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Sample records for affect nutrient digestibility

  1. Dietary electrolyte balance affects the nutrient digestibility and maintenance energy expenditure of Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Orozco, Z G A; Kaushik, S J; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W

    2013-12-14

    Acid-base disturbances caused by environmental factors and physiological events including feeding have been well documented in several fish species, but little is known about the impact of dietary electrolyte balance (dEB). In the present study, we investigated the effect of feeding diets differing in dEB (-100, 200, 500 or 800 mEq/kg diet) on the growth, nutrient digestibility and energy balance of Nile tilapia. After 5 weeks on the test diet, the growth of the fish was linearly affected by the dEB levels (P< 0·001), with the lowest growth being observed in the fish fed the 800 dEB diet. The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of fat was unaffected by dEB, whereas the ADC of DM and protein were curvilinearly related to the dEB levels, being lowest and highest in the 200 and 800 dEB diets, respectively. Stomach chyme pH at 3 h after feeding was linearly related to the dEB levels (P< 0·05). At the same time, blood pH of the heart (P< 0·05) and caudal vein (P< 0·01) was curvilinearly related to the dEB levels, suggesting the influence of dEB on postprandial metabolic alkalosis. Consequently, maintenance energy expenditure (MEm) was curvilinearly related to the dEB levels (P< 0·001), being 54 % higher in the 800 dEB group (88 kJ/kg(0·8) per d) than in the 200 dEB group (57 kJ/kg(0·8) per d). These results suggest that varying dEB levels in a diet have both positive and negative effects on fish. On the one hand, they improve nutrient digestibility; on the other hand, they challenge the acid-base homeostasis (pH) of fish, causing an increase in MEm, and thereby reduce the energy required for growth.

  2. Processing conditions affect nutrient digestibility of cold-pressed canola cake for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, R W; Beltranena, E; Newkirk, R W; Goonewardene, L A; Zijlstra, R T

    2011-08-01

    meal and did not differ from canola seed. Cold-pressed canola cake averaged 4.17 Mcal of DE/kg, 2.84 Mcal of NE/kg, 0.87% SID Lys, 0.46% SID Met, and 0.79% SID Thr (DM basis). In conclusion, processing conditions greatly affected the digestible nutrient content of cold-pressed canola cake. Content of residual ether extract was an important determinant of the energy value of cold-press canola cake, whereas residual glucosinolates did not seem to hamper nutrient digestibility.

  3. Refining in silico simulation to study digestion parameters affecting the bioaccessibility of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Marze, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Despite the considerable number of in vivo and in vitro studies on the digestive fate of lipophilic nutrients, micronutrients, and bioactives, the effects of the structure and composition of foods on the physicochemical mechanisms of luminal digestion are still poorly understood. Studying them is indeed complex because the number of parameters is high and many of them are interdependent. To solve this problem, an in silico simulation based on a multi-agent system was recently proposed to study the intestinal bioaccessibility of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients from a single oil droplet. The roles of lipolysis and solubilization in bile salt were included. The effects of several food and digestion parameters were in line with those reported in the experimental literature. The goal of the research reported in this new article was to include more digestion parameters in the simulation in order to make it more realistic against complex cases. This was done in one specific digestion condition reflecting in vitro experiments, using droplets of tricaprylin or triolein containing vitamin A. The structure and principles of the original model were kept, with independent local modifications in order to study each factor separately. First, a gastric step was added where lipolysis took place, and only a marginal effect on the following intestinal step was found. Then, the chemical form of vitamin A, either non-hydrolyzed retinyl ester or retinyl ester instantly hydrolyzed into retinol, was investigated by considering different localizations in the droplet, resulting in a higher bioaccessibility for the retinol. The case of a mixture of tricaprylin and triolein indicated an influence of the oil phase viscosity. The consideration of mixed micelles compared to simple bile salt micelles was also investigated, and resulted in a higher vitamin A bioaccessibility, especially with triolein. Finally, a full model including the most influential parameters was tested to simulate

  4. Nutrient demand interacts with grass maturity to affect milk fat concentration and digestion responses in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S

    2012-09-01

    Effects of grass maturity on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal fermentation and pool sizes, digestion and passage kinetics, and chewing activity and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI) were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 23.5 to 28.2 kg/d (mean=26.1 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield ranged from 30.8 to 57.2 kg/d (mean=43.7 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing orchardgrass silage harvested either (1) early-cut, less mature (EC) or (2) late-cut, more mature (LC) as the sole forage. Early- and late-cut orchardgrass contained 44.9 and 54.4% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 20.1 and 15.3% crude protein, respectively. Forage:concentrate ratio was 58:42 and 46:54 for EC and LC, respectively; both diets contained approximately 25% forage NDF and 30% total NDF. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of grass maturity and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. The EC diet decreased milk yield and increased milk fat concentration compared with the LC diet. Grass maturity and its interaction with pDMI did not affect FCM yield, DMI, rumen pH, or microbial efficiency. The EC diet increased rates of ruminal digestion of potentially digestible NDF and passage of indigestible NDF (iNDF) compared with the LC diet. The lower concentration and faster passage rate of iNDF for EC resulted in lower rumen pools of iNDF, total NDF, organic matter, and dry matter for EC than LC. Ruminal passage rates of potentially digestible NDF and starch were related to level of intake (quadratic and linear interactions, respectively) and subsequently affected ruminal digestibility of these nutrients

  5. Prebiotics affect nutrient digestibility but not faecal ammonia in dogs fed increased dietary protein levels.

    PubMed

    Hesta, M; Roosen, W; Janssens, G P J; Millet, S; De Wilde, R

    2003-12-01

    An increased protein content and less digestible protein sources in the diet can induce bad faecal odour. The present study investigated the effect of adding prebiotics to dog diets enriched with animal-derived protein sources on apparent digestibilities and faecal ammonia concentration. In three subsequent periods eight healthy beagle dogs were fed a commercial dog diet that was gradually supplemented by up to 50 % with meat and bone meal (MBM), greaves meal (GM) or poultry meal (PM) respectively. Afterwards, 3 % fructo-oligosaccharides or 3 % isomalto-oligosaccharides were substituted for 3 % of the total diet. Supplementation with animal-derived protein sources did not decrease the apparent N digestibility significantly but oligosaccharides did. On the other hand the bacterial N content (% DM) in the faeces was highest in the oligosaccharide groups followed by the protein-supplemented groups and lowest in the control groups. When the apparent N digestibility was corrected for bacterial N no significant differences were noted anymore except for the GM group where the corrected N digestibility was still lower after oligosaccharide supplementation. The amount of faecal ammonia was significantly increased by supplementing with protein or oligosaccharides in the MBM and GM groups but not in the PM group. When apparent N digestibility is interpreted, a correction for bacterial N should be taken into account, especially when prebiotics are added to the diet. Oligosaccharides did not reduce the faecal ammonia concentrations as expected. PMID:14641959

  6. Prebiotics affect nutrient digestibility but not faecal ammonia in dogs fed increased dietary protein levels.

    PubMed

    Hesta, M; Roosen, W; Janssens, G P J; Millet, S; De Wilde, R

    2003-12-01

    An increased protein content and less digestible protein sources in the diet can induce bad faecal odour. The present study investigated the effect of adding prebiotics to dog diets enriched with animal-derived protein sources on apparent digestibilities and faecal ammonia concentration. In three subsequent periods eight healthy beagle dogs were fed a commercial dog diet that was gradually supplemented by up to 50 % with meat and bone meal (MBM), greaves meal (GM) or poultry meal (PM) respectively. Afterwards, 3 % fructo-oligosaccharides or 3 % isomalto-oligosaccharides were substituted for 3 % of the total diet. Supplementation with animal-derived protein sources did not decrease the apparent N digestibility significantly but oligosaccharides did. On the other hand the bacterial N content (% DM) in the faeces was highest in the oligosaccharide groups followed by the protein-supplemented groups and lowest in the control groups. When the apparent N digestibility was corrected for bacterial N no significant differences were noted anymore except for the GM group where the corrected N digestibility was still lower after oligosaccharide supplementation. The amount of faecal ammonia was significantly increased by supplementing with protein or oligosaccharides in the MBM and GM groups but not in the PM group. When apparent N digestibility is interpreted, a correction for bacterial N should be taken into account, especially when prebiotics are added to the diet. Oligosaccharides did not reduce the faecal ammonia concentrations as expected.

  7. Dietary potassium diformate did not affect growth and survival but did reduce nutrient digestibility of Pacific white shrimp cultured under clean water conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effect of a dietary supplement potassium diformate (PDF) on growth performance, survival and nutrient digestibility of Pacific white shrimp cultured under clean water conditions. We found that weight gain was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the different levels of ...

