

  10. Implicit attitudes toward nuclear power and mobile phone base stations: support for the affect heuristic.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Cousin, Marie-Eve

    2006-08-01

    The implicit association test (IAT) measures automatic associations. In the present research, the IAT was adapted to measure implicit attitudes toward technological hazards. In Study 1, implicit and explicit attitudes toward nuclear power were examined. Implicit measures (i.e., the IAT) revealed negative attitudes toward nuclear power that were not detected by explicit measures (i.e., a questionnaire). In Study 2, implicit attitudes toward EMF (electro-magnetic field) hazards were examined. Results showed that cell phone base stations and power lines are judged to be similarly risky and, further, that base stations are more closely related to risk concepts than home appliances are. No differences between experts and lay people were observed. Results of the present studies are in line with the affect heuristic proposed by Slovic and colleagues. Affect seems to be an important factor in risk perception.

  11. Critical roles of DNase1l3l in lens nuclear degeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Iida, Atsumi; Tabata, Yoko; Baba, Yukihiro; Fujii, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2014-11-01

    The vertebrate lens undergoes organelle and nuclear degradation during lens development, allowing the lens to become transparent. DNase2b is an enzyme responsible for nuclear degradation in the mouse lens; however, dnase2b expression in zebrafish showed a distribution pattern that differed from that in mice. No zebrafish dnase2b was detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction until around 120 h postfertilization (hpf), suggesting that dnase2b is not expressed in the critical period for lens nuclear degradation, which corresponds to 56-74 hpf. However, public database searches have indicated that dnase1l3l is strongly and specifically expressed in embryonic zebrafish lens. Whole mount in situ hybridization showed that dnase1l3l expression began around 36 hpf and was found exclusively in the lens until the adult stage. Morpholino (MO)-dependent downregulation of dnase1l3l expression during early development in zebrafish led to the failure of nuclear degradation in the lens. Immunostaining of lens sections showed that expression of Pax6, Prox1 and β-catenin was comparable to the control in the early stage of development in dnase1l3l-MO injected embryos. However, downregulation of expression of these genes in lens was not observed in dnase1l3l-MO-treated zebrafish at 72 hpf, suggesting that the lens development was halted. Taken together, we showed that dnase1l3l plays major roles in nuclear degradation in zebrafish lens development. No homologous gene was found in other species in public databases, suggesting that dnase1l3l developed and acquired its function specifically in zebrafish.

  12. Nuclear glutaredoxin 3 is critical for protection against oxidative stress-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Khanh; Pal, Rituraj; Qu, Ying; Liu, Xi; Yu, Han; Shiao, Stephen L.; Wang, Xinquan; Smith, E. O’Brian; Cui, Xiaojiang; Rodney, George G.; Cheng, Ninghui

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian glutaredoxin 3 (Grx3) has been shown to be critical in maintaining redox homeostasis and regulating cell survival pathways in cancer cells. However, the regulation of Grx3 is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigate the subcellular localization of Grx3 under normal growth and oxidative stress conditions. Both fluorescence imaging of Grx3–RFP fusion and Western blot analysis of cellular fractionation indicate that Grx3 is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm under normal growth conditions, whereas under oxidizing conditions, Grx3 is translocated into and accumulated in the nucleus. Grx3 nuclear accumulation was reversible in a redox-dependent fashion. Further analysis indicates that neither the N-terminal Trx-like domain nor the two catalytic cysteine residues in the active CGFS motif of Grx3 are involved in its nuclear translocation. Decreased levels of Grx3 render cells susceptible to cellular oxidative stress, whereas overexpression of nuclear-targeted Grx3 is sufficient to suppress cells’ sensitivity to oxidant treatments and reduce reactive oxygen species production. These findings provide novel insights into the regulation of Grx3, which is crucial for cell survival against environmental insults. PMID:25975981

  13. The ORSphere Benchmark Evaluation and Its Potential Impact on Nuclear Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall; J. Blair Briggs

    2013-10-01

    In the early 1970’s, critical experiments using an unreflected metal sphere of highly enriched uranium (HEU) were performed with the focus to provide a “very accurate description…as an ideal benchmark for calculational methods and cross-section data files.” Two near-critical configurations of the Oak Ridge Sphere (ORSphere) were evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (ICSBEP Handbook). The results from those benchmark experiments were then compared with additional unmoderated and unreflected HEU metal benchmark experiment configurations currently found in the ICSBEP Handbook. For basic geometries (spheres, cylinders, and slabs) the eigenvalues calculated using MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 were within 3 of their respective benchmark values. There appears to be generally a good agreement between calculated and benchmark values for spherical and slab geometry systems. Cylindrical geometry configurations tended to calculate low, including more complex bare HEU metal systems containing cylinders. The ORSphere experiments do not calculate within their 1s uncertainty and there is a possibility that the effect of the measured uncertainties for the GODIVA I benchmark may need reevaluated. There is significant scatter in the calculations for the highly-correlated ORCEF cylinder experiments, which are constructed from close-fitting HEU discs and annuli. Selection of a nuclear data library can have a larger impact on calculated eigenvalue results than the variation found within calculations of a given experimental series, such as the ORCEF cylinders, using a single nuclear data set.

  14. Observation of the critical end point in the phase diagram for hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Roy

    2015-10-01

    Excitation functions for the Gaussian emission source radii difference (Rout2 -Rside2) obtained from two-pion interferometry measurements in Au+Au (√{sNN} = 7 . 7 - 200 GeV) and Pb+Pb (√{sNN} = 2 . 76 TeV) collisions, are studied for a broad range of collision centralities. The observed non-monotonic excitation functions validate the finite-size scaling patterns expected for the deconfinement phase transition and the critical end point (CEP), in the temperature vs. baryon chemical potential (T ,μB) plane of the nuclear matter phase diagram. A Dynamic Finite-Size Scaling (DFSS) analysis of these data suggests a second order phase transition with the estimates Tcep 165 MeV and μBcep 95 MeV for the location of the critical end point. The critical exponents (ν 0 . 66 and γ 1 . 2) extracted via the same DFSS analysis, places this CEP in the 3D Ising model universality class. This research is supported by the US DOE under Contract DE-FG02-87ER40331.A008.

  15. Criticality-Control Applications in the Nuclear Industry for Thermal Spray Amorphous Metal and Ceramic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; Choi, J

    2007-07-18

    Amorphous metal and ceramic thermal spray coatings have been developed that can be used to enhance the corrosion resistance of containers for the transportation, aging and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes. Iron-based amorphous metal formulations with chromium, molybdenum and tungsten have shown the corrosion resistance believed to be necessary for such applications. Rare earth additions enable very low critical cooling rates to be achieved. The boron content of these materials, and their stability at high neutron doses, enable them to serve as high efficiency neutron absorbers for criticality control. The high boron content of Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} (SAM2X5) makes it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. Average measured values of the neutron absorption cross section in transmission ({Sigma}{sub t}) for Type 316L stainless steel, Alloy C-22, borated stainless steel, a Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloy, and SAM2X5 have been determined to be approximately 1.1, 1.3, 2.3, 3.8 and 7.1 cm{sup -1}, respectively.

  16. Calculation of Upper Subcritical Limits for Nuclear Criticality in a Repository

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Pegram

    1998-07-29

    The purpose of this document is to present the methodology to be used for development of the Subcritical Limit (SL) for post closure conditions for the Yucca Mountain repository. The SL is a value based on a set of benchmark criticality multiplier, k{sub eff} results that are outputs of the MCNP calculation method. This SL accounts for calculational biases and associated uncertainties resulting from the use of MCNP as the method of assessing k{sub eff}. The context for an SL estimate include the range of applicability (based on the set of MCNP results) and the type of SL required for the application at hand. This document will include illustrative calculations for each of three approaches. The data sets used for the example calculations are identified in Section 5.1. These represent three waste categories, and SLs for each of these sets of experiments will be computed in this document. Future MCNP data sets will be analyzed using the methods discussed here. The treatment of the biases evaluated on sets of k{sub eff} results via MCNP is statistical in nature. This document does not address additional non-statistical contributions to the bias margin, acknowledging that regulatory requirements may impose additional administrative penalties. Potentially, there are other biases or margins that should be accounted for when assessing criticality (k{sub eff}). Only aspects of the bias as determined using the stated assumptions and benchmark critical data sets will be included in the methods and sample calculations in this document. The set of benchmark experiments used in the validation of the computational system should be representative of the composition, configuration, and nuclear characteristics for the application at hand. In this work, a range of critical experiments will be the basis of establishing the SL for three categories of waste types that will be in the repository. The ultimate purpose of this document is to present methods that will effectively

  17. Application of Diagnostic/Prognostic Methods to Critical Equipment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Cleanup Program

    SciTech Connect

    Casazza, Lawrence O.; Jarrell, Donald B.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Meador, Richard J.; Wallace, Dale E.

    2002-02-28

    The management of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project at the Hanford K-Basin in the 100 N Area has successfully restructured the preventive maintenance, spare parts inventory requirements, and the operator rounds data requirements. In this investigation, they continue to examine the different facets of the operations and maintenance (O&M) of the K-Basin cleanup project in search of additional reliability and cost savings. This report focuses on the initial findings of a team of PNNL engineers engaged to identify potential opportunities for reducing the cost of O&M through the application of advanced diagnostics (fault determination) and prognostics (residual life/reliability determination). The objective is to introduce predictive technologies to eliminate or reduce high impact equipment failures. The PNNL team in conjunction with the SNF engineers found the following major opportunities for cost reduction and/or enhancing reliability: (1) Provide data routing and automated analysis from existing detection systems to a display center that will engage the operations and engineering team. This display will be operator intuitive with system alarms and integrated diagnostic capability. (2) Change operating methods to reduce major transients induced in critical equipment. This would reduce stress levels on critical equipment. (3) Install a limited sensor set on failure prone critical equipment to allow degradation or stressor levels to be monitored and alarmed. This would provide operators and engineers with advance guidance and warning of failure events. Specific methods for implementation of the above improvement opportunities are provided in the recommendations. They include an Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) decision support system, introduction of variable frequency drives on certain pump motors, and the addition of limited diagnostic instrumentation on specified critical equipment.

  18. Nuclear criticality safety controls for uranium deposits during D and D at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Jollay, L.J. III; Dahl, T.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management has issued a challenge to complete DOE environmental cleanup within a decade. The response for Oak Ridge facilities is in accordance with the DOE ten-year plan which calls for completion of > 95% of environmental management work by the year 2006. This will result in a 99% risk reduction and in a significant savings in base line costs in waste management (legacy waste); remedial action (groundwater, soil, etc.); and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). It is assumed that there will be long-term institutional control of cascade equipment, i.e., there will be no walk away from sites, and that there will be firm radioactivity release limits by 1999 for recycle metals. An integral part of these plants is the removal of uranium deposits which pose nuclear criticality safety concerns in the shut down of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. DOE has initiated the Nuclear Criticality Stabilization Program to improve nuclear criticality safety by removing the larger uranium deposits from unfavorable geometry equipment. Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements have identified the location of these deposits. The objective of the K-25 Site Nuclear Criticality Stabilization Program is to remove and place uranium deposits into safe geometry storage containers to meet the double contingency principle. Each step of the removal process results in safer conditions where multiple controls are present. Upon completion of the Program, nuclear criticality risks will be greatly reduced.

  19. Analysis of single events in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions: A new method to search for critical fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, R.

    1995-07-15

    The upcoming generation of experiments with ultrarelativistic heavy nuclear projectiles, at the CERN SPS and at RHIC and LHC, will confront researchers with several thousand identified hadrons per event, suitable detectors provided. An analysis of individual events becomes meaningful concerning a multitude of hadronic signals thought to reveal a transient deconfinement phase transition, or the related critical precursor fluctuations. Transverse momentum spectra, the kaon to pion ratio, and pionic Bose-Einstein correlation are examined, showing how to separate the extreme, probably rare candidate events from the bulk of average events. This type of observables can already be investigated with the Pb beam of the SPS. The author then discusses single event signals that add to the above at RHIC and LHC energies, kaon interferometry, rapidity fluctuation, jet and {gamma} production.

  20. Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation of the 9965, 9968, 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 Shipping Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, R.L.

    1999-02-26

    A Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE) has been performed for the 9965, 9968, 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 SRS-designed shipping casks. This was done in support of the recertification effort for the 9965 and 9968, and the certification of the newly designed 9972-9975 series. The analysis supports the use of these packages as Fissile Class I for shipment of fissionable material from the SRS FB-Line, HB-Line, and from Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory. six different types of material were analyzed with varying Isotopic composition, of both oxide and metallic form. The mass limits required to support the fissile Class I rating for each of the envelopes are given in the Table below. These mass limits apply if DOE approves an exception as described in 10 CFR 71.55(c), such that water leakage into the primary containment vessel does not need to be considered in the criticality analysis. If this exception is not granted, the mass limits are lower than those shown below. this issue is discussed in detail in sections 5 and 6 of the report.One finding from this work is important enough to highlight in the abstract. The fire tests performed for this family of shipping casks indicates only minimal charring of the Celotex thermal insulation. Analysis of the casks with no Celotex insulation (assuming it has all burned away), results in values of k-eff that exceed 1.0. Therefore, the Celotex insulation must remain intact in order to guarantee sub criticality of the 9972-9975 family of shipping casks.

  1. Criticality Safety Analysis Of As-loaded Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Scaglione, John M

    2015-01-01

    The final safety analysis report (FSAR) or the safety analysis report (SAR) for a particular spent nuclear fuel (SNF) cask system documents models and calculations used to demonstrate that a system meets the regulatory requirements under all normal, off-normal, and accident conditions of spent fuel storage, and normal and accident conditions of transportation. FSAR/SAR calculations and approved content specifications are intended to be bounding in nature to certify cask systems for a variety of fuel characteristics with simplified SNF loading requirements. Therefore, in general, loaded cask systems possess excess and uncredited criticality margins (i.e., the difference between the licensing basis and the as-loaded calculations). This uncredited margin could be quantified by employing more detailed cask-specific evaluations that credit the actual as-loaded cask inventory, and taking into account full (actinide and fission product) burnup credit. This uncredited criticality margin could be potentially used to offset (1) uncertainties in the safety basis that needs to account for the effects of system aging during extended dry storage prior to transportation, and (2) increases in SNF system reactivity over a repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the system undergoes degradation and internal geometry changes. This paper summarizes an assessment of cask-specific, as-loaded criticality margins for SNF stored at eight reactor sites (215 loaded casks were analyzed) under fully flooded conditions to assess the margins available during transportation after extended storage. It is observed that the calculated keff margin varies from 0.05 to almost 0.3 Δkeff for the eight selected reactor sites, demonstrating that significant uncredited safety margins are present. In addition, this paper evaluates the sufficiency of this excess margin in applications involving direct disposal of currently loaded SNF casks.

  2. Adapting, Not Adopting: Barriers Affecting Teaching for Critical Thinking at Two Rwandan Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    A recent study of student learning at three of Rwanda's most prestigious public universities has suggested that Rwandan students are not improving in their critical thinking ability during their time at university. This article reports on a series of faculty-level case studies, which were conducted at two of the participating institutions in order…

  3. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  4. The critical incident inventory: characteristics of incidents which affect emergency medical technicians and paramedics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics experience critical incidents which evoke distress and impaired functioning but it is unknown which aspects of incidents contribute to their impact. We sought to determine these specific characteristics by developing an inventory of critical incident characteristics and testing their relationship to protracted recovery from acute stress, and subsequent emotional symptoms. Methods EMT/paramedics (n = 223) completed a retrospective survey of reactions to an index critical incident, and current depressive, posttraumatic and burnout symptoms. Thirty-six potential event characteristics were evaluated; 22 were associated with peritraumatic distress and were retained. We assigned inventory items to one of three domains: situational, systemic or personal characteristics. We tested the relationships between (a) endorsing any domain item and (b) outcomes of the critical incident (peritraumatic dissociation, recovery from components of the Acute Stress Reaction and depressive, posttraumatic, and burnout symptoms). Analyses were repeated for the number of items endorsed. Results Personal and situational characteristics were most frequently endorsed. The personal domain had the strongest associations, particularly with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged distressing feelings, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The situational domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged social withdrawal, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The systemic domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation and prolonged irritability. Endorsing multiple characteristics was related to peritraumatic, acute stress, and current posttraumatic symptoms. Relationships with outcome variables were as strong for a 14-item inventory (situational and personal characteristics only) as the 22-item inventory. Conclusions Emotional sequelae are associated most strongly with EMT/paramedics’ personal experience, and least

  5. Policy considerations affecting nuclear-forces modernization. Technical report, 1 January 1987-15 February 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.K.; Perry, C.M.; Pfaltzgraff, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report provides an assessment of security perspectives, key defense programs and emerging procurement/weapons modernization priorities in six NATO-European countries -the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Italy, and Belgium. Included is a detailed analysis of the various national perspectives held in each country on issues related to nuclear force acquisition and modernization, conventional force restructuring, and East-West arms control (especially with respect to the CFE talks and potential SNF negotiations). The overall objective of this study is to provide the DoD Acquisition and Policy communities with an up-to-date examination of key political trends and defense policy debates in critical NATO-European countries, with special attention paid to budgetary decisions, military hardware initiatives, and arms control proposals that may impact directly upon vital U.S. (and NATO) defense programs.

  6. Muon radiolysis affected by density inhomogeneity in near-critical fluids.

    PubMed

    Cormier, P J; Alcorn, C; Legate, G; Ghandi, K

    2014-04-01

    In this article we show the significant tunability of radiation chemistry in supercritical ethane and to a lesser extent in near critical CO2. The information was obtained by studies of muonium (Mu = μ(+)e(-)), which is formed by the thermalization of positive muons in different materials. The studies of the proportions of three fractions of muon polarization, PMu, diamagnetic PD and lost fraction, PL provided the information on radiolysis processes involved in muon thermalization. Our studies include three different supercritical fluids, water, ethane and carbon dioxide. A combination of mobile electrons and other radiolysis products such as (•)C2H5 contribute to interesting behavior at densities ∼40% above the critical point in ethane. In carbon dioxide, an increase in electron mobility contributes to the lost fraction. The hydrated electron in water is responsible for the lost fraction and decreases the muonium fraction.

  7. Validation study for crediting chlorine in criticality analyses for spent nuclear fuel disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sobes, Vladimir; Scaglione, John M; Wagner, John C; Dunn, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management practices in the United States rely on dry storage systems that include both canister- and cask-based systems. The United States Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition Campaign is examining the feasibility of direct disposal of dual-purpose (storage and transportation) canisters (DPCs) in a geological repository. One of the major technical challenges for direct disposal is the ability to demonstrate the subcriticality of the DPCs loaded with SNF for the repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the DPCs may undergo degradation over time. Specifically, groundwater ingress into the DPC (i.e., flooding) could allow the system to achieve criticality in scenarios where the neutron absorber plates in the DPC basket have degraded. However, as was shown by Banerjee et al., some aqueous species in the groundwater provide noticeable reactivity reduction for these systems. For certain amounts of particular aqueous species (e.g., chlorine, lithium) in the groundwater, subcriticality can be demonstrated even for DPCs with complete degradation of the neutron absorber plates or a degraded fuel basket configuration. It has been demonstrated that chlorine is the leading impurity, as indicated by significant neutron absorption in the water that is available in reasonable quantities for the deep geological repository media under consideration. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the available integral experiments worldwide that could be used to validate DPC disposal criticality evaluations, including credit for chlorine. Due to the small number of applicable critical configurations, validation through traditional trending analysis was not possible. The bias in the eigenvalue of the application systems due only to the chlorine was calculated using TSURFER analysis and found to be on the order of 100 percent mille (1 pcm = 10-5 keff). This study investigated the design of a series of

  8. Validation Study for Crediting Chlorine in Criticality Analyses for US Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sobes, Vladimir; Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.; Dunn, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management practices in the United States rely on dry storage systems that include both canister- and cask-based systems. The United States Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition Campaign is examining the feasibility of direct disposal of dual-purpose (storage and transportation) canisters (DPCs) in a geological repository. One of the major technical challenges for direct disposal is the ability to demonstrate the subcriticality of the DPCs loaded with SNF for the repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the DPCs may undergo degradation over time. Specifically, groundwater ingress into the DPC (i.e., flooding) could allow the system to achieve criticality in scenarios where the neutron absorber plates in the DPC basket have degraded. However, as was shown by Banerjee et al., some aqueous species in the groundwater provide noticeable reactivity reduction for these systems. For certain amounts of particular aqueous species (e.g., chlorine, lithium) in the groundwater, subcriticality can be demonstrated even for DPCs with complete degradation of the neutron absorber plates or a degraded fuel basket configuration. It has been demonstrated that chlorine is the leading impurity, as indicated by significant neutron absorption in the water that is available in reasonable quantities for the deep geological repository media under consideration. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the available integral experiments worldwide that could be used to validate DPC disposal criticality evaluations, including credit for chlorine. Due to the small number of applicable critical configurations, validation through traditional trending analysis was not possible. The bias in the eigenvalue of the application systems due only to the chlorine was calculated using TSURFER analysis and found to be on the order of 100 percent mille (1 pcm = 10-5 keff). This study investigated the design of a series of

  9. A critical role of the nuclear receptor HR3 in regulation of gonadotrophic cycles of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mane-Padros, Daniel; Cruz, Josefa; Cheng, Andrew; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2012-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor HR3 is essential for developmental switches during insect development and metamorphosis regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Reproduction of female mosquitoes of the major vector of Dengue fever, Aedes aegypti, is cyclic because of its dependence on blood feeding. 20E is an important hormone regulating vitellogenic events in this mosquito; however, any role for HR3 in 20E-driven reproductive events has not been known. Using RNA interference (RNAi) approach, we demonstrated that Aedes HR3 plays a critical role in a timely termination of expression of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene encoding the major yolk protein precursor. It is also important for downregulation of the Target-of-Rapamycin pathway and activation of programmed autophagy in the Aedes fat body at the end of vitellogenesis. HR3 is critical in activating betaFTZ-F1, EcRB and USPA, the expressions of which are highly elevated at the end of vitellogenesis. RNAi depletion of HR3 (iHR3) prior to the first gonadotrophic cycle affects a normal progression of the second gonadotrophic cycle. Most of ovaries 24 h post second blood meal from iHR3 females in the second cycle were small with follicles that were only slightly different in length from of those of resting stage. In addition, these iHR3 females laid a significantly reduced number of eggs per mosquito as compared to those of iMal and the wild type. Our results indicate an important role of HR3 in regulation of 20E-regulated developmental switches during reproductive cycles of A. aegypti females.

  10. Critical nuclear charge and shape resonances for the two-electron Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Z.-C.; Ho, Y. K.

    2015-09-01

    The hydrogen negative ion H$^-$ is the simplest two-electron system that exists in nature. This system is not only important in astrophysics but it also serves as an ideal ground to study electron-electron correlations. The peculiar balance of the correlations between the two electrons with the interaction of electron-nucleus in H$^-$ makes this system to have only two bound states, one being the ground state $1s^2\\,^{1}\\!S^e$ and the other the doubly-excited metastable state $2p^2\\,^{3}\\!P^e$ embedded below the hydrogen $n=2$ threshold. Here we report a calculation for the $2p^2\\,^{3}\\!P^e$ state of H$^-$ that yields the energy eigenvalue $E=-0.125\\,355\\,451\\,242\\,864\\,058\\,376\\,012\\,313\\,25(2)$, in atomic units. Our result substantially improves the best available result by 16 orders of magnitude. We further study the critical nuclear charge $Z_{\\rm cr}$, the minimum value of nuclear charge $Z$ that is required to bind a nucleus and two electrons. Our determination of $Z_{\\rm cr}$ for the $2p^2\\,^{3}\\!P^e$ state of two-electron systems is $Z_{\\rm cr}=0.994\\,781\\,292\\,240\\,366\\,246\\,3(1)$, corresponding to $1/Z_{\\rm cr}= 1.005\\,246\\,085\\,546\\,985\\,509\\,4(1)$, which improves the best published value of $Z_{\\rm cr}$ by about 10 orders of magnitude. We further investigate in a definitive way the unexplored regime of $Z < Z_{\\rm cr}$ using the method of complex scaling and establish precise shape resonance poles for the state of $2p^2\\,^{3}\\!P^e$ in the complex energy plane.

  11. Reading Comprehension--A Critical Analysis of Selected Factors Affecting Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlak, Stephen A.

    The purpose of this study were to survey scientific research, professional literature, and doctoral dissertations on reading comprehension done from 1948 to 1972, to identify the reading factors believed to affect reading comprehension, to analyze the identified reading factors by studying the major available research and related literature, to…

  12. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  13. "Everything...Affects Everything": Promoting Critical Perspectives toward Bullying with "Thirteen Reasons Why"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, James S.; Trent, Brandie

    2012-01-01

    "Everything...affects everything," from Jay Asher's young adult novel, "Thirteen Reasons Why," captures a central message of this text in which a young woman named Hannah Baker leaves behind a series of tapes addressed to particular individuals who played a part in producing the snowball effect that led to her suicide. "Everything...affects…

  14. Additional Studies of the Criticality Safety of Failed Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wagner, John C

    2013-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for periods potentially greater than 40 years. Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, could result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. Criticality analyses are conducted considering representative UNF designs covering a range of enrichments and burnups in multiple cask systems. Prior work developed a set of failed fuel configuration categories and specific configurations were evaluated to understand trends and quantify the consequences of worst-case potential reconfiguration progressions. These results will be summarized here and indicate that the potential impacts on subcriticality can be rather significant for certain configurations (e.g., >20% keff). It can be concluded that the consequences of credible fuel failure configurations from ES or transportation following ES are manageable (e.g., <5% keff). The current work expands on these efforts and examines some modified scenarios and modified approaches to investigate the effectiveness of some techniques for reducing the calculated increase in keff. The areas included here are more realistic modeling of some assembly types and the effect of reconfiguration of some assemblies in the storage and transportation canister.

  15. Comparison of Two Approaches for Nuclear Data Uncertainty Propagation in MCNPX for Selected Fast Spectrum Critical Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Rochman, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Ferroukhi, H.; Wieselquist, W.; Pautz, A.

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear data uncertainty propagation based on stochastic sampling (SS) is becoming more attractive while leveraging modern computer power. Two variants of the SS approach are compared in this paper. The Total Monte Carlo (TMC) method by the Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) generates perturbed ENDF-6-formatted nuclear data by varying nuclear reaction model parameters. At Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) the Nuclear data Uncertainty Stochastic Sampling (NUSS) system generates perturbed ACE-formatted nuclear data files by applying multigroup nuclear data covariances onto pointwise ACE-formatted nuclear data. Uncertainties of 239Pu and 235U from ENDF/B-VII.1, ZZ-SCALE6/COVA-44G and TENDL covariance libraries are considered in NUSS and propagated in MCNPX calculations for well-studied Jezebel and Godiva fast spectrum critical benchmarks. The corresponding uncertainty results obtained by TMC are compared with NUSS results and the deterministic Sensitivity/Uncertainty method of TSUNAMI-3D from SCALE6 package is also applied to serve as a separate verification. The discrepancies in the propagated 239Pu and 235U uncertainties due to method and covariance differences are discussed.

  16. Information Theory and Undersampling Diagnostics for Monte Carlo Simulation of Nuclear Criticality

    SciTech Connect

    Ueki, Taro

    2005-11-15

    The criterion of information-theoretic stationarity diagnostics for the Monte Carlo simulation of nuclear criticality has been extended to undersampling diagnostics. Here, undersampling diagnostics means the posterior checking of the number of neutron histories per cycle. A statistically sound criterion using Shannon and relative entropies is defined based on the inequality with a penalty term for the minimum descriptive length of instantaneously decodable encoding. An alternative criterion based on a large sample property of particle population is defined within the information-theoretic framework of the asymptotic equipartition property and the method of types. An auxiliary criterion is proposed using the concave property of Shannon entropy. Numerical results are presented for the 'k-effective of the world' problem by Whitesides. The results indicate that the estimation bias of the neutron effective multiplication factor will be reduced to a practically negligible level if these criteria are satisfied. It can be concluded that equilibrium is a stronger condition than stationarity concerning the source distribution in the Monte Carlo simulation.

  17. New Resolved Resonance Region Evaluation for 63Cu and 65Cu for Nuclear Criticality Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sobes, Vladimir; Leal, Luiz C; Guber, Klaus H; Forget, Benoit; Kopecky, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Siegler, P.

    2014-01-01

    A new resolved resonance region evaluation of 63Cu and 65Cu was done in the energy region from 10-5 eV to 99.5 keV. The R-Matrix SAMMY method using the Reich-Moore approximation was used to create a new set of consistent resonance parameters. The new evaluation was based on three experimental transmission data sets; two measured at ORELA and one from MITR, and two radiative capture experimental data sets from GELINA. A total of 141 new resonances were identied for 63Cu and 117 for 65Cu. The corresponding set of external resonances for each isotope was based on the identied resonances above 99.5 keV from the ORELA transmission data. The negative external levels (bound levels) were determined to match the dierential thermal cross section measured at the MITR. Double dierential elastic scattering cross sections were calculated from the new set of resonance parameters. Benchmarking calculations were carried out on a set of ICSBEP benchmarks. This work is in support of the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program.

  18. Modeling the nuclear magnetic resonance behavior of lung: from electrical engineering to critical care medicine.

    PubMed

    Cutillo, A G; Ailion, D C

    1999-01-01

    The present article reviews the basic principles of a new approach to the characterization of pulmonary disease. This approach is based on the unique nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties of the lung and combines experimental measurements (using specially developed NMR techniques) with theoretical simulations. The NMR signal from inflated lungs decays very rapidly compared with the signal from completely collapsed (airless) lungs. This phenomenon is due to the presence of internal magnetic field inhomogeneity produced by the alveolar air-tissue interface (because air and water have different magnetic susceptibilities). The air-tissue interface effects can be detected and quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques using temporally symmetric and asymmetric spin-echo sequences. Theoretical models developed to explain the internal (tissue-induced) magnetic field inhomogeneity in aerated lungs predict the NMR lung behavior as a function of various technical and physiological factors (e.g., the level of lung inflation) and simulate the effects of various lung disorders (in particular, pulmonary edema) on this behavior. Good agreement has been observed between the predictions obtained from the mathematical models and the results of experimental NMR measurements in normal and diseased lungs. Our theoretical and experimental data have important pathophysiological and clinical implications, especially with respect to the characterization of acute lung disease (e.g., pulmonary edema) and the management of critically ill patients.

  19. HLA antigen and affective disorders: a report and critical assessment of histocompatibility studies.

    PubMed

    Temple, H; Dupont, B; Shopsin, B

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of 50 HLA antigens, of the A, B and C loci, was investigated in 38 affectively ill Caucasian patients of Eastern European Jewish ancestry. The frequencies found were compared to those of a control population matched for race as well as geographic and ethnic-religious origins. Results indicate that a negative association exists between affective disorders and Cw3 and also suggests a similar negative association between such disorders and A9. A positive association with Bw16, Bw22 and Cw1 is also indicated; Bw16 was increased in those patients with no family history of psychological illness. A review of the available literature in this area shows a glaring lack of agreement among the studies. Methodological problems exist which are likely to contribute to the variable and conflicting results and might make comparison of data irrelevant. The lack of agreement of data among the studies may also indicate that no HLA disease association exists but rather reflect the existence of a defective gene in the HLA complex but not a part of the HLA system. Additional population and family studies are required before any definitive statements can be made.

  20. Critical notes on the neuro-evolutionary archaeology of affective systems.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Barnaby B

    2015-04-01

    If progress is to be made in resolving the debate over the relevance of neuroscientific findings to psychoanalysis, a clearer distinction must be established between a narrow definition of psychoanalysis as "praxis" (the science of lived experience and its conflicts or contradictions) and a definition that focuses on metapsychology as objectivistic theory-building. The investigations of Jaak Panksepp on the "neuro-archaeology" of affective systems are reviewed as an example of how findings in neuroscience cannot be legitimately extrapolated to offer conclusions about the domain of lived experience. In this context, Freud's shifting standpoint is reviewed and, following the writings of Jean Laplanche, the significance of Freud's distinction between "drives" or libidinality, as acquired through experience, and "instincts," which are purely biological, is emphasized. It is argued that there is an unavoidable component of myth-making in any consideration of the connection between neural circuitry and the domain of psychic representations. Freud's need for a notion of drive or energy, which is required to understand the findings of free-associative method, is admittedly mythematic, but it implies a major challenge to extant philosophical doctrines of the "mind/body" question (emergentism, double-aspect monism, and neutral monism). Thus, whereas psychoanalysis as praxis is, in Freud's words, "free to follow its own requirements," the claims of metapsychology are not so unrestrained. Further debate is required on the irrelevance of a revised objectivistic theory of the "mental apparatus" to the venture of healing the fracturing of our lived experience.

  1. Does saline resuscitation affect mechanisms of coagulopathy in critically ill trauma patients? An exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caitlin A; Gosselin, Robert C; Utter, Garth H; Galante, Joseph M; Young, Jason B; Scherer, Lynette A; Schermer, Carol R

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic acidosis has been implicated in the development of coagulopathy, although the specific mechanisms have not been well characterized. We sought to explore whether resuscitation of injured patients with a balanced crystalloid solution affects coagulation, as measured by endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and thromboelastography (TEG). We performed an exploratory analysis of a subset of subjects enrolled in a randomized trial comparing the effect of resuscitation with isotonic saline versus Plasma-Lyte A (PLA) on acidosis and electrolyte abnormalities. We collected plasma at admission and 6 h later for subsequent ETP and TEG analysis and compared subjects receiving isotonic saline to those receiving PLA. Among 18 evaluated subjects, baseline characteristics, including ETP and TEG parameters, were similar between the two arms. At 6 h, subjects receiving isotonic saline were more acidemic. At 6 h, there were no differences in ETP parameters between groups; however, TEG results showed the time from initial clot formation to an amplitude of 20 mm (K) was shorter (3.8 ± 2.1 vs. 7.2 ± 2.8 s) and the rapidity of fibrin build-up and cross-linking (α angle) was significantly greater (41 ± 8 vs. 24 ± 15 deg) for the PLA group than in the isotonic saline group. Relative to PLA, isotonic saline does not alter thrombin generation, but isotonic saline and PLA may differentially impact clotting factor availability. The shorter time to reach prespecified clot amplitude and the increased rate of fibrin generation imply faster amplification of clotting factors with PLA without effect on latency time or clot strength. PMID:25803514

  2. Plectin isoform 1-dependent nuclear docking of desmin networks affects myonuclear architecture and expression of mechanotransducers

    PubMed Central

    Staszewska, Ilona; Fischer, Irmgard; Wiche, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Plectin is a highly versatile cytoskeletal protein that acts as a mechanical linker between intermediate filament (IF) networks and various cellular structures. The protein is crucial for myofiber integrity. Its deficiency leads to severe pathological changes in skeletal muscle fibers of patients suffering from epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD). Skeletal muscle fibers express four major isoforms of plectin which are distinguished solely by alternative, relatively short, first exon-encoded N-terminal sequences. Each one of these isoforms is localized to a different subcellular compartment and plays a specific role in maintaining integrity and proper function(s) of myofibers. The unique role of individual isoforms is supported by distinct phenotypes of isoform-specific knockout mice and recently discovered mutations in first coding exons of plectin that lead to distinct, tissue-specific, pathological abnormalities in humans. In this study, we demonstrate that the lack of plectin isoform 1 (P1) in myofibers of mice leads to alterations of nuclear morphology, similar to those observed in various forms of MD. We show that P1-mediated targeting of desmin IFs to myonuclei is essential for maintenance of their typically spheroidal architecture as well as their proper positioning and movement along the myofiber. Furthermore, we show that P1 deficiency affects chromatin modifications and the expression of genes involved in various cellular functions, including signaling pathways mediating mechanotransduction. Mechanistically, P1 is shown to specifically interact with the myonuclear membrane-associated (BAR domain-containing) protein endophilin B. Our results open a new perspective on cytoskeleton-nuclear crosstalk via specific cytolinker proteins. PMID:26487297

  3. A Critical Review of Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion 1984-1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    Market: Researchers in nuclear power, physicists, chemical and nuclear engineers, students, and policy makers. The papers in this volume summarize key technological advancements that occurred during the ten years from 1984 to 1993 in such areas as heat pipe technology, fuels, space nuclear safety, dynamic power conversion systems, and advanced radiator technologies for spacecraft power systems. In light of new industry initiatives to form a consortia and the possibility of bi-modal space nuclear power and propulsion systems, this informative volume will be an invaluable reference source.

  4. Reactivity Impact of 2H and 16O Elastic Scattering Nuclear Data on Critical Systems with Heavy Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roubtsov, D.; Kozier, K. S.; Chow, J. C.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Kopecky, S.; Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.

    2014-04-01

    The accuracy of deuterium nuclear data is important for reactor physics simulations of heavy water (D2O) reactors. The elastic neutron scattering cross section data at thermal energies, σs,th, have been observed to have noticeable impact on the reactivity values in simulations of critical systems involving D2O. We discuss how the uncertainties in the thermal scattering cross sections of 2H(n,n)2H and 16O(n,n)16O propagate to the uncertainty of the calculated neutron multiplication factor, keff, in thermal critical assemblies with heavy water neutron moderator/reflector. The method of trial evaluated nuclear data files, in which specific cross sections are individually perturbed, is used to calculate the sensitivity coefficients of keff to the microscopic nuclear data, such as σs(E) characterized by σs,th. Large reactivity differences of up to ≃ 5-10 mk (500-1000 pcm) were observed using 2H and 16O data files with different elastic scattering data in MCNP5 simulations of the LANL HEU heavy-water solution thermal critical experiments included in the ICSBEP handbook.

  5. Quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics: an approach for computing dynamically averaged vibrational spectra including critical nuclear quantum effects.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S

    2007-10-18

    We have introduced a computational methodology to study vibrational spectroscopy in clusters inclusive of critical nuclear quantum effects. This approach is based on the recently developed quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics method that combines quantum wavepacket dynamics with ab initio molecular dynamics. The computational efficiency of the dynamical procedure is drastically improved (by several orders of magnitude) through the utilization of wavelet-based techniques combined with the previously introduced time-dependent deterministic sampling procedure measure to achieve stable, picosecond length, quantum-classical dynamics of electrons and nuclei in clusters. The dynamical information is employed to construct a novel cumulative flux/velocity correlation function, where the wavepacket flux from the quantized particle is combined with classical nuclear velocities to obtain the vibrational density of states. The approach is demonstrated by computing the vibrational density of states of [Cl-H-Cl]-, inclusive of critical quantum nuclear effects, and our results are in good agreement with experiment. A general hierarchical procedure is also provided, based on electronic structure harmonic frequencies, classical ab initio molecular dynamics, computation of nuclear quantum-mechanical eigenstates, and employing quantum wavepacket ab initio dynamics to understand vibrational spectroscopy in hydrogen-bonded clusters that display large degrees of anharmonicities.

  6. Parathyroid nuclear scan. A focused review on the technical and biological factors affecting its outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Subramanian; Milas, Mira; Neumann, Donald; Parikh, Rikesh T.; Siperstein, Alan; Licata, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Technetium Parathyroid Scintigraphy (TS) is the most popular noninvasive localization procedure in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Awareness of various factors involved in technetium uptake helps understand the outcome of TS. Methods We utilize a case of changing TS scans in a patient to review the literature on the various biological and technical factors involved in technetium uptake by the abnormal parathyroid tissue. A 56 year female was diagnosed with PHPT and osteopenia. An initial scan using 99mTc-Tetrofosmin showed no definite areas of abnormal parathyroid tissue. Patient refused surgical exploration, was started on Bisphosponates and subsequently monitored. Five years later she suffered fracture of her right wrist. A repeat TS using 99mTc-Sestamibi revealed hypervascular parathyroid lesion in the right lower neck. She underwent successful removal of a right lower parathyroid adenoma. Results Technical factors like the type of Tc isotope used, imaging techniques and biological factors like biochemical parameters (calcium, vitamin D levels), adenoma size, content of oxyphilic cells, vascularity can affect the outcome of the scan. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of technical and biological factors that could result in negative scan in parathyroid nuclear scintigraphy. PMID:25002876

  7. Laughing it off? Humour, affect and emotion work in communities living with nuclear risk.

    PubMed

    Parkhill, K A; Henwood, K L; Pidgeon, N F; Simmons, P

    2011-06-01

    Over the past two decades, an increasing number of risk researchers have recognized that risks are not simply objective hazards but that the meanings of risk are discursively negotiated, dynamic and embedded within the wider social relations that constitute everyday life. A growing interest in the complexity and nuances of risk subjectivities has alerted sociocultural researchers not only to what is said in a risk situation, but also to how it is said and to what is unsaid and even, in a particular context, unsayable; to the intangible qualities of discourse that communicate additional meanings. Humour is both an intangible and marks such intangible meanings, yet it has largely been ignored and insufficiently theorized by risk researchers. In this paper, we draw upon insights from the humour literature - suspending the belief that humour is inherently good - to analyse and theorize humour as a way of examining the meanings and functions of risk. We show how humour can both mask and carefully reveal affectively charged states about living with nuclear risk. As such, it helps risk subjects to live with risk by suppressing vulnerabilities, enabling the negotiation of what constitutes a threat, and engendering a sense of empowerment. We conclude that humorous talk can be serious talk which can enrich our understandings of the lived experience of risk and of risk subjectivities. PMID:21631461

  8. Laughing it off? Humour, affect and emotion work in communities living with nuclear risk.

    PubMed

    Parkhill, K A; Henwood, K L; Pidgeon, N F; Simmons, P

    2011-06-01

    Over the past two decades, an increasing number of risk researchers have recognized that risks are not simply objective hazards but that the meanings of risk are discursively negotiated, dynamic and embedded within the wider social relations that constitute everyday life. A growing interest in the complexity and nuances of risk subjectivities has alerted sociocultural researchers not only to what is said in a risk situation, but also to how it is said and to what is unsaid and even, in a particular context, unsayable; to the intangible qualities of discourse that communicate additional meanings. Humour is both an intangible and marks such intangible meanings, yet it has largely been ignored and insufficiently theorized by risk researchers. In this paper, we draw upon insights from the humour literature - suspending the belief that humour is inherently good - to analyse and theorize humour as a way of examining the meanings and functions of risk. We show how humour can both mask and carefully reveal affectively charged states about living with nuclear risk. As such, it helps risk subjects to live with risk by suppressing vulnerabilities, enabling the negotiation of what constitutes a threat, and engendering a sense of empowerment. We conclude that humorous talk can be serious talk which can enrich our understandings of the lived experience of risk and of risk subjectivities.

  9. Formation of Nup98-containing nuclear bodies in HeLa sublines is linked to genomic rearrangements affecting chromosome 11.