  8. Digestate color and light intensity affect nutrient removal and competition phenomena in a microalgal-bacterial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Marcilhac, Cyril; Sialve, Bruno; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Ziebal, Christine; Bernet, Nicolas; Béline, Fabrice

    2014-11-01

    During anaerobic digestion, nutrients are mineralized and may require post-treatment for optimum valorization. The cultivation of autotrophic microalgae using the digestate supernatant is a promising solution; however the dark color of the influent poses a serious problem. First, the color of the digestates was studied and the results obtained using three different digestates demonstrated a strong heterogeneity although their color remained rather constant over time. The digestates absorbed light over the whole visible spectrum and remained colored even after a ten-fold dilution. Secondly, the impact of light and of substrate color on the growth of Scenedesmus sp. and on nitrogen removal were assessed. These experiments led to the construction of a model for predicting the impact of influent color and light intensity on N removal. Maximum N removal (8.5 mgN- [Formula: see text]  L(-1) d(-1)) was observed with an initial optical density of 0.221 and 244 μmolE m(-)² s(-1) light and the model allows to determine N removal between 15.9 and 22.7 mgN- [Formula: see text]  L(-1) d(-1) in real conditions according to the dilution level of the influent and related color. Changes in the microalgae community were monitored and revealed the advantage of Chlorella over Scenedesmus under light-limitation. Additionally microalgae outcompeted nitrifying bacteria and experiments showed how microalgae become better competitors for nutrients when phosphorus is limiting. Furthermore, nitrification was limited by microalgae growth, even when P was not limiting.

  9. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Huyen, N T; Desrues, O; Alferink, S J J; Zandstra, T; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H; Pellikaan, W F

    2016-05-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy cow rations in northwestern Europe is still relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sainfoin silage on nutrient digestibility, animal performance, energy and N utilization, and CH4 production. Six rumen-cannulated, lactating dairy cows with a metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) of 132.5±3.6kg were randomly assigned to either a control (CON) or a sainfoin (SAIN)-based diet over 2 experimental periods of 25 d each in a crossover design. The CON diet was a mixture of grass silage, corn silage, concentrate, and linseed. In the SAIN diet, 50% of grass silage dry matter (DM) of the CON diet was exchanged for sainfoin silage. The cows were adapted to 95% of ad libitum feed intake for a 21-d period before being housed in climate-controlled respiration chambers for 4 d, during which time feed intake, apparent total-tract digestibility, N and energy balance, and CH4 production was determined. Data were analyzed using a mixed model procedure. Total daily DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber intake did not differ between the 2 diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were, respectively, 5.7, 4.0, 15.7, and 14.8% lower for the SAIN diet. Methane production per kilogram of DM intake was lowest for the SAIN diet, CH4 production as a percentage of gross energy intake tended to be lower, and milk yield was greater for the SAIN diet. Nitrogen intake, N retention, and energy retained in body protein were greater for the SAIN than for the CON diet. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of N intake tended to be greater for the SAIN diet. These results suggest that inclusion of sainfoin

  10. Cereal type and heat processing of the cereal affect nutrient digestibility and dynamics of serum insulin and ghrelin in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Menoyo, D; Serrano, M P; Barrios, V; Valencia, D G; Lázaro, R; Argente, J; Mateos, G G

    2011-09-01

    The effects of feeding corn or rice, either raw or heat processed (HP), on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients and on insulin and ghrelin concentrations in the serum were studied in young pigs. Pigs were weaned at approximately 23 ± 3 d of age and weighed 7.4 ± 1.2 kg. Each of the 4 treatments was replicated 9 times, and the experimental unit was a pig individually housed. Pigs (5 males and 4 females/treatment) were fed their respective diets ad libitum from 23 to 47 d of age. At 37 d of age, the effects of dietary treatments on the fasting and postprandial concentrations of insulin and total and acylated ghrelin were studied. The ATTD of OM, GE, and ether extract were, respectively, 4.3, 5.4, and 3.6% greater (P < 0.05) for the rice than for the corn diets, but CP digestibility was not affected. Similar results were observed for AID. Heat processing of the cereal increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD by 2.1% for OM, 3.2% for GE, 7.1% for ether extract, and 2.2% for CP and tended to increase the AID of CP (P = 0.06) and starch (P = 0.09). The postprandial serum insulin response was greater and was more prolonged in pigs fed raw rice than in pigs fed raw corn (P < 0.05). In addition, the effects of HP on serum insulin response were more pronounced with corn than with rice (cereal × HP, P < 0.05). Total ghrelin concentration was not affected by treatment, but acylated ghrelin was greater (P < 0.05) at 6 h postprandially in pigs fed rice than in pigs fed raw corn. Feeding rice and HP corn increased nutrient digestibility and insulin response in the early postprandial period and increased the acylated ghrelin response in the late postprandial period compared with feeding raw corn.

  11. Dietary nutrient composition affects digestible energy utilisation for growth: a study on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and a literature comparison across fish species.

    PubMed

    Schrama, J W; Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Heinsbroek, L T N; Kaushik, S J; Verreth, J A J

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the type of non-protein energy (NPE) on energy utilisation in Nile tilapia was studied, focusing on digestible energy utilisation for growth (k(gDE)). Furthermore, literature data on k(gDE) across fish species were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of dietary macronutrient composition. A total of twelve groups of fish were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design: two diets ('fat' v. 'starch') and two feeding levels ('low' v. 'high'). In the 'fat'-diet, 125 g fish oil and in the 'starch'-diet 300 g maize starch were added to 875 g of an identical basal mixture. Fish were fed restrictively one of two ration levels ('low' or 'high') for estimating k(gDE). Nutrient digestibility, N and energy balances were measured. For estimating k(gDE), data of the present study were combined with previous data of Nile tilapia fed similar diets to satiation. The type of NPE affected k(gDE) (0.561 and 0.663 with the 'starch' and 'fat'-diets, respectively; P < 0.001). Across fish species, literature values of k(gDE) range from 0.31 to 0.82. Variability in k(gDE) was related to dietary macronutrient composition, the trophic level of the fish species and the composition of growth (fat:protein gain ratio). The across-species comparison suggested that the relationships of k(gDE) with trophic level and with growth composition were predominantly induced by dietary macronutrient composition. Reported k(gDE) values increased linearly with increasing dietary fat content and decreasing dietary carbohydrate content. In contrast, k(gDE) related curvilinearly to dietary crude protein content. In conclusion, energy utilisation for growth is influenced by dietary macronutrient composition.

  12. Carnivorous mammals: nutrient digestibility and energy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Kleffner, Helen; Kienzle, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the energy content is the first step in diet formulation, as it determines the amount of food eaten and hence the concentration of nutrients required to meet the animal's requirements. Additionally, being able to estimate the energy content of a diet empirically known to maintain body condition in an animal will facilitate an estimation of maintenance energy requirements. We collated data on nutrient composition of diets fed to captive wild canids, felids, hyenids, mustelids, pinnipeds, and ursids and the digestibility coefficients from the literature (45 species, 74 publications) to test whether differences in protein and fat digestibility could be detected between species groups, and whether approaches suggested for the estimation of dietary metabolizable energy (ME) content in domestic carnivores (NRC [2006] Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.) can be applied to wild carnivores as well. Regressions of digestible protein or fat content vs. the crude protein (CP) or fat content indicated no relevant differences in the digestive physiology between the carnivore groups. For diets based on raw meat, fish, or whole prey, applying the calculation of ME using "Atwater factors" (16.7  kJ/g CP; 16.7  kJ/g nitrogen-free extracts; 37.7  kJ/g crude fat) provided estimates that compared well to experimental results. This study suggests that ME estimation in such diets is feasible without additional digestion trials. For comparative nutrition research, the study implicates that highly digestible diets typically fed in zoos offer little potential to elucidate differences between species or carnivore groups, but research on diets with higher proportions of difficult-to-digest components (fiber, connective tissues) is lacking. PMID:20073050

  13. The digestion of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) fibre and the effect of kiwifruit on the digestibility of other dietary nutrients.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Saigeman, Stuart; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-04-15

    The effect of dietary kiwifruit inclusion level on the digestibility of kiwifruit fibre and dietary nutrients was studied. Ileal cannulated pigs (50±1.9 kg) were fed a fibre-free diet for seven days (n=14) followed by kiwifruit-containing diets (133 or 266 g kiwifruit/kg dry matter) (n=7) for 44 days followed by the fibre-free diet (n=14) for seven days. Faecal and ileal samples were collected on days 5, 11, 21, 35, 49 and 56. The soluble kiwifruit fibre was highly digested in the foregut (80%), and the insoluble fibre in the hindgut (95%). Increasing the kiwifruit inclusion level decreased the apparent ileal and faecal digestibilities of several nutrients (P<0.05), including the faecal digestibility of insoluble kiwifruit fibre and led to higher ileal and faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (P<0.05). The decreased digestibility was explained by the lower digestibility of kiwifruit itself. The duration of kiwifruit consumption per se did not affect dietary nutrient digestibility (P>0.05). PMID:26616986

  14. The digestion of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) fibre and the effect of kiwifruit on the digestibility of other dietary nutrients.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Saigeman, Stuart; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-04-15

    The effect of dietary kiwifruit inclusion level on the digestibility of kiwifruit fibre and dietary nutrients was studied. Ileal cannulated pigs (50±1.9 kg) were fed a fibre-free diet for seven days (n=14) followed by kiwifruit-containing diets (133 or 266 g kiwifruit/kg dry matter) (n=7) for 44 days followed by the fibre-free diet (n=14) for seven days. Faecal and ileal samples were collected on days 5, 11, 21, 35, 49 and 56. The soluble kiwifruit fibre was highly digested in the foregut (80%), and the insoluble fibre in the hindgut (95%). Increasing the kiwifruit inclusion level decreased the apparent ileal and faecal digestibilities of several nutrients (P<0.05), including the faecal digestibility of insoluble kiwifruit fibre and led to higher ileal and faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (P<0.05). The decreased digestibility was explained by the lower digestibility of kiwifruit itself. The duration of kiwifruit consumption per se did not affect dietary nutrient digestibility (P>0.05).

  15. Insights into Digestion and Absorption of Major Nutrients in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient digestion and absorption is necessary for the survival of living organisms and has evolved into the complex and specific task of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. While most people simply assume that their GI tract will work properly to use nutrients, provide energy, and release wastes, few nonscientists know the details about how various…

  16. Prediction of nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations in fresh grass using nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, S; Allen, M; Chen, X J; Wills, D; Yan, T

    2015-05-01

    Improved nutrient utilization efficiency is strongly related to enhanced economic performance and reduced environmental footprint of dairy farms. Pasture-based systems are widely used for dairy production in certain areas of the world, but prediction equations of fresh grass nutritive value (nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations) are limited. Equations to predict digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) used for grazing cattle have been either developed with cattle fed conserved forage and concentrate diets or sheep fed previously frozen grass, and the majority of them require measurements less commonly available to producers, such as nutrient digestibility. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop prediction equations more suitable to grazing cattle for nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations, which are routinely available at farm level by using grass nutrient contents as predictors. A study with 33 nonpregnant, nonlactating cows fed solely fresh-cut grass at maintenance energy level for 50 wk was carried out over 3 consecutive grazing seasons. Freshly harvested grass of 3 cuts (primary growth and first and second regrowth), 9 fertilizer input levels, and contrasting stage of maturity (3 to 9 wk after harvest) was used, thus ensuring a wide representation of nutritional quality. As a result, a large variation existed in digestibility of dry matter (0.642-0.900) and digestible organic matter in dry matter (0.636-0.851) and in concentrations of DE (11.8-16.7 MJ/kg of dry matter) and ME (9.0-14.1 MJ/kg of dry matter). Nutrient digestibilities and DE and ME concentrations were negatively related to grass neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents but positively related to nitrogen (N), gross energy, and ether extract (EE) contents. For each predicted variable (nutrient digestibilities or energy concentrations), different combinations of predictors (grass chemical composition) were found to be

  17. Prediction of nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations in fresh grass using nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, S; Allen, M; Chen, X J; Wills, D; Yan, T

    2015-05-01

    Improved nutrient utilization efficiency is strongly related to enhanced economic performance and reduced environmental footprint of dairy farms. Pasture-based systems are widely used for dairy production in certain areas of the world, but prediction equations of fresh grass nutritive value (nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations) are limited. Equations to predict digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) used for grazing cattle have been either developed with cattle fed conserved forage and concentrate diets or sheep fed previously frozen grass, and the majority of them require measurements less commonly available to producers, such as nutrient digestibility. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop prediction equations more suitable to grazing cattle for nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations, which are routinely available at farm level by using grass nutrient contents as predictors. A study with 33 nonpregnant, nonlactating cows fed solely fresh-cut grass at maintenance energy level for 50 wk was carried out over 3 consecutive grazing seasons. Freshly harvested grass of 3 cuts (primary growth and first and second regrowth), 9 fertilizer input levels, and contrasting stage of maturity (3 to 9 wk after harvest) was used, thus ensuring a wide representation of nutritional quality. As a result, a large variation existed in digestibility of dry matter (0.642-0.900) and digestible organic matter in dry matter (0.636-0.851) and in concentrations of DE (11.8-16.7 MJ/kg of dry matter) and ME (9.0-14.1 MJ/kg of dry matter). Nutrient digestibilities and DE and ME concentrations were negatively related to grass neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents but positively related to nitrogen (N), gross energy, and ether extract (EE) contents. For each predicted variable (nutrient digestibilities or energy concentrations), different combinations of predictors (grass chemical composition) were found to be

  18. Effects of dietary protein concentration on performance and nutrient digestibility in Pekin ducks during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Murdoch, R; Zhang, Q; Shafer, D J; Applegate, T J

    2016-04-01

    A 14-d study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary crude protein concentration on performance, serum biochemistry, and nutrient digestive functions in Pekin ducklings during aflatoxicosis. A total of 144 male Pekin ducklings were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments arranged in a 2×2 factorial with 2 crude protein (CP) (20 and 24% on an analyzed basis) with or without 0.2 mg/kg aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (0.21 mg/kg analyzed). The AFB1 reduced BW gain, feed intake, and breast muscle weight by 33 to 43% (P<0.0001). Serum concentration of protein, glucose, and Ca were also decreased by AFB1 (P≤0.0015), while pancreatic activities of amylase and lipase were increased by AFB1 (P<0.005). Apparent N digestibility was not affected by dietary treatment, whereas apparent ileal digestible energy was reduced 7.6% by AFB1 (P=0.0003). Higher dietary CP improved BW gain, gain:feed ratio, and breast muscle weight (P≤0.021), and tended to improve feed intake (P=0.094), but did not improve serum measures, digestive enzyme activity, or nutrient digestibility. No statistical interaction of AFB1 by CP was observed for any measures. Results from the current study suggest that AFB1 at low concentration can significantly impair performance of Pekin ducklings primarily through inhibited feed intake, as well as influence nutrient digestion processes (jejunum morphology, digestive enzyme activity, and apparent energy digestibility). Higher dietary CP can improve growth performance of ducklings regardless of AF exposure, but did not interact with dietary AFB1 on performance, serum biochemistry, or nutrient digestion in Pekin ducklings from hatch to 14 d.

  19. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets

    PubMed Central

    Zamiri, M. J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M. R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (P<0.05), but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed for these measurements. Overall, ruminal ammonia concentration was higher (P<0.05) in both HCD and LCD lambs receiving 0.3 mg thymol per kg diet. Supplementation of carvacrol had no significant effect on nutrient digestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions. PMID:27175199

  20. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, M J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (P<0.05), but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed for these measurements. Overall, ruminal ammonia concentration was higher (P<0.05) in both HCD and LCD lambs receiving 0.3 mg thymol per kg diet. Supplementation of carvacrol had no significant effect on nutrient digestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions. PMID:27175199

  1. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

  2. A Holistic View of Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization in Lobster: Digestion, Postprandial Nutrient Flux, and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A.; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2–6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6–12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID

  3. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients.

  4. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

  5. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2013-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p<0.002) effect was observed for dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (aNDF), nitrogen (N) and gross energy (GE) intakes with higher intakes in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p<0.05). A linear reduction in N digestibility and N retention was observed with increasing mucuna pod level. This effect was accompanied by a quadratic effect (p<0.05) on fecal-N and N-balance which were higher in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Urine-N excretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants. PMID:25049876

  6. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs.

    PubMed

    Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2013-07-01

    The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p<0.002) effect was observed for dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (aNDF), nitrogen (N) and gross energy (GE) intakes with higher intakes in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p<0.05). A linear reduction in N digestibility and N retention was observed with increasing mucuna pod level. This effect was accompanied by a quadratic effect (p<0.05) on fecal-N and N-balance which were higher in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Urine-N excretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants. PMID:25049876

  7. Properties of plant nutrient: Comparison of two nutrient recovery techniques using liquid fraction of digestate from anaerobic digester treating pig manure.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Guo, Jianbin; Dong, Renjie; Ahring, Birgitte K; Zhang, Wanqin

    2016-02-15

    Anaerobic digestate has valuable potential as organic fertilizer or soil amendment, given that it typically contains high amounts of plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphate and plant hormones. In this study, ammonia stripping and vacuum evaporation were tested to compare their technical feasibilities and their effects on plant nutrient properties in the liquid fraction of digestate. Results of the batch experiments showed that the nutrient characteristics of liquid digestate, including total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), soluble P, gibberellic acid (GA), indoleacetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), were strongly dependent on the initial pH in both ammonia stripping and vacuum evaporation processes. A low plant nutrient concentration (TAN 137 mg · L(-1), soluble P 1.5 mg · L(-1), GA3/ABA 0.04) in the liquid digestate was achieved in the ammonia stripping process with Ca(OH)2 addition of 12 g · L(-1), whereas a high nutrient concentration (TAN 2998 mg · L(-1), soluble P 178.3 mg · L(-1), IAA 60.9 mg · L(-1) and GA3/ABA 0.4) was achieved in vacuum evaporation at a pH level of 6. According to the results, both ammonia stripping and vacuum evaporation can be used as an alternative of nutrient recovery techniques, which should be chosen based on the potential different applications of liquid digestate (e.g., soaking seed, increasing plant tolerance, and nutrients transportation).