    PubMed

    Romana, Serge; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Lapierre, Jean-Michel; Doye, Valérie; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude

    2016-09-01

    Nup98 is an important component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and also a rare but recurrent target for chromosomal translocation in leukaemogenesis. Nup98 contains multiple cohesive Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly (GLFG) repeats that are critical notably for the formation of intranuclear GLFG bodies. Previous studies have reported the existence of GLFG bodies in cells overexpressing exogenous Nup98 or in a HeLa subline (HeLa-C) expressing an unusual elevated amount of endogenous Nup98. Here, we have analysed the presence of Nup98-containing bodies in several human cell lines. We found that HEp-2, another HeLa subline, contains GLFG bodies that are distinct from those identified in HeLa-C. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) revealed that HEp-2 cells express additional truncated forms of Nup98 fused to a non-coding region of chromosome 11q22.1. Cytogenetic analyses using FISH and array-CGH further revealed chromosomal rearrangements that were distinct from those observed in leukaemic cells. Indeed, HEp-2 cells feature a massive amplification of juxtaposed NUP98 and 11q22.1 loci on a chromosome marker derived from chromosome 3. Unexpectedly, minor co-amplifications of NUP98 and 11q22.1 loci were also observed in other HeLa sublines, but on rearranged chromosomes 11. Altogether, this study reveals that distinct genomic rearrangements affecting NUP98 are associated with the formation of GLFG bodies in specific HeLa sublines.

  10. Application of Neutron-Absorbing Structural-Amorphous Metal (SAM) Coatings for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Container to Enhance Criticality Safety Control

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J

    2007-01-12

    This report describes the analysis and modeling approaches used in the evaluation for criticality-control applications of the neutron-absorbing structural-amorphous metal (SAM) coatings. The applications of boron-containing high-performance corrosion-resistant material (HPCRM)--amorphous metal as the neutron-absorbing coatings to the metallic support structure can enhance criticality safety controls for spent nuclear fuel in baskets inside storage containers, transportation casks, and disposal containers. The use of these advanced iron-based, corrosion-resistant materials to prevent nuclear criticality in transportation, aging, and disposal containers would be extremely beneficial to the nuclear waste management programs.

  11. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian Miron; Joshua Valentine; John Christenson; Majd Hawwari; Santosh Bhatt; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar: Michael Lineberry

    2009-10-01

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), Unviery of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  12. Nuclear degraded sperm subpopulation is affected by poor chromatin compaction and nuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Ribas-Maynou, J; García-Peiró, A; Martínez-Heredia, J; Fernández-Encinas, A; Abad, C; Amengual, M J; Navarro, J; Benet, J

    2015-04-01

    There is an interest in the nuclear degraded sperm subpopulation because, although it is present in a low percentage in all semen samples, patient groups such as varicocele and rearranged genome carriers show high levels of these degraded spermatozoa. This study is designed with two objectives in mind: first, incubations of H2 O2 and nuclease on DTT-treated and untreated samples to show the aetiology of this subpopulation and second, assessment of the correlation between the protamine ratio and nuclear degraded spermatozoa. A very high increase in the nuclear degraded subpopulation has been found with nuclease incubation, and it is even higher when it has been merged with nuclear decompaction using DTT. Alternatively, incubation with H2 O2 with and without DTT did not show such a significant increase in nuclear degraded spermatozoa. The protamine ratio correlated with this subpopulation, showing, in patients, that poor nuclear compaction would turn the sperm susceptible to degradation. Then, the assessment of nuclear degraded spermatozoa might not be only a measure of DNA degradation but also an indicator of chromatin compaction in the spermatozoa. Different patient groups would fit this model for sperm nuclear degradation, such as varicocele patients, who show a high percentage of immature spermatozoa and nuclear degraded spermatozoa, and reorganised genome carriers, where reorganisation might also cause poor chromatin compaction on the sperm nucleus.

  13. Adenovirus uncoating and nuclear establishment are not affected by weak base amines.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, E; Everitt, E

    1996-01-01

    We have used four established lysosomotropic agents, ammonium chloride, amantadine, chloroquine, and methylamine, to monitor the possible interference with an early low-pH-dependent step during adenovirus replication. Two concentrations of each of the different agents were selected; one was essentially nontoxic to uninfected HeLa cells, and the other resulted in some toxicity as measured by trypan blue staining and by interference with cell monolayer establishment, cell proliferation, and radioisotope labelling. It was separately determined that these concentrations displayed pH-raising effects of the same magnitude as higher concentrations previously used in similar studies. Adenovirus uncoating in vivo, normally reaching its maximum within 1 h after infection, was not affected by any of the agents. The subsequent levels of successful nuclear entry events by the parental genomes were monitored by measuring the extent of transcription of an mRNA species coding for the early 72-kDa DNA-binding protein at 10 to 12 h postinfection. In HeLa, KB, HEp-2, and A549 cells, none of the agents were able to affect the levels of early transcription after administration at the point of infection or at 3 h after infection. The cumulative synthesis of the hexon antigen was assessed late in infection, and inhibitory effects were revealed upon administration of 10, 20, and 40 mM ammonium chloride, 10 mM methylamine, and 0.5 mM amantadine, irrespective of the time point of addition. Ammonium chloride at 5 mM reduced the hexon yield by 20% at the most when added within 50 min after infection. Chloroquine at concentrations of 2.5 and 5 microM specifically reduced the hexon yields by 30 to 40% when administered within the first 50 min of infection. On the basis of the lack of effects of nontoxic concentrations of the four agents on the early virus-cell interactive event of uncoating and the early virus-specified transcription, we conclude that a low-pH-dependent step early in the

  14. Validation of nuclear criticality safety software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; D`Aquila, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The original validation report, POEF-T-3636, was documented in August 1994. The document was based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This revision is written to clarify the margin of safety being used at Portsmouth for nuclear criticality safety calculations. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Lockheed Martin Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. For calculations of Portsmouth systems using the specified codes and systems covered by this validation, a maximum k{sub eff} including 2{sigma} of 0.9605 or lower shall be considered as subcritical to ensure a calculational margin of safety of 0.02. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25.

  15. Nuclear criticality safety bounding analysis for the in-tank-precipitation (ITP) process, impacted by fissile isotopic weight fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, C.E.

    1994-04-22

    The In-Tank Precipitation process (ITP) receives High Level Waste (HLW) supernatant liquid containing radionuclides in waste processing tank 48H. Sodium tetraphenylborate, NaTPB, and monosodium titanate (MST), NaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}H, are added for removal of radioactive Cs and Sr, respectively. In addition to removal of radio-strontium, MST will also remove plutonium and uranium. The majority of the feed solutions to ITP will come from the dissolution of supernate that had been concentrated by evaporation to a crystallized salt form, commonly referred to as saltcake. The concern for criticality safety arises from the adsorption of U and Pt onto MST. If sufficient mass and optimum conditions are achieved then criticality is credible. The concentration of u and Pt from solution into the smaller volume of precipitate represents a concern for criticality. This report supplements WSRC-TR-93-171, Nuclear Criticality Safety Bounding Analysis For The In-Tank-Precipitation (ITP) Process. Criticality safety in ITP can be analyzed by two bounding conditions: (1) the minimum safe ratio of MST to fissionable material and (2) the maximum fissionable material adsorption capacity of the MST. Calculations have provided the first bounding condition and experimental analysis has established the second. This report combines these conditions with canyon facility data to evaluate the potential for criticality in the ITP process due to the adsorption of the fissionable material from solution. In addition, this report analyzes the potential impact of increased U loading onto MST. Results of this analysis demonstrate a greater safety margin for ITP operations than the previous analysis. This report further demonstrates that the potential for criticality in the ITP process due to adsorption of fissionable material by MST is not credible.

  16. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of SRS 9971 shipping package. [SRS (Savannah River Site)

    SciTech Connect

    Vescovi, P.J.

    1993-02-01

    This evaluation is requested to revise the criticality evaluation used to generate Chapter 6 (Criticality Evaluation) of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for shipment Of UO[sub 3] product from the Uranium Solidification Facility (USF) in the SRS 9971 shipping package. The pertinent document requesting this evaluation is included as Attachment I. The results of the evaluation are given in Attachment II which is written as Chapter 6 of a NRC format SARP.

  17. Criticality evaluation and protocol for DOE-owned spent nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Cresap, D.A.; Sentieri, P.J.; Wilson, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    This report is a continuation of repository criticality evaluation work. Both the probability and consequences of a criticality were considered. A long-term, low-power, water-moderated criticality was the most likely of those considered. Its probability was low but not low enough to be dismissed. The governing regulation, 40 CFR 191, allows an event to be dismissed if it has less than one chance in 10,000 of occurring in 10,000 years. This implies a regulatory concern threshold of 10-8/yr. Even if such an event occurred, the repository inventory would still be dominated by the disposed fuel and waste and no significant additional releases would be expected. The major categories of criticality investigated were: water-moderated with fast or slow reactivity insertion, dry (hard-spectrum) with fast or slow reactivity insertion, water-moderated on the surface due to human intrusion, and far field. Fault trees were prepared to assess these scenarios. As a result of this study, the probability of a criticality in 10,000 years was revised from 3x10{sup -3} to 5x10{sup -4}, primarily through the elimination of conservatism and correction of assumptions. The presence of water is a major concern in criticality studies. The possibility of flooding due to water table rise had been dismissed in previous studies. Conservative models indicate that this is a defensible position. The possibility of a silica moderated criticality was considered briefly. The preliminary study identified isotopes of concern for release and these were verified by several comparative methods. Most isotopes had similar ratios across source categories and those that did not could be accounted for by fuel or waste characteristics. The ORIGEN2 code was validated to be sufficiently accurate for PA purposes for the low-power, long-term scenario considered in the criticality study.

  18. Microprocessor-based control systems application in nuclear power plant critical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.R.; Nowak, J.B. )

    1992-01-01

    Microprocessor-based control systems have been used in fossil power plants and are receiving greater acceptance for application in nuclear plants. This technology is not new but it does require unique considerations when applied to nuclear power plants. Sargent and Lundy (S and L) has used a microprocessor-based component logic control system (interposing Logic System) for safety- and non-safety-related components in nuclear power plants under construction overseas. Currently, S and L is in the design stage to replace an existing analog control system with a microprocessor-based control system in the U.S. The trend in the industry is to replace systems in existing plants or design new power plants with microprocessor-based control systems.

  19. Critical comparison of radiometric and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of radionuclides in environmental, biological and nuclear waste samples.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2008-02-11

    The radiometric methods, alpha (alpha)-, beta (beta)-, gamma (gamma)-spectrometry, and mass spectrometric methods, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and glow discharge mass spectrometry are reviewed for the determination of radionuclides. These methods are critically compared for the determination of long-lived radionuclides important for radiation protection, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, repository of nuclear waste, tracer application in the environmental and biological researches, these radionuclides include (3)H, (14)C, (36)Cl, (41)Ca, (59,63)Ni, (89,90)Sr, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135,137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226,228)Ra, (237)Np, (241)Am, and isotopes of thorium, uranium and plutonium. The application of on-line methods (flow injection/sequential injection) for separation of radionuclides and automated determination of radionuclides is also discussed.

  20. Critical comparison of radiometric and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of radionuclides in environmental, biological and nuclear waste samples.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2008-02-11

    The radiometric methods, alpha (alpha)-, beta (beta)-, gamma (gamma)-spectrometry, and mass spectrometric methods, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and glow discharge mass spectrometry are reviewed for the determination of radionuclides. These methods are critically compared for the determination of long-lived radionuclides important for radiation protection, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, repository of nuclear waste, tracer application in the environmental and biological researches, these radionuclides include (3)H, (14)C, (36)Cl, (41)Ca, (59,63)Ni, (89,90)Sr, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135,137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226,228)Ra, (237)Np, (241)Am, and isotopes of thorium, uranium and plutonium. The application of on-line methods (flow injection/sequential injection) for separation of radionuclides and automated determination of radionuclides is also discussed. PMID:18215644

  1. Molecular analyses of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions affecting plant growth and yield. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, K.J.

    1998-11-01

    Mitochondria have a central role in the production of cellular energy. The biogenesis and functioning of mitochondria depends on the expression of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. One approach to investigating the role of nuclear-mitochondrial cooperation in plant growth and development is to identify combinations of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that result in altered but sublethal phenotypes. Plants that have certain maize nuclear genotypes in combination with cytoplasmic genomes from more distantly-related teosintes can exhibit incompatible phenotypes, such as reduced plant growth and yield and cytoplasmic male sterility, as well as altered mitochondrial gene expression. The characterization of these nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions was the focus of this grant. The authors were investigating the effects of two maize nuclear genes, RcmI and Mct, on mitochondrial function and gene expression. Plants with the teosinte cytoplasms and homozygous for the recessive rcm allele are small (miniature) and-slow-growing and the kernels are reduced in size. The authors mapped this locus to molecular markers on chromosome 7 and attempted to clone this locus by transposon tagging. The effects of the nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction on mitochondrial function and mitochondrial protein profiles were also studied.

  2. A critical assembly designed to measure neutronic benchmarks in support of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parma, E. J.; Ball, R. M.; Hoovler, G. S.; Selcow, E. C.; Cerbone, R. J.

    1992-10-01

    A reactor designed to perform criticality experiments in support of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program is currently in operation at the Sandia National Laboratories' reactor facility. The reactor is a small, water-moderated system that uses highly enriched uranium particle fuel in a 19-element configuration. Its purpose is to obtain neutronic measurements under a variety of experimental conditions that are subsequently used to benchmark reactor-design computer codes. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Babcock & Wilcox, and Sandia National Laboratories participated in determining the reactor's performance requirements, design, follow on experimentation, and in obtaining the licensing approvals. Brookhaven National Laboratory is primarily responsible for the analytical support, Babcock & Wilcox the hardware design, and Sandia National Laboratories the operational safety. All of the team members participate in determining the experimentation requirements, performance, and data reduction. Initial criticality was achieved in October 1989. An over-all description of the reactor is presented along with key design features and safety-related aspects.

  3. A critical assembly designed to measure neutronic benchmarks in support of the space nuclear thermal propulsion program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parma, Edward J.; Ball, Russell M.; Hoovler, Gary S.; Selcow, Elizabeth C.; Cerbone, Ralph J.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor designed to perform criticality experiments in support of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program is currently in operation at the Sandia National Laboratories' reactor facility. The reactor is a small, water-moderated system that uses highly enriched uranium particle fuel in a 19-element configuration. Its purpose is to obtain neutronic measurements under a variety of experimental conditions that are subsequently used to benchmark rector-design computer codes. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Babcock & Wilcox, and Sandia National Laboratories participated in determining the reactor's performance requirements, design, follow-on experimentation, and in obtaining the licensing approvals. Brookhaven National Laboratory is primarily responsible for the analytical support, Babcock & Wilcox the hardware design, and Sandia National Laboratories the operational safety. All of the team members participate in determining the experimentation requirements, performance, and data reduction. Initial criticality was achieved in October 1989. An overall description of the reactor is presented along with key design features and safety-related aspects.

  4. Consideration of critically when directly disposing highly enriched spent nuclear fuel in unsaturated tuff: Bounding estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Tierney, M.S.; Sanchez, L.C.; Martell, M.-A.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents one of 2 approaches (bounding calculations) which were used in a 1994 study to examine the possibility of a criticality in a repository. Bounding probabilities, although rough, point to the difficulty of creating conditions under which a critical mass could be assembled (container corrosion, separation of neutron absorbers from fissile material, collapse or precipitation of fissile material) and how significant the geochemical and hydrologic phenomena are. The study could not conceive of a mechanism consistent with conditions under which an atomic explosion could occur. Should a criticality occur in or near a container in the future, boundary consequence calculations showed that fissions from one critical event (<10{sup 20} fissions, if similar to aqueous and metal accidents and experiments) are quite small compared to the amount of fissions represented by the spent fuel itself. If it is assumed that the containers necessary to hold the highly enriched spent fuel went critical once per day for 1 million years, creating an energy release of about 10{sup 20} fissions, the number of fissions equals about 10{sup 28}, which corresponds to only 1% of the fission inventory in a repository containing 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal, the expected size for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  5. Nuclear pore components affect distinct stages of intron-containing gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Amandine; Bretes, Hugo; Palancade, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Several nuclear pore-associated factors, including the SUMO-protease Ulp1, have been proposed to prevent the export of intron-containing messenger ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs) in yeast. However, the molecular mechanisms of this nuclear pore-dependent mRNA quality control, including the sumoylated targets of Ulp1, have remained unidentified. Here, we demonstrate that the apparent ‘pre-mRNA leakage’ phenotype arising upon ULP1 inactivation is shared by sumoylation mutants of the THO complex, an early mRNP biogenesis factor. Importantly, we establish that alteration of THO complex activity differentially impairs the expression of intronless and intron-containing reporter genes, rather than triggering bona fide ‘pre-mRNA leakage’. Indeed, we show that the presence of introns within THO target genes attenuates the effect of THO inactivation on their transcription. Epistasis analyses further clarify that different nuclear pore components influence intron-containing gene expression at distinct stages. Ulp1, whose maintenance at nuclear pores depends on the Nup84 complex, impacts on THO-dependent gene expression, whereas the nuclear basket-associated Mlp1/Pml39 proteins prevent pre-mRNA export at a later stage, contributing to mRNA quality control. Our study thus highlights the multiplicity of mechanisms by which nuclear pores contribute to gene expression, and further provides the first evidence that intronic sequences can alleviate early mRNP biogenesis defects. PMID:25845599

  6. Nuclear pore components affect distinct stages of intron-containing gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Amandine; Bretes, Hugo; Palancade, Benoit

    2015-04-30

    Several nuclear pore-associated factors, including the SUMO-protease Ulp1, have been proposed to prevent the export of intron-containing messenger ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs) in yeast. However, the molecular mechanisms of this nuclear pore-dependent mRNA quality control, including the sumoylated targets of Ulp1, have remained unidentified. Here, we demonstrate that the apparent 'pre-mRNA leakage' phenotype arising upon ULP1 inactivation is shared by sumoylation mutants of the THO complex, an early mRNP biogenesis factor. Importantly, we establish that alteration of THO complex activity differentially impairs the expression of intronless and intron-containing reporter genes, rather than triggering bona fide 'pre-mRNA leakage'. Indeed, we show that the presence of introns within THO target genes attenuates the effect of THO inactivation on their transcription. Epistasis analyses further clarify that different nuclear pore components influence intron-containing gene expression at distinct stages. Ulp1, whose maintenance at nuclear pores depends on the Nup84 complex, impacts on THO-dependent gene expression, whereas the nuclear basket-associated Mlp1/Pml39 proteins prevent pre-mRNA export at a later stage, contributing to mRNA quality control. Our study thus highlights the multiplicity of mechanisms by which nuclear pores contribute to gene expression, and further provides the first evidence that intronic sequences can alleviate early mRNP biogenesis defects.

  7. Critical residues of the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-2 voltage-gated calcium channel that affect behavioral and physiological properties.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Eleanor A; García, Esperanza; Santi, Celia M; Mullen, Gregory P; Thacker, Colin; Moerman, Donald G; Snutch, Terrance P

    2003-07-23

    The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-2 gene encodes a voltage-gated calcium channel alpha1 subunit structurally related to mammalian dihydropyridine-insensitive high-threshold channels. In the present paper we describe the characterization of seven alleles of unc-2. Using an unc-2 promoter-tagged green fluorescent protein construct, we show that unc-2 is primarily expressed in motor neurons, several subsets of sensory neurons, and the HSN and VC neurons that control egg laying. Examination of behavioral phenotypes, including defecation, thrashing, and sensitivities to aldicarb and nicotine suggests that UNC-2 acts presynaptically to mediate both cholinergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. Sequence analysis of the unc-2 alleles shows that e55, ra605, ra606, ra609, and ra610 all are predicted to prematurely terminate and greatly reduce or eliminate unc-2 function. In contrast, the ra612 and ra614 alleles are missense mutations resulting in the substitution of highly conserved residues in the C terminus and the domain IVS4-IVS5 linker, respectively. Heterologous expression of a rat brain P/Q-type channel containing the ra612 mutation shows that the glycine to arginine substitution affects a variety of channel characteristics, including the voltage dependence of activation, steady-state inactivation, as well as channel kinetics. Overall, our findings suggest that UNC-2 plays a pivotal role in mediating a number of physiological processes in the nematode and also defines a number of critical residues important for calcium channel function in vivo. PMID:12878695

  8. Nuclear glutaredoxin 3 is critical for protection against oxidative stress-induced cell death

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammalian glutaredoxin 3 (Grx3) has been shown to be critical in maintaining redox homeostasis and regulating cell survival pathways in cancer cells. However, the regulation of Grx3 is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigate the subcellular localization of Grx3 under normal growth...

  9. Intact and Degraded Criticality Calculations for the Codisposal of Shippingport LWBR Spent Nuclear Fuel in a Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    L.M. Montierth

    2000-09-15

    The objective of this calculation is to characterize the nuclear criticality safety concerns associated with the codisposal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (SP LWBR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) in a 5-Defense High-Level Waste (5-DHLW) Waste Package (WP), which is to be placed in a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The scope of this calculation is limited to the determination of the effective neutron multiplication factor (K{sub eff}) for intact- and degraded-mode internal configurations of the codisposal WP containing Shippingport LWBR seed-type assemblies. The results of this calculation will be used to evaluate criticality issues and support the analysis that is planed to be performed to demonstrate the viability of the codisposal concept for the MGR. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and was performed in accordance with the DOE SNF Analysis Plan for FY 2000 (See Ref. 22). The document has been prepared in accordance with the Administrative Procedure AP-3.12Q, Calculations (Ref. 23).

  10. Reactivity impact of {sup 16}O thermal elastic-scattering nuclear data for some numerical and critical benchmark systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kozier, K. S.; Roubtsov, D.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Kopecky, S.

    2012-07-01

    The thermal neutron-elastic-scattering cross-section data for {sup 16}O used in various modern evaluated-nuclear-data libraries were reviewed and found to be generally too high compared with the best available experimental measurements. Some of the proposed revisions to the ENDF/B-VII.0 {sup 16}O data library and recent results from the TENDL system increase this discrepancy further. The reactivity impact of revising the {sup 16}O data downward to be consistent with the best measurements was tested using the JENDL-3.3 {sup 16}O cross-section values and was found to be very small in MCNP5 simulations of the UO{sub 2} and reactor-recycle MOX-fuel cases of the ANS Doppler-defect numerical benchmark. However, large reactivity differences of up to about 14 mk (1400 pcm) were observed using {sup 16}O data files from several evaluated-nuclear-data libraries in MCNP5 simulations of the Los Alamos National Laboratory HEU heavy-water solution thermal critical experiments, which were performed in the 1950's. The latter result suggests that new measurements using HEU in a heavy-water-moderated critical facility, such as the ZED-2 zero-power reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories, might help to resolve the discrepancy between the {sup 16}O thermal elastic-scattering cross-section values and thereby reduce or better define its uncertainty, although additional assessment work would be needed to confirm this. (authors)

  11. Physiological and Pathological Aging Affects Chromatin Dynamics, Structure and Function at the Nuclear Edge

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jérôme D.; Magdinier, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Lamins are intermediate filaments that form a complex meshwork at the inner nuclear membrane. Mammalian cells express two types of Lamins, Lamins A/C and Lamins B, encoded by three different genes, LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2. Mutations in the LMNA gene are associated with a group of phenotypically diverse diseases referred to as laminopathies. Lamins interact with a large number of binding partners including proteins of the nuclear envelope but also chromatin-associated factors. Lamins not only constitute a scaffold for nuclear shape, rigidity and resistance to stress but also contribute to the organization of chromatin and chromosomal domains. We will discuss here the impact of A-type Lamins loss on alterations of chromatin organization and formation of chromatin domains and how disorganization of the lamina contributes to the patho-physiology of premature aging syndromes.

  12. Physiological and Pathological Aging Affects Chromatin Dynamics, Structure and Function at the Nuclear Edge.

    PubMed

    Robin, Jérôme D; Magdinier, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Lamins are intermediate filaments that form a complex meshwork at the inner nuclear membrane. Mammalian cells express two types of Lamins, Lamins A/C and Lamins B, encoded by three different genes, LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2. Mutations in the LMNA gene are associated with a group of phenotypically diverse diseases referred to as laminopathies. Lamins interact with a large number of binding partners including proteins of the nuclear envelope but also chromatin-associated factors. Lamins not only constitute a scaffold for nuclear shape, rigidity and resistance to stress but also contribute to the organization of chromatin and chromosomal domains. We will discuss here the impact of A-type Lamins loss on alterations of chromatin organization and formation of chromatin domains and how disorganization of the lamina contributes to the patho-physiology of premature aging syndromes. PMID:27602048

  13. Physiological and Pathological Aging Affects Chromatin Dynamics, Structure and Function at the Nuclear Edge

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jérôme D.; Magdinier, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Lamins are intermediate filaments that form a complex meshwork at the inner nuclear membrane. Mammalian cells express two types of Lamins, Lamins A/C and Lamins B, encoded by three different genes, LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2. Mutations in the LMNA gene are associated with a group of phenotypically diverse diseases referred to as laminopathies. Lamins interact with a large number of binding partners including proteins of the nuclear envelope but also chromatin-associated factors. Lamins not only constitute a scaffold for nuclear shape, rigidity and resistance to stress but also contribute to the organization of chromatin and chromosomal domains. We will discuss here the impact of A-type Lamins loss on alterations of chromatin organization and formation of chromatin domains and how disorganization of the lamina contributes to the patho-physiology of premature aging syndromes. PMID:27602048

  14. OECD/NEA working party on nuclear criticality safety: Challenge of new realities

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Y.; Brady, M.C.; Briggs, J.B.; Sartori, E.

    1998-03-01

    New issues in criticality safety continue to emerge as spent fuel storage facilities reach the saturation point, fuel enrichments and burn-ups increase and new types of plutonium-carrying fuels are being developed. The new challenges related to the manipulation, transportation and storage of fuel demand further work to improve models predicting behavior through new experiments, especially where there is a lack of data in the present databases. This article summarizes the activities of the OECD/NEA working groups that coordinate and carry out work in the domain of criticality safety. Particular attention is devoted to establishing sound databases required in this area and to addressing issues of high relevance such as burn-up credit. This is aimed toward improving safety and identifying economic solutions to issues concerning the back end of the fuel cycle.

  15. Criticality safety considerations in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; McNair, G.W.; Heaberlin, S.W.

    1980-05-01

    Features of geologic disposal which hamper the demonstration that criticality cannot occur therein include possible changes of shape and form, intrusion of water as a neutron moderator, and selective leaching of spent fuel constituents. If the criticality safety of spent fuel disposal depends on burnup, independent measurements verifying the burnup should be performed prior to disposal. The status of nondestructive analysis method which might provide such verification is discussed. Calculations were performed to assess the potential for increasing the allowed size of a spent fuel disposal canister if potential water intrusion were limited by close-packing the enclosed rods. Several factors were identified which severely limited the potential of this application. The theoretical limit of hexagonal close-packing cannot be achieved due to fuel rod bowing. It is concluded that disposal canisters should be sized on the basis of assumed optimum moderation. Several topics for additional research were identified during this limited study.

  16. Nuclear criticality safety analysis of a spent fuel waste package in a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect

    Weren, B.H.; Capo, M.A.; O`Neal, W.C.

    1983-12-01

    An assessment has been performed of the criticality potential associated with the disposal of spent fuel in a tuff geology above the water table. Eleven potential configurations were defined which cover a vast range of geometries and conditions from the nominal configuration at emplacement to a hypothetical configuration thousands of years after emplacement in which the structure is gone, the fuel pellets disintegrated and the borehole flooded. Of these eleven configurations, four have been evaluated at this time. The results of this evaluation indicate that even with very conservative assumptions (4.5 w/o fresh fuel), criticality is not a problem for the nominal configuration either dry or fully flooded. In the cases where the condition of the waste package is assumed to have severely deteriorated, over long times, calculations were performed with less conservative assumptions (depleted fuel). An assessment of these calculations indicates that criticality safety could be demonstrated if the depletion of the fissile inventory during fuel irradiation is taken into account. A detailed discussion of the calculations performed is presented in this report. Also included are a description of the configurations which were considered, the analytical methods and models used, and a discussion of additional related work which should be performed. 15 references, 11 figures, 8 tables.

  17. An improved gate valve for critical applications in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, M.S.; Alvarez, P.D.; Wang, J.K.; Somagyi, D.

    1996-12-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Generic Letters 89-10 for motor-operated valves (MOVs) and 95-07 for all power-operated valves document in detail the problems related to the performance of the safety-related valves in nuclear power plants. The problems relate to lack of reliable operation under design basis conditions including higher than anticipated stem thrust, unpredictable valve behavior, damage to the valve internals under blowdown/high flow conditions, significant degradation of performance when cycled under AP and flow, thermal binding, and pressure locking. This paper describes an improved motor-operated flexible wedge gate valve design, the GE Sentinel Valve, which is the outcome of a comprehensive and systematic development effort undertaken to resolve the issues identified in the NRC Generic Letters 89-10 and 95-07. The new design provides a reliable, long-term, low maintenance cost solution to the nuclear power industry. One of the key features incorporated in the disc permits the disc flexibility to be varied independently of the disc thickness (pressure boundary) dictated by the ASME Section III Pressure Vessel & Piping Code stress criteria. This feature allows the desired flexibility to be incorporated in the disc, thus eliminating thermal binding problems. A matrix of analyses was performed using finite element and computational fluid dynamics approaches to optimize design for stresses, flexibility, leak-tightness, fluid flow, and thermal effects. The design of the entire product line was based upon a consistent set of analyses and design rules which permit scaling to different valve sizes and pressure classes within the product line. The valve meets all of the ASME Section III Code design criteria and the N-Stamp requirements. The performance of the valve was validated by performing extensive separate effects and plant in-situ tests. This paper summarizes the key design features, analyses, and test results.

  18. Use of Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis in the Design of Reactor Physics and Criticality Benchmark Experiments for Advanced Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, B.T.; Anderson, W.J.; Harms, G.A.

    2005-08-15

    Framatome ANP, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the University of Florida are cooperating on the U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project 2001-0124 to design, assemble, execute, analyze, and document a series of critical experiments to validate reactor physics and criticality safety codes for the analysis of commercial power reactor fuels consisting of UO{sub 2} with {sup 235}U enrichments {>=}5 wt%. The experiments will be conducted at the SNL Pulsed Reactor Facility.Framatome ANP and SNL produced two series of conceptual experiment designs based on typical parameters, such as fuel-to-moderator ratios, that meet the programmatic requirements of this project within the given restraints on available materials and facilities. ORNL used the Tools for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation (TSUNAMI) to assess, from a detailed physics-based perspective, the similarity of the experiment designs to the commercial systems they are intended to validate. Based on the results of the TSUNAMI analysis, one series of experiments was found to be preferable to the other and will provide significant new data for the validation of reactor physics and criticality safety codes.

  19. Proteomic analyses identify a diverse array of nuclear processes affected by small ubiquitin-like modifier conjugation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Marcus J.; Barrett-Wilt, Gregory A.; Hua, Zhihua; Vierstra, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The covalent attachment of SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) to other intracellular proteins affects a broad range of nuclear processes in yeast and animals, including chromatin maintenance, transcription, and transport across the nuclear envelope, as well as protects proteins from ubiquitin addition. Substantial increases in SUMOylated proteins upon various stresses have also implicated this modification in the general stress response. To help understand the role(s) of SUMOylation in plants, we developed a stringent method to isolate SUMO-protein conjugates from Arabidopsis thaliana that exploits a tagged SUMO1 variant that faithfully replaces the wild-type protein. Following purification under denaturing conditions, SUMOylated proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry from both nonstressed plants and those exposed to heat and oxidative stress. The list of targets is enriched for factors that direct SUMOylation and for nuclear proteins involved in chromatin remodeling/repair, transcription, RNA metabolism, and protein trafficking. Targets of particular interest include histone H2B, components in the LEUNIG/TOPLESS corepressor complexes, and proteins that control histone acetylation and DNA methylation, which affect genome-wide transcription. SUMO attachment site(s) were identified in a subset of targets, including SUMO1 itself to confirm the assembly of poly-SUMO chains. SUMO1 also becomes conjugated with ubiquitin during heat stress, thus connecting these two posttranslational modifications in plants. Taken together, we propose that SUMOylation represents a rapid and global mechanism for reversibly manipulating plant chromosomal functions, especially during environmental stress. PMID:20813957

  20. How have nuclear weapons affected the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. Individual study report

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddie, R.D.

    1991-04-05

    As mankind enters the final decade of the 20th century, it faces a world of unprecedented political and military change. Events in Central Europe and in the Soviet Union over the past two years have been truly remarkable and have forced the United States to reevaluate its nation's security strategy. Some feel the potential for a war with the Soviets has diminished. Others feel that the Soviets' capability is the same now as it has been in the past. How can the United States take advantage of the new relationship with the Soviet Union. If the US strategy needs to be changed, the historical perspective of the US-USSR relationship becomes extremely important. Nuclear weapons have been a significant part of the super power relationship since 1945. In fact many feel the Soviets are in a super power status now only as a result of their military and its huge nuclear arsenal. The following analysis describes how nuclear weapons became a part of the United States' national security strategy and how that policy affected the US-USSR relationship. The analysis starts with the end of World War II. It traces important events and confrontations between the two nations, pointing out the significant implications made by nuclear weapons. The conclusion presents this questions, Has the Soviet military threat changed and if so, how should the United States change its strategic forces to take advantage of the new relationship developing between the two super powers, both politically and economically.

  1. Analysis of muon radiography of the Toshiba nuclear critical assembly reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C. L.; Bacon, Jeffery; Borozdin, Konstantin; Fabritius, J. M.; Perry, John; Ramsey, John; Ban, Yuichiro; Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Yuji; Yoshida, Noriyuki; Miyadera, Haruo; Mizokami, Shinya; Otsuka, Yasuyuki; Yamada, Daichi; Sugita, Tsukasa; Yoshioka, Kenichi

    2014-01-13

    A 1.2 × 1.2 m{sup 2} muon tracker was moved from Los Alamos to the Toshiba facility at Kawasaki, Japan, where it was used to take ∼4 weeks of data radiographing the Toshiba Critical Assembly Reactor with cosmic ray muons. In this paper, we describe the analysis procedure, show results of this experiment, and compare the results to Monte Carlo predictions. The results validate the concept of using cosmic rays to image the damaged cores of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors.

  2. Canonical studies of the cluster distribution, dynamical evolution, and critical temperature in nuclear multifragmentation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. J.; Mekjian, A. Z.

    1992-03-01

    Partition functions for a canonical and microcanonical ensemble are developed which are then used to describe various properties of excited hadronic systems. Relating multinomial coefficients to a generating function of these partition functions, it is shown that the average value of various moments of cluster sizes are of a quite simple form in terms of canonical partition functions. Specific applications of the results are to partitioning problems as in the partitioning of nucleons into clusters arising from a nuclear collision and to branching processes as in Furry branching. The underlying dynamical evolution of a system is studied by parametrizing the multinomial variables of the theory. A Fokker-Planck equation can be obtained from these evolutionary equations. By relating the parameters and variables of the theory to thermodynamic variables, the thermal properties of excited hadronic systems are studied.

  3. Quantitative assessment of in situ microbial communities affecting nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C. |

    1996-05-01

    Microbes in the environments surrounding nuclear waste depositories pose several questions regarding the protection of the surrounding communities. microbes can facilitate microbially influenced corrosion (MIC), mobilize and facilitate the transport of nuclides as well as produce gaseous emissions which can compromise containment. We have developed an analysis of the extant microbiota that is independent of quantitative recovery and subsequent growth, based on signature biomarkers analysis (SBA).

  4. USE OF PORTABLE GAMMA SPECTROMETERS FOR IDENTIFYING PERSONS EXPOSED IN A NUCLEAR CRITICALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, K. G.; Gose, B. T.; Bogard, James S

    2009-01-01

    At Y-12 triage-style assessments are used to identify persons potentially exposed to high doses from criticality accident radiations using portable instruments by assessing the presence of activated sodium atoms in a person's blood. Historically, simple hand-held Geiger-Mueller (G-M) probes were used for these purposes although it was recognized that, since these instruments contain no information on incident photon energy, it was impossible to differentiate between photons emitted by contamination on the potentially exposed worker from activation of sodium in the person s blood. This works examines the use of a portable gamma spectrometer for assessing blood sodium activation. Irradiations of a representative phantom were performed using two neutron source configurations (unmoderated and polyethylene-moderated 252Cf) and measurements were made using the spectrometer and a G-M detector following irradiation. Detection limits in terms of personnel neutron dose are given for two neutron fields representing metaland solution criticality spectra. Both Geiger-Mueller and spectrometer results indicate a low minimum detectable neutron dose indicating that both instrument are useful as an emergency response instrument. The spectrometer has the added benefit of discriminating between surface contamination and blood sodium activation.

  5. Post-translational regulation and nuclear entry of TIMELESS and PERIOD are affected in new timeless mutant

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Taichi; Koh, Kyunghee; Combs, David J.; Sehgal, Amita

    2011-01-01

    The molecular circadian clock consists of a feedback loop in which canonical clock proteins negatively regulate transcription of their own genes. Timed nuclear entry of these proteins is critical, but regulation of this event is poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, the idea that nuclear entry of PERIOD (PER) is controlled by its partner protein, TIMELESS (TIM), has been challenged by several studies. We identify here a novel mutation in the tim gene that eliminates behavioral rhythms while allowing robust expression of TIM and PER. Mutant TIM can bind to and stabilize PER. However, neither protein is expressed cyclically, and phosphorylation of both is reduced. In addition, TIM and PER are localized in the cytoplasm at all times of day and mutant TIM attenuates transcriptional feedback by PER in cultured cells, suggesting that it holds PER in the cytoplasm. In fact, much of the reduced phosphorylation of PER in the new tim mutant appears to result from the cytoplasmic localization of PER. Interestingly, mutating a threonine near the original mutation produces similar phenotypes, raising the possibility that defective phosphorylation is the basis of TIM dysfunction in the novel tim mutant. We also show that a stable form of PER is cytoplasmic in tim-null flies. These studies establish an essential role of TIM in the timed nuclear entry of PER. PMID:21734289

  6. Critical-Thinking Grudge Match: Biology vs. Chemistry--Examining Factors That Affect Thinking Skill in Nonmajors Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quitadamo, Ian J.; Kurtz, Martha J.; Cornell, Caitlyn Nicole; Griffith, Lindsay; Hancock, Julie; Egbert, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry students appear to bring significantly higher critical-thinking skill to their nonmajors course than do biology students. Knowing student preconceptions and thinking ability is essential to learning growth and effective teaching. Of the factors investigated, ethnicity and high school physics had the largest impact on critical-thinking…

  7. Forecast of criticality experiments and experimental programs needed to support nuclear operations in the United States of America: 1994--1999

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Forecast is generated by the Chair of the Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup (ENIWG), with input from Department of Energy and the nuclear community. One of the current concerns addressed by ENIWG was the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board`s Recommendation 93-2. This Recommendation delineated the need for a critical experimental capability, which includes (1) a program of general-purpose experiments, (2) improving the information base, and (3) ongoing departmental programs. The nuclear community also recognizes the importance of criticality theory, which, as a stepping stone to computational analysis and safety code development, needs to be benchmarked against well-characterized critical experiments. A summary project of the Department`s needs with respect to criticality information includes (1) hands-on training, (2) criticality and nuclear data, (3) detector systems, (4) uranium- and plutonium-based reactors, and (5) accident analysis. The Workgroup has evaluated, prioritized, and categorized each proposed experiment and program. Transportation/Applications is a new category intended to cover the areas of storage, training, emergency response, and standards. This category has the highest number of priority-1 experiments (nine). Facilities capable of performing experiments include the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF) along with Area V at Sandia National Laboratory. The LACEF continues to house the most significant collection of critical assemblies in the Western Hemisphere. The staff of this facility and Area V are trained and certified, and documentation is current. ENIWG will continue to work with the nuclear community to identify and prioritize experiments because there is an overwhelming need for critical experiments to be performed for basic research and code validation.

  8. Evaluation of the Relationship between Critical Thinking Skills and Affective Control in Child Training Students of the Female Technical and Vocational College in the City of Broujerd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmaeili, Zohreh; Bagheri, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    This study is a descriptive-correlational study with the purpose of evaluating the relationship between critical thinking skills and affective control in child training students of the female technical and Vocational College in the city of Broujerd. Statistical population of this study consisted of all students in the field of child training of…

  9. Identification of critical factors for the instability of permafrost-affected rockwalls in the Turtmann valley (Swiss Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messenzehl, Karoline; Draebing, Daniel; Dikau, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Rock slope instability, small-scale rockfalls and associated talus slopes are widespread phenomena in mountain environments. The heterogeneous spatial pattern, sediment properties and volume of talus deposits in alpine valleys reflect a complicated set of various variables governing the spatial and temporal occurrence of slope failure. However, the dynamic and non-linear interplay between environmental settings, the mechanical properties of the rock mass, its discontinuities and different weathering processes promoting rock degradation makes the identification of the dominant destabilizing factors a difficult task. In our project we studied the instability of permafrost-affected rockwalls (Nyenhuis et al., 2005) in the high alpine Turtmann Valley in the Swiss Alps (110 km2). Here, we present a combination of (i) meso-scale spatial analyses and (ii) local-scale geotechnical investigations of critical factors on rockwall instability and (iii) incorporate the results into a theoretical concept with respect to abiotic and biotic weathering processes. (i) To explain the spatial variability of talus deposits stored in 14 WE-oriented hanging valleys, a detailed geomorphological map of 220 talus slopes (Otto et al. 2009) was spatially combined with different key variables of the rockfall source area including topography, climate, lithology and rockwall morphometry. The talus slopes are strongly oriented towards north indicating reduced solar radiation. This aspect-driven trend appears to support the high significance of frost weathering processes as dominant mechanism for rock slope instability, in particular during thawing phases of rockwall permafrost. (ii) To assess the role of mechanical properties of rockwalls at local scales, field surveys of rock discontinuities were performed at selected rockwalls with and without talus slopes based on ISRM standards. Geotechnical investigations reveal discontinuity orientations and spacings that might effectively promote rock

  10. The estrogen receptor alpha nuclear localization sequence is critical for fulvestrant-induced degradation of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Casa, Angelo J; Hochbaum, Daniel; Sreekumar, Sreeja; Oesterreich, Steffi; Lee, Adrian V

    2015-11-01

    Fulvestrant, a selective estrogen receptor down-regulator (SERD) is a pure competitive antagonist of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Fulvestrant binds ERα and reduces the receptor's half-life by increasing protein turnover, however, its mechanism of action is not fully understood. In this study, we show that removal of the ERα nuclear localization sequence (ERΔNLS) resulted in a predominantly cytoplasmic ERα that was degraded in response to 17-β-estradiol (E2) but was resistant to degradation by fulvestrant. ERΔNLS bound the ligands and exhibited receptor interaction similar to ERα, indicating that the lack of degradation was not due to disruption of these processes. Forcing ERΔNLS into the nucleus with a heterologous SV40-NLS did not restore degradation, suggesting that the NLS domain itself, and not merely receptor localization, is critical for fulvestrant-induced ERα degradation. Indeed, cloning of the endogenous ERα NLS onto the N-terminus of ERΔNLS significantly restored both its nuclear localization and turnover in response to fulvestrant. Moreover, mutation of the sumoylation targets K266 and K268 within the NLS impaired fulvestrant-induced ERα degradation. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the unique role of the ERα NLS in fulvestrant-induced degradation of the receptor.