  8. Properties of plant nutrient: Comparison of two nutrient recovery techniques using liquid fraction of digestate from anaerobic digester treating pig manure.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Guo, Jianbin; Dong, Renjie; Ahring, Birgitte K; Zhang, Wanqin

    2016-02-15

    Anaerobic digestate has valuable potential as organic fertilizer or soil amendment, given that it typically contains high amounts of plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphate and plant hormones. In this study, ammonia stripping and vacuum evaporation were tested to compare their technical feasibilities and their effects on plant nutrient properties in the liquid fraction of digestate. Results of the batch experiments showed that the nutrient characteristics of liquid digestate, including total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), soluble P, gibberellic acid (GA), indoleacetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), were strongly dependent on the initial pH in both ammonia stripping and vacuum evaporation processes. A low plant nutrient concentration (TAN 137 mg · L(-1), soluble P 1.5 mg · L(-1), GA3/ABA 0.04) in the liquid digestate was achieved in the ammonia stripping process with Ca(OH)2 addition of 12 g · L(-1), whereas a high nutrient concentration (TAN 2998 mg · L(-1), soluble P 178.3 mg · L(-1), IAA 60.9 mg · L(-1) and GA3/ABA 0.4) was achieved in vacuum evaporation at a pH level of 6. According to the results, both ammonia stripping and vacuum evaporation can be used as an alternative of nutrient recovery techniques, which should be chosen based on the potential different applications of liquid digestate (e.g., soaking seed, increasing plant tolerance, and nutrients transportation). PMID:26674705

  9. Effects of exogenous enzymes and application method on nutrient intake, digestibility and growth performance of Pelibuey lambs.

    PubMed

    López-Aguirre, Daniel; Hernández-Meléndez, Javier; Rojo, Rolando; Sánchez-Dávila, Fernando; López-Villalobos, Nicolás; Salem, Abdel-Fattah Z M; Martínez-González, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Armijo, José Fernando; Ruíz, Salomón

    2016-01-01

    Pelibuey sheep is the main breed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Mexico, and high demand of sheep meat has favored the finishing of lambs in feedlots with diets containing high levels of grains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of exogenous enzymes (EE) and application method on nutrient intake and digestibility and performance of growing Pelibuey lambs. Treatments were based on comparison of two different methods of adding an enzyme product (sprayed on the total mixed ration or applied orally to the lambs) versus control treatment (no added enzyme). Twenty-one Pelibuey lambs, weighing 15.7 kg (SD = 1.8 kg) initial body weight, were individually housed in shaded pens and assigned randomly to one of the three enzyme treatments. At the end of study (lasting for 45 days), three lambs from each treatment were randomly selected and adapted to a pants and harness designed for fecal collection to measure nutrient digestibilities. Total body gain and average daily gain were affected (P < 0.05) by supplemental EE. The application method of EE had significant (P < 0.05) effect on FCE and FCR, but no effects were observed on nutrient intake. Supplemental EE did improve (P < 0.05) the digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral and acid detergent fiber, but no differences were observed in crude protein digestibility. The application method of EE had significant (P < 0.05) effect on the digestibility of acid detergent fiber. Supplemental EE can improve body weight gain and nutrient digestibilities without affecting nutrient intake in Pelibuey lambs, but the results of feed conversion efficiency and acid detergent fiber digestibility depend on the application method used of the EE. PMID:27610318

  10. Feeding oleamide to lactating Jersey cows. 2. Effects on nutrient digestibility, plasma fatty acids, and hormones.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, D D; Jenkins, T C

    2000-03-01

    Six lactating Jersey cows were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square with 14-d periods to evaluate different ratios of canola oil and oleamide on nutrient digestibility, plasma fatty acids, and plasma hormones. The control diet contained no added fat. All other diets contained 3.5% added fat consisting of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% as oleamide and the remainder as canola oil. Data were collected during the final 4 d of each period. Dry matter intake was reduced by the addition of canola oil to the diet, and further reduced by replacing canola oil with oleamide. Milk yield was not affected by diet but increasing oleamide proportion in the fat supplement caused linear increases in cis-C18:1 and linear decreases in C4 to C16 fatty acids in milk. Adding canola oil reduced total tract digestibilities of fiber and fatty acids, but had no effect on the digestibilities of dry matter or protein. Replacing canola oil with oleamide increased protein digestibility linearly, and increased digestibility of fiber (quartic relationship) and fatty acids (quadratic relationship). Oleic acid concentration in plasma increased by adding canola oil to the diet, and was further increased by replacing canola oil with oleamide. Diet had no effect on plasma concentrations of insulin or IGF-I. Oleamide fed to Jersey cows in this study was highly digestible and had no deleterious effects on total tract digestility of fiber or protein. Increasing oleic acid concentration in plasma lipids while maintaining a constant level of added fat in the ration had no effect on circulating concentrations of insulin or IGF-I in Jerseys.

  11. Biomass production, anaerobic digestion, and nutrient recycling of small benthic or floating seaweeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryther, J. H.

    1982-02-01

    The development of a seaweed based ocean energy farm was studied. Forty two species of seaweed indigenous to the coastal waters of Central Florida were screened for high biomass yields in intensive culture. Yield varies inversely with seawater exchange rate, apparently because of carbon dioxide limitation at low exchange rates. The suitability of digester residue as a nutrient source for growing Gracilaria was studied. Nitrogen recycling efficiency from harvested plant through liquid digestion residue to harvested plant approaches 75%. It is shown that nutrient uptake and storage by Grailaria, Ascophyllum, and Sargassum on nutrient starved plants are capable of rapidly assimilating and storing inorganic nutrients which may be used later for growth when no nutrients are present in the medium. A shallow water seaweed farm is proposed which can produce methane from harvested seaweed and use digester residues as a concentrated source of nutrients for periodic fertilizations.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility in SPF mini-pig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun-Yeob; Cho, Sung-Back; Kim, Yoo-Yong; Ohh, Sang-Jip

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility of either soy-based or milk-based diet for specific pathogen-free (SPF) mini-pigs. Gamma irradiation of the diets was done at dosage of 10 kGy with 60Co whereas autoclaving was executed at 121 °C for 20 min. Apparent crude protein digestibilities of gamma irradiated diets were higher ( p<0.05) than those of autoclaved diets regardless of diet type. Digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and total carbohydrate in the irradiated diet were higher than those of the autoclaved diet. From the results of nutrient digestibility of mini-pig diets in this study, 10 kGy gamma radiation was suggested as a convenient diet radicidation method that can minimize the decrease in nutrient digestibility on feeding to SPF mini-pigs.

  13. Effects of live yeast dietary supplementation on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Stercova, E; Kumprechtova, D; Auclair, E; Novakova, J

    2016-07-01

    The effects of live yeast (strain CNCM I-4407; Actisaf Sc 47; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) administration on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in dogs were investigated. The study included 24 young beagle dogs. They were allocated in control and live yeast (LY) groups (6 males and 6 females in each). During the Adaptation (d 1 to 28) and Trial (d 29 to 70) periods, the dogs received a standard dry pelleted diet. In the Trial period, the LY dogs were given capsuled Actisaf Sc 47 at 1 g/kg live weight with at 2.9 × 10 cfu/g. The control dogs received empty capsules. Live weight and feed consumption were recorded. Blood samples for complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase) and fecal samples for pH, microbiology, DM, lactic acid, and ammonia and digestibility evaluation were collected during the Trial period from each dog. The LY dogs had a higher ( < 0.05) weight gain during the Trial period than the control ones. Feed consumption was not adversely affected by LY. The CBC values and urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase were not adversely affected by LY. Live yeast did not significantly influence pH of fresh feces. Fecal lactic acid and ammonia concentrations were not affected. The LY dogs showed lower ( < 0.05) Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci counts in feces than the control ones. Lactic acid bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, and total coliforms did not show any significant differences between the treatments. The LY dogs showed a higher ( < 0.05) apparent digestibility of NDF. Digestibilities of DM, ash, crude fiber, CP, and fat were not influenced. PMID:27482677

  14. Nutrient recycling affects autotroph and ecosystem stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Ford; Menge, Duncan N L; Ostling, Annette; Hosseini, Parviez

    2008-04-01

    Stoichiometric nutrient ratios are the consequence of myriad interacting processes, both biotic and abiotic. Theoretical explanations for autotroph stoichiometry have focused on species' nutrient requirements but have not addressed the role of nutrient availability in determining autotroph stoichiometry. Remineralization of organic N and P supplies a significant fraction of inorganic N and P to autotrophs, making nutrient recycling a potentially important process influencing autotroph stoichiometry. To quantitatively investigate the relationship between available N and P, autotroph N:P, and nutrient recycling, we analyze a stoichiometrically explicit model of autotroph growth, incorporating Michaelis-Menten-Monod nutrient uptake kinetics, Droop growth, and Liebig's law of the minimum. If autotroph growth is limited by a single nutrient, increased recycling of the limiting nutrient pushes autotrophs toward colimitation and alters both autotroph and environmental stoichiometry. We derive a steady state relationship between input stoichiometry, autotroph N:P, and the stoichiometry of organic losses that allows us to estimate the relative recycling of N to P within an ecosystem. We then estimate relative N and P recycling for a marine, an aquatic, and two terrestrial ecosystems. Preferential P recycling, in conjunction with greater relative P retention at the organismal and ecosystem levels, presents a strong case for the importance of P to biomass production across ecosystems.