  11. Summary of Preliminary Criticality Analysis for Peach Bottom Fuel in the DOE Standardized Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister

    SciTech Connect

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1999-09-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is developing a standardized set of canisters for DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). These canisters will be used for DOE SNF handling, interim storage, transportation, and disposal in the national repository. Several fuels are being examined in conjunction with the DOE SNF canisters. This report summarizes the preliminary criticality safety analysis that addresses general fissile loading limits for Peach Bottom graphite fuel in the DOE SNF canister. The canister is considered both alone and inside the 5-HLW/DOE Long Spent Fuel Co-disposal Waste Package, and in intact and degraded conditions. Results are appropriate for a single DOE SNF canister. Specific facilities, equipment, canister internal structures, and scenarios for handling, storage, and transportation have not yet been defined and are not evaluated in this analysis. The analysis assumes that the DOE SNF canister is designed so that it maintains reasonable geometric integrity. Parameters important to the results are the canister outer diameter, inner diameter, and wall thickness. These parameters are assumed to have nominal dimensions of 45.7-cm (18.0-in.), 43.815-cm (17.25-in), and 0.953-cm (0.375-in.), respectively. Based on the analysis results, the recommended fissile loading for the DOE SNF canister is 13 Peach Bottom fuel elements if no internal steel is present, and 15 Peach Bottom fuel elements if credit is taken for internal steel.

  12. Nuclear Criticality Safety of the DOT 9975 Container for237NpO2Storage, Handling, and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.A.

    2003-08-29

    Nuclear criticality safety considerations are presented to address use of the DOT 9975 shipping container for {sup 237}NpO{sub 2}. The DOT 9975 container will be used by multiple DOE sites and contractors. Various of site- and activity-specific NCS and facility safety documents are yet to be developed. For these reasons, an overall assessment of criticality safety of {sup 237}NpO{sub 2}-loaded DOT 9975 containers is considered useful to personnel involved in generating, reviewing, or approving these various documents. It is concluded that inherent container features, the loading per container (maximum of 6 kg {sup 237}Np), and the nuclear physics properties of {sup 237}NpO{sub 2} combine to preclude the potential for a nuclear criticality accident. This conclusion applies to storage, handling, and transport operations involving closed DOT 9975 packages, including credible off-normal conditions that may result in damage to packages during those operations.

  13. Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization but partially affects its apoptotic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-H.; Cheng, C.-M.; Chang, Y.-F.; Wang, T.-Y.; Yuo, C.-Y.; E-mail: m815006@kmu.edu.tw

    2007-03-09

    Apoptin, a chicken anemia virus-encoded protein, induces apoptosis in human tumor cells but not in normal cells. In addition, Apoptin also exhibits tumor-specific nuclear localization and tumor-specific phosphorylation on threonine 108 (T108). Here, we studied the effects of T108 phosphorylation on the tumor-specific nuclear localization and apoptotic activity of Apoptin. We first showed that a hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Apoptin, but not the green fluorescent protein-fused Apoptin used in many previous studies, exhibited the same intracellular distribution pattern as native Apoptin. We then made and analyzed an HA-Apoptin mutant with its T108 phosphorylation site abolished. We found that Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization and abolishing the T108 phosphorylation of Apoptin does affect its apoptotic activity in tumor cells but only partially. Our results support the previous finding that Apoptin contains two distinct apoptosis domains located separately at the N- and C-terminal regions and suggest that the T108 phosphorylation may only be required for the apoptotic activity mediated through the C-terminal apoptosis domain.

  14. Critical analysis of the Hanford spent nuclear fuel project activity based cost estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.N.

    1998-09-29

    In 1997, the SNFP developed a baseline change request (BCR) and submitted it to DOE-RL for approval. The schedule was formally evaluated to have a 19% probability of success [Williams, 1998]. In December 1997, DOE-RL Manager John Wagoner approved the BCR contingent upon a subsequent independent review of the new baseline. The SNFP took several actions during the first quarter of 1998 to prepare for the independent review. The project developed the Estimating Requirements and Implementation Guide [DESH, 1998] and trained cost account managers (CAMS) and other personnel involved in the estimating process in activity-based cost (ABC) estimating techniques. The SNFP then applied ABC estimating techniques to develop the basis for the December Baseline (DB) and documented that basis in Basis of Estimate (BOE) books. These BOEs were provided to DOE in April 1998. DOE commissioned Professional Analysis, Inc. (PAI) to perform a critical analysis (CA) of the DB. PAI`s review formally began on April 13. PAI performed the CA, provided three sets of findings to the SNFP contractor, and initiated reconciliation meetings. During the course of PAI`s review, DOE directed the SNFP to develop a new baseline with a higher probability of success. The contractor transmitted the new baseline, which is referred to as the High Probability Baseline (HPB), to DOE on April 15, 1998 [Williams, 1998]. The HPB was estimated to approach a 90% confidence level on the start of fuel movement [Williams, 1998]. This high probability resulted in an increased cost and a schedule extension. To implement the new baseline, the contractor initiated 26 BCRs with supporting BOES. PAI`s scope was revised on April 28 to add reviewing the HPB and the associated BCRs and BOES.

  15. Large nuclear vacuoles in spermatozoa negatively affect pregnancy rate in IVF cycles

    PubMed Central

    Ghazali, Shahin; Talebi, Ali Reza; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Esfandiari, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) criteria as a new real time tool for evaluation of spermatozoa in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles has been considered. Objective: The aim was to investigate the predictive value of MSOME in in vitro fertilization (IVF) in comparison to ICSI cycles and evaluation of the association between MSOME parameters and traditional sperm parameters in both groups. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional prospective analysis of MSOME parameters in IVF (n=31) and ICSI cycles (n=35). MSOME parameters were also evaluated as the presence of vacuole (none, small, medium, large or mix); head size (normal, small or large); cytoplasmic droplet; head shape and acrosome normality. In sub-analysis, MSOME parameters were compared between two groups with successful or failed clinical pregnancy in each group. Results: In IVF group, the rate of large nuclear vacuole showed significant increase in failed as compared to successful pregnancies (13.81±9.7vs7.38±4.4, respectively, p=0.045) while MSOME parameters were the same between successful and failed pregnancies in ICSI group. Moreover, a negative correlation was noticed between LNV and sperm shape normalcy. In ICSI group, a negative correlation was established between cytoplasmic droplet and sperm shape normalcy. In addition, there was a positive correlation between sperm shape normalcy and non-vacuolated spermatozoa. Conclusion: The high rate of large nuclear vacuoles in sperm used in IVF cycles with failed pregnancies confirms that MSOME, is a helpful tool for fine sperm morphology assessment, and its application may enhance the assisted reproduction technology success rates. PMID:26494990

  16. Herpes simplex virus type 1 protein IE63 affects the nuclear export of virus intron-containing transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, A; Dunlop, J; Clements, J B

    1996-01-01

    Using in situ hybridization labelling methods, we have determined that the herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein IE63 (ICP27) affects the cellular localization of virus transcripts. Intronless transcripts from the IE63, UL38, and UL44 genes are rapidly exported to and accumulate in the cytoplasm throughout infection, in either the presence or absence of IE63 expression. The intron-containing transcripts from the IE110 and UL15 genes, while initially cytoplasmic, are increasingly retained in the nucleus in distinct clumps as infection proceeds, and the clumps colocalize with the redistributed small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Infections with the IE63 mutant virus 27-lacZ demonstrated that in the absence of IE63 expression, nuclear retention of intron-containing transcripts was lost. The nuclear retention of UL15 transcripts, which demonstrated both nuclear and cytoplasmic label, was not as pronounced as that of the IE110 transcripts, and we propose that this is due to the late expression of UL15. Infections with the mutant virus 110C1, in which both introns of IE110 have been precisely removed (R.D. Everett, J. Gen. Virol. 72:651-659, 1991), demonstrated IE110 transcripts in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm; thus, exon definition sequences which regulate viral RNA transport are present in the IE110 transcript. By in situ hybridization a stable population of polyadenylated RNAs was found to accumulate in the nucleus in spots, most of which were separate from the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle clumps. The IE63 protein has an involvement, either direct or indirect, in the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport of viral transcripts, a function which contrasts with the recently proposed role of herpes simplex virus type 1 Us11 in promoting the nuclear export of partially spliced or unspliced transcripts (J.-J. Diaz, M. Duc Dodon, N. Schaerer-Uthurraly, D. Simonin, K. Kindbeiter, L. Gazzolo, and J.-J. Madjar, Nature [London] 379

  17. The critical path of women affected by family violence in Latin America: case studies from 10 countries.

    PubMed

    Sagot, Montserrat

    2005-10-01

    This research examined the critical path followed by women from 10 Latin American countries who suffer family violence. It identified the personal and social processes women experience as a result of their help-seeking actions and the kinds of responses found at local services. The study used an action-oriented qualitative methodology with a standard research protocol that was translated and adapted for the various ethnic groups. The results provided community actors with an understanding of the barriers women face in overcoming the obstacles, humiliation, and inadequate responses they encounter along their critical paths.

  18. Retention of potentially mobile radiocesium in forest surface soils affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Koarashi, Jun; Moriya, Koichi; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroki; Nagaoka, Mika

    2012-01-01

    The fate of 137Cs derived from the Fukushima nuclear accident fallout and associated radiological hazards are largely dependent on its mobility in the surface soils of forest ecosystems. Thus, we quantified microbial and adsorptive retentions of 137Cs in forest surface (0–3 cm) soils. The K2SO4 extraction process liberated 2.1%–12.8% of the total 137Cs from the soils. Two soils with a higher content of clay- and silt-sized particles, organic carbon content, and cation exchange capacity showed higher 137Cs extractability. Microbial biomass was observed in all of the soils. However, the 137Cs extractability did not increase after destruction of the microbial biomass by chloroform fumigation, providing no evidence for microbial retention of the Fukushima-fallout 137Cs. The results indicate that uptake of 137Cs by soil microorganisms is less important for retention of potentially mobile 137Cs in the forest surface soils compared to ion-exchange adsorption on non-specific sites provided by abiotic components. PMID:23256039

  19. Nuclear orphan receptor TLX affects gene expression, proliferation and cell apoptosis in beta cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoli; Xiong, Xiaokan; Dai, Zhe; Deng, Haohua; Sun, Li; Hu, Xuemei; Zhou, Feng; Xu, Yancheng

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX is an essential regulator of the growth of neural stem cells. However, its exact function in pancreatic islet cells is still unknown. In the present study, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in beta cell line MIN6 causes suppression of 176 genes and upregulation of 49 genes, including a cadre of cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell death control genes, such as Btg2, Ddit3 and Gadd45a. We next examined the effects of TLX overexpression on proliferation, apoptosis and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Proliferation analysis using EdU assay showed that overexpression of TLX increased percentage of EdU-positive cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in MIN6 cells resulted in higher percentage of cells exiting G1 into S-phase, and a 58.8% decrease of cell apoptosis induced by 0.5 mM palmitate. Moreover, TLX overexpression did not cause impairment of insulin secretion. Together, we conclude that TLX is among factors capable of controlling beta cell proliferation and survival, which may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes.

  20. Diversity and Collegiate Experiences Affecting Self-Perceived Gains in Critical Thinking: Which Works, and Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Darnell; Zhou, Ji

    2014-01-01

    This study is grounded in the theoretical and conceptual frameworks that postulate diversity and collegiate experiences as triggers for the cognitive disequilibrium that fosters critical thinking (CT). With the assumption that CT is both a general and a discipline-specific facility, this longitudinal, single-institution study of 447 students…

  1. Mutation of a C-Terminal Motif Affects Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ORF57 RNA Binding, Nuclear Trafficking, and Multimerization ▿

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Adam; Jackson, Brian R.; Noerenberg, Marko; Hughes, David J.; Boyne, James R.; Verow, Mark; Harris, Mark; Whitehouse, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 protein is essential for virus lytic replication. ORF57 regulates virus gene expression at multiple levels, enhancing transcription, stability, nuclear export, and translation of viral transcripts. To enhance the nuclear export of viral intronless transcripts, ORF57 (i) binds viral intronless mRNAs, (ii) shuttles between the nucleus, nucleolus, and the cytoplasm, and (iii) interacts with multiple cellular nuclear export proteins to access the TAP-mediated nuclear export pathway. We investigated the implications on the subcellular trafficking, cellular nuclear export factor recruitment, and ultimately nuclear mRNA export of an ORF57 protein unable to bind RNA. We observed that mutation of a carboxy-terminal RGG motif, which prevents RNA binding, affects the subcellular localization and nuclear trafficking of the ORF57 protein, suggesting that it forms subnuclear aggregates. Further analysis of the mutant shows that although it still retains the ability to interact with cellular nuclear export proteins, it is unable to export viral intronless mRNAs from the nucleus. Moreover, computational molecular modeling and biochemical studies suggest that, unlike the wild-type protein, this mutant is unable to self-associate. Therefore, these results suggest the mutation of a carboxy-terminal RGG motif affects ORF57 RNA binding, nuclear trafficking, and multimerization. PMID:21593148

  2. Nuclear DNA content affects the productivity of conifer forests by altering hydraulic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Josu; Resco de Dios, Víctor

    2014-05-01

    Predictions of future global climate rely on feedbacks between terrestrial vegetation and the global carbon cycle, but the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship are still being discussed. One of the key knowledge gaps lies on the scaling of cellular processes to the ecosystem level. Here we examine whether an under-explored plant trait, inter-specific variation in the bulk amount of DNA in unreplicated somatic cells (2C DNA content), can explain inter-specific variation in the maximum productivity of conifer forests. We expected 2C DNA content to be negatively related to conifer productivity because: 1) it is positively correlated with cell volume (which, in turn, potentially affects structural features such as leaf mass area, a strong predictor of photosynthetic capacity); 2) it is positively correlated with stomatal size (with larger stomata leading to lower overall stomatal conductance and, by extension, lower CO2 uptake); and 3) larger genome sizes may reduce P availability in RNA (which has been hypothesized to slow growth). We present the results of regression and independent contrasts in different monospecific forests encompassing a 52º latitudinal gradient, each being dominated by 1 of 35 different conifer species. Contrary to expectations, we observed a positive correlation between genome size and maximum Gross Primary Productivity (R2 = 0.47) and also between genome size maximum tree height (R2 = 0.27). This correlation was apparently driven by the effects of genome size on stem hydraulics, since 2C DNA was positively correlated with wood density (R2 = 0.40) and also with resistance to cavitation (P50, R2 = 0.28). That is, increased genome sizes have a positive effect on the productivity of conifer forests by affecting the vascular tissues to increase their capacity for water transport. Our results shed a new light on the evolution of the vascular system of conifer forests and how they affect ecosystem productivity, and indicate the potential to

  3. 137Cesium Exposure and Spirometry Measures in Ukrainian Children Affected by the Chernobyl Nuclear Incident

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Erik R.; Kolpakov, Igor E.; Stepanova, Yevgenia I.; Vdovenko, Vitaliy Y.; Naboka, Maryna V.; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Mohr, Lawrence C.; Hoel, David G.; Karmaus, Wilfried J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, children of the contaminated Narodichesky region of Ukraine were obliged to participate in a yearly medical screening. They have been exposed to 137cesium (137Cs; half-life = 30 years) in contaminated soils, air, and food. Objective Using a “natural experiment” approach and a longitudinal prospective cohort study design, we investigated the association of soil 137Cs and spirometry measures for 415 children using 1,888 repeated measurements from 1993 to 1998. Methods Mean baseline village soil 137Cs measurements, which varied from 29.0 to 879 kBq/m2, were used as exposure indicators. A standardized spirometry protocol and prediction equations specific to Ukrainian children were used by the same pulmonologist in all screenings. Results Children living in villages with the highest quintile of soil 137Cs were 2.60 times more likely to have forced vital capacity (FVC) < 80% of predicted [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07–6.34] and 5.08 times more likely to have a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) to FVC% < 80% (95% CI, 1.02–25.19). We found statistically significant evidence of both airway obstruction (FEV1/FVC%, peak expiratory flow, and maximum expiratory flow at 25%, 50%, and 75% of FVC) and restriction (FVC) with increasing soil 137Cs. Conclusions These findings are unique and suggest significant airway obstruction and restriction consequences for children chronically exposed to low-dose radioactive contaminants such as those found downwind of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. PMID:20100677

  4. Georgia Tech Studies of Sub-Critical Advanced Burner Reactors with a D-T Fusion Tokamak Neutron Source for the Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, W. M.

    2009-09-01

    The possibility that a tokamak D-T fusion neutron source, based on ITER physics and technology, could be used to drive sub-critical, fast-spectrum nuclear reactors fueled with the transuranics (TRU) in spent nuclear fuel discharged from conventional nuclear reactors has been investigated at Georgia Tech in a series of studies which are summarized in this paper. It is found that sub-critical operation of such fast transmutation reactors is advantageous in allowing longer fuel residence time, hence greater TRU burnup between fuel reprocessing stages, and in allowing higher TRU loading without compromising safety, relative to what could be achieved in a similar critical transmutation reactor. The required plasma and fusion technology operating parameter range of the fusion neutron source is generally within the anticipated operational range of ITER. The implications of these results for fusion development policy, if they hold up under more extensive and detailed analysis, is that a D-T fusion tokamak neutron source for a sub-critical transmutation reactor, built on the basis of the ITER operating experience, could possibly be a logical next step after ITER on the path to fusion electrical power reactors. At the same time, such an application would allow fusion to contribute to meeting the nation's energy needs at an earlier stage by helping to close the fission reactor nuclear fuel cycle.

  5. Critical Analysis of Dry Storage Temperature Limits for Zircaloy-Clad Spent Nuclear Fuel Based on Diffusion Controlled Cavity Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, T.A.; Rosen, R.S.; Kassner, M.E.

    1999-12-01

    Interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) rods is of critical concern because a shortage of existing SNF wet storage capacity combined with delays in the availability of a permanent disposal repository has led to an increasing number of SNF rods being placed into interim dry storage. Safe interim dry storage must be maintained for a minimum of twenty years according to the Standard Review Plan for Dry Cask Storage Systems [1] and the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR Part 72 [2]. Interim dry storage licensees must meet certain safety conditions when storing SNF rods to ensure that there is a ''very low probability (e.g. 0.5%) of cladding breach during long-term storage'' [1]. Commercial SNF typically consists of uranium oxide pellets surrounded by a thin cladding. The cladding is usually an {alpha}-zirconium based alloy know as ''Zircaloy''. In dry storage, the SNF rods are confined in one of several types of cask systems approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ''The cask system must be designed to prevent degradation of fuel cladding that results in a type of cladding breach, such as axial-splits or ductile fracture, where irradiated UO{sub 2} particles may be released. In addition, the fuel cladding should not degrade to the point where more than one percent of the fuel rods suffer pinhole or hairline crack type failure under normal storage conditions [1].'' The NRC has approved two models [3,4] for use by proposed dry storage licensees to determine the maximum initial temperature limit for nuclear fuel rods in dry storage that supposedly meet the above criteria and yield consistent temperature limits. Though these two models are based on the same fundamental failure theory, different assumptions have been made including the choice of values for material constants in the failure equation. This report will examine and compare the similarities and inconsistencies of these two models. It will illustrate some of the shortcomings of the current

  6. Factors affecting stress experienced by surrogate decision-makers for critically ill patients: implications for nursing practice

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Ellen; Celious, Aaron; Kennedy, Carie R.; Shehane, Erica; Eastman, Alexander; Warren, Victoria; Freeman, Bradley D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study explores surrogate decision-makers’ (SDMs) challenges making decisions related to the care of patients in critical care, to 1) characterize the SDM stress 2) identify personal, social, care-related factors influencing stress and 3) consider implications of findings to improving critical care practice. Methodology Semi-structured interviews were conducted with SDMs of critically ill patients receiving care in two tertiary care institutions. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Domains explored were: stress characteristics, stress mitigators, coping strategies, social networks, SDM decision-making role, decision-making concordance, knowledge of patient's preferences, experience with provider team, SDM-provider communication, patient outcome certainty. Main Outcomes We interviewed 34 SDMs. Most were female and described long-term relationships with patients. SDMs described the strain of uncertain outcomes and decision-making without clear, consistent information from providers. Decision-making anxiety was buffered by SDMs’ active engagement of social networks, faith and access to clear communication from providers. Conclusion Stress is a very real factor influencing SDMs confidence and comfort making decisions. These findings suggest that stress can be minimized by improving communication between SDMs and medical providers. Nurses central role in ICU make them uniquely poised to spearhead interventions to improve provider-SDM communication and reduce SDM decision-making anxiety. PMID:24211047

  7. Ankyrin-rich Membrane Spanning Protein Plays a Critical Role in Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sniderhan, Lynn F.; Stout, Angela; Lu, Yuanan; Chao, Moses V.; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.

    2008-01-01

    Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a key feature of the neurotrophin signaling, has been shown to be critical for neuronal survival under pathologic settings. However, the precise mechanism by which neurotrophins activate NF-κB is not well understood. Here we report that the Ankyrin-rich Membrane Spanning (ARMS/Kidins220) protein, a novel transmembrane substrate of tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), plays an important role in NF-κB signaling elicited by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Accordingly, depletion of ARMS by specific RNA interference, or disruption of ARMS-TrkB interaction with expression of dominant-negative ARMS mutant, abolished BDNF-induced signaling to NF-κB. Our data further suggests that ARMS may promote NF-κB signaling via activation of mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) and IκB kinase (IKK), thereby facilitating phosphorylation of RelA (major NF-κB subunit) at an IKK-sensitive site. The results shown here identify ARMS as a major factor that links neurotrophin signaling to NF-κB. PMID:18501627

  8. Cytokinin affects nuclear- and plastome-encoded energy-converting plastid enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kasten, B; Buck, F; Nuske, J; Reski, R

    1997-01-01

    Cytokinins induce two specific morphological alterations in mosses: (i) the differentiation of a tip-growing cell into a three-faced apical cell (the so-called bud), and (ii) the division of chloroplasts. In a developmental mutant of the moss Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S.G. (mutant PC22) impeded in both cellular differentiation (bud production) and chloroplast division, addition of cytokinin (N6-delta 2-isopentenyladenine) led to bud production after 3 d in the wild type and after 7 d in the mutant. Hormone induced a division of the mutant macrochloroplasts starting within 24 h and ongoing for 72 h. During this period the abundances of several plastid proteins changed in both genotypes as judged by two-dimensional-protein gel electrophoresis, silver staining and subsequent quantification with novel computer software. Eight of these polypeptides were isolated independently, subjected to microsequencing and thus identified, resulting in the first protein sequence data from a moss. Three polypeptides (24 kDa, 22 kDa, 20 kDa) were found to be homologous to enhancer protein OEE2 of the oxygen-evolving complex, four to represent isoforms of phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3), and one was identified as the beta-chain of chloroplast ATPase (EC 3.6.1.34). Possible involvement of these key enzymes of the chloroplast energy-conversion machinery in organelle division and in cellular differentiation is discussed. Further sequence information was obtained from both subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (EC 4.1.1.39). Amounts of these polypeptides were not appreciably affected by cytokinin in moss chloroplasts.

  9. Aging and walnut-rich diet supplementation affects the expression of immediate-early genes in critical brain regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence indicates a direct link between age-associated changes in epigenetic mechanisms and onset of neurodegenerative diseases, and that these genomic modulations are directly affected by diet. Diets deficient in folate, choline and methionine, or the trace elements zinc and selenium, are...

  10. Using Data to Affect School Change: A Critical Leadership Skill Serving as the Keystone of the School Improvement Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Favero, Frank

    2009-01-01

    This article is a synopsis of three performance tasks designed for students enrolled in an educational leadership graduate level course Using Data to Affect Change. These performance tasks address the requisite knowledge and skills that an effective school leader should possess in order to improve the quality of instruction and at the same time…

  11. How parasitism affects critical patch-size in a host-parasitoid model: application to the forest tent caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, C A; Lewis, M A; Lutscher, F; Roland, J

    2005-03-01

    Habitat structure has broad impacts on many biological systems. In particular, habitat fragmentation can increase the probability of species extinction and on the other hand it can lead to population outbreaks in response to a decline in natural enemies. An extreme consequence of fragmentation is the isolation of small regions of suitable habitat surrounded by a large region of hostile matrix. This scenario can be interpreted as a critical patch-size problem, well studied in a continuous time framework, but relatively new to discrete time models. In this paper we present an integrodifference host-parasitoid model, discrete in time and continuous in space, to study how the critical habitat-size necessary for parasitoid survival changes in response to parasitoid life history traits, such as emergence time. We show that early emerging parasitoids may be able to persist in smaller habitats than late emerging species. The model predicts that these early emerging parasitoids lead to more severe host outbreaks. We hypothesise that promoting efficient late emerging parasitoids may be key in reducing outbreak severity, an approach requiring large continuous regions of suitable habitat. We parameterise the model for the host species of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria Hbn., a pest insect for which fragmented landscape increases the severity of outbreaks. This host is known to have several parasitoids, due to paucity of data and as a first step in the modelling we consider a single generic parasitoid. The model findings are related to observations of the forest tent caterpillar offering insight into this host-parasitoid response to habitat structure. PMID:15713324

  12. How parasitism affects critical patch-size in a host-parasitoid model: application to the forest tent caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, C A; Lewis, M A; Lutscher, F; Roland, J

    2005-03-01

    Habitat structure has broad impacts on many biological systems. In particular, habitat fragmentation can increase the probability of species extinction and on the other hand it can lead to population outbreaks in response to a decline in natural enemies. An extreme consequence of fragmentation is the isolation of small regions of suitable habitat surrounded by a large region of hostile matrix. This scenario can be interpreted as a critical patch-size problem, well studied in a continuous time framework, but relatively new to discrete time models. In this paper we present an integrodifference host-parasitoid model, discrete in time and continuous in space, to study how the critical habitat-size necessary for parasitoid survival changes in response to parasitoid life history traits, such as emergence time. We show that early emerging parasitoids may be able to persist in smaller habitats than late emerging species. The model predicts that these early emerging parasitoids lead to more severe host outbreaks. We hypothesise that promoting efficient late emerging parasitoids may be key in reducing outbreak severity, an approach requiring large continuous regions of suitable habitat. We parameterise the model for the host species of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria Hbn., a pest insect for which fragmented landscape increases the severity of outbreaks. This host is known to have several parasitoids, due to paucity of data and as a first step in the modelling we consider a single generic parasitoid. The model findings are related to observations of the forest tent caterpillar offering insight into this host-parasitoid response to habitat structure.

  13. HVAC systems as emission sources affecting indoor air quality: A critical review. Final report, September 1993-June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Batterman, S.; Burge, H.

    1995-02-01

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ tests, longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, and laboratory studies. Based on the available literature, several HVAC components are cited fairly frequently as emission sources, and there is broad agreement regarding their significance. IAQ problems appear to be exacerbated by dust accumulation and by the presence of fibrous insulation. Other problems include entrainment, migration, and infiltration of indoor and outdoor contaminants that are distributed to indoor spaces by the HVAC system.

  14. Critical-Point Boundary for the Nuclear Quantum Phase Transition Near A=100 from Mass Measurements of {sup 96,97}Kr

    SciTech Connect

    Naimi, S.; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Blaum, K.; Boehm, Ch.; Borgmann, Ch.; George, S.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, S.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Herlert, A.; Neidherr, D.; Schwarz, S.; Zuber, K.

    2010-07-16

    Mass measurements of {sup 96,97}Kr using the ISOLTRAP Penning-trap spectrometer at CERN-ISOLDE are reported, extending the mass surface beyond N=60 for Z=36. These new results show behavior in sharp contrast to the heavier neighbors where a sudden and intense deformation is present. We interpret this as the establishment of a nuclear quantum phase transition critical-point boundary. The new masses confirm findings from nuclear mean-square charge-radius measurements up to N=60 but are at variance with conclusions from recent gamma-ray spectroscopy.

  15. Factors affecting in vitro plant regeneration of the critically endangered Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fisch et. Mey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Mirici, Semra; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Arslan, Orhan

    2006-10-01

    Habitat destruction has resulted in the extinction of many plant species from the earth, and many more face extinction. Likely, the annual endemic Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii) growing in the Golbasi district of Ankara, Turkey is facing extinction and needs urgent conservation. Plant tissue culture, a potentially useful technique for ex situ multiplication, was used for the restoration of this ill-fated plant through seed germination, micropropagation from stem nodes, and adventitious shoot regeneration from immature zygotic embryos. The seeds were highly dormant and very difficult to germinate. No results were obtained from the micropropagation of stem nodes. However, immature zygotic embryos showed the highest adventitious shoot regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1 mg l-1 kinetin and 0.25 mg l-1 NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on MS medium containing 1 mg l-1 IBA and transferred to the greenhouse for flowering and seed set. As such, the present work is the first record of in vitro propagation of critically endangered C. tchihatcheffii, using immature zygotic embryos, and is a step forward towards conservation of this indigenous species.

  16. Factors affecting in vitro plant regeneration of the critically endangered Mediterranean knapweed (Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fisch et. Mey).

    PubMed

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Mirici, Semra; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Arslan, Orhan

    2006-10-01

    Habitat destruction has resulted in the extinction of many plant species from the earth, and many more face extinction. Likely, the annual endemic Mediterranean knapweed (Centaurea tchihatcheffii) growing in the Golbasi district of Ankara, Turkey is facing extinction and needs urgent conservation. Plant tissue culture, a potentially useful technique for ex situ multiplication, was used for the restoration of this ill-fated plant through seed germination, micropropagation from stem nodes, and adventitious shoot regeneration from immature zygotic embryos. The seeds were highly dormant and very difficult to germinate. No results were obtained from the micropropagation of stem nodes. However, immature zygotic embryos showed the highest adventitious shoot regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1 mg l(-1) kinetin and 0.25 mg l(-1) NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA and transferred to the greenhouse for flowering and seed set. As such, the present work is the first record of in vitro propagation of critically endangered C. tchihatcheffii, using immature zygotic embryos, and is a step forward towards conservation of this indigenous species.

  17. Analysis of matrix effects critical to microbial transport in organic waste-affected soils across laboratory and field scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unc, Adrian; Goss, Michael J.; Cook, Simon; Li, Xunde; Atwill, Edward R.; Harter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Organic waste applications to soil (manure, various wastewaters, and biosolids) are among the most significant sources of bacterial contamination in surface and groundwater. Transport of bacteria through the vadose zone depends on flow path geometry and stability and is mitigated by interaction between soil, soil solution, air-water interfaces, and characteristics of microbial surfaces. After initial entry, the transport through soil depends on continued entrainment of bacteria and resuspension of those retained in the porous structure. We evaluated the retention of bacteria-sized artificial microspheres, varying in diameter and surface charge and applied in different suspending solutions, by a range of sieved soils contained in minicolumns, the transport of hydrophobic bacteria-sized microspheres through undisturbed soil columns as affected by waste type under simulated rainfall, and the field-scale transport of Enterococcus spp. to an unconfined sandy aquifer after the application of liquid manure. Microsphere retention reflected microsphere properties. The soil type and suspending solution affected retention of hydrophilic but not hydrophobic particles. Retention was not necessarily facilitated by manure-microsphere-soil interactions but by manure-soil interactions. Undisturbed column studies confirmed the governing role of waste type on vadose-zone microsphere transport. Filtration theory applied as an integrated analysis of transport across length scales showed that effective collision efficiency depended on the distance of travel. It followed a power law behavior with the power coefficient varying from ˜0.4 over short distances to >0.9 over 1 m (i.e., very little filtration for a finite fraction of biocolloids), consistent with reduced influence of soil solution and biocolloid properties at longer travel distances.

  18. Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Oppel, Craig

    2012-06-01

    In laboratory assays, we evaluated the potential impact of host plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group sizes (densities), and parasitoid-to-host ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), newly introduced for biological control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in the United States. Results from our study showed that offspring production and critical fitness parameters (body size and sex ratio) of T. planipennisi from parasitized emerald ash borer larvae are significantly influenced by host plant substrate type, host-parasitoid group size, parasitoid-to-host ratio, or a combination in the primary exposure assay. The number of both female and male T. planipennisi progeny was significantly greater when emerald ash borer larvae were inserted into tropical ash [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh.] logs rather than green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica Marshall). When maintained at a constant 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio, assays with larger host-parasitoid group sizes (3:3-12:12) produced significantly greater numbers of both male and female offspring per parental wasp compared with those with the single host-parasitoid (1:1) group treatment. As the parasitoid-to-host ratio increased from 1:1 to 8:1 in the assay, the average brood size (number of offspring per parasitized emerald ash borer larva) increased significantly, whereas the average brood sex ratio (female to male) changed from being female-biased (6:1) to male-biased (1:2); body size of female offspring as measured by the length of ovipositor and left hind tibia also was reduced significantly. Based on these findings, we suggest that the current method of rearing T. planipennisi with artificially infested-emerald ash borer larvae use the tropical ash logs for emerald ash borer insertion, a larger (> or = 3:3) host-parasitoid group size and 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio in the primary

  19. A critical functional missense mutation (H173R) in the bovine PROP1 gene significantly affects growth traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chuanying; Wu, Chongyang; Jia, Wenchao; Xu, Yao; Lei, Chuzhao; Hu, Shenrong; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong

    2013-12-01

    The PROP1 protein, encoded by the prophet of Pit-1 (PROP1) gene, exhibits both DNA-binding and transcriptional activation abilities. Its expression leads to the ontogenesis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and pituitary hormone. The missense mutation H173R in PROP1 may result in deficiencies of GH, PRL, TSH, and Pit-1, thereby affecting growth traits. The objective of this study was to characterize the H173R mutation within the PROP1 gene and examine its associations with growth traits in cattle. Accordingly, the H173R mutation was genotyped in 1207 cows belonging to five Chinese native breeds. Three genotypes were identified among the specimens, with genotype AA being the major one. Consequently, the "G" allele was the minor allele. Association testing revealed that the H173R mutation was significantly associated with body weight, average daily weight gain and physical parameters in the analyzed breeds. Interestingly, the cows with genotype AG and/or AA had superior growth traits compared with those expressing the GG genotype, in all tested breeds. These findings revealed that the "A" allele had positive effects on growth traits, which was consistent with the increasing binding ability and enhanced activation capacity associated with the bovine isoform PROP1-173H, representing the "A" allele. Therefore, the H173R mutation can be considered as a DNA marker for selecting individuals with superior growth traits, thereby contributing to research on breeding and genetics in the beef industry.

  20. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain

    PubMed Central

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11290.001 PMID:26609811

  1. In vitro decondensation of the sperm chromatin in Holothuria tubulosa (sea cucumber) not affecting proteolysis of basic nuclear proteins.

    PubMed

    del Valle, Luis J

    2005-06-01

    Sea urchin and sea star oocyte extracts contain proteolytic activities that are active against sperm basic nuclear proteins (SNBP). This SNBP degradation has been related to the decondensation of sperm chromatin as a possible model to male pronuclei formation. We have studied the presence of this proteolytic activity in Holothuria tubulosa (sea cucumber) and its possible relationship with sperm nuclei decondensation. The mature oocyte extracts from H. tubulosa contain a proteolytic activity to SNBP located in the macromolecular fraction of the egg-jelly layer. SNBP degradation occurred both on sperm nuclei and on purified SNBP, histones being more easily degraded than protein Ø(o) (sperm-specific protein). SNBP degradation was found to be dependent on concentration, incubation time, presence of Ca(2+), pH, and this activity could be a serine-proteinase. Thermal denaturalization of the oocyte extracts (80 degrees C, 10-15 min) inactivates its proteolytic activity on SNBP but does not affect sperm nuclei decondensation. These results would suggest that sperm nuclei decondensation occurs by a mechanism different from SNBP degradation. Thus, the sperm nuclei decondensation occurs by a thermostable factor(s) and the removal of linker SNBP (H1 and protein Ø(o)) will be a first condition in the process of sperm chromatin remodeling. PMID:16026541

  2. Using bedding in a test environment critically affects 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Natusch, C; Schwarting, R K W

    2010-09-01

    Rats utter distinct classes of ultrasonic vocalizations depending on their developmental stage, current state, and situational factors. One class, comprising the so-called 50-kHz calls, is typical for situations where rats are anticipating or actually experiencing rewarding stimuli, like being tickled by an experimenter, or when treated with drugs of abuse, such as the psychostimulant amphetamine. Furthermore, rats emit 50-kHz calls when exposed to a clean housing cage. Here, we show that such vocalization effects can depend on subtle details of the testing situation, namely the presence of fresh rodent bedding. Actually, we found that adult males vocalize more in bedded cages than in bare ones. Also, two experiments showed that adult rats emitted more 50-kHz calls when tickled on fresh bedding. Furthermore, ip amphetamine led to more 50-kHz vocalization in activity boxes containing such bedding as compared to bare ones. The analysis of psychomotor activation did not yield such group differences in case of locomotion and centre time, except for rearing duration in rats tested on bedding. Also, the temporal profile of vocalization did not parallel that of behavioural activation, since the effects on vocalization peaked and started to decline again before those of psychomotor activation. Therefore, 50-kHz calls are not a simple correlate of psychomotor activation. A final experiment with a choice procedure showed that rats prefer bedded conditions. Overall, we assume that bedded environments induce a positive affective state, which increases the likelihood of 50-kHz calling. Based on these findings, we recommend that contextual factors, like bedding, should receive more research attention, since they can apparently decrease the aversiveness of a testing situation. Also, we recommend to more routinely measure rat ultrasonic vocalization, especially when studying emotion and motivation, since this analysis can provide information about the subject's status, which may

  3. A nuclear criticality safety assessment of the loss of moderation control in 2 1/2 and 10-ton cylinders containing enriched UF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Newvahner, R.L.; Pryor, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    Moderation control for maintaining nuclear criticality safety in 2 {1/2}-ton, 10-ton, and 14-ton cylinders containing enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) has been used safely within the nuclear industry for over thirty years, and is dependent on cylinder integrity and containment. This assessment evaluates the loss of moderation control by the breaching of containment and entry of water into the cylinders. The first objective of this study was to estimate the required amounts of water entering these large UF{sub 6} cylinders to react with, and to moderate the uranium compounds sufficiently to cause criticality. Hypothetical accident situations were modeled as a uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) slab above a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder, and a UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} sphere centered within a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder. These situations were investigated by computational analyses utilizing the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Computer Code. The results were used to estimate both the masses of water required for criticality, and the limiting masses of water that could be considered safe. The second objective of the assessment was to calculate the time available for emergency control actions before a criticality would occur, i.e., a {open_quotes}safetime{close_quotes}, for various sources of water and different size openings in a breached cylinder. In the situations considered, except the case for a fire hose, the safetime appears adequate for emergency control actions. The assessment shows that current practices for handling moderation controlled cylinders of low enriched UF{sub 6}, along with the continuation of established personnel training programs, ensure nuclear criticality safety for routine and emergency operations.

  4. A reduced core to skin temperature gradient, not a critical core temperature, affects aerobic capacity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the core to skin temperature gradient during incremental running to volitional fatigue across varying environmental conditions. A secondary aim was to determine if a "critical" core temperature would dictate volitional fatigue during running in the heat. 60 participants (n=49 male, n=11 female; 24±5 yrs, 177±11 cm, 75±13 kg) completed the study. Participants were uniformly stratified into a specific exercise temperature group (18 °C, 26 °C, 34 °C, or 42 °C) based on a 3-mile run performance. Participants were equipped with core and chest skin temperature sensors and a heart rate monitor, entered an environmental chamber (18 °C, 26 °C, 34 °C, or 42 °C), and rested in the seated position for 10 min before performing a walk/run to volitional exhaustion. Initial treadmill speed was 3.2 km h(-1) with a 0% grade. Every 3 min, starting with speed, speed and grade increased in an alternating pattern (speed increased by 0.805 km h(-1), grade increased by 0.5%). Time to volitional fatigue was longer for the 18 °C and 26 °C group compared to the 42 °C group, (58.1±9.3 and 62.6±6.5 min vs. 51.3±8.3 min, respectively, p<0.05). At the half-way point and finish, the core to skin gradient for the 18 °C and 26 °C groups was larger compared to 42 °C group (halfway: 2.6±0.7 and 2.0±0.6 vs. 1.3±0.5 for the 18 °C, 26 °C and 42 °C groups, respectively; finish: 3.3±0.7 and 3.5±1.1 vs. 2.1±0.9 for the 26 °C, 34 °C, and 42 °C groups, respectively, p<0.05). Sweat rate was lower in the 18 °C group compared to the 26 °C, 34 °C, and 42 °C groups, 3.6±1.3 vs. 7.2±3.0, 7.1±2.0, and 7.6±1.7 g m(-2) min(-1), respectively, p<0.05. There were no group differences in core temperature and heart rate response during the exercise trials. The current data demonstrate a 13% and 22% longer run time to exhaustion for the 18 °C and 26 °C group, respectively, compared to the 42 °C group despite no differences

  5. A reduced core to skin temperature gradient, not a critical core temperature, affects aerobic capacity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the core to skin temperature gradient during incremental running to volitional fatigue across varying environmental conditions. A secondary aim was to determine if a "critical" core temperature would dictate volitional fatigue during running in the heat. 60 participants (n=49 male, n=11 female; 24±5 yrs, 177±11 cm, 75±13 kg) completed the study. Participants were uniformly stratified into a specific exercise temperature group (18 °C, 26 °C, 34 °C, or 42 °C) based on a 3-mile run performance. Participants were equipped with core and chest skin temperature sensors and a heart rate monitor, entered an environmental chamber (18 °C, 26 °C, 34 °C, or 42 °C), and rested in the seated position for 10 min before performing a walk/run to volitional exhaustion. Initial treadmill speed was 3.2 km h(-1) with a 0% grade. Every 3 min, starting with speed, speed and grade increased in an alternating pattern (speed increased by 0.805 km h(-1), grade increased by 0.5%). Time to volitional fatigue was longer for the 18 °C and 26 °C group compared to the 42 °C group, (58.1±9.3 and 62.6±6.5 min vs. 51.3±8.3 min, respectively, p<0.05). At the half-way point and finish, the core to skin gradient for the 18 °C and 26 °C groups was larger compared to 42 °C group (halfway: 2.6±0.7 and 2.0±0.6 vs. 1.3±0.5 for the 18 °C, 26 °C and 42 °C groups, respectively; finish: 3.3±0.7 and 3.5±1.1 vs. 2.1±0.9 for the 26 °C, 34 °C, and 42 °C groups, respectively, p<0.05). Sweat rate was lower in the 18 °C group compared to the 26 °C, 34 °C, and 42 °C groups, 3.6±1.3 vs. 7.2±3.0, 7.1±2.0, and 7.6±1.7 g m(-2) min(-1), respectively, p<0.05. There were no group differences in core temperature and heart rate response during the exercise trials. The current data demonstrate a 13% and 22% longer run time to exhaustion for the 18 °C and 26 °C group, respectively, compared to the 42 °C group despite no differences

  6. Analytical method development for powder characterization: Visualization of the critical drug loading affecting the processability of a formulation for direct compression.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, Cosima; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Rantanen, Jukka

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of particulate systems (powders) is one of the remaining scientific challenges. Evaluation of powder behaviour is often empirical and the decision-making processes are experience-based. There is a need for development of analytical instrumentation enabling more fundamental understanding of powder behaviour. Flowability and tabletability, two key factors in commercial scale manufacturing of tablets with direct compression (DC) approach, were analysed for formulations containing increasing amounts of several model active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Flowability was investigated using a ring shear tester and tablets were prepared at four different compression pressures using a single punch tablet press. Thereby, a material sparing screening approach was developed to estimate the influence of APIs on behaviour of a given DC formulation. Additionally, this approach is useful for estimating the low threshold amount of API (wt%), at which the properties of an API start affecting the powder behaviour of a given formulation (API-excipient mixture). This threshold will be referred to as critical drug loading. The flowability of microcrystalline cellulose (reference grade pH 102) was used as a threshold for adequate flowability of model formulations. The threshold for tablet tensile strength was set to 2MPa. Simultaneous visual presentation of both- flowability and tabletability were used for a fast evaluation of manufacturability of a given formulation. The results confirmed that flowability is more sensitive to drug loading than tabletability, and that the critical drug loading for a DC formulation is strongly affected by particulate properties of API. For example, decreasing the particle size of paracetamol led to rapid decrease in flowability index, whereas the tabletability was not affected. PMID:27368089

  7. Nuclear power after Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, J F

    1987-05-01

    The causes and progress of the accident at Chernobyl are described, and a comparison between the Chernobyl accident and the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station is made. Significant similarities between Chernobyl and Three Mile Island include complacency of operators and industry, deliberate negation of safety systems, and a lack of understanding of their plant on the part of the operators, which shows the critical importance of the human element. The Chernobyl accident has implications for nuclear power in the United States; it will affect the research program of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, regulation of Department of Energy reactors, new reactor designs, and public attitudes. PMID:3576192

  8. Overview of DOE/ONS criticality safety projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, R. W.; Brown, B. P.; Hopper, C. M.