  15. The variability in nutrient composition of Anaerobic Digestate granules produced from high shear granulation.

    PubMed

    Mangwandi, Chirangano; JiangTao, Liu; Albadarin, Ahmad B; Allen, Stephen J; Walker, Gavin M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the production of organic fertilizer using Anaerobic Digestate (as a nutrient source) and limestone powder as the raw materials. A two-level factorial experimental design was used to determine the influence of process variables on the nutrient homogeneity within the granules. Increasing the liquid-to-solid ratio during granulation resulted in increased granule nutrient homogeneity. Increasing the processing time and the impeller speed were also found to increase the nutrient homogeneity. In terms of nutrients release into deionized water, the granules effectively released both potassium and phosphate into solution.

  16. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region.

  17. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region. PMID:27113453

  18. Effects of dietary carbohydrates and buffering capacity on nutrient digestibility and manure characteristics in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Mroz, Z; Moeser, A J; Vreman, K; van Diepen, J T; van Kempen, T; Canh, T T; Jongbloed, A W

    2000-12-01

    A 2 x 3 factorial experiment was conducted with 24 finishing pigs (Yorkshire x [Finnish Landrace x Dutch Landrace]) to determine the effects of dietary buffering capacity (BC) and carbohydrate sources on apparent total tract digestibility (TD), N retention, and manure characteristics. Twelve of these pigs were fitted with steered ileo-cecal value cannulas to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (ID) of N. Experimental variables were two levels of BC (High = 600 mEq/kg and Low = 530 mEq/kg) and three dietary carbohydrates (tapioca [28%], soybean hulls [25%], and sugar beet pulp [25%]). The two levels of BC were achieved by adjusting the amounts of alkalogenic limestone and acidogenic Ca sulfate in the diet. Pigs were fed twice daily at 2.4 x maintenance requirement for metabolizable energy (418 kJ ME/BW(0.75)). Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. Feces and urine were collected over 5 d for nutrient balance and in vitro measurements of pH and ammonia emission over 7 d. No significant interactions between BC and dietary carbohydrates on the ID, TD, N retention, or manure characteristics were observed. Lowering BC with Ca sulfate did not affect digestibility of most nutrients, except for a negative impact on the TD of Ca (P = 0.015) and Mg (P = 0.003). Although all pigs receiving Ca sulfate had more acidic urine (by 0.49 pH units; P = 0.001), ammonia emission from manure was not lowered, irrespective of the carbohydrate source. Carbohydrates affected significantly the ID and TD of most nutrients, whereas N retention remained similar (P > 0.10). Urinary N:fecal N ratios in manure of pigs fed diets with tapioca, soybean hulls, and beet pulp were 2.09, 1.35, and 1.67, respectively. These ratios corresponded with in vitro ammonia emission (169, 125, and 148 mmol/7 d; P = 0.023). In conclusion, these results indicate that the acidification of urine in pigs fed Ca sulfate in the presence of NSP-rich carbohydrates was achieved. However, acidity of manure and

  19. Anaerobic digestion of paunch in a CSTR for renewable energy production and nutrient mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Marchbank, Douglas H.; Hao, Xiying

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion and nutrient mineralization of paunch in a CSTR. • Low CH{sub 4} yield and high CH{sub 4} productivity was obtained at an OLR of 2.8 g VS L{sup −1} day{sup −1.} • Post-digestion of the digestate resulted in a CH{sub 4} yield of 0.067 L g{sup −1} VS. • Post-digestion is recommended for further digestate stabilization. - Abstract: A laboratory study investigated the anaerobic digestion of paunch in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the recovery of biogas and mineralization of nutrients. At an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.8 g VS L{sup −1} day{sup −1} with a 30-day hydraulic retention time (HRT), a CH{sub 4} yield of 0.213 L g{sup −1} VS and CH{sub 4} production rate of 0.600 L L{sup −1} day{sup −1} were obtained. Post-anaerobic digestion of the effluent from the CSTR for 30 days at 40 °C recovered 0.067 L g{sup −1} VS as CH{sub 4}, which was 21% of the batch CH{sub 4} potential. Post-digestion of the effluent from the digestate obtained at this OLR is needed to meet the stable effluent criteria. Furthermore, low levels of soluble ions such as K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} were found in the liquid fraction of the digestate and the remainder could have been retained in the solid digestate fraction. This study demonstrates the potential of biogas production from paunch in providing renewable energy. In addition, recovery of plant nutrients in the digestate is important for a sustainable agricultural system.

  20. Biomass production, anaerobic digestion, and nutrient recycling of small benthic or floating seaweeds

    SciTech Connect

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    A number of experiments have been carried out supporting the development of a seaweed-based ocean energy farm. Beginning in 1976, forty-two species of seaweed indigenous to the coastal waters of Central Florida were screened for high biomass yields in intensive culture. Gracilaria tikvahiae achieved the highest annual yield of 34.8 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ day. Yield has been found to vary inversely with seawater exchange rate, apparently because of carbon dioxide limitation at low exchange rates. Gracilaria was anaerobically digested in 120 liter and 2 liter reactors. Gas yields in the large digesters averaged 0.4 1/g volatile solids (.24 1 CH/sub 4//gv.s.) with a bioconversion efficiency of 48%. Studies of the suitability of digester residue as a nutrient source for growing Gracilaria have been conducted. Nitrogen recycling efficiency from harvested plant through liquid digestion residue to harvested plant approached 75%. Studies of nutrient uptake and storage by Gracilaria, Ascophyllum, and Sargassum showed that nutrient starved plants are capable of rapidly assimilating and storing inorganic nutrients which may be used later for growth when no nutrients are present in the medium. A shallow water seaweed farm was proposed which would produce methane from harvested seaweed and use digester residues as a concentrated source of nutrients for periodic fertilizations.

  1. Relationship between wheat characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers: comparison between total collection and marker (titanium dioxide) technique.

    PubMed

    Smeets, N; Nuyens, F; Van Campenhout, L; Delezie, E; Pannecoucque, J; Niewold, T

    2015-07-01

    Three wheat cultivars (Orpheus, Rustic, and Viscount) were used to formulate 3 test feeds (62.4% wheat) in a broiler digestibility trial. The diets were fed to male Ross 308 broiler chickens. The wheat cultivars mainly differed in their amount of non-starch polysaccharides ( NSP: ). The cultivar Orpheus was chosen to represent a high amount of NSP (102 g/kg DM), whereas the cultivars Rustic and Viscount represented low amounts of NSP (83.4 g/kg DM and 73.9 g/kg DM, respectively). Furthermore, the cultivars Orpheus and Viscount were feed quality wheat, whereas Rustic was a milling quality wheat. Nutrient digestibilities and AMEn contents of the diets were measured from 18 to 22-days-old by total excreta collection, or with the use of the indigestible marker titanium dioxide. In addition, the ileal viscosity was measured when the broilers were 25-days-old. Wheat cultivar affected N retention, DM digestibility, and AMEn. In general, the feed formulated with the high NSP wheat cultivar Orpheus resulted in the least favorable nutrient digestibilities and AMEn, whereas the results were better when the feed was formulated with the low NSP cultivars Viscount and Rustic. Feeding the Rustic cultivar caused the highest intestinal viscosity, although this was not reflected in the animal responses. Nutrient digestibilities and AMEn content of the diets were lower when calculated with the titanium dioxide marker than with the total excreta collection procedure. Moreover, the P-values of the effect of wheat cultivar on DM digestibility, N retention, crude fat digestibility and AMEn were lower with the use of the titanium dioxide marker. It can be concluded that wheat cultivar affected nutrient digestibility and AMEn, and that the observed differences were related to the amount of NSP. Furthermore, both the titanium dioxide marker and the total excreta collection methods showed the same trends despite the different values obtained. The titanium dioxide marker method was the

  2. Relationship between wheat characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers: comparison between total collection and marker (titanium dioxide) technique.

    PubMed

    Smeets, N; Nuyens, F; Van Campenhout, L; Delezie, E; Pannecoucque, J; Niewold, T

    2015-07-01

    Three wheat cultivars (Orpheus, Rustic, and Viscount) were used to formulate 3 test feeds (62.4% wheat) in a broiler digestibility trial. The diets were fed to male Ross 308 broiler chickens. The wheat cultivars mainly differed in their amount of non-starch polysaccharides ( NSP: ). The cultivar Orpheus was chosen to represent a high amount of NSP (102 g/kg DM), whereas the cultivars Rustic and Viscount represented low amounts of NSP (83.4 g/kg DM and 73.9 g/kg DM, respectively). Furthermore, the cultivars Orpheus and Viscount were feed quality wheat, whereas Rustic was a milling quality wheat. Nutrient digestibilities and AMEn contents of the diets were measured from 18 to 22-days-old by total excreta collection, or with the use of the indigestible marker titanium dioxide. In addition, the ileal viscosity was measured when the broilers were 25-days-old. Wheat cultivar affected N retention, DM digestibility, and AMEn. In general, the feed formulated with the high NSP wheat cultivar Orpheus resulted in the least favorable nutrient digestibilities and AMEn, whereas the results were better when the feed was formulated with the low NSP cultivars Viscount and Rustic. Feeding the Rustic cultivar caused the highest intestinal viscosity, although this was not reflected in the animal responses. Nutrient digestibilities and AMEn content of the diets were lower when calculated with the titanium dioxide marker than with the total excreta collection procedure. Moreover, the P-values of the effect of wheat cultivar on DM digestibility, N retention, crude fat digestibility and AMEn were lower with the use of the titanium dioxide marker. It can be concluded that wheat cultivar affected nutrient digestibility and AMEn, and that the observed differences were related to the amount of NSP. Furthermore, both the titanium dioxide marker and the total excreta collection methods showed the same trends despite the different values obtained. The titanium dioxide marker method was the

  3. Effects of treating wheat straw with pH-regulated solutions of alkaline hydrogen peroxide on nutrient digestion by sheep.

    PubMed

    Kerley, M S; Fahey, G C; Berger, L L; Merchen, N R; Gould, J M

    1987-10-01

    An experiment using a 4 X 4 Latin square design was to determine effects of treating wheat straw with pH-regulated (pH = 11.5) solutions of hydrogen peroxide on site and extent of nutrient digestion in multiple-fistulated sheep. Regulating reaction pH at 11.5 prevented solubilization of some cell wall hemicelluloses, resulting in improved retention of DM. Diets fed to sheep contained 33 or 70% wheat straw either untreated or treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Sheep fed diets of treated wheat straw digested more DM, NDF, ADF, and cellulose anterior to the duodenum and in the total tract than when fed diets of untreated wheat straw. Apparent CP digestion before the duodenum was highest when sheep were fed the treated 33% wheat straw diet and untreated 70% wheat straw diet. Treatments did not affect apparent nutrient digestibilities in the large intestine. Ruminal pH was lower when sheep were fed the alkaline hydrogen peroxide-treated or diets containing 33% wheat straw. Ruminal ammonia concentrations were highest when sheep were fed the untreated 70% wheat straw diet. Molar proportions of ruminal acetic and propionic acids were unaffected by diet. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment substantially increased susceptibility of structural carbohydrates of wheat straw to microbial degradation in the gastrointestinal tract of sheep.

  4. Effect of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility and faecal microbiota of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cangyou; Zhang, Shihai; Yang, Qing; Peng, Qian; Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangfang; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the experiment on 180 weaned piglets (8.9 kg body weight) was to investigate the influence of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea incidence and numbers of faecal microbiota. The dietary treatments included a Control diet and five high fibre diets formulated with different fibre sources including wheat bran, soybean hulls, naked oat hulls, palm kernel expeller and bamboo fibre. The high fibre diets averaged 14.6% neutral detergent fibre with different non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) components and were fed ad libitum for 28 d. Faecal samples were collected during the last 3 d of the experiment and the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fibre components were determined. Pigs fed the Control and wheat bran diets had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) than pigs fed the palm kernel expeller and bamboo meal diets. The reduced ADG for pigs appeared to be related to reductions in the digestibility of gross energy and dry matter, respectively. The feed-to-gain ratio was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the fibre diets. The digestibility of NSP components was different among the treatments. The diarrhoea incidence was not affected by treatments. The abundance of faecal bifidobacteria was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the wheat bran diet than for pigs fed the bamboo meal diet. It was concluded that the diets formulated with different fibre sources when fed to weaned piglets have different effects on pig performance, nutrient digestibility and numbers of faecal microbiota. The wheat bran diet rich in arabinoxylans enabled a better performance than the other tested diets with fibre addition. PMID:27216554

  5. The effects of dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Defa; Liu, Ling; Zang, Jianjun; Duan, Qiwu; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility and the relationship between apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and available energy. Sugar beet pulp was as the only fiber source. The experiment was designed as a 6 × 6 Latin square with an adaptation period of 7 d followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Feed intake tended to decrease (P =0.10) as total dietary fiber level increased. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy decreased (P <0.01) when total dietary fiber increased but the digestibility of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber increased (P <0.01). The digestible energy and metabolizable energy content of diets decreased (P <0.01) as the total dietary fiber increased.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of paunch in a CSTR for renewable energy production and nutrient mineralization.

    PubMed

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Marchbank, Douglas H; Hao, Xiying

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory study investigated the anaerobic digestion of paunch in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the recovery of biogas and mineralization of nutrients. At an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.8gVSL(-1)day(-1) with a 30-day hydraulic retention time (HRT), a CH4 yield of 0.213Lg(-1)VS and CH4 production rate of 0.600LL(-1)day(-1) were obtained. Post-anaerobic digestion of the effluent from the CSTR for 30days at 40°C recovered 0.067Lg(-1)VS as CH4, which was 21% of the batch CH4 potential. Post-digestion of the effluent from the digestate obtained at this OLR is needed to meet the stable effluent criteria. Furthermore, low levels of soluble ions such as K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were found in the liquid fraction of the digestate and the remainder could have been retained in the solid digestate fraction. This study demonstrates the potential of biogas production from paunch in providing renewable energy. In addition, recovery of plant nutrients in the digestate is important for a sustainable agricultural system.

  7. Anaerobic digestion of paunch in a CSTR for renewable energy production and nutrient mineralization.

    PubMed

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Marchbank, Douglas H; Hao, Xiying

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory study investigated the anaerobic digestion of paunch in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the recovery of biogas and mineralization of nutrients. At an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.8gVSL(-1)day(-1) with a 30-day hydraulic retention time (HRT), a CH4 yield of 0.213Lg(-1)VS and CH4 production rate of 0.600LL(-1)day(-1) were obtained. Post-anaerobic digestion of the effluent from the CSTR for 30days at 40°C recovered 0.067Lg(-1)VS as CH4, which was 21% of the batch CH4 potential. Post-digestion of the effluent from the digestate obtained at this OLR is needed to meet the stable effluent criteria. Furthermore, low levels of soluble ions such as K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were found in the liquid fraction of the digestate and the remainder could have been retained in the solid digestate fraction. This study demonstrates the potential of biogas production from paunch in providing renewable energy. In addition, recovery of plant nutrients in the digestate is important for a sustainable agricultural system. PMID:26037058

  8. Effects of fiber inclusion on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets reared under optimal or poor hygienic conditions.

    PubMed

    Berrocoso, J D; Menoyo, D; Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Cámara, L; Mateos, G G

    2015-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of inclusion of additional fiber in the Phase I diet on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in piglets reared under "optimal" or "poor" hygienic conditions. In both experiments, the design was completely randomized with a control diet that contained 2.2% crude fiber and 8 additional isonutritive diets that included 2.5 or 5.0% of sugar beet pulp (SBP), straw, oat hulls (OH), or wheat middlings (WHM). Preplanned polynomial contrasts were used to study the effects of 1) fiber inclusion (control diet vs. average of the 8 fiber-containing diets), 2) source of fiber, 3) level of fiber, and 4) interaction between source and level of fiber. In Exp. 1 (clean barn), fiber inclusion increased ( < 0.01) the incidence of postweaning diarrhea (PWD) and reduced ( < 0.05) feed efficiency and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of all nutrients except that of CP, which was not affected. Piglet performance was not affected by source or level of dietary fiber. The ATTD of all nutrients decreased ( < 0.05) as the level of fiber increased and was lower in pigs fed straw or OH than in pigs fed SBP or WHM. The apparent ileal digestibility of GE and DM decreased ( < 0.05) with fiber inclusion, a reduction that was more pronounced ( < 0.05) with straw or SBP than with OH inclusion, with WHM inclusion being intermediate. Fiber inclusion did not affect villous height to crypt depth ratio of the ileum mucosa. The inclusion of 5% of a fiber source increased and counts in the cecum ( < 0.001) but the to ratio was not affected. In Exp. 2 (dirty barn), fiber inclusion did not affect piglet performance but tended to increase PWD ( = 0.07). Also, fiber inclusion reduced ( < 0.05) the ATTD of all dietary components except that of CP, which was not affected. Source and level of fiber did not affect ATTD of nutrients except for DM, which was greater for pigs fed SBP than for pigs fed straw ( < 0.05). In conclusion, in the current

  9. Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, nutrient intake, and digestibility in hair-breed sheep.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Aguila-Tepato, E; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2013-04-01

    Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrient intake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: i) control (no ZH), and ii) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to 15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrient intake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ≤ 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and GE were less (P ≤ 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ≤ 0.04) NDF and GE intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ≤ 0.03) was less for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and ether extract(EE) digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ≤ 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients.