    The evolution of Federal involvement with nuclear criticality safety has traversed through the 1940's and early 1950's with the Manhattan Engineering District, the 1950's and 1960's with the Atomic Energy Commission, the early 1970's with the Energy Research and Development Administration, and the late 1970's to date with the US Department of Energy. The importance of nuclear criticality safety has been maintained throughout these periods. However, criticality safety has received shifting emphases in research and applications, promulgations of regulations and standards, origins of fiscal support and organization. In June 1981 the Office of Nuclear Safety was established in response to a Department of Energy study of the impact of the March 1979 Three Mile Island accident. The organizational structure of the ONS, its program for establishing and maintaining a progressive nuclear criticality safety program, and associated projects, and current history of ONS's fiscal support of program projects is presented. With the establishment of the ONS came concomitant missions to develop and maintain nuclear safety policy and requirements, to provide independent assurance that nuclear operations are performed safely, to provide resources and management for DOE responses to nuclear accidents, and to provide technical support. In the past four years, ONS has developed and initiated a continuing Department Nuclear Criticality Safety Program in such areas as communications and information, physics of criticality, knowledge of factors affecting criticality, and computational capability.

  9. Modeling the effect in of criticality from changes in key parameters for small High Temperature Nuclear Reactor (U-BatteryTM) using MCNP4C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    The neutron transport code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) which was wellkown as the gold standard in predicting nuclear reaction was used to model the small nuclear reactor core called "U-batteryTM", which was develop by the University of Manchester and Delft Institute of Technology. The paper introduces on the concept of modeling the small reactor core, a high temperature reactor (HTR) type with small coated TRISO fuel particle in graphite matrix using the MCNPv4C software. The criticality of the core were calculated using the software and analysed by changing key parameters such coolant type, fuel type and enrichment levels, cladding materials, and control rod type. The criticality results from the simulation were validated using the SCALE 5.1 software by [1] M Ding and J L Kloosterman, 2010. The data produced from these analyses would be used as part of the process of proposing initial core layout and a provisional list of materials for newly design reactor core. In the future, the criticality study would be continued with different core configurations and geometries.

  10. Application of Neutron-Absorbing Structural-Amorphous Metal (SAM) Coatings for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Container to Enhance Criticality Safety Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Lee, Chuck; Farmer, Joseph; Day, Dan; Wall, Mark; Saw, Cheng; Boussoufi, Moe; Liu, Ben; Egbert, Harold; Branagan, Dan; D'Amato, Andy

    2007-07-01

    Spent nuclear fuel contains fissionable materials ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, etc.). To prevent nuclear criticality in spent fuel storage, transportation, and during disposal, neutron-absorbing materials (or neutron poisons, such as borated stainless steel, Boral{sup TM}, Metamic{sup TM}, Ni-Gd, and others) would have to be applied. The success in demonstrating that the High-Performance Corrosion- Resistant Material (HPCRM){sup [1]} can be thermally applied as coating onto base metal to provide for corrosion resistance for many naval applications raises the interest in applying the HPCRM to USDOE/OCRWM spent fuel management program. The fact that the HPCRM relies on the high content of boron to make the material amorphous - an essential property for corrosion resistance - and that the boron has to be homogeneously distributed in the HPCRM qualify the material to be a neutron poison. (authors)

  11. Ferromagnetic critical behavior in U(Co1-xFex)Al (0 ≤x ≤0.02 ) studied by 59Co nuclear quadrupole resonance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karube, K.; Hattori, T.; Ishida, K.; Kimura, N.

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate physical properties around a ferromagnetic (FM) quantum transition point and a tricritical point (TCP) in the itinerant-electron metamagnetic compound UCoAl, we have performed the 59Co nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement for the Fe-substituted U(Co1-xFex)Al(x =0 ,0.5 ,1 ,and2 %) in zero external magnetic field. The Fe concentration dependence of 59Co -NQR spectra at low temperatures indicates that the first-order FM transition occurs at least above x =1 % . The magnetic fluctuations along the c axis detected by the nuclear spin-spin relaxation rate 1 /T2 exhibit an anomaly at Tmax˜20 K and enhance with increasing x . These results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and indicate the presence of prominent critical fluctuations at the TCP in this system.

  12. Arabidopsis NMD3 Is Required for Nuclear Export of 60S Ribosomal Subunits and Affects Secondary Cell Wall Thickening

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Qin; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Bao-Cai; Nan, Jie; Li, Xia; Liu, Na; Qu, Hong; Lu, Cong-Ming; Sudmorgen; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2012-01-01

    NMD3 is required for nuclear export of the 60S ribosomal subunit in yeast and vertebrate cells, but no corresponding function of NMD3 has been reported in plants. Here we report that Arabidopsis thaliana NMD3 (AtNMD3) showed a similar function in the nuclear export of the 60S ribosomal subunit. Interference with AtNMD3 function by overexpressing a truncated dominant negative form of the protein lacking the nuclear export signal sequence caused retainment of the 60S ribosomal subunits in the nuclei. More interestingly, the transgenic Arabidopsis with dominant negative interference of AtNMD3 function showed a striking failure of secondary cell wall thickening, consistent with the altered expression of related genes and composition of cell wall components. Observation of a significant decrease of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) in the differentiating interfascicular fiber cells of the transgenic plant stems suggested a link between the defective nuclear export of 60S ribosomal subunits and the abnormal formation of the secondary cell wall. These findings not only clarified the evolutionary conservation of NMD3 functions in the nuclear export of 60S ribosomal subunits in yeast, animals and plants, but also revealed a new facet of the regulatory mechanism underlying secondary cell wall thickening in Arabidopsis. This new facet is that the nuclear export of 60S ribosomal subunits and the formation of RER may play regulatory roles in coordinating protein synthesis in cytoplasm and transcription in nuclei. PMID:22558264

  13. The SUMO proteases SENP1 and SENP2 play a critical role in nucleoporin homeostasis and nuclear pore complex function.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kin-Hoe; Elgort, Suzanne; Dasso, Mary; Powers, Maureen A; Ullman, Katharine S

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes are composed of ∼30 different proteins, each present at the pore in multiple copies. Together these proteins create specialized channels that convey cargo between the cytoplasm and the nuclear interior. With the building blocks of nuclear pores identified, one challenge is to decipher how these proteins are coordinately produced and assembled into macromolecular pore structures with each cell division. Specific individual pore proteins and protein cofactors have been probed for their role in the assembly process, as well as certain kinases that add a layer of regulation via the phosphorylation status of nucleoporins. Other posttranslational modifications are candidates for coordinating events of pore assembly as well. In this study of two pore-associated small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteases, sentrin/SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1) and SENP2, we observe that many nucleoporins are mislocalized and, in some cases, reduced in level when SENP1 and SENP2 are codepleted. The pore complexes present under these conditions are still capable of transport, although the kinetics of specific cargo is altered. These results reveal a new role for the pore-associated SENPs in nucleoporin homeostasis and in achieving proper configuration of the nuclear pore complex. PMID:24196834

  14. Nuclear localization of the dystrophin-associated protein α-dystrobrevin through importin α2/β1 is critical for interaction with the nuclear lamina/maintenance of nuclear integrity.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Areli; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Suárez-Sánchez, Rocío; Zinker, Samuel; Jans, David A; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2015-05-01

    Although α-dystrobrevin (DB) is assembled into the dystrophin-associated protein complex, which is central to cytoskeletal organization, it has also been found in the nucleus. Here we delineate the nuclear import pathway responsible for nuclear targeting of α-DB for the first time, together with the importance of nuclear α-DB in determining nuclear morphology. We map key residues of the nuclear localization signal of α-DB within the zinc finger domain (ZZ) using various truncated versions of the protein, and site-directed mutagenesis. Pulldown, immunoprecipitation, and AlphaScreen assays showed that the importin (IMP) α2/β1 heterodimer interacts with high affinity with the ZZ domain of α-DB. In vitro nuclear import assays using antibodies to specific importins, as well as in vivo studies using siRNA or a dominant negative importin construct, confirmed the key role of IMPα2/β1 in α-DB nuclear translocation. Knockdown of α-DB expression perturbed cell cycle progression in C2C12 myoblasts, with decreased accumulation of cells in S phase and, significantly, altered localization of lamins A/C, B1, and B2 with accompanying gross nuclear morphology defects. Because α-DB interacts specifically with lamin B1 in vivo and in vitro, nuclear α-DB would appear to play a key role in nuclear shape maintenance through association with the nuclear lamina.

  15. Progress and goals for INMM ASC N15 consensus standard ""Administrative practices for the determination and reporting of results of non-destructive assay measurements of nuclear material in situ for safeguards nuclear criticality safety and other purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, David S; Lamb, Frank W

    2009-01-01

    This paper will discuss the goals and progress to date on the development of INMM Accredited Standard Committee (ASC) N15 consensus standard Administrative Practices for the Determination and Reporting of Results of Non-Destructive Assay Measurements of Nuclear Material in situ for Safeguards, Nuclear Criticality Safety, and Other Purposes. This standard will define administrative practices in the areas of data generation and reporting of NDA assay of holdup deposits with consideration of the stakeholders of the reported results. These stakeholders may include nuclear material accounting and safeguards, nuclear criticality safety, waste management, health physics, facility characterization, authorization basis, radiation safety, and site licensing authorities. Stakeholder input will be solicited from interested parties and incorporated during the development of the document. Currently only one consensus standard exists that explicitly deals with NDA holdup measurements: ASTM C1455 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Material Holdup Using Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods. The ASTM International standard emphasizes the activities involved in actually making measurements, and was developed by safeguards and NDA experts. This new INMM ASC N15 standard will complement the existing ASTM international standard. One of the largest driving factors for writing this new standard was the recent emphasis on in situ NDA measurements by the safeguards community due to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendation 2007-1 on in situ NDA measurements. Specifically, DNFSB recommendation 2007-1 referenced the lack of programmatic requirements for accurate in situ measurements and the use of measurement results for compliance with safety based requirements. That being the case, this paper will also discuss the progress made on the Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2007-1 Safety-Related In Situ

  16. Optimization of Fast Critical Experiments to Reduce Nuclear Data Uncertainties in Support of a Fast Burner Reactor Design Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stover, Tracy E., Jr.

    An optimization technique has been developed to select optimized experimental design specifications to produce data specifically designed to be assimilated to optimize a given reactor concept. Data from the optimized experiment is assimilated to generate posteriori uncertainties on the reactor concept's core attributes from which the design responses are computed. The reactor concept is then optimized with the new data to realize cost savings by reducing margin. The optimization problem iterates until an optimal experiment is found to maximize the savings. A new generation of innovative nuclear reactor designs, in particular fast neutron spectrum recycle reactors, are being considered for the application of closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the future. Safe and economical design of these reactors will require uncertainty reduction in basic nuclear data which are input to the reactor design. These data uncertainty propagate to design responses which in turn require the reactor designer to incorporate additional safety margin into the design, which often increases the cost of the reactor. Therefore basic nuclear data needs to be improved and this is accomplished through experimentation. Considering the high cost of nuclear experiments, it is desired to have an optimized experiment which will provide the data needed for uncertainty reduction such that a reactor design concept can meet its target accuracies or to allow savings to be realized by reducing the margin required due to uncertainty propagated from basic nuclear data. However, this optimization is coupled to the reactor design itself because with improved data the reactor concept can be re-optimized itself. It is thus desired to find the experiment that gives the best optimized reactor design. Methods are first established to model both the reactor concept and the experiment and to efficiently propagate the basic nuclear data uncertainty through these models to outputs. The representativity of the experiment

  17. c-Rel arrests the proliferation of HeLa cells and affects critical regulators of the G1/S-phase transition.

    PubMed Central

    Bash, J; Zong, W X; Gélinas, C

    1997-01-01

    A tetracycline-regulated system was used to characterize the effects of c-Rel on cell proliferation. The expression of c-Rel in HeLa cells led to growth arrest at the G1/S-phase transition, which correlated with its nuclear localization and the induction of endogenous IkappaB alpha expression. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in E2F DNA binding and the accumulation of the hypophosphorylated form of Rb. In vitro kinase assays showed a reduction in Cdk2 kinase activity that correlated with elevated levels of p21WAF1 Cdk inhibitor and p53 tumor suppressor protein. While the steady-state levels of WAF1 transcripts were increased, pulse-chase analysis revealed a sharp increase in p53 protein stability. Importantly, the deletion of the C-terminal transactivation domains of c-Rel abolished these effects. Together, these studies demonstrate that c-Rel can affect cell cycle control and suggest the involvement of the p21WAF1 and p53 cell cycle regulators. PMID:9343416

  18. Application of Neutron-Absorbing Structural-Amorphous Metal (SAM) Coatings for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Container to Enhance Criticality Safety Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J; Lee, C; Day, D; Wall, M; Saw, C; MoberlyChan, W; Farmer, J; Boussoufl, M; Liu, B; Egbert, H; Branagan, D; D'Amato, A

    2006-11-13

    Spent nuclear fuel contains fissionable materials ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, etc.). Neutron multiplication and the potential for criticality are enhanced by the presence of a moderator during cask loading in water, water incursion in accidents conditions during spent fuel storage or transport. To prevent nuclear criticality in spent fuel storage, transportation, and during disposal, neutron-absorbing materials (or neutron poisons, such as borated stainless steel, Boral{trademark}, Metamic{trademark}, Ni-Gd, and others) would have to be applied. The success in demonstrating that the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant material (HPCRM) can be thermally applied as coating onto base metal to provide for corrosion resistance for many naval applications raises the interest in applying the HPCRM to USDOE/OCRWM spent fuel management program. The fact that the HPCRM relies on the high content of boron to make the material amorphous--an essential property for corrosion resistance--and that the boron has to be homogeneously distributed in the HPCRM qualify the material to be a neutron poison.

  19. Critical factors affecting the 3D microstructural formation in hybrid conductive adhesive materials studied by X-ray nano-tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-Chen Karen; Figueroa-Santos, Miriam Aileen; Petrash, Stanislas; Garcia-Miralles, Jose; Wang, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Conductive adhesives are found favorable in a wide range of applications including a lead-free solder in micro-chips, flexible and printable electronics and enhancing the performance of energy storage devices. Composite materials comprised of metallic fillers and a polymer matrix are of great interest to be implemented as hybrid conductive adhesives. Here we investigated a cost-effective conductive adhesive material consisting of silver-coated copper as micro-fillers using synchrotron-based three-dimensional (3D) X-ray nano-tomography. The key factors affecting the quality and performance of the material were quantitatively studied in 3D on the nanometer scale for the first time. A critical characteristic parameter, defined as a shape-factor, was determined to yield a high-quality silver coating, leading to satisfactory performance. A `stack-and-screen' mechanism was proposed to elaborate such a phenomenon. The findings and the technique developed in this work will facilitate the future advancement of conductive adhesives to have a great impact in micro-electronics and other applications.Conductive adhesives are found favorable in a wide range of applications including a lead-free solder in micro-chips, flexible and printable electronics and enhancing the performance of energy storage devices. Composite materials comprised of metallic fillers and a polymer matrix are of great interest to be implemented as hybrid conductive adhesives. Here we investigated a cost-effective conductive adhesive material consisting of silver-coated copper as micro-fillers using synchrotron-based three-dimensional (3D) X-ray nano-tomography. The key factors affecting the quality and performance of the material were quantitatively studied in 3D on the nanometer scale for the first time. A critical characteristic parameter, defined as a shape-factor, was determined to yield a high-quality silver coating, leading to satisfactory performance. A `stack-and-screen' mechanism was proposed to

  20. In-Situ Radiological Surveys to Address Nuclear Criticality Safety Requirements During Remediation Activities at the Shallow Land Disposal Area, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania - 12268

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Phillip; Mihalo, Mark; Eberlin, John; Lambert, Mike; Matthews, Brian

    2012-07-01

    Cabrera Services Inc. (CABRERA) is the remedial contractor for the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site in Armstrong County Pennsylvania, a United States (US) Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) contract. The remediation is being completed under the USACE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) which was established to identify, investigate, and clean up or control sites previously used by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineer District (MED). As part of the management of the FUSRAP, the USACE is overseeing investigation and remediation of radiological contamination at the SLDA Site in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 US Code (USC), Section 9601 et. seq, as amended and, the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 300.430(f) (2). The objective of this project is to clean up radioactive waste at SLDA. The radioactive waste contains special nuclear material (SNM), primarily U-235, in 10 burial trenches, Cabrera duties include processing, packaging and transporting the waste to an offsite disposal facility in accordance with the selected remedial alternative as defined in the Final Record of Decision (USACE, 2007). Of particular importance during the remediation is the need to address nuclear criticality safety (NCS) controls for the safe exhumation and management of waste containing fissile materials. The partnership between Cabrera Services, Inc. and Measutronics Corporation led to the development of a valuable survey tool and operating procedure that are essential components of the SLDA Criticality Safety and Material Control and Accountability programs. Using proven existing technologies in the design and manufacture of the Mobile Survey Cart, the continued deployment of the Cart will allow for an efficient and reliable methodology to

  1. Criticality Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  2. Critical factors affecting the 3D microstructural formation in hybrid conductive adhesive materials studied by X-ray nano-tomography.

    PubMed

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Figueroa-Santos, Miriam Aileen; Petrash, Stanislas; Garcia-Miralles, Jose; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-21

    Conductive adhesives are found favorable in a wide range of applications including a lead-free solder in micro-chips, flexible and printable electronics and enhancing the performance of energy storage devices. Composite materials comprised of metallic fillers and a polymer matrix are of great interest to be implemented as hybrid conductive adhesives. Here we investigated a cost-effective conductive adhesive material consisting of silver-coated copper as micro-fillers using synchrotron-based three-dimensional (3D) X-ray nano-tomography. The key factors affecting the quality and performance of the material were quantitatively studied in 3D on the nanometer scale for the first time. A critical characteristic parameter, defined as a shape-factor, was determined to yield a high-quality silver coating, leading to satisfactory performance. A 'stack-and-screen' mechanism was proposed to elaborate such a phenomenon. The findings and the technique developed in this work will facilitate the future advancement of conductive adhesives to have a great impact in micro-electronics and other applications. PMID:25474162

  3. Implementing the CASPiE course-based research experience at the United States Military Academy: Affective responses and effects on critical thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Anthony Michael

    The Center for Authentic Science Practices in Education (CASPiE) pioneered a course-based research experience approach to teaching chemistry laboratory courses. The method had previously been studied in a variety of institutional settings. Recently, the United States Military Academy at West Point decided to develop CASPiE-style modules for the introductory honors chemistry course. This research setting presents clean experimental-control comparisons and a group of faculty who were completely new to the method. Equipping students with authentic research experiences early in their education is important regardless of the institution. However, cadets at a military academy must make decisions relatively early (the outset of their second year) as to what their career trajectory will be as eventual officers. In the new CASPiE-based experience, cadets are given the opportunity to select from one of three different modules (analytical chemistry, toxicology, and chemical engineering) in which to participate during the course. These three modules represent subsections of an overall Army waste-to-energy research project. Cadets generate unique hypotheses, real data, and research posters towards the advancement of the project. Posters are then presented in a session. that includes an audience of project stakeholders, course instructors, and other academy faculty and staff. Here, I will present my research methods, evaluative procedures, and findings in the affective domain, critical thinking, and laboratory content comprehension.

  4. An Analysis of the Nuclear Data Libraries' Impact on the Criticality Computations Performed using Monte Carlo Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugiu, E. D.; Ellis, R. J.; Dumitrache, I.; Constantin, M.

    2005-05-01

    The major aim of this work is a sensitivity analysis related to the influence of the different nuclear data libraries on the k-infinity values and on the void coefficient estimations performed for various CANDU fuel projects, and on the simulations related to the replacement of the original stainless steel adjuster rods by cobalt assemblies in the CANDU reactor core. The computations are performed using the Monte Carlo transport codes MCNP5 and MONTEBURNS 1.0 for the actual, detailed geometry and material composition of the fuel bundles and reactivity devices. Some comparisons with deterministic and probabilistic codes involving the WIMS library are also presented.

  5. Auxin responsiveness of the MONOPTEROS-BODENLOS module in primary root initiation critically depends on the nuclear import kinetics of the Aux/IAA inhibitor BODENLOS.

    PubMed

    Herud, Ole; Weijers, Dolf; Lau, Steffen; Jürgens, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Primary root formation in early embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is initiated with the specification of a single cell called hypophysis. This initial step requires the auxin-dependent release of the transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP, also known as ARF5) from its inhibition by the Aux/IAA protein BODENLOS (BDL, also known as IAA12). Auxin-insensitive bdl mutant embryos and mp loss-of-function embryos fail to specify the hypophysis, giving rise to rootless seedlings. A suppressor screen of rootless bdl mutant seedlings yielded a mutation in the nuclear import receptor IMPORTIN-ALPHA 6 (IMPα6) that promoted primary root formation through rescue of the embryonic hypophysis defects, without causing additional phenotypic changes. Aux/IAA proteins are continually synthesized and degraded, which is essential for rapid transcriptional responses to changing auxin concentrations. Nuclear translocation of bdl:3×GFP was slowed down in impα6 mutants as measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which correlated with the reduced inhibition of MP by bdl in transient expression assays in impα6 knock-down protoplasts. The MP-BDL module acts like an auxin-triggered genetic switch because MP activates its own expression as well as the expression of its inhibitor BDL. Using an established simulation model, we determined that the reduced nuclear translocation rate of BDL in impα6 mutant embryos rendered the auxin-triggered switch unstable, impairing the fast response to changes in auxin concentration. Our results suggest that the instability of the inhibitor BDL necessitates a fast nuclear uptake in order to reach the critical threshold level required for auxin responsiveness of the MP-BDL module in primary root initiation.

  6. Hydrogen Sulfide Levels and Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (NRF2) Activity Are Attenuated in the Setting of Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI)

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Kazi N; Polhemus, David J; Donnarumma, Erminia; Brewster, Luke P; Lefer, David J

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystathionine γ-lyase, cystathionine β-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase are endogenous enzymatic sources of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Functions of H2S are mediated by several targets including ion channels and signaling proteins. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 is responsible for the expression of antioxidant response element–regulated genes and is known to be upregulated by H2S. We examined the levels of H2S, H2S-producing enzymes, and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation status in skeletal muscle obtained from critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients. Methods and Results Gastrocnemius tissues were attained postamputation from human CLI and healthy control patients. We found mRNA and protein levels of cystathionine γ-lyase, cystathionine β-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase were significantly decreased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients as compared to control. H2S and sulfane sulfur levels were significantly decreased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients. We also observed significant reductions in nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation as well as antioxidant proteins, such as Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in skeletal muscle of CLI patients. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl formation, were significantly increased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients as compared to healthy controls. Conclusions The data demonstrate that H2S bioavailability and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation are both attenuated in CLI tissues concomitant with significantly increased oxidative stress. Reductions in the activity of H2S-producing enzymes may contribute to the pathogenesis of CLI. PMID:25977470

  7. Leishmania major Telomerase TERT Protein Has a Nuclear/Mitochondrial Eclipsed Distribution That Is Affected by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Campelo, Riward; Díaz Lozano, Isabel; Figarella, Katherine; Osuna, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In its canonical role the reverse transcriptase telomerase recovers the telomeric repeats that are lost during DNA replication. Other locations and activities have been recently described for the telomerase protein subunit TERT in mammalian cells. In the present work, using biochemistry, molecular biology, and electron microscopy techniques, we found that in the human parasite Leishmania major, TERT (and telomerase activity) shared locations between the nuclear, mitochondrial, and cytoplasmic compartments. Also, some telomerase activity and TERT protein could be found in ∼100-nm nanovesicles. In the mitochondrial compartment, TERT appears to be mainly associated with the kinetoplast DNA. When Leishmania cells were exposed to H2O2, TERT changed its relative abundance and activity between the nuclear and mitochondrial compartments, with the majority of activity residing in the mitochondrion. Finally, overexpression of TERT in Leishmania transfected cells not only increased the parasitic cell growth rate but also increased their resistance to oxidative stress. PMID:25312950

  8. The fluidity of the nuclear envelope lipid does not affect the rate of nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport in mammalian liver.

    PubMed

    Agutter, P S; Suckling, K E

    1982-03-29

    The effects of in vitro and in vivo modifications of nuclear envelope lipid on DNa leakage and on ATP-stimulated RNA release from isolated rat liver nuclei were investigated. The modifications included corn-oil feeding of the animals to alter the fatty acid composition of the lipids, phospholipase treatment of the isolated nuclei, and extraction of the total lipid with Triton X-100. Significant changes in lipid composition and approximate order parameter values of the spin-label 5-doxylstearate resulted, but there was no significant effect on RNA transport rate. It was concluded that the nuclear envelope lipid does not play any important part in nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport in mammalian liver.

  9. Comparison of results for the MCNP criticality validation suite using ENDF/B-VII and other nuclear data libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Mosteller, R. D.; MacFarlane, R. E.

    2006-07-01

    The latest pre-release version of ENDF/B-VII ('ENDF/B-VII {beta}-2') was made available for testing in April 2006. Calculations were performed for the 31 cases in the MCNP Criticality Validation Suite for ENDF/B-VII {beta}-2, its predecessors ENDF/B-VII {beta}-1 and ENDF/B-VI, and JENDL-3.3. Overall, {beta}-2 produces results similar to {beta}-1, but it produces substantially improved results relative to ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3.3. However, calculations for some additional benchmarks indicate that further improvements still are needed in certain areas. (authors)

  10. Lifetime measurements in 102Pd: Searching for empirical proof of the E(5) critical-point symmetry in nuclear structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinopoulos, T.; Ashley, S. F.; Axiotis, M.; Spyrou, A.; Harissopulos, S.; Dewald, A.; Litzinger, J.; Möller, O.; Müller-Gatterman, C.; Petkov, P.; Napoli, D. R.; Marginean, N.; de Angelis, G.; Ur, C. A.; Bazzacco, D.; Farnea, E.; Lenzi, S. M.; Vlastou, R.; Balabanski, D.

    2016-01-01

    Lifetimes of yrast and nonyrast states of 102Pd populated via the 92Zr(13C, 3 n ) reaction are measured by means of the recoil distance Doppler-shift technique with a Cologne plunger coupled to a GASP spectrometer. The event-by-event data accumulated at 24 plunger distances in the range of 0.1 μ m to 9 mm are analyzed using the differential decay curve method. The resulting B (E 2 ) values of the γ transitions depopulating yrast-band members up to the Iπ=8+ state are found to deviate significantly from the corresponding predictions of the E(5) critical-point symmetry.

  11. A comprehensive dose evaluation project concerning animals affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: its set-up and progress

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shintaro; Inoue, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Gohei; Shiga, Soichiro; Fukumoto, Motoi; Kino, Yasushi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Abe, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    It is not an exaggeration to say that, without nuclear accidents or the analysis of radiation therapy, there is no way in which we are able to quantify radiation effects on humans. Therefore, the livestock abandoned in the ex-evacuation zone and euthanized due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident are extremely valuable for analyzing the environmental pollution, its biodistribution, the metabolism of radionuclides, dose evaluation and the influence of internal exposure. We, therefore, sought to establish an archive system and to open it to researchers for increasing our understanding of radiation biology and improving protection against radiation. The sample bank of animals affected by the FNPP accident consists of frozen tissue samples, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens, dose of radionuclides deposited, etc., with individual sampling data. PMID:26687285

  12. A comprehensive dose evaluation project concerning animals affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: its set-up and progress.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shintaro; Inoue, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Gohei; Shiga, Soichiro; Fukumoto, Motoi; Kino, Yasushi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Abe, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    It is not an exaggeration to say that, without nuclear accidents or the analysis of radiation therapy, there is no way in which we are able to quantify radiation effects on humans. Therefore, the livestock abandoned in the ex-evacuation zone and euthanized due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident are extremely valuable for analyzing the environmental pollution, its biodistribution, the metabolism of radionuclides, dose evaluation and the influence of internal exposure. We, therefore, sought to establish an archive system and to open it to researchers for increasing our understanding of radiation biology and improving protection against radiation. The sample bank of animals affected by the FNPP accident consists of frozen tissue samples, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens, dose of radionuclides deposited, etc., with individual sampling data. PMID:26687285

  13. A comprehensive dose evaluation project concerning animals affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: its set-up and progress.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shintaro; Inoue, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Gohei; Shiga, Soichiro; Fukumoto, Motoi; Kino, Yasushi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Abe, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    It is not an exaggeration to say that, without nuclear accidents or the analysis of radiation therapy, there is no way in which we are able to quantify radiation effects on humans. Therefore, the livestock abandoned in the ex-evacuation zone and euthanized due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident are extremely valuable for analyzing the environmental pollution, its biodistribution, the metabolism of radionuclides, dose evaluation and the influence of internal exposure. We, therefore, sought to establish an archive system and to open it to researchers for increasing our understanding of radiation biology and improving protection against radiation. The sample bank of animals affected by the FNPP accident consists of frozen tissue samples, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens, dose of radionuclides deposited, etc., with individual sampling data.

  14. Nuclear Heating Measurement in Critical Facilities and Experimental Validation of Code and Libraries - An Application to Prompt and Delayed γ Nuclear Data Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, P.; Di Salvo, J.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Bernard, D.; Amharrak, H.; Lemaire, M.; Ravaux, S.

    Energy from prompt and delayed gammas in actual and future nuclear systems are more and more taken into account into design studies as they play an important role in the assessment of performance and safety concerns. Their incomplete knowledge (both prompt and delayed) require to take conservative design margins on local dimensioning parameters, thus reducing the awaited performances or flexibility of these facilities, with costs that are far from being negligible. The local energy photon deposit must be accurately known for Generation-III (Gen-III), Generation-IV (Gen-IV) or the new MTR Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). The last 2 decades has seen the realization, in Zero Power Reactors (ZPR), of several programs partially devoted to γ-heating measurements. Experimental programs were and are still conducted in different Cadarache facilities such as MASURCA (for SFR), and later in MINERVE and EOLE (for JHR and Gen-III reactors). The adequacy of the γ-heating calculation was compared to experimental data using thermo-luminescent (TL) detectors and γ-fission chambers. Inconsistencies in C/E and associated uncertainties led to improvement of both libraries and experimental techniques. For these last one, characterization for TL and optically stimulated (OSL) detectors (calibration, individual response), and Monte Carlo calculation of charge repartition in those detectors and their environment were carefully checked and optimized. This step enabled to reduce the associated experimental uncertainty by a factor of 2 (8% at 2σ). Nevertheless, interpretation of integral experiment with updated calculation schemes and improved experimental techniques still tend to prove that there are some nuclei for which there are missing or erroneous data, mainly in structural and absorbing materials. New integral and differential measurements are needed to guide new evaluation efforts, which could benefit from consolidated theoretical and experimental modeling techniques.

  15. Use of InSpector{sup TM} 1 1000 Instrument with LaBr{sub 3} for Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Applications at the Westinghouse Hematite Decommissioning Project (HDP) - 13132

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, Megan; Guido, Joe

    2013-07-01

    The Westinghouse Hematite Decommissioning Project (HDP) is a former nuclear fuel cycle facility that is currently undergoing decommissioning. One aspect of the decommissioning scope is remediation of buried nuclear waste in unlined burial pits. The current Nuclear Criticality Safety program relies on application of criticality controls based on radiological setpoints from a 2 x 2 Sodium Iodide (NaI) detector. Because of the nature of the material buried (Low Enriched Uranium (LEU), depleted uranium, thorium, and radium) and the stringent threshold for application of criticality controls based on waste management (0.1 g {sup 235}U/L), a better method for {sup 235}U identification and quantification has been developed. This paper outlines the early stages of a quick, in-field nuclear material assay and {sup 235}U mass estimation process currently being deployed at HDP. Nuclear material initially classified such that NCS controls are necessary can be demonstrated not to require such controls and dispositioned as desired by project operations. Using Monte Carlo techniques and a high resolution Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr) detector with portable Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA), a bounding {sup 235}U mass is assigned to basic geometries of nuclear material as it is excavated. The deployment of these methods and techniques has saved large amounts of time and money in the nuclear material remediation process. (authors)

  16. Social Ties May Play a Critical Role in Mitigating Sleep Difficulties in Disaster-Affected Communities: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Ishinomaki Area, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Shoko; Yamaoka, Kazue; Inoue, Machiko; Muto, Shinsuke

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We examined the association between social factors and sleep difficulties among the victims remaining at home in the Ishinomaki area after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and identified potentially modifiable factors that may mitigate vulnerability to sleep difficulties during future traumatic events or disasters. Design: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted from October 2011 to March 2012 (6-12 mo after the disaster) in the Ishinomaki area, Japan. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine associations between social factors and sleep difficulties. Participants: We obtained data on 4,176 household members who remained in their homes after the earthquake and tsunami. Interventions: N/A. Results: Sleep difficulties were prevalent in 15.0% of the respondents (9.2% male, 20.2% female). Two potentially modifiable factors (lack of pleasure in life and lack of interaction with/visiting neighbors) and three nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable factors (sex, source of income, and number of household members) were associated with sleep difficulties. Nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable consequences caused directly by the disaster (severity of house damage, change in family structure, and change in working status) were not significantly associated with sleep difficulties. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the lack of pleasure in life and relatively strong networks in the neighborhood, which are potentially modifiable, might have stronger associations with sleep difficulties than do nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable consequences of the disaster (e.g., house damage, change in family structure, and change in work status). Citation: Matsumoto S; Yamaoka K; Inoue M; Muto S. Social ties may play a critical role in mitigating sleep difficulties in disaster-affected communities: a cross-sectional study in the Ishinomaki area, Japan. SLEEP 2014;37(1):137-145. PMID:24470703

  17. Cytosine deaminase as a negative selectable marker for the microalgal chloroplast: a strategy for the isolation of nuclear mutations that affect chloroplast gene expression.

    PubMed

    Young, Rosanna E B; Purton, Saul

    2014-12-01

    Negative selectable markers are useful tools for forward-genetic screens aimed at identifying trans-acting factors that are required for expression of specific genes. Transgenic lines harbouring the marker fused to a gene element, such as a promoter, may be mutagenized to isolate loss-of-function mutants able to survive under selection. Such a strategy allows the molecular dissection of factors that are essential for expression of the gene. Expression of individual chloroplast genes in plants and algae typically requires one or more nuclear-encoded factors that act at the post-transcriptional level, often through interaction with the 5' UTR of the mRNA. To study such nuclear control further, we have developed the Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase gene codA as a conditional negative selectable marker for use in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that a codon-optimized variant of codA with three amino acid substitutions confers sensitivity to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) when expressed in the chloroplast under the control of endogenous promoter/5' UTR elements from the photosynthetic genes psaA or petA. UV mutagenesis of the psaA transgenic line allowed recovery of 5-FC-resistant, photosynthetically deficient lines harbouring mutations in the nuclear gene for the factor TAA1 that is required for psaA translation. Similarly, the petA line was used to isolate mutants of the petA mRNA stability factor MCA1 and the translation factor TCA1. The codA marker may be used to identify critical residues in known nuclear factors and to aid the discovery of additional factors required for expression of chloroplast genes. PMID:25234691

  18. Clustered basic amino acids of the small sendai virus C protein Y1 are critical to its RAN GTPase-mediated nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Irie, Takashi; Yoshida, Asuka; Sakaguchi, Takemasa

    2013-01-01

    The Sendai virus (SeV) C proteins are shown to exert multiple functions during the course of infection. Perhaps reflecting their many functions, they occur at multiple sites of the cell. In this study, we focused on the nuclear-localizing ability of the smaller C protein, Y1, and found that this translocation is mediated by Ran GTPase but not by passive diffusion, and that basic residues within the 149-157 amino acid region are critical for that. The mechanism of inhibition of interferon (IFN)-signaling seemed to differ between the C and Y1 proteins, since deletion of 12 C-terminal amino acids resulted in a loss of the function for the C but not for the Y1 protein. The ability of Y1 mutants to inhibit IFN-α-induced, ISRE-driven expression of a reporter gene almost paralleled with that to localize in the nucleus. These results suggest that nuclear localization of the Y1 protein might be important for the inhibitory effect on type-I IFN-stimulated gene expression.

  19. Criticality Calculations of Fresh LEU and MOX Assemblies for Transport and Storage at the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Goluoglu, S.

    2001-01-11

    Transportation of low-enriched uranium (LEU) and mixed-oxide (MOX) assemblies to and within the VVER-1000-type Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant is investigated. Effective multiplication factors for fresh fuel assemblies on the railroad platform, fresh fuel assemblies in the fuel transportation vehicle, and fresh fuel assemblies in the spent fuel storage pool are calculated. If there is no absorber between the units, the configurations with all MOX assemblies result in higher effective multiplication factors than the configurations with all LEU assemblies when the system is dry. When the system is flooded, the configurations with all LEU assemblies result in higher effective multiplication factors. For normal operating conditions, effective multiplication factors for all configurations are below the presumed upper subcritical limit of 0.95. For an accident condition of a fully loaded fuel transportation vehicle that is flooded with low-density water (possibly from a fire suppression system), the presumed upper subcritical limit is exceeded by configurations containing LEU assemblies.

  20. Absence of internal radiation contamination by radioactive cesium among children affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Morita, Tomohiro; Sugimoto, Amina; Gilmour, Stuart; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic internal radiation contamination accounts for a substantial fraction of long-term cumulative radiation exposure among residents in radiation-contaminated areas. However, little information is available on ongoing chronic internal radiation contamination among residents near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Using a whole body counter, internal radiation contamination levels among elementary and middle school students who commute to 22 schools located within Minamisoma city were assessed between May and July 2013 (26 to 28 mo after the disaster). Of 3,299 elementary and middle school students in the city, 3,255 individuals (98%) were screened through school health check-ups. Not a single student was detected with internal radiation contamination due to radioactive cesium. The study found no risk of chronic internal radiation exposure among residents near the crippled nuclear power plant. Current food inspection by local governments, volunteers, and farmers has been functioning well within Fukushima prefecture. However, food management by screening suspected contamination along with whole body counter screening are key public health interventions and should be continued to avoid further internal radiation exposure in radiation-contaminated areas. PMID:25437518

  1. Absence of internal radiation contamination by radioactive cesium among children affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Morita, Tomohiro; Sugimoto, Amina; Gilmour, Stuart; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic internal radiation contamination accounts for a substantial fraction of long-term cumulative radiation exposure among residents in radiation-contaminated areas. However, little information is available on ongoing chronic internal radiation contamination among residents near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Using a whole body counter, internal radiation contamination levels among elementary and middle school students who commute to 22 schools located within Minamisoma city were assessed between May and July 2013 (26 to 28 mo after the disaster). Of 3,299 elementary and middle school students in the city, 3,255 individuals (98%) were screened through school health check-ups. Not a single student was detected with internal radiation contamination due to radioactive cesium. The study found no risk of chronic internal radiation exposure among residents near the crippled nuclear power plant. Current food inspection by local governments, volunteers, and farmers has been functioning well within Fukushima prefecture. However, food management by screening suspected contamination along with whole body counter screening are key public health interventions and should be continued to avoid further internal radiation exposure in radiation-contaminated areas.

  2. Mutation of the rice XA21 predicted nuclear localization sequence does not affect resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yuen Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background The rice receptor kinase XA21 confers robust resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzae(Xoo). We previously reported that XA21 is cleaved in transgenic plants overexpressing XA21 with a GFP tag (Ubi-XA21-GFP) and that the released C-terminal domain is localized to the nucleus. XA21 carries a predicted nuclear localization sequence (NLS) that directs the C-terminal domain to the nucleus in transient assays, whereas alanine substitutions in the NLS disrupt the nuclear localization. Methods To determine if the predicted NLS is required for XA21-mediated immunity in planta, we generated transgenic plants overexpressing an XA21 variant carrying the NLS with the same alanine substitutions (Ubi-XA21nls-GFP). Results Ubi-XA21nls-GFP plants displayed slightly longer lesion lengths, higher Xoobacterial populations after inoculation and lower levels of reactive oxygen species production compared with the Ubi-XA21-GFP control plants. However, the Ubi-XA21nls-GFP plants express lower levels of protein than that observed in Ubi-XA21-GFP. Discussion These results demonstrate that the predicted NLS is not required for XA21-mediated immunity. PMID:27761320

  3. Conditions for a Minimum Critical Mass in a Nuclear Reactor and Considerations on Goertzel's Theorem in Transport Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2004-02-15

    The classic minimum critical mass problem, posed and solved by Goertzel using multigroup diffusion theory, is revisited and reformulated in terms of the two-group transport equation with isotropic scattering. A new variational principle is constructed from which it is possible to derive the conditions necessary for a minimum critical mass. This condition is that the angular thermal flux {psi}{sub t}([bold]r, [bold]{omega}) and a quantity {phi}{sub t}([bold]r, [bold]{omega}) related to the adjoint flux, must obey the constraint[integral]d{omega}{psi}{sub t}([bold]r, [bold]{omega}){phi}{sub t}([bold]r, [bold]{omega}) = constant.Contrary to the behavior noted in diffusion theory, this condition does not correspond to a flat thermal flux in the core. This is a major conclusion of the present work.To find the associated solutions, we develop a coupled set of integral equations for the components of the angular flux in the core. We then show that, for weakly absorbing moderators, the lowest order approximation to this set provides an accurate representation of the minimum mass conditions. It also emerges that the flat flux is a very good representation of the true flux. With the above assumptions, the problem reduces to that of solving a Fredholm equation of the first kind for the fuel mass distribution across the core. We solve this equation numerically for the case of an infinitely reflected, infinite slab and compare the results with those from diffusion theory. The transport theory results show one very interesting and important feature, namely, a steep rise in fuel concentration as the boundary is approached which goes to infinity at the boundary. This is in contrast to the diffusion theory result which requires an ad hoc addition of surface delta functions for a solution to exist. Thus we come to the conclusion that the increased surface concentration of fuel is a natural consequence of transport theory but not of diffusion theory. This is the second major

  4. YALINA facility a sub-critical Accelerator- Driven System (ADS) for nuclear energy research facility description and an overview of the research program (1997-2008).