  10. Nutrient removal and biogas upgrading by integrating freshwater algae cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yongjun; Zhao, Guohua; Zhang, Hui

    2015-08-01

    An integrated approach that combined freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment was investigated in this study. The characteristics of algal growth, biogas production, and nutrient removal were examined using photobioreactor bags (PBRbs) to cultivate S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in digestate with various digestate dilutions (the concentration levels of 3200, 2200, 1600, 1200, 800, and 400 mg L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD)) during 7-day period. The effects of the level of pollutants on nutrient removal efficiency and CO2 removal process were investigated to select the optimum system for effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. The treatment performance displayed that average removal rates of COD, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and CO2 were 61.58-75.29, 58.39-74.63, 70.09-88.79, and 54.26-73.81 %, respectively. All the strains grew well under any the dilution treatments. With increased initial nutrient concentration to a certain range, the CO4 content (v/v) of raw biogas increased. Differences in the biogas enrichment of S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in all treatments mainly resulted from variations in biomass productivity and CO2 uptake. Notably, the diluted digestate sample of 1600 mg L(-1) COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for S. obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation, where the advantageous nutrient and CO2 removals, as well as the highest productivities of biomass and biogas upgrading, were revealed. Results showed that microalgal biomass production offered real opportunities to address issues such as CO2 sequestration, wastewater treatment, and biogas production.

  11. Nutrient removal and biogas upgrading by integrating freshwater algae cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yongjun; Zhao, Guohua; Zhang, Hui

    2015-08-01

    An integrated approach that combined freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment was investigated in this study. The characteristics of algal growth, biogas production, and nutrient removal were examined using photobioreactor bags (PBRbs) to cultivate S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in digestate with various digestate dilutions (the concentration levels of 3200, 2200, 1600, 1200, 800, and 400 mg L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD)) during 7-day period. The effects of the level of pollutants on nutrient removal efficiency and CO2 removal process were investigated to select the optimum system for effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. The treatment performance displayed that average removal rates of COD, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and CO2 were 61.58-75.29, 58.39-74.63, 70.09-88.79, and 54.26-73.81 %, respectively. All the strains grew well under any the dilution treatments. With increased initial nutrient concentration to a certain range, the CO4 content (v/v) of raw biogas increased. Differences in the biogas enrichment of S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in all treatments mainly resulted from variations in biomass productivity and CO2 uptake. Notably, the diluted digestate sample of 1600 mg L(-1) COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for S. obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation, where the advantageous nutrient and CO2 removals, as well as the highest productivities of biomass and biogas upgrading, were revealed. Results showed that microalgal biomass production offered real opportunities to address issues such as CO2 sequestration, wastewater treatment, and biogas production. PMID:25808519

  12. Co-digestion of manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge using nutrient additions.

    PubMed

    Hagelqvist, Alina; Granström, Karin

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasing worldwide demand for biogas. Anaerobic co-digestion involves the treatment of different substrates with the aim of improving the production of biogas and the stability of the process. This study evaluates how methane production is affected by the co-digestion of pig and dairy manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge and assesses whether methane production is affected by factors other than nutrient deficiency, low buffering capacity, inadequate dilution, and an insufficient activity and amount of microorganism culture. Anaerobic digestion was performed in batch reactors under mesophilic conditions for 20 days. The season of grass silage and manure collection proved to be an important factor affecting methane production. Spring grass silage produced a maximum of 250 mL/VSadded and spring manure 150 mL/VSadded, whereas autumn grass silage produced at most 140 ml/VSadded and autumn manure 45 mL/VSadded. The pulp mill sludge used is comprised of both primary and secondary sludge and produced at most 50 mL/VSadded regardless of season; this substrate benefitted most from co-digestion.

  13. Nutrient digestibility and energy value of sheep rations differing in protein level, main protein source and non-forage fibre source.

    PubMed

    Milis, Ch; Liamadis, D

    2008-02-01

    Two in vivo digestion trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of diet's crude protein (CP) level, N degradability, and non-forage fibre source (NFFS) on nutrient digestibility and energy value of sheep rations. In each trial, rams were fed four isocaloric and isofibrous rations, differing in main protein and/or NFFS source. At the first trial, mean CP/metabolizable energy (ME) ratio of the diets was 17 g/MJ ME and at the second trial, 13 g/MJ ME. At both trials, the first ration contained cotton seed cake (CSC) and wheat bran (WB), the second CSC and corn gluten feed (CGF), the third corn gluten meal (CGM) and WB and the fourth CGM and CGF. Data of both trials were analysed in common as 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experimental design. Low N degradability (CGM) had positive effect on CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility of the ration. Those results suggest that an increase in rumen undegradable protein (RUP) content does not negatively affect nutrient digestibility of sheep rations. Corn gluten feed significantly elevated crude fibre (CF) digestibility, in comparison with WB. Rations having high CP/ME ratio had higher digestibility of CP in comparison with those having low CP/ME ratio; the opposite was true for ether extract, CF, NDF and ADF digestibilities. CP level x N degradability interaction negatively affected energy value of the rations that had high CP level and high N degradability. Former suggest that when CP content is high then N degradability should be low otherwise ration's ME is negatively affected. CP digestibility and coefficient q of the rations containing WB and having high N degradability (N degradability x NFFS interaction) were the lowest suggesting that the combination of CSC and WB negatively affected CP digestibility and energy value of the ration. This could be explained by a reduced microbial CP synthesis, or lower RUP digestibility or both. PMID:18184379

  14. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage.

  15. Effects of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on the nutrient digestibility, lactation feed intake and reproductive performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (P<0.05) and tended to increase the digestibility of CP (P=0.05) compared with the control diet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (P<0.05) lactation diet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.

  16. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total tract digestibility of nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133 ± 18 d ol...

  17. Milk production and nutrient digestibility by dairy cows when fed exogenous amylase with coarsely ground dry corn.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Steinberg, W; Engstrom, M A

    2011-05-01

    The digestibility of starch provided by coarsely ground corn is often low, which reduces the digestible energy (DE) concentration of the diet. We hypothesized that adding exogenous amylase to diets based on coarsely ground dent corn would increase dietary DE resulting in greater milk production. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was measured in a partially replicated Latin square experiment (6 cows and 4 periods) with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets had 26 or 31% starch with or without exogenous amylase (amylase was added to the concentrate mixes at the feed mill). In the low and high starch diets, coarsely ground dry corn (mean particle size=1.42 mm) provided 43 and 62% of total dietary starch (corn silage provided most of the remaining starch). No treatment interactions were observed. High starch diets had greater dry matter (DM), organic matter, and energy digestibility than low starch diets, and diets with amylase had greater neutral detergent fiber digestibility than diets without amylase. Digestibility of starch averaged 88% and was not affected by treatment. A long-term (98-d) lactation study with 48 Holstein cows (74 d in milk) was conducted using 3 of the diets (low starch diets with and without amylase and the high starch diet without amylase). Addition of amylase to a diet with 26% starch did not affect intake, milk yield, milk composition, body weight, or body condition. Cows fed the diet with 31% starch had greater DM and DE intakes; yields of milk, fat, and protein; and feed efficiency than those fed diets with 26% starch. Milk composition was not affected by starch concentration. Adding exogenous amylase to a lower starch diet did not make the diet nutritionally equivalent to a higher starch diet.

  18. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in Eimeria acervulina-challenged layers and broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian coccidiosis is a disease caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. Eimeria-infected chickens develop lesions in the intestinal mucosa, which result in reduced feed efficiency and body weight gain. This growth reduction may be due to changes in expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient tran...