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-04-28

    The YALINA facility is a zero-power, sub-critical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was conceived, constructed, and put into operation at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus located in Minsk-Sosny, Belarus. This facility was conceived for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems, and to serve as a neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinide nuclei. This report provides a detailed description of this facility and documents the progress of research carried out there during a period of approximately a decade since the facility was conceived and built until the end of 2008. During its history of development and operation to date (1997-2008), the YALINA facility has hosted several foreign groups that worked with the resident staff as collaborators. The participation of Argonne National Laboratory in the YALINA research programs commenced in 2005. For obvious reasons, special emphasis is placed in this report on the work at YALINA facility that has involved Argonne's participation. Attention is given here to the experimental program at YALINA facility as well as to analytical investigations aimed at validating codes and computational procedures and at providing a better understanding of the physics and operational behavior of the YALINA facility in particular, and ADS systems in general, during the period 1997-2008.

  5. DOCUMENTATION OF NATIONAL WEATHER CONDITIONS AFFECTING LONG-TERM DEGRADATION OF COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    W. L. Poe, Jr.; P.F. Wise

    1998-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal to construct, operate 2nd monitor, and eventually close a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, for the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). As part of this effort, DOE has prepared a viability assessment and an assessment of potential consequences that may exist if the repository is not constructed. The assessment of potential consequences if the repository is not constructed assumes that all SNF and HLW would be left at the generator sites. These include 72 commercial generator sites (three commercial facility pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine Mile Point, and Dresden and Morris--would share common storage due to their close proximity to each other) and five DOE sites across the country. DOE analyzed the environmental consequences of the effects of the continued storage of these materials at these sites in a report titled Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR; Reference 1 ) . The CSAR analysis includes a discussion of the degradation of these materials when exposed to the environment. This document describes the environmental parameters that influence the degradation analyzed in the CSAR. These include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation chemistry (pH and chemical composition), annual precipitation rates, annual number of rain-days, and annual freeze/thaw cycles. The document also tabulates weather conditions for each storage site, evaluates the degradation of concrete storage modules and vaults in different regions of the country, and provides a thermal analysis of commercial SNF in storage.

  6. Superallowed 0+→0+ nuclear β decays: 2014 critical survey, with precise results for Vu d and CKM unitarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, J. C.; Towner, I. S.

    2015-02-01

    A new critical survey is presented of all half-life, decay-energy, and branching-ratio measurements related to 20 superallowed 0+→0+β decays. Included are 222 individual measurements of comparable precision obtained from 177 published references. Compared with our last review in 2008, we have added results from 24 new publications and eliminated 9 references, the results from which having been superseded by much more precise modern data. We obtain world-average f t values for each of the 18 transitions that have a complete set of data, then apply radiative and isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections to extract "corrected" F t values. Fourteen of these F t values now have a precision of order 0.1% or better. In the process of obtaining these results we carefully evaluate the available calculations of the isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections by testing the extent to which they lead to F t values consistent with conservation of the vector current. Only one set of calculations satisfactorily meets this condition. The resultant average F t value, when combined with the muon lifetime, yields the up-down quark-mixing element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, Vu d=0.974 17 ±0.000 21 . The unitarity test on the top row of the matrix becomes | Vu d|2+| Vu s|2+|Vub| 2=0.999 78 ±0.000 55 if the Particle Data Group (PDG) recommended value for Vu s is used. However, recent lattice QCD calculations, not included yet in the PDG evaluation, have introduced some inconsistency into kaon-decay measurements of Vu s and Vu s/Vu d. We examine the impact of these new results on the unitarity test and conclude that there is no evidence of any statistically significant violation of unitarity. Finally, from the F t -value data we also set limits on the possible existence of scalar interactions.

  7. Initial Evaluation of the Heat-Affected Zone, Local Embrittlement Phenomenon as it Applies to Nuclear Reactor Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.E.

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this project was to determine if the local brittle zone (LBZ) problem, encountered in the testing of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) part of welds in offshore platform construction, can also be found in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) welds. Both structures have multipass welds and grain coarsening along the fusion line. Literature was obtained that described the metallurgical evidence and the type of research work performed on offshore structure welds.

  8. Conserved amino acids of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Vpx nuclear localization signal are critical for nuclear targeting of the viral preintegration complex in non-dividing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Belshan, Michael; Mahnke, Lisa A.; Ratner, Lee . E-mail: lratner@im.wustl.edu

    2006-03-01

    The HIV-2 viral accessory protein Vpx is related to, but distinct from the Vpr protein of HIV-1. Vpx is packaged into virions and as a component of the viral preintegration complex (PIC) is required for efficient virus replication in non-dividing cells. We have previously reported that the minimal transferable region of Vpx that contained karyophilic properties was aa 65 to 72. Analysis of Vpx sequences from various HIV-2/SIV strains reveals that this region contains highly conserved amino acids, including two basic residues (K68, R70) and three tyrosines (Y66, Y69, Y71). Here, we demonstrate that mutation of the basic or tyrosine residues abolishes PIC nuclear import in arrested cells as assessed by PCR detection of viral integration. Examination of cell-free virus by Western blot indicated that all mutant proteins were incorporated into virions, suggesting that the lack of replication in arrested cells was not due to a loss of Vpx in target cells. Together, these studies map critical residues of the Vpx nuclear localization signal that are required for efficient infection of non-dividing cells.

  9. Concentration of radionuclides in hydrosphere affected by Temelín Nuclear Power Plant in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hanslík, E; Ivanovová, D; Jedináková-Krízová, V; Juranová, E; Simonek, P

    2009-07-01

    The paper presents results of a long-term field study of the possible impact of Temelín NPP on the Vltava and Elbe Rivers. The study was divided into 2 stages: before and after the operation of the NPP. The main goal of the investigation before the operation (1989-2000) was to determine the background levels of radionuclides resulting from the tests of nuclear weapons and the Chernobyl accident for different components of the environment. The paper discusses also the risk of a river radioactive contamination due to the tritium discharges in wastewater from Temelín NPP. During the operation period of 2001-2006, the results of the monitoring did not detect any impact of Temelín NPP on the concentrations of activation and fission products in the hydrosphere, apart from tritium. The annual average tritium concentrations in the Vltava River correspond with the previously calculated predictions for the conditions of the average and minimum guaranteed flows. The maximum concentration of tritium of 26.6 Bq/l in Vltava River at Prague was observed after dry period in 2003. PMID:19419807

  10. Zearalenone Mycotoxin Affects Immune Mediators, MAPK Signalling Molecules, Nuclear Receptors and Genome-Wide Gene Expression in Pig Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Pistol, Gina Cecilia; Braicu, Cornelia; Motiu, Monica; Gras, Mihail Alexandru; Marin, Daniela Eliza; Stancu, Mariana; Calin, Loredana; Israel-Roming, Florentina; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Taranu, Ionelia

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of zearalenone (ZEA) was evaluated in swine spleen, a key organ for the innate and adaptative immune response. Weaned pigs were fed for 18 days with a control or a ZEA contaminated diet. The effect of ZEA was assessed on wide genome expression, pro- (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4) cytokines, other molecules involved in inflammatory processes (MMPs/TIMPs), as well as signaling molecules, (p38/JNK1/JNK2-MAPKs) and nuclear receptors (PPARγ/NFkB/AP-1/STAT3/c-JUN). Microarray analysis showed that 46% of total number of differentially expressed genes was involved in cellular signaling pathway, 13% in cytokine network and 10% in the inflammatory response. ZEA increased expression and synthesis of pro- inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β) and had no effect on IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines in spleen. The inflammatory stimulation might be a consequence of JNK pathway activation rather than of p-38MAPK and NF-kB involvement whose gene and protein expression were suppressed by ZEA action. In summary, our findings indicated the role of ZEA as an immune disruptor at spleen level. PMID:26011631

  11. Collagen Substrate Stiffness Anisotropy Affects Cellular Elongation, Nuclear Shape, and Stem Cell Fate toward Anisotropic Tissue Lineage.

    PubMed

    Islam, Anowarul; Younesi, Mousa; Mbimba, Thomas; Akkus, Ozan

    2016-09-01

    Rigidity of substrates plays an important role in stem cell fate. Studies are commonly carried out on isotropically stiff substrate or substrates with unidirectional stiffness gradients. However, many native tissues are anisotropically stiff and it is unknown whether controlled presentation of stiff and compliant material axes on the same substrate governs cytoskeletal and nuclear morphology, as well as stem cell differentiation. In this study, electrocompacted collagen sheets are stretched to varying degrees to tune the stiffness anisotropy (SA) in the range of 1 to 8, resulting in stiff and compliant material axes orthogonal to each other. The cytoskeletal aspect ratio increased with increasing SA by about fourfold. Such elongation was absent on cellulose acetate replicas of aligned collagen surfaces indicating that the elongation was not driven by surface topography. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded on varying anisotropy sheets displayed a dose-dependent upregulation of tendon-related markers such as Mohawk and Scleraxis. After 21 d of culture, highly anisotropic sheets induced greater levels of production of type-I, type-III collagen, and thrombospondin-4. Therefore, SA has direct effects on MSC differentiation. These findings may also have ramifications of stem cell fate on other anisotropically stiff tissues, such as skeletal/cardiac muscles, ligaments, and bone.

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus nuclear egress and secondary envelopment are negatively affected in the absence of cellular p53.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Man I; O'Dowd, John M; Chughtai, Kamila; Hayman, Ian; Brown, Celeste J; Fortunato, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is compromised in cells lacking p53, a transcription factor that mediates cellular stress responses. In this study we have investigated compromised functional virion production in cells with p53 knocked out (p53KOs). Infectious center assays found most p53KOs released functional virions. Analysis of electron micrographs revealed modestly decreased capsid production in infected p53KOs compared to wt. Substantially fewer p53KOs displayed HCMV-induced infoldings of the inner nuclear membrane (IINMs). In p53KOs, fewer capsids were found in IINMs and in the cytoplasm. The deficit in virus-induced membrane remodeling within the nucleus of p53KOs was mirrored in the cytoplasm, with a disproportionately smaller number of capsids re-enveloped. Reintroduction of p53 substantially recovered these deficits. Overall, the absence of p53 contributed to inhibition of the formation and function of IINMs and re-envelopment of the reduced number of capsids able to reach the cytoplasm.

  13. Erythrocyte catechol-O-methyltransferase activity: genetic analysis in nuclear families with one child affected by Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brahe, C; Serra, A; Morton, N E

    1985-06-01

    Erythrocyte catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity was measured in 142 members of 32 nuclear families in which one child had Down syndrome (DS). The mean activity in subjects with trisomy 21 appears higher than in parents and sibs, though not significantly so. However, this fact does not seem to modify the properties expected for a trait genetically controlled in a diploid population. The commingling analysis of the COMT activity in the whole group, and in each subgroup of relatives, suggests a mixture of two or, more likely, three components, the latter being in agreement with a transmission model of genes without dominance. The most parsimonious hypothesis supported by the mixed model segregation analysis is that of an additive major locus (d = 0.5) with an estimated frequency of 0.40 +/- 0.03 for the COMTH gene, to which a small polygenic effect (H = 0.067) can be added. This hypothesis is supported further by the analysis of family resemblance, r = 0.45 +/- 0.12 being the maximum likelihood estimator of the intraclass correlation among sibs. The higher COMT activity in DS subjects may reflect a situation of general enzyme disorder only indirectly connected with trisomy of chromosome 21. PMID:3160238

  14. Collagen Substrate Stiffness Anisotropy Affects Cellular Elongation, Nuclear Shape, and Stem Cell Fate toward Anisotropic Tissue Lineage.

    PubMed

    Islam, Anowarul; Younesi, Mousa; Mbimba, Thomas; Akkus, Ozan

    2016-09-01

    Rigidity of substrates plays an important role in stem cell fate. Studies are commonly carried out on isotropically stiff substrate or substrates with unidirectional stiffness gradients. However, many native tissues are anisotropically stiff and it is unknown whether controlled presentation of stiff and compliant material axes on the same substrate governs cytoskeletal and nuclear morphology, as well as stem cell differentiation. In this study, electrocompacted collagen sheets are stretched to varying degrees to tune the stiffness anisotropy (SA) in the range of 1 to 8, resulting in stiff and compliant material axes orthogonal to each other. The cytoskeletal aspect ratio increased with increasing SA by about fourfold. Such elongation was absent on cellulose acetate replicas of aligned collagen surfaces indicating that the elongation was not driven by surface topography. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded on varying anisotropy sheets displayed a dose-dependent upregulation of tendon-related markers such as Mohawk and Scleraxis. After 21 d of culture, highly anisotropic sheets induced greater levels of production of type-I, type-III collagen, and thrombospondin-4. Therefore, SA has direct effects on MSC differentiation. These findings may also have ramifications of stem cell fate on other anisotropically stiff tissues, such as skeletal/cardiac muscles, ligaments, and bone. PMID:27377355

  15. Analysis on radiocesium concentration in rivers that have catchment areas affected by the fallout from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Onda, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    Due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive materials including Cs-134 and Cs-137 were widely distributed in surrounded area. The radiocesiums have been transported in river networks. This study showed the monitoring results of radiocesium concentration in river waters and suspended sediments in Abukuma river basin and smaller coastal river catchments. The monitoring started at 6 sites from June 2011. Subsequently, additional 24 monitoring sites were installed between October 2012 and January 2013. Flow and turbidity (for calculation of suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each site, while suspended sediments and river water were collected every one or half month to measure Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs- 137 on suspended sediments were generally decreasing at all sites. The decreasing rate changed lower at about one year later from the accident. Activity concentration in river waters also showed the same tendency although there are only few data within 1 year from the accident. Activity concentrations measured at the same day are proportional to the mean catchment inventory. Therefore, the activity concentration can be normalized by the mean catchment inventory. The normalized activity can be fitted to following double exponential function: [At] = 1.551 exp (-5.265t) + 0.069 exp (-0.266 t), where t [year] is the time from the accident. There is no time evolution of Kd between suspended sediments and river water. Instead, Kd was varied spatially. Although the reason of the spatial variation is not clear for now, geology of the catchment (i.e. mineral composition of suspended particles) seems to relate to the variation.

  16. Effect of radiocesium transfer on ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, H.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents in throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured the ambient dose rate (ADR) at different heights in the forest using a survey meter and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 166 kBq/m2, 174 kBq/m2, and 60 kBq/m2, respectively. These values correspond to 38%, 40% and 13% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate in forest exhibited height dependency and its vertical distribution varied with forest type and stand age. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the height of dose measurement and forest type. The ambient dose rate at the canopy (approx. 10 m-height) decreased faster than that expected from physical decay of the two radiocesium isotopes, whereas those at the forest floor varied between the three forest stands. The radiocesium deposition via throughfall seemed to increase ambient dose rate during the first 200 days after the accident, however there was no clear relationship between litterfall and ambient dose rate since 400 days after the accident. These data suggested that the ambient dose rate in forest environment varied both spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. However, further monitoring investigation and analysis are required to determine the effect of litterfall on long-term trend of ambient dose rate in forest environments.

  17. Importin β1 mediates nuclear factor-κB signal transduction into the nuclei of myeloma cells and affects their proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenqing; Li, Rong; He, Jie; Du, Juan; Hou, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm that is currently incurable. The activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling plays a crucial role in the immortalisation of MM cells. As the most important transcription factor of the canonical NF-κB pathway, the p50/p65 heterodimer requires transportation into the nucleus for its successful signal transduction. Importin β1 is the key transport receptor that mediates p50/p65 nuclear import. Currently, it remains unclear whether the regulation of importin β1 function affects the biological behaviour of MM cells. In the present study, we investigated the changes in p65 translocation and the proliferation and apoptosis of MM cells after treatment with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or an importin β1 inhibitor. The underlying mechanisms were also investigated. We found importin β1 over-expression and the excessive nuclear transport of p65 in myeloma cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and Western blot analysis results indicated that p65 nuclear transport was blocked after inhibiting importin β1 expression with siRNA and the importin β1-specific inhibitor importazole (IPZ). Importantly, electronic mobility shift assay results also verified that p65 nuclear transport was dramatically reduced. Moreover, the expression of the NF-κB signalling target genes involved in MM cell apoptosis, such as BCL-2, c-IAP1 and XIAP, were markedly reduced, as demonstrated by the RT-PCR results. Furthermore, the proliferation of MM cells was inhibited, as demonstrated by MTT assay results, and the MM cell apoptosis rate was higher, as demonstrated by the annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double-staining assay results. Additionally, the percentage of S phase cells in the myeloma cell lines treated with IPZ was dramatically reduced. In conclusion, our results clearly show that importin β1 mediates the translocation of NF-κB into the nuclei of myeloma cells, thereby regulating proliferation and blocking apoptosis, which

  18. Reactor Physics and Criticality Benchmark Evaluations for Advanced Nuclear Fuel, Progress Report for Work through August 31, 2002, First Annual/4th Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, William J.; Ake, Timothy N.; Punatar, Mahendra; Pitts, Michelle L.; Harms, Gary A.; Rearden, Bradley T.; Parks, Cecil V.; Tulenko, James S.; Dugan, Edward; Smith, Robert M.

    2002-09-23

    OAK B204 The objective of this Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project is to design, perform, and analyze critical benchmark experiments for validating reactor physics methods and models for fuel enrichments greater than 5-wt% 235U. These experiments will also provide additional information for application to the criticality-safety bases for commercial fuel facilities handling greater than 5-wt% 235U fuel. These experiments are designed as reactor physics benchmarks, to include measurements of critical boron concentration, burnable absorber worth, relative pin powers, and relative average powers.The first year focused primarily on designing the experiments using available fuel, preparing the necessary plans, procedures and authorization basis for performing the experiments, and preparing for the transportation, receipt and storage of the Pathfinder fuel currently stored at Pennsylvania State University.Framatome ANP, Inc. leads the project with the collaboration of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Florida (UF). The project is organized into 5 tasks:Task 1: Framatome ANP, Inc., ORNL, and SNL will design the specific experiments, establish the safety authorization, and obtain approvals to perform these experiments at the SNL facility. ORNL will apply their sensitivity/uncertainty methodology to verify the need for particular experiments and the parameters that these experiments need to explore.Task 2: Framatome ANP, Inc., ORNL, and UF will analyze the proposed experiments using a variety of reactor-physics methods employed in the nuclear industry. These analyses will support the operation of the experiments by predicting the expected experimental values for the criticality and physics parameters.Task 3: This task encompasses the experiments to be performed. The Pathfinder fuel will be transported from Penn State to SNL for use in the experiments. The experiments will be performed and the

  19. High Prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Relation to Social Factors in Affected Population One Year after the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tsujiuchi, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Maya; Masuda, Kazutaka; Tsuchida, Marisa; Inomata, Tadashi; Kumano, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Augusterfer, Eugene F.; Mollica, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated post-traumatic stress symptoms in relation to the population affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster, one year after the disaster. Additionally, we investigated social factors, such as forced displacement, which we hypothesize contributed to the high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Finally, we report of written narratives that were collected from the impacted population. Design and Settings Using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), questionnaires were sent to 2,011 households of those displaced from Fukushima prefecture living temporarily in Saitama prefecture. Of the 490 replies; 350 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine several characteristics and variables of social factors as predictors of probable post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD. Results The mean score of IES-R was 36.15±21.55, with 59.4% having scores of 30 or higher, thus indicating a probable PTSD. No significant differences in percentages of high-risk subjects were found among sex, age, evacuation area, housing damages, tsunami affected, family split-up, and acquaintance support. By the result of multiple logistic regression analysis, the significant predictors of probable PTSD were chronic physical diseases (OR = 1.97), chronic mental diseases (OR = 6.25), worries about livelihood (OR = 2.27), lost jobs (OR = 1.71), lost social ties (OR = 2.27), and concerns about compensation (OR = 3.74). Conclusion Although there are limitations in assuming a diagnosis of PTSD based on self-report IES-R, our findings indicate that there was a high-risk of PTSD strongly related to the nuclear disaster and its consequent evacuation and displacement. Therefore, recovery efforts must focus not only on medical and psychological treatment alone, but also on social and economic issues related to the displacement, as well. PMID:27002324

  20. Vertical distribution of radiocesium in soils of the area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplev, A. V.; Golosov, V. N.; Yoschenko, V. I.; Nanba, K.; Onda, Y.; Takase, T.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Presented are results of the study of radiocesium vertical distribution in the soils of the irrigation pond catchments in the near field 0.25 to 8 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, on sections of the Niida River floodplain, and in a forest ecosystem typical of the territory contaminated after the accident. It is shown that the vertical migration of radiocesium in undisturbed forest and grassland soils in the zone affected by the Fukushima accident is faster than it was in the soils of the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP for a similar time interval after the accident. The effective dispersion coefficients in the Fukushima soils are several times higher than those for the Chernobyl soils. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone. In the forest soils the radiocesium dispersion is faster as compared to grassland soils, both in the Fukushima and Chernobyl zones. The study and analysis of the vertical distribution of the Fukushima origin radiocesium in the Niida gawa floodplain soils has made it possible to identify areas of contaminated sediment accumulation on the floodplain. The average accumulation rate for sediments at the study locations on the Niida gawa floodplain varied from 0.3 to 3.3 cm/year. Taking into account the sediments accumulation leading to an increase in the radiocesium inventory in alluvial soils is key for predicting redistribution of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima accident on the river catchments, as well as for decision-making on contaminated territories remediation and clean-up. Clean-up of alluvial soils does not seem to be worthwhile because of the following accumulation of contaminated sediments originating from more contaminated areas, including the exclusion zone.

  1. Nano-size scaling of alloy intra-particle vs. inter-particle separation transitions: prediction of distinctly interface-affected critical behaviour.

    PubMed

    Polak, M; Rubinovich, L

    2016-07-21

    Phase-separation second-order transitions in binary alloy particles consisting of ∼1000 up to ∼70 000 atoms (∼1-10 nm) are modeled focusing on the unexplored issue of finite-size scaling in such systems, particularly on evaluation of correlation-length critical exponents. Our statistical-thermodynamic approach is based on mean-field analytical expression for the Ising model free energy that facilitates highly efficient computations furnishing comprehensive data for fcc rectangular nanoparticles (NPs). These are summed up in intra- and inter-particle scaling plots as well as in nanophase separation diagrams. Temperature-induced variations in the interface thickness in Janus-type intra-particle configurations and NP size-dependent shifts in the critical temperature of their transition to solid-solution reflect power-law behavior with the same critical exponent, ν = 0.83. It is attributed to dominant interfacial effects that are absent in inter-particle transitions. Variations in ν with nano-size, as revealed by a refined analysis, are linearly extrapolated in order to bridge the gap to larger particles within and well beyond the nanoscale, ultimately yielding ν = 1.0. Besides these findings, the study indicates the key role of the surface-area to volume ratio as an effective linear size, revealing a universal, particle-shape independent, nanoscaling of the critical-temperature shifts. PMID:27338842

  2. A temperature-sensitive mutation affecting cilia regeneration, nuclear development, and the cell cycle of Tetrahymena thermophila is rescued by cytoplasmic exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, D.G.; Thatcher, T.; Gorovsky, M.A. )

    1988-07-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutation was isolated that blocks cilia regeneration and arrests growth in Tetrahymena thermophila. Protein and RNA synthesis and ATP production appeared to be largely unaffected at the restrictive temperature, suggesting that the mutation is specific for cilia regeneration and growth. At the restrictive temperature, mutant cells arrested at a specific point in the cell cycle, after macronuclear S phase and shortly before micronuclear mitosis. Arrested cels did not undergo nuclear divisions, DNA replication, or cytokinesis, so the mutation appears to cause true cell cycle arrest. Surprisingly, the mutation des not appear to affect micronuclear mitosis directly but rather some event(s) prior to micronuclear mitosis that must be completed before cells can complete the cell cycle. The cell cycle arrest was transiently complemented by wild-type cytoplasm exchanged during conjugation with a wild-type cell. Each starved, wild-type cell apparently contained enough rescuing factor to support an average of six cell divisions. Thus, this mutation affects assembly and/or function of at least one but not al of the microtubule-based structures in T. thermophila.

  3. Exploring Critical Assumptions of Petrophysical Models in Fractured Aquifers by Comparing Estimated Porosity Values Obtained from Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Shallow Seismic Refraction Surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinchum, B. A.; Holbrook, W. S.; Grana, D.; Parsekian, A.

    2015-12-01

    Estimating subsurface porosity from most near-surface geophysical techniques relies on petrophysical relationships. Using petrophysical relationships are challenging because they require many assumptions and oftentimes require site-specific constants. Despite complexities and challenges, the petrophysical relationships are critical to convert the measurable physical properties into hydrologic properties such as porosity, water content and ultimately hydraulic conductivity. In this study we compare porosities derived from shallow seismic refraction (SSR) and surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) in a fractured granite aquifer in the Laramie Range, Wyoming. To estimate porosity from the SSR data we use a Bayesian inversion based on Hertz-Mindlin contact theory and Hashin- Strickman boundaries. This type of petrophysical model requires us to make assumptions about the grain structure, mineralogy and water content. Using water table measurements from a borehole we assume that all pores are fully saturated below 10 meters, thus the SNMR measurement provides an estimate of porosity. If the petrophysical model and the assumptions that are required to use it were correct and the SNMR measurements were perfect, the estimates of porosities derived from two distinct physical measurements should provide the same porosity. Interestingly, we observe a large discrepancy in the porosities derived from this unique combination of measurements. At depths of 10 to 20 meters, the area that we interpret as fractured bedrock and where the assumption of fully saturated pores holds, the SSR predicted porosities are 15 to 20 % higher than those predicted by SNMR. Previous comparisons of the Bayesian inversion have shown it does well to predict porosity within the saprolite. The large discrepancy illustrates the need to use separate petrophysical models in the weathered and fractured zones of granite aquifers. More research is needed to figure out how to combine different petrophysical

  4. Therapeutic potential and critical analysis of trastuzumab and bevacizumab in combination with different chemotherapeutic agents against metastatic breast/colorectal cancer affecting various endpoints.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Mohd; Mandal, Raju K; Dar, Sajad A; Jawed, Arshad; Lohani, Mohtashim; Areeshi, Mohammad Y; Akhter, Naseem; Haque, Shafiul

    2016-08-01

    Researchers are working day and night across the globe to eradicate or at least lessen the menace of cancer faced by the mankind. The two very frequently occurring cancers faced by the human beings are metastatic breast cancer and metastatic colorectal cancer. The various chemotherapeutic agents like anthracycline, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel, irinotecan, fluorouracil and leucovorin etc., have been used impressively for long. But the obstinate character of metastatic breast cancer and metastatic colorectal cancer needs more to tackle the threat. So, the scientists found the use of monoclonal antibodies trastuzumab (Herceptin(®)) and bevacizumab (Avastin(®)) for the same. The current study critically investigates the therapeutic potential of trastuzumab and bevacizumab in combination with various chemotherapeutic agents against metastatic breast cancer and metastatic colorectal cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the very first critical analysis showing percent wise increase in various positive endpoints like median time to disease progression, median survival, and progression free survival etc. for the treatment of metastatic breast/colorectal cancer using trastuzumab and bevacizumab in combination with different chemotherapeutic agents and provides the rational for the success and failure of the selected monoclonal antibodies. PMID:27357488

  5. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Xiuyang; Wang, Bing; Liu, Erlong; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Heng

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:26923071

  6. Anisotropic Cell Expansion Is Affected through the Bidirectional Mobility of Cellulose Synthase Complexes and Phosphorylation at Two Critical Residues on CESA31[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanmei; Bauer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Here we report that phosphorylation status of S211 and T212 of the CESA3 component of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cellulose synthase impacts the regulation of anisotropic cell expansion as well as cellulose synthesis and deposition and microtubule-dependent bidirectional mobility of CESA complexes. Mutation of S211 to Ala caused a significant decrease in the length of etiolated hypocotyls and primary roots, while root hairs were not significantly affected. By contrast, the S211E mutation stunted the growth of root hairs, but primary roots were not significantly affected. Similarly, T212E caused a decrease in the length of root hairs but not root length. However, T212E stunted the growth of etiolated hypocotyls. Live-cell imaging of fluorescently labeled CESA showed that the rate of movement of CESA particles was directionally asymmetric in etiolated hypocotyls of S211A and T212E mutants, while similar bidirectional velocities were observed with the wild-type control and S211E and T212A mutant lines. Analysis of cell wall composition and the innermost layer of cell wall suggests a role for phosphorylation of CESA3 S211 and T212 in cellulose aggregation into fibrillar bundles. These results suggest that microtubule-guided bidirectional mobility of CESA complexes is fine-tuned by phosphorylation of CESA3 S211 and T212, which may, in turn, modulate cellulose synthesis and organization, resulting in or contributing to the observed defects of anisotropic cell expansion. PMID:26969722

  7. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  8. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  9. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals’ Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  10. Tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR (T-ARMS-PCR) rapidly identified a critical missense mutation (P236T) of bovine ACADVL gene affecting growth traits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sihuan; Dang, Yonglong; Zhang, Qingfeng; Qin, Qiaomei; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong; Lan, Xianyong

    2015-04-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain (ACADVL), encoding ACADVL protein, targets the inner mitochondrial membrane where it catalyzes the first step of the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway and plays an important role in body metabolism and oxidation of long chain fatty acid releasing energy. Tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR (T-ARMS-PCR) is an easy-to-operate, rapid, inexpensive, and exact method for SNP genotyping. Herein, T-ARMS-PCR was carried out to detect a critical missense mutation (AC_000176:g.2885C>A; Pro236Thr) within the ACADVL gene in 644 individuals from two cattle breeds. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the T-ARMS-PCR at this locus, the genotype of the sampled individuals was also identified by PCR-RFLP. The concordance between these two methods was 98.76%. Statistical analysis showed that the bovine ACADVL gene had a significant effect on chest width (P<0.05), chest depth (P<0.05), and hip width (P<0.05) in the Qinchuan breed. The cattle with AA genotype had superior growth traits compared to cattle with AC and/or CC genotypes. The "A" allele had positive effects on growth traits. Therefore, T-ARMS-PCR can replace PCR-RFLP for rapid genotyping of this mutation, which could be used as a DNA marker for selecting individuals with superior growth traits in the Qinchuan breed. These findings contribute to breeding and genetics in beef cattle industry.

  11. Critical Variables affecting clinical-grade production of the self-inactivating gamma-retroviral vector for the treatment of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    van der Loo, JCM; Swaney, WP; Grassman, E; Terwilliger, A; Higashimoto, T; Schambach, A; Hacein-Bey-Abina, S; Nordling, DL; Cavazzana-Calvo, M; Thrasher, AJ; Williams, DA; Reeves, L; Malik, P

    2014-01-01

    Patients with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) were successfully cured following gene therapy with a gamma-retroviral vector (gRV) expressing the common gamma chain of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL2RG). However, 5 of 20 patients developed leukemia from activation of cellular proto-oncogenes by viral enhancers in the long-terminal repeats (LTR) of the integrated vector. These events prompted the design of a gRV vector with self-inactivating (SIN) LTRs to enhance vector safety. Herein we report on the production of a clinical-grade SIN IL2RG gRV pseudotyped with the Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus envelope for a new gene therapy trial for SCID-X1, and highlight variables that were found to be critical for transfection-based large-scale SIN gRV production. Successful clinical production required careful selection of culture medium without pre-added glutamine, reduced exposure of packaging cells to cell-dissociation enzyme, and presence of cations in wash buffer. The clinical vector was high titer; transduced 68–70% normal human CD34 + cells, as determined by colony-forming unit assays and by xenotransplantation in immunodeficient NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J (nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID)) and NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NOD/SCID gamma (NSG))) mice; and resulted in the production of T cells in vitro from human SCID-X1 CD34 + cells. The vector was certified and released for the treatment of SCID-X1 in a multi-center international phase I/II trial. PMID:22551777

  12. Early gestation as the critical time-window for changes in the prenatal environment to affect the adult human blood methylome

    PubMed Central

    Tobi, Elmar W; Slieker, Roderick C; Stein, Aryeh D; Suchiman, H Eka D; Slagboom, P Eline; van Zwet, Erik W; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Lumey, LH

    2015-01-01

    Background: The manipulation of pregnancy diets in animals can lead to changes in DNA methylation with phenotypic consequences in the offspring. Human studies have concentrated on the effects of nutrition during early gestation. Lacking in humans is an epigenome-wide association study of DNA methylation in relation to perturbations in nutrition across all gestation periods. Methods: We used the quasi-experimental setting of the Dutch famine of 1944–45 to evaluate the impact of famine exposure during specific 10-week gestation periods, or during any time in gestation, on genome-wide DNA methylation levels at age ∼ 59 years. In addition, we evaluated the impact of exposure during a shorter pre- and post-conception period. DNA methylation was assessed using the Illumina 450k array in whole blood among 422 individuals with prenatal famine exposure and 463 time- or sibling-controls without prenatal famine exposure. Results: Famine exposure during gestation weeks 1–10, but not weeks 11–20, 21–30 or 31-delivery, was associated with an increase in DNA methylation of CpG dinucleotides cg20823026 (FAM150B), cg10354880 (SLC38A2) and cg27370573 (PPAP2C) and a decrease of cg11496778 (OSBPL5/MRGPRG) (P < 5.9 × 10−7, PFDR < 0.031). There was an increase in methylation of TACC1 and ZNF385A after exposure during any time in gestation (P < 2.0 × 10−7, PFDR = 0.034) and a decrease of cg23989336 (TMEM105) after exposure around conception. These changes represent a shift of 0.3–0.6 standard deviations and are linked to genes involved in growth, development and metabolism. Conclusion: Early gestation, and not mid or late gestation, is identified as a critical time-period for adult DNA methylation changes in whole blood after prenatal exposure to famine. PMID:25944819

  13. How do the residual fragments after SWL affect the health-related quality of life? A critical analysis in a size-based manner.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Cahit; Kafkasli, Alper; Cetinel, Cihangir A; Narter, Fehmi; Saglam, Erkin; Sarica, Kemal

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the possible effects of residual fragments (RF) after shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) on the health-related quality of life (QOL) of the patients on a size-related basis. Eighty six patients with RF after SWL were divided into three groups: Group 1 (n:30 with fragments ≤ 2 mm), Group 2 (n:21 2-≤ 4 mm) and Group 3 (n:35 > 4 mm). During a 3-month follow-up, spontaneous passage rates, emergency department visits, mean analgesic required, additional procedures and the QOL were all evaluated. QOL was evaluated using the Short Form-36 survey. Of the 30 patients with fragments ≤ 2 mm all cases passed the fragments spontaneously. Of the 21 cases with fragments 2-≤ 4, however, 76% were stone free. Last, of the 35 cases with fragments >4 mm, 52% passed them spontaneously in 3 months. While no patient with fragments ≤ 2 mm required emergency department visit, 19% of the cases with fragments 2-≤ 4 mm and 51.4 % with fragments >4 mm did require this visit. Mean analgesic need (mg) values were higher in cases with larger fragments. Evaluation of the QOL score data in a subgroup comparison base showed that cases with larger fragments had prominently lower scores during both 1- and 3-month evaluation. RF after SWL could pose an impact on the QOL of the cases in a size-related basis. While fragments ≤ 2 mm had nearly no impact on this aspect larger fragments could significantly affect the QOL.

  14. A critical evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of radon protection methods in new homes in a radon affected area of England.

    PubMed

    Coskeran, Thomas; Denman, Antony; Phillips, Paul; Tornberg, Roger

    2009-08-01

    In the UK, building new homes in areas prone to radon gas is currently subject to regulations that require installation of radon-proof membranes. These membranes are not, however, the only way to protect residents of new homes against radon's potential to cause lung cancer. Alternative regulatory regimes can be constructed that would achieve the same end. The purpose of this paper is to examine the cost-effectiveness of four alternative regimes and so determine if building regulations for new homes could be altered to protect residents from the effects of radon more cost-effectively than at present. In addressing this question, the paper also contributes to the wider debate on how best to reduce the effect on public health of exposure to radon. The measure of cost-effectiveness used, cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained, is determined from radon test results obtained in properties in Brixworth, England, UK, a radon Affected Area. Confidence intervals for the cost-effectiveness estimates are also derived using bootstrap techniques. The central estimates of cost-effectiveness range from 2870 pounds per quality-adjusted life-year gained for the most cost-effective of the alternative regimes to 6182 pounds for the current regime. These results suggest that alternative regimes may be more cost-effective in tackling the radon problem. A definitive assessment of the most suitable to adopt will require extensive negotiation between government departments, the construction industry, and other interested parties to ensure acceptance of any new regime. The paper offers suggestions for future research that should help in the process of identifying the key features of a new regulatory approach.

  15. Relationships between the Life Values of U. S. College Students and their Cognitive/Affective Responses to the Threat of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships between life values of 399 American college students and their nuclear war-related thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Subjects completed four scales from Life Values Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale, four scales from Nuclear War Inventory, and single behavioral measure of approach toward information concerning nuclear…

  16. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The nuclear shield in the 'thirty-year war' of physicists against ignorant criticism of modern physical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizgin, Vladimir P.

    1999-12-01

    This article deals with the almost 'thirty-year war' led by physicists against the authorities' incompetent philosophical and ideological interference with science. The 'war' is shown to have been related to the history of Soviet nuclear weapons. Theoretical milestones of 20th century physics, to wit, theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, suffered endless 'attacks on philosophical grounds'. The theories were proclaimed idealistic as well as unduly abstract and out of touch with practice; their authors and followers were labelled 'physical idealists', and later, in the 1940s and 1950s, even 'cosmopolitans without kith or kin'. Meanwhile, quantum and relativistic theories, as is widely known, had become the basis of nuclear physics and of the means of studying the atomic nucleus (charged particle accelerators, for instance). The two theories thus served, to a great extent, as a basis for both peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy, made possible by the discovery of uranium nuclear fission under the action of neutrons. In the first part, the article recounts how prominent physicists led the way to resisting philosophical and ideological pressure and standing up for relativity, quantum theories and nuclear physics, thus enabling the launch of the atomic project. The second part contains extensive material proving the point that physicists effectively used the 'nuclear shield' in the 1940s and 1950s against the 'philosophical-cosmopolitan' pressure, indeed saving physics from a tragic fate as that of biology at the Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) session in 1948.

  17. NUCLEAR PORE ANCHOR, the Arabidopsis Homolog of Tpr/Mlp1/Mlp2/Megator, Is Involved in mRNA Export and SUMO Homeostasis and Affects Diverse Aspects of Plant Development[W

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianfeng Morgan; Rose, Annkatrin; Muthuswamy, Sivaramakrishnan; Jeong, Sun Yong; Venkatakrishnan, Sowmya; Zhao, Qiao; Meier, Iris

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate Tpr and its yeast homologs Mlp1/Mlp2, long coiled-coil proteins of nuclear pore inner basket filaments, are involved in mRNA export, telomere organization, spindle pole assembly, and unspliced RNA retention. We identified Arabidopsis thaliana NUCLEAR PORE ANCHOR (NUA) encoding a 237-kD protein with similarity to Tpr. NUA is located at the inner surface of the nuclear envelope in interphase and in the vicinity of the spindle in prometaphase. Four T-DNA insertion lines were characterized, which comprise an allelic series of increasing severity for several correlating phenotypes, such as early flowering under short days and long days, increased abundance of SUMO conjugates, altered expression of several flowering regulators, and nuclear accumulation of poly(A)+ RNA. nua mutants phenocopy mutants of EARLY IN SHORT DAYS4 (ESD4), an Arabidopsis SUMO protease concentrated at the nuclear periphery. nua esd4 double mutants resemble nua and esd4 single mutants, suggesting that the two proteins act in the same pathway or complex, supported by yeast two-hybrid interaction. Our data indicate that NUA is a component of nuclear pore-associated steps of sumoylation and mRNA export in plants and that defects in these processes affect the signaling events of flowering time regulation and additional developmental processes. PMID:17513499

  18. Nuclear Theory - Nuclear Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.; Kozier, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    The results from modern nuclear theory are accurate and reliable enough to be used for practical applications, in particular for scattering that involves few-nucleon systems of importance to nuclear power. Using well-established nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that fit well the NN scattering data, and the AGS form of the three-body theory, we have performed precise calculations of low-energy neutron-deuteron (n+d) scattering. We show that three-nucleon force effects that have impact on the low-energy vector analyzing powers have no practical effects on the angular distribution of the n+d cross-section. There appear to be problems for this scattering in the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) libraries, at the incident neutron energies less than 3.2 MeV. Supporting experimental data in this energy region are rather old (>25 years), sparse and often inconsistent. Our three-body results at low energies, 50 keV to 10.0 MeV, are compared to the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) -3.3 evaluated angular distributions. The impact of these results on the calculated reactivity for various critical systems involving heavy water is shown.

  19. Criticality Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Scaglione

    2003-03-12

    The purpose of the ''Criticality Model Report'' is to validate the MCNP (CRWMS M&O 1998h) code's ability to accurately predict the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for a range of conditions spanned by various critical configurations representative of the potential configurations commercial reactor assemblies stored in a waste package may take. Results of this work are an indication of the accuracy of MCNP for calculating eigenvalues, which will be used as input for criticality analyses for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. The scope of this report is to document the development and validation of the criticality model. The scope of the criticality model is only applicable to commercial pressurized water reactor fuel. Valid ranges are established as part of the validation of the criticality model. This model activity follows the description in BSC (2002a).

  20. 10 CFR 150.11 - Critical mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Critical mass. 150.11 Section 150.11 Energy NUCLEAR... OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Exemptions in Agreement States § 150.11 Critical mass. (a) For the purposes of this part, special nuclear material in quantities not sufficient to form a critical mass...

  1. 10 CFR 150.11 - Critical mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Critical mass. 150.11 Section 150.11 Energy NUCLEAR... OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Exemptions in Agreement States § 150.11 Critical mass. (a) For the purposes of this part, special nuclear material in quantities not sufficient to form a critical mass...

  2. 10 CFR 150.11 - Critical mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Critical mass. 150.11 Section 150.11 Energy NUCLEAR... OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Exemptions in Agreement States § 150.11 Critical mass. (a) For the purposes of this part, special nuclear material in quantities not sufficient to form a critical mass...

  3. 10 CFR 150.11 - Critical mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Critical mass. 150.11 Section 150.11 Energy NUCLEAR... OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Exemptions in Agreement States § 150.11 Critical mass. (a) For the purposes of this part, special nuclear material in quantities not sufficient to form a critical mass...

  4. Criticality validation for burnup credit using recycle Pu criticals

    SciTech Connect

    Fuentes, E.; Lancaster, D.

    1997-04-01

    A set of 23 additional critical experiments were analyzed to provide additional input to the criticality validation portion of spent fuel cask analysis. The results of this analyses were combined with the previously analyzed criticals to determine the upper safety limit on k{sub eff}. The combined set of criticals can be used used for criticality validation for burnup credit, and are better suited for the range of isotopics in spent nuclear fuels. A trend observed in the analysis was that the calculated k{sub eff} deviates from the criticals in the positive direction, implying that increased burnup results in increased safety margin. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Nuclear localization of CPI-17, a protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, affects histone H3 phosphorylation and corresponds to proliferation of cancer and smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Masumi; Kirkbride, Jason A.; Chugh, Rishika; Karikari, Nana Kofi; Kim, Jee In

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Non-canonical roles of the myosin phosphatase inhibitor (CPI-17) were studied. •CPI-17 is localized in the nucleus of hyperplastic cancer and smooth muscle cells. •CPI-17 Ser12 phosphorylation may regulate the nuclear import. •CPI-17 regulates histone H3 phosphorylation and cell proliferation. •The nuclear CPI-17-PP1 axis plays a proliferative role in cells. -- Abstract: CPI-17 (C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor, 17 kDa) is a cytoplasmic protein predominantly expressed in mature smooth muscle (SM) that regulates the myosin-associated PP1 holoenzyme (MLCP). Here, we show CPI-17 expression in proliferating cells, such as pancreatic cancer and hyperplastic SM cells. Immunofluorescence showed that CPI-17 was concentrated in nuclei of human pancreatic cancer (Panc1) cells. Nuclear accumulation of CPI-17 was also detected in the proliferating vascular SM cell culture and cells at neointima of rat vascular injury model. The N-terminal 21-residue tail domain of CPI-17 was necessary for the nuclear localization. Phospho-mimetic Asp-substitution of CPI-17 at Ser12 attenuated the nuclear import. CPI-17 phosphorylated at Ser12 was not localized at nuclei, suggesting a suppressive role of Ser12 phosphorylation in the nuclear import. Activated CPI-17 bound to all three isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit in Panc1 nuclear extracts. CPI-17 knockdown in Panc1 resulted in dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3, Ser10 and Thr11, whereas it had no effects on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain and merlin, the known targets of MLCP. In parallel, CPI-17 knockdown suppressed Panc1 proliferation. We propose that CPI-17 accumulated in the nucleus through the N-terminal tail targets multiple PP1 signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation.

  6. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report CSER-96-019 for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Processing and Storage Facilities Multi Canister Overpack (MCO)

    SciTech Connect

    KESSLER, S.F.

    1999-10-20

    This criticality evaluation is for Spent N Reactor fuel unloaded from the existing canisters in both KE and KW Basins, and loaded into multiple canister overpack (MCO) containers with specially built baskets containing a maximum of either 54 Mark IV or 48 Mark IA fuel assemblies. The criticality evaluations include loading baskets into the cask-MCO, operation at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility,a nd storage in the Canister Storage Building. Many conservatisms have been built into this analysis, the primary one being the selection of the K{sub eff} = 0.95 criticality safety limit. This revision incorporates the analyses for the sampling/weld station in the Canister Storage Building and additional analysis of the MCO during the draining at CVDF. Additional discussion of the scrap basket model was added to show why the addition of copper divider plates was not included in the models.

  7. Nuclear localization of CPI-17, a protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, affects histone H3 phosphorylation and corresponds to proliferation of cancer and smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Eto, Masumi; Kirkbride, Jason A; Chugh, Rishika; Karikari, Nana Kofi; Kim, Jee In

    2013-01-01

    CPI-17 (C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor, 17kDa) is a cytoplasmic protein predominantly expressed in mature smooth muscle (SM) that regulates the myosin-associated PP1 holoenzyme (MLCP). Here, we show CPI-17 expression in proliferating cells, such as pancreatic cancer and hyperplastic SM cells. Immunofluorescence showed that CPI-17 was concentrated in nuclei of human pancreatic cancer (Panc1) cells. Nuclear accumulation of CPI-17 was also detected in the proliferating vascular SM cell culture and cells at neointima of rat vascular injury model. The N-terminal 21-residue tail domain of CPI-17 was necessary for the nuclear localization. Phospho-mimetic Asp-substitution of CPI-17 at Ser12 attenuated the nuclear import. CPI-17 phosphorylated at Ser12 was not localized at nuclei, suggesting a suppressive role of Ser12 phosphorylation in the nuclear import. Activated CPI-17 bound to all three isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit in Panc1 nuclear extracts. CPI-17 knockdown in Panc1 resulted in dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3, Ser10 and Thr11, whereas it had no effects on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain and merlin, the known targets of MLCP. In parallel, CPI-17 knockdown suppressed Panc1 proliferation. We propose that CPI-17 accumulated in the nucleus through the N-terminal tail targets multiple PP1 signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation. PMID:23541585

  8. Critical role of charged residues in helix 7 of the ligand binding domain in Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4alpha dimerisation and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Oxombre, Bénédicte; Formstecher, Pierre; Lefebvre, Philippe; Laine, Bernard

    2003-11-15

    Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha, NR2A1) is central to hepatocyte and pancreatic beta-cell functions. Along with retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha), HNF4alpha belongs to the nuclear receptor subfamily 2 (NR2), characterised by a conserved arginyl residue and a glutamate residue insert in helix 7 (H7) of the ligand binding domain (LBD). Crystallographic studies indicate that R348 and E352 residues in RXRalpha H7 are involved in charge-driven interactions that improve dimerisation. Consistent with these findings, we showed that removing the charge of the corresponding residues in HNF4alpha H7, R258 and E262, impaired dimerisation in solution. Moreover, our results provide a new concept according to which helices of the HNF4alpha LBD dimerisation interface contribute differently to dimerisation required for DNA binding; unlike H9 and H10, H7 is not involved in DNA binding. Substitutions of E262 decreased the repression of HNF4alpha transcriptional activity by a dominant-negative HNF4alpha mutant, highlighting the importance of this residue for dimerisation in the cell context. The E262 insert is crucial for HNF4alpha function since its deletion abolished HNF4alpha transcriptional activity and coactivator recruitment. The glutamate residue insert and the conserved arginyl residue in H7 most probably represent a signature of the NR2 subfamily of nuclear receptors.

  9. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  10. Critical assumptions: thinking critically about critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Thelma

    2007-03-01

    The concept of critical thinking has been featured in nursing literature for the past 20 years. It has been described but not defined by both the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and the National League for Nursing, although their corresponding accreditation bodies require that critical thinking be included in nursing curricula. In addition, there is no reliable or valid measurement tool for critical thinking ability in nursing. As a result, there is a lack of research support for the assumptions that critical thinking can be learned and that critical thinking ability improves clinical competence. Brookfield suggested that commitments should be made only after a period of critically reflective analysis, during which the congruence between perceptions and reality are examined. In an evidence-based practice profession, we, as nurse educators, need to ask ourselves how we can defend our assumptions that critical thinking can be learned and that critical thinking improves the quality of nursing practice, especially when there is virtually no consensus on a definition.

  11. Heisenberg and the critical mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2002-09-01

    An elementary treatment of the critical mass used in nuclear weapons is presented and applied to an analysis of the wartime activities of the German nuclear program. In particular, the work of Werner Heisenberg based on both wartime and postwar documents is discussed.

  12. Criticality safety studies for the storage of waste from nuclear fuel service in Intercell Storage Wells 2 and 3 of Building 3019

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, R.T. III; Hopper, C.M.; Smolen, G.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report provides computational evaluation results demonstrating that mixed oxide waste can be safely stored in Intercell Storage Wells 2 and 3 of Building 3019 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Existing, verified computational techniques are validated with applicable critical experiments and tolerance limits for safety analyses are derived. Multiplication factors for normal and credible abnormal configurations are calculated and found to be far subcritical when compared to derived safety limits.

  13. Critical Care

    MedlinePlus

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  14. Archetypal Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesebro, James W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Argues that archetypal criticism is a useful way of examining universal, historical, and cross-cultural symbols in classrooms. Identifies essential features of an archetype; outlines operational and critical procedures; illustrates archetypal criticism as applied to the cross as a symbol; and provides a synoptic placement for archetypal criticism…

  15. Criticality Safety Evaluation of a LLNL Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrichs, D P

    2006-06-26

    Hands-on experimental training in the physical behavior of multiplying systems is one of ten key areas of training required for practitioners to become qualified in the discipline of criticality safety as identified in DOE-STD-1135-99, ''Guidance for Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineer Training and Qualification''. This document is a criticality safety evaluation of the training activities (or operations) associated with HS-3200, ''Laboratory Class for Criticality Safety''. These activities utilize the Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS). The original intent of HS-3200 was to provide LLNL fissile material handlers with a practical hands-on experience as a supplement to the academic training they receive biennially in HS-3100, ''Fundamentals of Criticality Safety'', as required by ANSI/ANS-8.20-1991, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Training''. HS-3200 is to be enhanced to also address the training needs of nuclear criticality safety professionals under the auspices of the NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program.

  16. Critical-point nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.M.

    2004-10-01

    It has been suggested that a change of nuclear shape may be described in terms of a phase transition and that specific nuclei may lie close to the critical point of the transition. Analytical descriptions of such critical-point nuclei have been introduced recently and they are described briefly. The results of extensive searches for possible examples of critical-point behavior are presented. Alternative pictures, such as describing bands in the candidate nuclei using simple {Delta}K = 0 and {Delta}K = 2 rotational-coupling models, are discussed, and the limitations of the different approaches highlighted. A possible critical-point description of the transition from a vibrational to rotational pairing phase is suggested.

  17. The solid-state signaling pathway from extracellular matrix to nuclear matrix: The critical role of three-dimensional architecture for functional differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lelievre, S.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    Breast cells are useful experimental subjects for cell biologists because the mammary gland is one of the few tissues that undergoes dramatic changes in form and function after adulthood. Recently, the study in our laboratory of a human breast tumor progression series has allowed for the analysis of changes in cellular architecture (including nuclear architecture) when phenotypically normal cells become tumorigenic. This research aims to participate in the battle against breast cancer by helping to understand tumor progression and to identify new therapeutic markers for cancer treatment. This article explores the advantages and challenges of using high resolution X-ray computed microtomography for the study of 3-dimensional organization of breast tissue architecture.

  18. Nuclear β-arrestin1 is a critical cofactor of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α signaling in endothelin-1-induced ovarian tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Rosanò, Laura; Caprara, Valentina; Sestito, Rosanna; Di Castro, Valeriana; Bagnato, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) mediates the response to hypoxia or other stimuli, such as growth factors, including endothelin-1 (ET-1), to promote malignant progression in numerous tumors. The importance of cofactors that regulate HIF-1α signalling within tumor is not well understood. Here we elucidate that ET-1/ETA receptor (ETAR)-induced pathway physically and functionally couples the scaffold protein β-arrestin1 (β-arr1) to HIF-1α signalling. In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells, ET-1/ETAR axis induced vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression through HIF-1α nuclear accumulation. In these cells, activation of ETAR by ET-1, by mimicking hypoxia, promoted the nuclear interaction between β-arr1 and HIF-1α and the recruitment of p300 acetyltransferase to hypoxia response elements on the target gene promoters, resulting in enhanced histone acetylation, and HIF-1α target gene transcription. Indeed, β-arr1-HIF-1α interaction regulated the enhanced expression and release of downstream targets, such as ET-1 and VEGF, required for tumor cell invasion and pro-angiogenic effects in endothelial cells. These effects were abrogated by β-arr1 or HIF-1α silencing or by pharmacological treatment with the dual ET-1 receptor antagonist macitentan. Interestingly, ETAR/β-arr1 promoted the self-amplifying HIF-1α-mediated transcription of ET-1 that sustained a regulatory circuit involved in invasive and angiogenic behaviors. In a murine orthotopic model of metastatic human EOC, treatment with macitentan, or silencing of β-arr1, inhibits intravasation and metastasis formation. Collectively, these findings reveal the interplay of β-arr1 with HIF-1α in the complexity of ET-1/ETAR signalling, mediating epigenetic modifications directly involved in the metastatic process, and suggest that targeting ET-1-dependent β-arr1/HIF-1α pathway by using macitentan may impair EOC progression. PMID:26909598

  19. Critical Thinking vs. Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores four kinds of critical thinking. The first is found in Socratic dialogues, which employ critical thinking mainly to reveal logical fallacies in common opinions, thus cleansing superior minds of error and leaving philosophers free to contemplate universal verities. The second is critical interpretation (hermeneutics) which…

  20. Critically Thinking about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…

  1. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  2. The Indefinite Extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: A Hinderence or Help to Future Arms Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pella, Peter J.

    1996-05-01

    The indefinite and "unconditional" extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) was achieved almost one year ago today. This outcome was a major foreign policy goal of the Clinton Administration. Some critics of the NPT's indefinite extension claim that nuclear weapons states parties to the NPT have now legitimized their possession of nuclear weapons for all time and that there is no incentive for future nuclear arms control and disarmament measures. A discussion of how the indefinite extension of the NPT has affected the nuclear arms control landscape and the prospects for future disarmament measures will be discussed.

  3. Criticality Safety Code Validation with LWBR’s SB Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Putman, Valerie Lee

    2003-01-01

    The first set of critical experiments from the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor Program included eight, simple geometry critical cores built with 233UO2-ZrO2, 235UO2-ZrO2, ThO2, and ThO2-233UO2 nuclear materials. These cores are evaluated, described, and modeled to provide benchmarks and validation information for INEEL criticality safety calculation methodology. In addition to consistency with INEEL methodology, benchmark development and nuclear data are consistent with International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project methodology.Section 1 of this report introduces the experiments and the reason they are useful for validating some INEEL criticality safety calculations. Section 2 provides detailed experiment descriptions based on currently available experiment reports. Section 3 identifies criticality safety validation requirement sources and summarizes requirements that most affect this report. Section 4 identifies relevant hand calculation and computer code calculation methodologies used in the experiment evaluation, benchmark development, and validation calculations. Section 5 provides a detailed experiment evaluation. This section identifies resolutions for currently unavailable and discrepant information. Section 5 also reports calculated experiment uncertainty effects. Section 6 describes the developed benchmarks. Section 6 includes calculated sensitivities to various benchmark features and parameters. Section 7 summarizes validation results. Appendices describe various assumptions and their bases, list experimenter calculations results for items that were independently calculated for this validation work, report other information gathered and developed by SCIENTEC personnel while evaluating these same experiments, and list benchmark sample input and miscellaneous supplementary data.

  4. Protein Kinase C Delta (PKCδ) Affects Proliferation of Insulin-Secreting Cells by Promoting Nuclear Extrusion of the Cell Cycle Inhibitor p21Cip1/WAF1

    PubMed Central

    Ranta, Felicia; Leveringhaus, Johannes; Theilig, Dorothea; Schulz-Raffelt, Gabriele; Hennige, Anita M.; Hildebrand, Dominic G.; Handrick, René; Jendrossek, Verena; Bosch, Fatima; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Ullrich, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Background High fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and palmitate-stimulated apoptosis was prevented by specific inhibition of protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) in β-cells. To understand the role of PKCδ in more detail the impact of changes in PKCδ activity on proliferation and survival of insulin-secreting cells was analyzed under stress-free conditions. Methodology and Principal Findings Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, the effect of reduced and increased PKCδ activity on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle regulation of insulin secreting cells was examined. Proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Increased expression of wild type PKCδ (PKCδWT) significantly stimulated proliferation of INS-1E cells with concomitant reduced expression and cytosolic retraction of the cell cycle inhibitor p21Cip1/WAF1. This nuclear extrusion was mediated by PKCδ-dependent phosphorylation of p21Cip1/WAF1 at Ser146. In kinase dead PKCδ (PKCδKN) overexpressing cells and after inhibition of endogenous PKCδ activity by rottlerin or RNA interference phosphorylation of p21Cip1/WAF1 was reduced, which favored its nuclear accumulation and apoptotic cell death of INS-1E cells. Human and mouse islet cells express p21Cip1/WAF1 with strong nuclear accumulation, while in islet cells of PKCδWT transgenic mice the inhibitor resides cytosolic. Conclusions and Significance These observations disclose PKCδ as negative regulator of p21Cip1/WAF1, which facilitates proliferation of insulin secreting cells under stress-free conditions and suggest that additional stress-induced changes push PKCδ into its known pro-apoptotic role. PMID:22216119

  5. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: a triple disaster affecting the mental health of the country.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Jun; Shigemura, Jun

    2013-09-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused 2 other serious disasters: a tsunami and a nuclear power plant accident. A chronic shortage of mental health resources had been previously reported in the Tohoku region, and the triple disaster worsened the situation. Eventually a public health approach was implemented by providing a common room in temporary housing developments to build a sense of community and to approach evacuees so that they could be triaged and referred to mental health teams. Japan now advocates using psychological first aid to educate first responders. This article extracts key lessons from relevant literature. PMID:23954052

  6. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: a triple disaster affecting the mental health of the country.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Jun; Shigemura, Jun

    2013-09-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused 2 other serious disasters: a tsunami and a nuclear power plant accident. A chronic shortage of mental health resources had been previously reported in the Tohoku region, and the triple disaster worsened the situation. Eventually a public health approach was implemented by providing a common room in temporary housing developments to build a sense of community and to approach evacuees so that they could be triaged and referred to mental health teams. Japan now advocates using psychological first aid to educate first responders. This article extracts key lessons from relevant literature.

  7. NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS PROJECT WITH A NEW LOW-ENERGY RIB SEPARATOR CRIB:. Study of a Critical Stellar Reaction 15O(α,γ)19Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, S.; Michimasa, S.; Teranishi, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Fulop, Z.; Liu, X.; Kumagai, K.; Abe, K.; Yun, C. C.; Watanabe, S.; Yamazaki, N.; Ohshiro, Y.; Kurokawa, M.; Strasser, P.; Hahn, K. I.; Kishida, T.; Imai, N.; Kato, S.; Fuchi, Y.; Tanaka, M. H.

    2003-04-01

    One of the critical stellar reactions for the onset of explosive hydrogen burning, 15O(α,γ)19Ne, is discussed with our recent experimental effort and a new possibility in our new RIB project. This reaction was investigated experimentally by indirect methods. Single particle nature of the threshold states was studied by the analog reactions, (d,t) and (d,3He) on 20Ne. The α-branching ratios for some states were also measured by a coincidence measurement of a triton and α from 19F(3He,t)19Ne*(α)15O(g.s.). Experimental plan for the problem was also discussed that uses a new low-energy RIB facility at CNS, called CRIB, which will come into operation soon.

  8. Nuclear β-arrestin1 is a critical cofactor of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α signaling in endothelin-1-induced ovarian tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Cianfrocca, Roberta; Tocci, Piera; Rosanò, Laura; Caprara, Valentina; Sestito, Rosanna; Di Castro, Valeriana; Bagnato, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) mediates the response to hypoxia or other stimuli, such as growth factors, including endothelin-1 (ET-1), to promote malignant progression in numerous tumors. The importance of cofactors that regulate HIF-1α signalling within tumor is not well understood. Here we elucidate that ET-1/ET(A) receptor (ET(A)R)-induced pathway physically and functionally couples the scaffold protein β-arrestin1 (β-arr1) to HIF-1α signalling. In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells, ET-1/ET(A)R axis induced vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression through HIF-1α nuclear accumulation. In these cells, activation of ET(A)R by ET-1, by mimicking hypoxia, promoted the nuclear interaction between β-arr1 and HIF-1α and the recruitment of p300 acetyltransferase to hypoxia response elements on the target gene promoters, resulting in enhanced histone acetylation, and HIF-1α target gene transcription. Indeed, β-arr1-HIF-1α interaction regulated the enhanced expression and release of downstream targets, such as ET-1 and VEGF, required for tumor cell invasion and pro-angiogenic effects in endothelial cells. These effects were abrogated by β-arr1 or HIF-1α silencing or by pharmacological treatment with the dual ET-1 receptor antagonist macitentan. Interestingly, ET(A)R/β-arr1 promoted the self-amplifying HIF-1α-mediated transcription of ET-1 that sustained a regulatory circuit involved in invasive and angiogenic behaviors. In a murine orthotopic model of metastatic human EOC, treatment with macitentan, or silencing of β-arr1, inhibits intravasation and metastasis formation. Collectively, these findings reveal the interplay of β-arr1 with HIF-1α in the complexity of ET-1/ET(A)R signalling, mediating epigenetic modifications directly involved in the metastatic process, and suggest that targeting ET-1-dependent β-arr1/HIF-1α pathway by using macitentan may impair EOC progression.

  9. Anomalous critical fields in quantum critical superconductors.

    PubMed

    Putzke, C; Walmsley, P; Fletcher, J D; Malone, L; Vignolles, D; Proust, C; Badoux, S; See, P; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Kasahara, S; Mizukami, Y; Shibauchi, T; Matsuda, Y; Carrington, A

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations around an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point (QCP) are believed to lead to unconventional superconductivity and in some cases to high-temperature superconductivity. However, the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. The iron-pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2 is perhaps the clearest example to date of a high-temperature quantum critical superconductor, and so it is a particularly suitable system to study how the quantum critical fluctuations affect the superconducting state. Here we show that the proximity of the QCP yields unexpected anomalies in the superconducting critical fields. We find that both the lower and upper critical fields do not follow the behaviour, predicted by conventional theory, resulting from the observed mass enhancement near the QCP. Our results imply that the energy of superconducting vortices is enhanced, possibly due to a microscopic mixing of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity, suggesting that a highly unusual vortex state is realized in quantum critical superconductors. PMID:25477044

  10. Anomalous critical fields in quantum critical superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Putzke, C.; Walmsley, P.; Fletcher, J. D.; Malone, L.; Vignolles, D.; Proust, C.; Badoux, S.; See, P.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kasahara, S.; Mizukami, Y.; Shibauchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.; Carrington, A.

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations around an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point (QCP) are believed to lead to unconventional superconductivity and in some cases to high-temperature superconductivity. However, the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. The iron-pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As1−xPx)2 is perhaps the clearest example to date of a high-temperature quantum critical superconductor, and so it is a particularly suitable system to study how the quantum critical fluctuations affect the superconducting state. Here we show that the proximity of the QCP yields unexpected anomalies in the superconducting critical fields. We find that both the lower and upper critical fields do not follow the behaviour, predicted by conventional theory, resulting from the observed mass enhancement near the QCP. Our results imply that the energy of superconducting vortices is enhanced, possibly due to a microscopic mixing of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity, suggesting that a highly unusual vortex state is realized in quantum critical superconductors. PMID:25477044

  11. Critical Schwinger Pair Production.

    PubMed

    Gies, Holger; Torgrimsson, Greger

    2016-03-01

    We investigate Schwinger pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric backgrounds. A critical point for the onset of pair production can be approached by fields that marginally provide sufficient electrostatic energy for an off-shell long-range electron-positron fluctuation to become a real pair. Close to this critical point, we observe features of universality which are analogous to continuous phase transitions in critical phenomena with the pair-production rate serving as an order parameter: electric backgrounds can be subdivided into universality classes and the onset of pair production exhibits characteristic scaling laws. An appropriate design of the electric background field can interpolate between power-law scaling, essential Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type scaling, and a power-law scaling with log corrections. The corresponding critical exponents only depend on the large-scale features of the electric background, whereas the microscopic details of the background play the role of irrelevant perturbations not affecting criticality. PMID:26991162

  12. [The effects of the agricultural countermeasures on the irradiation of the population in the areas affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident].

    PubMed

    Panov, A V; Fesenko, S V; Sanzharova, N I; Aleksakhin, R M; Prudnikov, P V; Pasternak, A D

    2006-01-01

    Radiological results were evaluated from the introduction of protective agricultural measures in the collective sector of the agroindustrial complex in the Chernobyl affected areas for the period of 1987-2005. The averted collective doses due to the reduction of 137Cs concentration in farm products were estimated, including the contribution to the averted collective dose of different food stuffs consumption.

  13. Steroid receptor coactivators 1, 2, and 3: critical regulators of nuclear receptor activity and steroid receptor modulator (SRM)-based cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amber B; O'Malley, Bert W

    2012-01-30

    Coactivators are a diverse group of non-DNA binding proteins that induce structural changes in agonist-bound nuclear receptors (NRs) that are essential for NR-mediated transcriptional activation. Once bound, coactivators function to bridge enhancer binding proteins to the general transcription machinery, as well as to recruit secondary coactivators that modify promoter and enhancer chromatin in a manner permissive for transcriptional activation. In the following review article, we focus on one of the most in-depth studied families of coactivators, the steroid receptor coactivators (SRC) 1, 2, and 3. SRCs are widely implicated in NR-mediated diseases, especially in cancers, with the majority of studies focused on their roles in breast cancer. We highlight the relevant literature supporting the oncogenic activity of SRCs and their future as diagnostic and prognostic indicators. With much interest in the development of selective receptor modulators (SRMs), we focus on how these coactivators regulate the interactions between SRMs and their respective NRs; and, importantly, the influence that coactivators have on the functional output of SRMs. Furthermore, we speculate that coactivator-specific inhibitors could provide powerful, all-encompassing treatments that target multiple modes of oncogenic regulation in cancers resistant to typical anti-endocrine treatments.

  14. Steroid Receptor Coactivators 1, 2, and 3: Critical Regulators of Nuclear Receptor Activity and Steroid Receptor Modulator (SRM)-based Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amber B.; O’Malley, Bert W.

    2011-01-01

    Coactivators are a diverse group of non-DNA binding proteins that induce structural changes in agonist-bound nuclear receptors (NRs) that are essential for NR-mediated transcriptional activation. Once bound, coactivators function to bridge enhancer binding proteins to the general transcription machinery, as well as to recruit secondary coactivators that modify promoter and enhancer chromatin in a manner permissive for transcriptional activation. In the following review article, we focus on one of the most in-depth studied families of coactivators, the steroid receptor coactivators (SRC) 1, 2, and 3. SRCs are widely implicated in NR-mediated diseases, especially in cancers, with the majority of studies focused on their roles in breast cancer. We highlight the relevant literature supporting the oncogenic activity of SRCs and their future as diagnostic and prognostic indicators. With much interest in the development of selective receptor modulators (SRMs), we focus on how these coactivators regulate the interactions between SRMs and their respective NRs; and, importantly, the influence that coactivators have on the functional output of SRMs. Furthermore, we speculate that coactivator-specific inhibitors could provide powerful, all-encompassing treatments that target multiple modes of oncogenic regulation in cancers resistant to typical anti-endocrine treatments. PMID:21664237

  15. The role of Pleistocene glaciations in shaping the evolution of polar and brown bears. Evidence from a critical review of mitochondrial and nuclear genome analyses.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre

    2015-07-01

    In this report, I review recent molecular studies dealing with the origin and evolution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), with special emphasis on their relationships with brown bears (U. arctos). On the basis of mitochondrial and nuclear data, different hypotheses have been proposed, including rapid morphological differentiation of U. maritimus, genetic introgression from U. arctos into U. maritimus, or inversely from U. maritimus into U. arctos, involving either male- or female-mediated gene flow. In the light of available molecular and eco-ethological data, I suggest, firstly, that all divergences among major clades of large bears can be linked to glacial periods, secondly, that polar bears diverged from brown bears before 530 thousand years ago (ka), during one of the three glacial marine isotope stages (MIS) 14, 15.2 or 16, and, thirdly, that genetic introgression had occurred from female polar bears into brown bear populations during at least two glacial periods, at 340 ± 10 ka (MIS 10) in western Europe, and at 155 ± 5 ka (MIS 6) on the ABC islands of southeastern Alaska, and probably also in Beringia and Ireland based on ancient DNA sequences.

  16. The role of Pleistocene glaciations in shaping the evolution of polar and brown bears. Evidence from a critical review of mitochondrial and nuclear genome analyses.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre

    2015-07-01

    In this report, I review recent molecular studies dealing with the origin and evolution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), with special emphasis on their relationships with brown bears (U. arctos). On the basis of mitochondrial and nuclear data, different hypotheses have been proposed, including rapid morphological differentiation of U. maritimus, genetic introgression from U. arctos into U. maritimus, or inversely from U. maritimus into U. arctos, involving either male- or female-mediated gene flow. In the light of available molecular and eco-ethological data, I suggest, firstly, that all divergences among major clades of large bears can be linked to glacial periods, secondly, that polar bears diverged from brown bears before 530 thousand years ago (ka), during one of the three glacial marine isotope stages (MIS) 14, 15.2 or 16, and, thirdly, that genetic introgression had occurred from female polar bears into brown bear populations during at least two glacial periods, at 340 ± 10 ka (MIS 10) in western Europe, and at 155 ± 5 ka (MIS 6) on the ABC islands of southeastern Alaska, and probably also in Beringia and Ireland based on ancient DNA sequences. PMID:26026577

  17. Nuclear factor-ĸB plays a critical role in both intrinsic and acquired resistance against endocrine therapy in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Oida, Kumiko; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Xia, Yan; Jang, Hyosun; Amagai, Yosuke; Ahn, Ginnae; Nishikawa, Sho; Ishizaka, Saori; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2014-01-01

    Since more than 75% of breast cancers overexpress estrogen receptors (ER), endocrine therapy targeting ER has significantly improved the survival rate. Nonetheless, breast cancer still afflicts women worldwide and the major problem behind it is resistance to endocrine therapy. We have previously shown the involvement of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in neoplastic proliferation of human breast cancer cells; however, the association with the transformation of ER-positive cells remains unclear. In the current study, we focused on roles of NF-κB in the hormone dependency of breast cancers by means of ER-positive MCF-7 cells. Blocking of NF-κB signals in ER-negative cells stopped proliferation by downregulation of D-type cyclins. In contrast, the MCF-7 cells were resistant to NF-κB inhibition. Under estrogen-free conditions, the ER levels were reduced when compared with the original MCF-7 cells and the established cell subline exhibited tamoxifen resistance. Additionally, NF-κB participated in cell growth instead of the estrogen-ER axis in the subline and consequently, interfering with the NF-κB signals induced additive anticancer effects with tamoxifen. MMP-9 production responsible for cell migration, as well as the cell expansion in vivo, were suppressed by NF-κB inhibition. Therefore, we suggest that NF-κB is a master switch in both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:24531845

  18. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  19. Evaluation of critical pathways, radionuclides, and remedial measures for reducing the radiological dose to returning populations at a former nuclear test site

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W. L., LLNL

    1997-11-01

    Bikini Island, the major residence island at Bikini Atoll, was contaminated with radioactive fallout as a result of the BRAVO test conducted on March 1, 1954. We have identified the critical radionuclides and supplied radiological data needed to develop dose estimates for all possible exposure pathways. These estimates show that the major dose to returning populations would result from ingestion of cesium-137 (137 Cs) in locally grown terrestrial foods where the predicted population average effective dose exceeds current federal guidelines. Consequently, we designed several long-term field experiments to develop and evaluate methods to reduce the 137 Cs content in locally grown foods.This paper gives a general outline of the remediation experiments with a more detailed description of a preferred combined option. Our comparative evaluation on various remedial methods show that the combined option--potassium treatment of the entire islands with limited excavation of soil in village an d housing areas--will be effective in reducing the dose to about 10% of pretreatment levels, and offers very significant benefits with respect to adverse environmental impacts as well as savings in overall costs, time, and required expert resources.

  20. Extraction of chili, black pepper, and ginger with near-critical CO2, propane, and dimethyl ether: analysis of the extracts by quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Owen J; Grey, John B; Perry, Nigel B; Burgess, Elaine J; Redmond, Wayne A; Porter, Noel G

    2003-08-13

    Ginger, black pepper, and chili powder were extracted using near-critical carbon dioxide, propane, and dimethyl ether on a laboratory scale to determine the overall yield and extraction efficiency for selected pungent components. The temperature dependency of extraction yield and efficiency was also determined for black pepper and chili using propane and dimethyl ether. The pungency of the extracts was determined by using an NMR technique developed for this work. The volatiles contents of ginger and black pepper extracts were also determined. Extraction of all spice types was carried out with acetone to compare overall yields. Subcritical dimethyl ether was as effective at extracting the pungent principles from the spices as supercritical carbon dioxide, although a substantial amount of water was also extracted. Subcritical propane was the least effective solvent. All solvents quantitatively extracted the gingerols from ginger. The yields of capsaicins obtained by supercritical CO(2) and dimethyl ether were similar and approximately double that extracted by propane. The yield of piperines obtained by propane extraction of black pepper was low at approximately 10% of that achieved with dimethyl ether and CO(2), but improved with increasing extraction temperature.

  1. Development of posture-specific computational phantoms using motion capture technology and application to radiation dose-reconstruction for the 1999 Tokai-Mura nuclear criticality accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, Justin A.; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2014-09-01

    The majority of existing computational phantoms are designed to represent workers in typical standing anatomical postures with fixed arm and leg positions. However, workers found in accident-related scenarios often assume varied postures. This paper describes the development and application of two phantoms with adjusted postures specified by data acquired from a motion capture system to simulate unique human postures found in a 1999 criticality accident that took place at a JCO facility in Tokai-Mura, Japan. In the course of this accident, two workers were fatally exposed to extremely high levels of radiation. Implementation of the emergent techniques discussed produced more accurate and more detailed dose estimates for the two workers than were reported in previous studies. A total-body dose of 6.43 and 26.38 Gy was estimated for the two workers, who assumed a crouching and a standing posture, respectively. Additionally, organ-specific dose estimates were determined, including a 7.93 Gy dose to the thyroid and 6.11 Gy dose to the stomach for the crouching worker and a 41.71 Gy dose to the liver and a 37.26 Gy dose to the stomach for the standing worker. Implications for the medical prognosis of the workers are discussed, and the results of this study were found to correlate better with the patient outcome than previous estimates, suggesting potential future applications of such methods for improved epidemiological studies involving next-generation computational phantom tools.

  2. Identification of Integral Benchmarks for Nuclear Data Testing Using DICE (Database for the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; A. Nichole Ellis; Yolanda Rugama; Nicolas Soppera; Manuel Bossant

    2011-08-01

    Typical users of the International Criticality Safety Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook have specific criteria to which they desire to find matching experiments. Depending on the application, those criteria may consist of any combination of physical or chemical characteristics and/or various neutronic parameters. The ICSBEP Handbook contains a structured format helping the user narrow the search for experiments of interest. However, with nearly 4300 different experimental configurations and the ever increasing addition of experimental data, the necessity to perform multiple criteria searches have rendered these features insufficient. As a result, a relational database was created with information extracted from the ICSBEP Handbook. A users’ interface was designed by OECD and DOE to allow the interrogation of this database. The database and the corresponding users’ interface are referred to as DICE. DICE currently offers the capability to perform multiple criteria searches that go beyond simple fuel, physical form and spectra and includes expanded general information, fuel form, moderator/coolant, neutron-absorbing material, cladding, reflector, separator, geometry, benchmark results, spectra, and neutron balance parameters. DICE also includes the capability to display graphical representations of neutron spectra, detailed neutron balance, sensitivity coefficients for capture, fission, elastic scattering, inelastic scattering, nu-bar and mu-bar, as well as several other features.

  3. A role for nuclear factor interleukin-3 (NFIL3), a critical transcriptional repressor, in down-regulation of periovulatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing; Jo, Misung; Curry, Thomas E

    2011-03-01

    The LH surge triggers dramatic transcriptional changes in genes associated with ovulation and luteinization. The present study investigated the spatiotemporal expression of nuclear factor IL-3 (NFIL3), a transcriptional regulator of the basic leucine zipper transcription factor superfamily, and its potential role in the ovary during the periovulatory period. Immature female rats were injected with pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin, treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and ovaries or granulosa cells were collected at various times after hCG. Nfil3 mRNA was highly induced both in intact ovaries and granulosa cells after hCG treatment. In situ hybridization demonstrated that Nfil3 mRNA was highly induced in theca-interstitial cells at 4-8 h after hCG, localized to granulosa cells at 12 h, and decreased at 24 h. Overexpression of NFIL3 in granulosa cells inhibited the induction of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2), progesterone receptor (Pgr), epiregulin (Ereg), and amphiregulin (Areg) and down-regulated levels of prostaglandin E2. The inhibitory effect on Ptgs2 induction was reversed by NFIL3 small interfering RNA treatment. In theca-interstitial cells the expression of hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) (Hpgd) was also inhibited by NFIL3 overexpression. Data from luciferase assays demonstrated that NFIL3 overexpression decreased the induction of the Ptgs2 and Areg promoter activity. EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses indicated that NFIL3 binds to the promoter region containing the DNA-binding sites of cAMP response element binding protein and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-β. In summary, hCG induction of NFIL3 expression may modulate the process of ovulation and theca-interstitial and granulosa cell differentiation by regulating expression of PTGS2, PGR, AREG, EREG, and HPGD, potentially through interactions with cAMP response element binding protein and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-β on

  4. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-02-24

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R&D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality.

  5. The nuclear gene Rf3 affects the expression of the mitochondrial chimeric sequence R implicated in S-type male sterility in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Zabala, G.; Gabay-Laughnan, S.; Laughnan, J.R.

    1997-10-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of maize plants exhibiting S-type cytoplasmic male sterility (cms-S) contain a repeated DNA region designated R. This region was found to be rearranged in the mitochondria of all cms-S cytoplasmically revertant fertile plants in all nuclear backgrounds analyzed. A 1.6-kb mRNA transcribed from the R region in mitochondria of sterile plants was absent from all cytoplasmic revertants examined. The nuclear gene Rf3, which suppresses the cms-S phenotype, was found to have a specific effect on the expression of the R sequence; the abundance of the major R transcripts, including the cms-S-specific 1.6-kb mRNA, is decreased in mitochrondria of restored plants. Nucleotide sequence analysis of R has revealed similarities to the R1 plasmid found in some South American maize races with RU cytoplasm, the the M1 plasmid found in one source of Zea luxurians teosinte, to the atp9 mitochondrial gene and its 3{prime} flanking sequence, and also to a region 3{prime} to the orf221 gene. The derived amino acid sequence of the R region predicts two open reading frames (ORFs). These ORFs contain the similarities to R1, M1, atp9 and orf221. The present report reveals the chimeric nature of the R region, describes the complex effect of Rf3 on the expression of the R sequence and implicates R in the sterile phenotype of cms-S maize. 66 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Critical Muralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  7. Cell cycle-dependent nuclear accumulation of the p94fer tyrosine kinase is regulated by its NH2 terminus and is affected by kinase domain integrity and ATP binding.

    PubMed

    Ben-Dor, I; Bern, O; Tennenbaum, T; Nir, U

    1999-02-01

    p94fer and p51ferT are two tyrosine kinases that are encoded by differentially spliced transcripts of the FER locus in the mouse. The two tyrosine kinases share identical SH2 and kinase domains but differ in their NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. Unlike p94fer, the presence of which has been demonstrated in most mammalian cell lines analyzed, the expression of p51ferT is restricted to meiotic cells. Here, we show that the two related tyrosine kinases also differ in their subcellular localization profiles. Although p51ferT accumulates constitutively in the cell nucleus, p94fer is cytoplasmic in quiescent cells and enters the nucleus concomitantly with the onset of S phase. The nuclear translocation of the FER proteins is driven by a nuclear localization signal (NLS), which is located within the kinase domain of these enzymes. The functioning of that NLS depends on the integrity of the kinase domain but was not affected by inactivation of the kinase activity. The NH2 terminus of p94fer dictated the cell cycle-dependent functioning of the NLS of FER kinase. This process was governed by coiled-coil forming sequences that are present in the NH2 terminus of the kinase. The regulatory effect of the p94fer NH2-terminal sequences was not affected by kinase activity but was perturbed by mutations in the kinase domain ATP binding site. Ectopic expression of the constitutively nuclear p51ferT in CHO cells interfered with S-phase progression in these cells. This was not seen in p94fer-overexpressing cells. The FER tyrosine kinases seem, thus, to be regulated by novel mechanisms that direct their different subcellular distribution profiles and may, consequently, control their cellular functioning. PMID:10074905

  8. Investigations of the relationship between use of in vitro cell culture-quantitative PCR and a mouse-based bioassay for evaluating critical factors affecting the disinfection performance of pulsed UV light for treating Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in saline.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Mary; Farrell, Hugh; Cormican, Martin; Rowan, Neil

    2010-03-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an enteric coccidian parasite that is recognised as a frequent cause of water-borne disease in humans. We report for the first time on use of the in vitro HCT-8 cell culture-quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay and the in vivo SCID-mouse bioassay for evaluating critical factors that reduce or eliminate infectivity of C. parvum after irradiating oocysts in saline solution under varying operational conditions with pulsed UV light. Infections post UV treatments were detected by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy and by quantitative PCR in cell culture, and by IF staining of faeces and by hematoxylin and eosin staining of intestinal villi in mice. There was a good agreement between using cell culture-qPCR and the mouse assay for determining reduction or elimination of C. parvum infectivity as a consequence of varying UV operating conditions. Reduction in infectivity depended on the intensity of lamp discharge energy applied, amount of pulsing and population size of oocysts (P < or = 0.05). Conventional radiometer was unable to measure fluence or UV dose in saline samples due to the ultra-short non-continuous nature of the high-energy light pulses. Incorporation of humic acid at a concentration above that found in surface water (i.e., < or =10 ppm) did not significantly affect PUV disinfection capability irrespective of parameters tested (P < or = 0.05). These observations show that use of this HCT-8 cell culture assay is equivalent to using the 'gold standard' mouse-based infectivity assay for determining disinfection performances of PUV for treating C. parvum in saline solution. PMID:20096310

  9. Critical experiment data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L. ); Clayton, E.D.; Doherty, A.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Critical experiment facilities produced a large number of important data during the past 45 years; however, many useful data remain unpublished. The unpublished material exists in the form of experimenters' logbooks, notes, photographs, material descriptions, etc., This data could be important for computer code validation, understanding the physics of criticality, facility design, or for setting process limits. In the past, criticality specialists have been able to obtain unpublished details by direct contact with the experimenters. Obviously, this will not be possible indefinitely. Most of the US critical experiment facilities are now closed, and the experimenters are moving to other jobs, retiring, or otherwise becoming unavailable for this informal assistance. Also, the records are in danger of being discarded or lost during facility closures, cleanup activities, or in storage. A project was begun in 1989 to ensure that important unpublished data from critical experiment facilities in the United States are archived and made available as a resource of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS). The objective of this paper is to summarize the project accomplishments to date and bring these activities to the attention of those who might be aware of the location of source information needed for archiving and could assist in getting the materials included in the archive.

  10. Critics and Criticism of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1977-01-01

    Radical educational critics, such as Edgar Friedenberg, Paul Goodman, A. S. Neill, John Holt, Jonathan Kozol, Herbert Kohl, James Herndon, and Ivan Illich, have few constructive goals, no strategy for broad change, and a disdain for modernization and compromise. Additionally, these critics, says the author, fail to consider social factors related…

  11. Three-year monitoring study of radiocesium transfer and ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Loffredo, Nicolas; Kawamori, Ayumi; Hisadome, Keigo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years (July 2011~) following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured an ambient dose rate at different height in the forest by using a survey meter (TCS-172B, Hitachi-Aloka Medical, LTD.) and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector (Detective-DX-100T, Ortec, Ametek, Inc.). Furthermore, effects of forest decontamination on the reduction of ambient dose rate were assessed quantitatively. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 157 kBq/m^2, 167 kBq/m^2, and 54 kBq/m^2, respectively. These values correspond to 36%, 39% and 12% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the forest type. These data suggested that an ambient dose rate in forest environment can be variable in spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. We presented the analysis results of the relationship between radiocesium deposition flux and ambient dose rate at the forest floor. In addition to that, we reported the effects of forest decontamination (e.g., tree felling, removal of organic materials, woodchip pavement) on the reduction of ambient dose rate in the forest environment.

  12. Exercise frequency and bone mineral density development in exercising postmenopausal osteopenic women. Is there a critical dose of exercise for affecting bone? Results of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; Kohl, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Due to older people's low sports participation rates, exercise frequency may be the most critical component for designing exercise protocols that address bone. The aims of the present article were to determine the independent effect of exercise frequency (ExFreq) and its corresponding changes on bone mineral density (BMD) and to identify the minimum effective dose that just relevantly affects bone. Based on the 16-year follow-up of the intense, consistently supervised Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention-Study, ExFreq was retrospectively determined in the exercise-group of 55 initially early-postmenopausal females with osteopenia. Linear mixed-effect regression analysis was conducted to determine the independent effect of ExFreq on BMD changes at lumbar spine and total hip. Minimum effective dose of ExFreq based on BMD changes less than the 90% quantile of the sedentary control-group (n=43). Cut-offs were determined after 4, 8, 12 and 16years using bootstrap with 5000 replications. After 16years, average ExFreq ranged between 1.02 and 2.96sessions/week (2.28±0.40sessions/week). ExFreq has an independent effect on LS-BMD (p<.001) and hip-BMD (p=.005) changes. Bootstrap analysis detected a minimum effective dose at about 2sessions/week/16years (cut-off LS-BMD: 2.11, 95% CI: 2.06-2.12; total hip-BMD: 2.22, 95% CI: 2.00-2.78sessions/week/16years). In summary, the minimum effective dose of exercise frequency that relevantly addresses BMD is quite high, at least compared with the low sport participation rate of older adults. This result might not be generalizable across all exercise types, protocols and cohorts, but it does indicate at least that even when applying high impact/high intensity programs, exercise frequency and its maintenance play a key role in bone adaptation.

  13. Exercise frequency and bone mineral density development in exercising postmenopausal osteopenic women. Is there a critical dose of exercise for affecting bone? Results of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; Kohl, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Due to older people's low sports participation rates, exercise frequency may be the most critical component for designing exercise protocols that address bone. The aims of the present article were to determine the independent effect of exercise frequency (ExFreq) and its corresponding changes on bone mineral density (BMD) and to identify the minimum effective dose that just relevantly affects bone. Based on the 16-year follow-up of the intense, consistently supervised Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention-Study, ExFreq was retrospectively determined in the exercise-group of 55 initially early-postmenopausal females with osteopenia. Linear mixed-effect regression analysis was conducted to determine the independent effect of ExFreq on BMD changes at lumbar spine and total hip. Minimum effective dose of ExFreq based on BMD changes less than the 90% quantile of the sedentary control-group (n=43). Cut-offs were determined after 4, 8, 12 and 16years using bootstrap with 5000 replications. After 16years, average ExFreq ranged between 1.02 and 2.96sessions/week (2.28±0.40sessions/week). ExFreq has an independent effect on LS-BMD (p<.001) and hip-BMD (p=.005) changes. Bootstrap analysis detected a minimum effective dose at about 2sessions/week/16years (cut-off LS-BMD: 2.11, 95% CI: 2.06-2.12; total hip-BMD: 2.22, 95% CI: 2.00-2.78sessions/week/16years). In summary, the minimum effective dose of exercise frequency that relevantly addresses BMD is quite high, at least compared with the low sport participation rate of older adults. This result might not be generalizable across all exercise types, protocols and cohorts, but it does indicate at least that even when applying high impact/high intensity programs, exercise frequency and its maintenance play a key role in bone adaptation. PMID:27108341

  14. Applying critical thinking to nursing.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2015-08-19

    Critical thinking and writing are skills that are not easy to acquire. The term 'critical' is used differently in social and clinical contexts. Nursing students need time to master the inquisitive and ruminative aspects of critical thinking that are required in academic environments. This article outlines what is meant by critical thinking in academic settings, in relation to both theory and reflective practice. It explains how the focus of a question affects the sort of critical thinking required and offers two taxonomies of learning, to which students can refer when analysing essay requirements. The article concludes with examples of analytical writing in reference to theory and reflective practice.

  15. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls affected by U.S. nuclear testing: all exposure pathways, remedial measures, and environmental loss of (137)Cs.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F

    2010-01-01

    Radiation doses calculated for people resettling Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll, Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll, and Utrōk Island at Utrōk Atoll are presented. Residence is assumed to begin in 2010. In previous dose assessments it was shown that (137)Cs accounts for about 98% of the total dose for returning residents. About 85 to 90% (depending on the atoll) is via consumption of locally grown foods containing (137)Cs, and about 10 to 15% is due to external exposure from (137)Cs in the soil. These assessments were made using only the radiological half-life of (137)Cs (30.1 y). We have shown since that there is an environmental loss of (137)Cs from soil to groundwater that results in a more rapid loss of (137)Cs from the atoll ecosystem. The mean effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls is 8.5 y. Moreover, treatment of coconut trees with potassium (K) reduces (137)Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat at Bikini Atoll to about 5% of pretreatment concentrations. The magnitude of reduction is dependent on the concentration of (137)Cs in soil, and thereby in food crops, and is less for Enjebi and Rongelap Islands than for Bikini Island. Treatment of food crops and fruit trees with K and removal of the top 15 cm of soil around houses and community buildings prior to construction to reduce external exposure where people spend most of their time has been presented to the communities as a "Combined Option" remediation strategy. Doses presented here are calculated using the Combined Option, effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls, and a diet of both imported and local foods. The average natural background dose in the Marshall Islands, plus the anthropogenic nuclear test-related dose at Bikini, Enjebi, and Rongelap Islands, is less for each of the islands than the average background dose in the U.S. and Europe. PMID:19959945

  16. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls affected by U.S. nuclear testing: all exposure pathways, remedial measures, and environmental loss of (137)Cs.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F

    2010-01-01

    Radiation doses calculated for people resettling Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll, Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll, and Utrōk Island at Utrōk Atoll are presented. Residence is assumed to begin in 2010. In previous dose assessments it was shown that (137)Cs accounts for about 98% of the total dose for returning residents. About 85 to 90% (depending on the atoll) is via consumption of locally grown foods containing (137)Cs, and about 10 to 15% is due to external exposure from (137)Cs in the soil. These assessments were made using only the radiological half-life of (137)Cs (30.1 y). We have shown since that there is an environmental loss of (137)Cs from soil to groundwater that results in a more rapid loss of (137)Cs from the atoll ecosystem. The mean effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls is 8.5 y. Moreover, treatment of coconut trees with potassium (K) reduces (137)Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat at Bikini Atoll to about 5% of pretreatment concentrations. The magnitude of reduction is dependent on the concentration of (137)Cs in soil, and thereby in food crops, and is less for Enjebi and Rongelap Islands than for Bikini Island. Treatment of food crops and fruit trees with K and removal of the top 15 cm of soil around houses and community buildings prior to construction to reduce external exposure where people spend most of their time has been presented to the communities as a "Combined Option" remediation strategy. Doses presented here are calculated using the Combined Option, effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls, and a diet of both imported and local foods. The average natural background dose in the Marshall Islands, plus the anthropogenic nuclear test-related dose at Bikini, Enjebi, and Rongelap Islands, is less for each of the islands than the average background dose in the U.S. and Europe.

  17. Characteristics of initial deposition and behavior of radiocesium in forest ecosystems of different locations and species affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Masabumi; Kaneko, Shinji; Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Shigeto; Saito, Satoshi; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Tonosaki, Mario; Miura, Satoru; Akama, Akio; Kajimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, information about stand-level spatial patterns of radiocesium initially deposited in the surrounding forests was essential for predicting the future dynamics of radiocesium and suggesting a management plan for contaminated forests. In the first summer (approximately 6 months after the accident), we separately estimated the amounts of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs; Bq m(-2)) in the major components (trees, organic layers, and soils) in forests of three sites with different contamination levels. For a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest studied at each of the three sites, the radiocesium concentration greatly differed among the components, with the needle and organic layer having the highest concentrations. For these cedar forests, the proportion of the (137)Cs stock in the aboveground tree biomass varied from 22% to 44% of the total (137)Cs stock; it was 44% in highly contaminated sites (7.0 × 10(5) Bq m(-2)) but reduced to 22% in less contaminated sites (1.1 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)). In the intermediate contaminated site (5.0-5.8 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)), 34% of radiocesium was observed in the aboveground tree biomass of the Japanese cedar stand. However, this proportion was considerably smaller (18-19%) in the nearby mixed forests of the Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Non-negligible amounts of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in both the sapwood and heartwood of all the studied tree species. This finding suggested that the uptake or translocation of radiocesium had already started within 6 months after the accident. The belowground compartments were mostly present in the organic layer and the uppermost (0-5 cm deep) mineral soil layer at all the study sites. We discussed the initial transfer process of radiocesium deposited in the forest and inferred that the type of initial deposition (i.e., dry versus wet radiocesium deposition), the amount of

  18. Reduction of High Levels of Internal Radio-Contamination by Dietary Intervention in Residents of Areas Affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Disaster: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Kami, Masahiro; Hayano, Ryugo

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130–15,918 Bq/body) and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7–216.3 Bq/kg). All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from medical care

  19. Reduction of high levels of internal radio-contamination by dietary intervention in residents of areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant disaster: a case series.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Kami, Masahiro; Hayano, Ryugo

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130-15,918 Bq/body) and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7-216.3 Bq/kg). All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from medical care

  20. Characteristics of initial deposition and behavior of radiocesium in forest ecosystems of different locations and species affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Masabumi; Kaneko, Shinji; Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Shigeto; Saito, Satoshi; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Tonosaki, Mario; Miura, Satoru; Akama, Akio; Kajimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, information about stand-level spatial patterns of radiocesium initially deposited in the surrounding forests was essential for predicting the future dynamics of radiocesium and suggesting a management plan for contaminated forests. In the first summer (approximately 6 months after the accident), we separately estimated the amounts of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs; Bq m(-2)) in the major components (trees, organic layers, and soils) in forests of three sites with different contamination levels. For a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest studied at each of the three sites, the radiocesium concentration greatly differed among the components, with the needle and organic layer having the highest concentrations. For these cedar forests, the proportion of the (137)Cs stock in the aboveground tree biomass varied from 22% to 44% of the total (137)Cs stock; it was 44% in highly contaminated sites (7.0 × 10(5) Bq m(-2)) but reduced to 22% in less contaminated sites (1.1 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)). In the intermediate contaminated site (5.0-5.8 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)), 34% of radiocesium was observed in the aboveground tree biomass of the Japanese cedar stand. However, this proportion was considerably smaller (18-19%) in the nearby mixed forests of the Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Non-negligible amounts of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in both the sapwood and heartwood of all the studied tree species. This finding suggested that the uptake or translocation of radiocesium had already started within 6 months after the accident. The belowground compartments were mostly present in the organic layer and the uppermost (0-5 cm deep) mineral soil layer at all the study sites. We discussed the initial transfer process of radiocesium deposited in the forest and inferred that the type of initial deposition (i.e., dry versus wet radiocesium deposition), the amount of

  1. Whole body counter assessment of internal radiocontamination in patients with end-stage renal disease living in areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Shimmura, Hiroaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Akiyama, Junichi; Nomura, Shuhei; Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Tokiwa, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess internal radiocontamination of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who were regularly taking haemodialysis (HD) and living in areas affected by the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant after the Great East Japan earthquake on 11 March 2011. Methods Internal radiocontamination in 111 patients with ESRD regularly taking HD at Jyoban Hospital in Iwaki city, Fukushima from July 2012 to November 2012 was assessed with a whole body counter (WBC). The maximum annual effective dose was calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels. Interviews concerning patient dietary preferences and outdoor activities were also conducted. Results Among the 111 patients tested, internal radiocontamination with Cs-137 was detected in two participants, but the levels were marginal and just exceeded the detection limit (250 Bq/body). The tentatively calculated maximum annual effective dose ranged from 0.008 to 0.009 mSv/year, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Relative to 238 non-ESRD participants, patients with ERSD had significantly more opportunities to consume locally grown produce that was not distributed to the market (p<0.01). However, the percentage of patients with ESRD with detectable Cs (1.8%) was lower than that for non-ESRD participants (3.8%), although this difference was not significant (p=0.51). Conclusions These findings suggest that internal radiocontamination levels and the calculated annual additional effective doses were negligible for patients with ESRD taking HD in areas affected by the crippled Fukushima nuclear plant. Although HD is suggested to promote Cs-137 excretion, continuous inspection of locally grown produce together with WBC screening for radiocontamination should be continued for patients with ESRD regularly taking HD. PMID:26644125

  2. The Zeus Copper/Uranium Critical Experiment at NCERC

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Rene G.; Hayes, David K.; Bounds, John Alan; Jackman, Kevin R.; Goda, Joetta M.

    2012-06-15

    A critical experiment was performed to provide nuclear data in a non-thermal neutron spectrum and to reestablish experimental capability relevant to Stockpile Stewardship and Technical Nuclear Forensic programs. Irradiation foils were placed at specific locations in the Zeus all oralloy critical experiment to obtain fission ratios. These ratios were compared with others from other critical assemblies to assess the degree of softness in the neutron spectrum. This critical experiment was performed at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) in Nevada.

  3. Can Indigenous and Introduced Bacteria Affect the Performance of an Engineered Barrier System in the Designated Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S.; Dias, V.; Carrillo, C.; van Buuren, N.; Horn, J.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has been tasked with establishing a high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV and assessing the effects of long-term storage of the waste. Studies are being performed to identify the role of microorganisms, both indigenous and introduced during the construction phase, to waste package material corrosion. Some microorganisms produce by-products that may be deleterious to waste package materials, such as bacteria that produce hydrogen and mineral acids, or reduce sulfate, and fungi that produce organic acids. Long-term and accelerated tests in continuous flow reactors were conducted to assess the biogenic effects on waste package materials, and batch tests were implemented to identify corrosion products and biochemical changes to ground water chemistry. Surfacial and gravimetric analyses of the metal samples coupled with water chemistry analysis allow us to determine the overall contribution that organisms may make to waste package corrosion. Metal samples were periodically removed from the reactors and examined with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Effluent samples were also collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy-mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. Sterile controls were run in parallel to understand abiotic contributions to metals corrosion. In addition, we have characterized the microbial community at Yucca Mountain in order to define the physiological potential of the organisms extant at the site and evaluate the conditions required for growth (we have determined that water availability will be the major limiting factor). Analysis of the fluids from batch tests containing the Alloy 22 (Ni-Cr-Mo alloy) metal suggest the solubilization of Mo, albeit in very low concentrations. Because we did not observe the solubilization of other metal components, it is unclear whether selective solubilization or dealloying is occurring. Endpoint analysis of precipitated particles in the

  4. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls Affected by U.S. Nuclear Testing:All Exposure Pathways, Remedial Measures, and Environmental Loss of 137Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F

    2009-04-20

    The United States conducted 24 nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll with a total yield of 76.8 Megatons (MT). The Castle series produced about 60% of this total and included the Bravo test that was the primary source of contamination of Bikini Island and Rongelap and Utrok Atolls. One of three aerial drops missed the atoll and the second test of the Crossroads series, the Baker test, was an underwater detonation. Of the rest, 17 were on barges on water and 3 were on platforms on an island; they produced most of the contamination of islands at the atoll. There were 42 tests conducted at Enewetak Atoll with a total yield of 31.7 MT (Simon and Robison, 1997; UNSCEAR, 2000). Of these tests, 18 were on a barge over wateror reef, 7 were surface shots, 2 aerial drops, 2 under water detonations, and 13 tower shots on either land or reef. All produced some contamination of various atoll islands. Rongelap Atoll received radioactive fallout as a result of the Bravo test on March 1, 1954 that was part of the Castle series of tests. This deposition was the result of the Bravo test producing a yield of 15 MT, about a factor of three to four greater than the predicted yield that resulted in vaporization of more coral reef and island than expected and in the debris-cloud reaching a much higher altitude than anticipated. High-altitude winds were to the east at the time of detonation and carried the debris-cloud toward Rongelap Atoll. Utrok Atoll also received fallout from the Bravo test but at much lower air and ground-level concentrations than at Rongelap atoll. Other atolls received Bravo fallout at levels below that of Utrok [other common spellings of this island and atoll (Simon, et al., 2009)]. To avoid confusion in reading other literature, this atoll and island are spelled in a variety of ways (Utrik, Utirik, Uterik or Utrok). Dose assessments for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll (Robison et al., 1997), Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll (Robison et al., 1987), Rongelap Island at

  5. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear physics has provided one of two critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. The standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments are reviewed. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He-C and He-N and He-O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as D-2 plus He-3 are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N(nu), is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of tau(n) = 890 + or - 4s (tau(1/2) = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N(nu) = 2.6 + or - 0.3 (1 sigma), providing a reasonable fit (1.3 sigma) to three families but making a fourth light (m(nu) less than or equal to 10 MeV) neutrino family exceedly unlikely (approx. greater than 4.7 sigma). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-baryon phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions.

  6. Strategic defense initiative: critical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    The objectives of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as outlined by President Reagan are discussed. The principal objective for SDI is as a defense against ballistic missiles. Soviet objections and a summary of US-USSR dialogue on the subject are reviewed. Most US studies have been critical of SDI. Four critical issues are addressed in depth: are defense weapons technologically feasible which have high economic leverage relative to offensive ballistic missiles; would the defense feasibility and leverage be degraded or enhanced in the technological race between weapons innovation and countermeasures; could stability be achieved during and after the transition to the defense dominated world envisioned by SDI proponents; would the deployment of high leverage defensive weapons increase or decrease the security of NATO Europe, and the probability of major conventional or nuclear wars. The issue of SDI may lead to a paradox that contains the seeds of catastrophe. The author concludes by warning that nuclear disarmament may eliminate the highly successful deterrent mechanism for avoiding another major world war. In a world made safe for major conventional wars by the apparent ''elimination'' of nuclear weapons, the leaders in a conventional World War III - involving unimaginable suffering, hatred, terror, and death - would be strongly motivated to introduce nuclear weapons in the crucial decisive battles. Even if diplomacy could ''eliminate'' nuclear weapons, man's knowledge of nuclear weapons can never be eliminated. The paradox is the attempt to eliminate nuclear weapons may maximize the probability of their use. (DMC)

  7. Staying Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wilfred; Kemmis, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the two authors of "Becoming Critical: education, knowledge and action research" look back at the book's history since its publication 20 years ago. We describe how the book was originally written, and the diverse responses and reactions that it has produced. We identify some of the book's inadequacies and limitations, and…

  8. Critically safety evaluation for K Basins sandfilters

    SciTech Connect

    Wittekind, W.D.

    1994-10-01

    Criticality safety for K Basins sandfilters was considered. No credible normal or off-normal scenarios were determined which could compromise criticality safety and result in a K{sub eff} {>=} 0.98. The conclusion is that, due to the physical form and isotopic distribution of the fissionable material, there is no possibility of a nuclear criticality in the sandfilter. For this reason, there is no need for a criticality alarm system for the K Basins sandfilters.

  9. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  10. Critical appraisal of appropriateness in nuclear cardiology.

    PubMed

    Marcassa, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a large component of the healthcare spending both in developed and developing countries. MPI is also responsible for a significant increase in the exposition of patients and health care operators to ionizing radiations for medical purposes. Thus, health-care systems and pertinent scientific societies were involved in developing criteria to contain the non-appropriate use by implementing Appropriate Use Criteria and Clinical Indications Guidelines. The present manuscript will review the concept and limitations of such an approach. PMID:27611706

  11. Assessment of computational performance in nuclear criticality

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, L.M.; Thomas, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study undertaken to resolve the long-standing discrepanies between calculations and experiments involving arrays of fissile solution units. Room return was found to be sufficient to account for the discrepancy of some bare arrays, but reflected arrays are still in disagreement, and the magnitude of the room return raises other unresolved issues.

  12. Critical Information at Critical Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierman, Ben; Thrower, Raymond H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    On a daily basis, administrators are reminded of the potential, perhaps the likelihood, of violence or natural crises on their campuses. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and point to recommendations and best practices for planning, preparing, responding to, and recovering from critical incidents. The International Association of Campus…

  13. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  14. Nuclear free zone

    SciTech Connect

    Christoffel, T.

    1987-07-01

    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used. The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system.

  15. Aging management of containment structures in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L. III; Norris, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    Research is being conducted by ORNL under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of nuclear power plant containment and other safety-related structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Accomplishments include development of a Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, evaluation of models for potential concrete containment degradation factors, development of a procedure to identify critical structures and degradation factors important to aging management, evaluations of nondestructive evaluation techniques. assessments of European and North American repair practices for concrete, review of parameters affecting corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and development of methodologies for making current condition assessments and service life predictions of new or existing reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants.

  16. Lecture notes for criticality safety

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.

    1992-03-01

    These lecture notes for criticality safety are prepared for the training of Department of Energy supervisory, project management, and administrative staff. Technical training and basic mathematics are assumed. The notes are designed for a two-day course, taught by two lecturers. Video tapes may be used at the options of the instructors. The notes provide all the materials that are necessary but outside reading will assist in the fullest understanding. The course begins with a nuclear physics overview. The reader is led from the macroscopic world into the microscopic world of atoms and the elementary particles that constitute atoms. The particles, their masses and sizes and properties associated with radioactive decay and fission are introduced along with Einstein's mass-energy equivalence. Radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, radiation penetration, shielding and health-effects are discussed to understand protection in case of a criticality accident. Fission, the fission products, particles and energy released are presented to appreciate the dangers of criticality. Nuclear cross sections are introduced to understand the effectiveness of slow neutrons to produce fission. Chain reactors are presented as an economy; effective use of the neutrons from fission leads to more fission resulting in a power reactor or a criticality excursion. The six-factor formula is presented for managing the neutron budget. This leads to concepts of material and geometric buckling which are used in simple calculations to assure safety from criticality. Experimental measurements and computer code calculations of criticality are discussed. To emphasize the reality, historical criticality accidents are presented in a table with major ones discussed to provide lessons-learned. Finally, standards, NRC guides and regulations, and DOE orders relating to criticality protection are presented.

  17. Lecture notes for criticality safety

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.

    1992-03-01

    These lecture notes for criticality safety are prepared for the training of Department of Energy supervisory, project management, and administrative staff. Technical training and basic mathematics are assumed. The notes are designed for a two-day course, taught by two lecturers. Video tapes may be used at the options of the instructors. The notes provide all the materials that are necessary but outside reading will assist in the fullest understanding. The course begins with a nuclear physics overview. The reader is led from the macroscopic world into the microscopic world of atoms and the elementary particles that constitute atoms. The particles, their masses and sizes and properties associated with radioactive decay and fission are introduced along with Einstein`s mass-energy equivalence. Radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, radiation penetration, shielding and health-effects are discussed to understand protection in case of a criticality accident. Fission, the fission products, particles and energy released are presented to appreciate the dangers of criticality. Nuclear cross sections are introduced to understand the effectiveness of slow neutrons to produce fission. Chain reactors are presented as an economy; effective use of the neutrons from fission leads to more fission resulting in a power reactor or a criticality excursion. The six-factor formula is presented for managing the neutron budget. This leads to concepts of material and geometric buckling which are used in simple calculations to assure safety from criticality. Experimental measurements and computer code calculations of criticality are discussed. To emphasize the reality, historical criticality accidents are presented in a table with major ones discussed to provide lessons-learned. Finally, standards, NRC guides and regulations, and DOE orders relating to criticality protection are presented.

  18. Self-organized criticality

    SciTech Connect

    Per Bak ); Kan Chen )

    1991-01-01

    Just as the proverbial straw broke the camel's back, catastrophes, from earthquakes and avalanches to a stock market crash, can be triggered by a minor event. The authors argue that complex systems naturally evolve to a critical state. Their theory already has improved understanding of motion in the earth's crust, economies and ecosystems. The theory of self-organized criticality states that many composite systems naturally evolve to a critical state in which a minor event starts a chain reaction that can affect any number of elements in the system. Although composite systems produce more minor events than catastrophes, chain reactions of all sizes are an integral part of the dynamics. According to the theory, the mechanism that leads to minor events is the same one that leads to major events. Furthermore, composite systems never reach equilibrium but instead evolve from one metastable state to the next. Self-organized criticality is a holistic theory: the global features, such as the relative number of large and small events, do not depend on the microscopic mechanisms. Consequently, global features of the system cannot be understood by analyzing the parts separately. To the authors' knowledge, self-organized criticality is the only model or mathematical description that has led to a holistic theory for dynamic systems.

  19. Abscisic acid affects transcription of chloroplast genes via protein phosphatase 2C-dependent activation of nuclear genes: repression by guanosine-3'-5'-bisdiphosphate and activation by sigma factor 5.

    PubMed

    Yamburenko, Maria V; Zubo, Yan O; Börner, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) represses the transcriptional activity of chloroplast genes (determined by run-on assays), with the exception of psbD and a few other genes in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings and mature rosette leaves. Abscisic acid does not influence chloroplast transcription in the mutant lines abi1-1 and abi2-1 with constitutive protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) activity, suggesting that ABA affects chloroplast gene activity by binding to the pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR1-like or regulatory component of ABA receptor protein family (PYR/PYL/RCAR) and signaling via PP2Cs and sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinases 2 (SnRK2s). Further we show by quantitative PCR that ABA enhances the transcript levels of RSH2, RSH3, PTF1 and SIG5. RelA/SpoT homolog 2 (RSH2) and RSH3 are known to synthesize guanosine-3'-5'-bisdiphosphate (ppGpp), an inhibitor of the plastid-gene-encoded chloroplast RNA polymerase. We propose, therefore, that ABA leads to an inhibition of chloroplast gene expression via stimulation of ppGpp synthesis. On the other hand, sigma factor 5 (SIG5) and plastid transcription factor 1 (PTF1) are known to be necessary for the transcription of psbD from a specific light- and stress-induced promoter (the blue light responsive promoter, BLRP). We demonstrate that ABA activates the psbD gene by stimulation of transcription initiation at BLRP. Taken together, our data suggest that ABA affects the transcription of chloroplast genes by a PP2C-dependent activation of nuclear genes encoding proteins involved in chloroplast transcription. PMID:25976841

  20. Rethinking regulations for disposal criticality

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.; Doering, T.

    1997-08-01

    This paper provides the basis for the position that the current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) criticality regulation is in need of revision to address problems in implementing it for the postclosure period in a geologic high-level waste repository. The authors believe that the applicant for such a facility should be able to demonstrate that postulated postclosure criticality events will not cause unacceptable risk of deleterious effects on public health and safety. In addition, the applicant should be expected to take practical and feasible measures to reduce the probability of a criticality occurring, even if (as expected) the consequences of such a criticality for repository performance and public health and safety would be negligible. This approach, while recognizing the probabilistic nature of analyses of events and conditions in the distant future, is also arguably consistent with the defense in depth concept that has been successfully applied to nuclear reactor regulation. The authors believe regulations for postclosure criticality control should support this dual approach, rather than require a deterministic prohibition of criticality as does the current rule. The existing rule seems appropriate for the preclosure period, as long as it is clearly specified to apply only to that period.

  1. Inhibiting the Calcineurin-NFAT (Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells) Signaling Pathway with a Regulator of Calcineurin-derived Peptide without Affecting General Calcineurin Phosphatase Activity*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Mulero, Ma Carme; Aubareda, Anna; Orzáez, Mar; Messeguer, Joaquim; Serrano-Candelas, Eva; Martínez-Hoyer, Sergio; Messeguer, Àngel; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Pérez-Riba, Mercè

    2009-01-01

    Calcineurin phosphatase plays a crucial role in T cell activation. Dephosphorylation of the nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFATs) by calcineurin is essential for activating cytokine gene expression and, consequently, the immune response. Current immunosuppressive protocols are based mainly on calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A and FK506. Unfortunately, these drugs are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, immunosuppressive agents with higher selectivity and lower toxicity must be identified. The immunosuppressive role of the family of proteins regulators of calcineurin (RCAN, formerly known as DSCR1) which regulate the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway, has been described recently. Here, we identify and characterize the minimal RCAN sequence responsible for the inhibition of calcineurin-NFAT signaling in vivo. The RCAN-derived peptide spanning this sequence binds to calcineurin with high affinity. This interaction is competed by a peptide spanning the NFAT PXIXIT sequence, which binds to calcineurin and facilitates NFAT dephosphorylation and activation. Interestingly, the RCAN-derived peptide does not inhibit general calcineurin phosphatase activity, which suggests that it may have a specific immunosuppressive effect on the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway. As such, the RCAN-derived peptide could either be considered a highly selective immunosuppressive compound by itself or be used as a new tool for identifying innovative immunosuppressive agents. We developed a low throughput assay, based on the RCAN1-calcineurin interaction, which identifies dipyridamole as an efficient in vivo inhibitor of the calcineurin-NFAT pathway that does not affect calcineurin phosphatase activity. PMID:19189965

  2. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  3. Criticality safety basics, a study guide

    SciTech Connect

    V. L. Putman

    1999-09-01

    This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates.

  4. CRITICALITY SAFETY TRAINING AT FLUOR HANFORD (FH)

    SciTech Connect

    TOFFER, H.

    2005-05-02

    The Fluor Hanford Criticality Safety engineers are extensively trained. The objectives and requirements for training are derived from Department of Energy (DOE) and American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society Standards (ANSI/ANS), and are captured in the Hanford Criticality Safety Program manual, HNF-7098. Qualification cards have been established for the general Criticality Safety Engineer (CSE) analyst, CSEs who support specific facilities, and for the facility Criticality Safety Representatives (CSRs). Refresher training and continuous education in the discipline are emphasized. Weekly Brown Bag Sessions keep the criticality safety engineers informed of the latest developments and historic perspectives.

  5. Nuclear terrorism.

    PubMed

    Hogan, David E; Kellison, Ted

    2002-06-01

    Recent events have heightened awareness of the potential for terrorist attacks employing nonconventional weaponry such as biological agents and radiation. Historically, the philosophy of nuclear risk has focused on global or strategic nuclear exchanges and the resulting damage from large-scale releases. Currently, nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks involving low-level or regional release of radiation are considered the most likely events. Thus far, there have been several regional radiation incidents exposing hundreds of thousands of people to radiation, but there have been only a limited number of significant contaminations resulting in death. There are several different types of radioactive particles that differ in mass, extent of radiation emitted, and the degree to which tissue penetration occurs. Radiation affects its toxicity on biological systems by ionization, which creates tissue damage by the generation of free radicals, disruption of chemical bonds, and directly damaging cellular DNA and enzymes. The extent of damage depends on the type of radioisotope and the radiation dose. Radiation doses exceeding 2 to 10 Gy are considered lethal. Optimal management of radiation casualties requires knowledge of the type and dose of radiation received, a recognition of the manifestations of radiation sickness, and the use of standard medical care, decontamination, and decorporation techniques. PMID:12074488

  6. [Affect and mimetic behavior].

    PubMed

    Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

    1998-05-01

    The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions. PMID:9632951

  7. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. Phosphorylation of the protein kinase C-theta activation loop and hydrophobic motif regulates its kinase activity, but only activation loop phosphorylation is critical to in vivo nuclear-factor-kappaB induction.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin; Graham, Caroline; Li, Aiqun; Fisher, Robert J; Shaw, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC)-theta, a member of the 'novel' subfamily of PKC isoforms, is of singular importance in transducing signals in T-lymphocytes. Since understanding of regulatory phosphorylation of novel PKCs is fragmentary and inconsistent with findings for 'classical' PKC isoforms, we investigated three potential phosphorylation sites on PKC-theta; in the activation loop (Thr(538)), turn motif (Ser(676)) and hydrophobic motif (Ser(695)). Combined evidence from phospho-specific antisera and MS demonstrates phosphorylation at all three sites. Unlike its closest paralogue, PKC-delta, lack of negative charge in the activation loop of PKC-theta results in a profound catalytic defect (>100-fold reduction in the T538A mutant); the high sequence similarity between PKC-theta and -delta assists in the formulation of structural hypotheses to account for this major difference. In contrast with mechanisms proposed for other PKC isoforms, phosphorylation at the other two sites does not reconstitute catalytic activity. Activation loop phosphorylation is critical in vivo, since the T538A mutant completely lost its capacity to mediate T-cell receptor-stimulation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in Jurkat T-cells. Hydrophobic motif phosphorylation also substantially influences PKC-theta catalytic activity (5-fold reduction in the S695A mutant), but does not impair NF-kappaB activation in Jurkat T-cells. Its mechanism is independent of secondary effects on activation loop phosphorylation and cannot be explained by thermal instability. Turn motif phosphorylation has a limited effect on kinase activity, but negatively regulates other aspects of PKC-theta function, since the S676A mutant is more efficient than wild-type in inducing NF-kappaB activation in Jurkat T-cells. These findings expand our understanding of the roles of phosphorylation in novel PKCs, and indicate that PKC-theta is a constitutively competent kinase as a consequence of constitutive

  9. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  10. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  11. Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles T.

    This paper addresses itself to the question, "What does feeling have to do with knowing?" Two movements in affective education are discussed which have come into focus in recent years and which attempt to define the relationship between knowing and feeling. The first, a conscious application of the role of arousal in learning, emphasizes arousal…

  12. Fictions of nuclear disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, D.

    1987-01-01

    This work is critical study of literary interpretations of the nuclear holocaust. The author examines more than 250 stories and novels dealing with the theme of nuclear power and its devastating potential implications. Addressing such topics as the scientist and Armageddon, the role of religion, future evolution and mutation, and the postnuclear society, the author assesses the response of Bradbury, Lessing, Malamud, Shute, Huxley, Vonnegut, Heinlein, and others to the threat of nuclear apocalypse, with in-depth analyses of Alter Miller's A canticle for Leibowitz and Russell Hoban's Riddley Walker.

  13. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. ):)

    1989-12-01

    Nuclear physics has provided one of the 2 critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. This paper reviews the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He--C and He--N and He--O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as {sup 2}D plus {sup 3}He are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N{sub {nu}}, is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of {tau}{sub n} = 890 {plus minus} 4s ({tau}{sub {1/2}} = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N{sub {nu}} = 2.6 {plus minus} 0.3 (1{sigma}) providing a reasonable fit (1.3{sigma}) to 3 families but making a fourth light (m{sub {nu}} {approx lt}10 MeV) neutrino family exceedingly unlikely ({approx gt}4.7{sigma}) (barring significant systematic errors either in D + {sup 3}He, and Li and/or {sup 4}He and/or {tau}{sub n}). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-hadron phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Several Novel Nuclear Envelope Transmembrane Proteins Identified in Skeletal Muscle Have Cytoskeletal Associations*

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Gavin S.; Korfali, Nadia; Swanson, Selene K.; Malik, Poonam; Srsen, Vlastimil; Batrakou, Dzmitry G.; de las Heras, Jose; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair R. W.; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear envelopes from liver and a neuroblastoma cell line have previously been analyzed by proteomics; however, most diseases associated with the nuclear envelope affect muscle. To determine whether muscle has unique nuclear envelope proteins, rat skeletal muscle nuclear envelopes were prepared and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Many novel muscle-specific proteins were identified that did not appear in previous nuclear envelope data sets. Nuclear envelope residence was confirmed for 11 of these by expression of fusion proteins and by antibody staining of muscle tissue cryosections. Moreover, transcript levels for several of the newly identified nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins increased during muscle differentiation using mouse and human in vitro model systems. Some of these proteins tracked with microtubules at the nuclear surface in interphase cells and accumulated at the base of the microtubule spindle in mitotic cells, suggesting they may associate with complexes that connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. The finding of tissue-specific proteins in the skeletal muscle nuclear envelope proteome argues the importance of analyzing nuclear envelopes from all tissues linked to disease and suggests that general investigation of tissue differences in organellar proteomes might yield critical insights. PMID:20876400

  15. Several novel nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins identified in skeletal muscle have cytoskeletal associations.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Gavin S; Korfali, Nadia; Swanson, Selene K; Malik, Poonam; Srsen, Vlastimil; Batrakou, Dzmitry G; de las Heras, Jose; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair R W; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear envelopes from liver and a neuroblastoma cell line have previously been analyzed by proteomics; however, most diseases associated with the nuclear envelope affect muscle. To determine whether muscle has unique nuclear envelope proteins, rat skeletal muscle nuclear envelopes were prepared and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Many novel muscle-specific proteins were identified that did not appear in previous nuclear envelope data sets. Nuclear envelope residence was confirmed for 11 of these by expression of fusion proteins and by antibody staining of muscle tissue cryosections. Moreover, transcript levels for several of the newly identified nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins increased during muscle differentiation using mouse and human in vitro model systems. Some of these proteins tracked with microtubules at the nuclear surface in interphase cells and accumulated at the base of the microtubule spindle in mitotic cells, suggesting they may associate with complexes that connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. The finding of tissue-specific proteins in the skeletal muscle nuclear envelope proteome argues the importance of analyzing nuclear envelopes from all tissues linked to disease and suggests that general investigation of tissue differences in organellar proteomes might yield critical insights. PMID:20876400

  16. Nuclear Weapons and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides suggestions on how science teachers can, and should, deal with the nuclear weapons debate in a balanced and critical way. Includes a table outlining points for and against deterrence and disarmament. (JN)

  17. Nuclear Material Management Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse C. Schreiber

    2007-07-10

    Nevada Test Site (NTS) has transitioned from its historical and critical role of weapons testing to another critical role for the nation. This new role focuses on being a integral element in solving the multiple challenges facing the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with nuclear material management. NTS is positioned to be a solution for other NNSA sites challenged with safe nuclear materials storage and disposition. NNSA, with site involvement, is currently transforming the nuclear stockpile and supporting infrastructure to meet the 2030 vision. Efforts are under way to consolidate and modernize the production complex . With respect to the nuclear material stockpile, the NNSA sites are currently reducing the complex nuclear material inventory through disposition and consolidation. This includes moving material from other sites to NTS. State of the art nuclear material management and control practices at NTS are essential for NTS to ensure that assigned activities are accomplished in a safe, secure, efficient, and environmentally responsible manner. NTS activities and challenges will be addressed.

  18. British nuclear policymaking

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, C.J.; Platt, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and bureaucratic factors that affect the nuclear policymaking process in Great Britain. Its major conclusion is that, although there have been changes in that process in recent years (notably the current involvement of a segment of the British public in the debate about the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces), future British nuclear policymaking will remain much what it has been in the past. Three ideas are central to understanding British thinking on the subject: (1) Britain's long-standing resolve to have her own national nuclear force is largely traceable to her desire to maintain first-rank standing among the nations of the world in spite of loss of empire. (2) Financial considerations have always been important--so much so that they have usually dominated issues of nuclear policy. (3) The executive branch of government dominates the nuclear policymaking process but does not always present a united front. The United States heavily influences British nuclear policy through having supplied Britain since the late 1950s with nuclear data and components of nuclear weapon systems such as Polaris and Trident. The relationship works both ways since the U.S. depends on Britain as a base for deployment of both conventional and nuclear systems.

  19. A RE-INTRODUCTION TO ANOMALIES OF CRITICALITY

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-09-09

    In 1974, a small innocuous document was submitted to the American Nuclear Society's Criticality Safety Division for publication that would have lasting impacts on this nuclear field The author was Duane Clayton, manager of the Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Critical Mass Lab, the world's preeminent reactor critical experimenter with plutonium solutions. The document was entitled, 'Anomalies of Criticality'. 'Anomalies...' was a compilation of more than thirty separate and distinct examples of departures from what might be commonly expected in the field of nuclear criticality. Mr. Clayton's publication was the derivative of more than ten thousand experiments and countless analytical studies conducted world-wide on every conceivable reactor system imaginable: from fissile bearing solutions to solids, blocks to arrays of fuel rods, low-enriched uranium oxide systems to pure plutonium and highly enriched uranium systems. After publication, the document was commonly used within the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor community to train potential criticality/reactor analysts, experimenters and fuel handlers on important things for consideration when designing systems with critically 'safe' parameters in mind The purpose of this paper is to re-introduce 'Anomalies of Criticality' to the current Criticality Safety community and to add new 'anomalies' to the existing compendium. By so doing, it is the authors' hope that a new generation of nuclear workers and criticality engineers will benefit from its content and might continue to build upon this work in support of the nuclear renaissance that is about to occur.

  20. Safety analysis report for the Hanford Critical Mass Laboratory: Supplement No. 2. Experiments with heterogeneous assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Davenport, L.C.

    1981-04-01

    Factors affecting the safety of criticality experiments using heterogeneous assemblies are described and assessed. It is concluded that there is no substantial change in safety from experiments already being routinely performed at the Critical Mass Laboratory (CML), and that laboratory and personnel safety are adequately provided by the combination of engineered and administrative safety limits enforced at the CML. This conclusion is based on the analysis of operational controls, potential hazards, and the consequences of accidents. Contingencies considered that could affect nuclear criticality include manual changes in fuel loadings, water flooding, fire, explosion, loss of services, earthquake, windstorm, and flood. Other potential hazards considered include radiation exposure to personnel, and potential releases within the Assembly Room and outside to the environment. It is concluded that the Maximum Credible Nuclear Burst of 3 x 10/sup 18/ fissions (which served as the design basis for the CML) is valid for heterogeneous assemblies as well as homogeneous assemblies. This is based upon examination of the results of reactor destructive tests and the results of the SL-1 reactor destructive accident. The production of blast effects which might jeopardize the CML critical assembly room (of thick reinforced concrete) is not considered credible due to the extreme circumstances required to produce blast effects in reactor destructive tests. Consequently, it is concluded that, for experiments with heterogeneous assemblies, the consequences of the Maximum Credible Burst are unchanged from those previously estimated for experiments with homogeneous systems.

  1. Critical Pedagogy for Critical Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutak, Fatma Aslan; Bondy, Elizabeth; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to critical pedagogy and further discussion on critical mathematics education. Critical mathematics education enables students to read the world with mathematics. Three emerging domains of mathematics education related to critical mathematics education are discussed in this manuscript: ethnomathematics,…

  2. Nuclear Energy: Benefits Versus Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Walter H.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the benefits as well as the risks of nuclear-power plants. Suggests that critics who dwell on the risks to the public from nuclear-power plants should compare these risks with the present hazards that would be eliminated. Bibliography. (LC)

  3. Nuclear ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  4. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  5. Nuclear light bulb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, Tom

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear light bulb engine is a closed cycle concept. The nuclear light bulb concept provides containment by keeping the nuclear fuel fluid mechanically suspended in a cylindrical geometry. Thermal heat passes through an internally cooled, fused-silica, transparent wall and heats hydrogen propellant. The seeded hydrogen propellant absorbs radiant energy and is expanded through a nozzle. Internal moderation was used in the configuration which resulted in a reduced critical density requirement. This result was supported by criticality experiments. A reference engine was designed that had seven cells and was sized to fit in what was then predicted to be the shuttle bay mass and volume limitations. There were studies done of nozzle throat cooling schemes to remove the radiant heat. Elements of the nuclear light bulb program included closed loop critical assembly tests done at Los Alamos with UF6 confined by argon buffer gas. It was shown that the fuel region could be seeded with constituents that would block UV radiation from the uranium plasma. A combination of calculations and experiments showed that internal moderation produced a critical mass reduction. Other aspects of the research are presented.

  6. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; Busey, H.M.

    1959-02-17

    Nuclear reactors of the homogeneous liquid fuel type are discussed. The reactor is comprised of an elongated closed vessel, vertically oriented, having a critical region at the bottom, a lower chimney structure extending from the critical region vertically upwardly and surrounded by heat exchanger coils, to a baffle region above which is located an upper chimney structure containing a catalyst functioning to recombine radiolyticallydissociated moderator gages. In operation the liquid fuel circulates solely by convection from the critical region upwardly through the lower chimney and then downwardly through the heat exchanger to return to the critical region. The gases formed by radiolytic- dissociation of the moderator are carried upwardly with the circulating liquid fuel and past the baffle into the region of the upper chimney where they are recombined by the catalyst and condensed, thence returning through the heat exchanger to the critical region.

  7. PRECLOSURE CRITICALITY ANALYSIS PROCESS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    A.E. Danise

    2004-10-25

    This report describes a process for performing preclosure criticality analyses for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These analyses will be performed from the time of receipt of fissile material until permanent closure of the repository (preclosure period). The process describes how criticality safety analyses will be performed for various configurations of waste in or out of waste packages that could occur during preclosure as a result of normal operations or event sequences. The criticality safety analysis considers those event sequences resulting in unanticipated moderation, loss of neutron absorber, geometric changes, or administrative errors in waste form placement (loading) of the waste package. The report proposes a criticality analyses process for preclosure to allow a consistent transition from preclosure to postclosure, thereby possibly reducing potential cost increases and delays in licensing of Yucca Mountain. The proposed approach provides the advantage of using a parallel regulatory framework for evaluation of preclosure and postclosure performance and is consistent with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's approach of supporting risk-informed, performance-based regulation for fuel cycle facilities, ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'', and 10 CFR Part 63. The criticality-related criteria for ensuring subcriticality are also described as well as which guidance documents will be utilized. Preclosure operations and facilities have significant similarities to existing facilities and operations currently regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; therefore, the design approach for preclosure criticality safety will be dictated by existing regulatory requirements while using a risk-informed approach with burnup credit for in-package operations.

  8. AGING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Sanders

    2004-09-10

    The purpose of this design calculation is to revise and update the previous criticality calculation for the Aging Facility (documented in BSC 2004a). This design calculation will also demonstrate and ensure that the storage and aging operations to be performed in the Aging Facility meet the criticality safety design criteria in the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (Doraswamy 2004, Section 4.9.2.2), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004f, p. 3-12). The scope of this design calculation covers the systems and processes for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and staging Department of Energy (DOE) SNF/High-Level Waste (HLW) prior to its placement in the final waste package (WP) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-1). Aging commercial SNF is a thermal management strategy, while staging DOE SNF/HLW will make loading of WPs more efficient (note that aging DOE SNF/HLW is not needed since these wastes are not expected to exceed the thermal limits form emplacement) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-2). The description of the changes in this revised document is as follows: (1) Include DOE SNF/HLW in addition to commercial SNF per the current ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC 2004f). (2) Update the evaluation of Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the Aging Facility as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004c, Section 7). (3) Further evaluate the design and criticality controls required for a storage/aging cask, referred to as MGR Site-specific Cask (MSC), to accommodate commercial fuel outside the content specification in the Certificate of Compliance for the existing NRC-certified storage casks. In addition, evaluate the design required for the MSC that will accommodate DOE SNF/HLW. This design calculation will achieve the objective of providing the criticality safety results to support the preliminary design of the Aging

  9. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  10. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  11. Engineers call for US nuclear safety fix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Seven Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) engineers have called on the commission to force the owners of US nuclear reactors to repair a design flaw that could affect the safe operation of emergency core cooling systems.

  12. Nuclear weapons and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

  13. Coping with criticism and praise.

    PubMed

    Esdale, Lynn; Jahoda, Andrew; Pert, Carol

    2015-05-01

    Through experiencing stigma and discrimination, people with intellectual disability may become more sensitive to criticism from others and be less likely to believe praise. This study compared how people with and without intellectual disability viewed praise and criticism, using a vignette task developed for the study. Participants were asked to imagine someone saying something praiseworthy or critical and were then asked about their emotions, beliefs, and thoughts. People with intellectual disability were more likely to believe and be distressed by criticism. Contrary to predictions, this group were also more likely to believe praise and experience positive affect. The results suggest that the self-perceptions of people with intellectual disabilities is more dynamic and reliant on the views of others.

  14. Autism: a "critical period" disorder?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jocelyn J; Fagiolini, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.

  15. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring...

  16. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring...

  17. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring...

  18. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring...

  19. 10 CFR 76.89 - Criticality accident requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criticality accident requirements. 76.89 Section 76.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.89 Criticality accident requirements. (a) The Corporation must maintain and operate a criticality monitoring...

  20. What can nuclear energy do for society?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    The utilization of nuclear energy and the predicted impact of future uses of nuclear energy are discussed. Areas of application in electric power production and transportation methods are described. It is concluded that the need for many forms of nuclear energy will become critical as the requirements for power to supply an increasing population are met.

  1. Teaching Nuclear Issues. Occasional Paper No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, David W.

    The nuclear debate is one of critical importance and should be explored as part of the school curriculum. The psychology of denying the issue of nuclear arms and the psychological effects of the arms race on children is examined in this paper. A number of topics that might be included in discussion of nuclear issues are the arms race, politics,…

  2. Luneburg lens approach to nuclear rainbow scattering.

    PubMed

    Michel, F; Reidemeister, G; Ohkubo, S

    2002-10-01

    The physical interpretation of nuclear rainbow scattering within the frame of the optical model is critically investigated. Starting from the properties of the Luneburg lens, a gradient index device that displays refractive features similar to those of the nuclear potential, important differences between the mechanisms producing the nuclear and optical rainbows are pointed out. PMID:12365983

  3. Nuclear choices

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains part of the series New Liberal Arts, which is intended to make science and technology more accessible to students of the liberal arts. Volume in hand provides a comprehensive, multifaceted examination of nuclear energy, in nontechnical terms. Wolfson explains the basics of nuclear energy and radiation, nuclear power..., and nuclear weapons..., and he invites readers to make their own judgments on controversial nuclear issues. Illustrated with photos and diagrams. Each chapter contains suggestions for additional reading and a glossary. For policy, science, and general collections in all libraries. (ES) Topics contained include Atoms and nuclei. Effects and uses of radiation. Energy and People. Reactor safety. Nuclear strategy. Defense in the nuclear age. Nuclear power, nuclear weapons, and nuclear futures.

  4. Critical Viewing: Stimulant to Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Kevin; Splaine, John

    This document is intended to improve the critical viewing skills and increase the understanding and appreciation of what is viewed. Included are the chapters: (1) "Critical Thinking: The Parts of an Argument," intended to develop a process to help a person judge arguments in what is read, seen, and heard; (2) "Critical Viewing: Concepts, Skills,…

  5. Lessons learned from early criticality accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1996-06-01

    Four accidents involving the approach to criticality occurred during the period July, 1945, through May, 1996. These have been described in the format of the OPERATING EXPERIENCE WEEKLY SUMMARY which is distributed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety. Although the lessons learned have been incorporated in standards, codes, and formal procedures during the last fifty years, this is their first presentation in this format. It is particularly appropriate that they be presented in the forum of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project Workshop closest to the fiftieth anniversary of the last of the four accidents, and that which was most instrumental in demonstrating the need to incorporate lessons learned.

  6. Critical Path to Nuclear Science and Technology Knowledge Transfer and Skill Development in K-12 Schools: Why America Needs Action and Support from Federal and State Education Departments Now

    SciTech Connect

    Vincenti, J.R.; Anderson, G.E.

    2006-07-01

    With the signing of President Bush's energy bill in August of 2005, the successful application of the new energy legislation may have more to do with educational standards required in our schools than applications of research and technology in the long-term. Looking inside the new legislation, the future of that legislation's success may not just hinge on investment in technology, but ensuring that our citizens, especially our youth, are prepared and better informed to be able to understand, react, and apply the economically and national security driven intent of the law. How can our citizens make sense of change if they lack the skills to be able to understand, not only the technology, but also the science that drives the change? President Bush's passage of the 1,724-page bill emphasizes conservation, clean energy research, and new and improved technology. The legislation also provides for economic incentives toward building more nuclear power plants. This paper will use four questions as a focal point to emphasize the need for both state and federal education departments to review their current standards and respond to deficiencies regarding learning about radioactivity, radiation, and nuclear science and technology. The questions are: 1. Will America accept new nuclear power development? 2. Will waste issues be resolved concerning high- and low-level radioactive waste management and disposal? 3. Will nuclear 'anything' be politically correct when it comes to your backyard? 4. Is our youth adequately educated and informed about radioactivity, radiation, and nuclear science and technology? This paper will use Pennsylvania as a case study to better understand the implications and importance of the educational standards in our school systems. This paper will also show how the deficiency found in Pennsylvania's academic standards, and in other states, has a significant impact on the ability to fulfill the legislation's intent of realizing energy independence and

  7. The role of nuclear receptors in regulation of Th17/Treg biology and its implications for diseases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Benjamin V.; Pan, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptors play an essential role in cellular environmental sensing, differentiation, development, homeostasis, and metabolism and are thus highly conserved across multiple species. The anti-inflammatory role of nuclear receptors in immune cells has recently gained recognition. Nuclear receptors play critical roles in both myeloid and lymphoid cells, particularly in helper CD4+ T-cell type 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg). Th17 and Treg have a major impact on cellular fate through their interactions with cytokine signaling pathways. Recent studies have emphasized the interactions between nuclear receptors and the known cytokine signals and how these interactions affect the expression and function of master transcription factors in Th17 and Treg subsets. This review will focus on the most recent discoveries concerning the roles of nuclear receptors in regulating the Th17/Treg cell-fate determination. PMID:25958843

  8. Critical Thinking in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Rodney D.

    Critical thinking is often defined as that which a particular instrument measures. The most prominent tests are the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test, and the Cornell Critical Thinking Tests. Watson and Glaser's (1980) view of critical thinking is "a composite of attitudes, knowledge, and…

  9. Critical Care in Critical Access Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Seright, Teresa J; Winters, Charlene A

    2015-10-01

    What began as a grant-funded demonstration project, as a means of bridging the gap in rural health care, has developed into a critical access hospital system comprising 1328 facilities across 45 states. A critical access hospital is not just a safety net for health care in a rural community. Such hospitals may also provide specialized services such as same-day surgery, infusion therapy, and intensive care. For hospitals located near the required minimum of 35 miles from a tertiary care center, management of critically ill patients may be a matter of stabilization and transfer. Critical access hospitals in more rural areas are often much farther from tertiary care; some of these hospitals are situated within frontier areas of the United States. This article describes the development of critical access hospitals, provision of care and services, challenges to critical care in critical access hospitals, and suggestions to address gaps in research and collaborative care.

  10. Critical Materials Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Alex King

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  11. Critical Materials Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alex King

    2013-01-09

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  12. Critical Care Team

    MedlinePlus

    ... Please enable scripts and reload this page. About Critical Care Currently selected Team Questions During the ICU Chronic ... Team Currently selected Questions Patients and Families > About Critical Care > Team Tweet Team Page Content ​The critical care ...

  13. Thermionic critical technology investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalichandra, P.; Hamerdinger, R. W.; Anderson, E. A.; Lamp, T. R.; Donovan, B. D.

    The thermionic critical technology investigation was initiated to enrich the technology base for thermionic space nuclear power systems. The focus of this program is on an out-of-core, Romashka type reactor system which can operate in the 5-40-kW range. The Romashka concept uses uranium carbide fuel in graphite trays which are radiatively coupled to planar thermionic converters. After completion of the design and fabrication of two state-of-the-art baseline converters, the baseline converters have been subject to further performance and life testing. To date, converter performance tests have been conducted for emitter temperatures from 1850 to 2000 K. The studies have shown that a thermionic converter with a heat-pipe-cooled collector is capable of high power conversion efficiency. By selecting the rhenium-rhenium system, in a closely spaced ignited mode converter, conversion efficiencies of 14 percent with a cell potential of 0.7 V can be readily attained. The sodium heat pipe provides a buffer against extreme changes in collector temperature due to fluctuations in converter load, one that can be improved upon by loading with an inert gas.

  14. Waging nuclear peace: The technology and politics of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.

    1985-01-01

    Since the explosions of the first atomic bombs, a large literature has appeared on the effects and risks of nuclear war. The most widely quoted recent publications have concentrated on the impossibility of any meaningful survival after a superpower nuclear exchange. By contrast, Dr. Ehrlich tries to show both sides of the various arguments involved. As a result, he undoubtedly succeeds in his avowed intention of angering both hawks and doves. He offers a critical analysis of most considerations apposite to the current nuclear-weapon impasse, including the nature of current nuclear arms, the possibility of limited nuclear war, the short-term and long-term effects of nuclear weapons, the value of civil defense, the importance of public opinion, and the feasibility of arms control.

  15. Do Training, Complexity and Critical Mass Affect Wiki Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Wikis have been gaining attention in the academic literature, suggesting their use as knowledge repositories in organizational environments and even as collaborative tools for reviewing scholar publications. And yet, little is known about factors that foster or discourage adoption of this technology. Taking elements from similar artifacts such as…

  16. Intranuclear DNA density affects chromosome condensation in metazoans.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuki; Iwabuchi, Mari; Ohsumi, Keita; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2013-08-01

    Chromosome condensation is critical for accurate inheritance of genetic information. The degree of condensation, which is reflected in the size of the condensed chromosomes during mitosis, is not constant. It is differentially regulated in embryonic and somatic cells. In addition to the developmentally programmed regulation of chromosome condensation, there may be adaptive regulation based on spatial parameters such as genomic length or cell size. We propose that chromosome condensation is affected by a spatial parameter called the chromosome amount per nuclear space, or "intranuclear DNA density." Using Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, we show that condensed chromosome sizes vary during early embryogenesis. Of importance, changing DNA content to haploid or polyploid changes the condensed chromosome size, even at the same developmental stage. Condensed chromosome size correlates with interphase nuclear size. Finally, a reduction in nuclear size in a cell-free system from Xenopus laevis eggs resulted in reduced condensed chromosome sizes. These data support the hypothesis that intranuclear DNA density regulates chromosome condensation. This suggests an adaptive mode of chromosome condensation regulation in metazoans.

  17. Intranuclear DNA density affects chromosome condensation in metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yuki; Iwabuchi, Mari; Ohsumi, Keita; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome condensation is critical for accurate inheritance of genetic information. The degree of condensation, which is reflected in the size of the condensed chromosomes during mitosis, is not constant. It is differentially regulated in embryonic and somatic cells. In addition to the developmentally programmed regulation of chromosome condensation, there may be adaptive regulation based on spatial parameters such as genomic length or cell size. We propose that chromosome condensation is affected by a spatial parameter called the chromosome amount per nuclear space, or “intranuclear DNA density.” Using Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, we show that condensed chromosome sizes vary during early embryogenesis. Of importance, changing DNA content to haploid or polyploid changes the condensed chromosome size, even at the same developmental stage. Condensed chromosome size correlates with interphase nuclear size. Finally, a reduction in nuclear size in a cell-free system from Xenopus laevis eggs resulted in reduced condensed chromosome sizes. These data support the hypothesis that intranuclear DNA density regulates chromosome condensation. This suggests an adaptive mode of chromosome condensation regulation in metazoans. PMID:23783035

  18. [Nuclear News -- International

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Topics discussed in this section are: (1) Tokaimura criticality accident results from improper procedures. (2) IAEA general conference energized by two issues. (3) IAEA Scientific Forum focuses on nuclear's future. (4) TopFuel '99 participants address increased burnup. (5) Russia's Adamov expresses optimism at Uranium Institute annual meeting. (6) Fourth Swiss referendum may be forced by antinukes. (7) India's Kaiga-2 PHWR achieves initial criticality. (8) Heavy-water spill at South Korea's Wolsong-3 ranked as anomaly. (9) Pressure from EU spurs early plant closings.

  19. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  20. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  1. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  2. Nuclear Bashing in Chernobyl Coverage: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    Critics of coverage of nuclear power have charged that the media overemphasize the importance of nuclear accidents, encourage public fear, and omit information vital to public understanding of nuclear power and risk. Some also feel there is an anti-nuclear bias among reporters and editors. A study was conducted to determine if such charges were…

  3. Critical Temperature from the Fission Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepanov, E. A.; Karnaukhov, V. A.

    2007-05-22

    Experimental and calculated data on the fission probability are compared for highly excited 188Os. The calculations have been made within the statistical model using the more reliable parameterizations for the temperature dependence or surface tension. It is concluded that the critical temperature for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is higher than 16 MeV.

  4. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  5. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  6. A Critical Humanist Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, Kevin; Rodriguez, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a critical humanist discussion of curriculum; a departure from the technicist view of education [education meant to support a global capitalist economy] and an analysis of curriculum considering critical humanism, political economy and critical race theory among other modes of critical analysis and inquiry. Our discussion supports a…

  7. Nuclear hyperpolarization in solids and the prospects for nuclear spintronics.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Jeffrey A

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear hyperpolarization can be achieved in a number of ways. This article focuses on the use of coupling of nuclei to (nearly) pure quantum states, with particular emphasis on those states obtained by optical excitation in bulk semiconductors. I seek an answer to this question: "What is to prevent the design and analysis of nuclear spintronics devices that use the extremely long-lived hyperpolarized nuclear spin states, and their weak couplings to each other, to affect computation, memory, or informational technology schemes?" The answer, I argue, is in part because there remains a lack of fundamental understanding of how to generate and control nuclear polarization with schemes other than with rf coils.

  8. Critical Approaches to Critical Pedagogy in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grollios, George; Liambas, Anastassios

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an initial review of the presentations and uses of critical pedagogy in Greek educational literature since the mid-1980s. These have appeared in the form of three books and an edited volume (translated in Greek), all written by American critical educators, as well as in texts produced by Greek educators who have either written the…

  9. A Critical Look into Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pishghadam, Reza; Meidani, Elham Naji

    2012-01-01

    In line with postmodern philosophy, critical pedagogy has gained considerable importance and has become a valuable educational goal. The purpose of this study is to dig into the effects of critical pedagogy in a modernist educational system. To this aim, 15 Iranian university students were asked to write down their feelings at the end of a course…

  10. Revalorizing the Critical Attitude for Critical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, Sarah S.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that at a moment of crisis in education, the defence of critical pedagogy is vitally important. However, it also suggests that such a defence should be more than a "cri de coeur" that asserts principles and methods of criticality against those of neoliberal or conservative education policy. Narratives of a totalising "crisis of…

  11. PNNL Results from 2009 Silene Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Robin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2010-06-30

    This document reports the results of testing of the Hanford Personnel Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on October 13, 14, and 15, 2009.

  12. How critical is chronic critical leg ischaemia?

    PubMed

    Kroese, A J; Stranden, E

    1998-01-01

    "Critical" according to the Oxford dictionary means: a "turning point" where an acute change for better or worse may be anticipated. Thus, the meaning of the word "critical" complies with its use in relation to ischaemia. We don't really know, prospectively, what will happen to the critically ischaemic limb, whether it will improve or worsen. The answer to the question "How critical is critical leg ischaemia (CLI)?" must be: "We don't know!" The addition of ankle systolic pressure as an objective haemodynamic measurement has not made the definition of the Second European Consensus Group significantly better than the original Fontaine classification, grade III and IV. For clinical practice the Fontaine classification will be sufficient. For scientific purposes macro- and microcirculatory assessments and information about the patient's risk profile should be added. PMID:9676324

  13. How critical is chronic critical leg ischaemia?

    PubMed

    Kroese, A J; Stranden, E

    1998-01-01

    "Critical" according to the Oxford dictionary means: a "turning point" where an acute change for better or worse may be anticipated. Thus, the meaning of the word "critical" complies with its use in relation to ischaemia. We don't really know, prospectively, what will happen to the critically ischaemic limb, whether it will improve or worsen. The answer to the question "How critical is critical leg ischaemia (CLI)?" must be: "We don't know!" The addition of ankle systolic pressure as an objective haemodynamic measurement has not made the definition of the Second European Consensus Group significantly better than the original Fontaine classification, grade III and IV. For clinical practice the Fontaine classification will be sufficient. For scientific purposes macro- and microcirculatory assessments and information about the patient's risk profile should be added.

  14. A novel role for nuclear factor-erythroid 2 in erythroid maturation by modulation of mitochondrial autophagy.

    PubMed

    Gothwal, Monika; Wehrle, Julius; Aumann, Konrad; Zimmermann, Vanessa; Gründer, Albert; Pahl, Heike L

    2016-09-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2, which is critical for erythroid maturation and globin gene expression, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Myeloproliferative neoplasm patients display elevated levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 and transgenic mice overexpressing the transcription factor develop myeloproliferative neoplasm, albeit, surprisingly without erythrocytosis. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 transgenic mice show both a reticulocytosis and a concomitant increase in iron deposits in the spleen, suggesting both enhanced erythrocyte production and increased red blood cell destruction. We therefore hypothesized that elevated nuclear factor-erythroid 2 levels may lead to increased erythrocyte destruction by interfering with organelle clearance during erythroid maturation. We have previously shown that nuclear factor-erythroid 2 overexpression delays erythroid maturation of human hematopoietic stem cells. Here we report that increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 levels also impede murine maturation by retarding mitochondrial depolarization and delaying mitochondrial elimination. In addition, ribosome autophagy is delayed in transgenics. We demonstrate that the autophagy genes NIX and ULK1 are direct novel nuclear factor-erythroid 2 target genes, as these loci are bound by nuclear factor-erythroid 2 in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Moreover, Nix and Ulk1 expression is increased in transgenic mice and in granulocytes from polycythemia vera patients. This is the first report implying a role for nuclear factor-erythroid 2 in erythroid maturation by affecting autophagy. PMID:27479815

  15. A novel role for nuclear factor-erythroid 2 in erythroid maturation by modulation of mitochondrial autophagy.

    PubMed

    Gothwal, Monika; Wehrle, Julius; Aumann, Konrad; Zimmermann, Vanessa; Gründer, Albert; Pahl, Heike L

    2016-09-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2, which is critical for erythroid maturation and globin gene expression, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Myeloproliferative neoplasm patients display elevated levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 and transgenic mice overexpressing the transcription factor develop myeloproliferative neoplasm, albeit, surprisingly without erythrocytosis. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 transgenic mice show both a reticulocytosis and a concomitant increase in iron deposits in the spleen, suggesting both enhanced erythrocyte production and increased red blood cell destruction. We therefore hypothesized that elevated nuclear factor-erythroid 2 levels may lead to increased erythrocyte destruction by interfering with organelle clearance during erythroid maturation. We have previously shown that nuclear factor-erythroid 2 overexpression delays erythroid maturation of human hematopoietic stem cells. Here we report that increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 levels also impede murine maturation by retarding mitochondrial depolarization and delaying mitochondrial elimination. In addition, ribosome autophagy is delayed in transgenics. We demonstrate that the autophagy genes NIX and ULK1 are direct novel nuclear factor-erythroid 2 target genes, as these loci are bound by nuclear factor-erythroid 2 in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Moreover, Nix and Ulk1 expression is increased in transgenic mice and in granulocytes from polycythemia vera patients. This is the first report implying a role for nuclear factor-erythroid 2 in erythroid maturation by affecting autophagy.

  16. A novel role for nuclear factor-erythroid 2 in erythroid maturation by modulation of mitochondrial autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Gothwal, Monika; Wehrle, Julius; Aumann, Konrad; Zimmermann, Vanessa; Gründer, Albert; Pahl, Heike L.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2, which is critical for erythroid maturation and globin gene expression, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Myeloproliferative neoplasm patients display elevated levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 and transgenic mice overexpressing the transcription factor develop myeloproliferative neoplasm, albeit, surprisingly without erythrocytosis. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 transgenic mice show both a reticulocytosis and a concomitant increase in iron deposits in the spleen, suggesting both enhanced erythrocyte production and increased red blood cell destruction. We therefore hypothesized that elevated nuclear factor-erythroid 2 levels may lead to increased erythrocyte destruction by interfering with organelle clearance during erythroid maturation. We have previously shown that nuclear factor-erythroid 2 overexpression delays erythroid maturation of human hematopoietic stem cells. Here we report that increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 levels also impede murine maturation by retarding mitochondrial depolarization and delaying mitochondrial elimination. In addition, ribosome autophagy is delayed in transgenics. We demonstrate that the autophagy genes NIX and ULK1 are direct novel nuclear factor-erythroid 2 target genes, as these loci are bound by nuclear factor-erythroid 2 in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Moreover, Nix and Ulk1 expression is increased in transgenic mice and in granulocytes from polycythemia vera patients. This is the first report implying a role for nuclear factor-erythroid 2 in erythroid maturation by affecting autophagy. PMID:27479815

  17. National Criticality Experiments Research Center: Capability and Status

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, David K.; Myers, William L.

    2012-07-12

    After seven years, the former Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF), or Pajarito Site, has reopened for business as the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Four critical assembly machines (Comet, Planet, Flat-Top, and Godiva-IV) made the journey from Los Alamos to the NNSS. All four machines received safety system upgrades along with new digital control systems. Between these machines, systems ranging from the thermal through the intermediate to the fast spectrum may be assembled. Steady-State, transient, and super-prompt critical conditions may be explored. NCERC is the sole remaining facility in the United States capable of conducting general-purpose nuclear materials handling including the construction and operation of high-multiplication assemblies, delayed critical assemblies, and prompt critical assemblies. Reconstitution of the unique capabilities at NCERC ensures the viability of (1) The Nuclear Renaissance, (2) Stockpile Stewardship, and (3) and the next generation of criticality experimentalists.

  18. Life after Death: Critical Pedagogy in an Urban Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, J. Alleyne

    1995-01-01

    A teacher explains how she uses critical pedagogy to legitimize students' knowledge and experience as a basis for learning. She shows how violence and death affect students' lives and must be addressed as a reality that affects education. (SK)

  19. A primer for criticality calculations with DANTSYS

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, R.D.

    1997-08-01

    With the closure of many experimental facilities, the nuclear safety analyst has to rely on computer calculations to identify safe limits for the handling and storage of fissile materials. Although deterministic methods often do not provide exact models of a system, a substantial amount of reliable information on nuclear systems can be obtained using these methods if the user understands their limitations. To guide criticality specialists in this area, the Nuclear Criticality Safety Group at the University of New Mexico (UNM) in cooperation with the Radiation Transport Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has designed a primer to help the analyst understand and use the DANTSYS deterministic transport code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. DANTSYS is the new name of the group of codes formerly known as: ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWOHEX, TWOGQ, and THREEDANT. The primer is designed to teach bu example, with each example illustrating two or three DANTSYS features useful in criticality analyses. Starting with a Quickstart chapter, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for DANTSYS input and allows the user to quickly run a simple criticality problem with DANTSYS. Each chapter has a list of basic objectives at the beginning identifying the goal of the chapter and the individual DANTSYS features covered in detail in the chapter example problems. On completion of the primer, it is expected that the user will be comfortable doing criticality calculations with DANTSYS and can handle 60--80% of the situations that normally arise in a facility. The primary provides a set of input files that can be selective modified by the user to fit each particular problem.

  20. Psychopharmacology in pediatric critical care.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Usher, Craigan T; Abrams, Annah N

    2006-07-01

    Psychopharmacologic treatment in pediatric critical care requires a careful child or adolescent psychiatric evaluation, including a thorough review of the history of present illness or injury, any current or pre-existing psychiatric disorder, past history, and laboratory studies. Although there is limited evidence to guide psychopharmacologic practice in this setting, psychopharmacologic treatment is increasing in critical care, with known indications for treatment, benefits, and risks; initial dosing guidelines; and best practices. Treatment is guided by the knowledge bases in pediatric physiology, psycho-pharmacology, and treatment of critically ill adults. Pharmacologic considerations include pharmacokinetic and pharmcodynamic aspects of specific drugs and drug classes, in particular elimination half-life, developmental considerations, drug interactions, and adverse effects. Evaluation and management of pain is a key initial step, as pain may mimic psychiatric symptoms and its effective treatment can ameliorate them. Patient comfort and safety are primary objectives for children who are acutely ill and who will survive and for those who will not. Judicious use of psychopharmacolgic agents in pediatric critical care using the limited but growing evidence base and a clinical best practices collaborative approach can reduce anxiety,sadness, disorientation, and agitation; improve analgesia; and save lives of children who are suicidal or delirious. In addition to pain, other disorders or indications for psychopharmacologic treatment are affective disorders;PTSD; post-suicide attempt patients; disruptive behavior disorders (especially ADHD); and adjustment, developmental, and substance use disorders. Treating children who are critically ill with psychotropic drugs is an integral component of comprehensive pediatric critical care in relieving pain and delirium; reducing inattention or agitation or aggressive behavior;relieving acute stress, anxiety, or depression; and

  1. Onflow liquid chromatography at critical conditions coupled to (1)H and (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance as powerful tools for the separation of poly(methylmethacrylate) according to isotopic composition.

    PubMed

    Hehn, Mathias; Sinha, Pritish; Pasch, Harald; Hiller, Wolf

    2015-03-27

    The present work addresses a major challenge in polymer chromatography by developing a method to separate and analyze polymers with identical molar masses, chemical structures and tacticities that is solely based on differences in isotope composition. For the first time, liquid chromatography at critical conditions (LCCC) was used to separate PMMA regarding the H and D isotopes. At critical conditions of H-PMMA, D-PMMA eluted in the adsorption mode and vice versa. By online onflow LCCC-NMR, both PMMA species were clearly identified. Different from other detectors, NMR can distinguish between H and D. Onflow LCCC-H/NMR and LCCC-D/NMR measurements were carried out and the H/D-blend components were detected. (1)H and (13)C NMR provided the tacticity of protonated PMMA. Double resonance (13)C{H} and triple resonance (13)C{H,D} provided the tacticity of the deuterated samples. Samples with similar tacticities were used to ensure that separation occurs solely regarding the isotope labeling.

  2. Transmutation of Radioactive Nuclear Waste — Present Status and Requirement for the Problem-Oriented Nuclear Database: Approach to Scheduling the Experiments (Reactor, Target, Blanket)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artisyuk, V.; Ignatyuk, A.; Korovin, Yu.; Lopatkin, A.; Matveenko, I.; Stankovskiy, A.; Titarenko, Yu.

    2005-05-01

    Transmutation of nuclear wastes (Minor Actinides and Long-Lived Fission Products) remains an important option to reduce the burden of high-level waste on final waste disposal in deep geological structures. Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) are considered as possible candidates to perform transmutation due to their subcritical operation mode that eliminates some of the serious safety penalties unavoidable in critical reactors. Specific requirements to nuclear data necessary for ADS transmutation analysis is the main subject of the ISTC Project ♯2578 which started in 2004 to identify the areas of research priorities in the future. The present paper gives a summary of ongoing project stressing the importance of nuclear data for blanket performance (reactivity behavior with associated safety characteristics) and uncertainties that affect characteristics of neutron producing target.

  3. 2011 Annual Criticality Safety Program Performance Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Andrea Hoffman

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 review of the INL Criticality Safety Program has determined that the program is robust and effective. The review was prepared for, and fulfills Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item H.20, 'Annual Criticality Safety Program performance summary that includes the status of assessments, issues, corrective actions, infractions, requirements management, training, and programmatic support.' This performance summary addresses the status of these important elements of the INL Criticality Safety Program. Assessments - Assessments in 2011 were planned and scheduled. The scheduled assessments included a Criticality Safety Program Effectiveness Review, Criticality Control Area Inspections, a Protection of Controlled Unclassified Information Inspection, an Assessment of Criticality Safety SQA, and this management assessment of the Criticality Safety Program. All of the assessments were completed with the exception of the 'Effectiveness Review' for SSPSF, which was delayed due to emerging work. Although minor issues were identified in the assessments, no issues or combination of issues indicated that the INL Criticality Safety Program was ineffective. The identification of issues demonstrates the importance of an assessment program to the overall health and effectiveness of the INL Criticality Safety Program. Issues and Corrective Actions - There are relatively few criticality safety related issues in the Laboratory ICAMS system. Most were identified by Criticality Safety Program assessments. No issues indicate ineffectiveness in the INL Criticality Safety Program. All of the issues are being worked and there are no imminent criticality concerns. Infractions - There was one criticality safety related violation in 2011. On January 18, 2011, it was discovered that a fuel plate bundle in the Nuclear Materials Inspection and Storage (NMIS) facility exceeded the fissionable mass limit, resulting in a technical safety requirement (TSR) violation. The TSR limits fuel

  4. Nitrogen starvation and TorC1 inhibition differentially affect nuclear localization of the Gln3 and Gat1 transcription factors through the rare glutamine tRNACUG in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jennifer J; Rai, Rajendra; Cooper, Terrance G

    2015-02-01

    A leucine, leucyl-tRNA synthetase-dependent pathway activates TorC1 kinase and its downstream stimulation of protein synthesis, a major nitrogen consumer. We previously demonstrated, however, that control of Gln3, a transcription activator of catabolic genes whose products generate the nitrogenous precursors for protein synthesis, is not subject to leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. This led us to conclude that excess nitrogen-dependent down-regulation of Gln3 occurs via a second mechanism that is independent of leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. A major site of Gln3 and Gat1 (another GATA-binding transcription activator) control occurs at their access to the nucleus. In excess nitrogen, Gln3 and Gat1 are sequestered in the cytoplasm in a Ure2-dependent manner. They become nuclear and activate transcription when nitrogen becomes limiting. Long-term nitrogen starvation and treatment of cells with the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (Msx) also elicit nuclear Gln3 localization. The sensitivity of Gln3 localization to glutamine and inhibition of glutamine synthesis prompted us to investigate the effects of a glutamine tRNA mutation (sup70-65) on nitrogen-responsive control of Gln3 and Gat1. We found that nuclear Gln3 localization elicited by short- and long-term nitrogen starvation; growth in a poor, derepressive medium; Msx or rapamycin treatment; or ure2Δ mutation is abolished in a sup70-65 mutant. However, nuclear Gat1 localization, which also exhibits a glutamine tRNACUG requirement for its response to short-term nitrogen starvation or growth in proline medium or a ure2Δ mutation, does not require tRNACUG for its response to rapamycin. Also, in contrast with Gln3, Gat1 localization does not respond to long-term nitrogen starvation. These observations demonstrate the existence of a specific nitrogen-responsive component participating in the control of Gln3 and Gat1 localization and their downstream production of nitrogenous precursors. This

  5. SOURCE OF BURNUP VALUES FOR COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL ASSEMBLIES

    SciTech Connect

    BSC

    2004-12-01

    Waste packages are loaded with commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that satisfies the minimum burnup requirements of a criticality loading curve. The burnup value assigned by the originating nuclear utility to each SNF assembly (assigned burnup) is used to load waste packages in compliance with a criticality loading curve. The burnup provided by a nuclear utility has uncertainties, so conservative calculation methods are used to characterize those uncertainties for incorporation into the criticality loading curves. Procedural safety controls ensure that the correct assembly is loaded into each waste package to prevent a misload that could create a condition affecting the safety margins. Probabilistic analyses show that procedural safety controls can minimize the chance of a misload but can not completely eliminate the possibility. Physical measurements of burnup with instrumentation in the surface facility are not necessary due to the conservative calculation methods used to produce the criticality loading curves. The reactor records assigned burnup of a commercial SNF assembly contains about two percent uncertainty, which is increased to five-percent to ensure conservatism. This five-percent uncertainty is accommodated by adjusting the criticality loading curve. Also, the record keeping methods of nuclear utilities are not uniform and the level of detail required by the NRC has varied over the last several decades. Thus, some SNF assemblies may have assigned burnups that are averages for a batch of assemblies with similar characteristics. Utilities typically have access to more detailed core-follow records that allow the batch average burnup to be changed to an assembly specific burnup. Alternatively, an additional safety margin is incorporated into the criticality loading curve to accommodate SNF assemblies with batch average burnups or greater uncertainties due to the methodology used by the nuclear utility. The utility records provide the assembly identifier

  6. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Sanders

    2005-05-17

    This design calculation updates the previous criticality evaluation for the fuel handling, transfer, and staging operations to be performed in the Dry Transfer Facility (DTF) including the remediation area. The purpose of the calculation is to demonstrate that operations performed in the DTF and RF meet the nuclear criticality safety design criteria specified in the ''Project Design Criteria (PDC) Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171599], Section 4.9.2.2), the nuclear facility safety requirement in ''Project Requirements Document'' (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275], p. 4-206), the functional/operational nuclear safety requirement in the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' document (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557], p. 75), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirements described in the ''Dry Transfer Facility Description Document'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173737], p. 3-8). A description of the changes is as follows: (1) Update the supporting calculations for the various Category 1 and 2 event sequences as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171429], Section 7). (2) Update the criticality safety calculations for the DTF staging racks and the remediation pool to reflect the current design. This design calculation focuses on commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies, i.e., pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) SNF. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) owned SNF is evaluated in depth in the ''Canister Handling Facility Criticality Safety Calculations'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173284]) and is also applicable to DTF operations. Further, the design and safety analyses of the naval SNF canisters are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of the Navy (Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program) and will not be included in this document. Also, note that the results for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Site specific Cask (MSC) calculations are limited to the

  7. Critical Systems Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Werner; Reynolds, Martin

    Critical systems heuristics (CSH) is a framework for reflective professional practice organised around the central tool of boundary critique. This paper, written jointly by the original developer, Werner Ulrich, and Martin Reynolds, an experienced practitioner of CSH, offers a systematic introduction to the idea and use of boundary critique. Its core concepts are explained in detail and their use is illustrated by means of two case studies from the domain of environmental planning and management. A particular focus is on working constructively with tensions between opposing perspectives as they arise in many situations of professional intervention. These include tensions such as ‘situation' versus ‘system', ‘is' versus ‘ought' judgements, concerns of ‘those involved' versus ‘those affected but not involved', stakeholders' ‘stakes' versus ‘stakeholding issues', and others. Accordingly, boundary critique is presented as a participatory process of unfolding and questioning boundary judgements rather than as an expert-driven process of boundary setting. The paper concludes with a discussion of some essential skills and considerations regarding the practice of boundary critique.

  8. Nuclear mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Krauthammer, C.

    1983-10-01

    The author notes that the anti-nuclear movement is shifting its focus from bodily harm to concern for the impact on our souls from building and threatening the use of nuclear weapons. Two aspects of nuclear deterrence receiving the most public attention are the freeze effort to halt weapons modernization and the no-first-use effort to take down the nuclear umbrella. Opponents attack both the countervalue and the counterforce approach, but the arguments of the Catholic bishops, Jonathan Schell, and others stop short of unilateral disarmament, which would be the greatest threat to our survival. Mr. Krauthammer observes that nuclear deterrence has worked, however, and will continue to be useful only if potential adversaries believe we have the will to use nuclear weapons. 2 references. (DCK)

  9. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  10. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  11. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  12. Preliminary Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) reliability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, T. M.; Nakashima, A. M.; Mondt, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary failure mode, failure effect, and criticality analysis of the major subsystems of nuclear electric propulsion is presented. Simplified reliability block diagrams are also given. A computer program was used to calculate the reliability of the heat rejection subsystem.

  13. Toward critical bioethics.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2015-04-01

    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical.

  14. Toward critical bioethics.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2015-04-01

    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical

  15. Nuclear winter attracts additional scrutiny

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.

    1984-07-06

    Prodded by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Congress has asked the Pentagon to provide what amounts to an environmental impact statement on the potential for nuclear weapons explosions to create enough soot and dust to cause a nuclear winter. The request has implications for arms control and civil defense as well as for weapons procurement and deployment. Little attention was given to the atmospheric and climatic effects of nuclear war until the nuclear winter concept was introduced in October of 1983. Only the Navy and the DOE took steps to follow up until pressure was put on Congress and the Pentagon for further study. Pentagon criticism of the nuclear winter presentation argues that the scenario assumptions that cities will be targeted and that a conflict will involve 5000-6500 megatons are incorrect.

  16. Affective Education for Gifted, Culturally Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Alexinia

    2009-01-01

    Over the years, there has been an ongoing controversy about affective education. Some see it as an important element of good teaching, and some see it as fluff, diminishing academics, and playing into the "feel good" movement. While criticisms may be appropriate in some situations, affective education can play a fundamental role in other…

  17. Emotional processing affects movement speed.

    PubMed

    Hälbig, Thomas D; Borod, Joan C; Frisina, Pasquale G; Tse, Winona; Voustianiouk, Andrei; Olanow, C Warren; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Emotions can affect various aspects of human behavior. The impact of emotions on behavior is traditionally thought to occur at central, cognitive and motor preparation stages. Using EMG to measure the effects of emotion on movement, we found that emotional stimuli differing in valence and arousal elicited highly specific effects on peripheral movement time. This result has conceptual implications for the emotion-motion link and potentially practical implications for neurorehabilitation and professional environments where fast motor reactions are critical.

  18. Results of Analyses of Tank 37H Criticality Salt Samples (HTK-493 and 494)

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, R.F.

    2002-07-10

    High Level Waste Division (HLWD) personnel requested Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) support in analyzing samples of salt cake from Tank 37H as input to a Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE) in support of dissolution of the salt in the tank. Two salt core samples (HTK-493 and 494) were pulled from Tank 37H and transferred to the SRTC Shielded Cells Facility on April 2, 2002 for analyses of species that may affect criticality as the salt is dissolved. The core samples were composited and prepared for analysis of the as-received sample and of insoluble solids separated from as-received sample. Results of the analyses are presented herein. Results are given for the as-received salt cake, for insoluble solids separated from the core sample both with and without a correction for soluble solids remaining after dissolution, and for wash water produced by dissolving the soluble salts in inhibited water.

  19. Submersion criticality safety of tungsten-rhenium urania cermet fuel for space propulsion and power applications

    SciTech Connect

    A.E. Craft; R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. C. King

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear thermal rockets are the preferred propulsion technology for a manned mission to Mars, and tungsten–uranium oxide cermet fuels could provide significant performance and cost advantages for nuclear thermal rockets. A nuclear reactor intended for use in space must remain subcritical before and during launch, and must remain subcritical in launch abort scenarios where the reactor falls back to Earth and becomes submerged in terrestrial materials (including seawater, wet sand, or dry sand). Submersion increases reflection of neutrons and also thermalizes the neutron spectrum, which typically increases the reactivity of the core. This effect is typically very significant for compact, fast-spectrum reactors. This paper provides a submersion criticality safety analysis for a representative tungsten/uranium oxide fueled reactor with a range of fuel compositions. Each submersion case considers both the rhenium content in the matrix alloy and the uranium oxide volume fraction in the cermet. The inclusion of rhenium significantly improves the submersion criticality safety of the reactor. While increased uranium oxide content increases the reactivity of the core, it does not significantly affect the submersion behavior of the reactor. There is no significant difference in submersion behavior between reactors with rhenium distributed within the cermet matrix and reactors with a rhenium clad in the coolant channels. The combination of the flooding of the coolant channels in submersion scenarios and the presence of a significant amount of spectral shift absorbers (i.e. high rhenium concentration) further decreases reactivity for short reactor cores compared to longer cores.

  20. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…