  19. Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Blood Profiles of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Seo, J.; Kim, W.; Kim, J.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Jang, Y.; Jang, K.; Kim, K.; Kim, B.; Park, S.; Park, I.; Kim, M. K.; Seo, K. S.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, I. H.; Seo, S.; Song, M.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood profiles of weaned pigs. A total of 88 weaned pigs (6.94±0.76 kg body weight [BW]; 28 d old) were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (4 pigs/pen; 11 replicates/treatment) in a randomized complete block design (sex as a block). The dietary treatments were a typical nursery diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE). Pigs were fed for 6 wk using a 3-phase feeding program with declining diet complexity and with phases of 1, 2, and 3 wk, respectively. Blood was collected from randomly selected 2 pigs in each pen before weaning and on d 7 after weaning. Pigs were fed respective dietary treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 29 to 35 after weaning. Fecal samples were collected from randomly selected 2 pigs in each pen daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were growth performances, digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and energy, white and red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, and incidence of diarrhea. The PKE increased average daily gain (ADG) (246 vs 215 g/d; p = 0.06) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (470 vs 343 g/d; p<0.05) and decreased gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) (0.522 vs 0.628 g/g; p<0.05) during phase 2 compared with CON, but did not affect growth performance during phase 1 and 3. During overall experimental period, PKE increased ADG (383 vs 362 g/d; p = 0.05) and ADFI (549 vs 496 g/d; p<0.05) compared with CON, but did not affect G:F. However, no differences were found on digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy between CON and PKE. The PKE reduced frequency of diarrhea (15% vs 25%; p = 0.08) for the first 2 wk after weaning compared with CON. Similarly, PKE decreased white blood cells (8.19 vs 9.56×103/μL; p = 0.07), red blood cells (2.92 vs 3.25×106/μL; p = 0.09), and packed cell volume (11.1% vs 12

  20. Effects of plant herb combination supplementation on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Khejornsart, P; Wanapat, S

    2013-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  1. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Khejornsart, P.; Wanapat, S.

    2013-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  2. Biochar from Swine solids and digestate influence nutrient dynamics and carbon dioxide release in soil.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Rosa; Castelli, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of livestock manure solids are expected to become available in the near future due to the development of technologies for the separation of the solid fraction of animal effluents. The charring of manure solids for biochar (BC) production represents an opportunity for recycling organic matter (OM) of high nutrient value. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the suitability of BC from swine solids (SS) to improve soil fertility through nutrient supply and decomposition of the OM incorporated into soil and to verify a possible interaction effect on soil nutrient dynamics between digestate application and soil amendment with BC. We monitored at laboratory scale the soil mineral nitrogen (N) and Olsen phosphorus (P) content, and the cumulative carbon dioxide (CO-C) release in treatments with or without a supply of digestate obtained from a biogas plant. The experiment was performed in laboratory microcosms during a 3-mo incubation period. Compared treatments were soil amendments with SS, BC from SS, wood chip, BC from wood chip, and soil with no amendment, each of them with and without incorporation of digestate (10 treatments in total). Soil N levels were unaffected by BC amendments and only increased temporarily when digestate was applied to soil amended with SS or BC from SS. For the same N content, the BC from SS supplied much more P than the nontreated OM. The amount of cumulative CO-C released from soil with BC with or without digestate did not differ from that in the unamended control soil and was lower than that in the soils with noncharred amendments. Soil amendment with BC from SS does not modify soil N availability, whereas it increases the content of P available for crops and reduces the release of CO-C from digestate applied to soil for agricultural purposes.

  3. Biochar from Swine solids and digestate influence nutrient dynamics and carbon dioxide release in soil.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Rosa; Castelli, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of livestock manure solids are expected to become available in the near future due to the development of technologies for the separation of the solid fraction of animal effluents. The charring of manure solids for biochar (BC) production represents an opportunity for recycling organic matter (OM) of high nutrient value. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the suitability of BC from swine solids (SS) to improve soil fertility through nutrient supply and decomposition of the OM incorporated into soil and to verify a possible interaction effect on soil nutrient dynamics between digestate application and soil amendment with BC. We monitored at laboratory scale the soil mineral nitrogen (N) and Olsen phosphorus (P) content, and the cumulative carbon dioxide (CO-C) release in treatments with or without a supply of digestate obtained from a biogas plant. The experiment was performed in laboratory microcosms during a 3-mo incubation period. Compared treatments were soil amendments with SS, BC from SS, wood chip, BC from wood chip, and soil with no amendment, each of them with and without incorporation of digestate (10 treatments in total). Soil N levels were unaffected by BC amendments and only increased temporarily when digestate was applied to soil amended with SS or BC from SS. For the same N content, the BC from SS supplied much more P than the nontreated OM. The amount of cumulative CO-C released from soil with BC with or without digestate did not differ from that in the unamended control soil and was lower than that in the soils with noncharred amendments. Soil amendment with BC from SS does not modify soil N availability, whereas it increases the content of P available for crops and reduces the release of CO-C from digestate applied to soil for agricultural purposes. PMID:23673957

  4. The effect of managing nutrients in the performance of anaerobic digesters of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Demirer, Sibel Uludag; Taskin, Bilgin; Demirer, Goksel N; Duran, Metin

    2013-09-01

    Is it possible to create conditions in the anaerobic digesters to control nutrients without changing the performance of a reactor? This study investigates an answer for this question. To this purpose, anaerobic reactors are operated at high concentrations of Mg(2+) ion to harvest the nutrient ions (NH4 (+) and PO4 (3-)) in the form of struvite, that is, magnesium ammonium phosphate. The effects of this modification on the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge were investigated in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and cumulative CH4 production as well as the changes in the biological diversity. The results showed that approximately 50 % of the nutrients (NH4 (+) and PO4 (3-)) were removed regardless of the method adopted for the addition of Mg(2+) ion, slug or daily dosing. The numbers of Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina in the samples withdrawn prior to and after the addition of Mg(2+) did not show significant difference according to the results obtained from qPCR analyses. The research results showed that the addition of Mg(2+) into the anaerobic digesters in municipal wastewater treatment facilities may help to remove the nutrients from the effluent while recovering in their solid forms. PMID:23090053

  5. Anaerobic digestion of lipid-extracted Auxenochlorella protothecoides biomass for methane generation and nutrient recovery.

    PubMed

    Bohutskyi, Pavlo; Ketter, Ben; Chow, Steven; Adams, Kameron J; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Allnutt, F C Thomas; Bouwer, Edward J

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated methane production and nutrient recovery from industrially produced, lipid extracted algal biomass (LEA) of Auxenochlorella protothecoides using semi-continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) at different organic loading rates (OLRs) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs). It was shown, that AD can improve biofuel production efficiency and sustainability, especially for scaled processes, through up to 30% increase in energy generation (up to 0.25 L of methane per g of LEA volatile solids) and partial nutrient recovery and recycling. The nutrient recycling with the AD effluent may reduce the cost of the supplied fertilizers by up to 45%. However, methane production was limited to nearly 50% of theoretical maxima potentially due to biomass recalcitrance and inhibition effects from the residual solvent in the LEA. Therefore, further AD optimization is required to maximize methane yield and nutrient recovery as well as investigation and elimination of inhibition from solvent residues.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of lipid-extracted Auxenochlorella protothecoides biomass for methane generation and nutrient recovery.

    PubMed

    Bohutskyi, Pavlo; Ketter, Ben; Chow, Steven; Adams, Kameron J; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Allnutt, F C Thomas; Bouwer, Edward J

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated methane production and nutrient recovery from industrially produced, lipid extracted algal biomass (LEA) of Auxenochlorella protothecoides using semi-continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) at different organic loading rates (OLRs) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs). It was shown, that AD can improve biofuel production efficiency and sustainability, especially for scaled processes, through up to 30% increase in energy generation (up to 0.25 L of methane per g of LEA volatile solids) and partial nutrient recovery and recycling. The nutrient recycling with the AD effluent may reduce the cost of the supplied fertilizers by up to 45%. However, methane production was limited to nearly 50% of theoretical maxima potentially due to biomass recalcitrance and inhibition effects from the residual solvent in the LEA. Therefore, further AD optimization is required to maximize methane yield and nutrient recovery as well as investigation and elimination of inhibition from solvent residues. PMID:25746299

  7. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fermentation profile in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Mackenthun, E; Coenen, M; Vervuert, I

    2013-05-01

    Supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) in horses may have some potential to modify microbial populations and thereby improve fibre digestibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SC on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, with a special focus on fibre digestion in healthy horses. The fermentation profile of microbial populations was another focus of interest. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to three groups. The basal diet consisted of cracked corn (2 g starch/kg body weight [BW]) and hay (1.2 kg/100 kg BW). During adaptation (3 weeks) and the total faecal collection period (5 days), cracked corn was fed once daily either as control (0 g SC) or supplemented with 1 or 3 g SC (1 g SC = 2 × 10(10) colony-forming units [cfu]). There was a 4-week wash-out period between the different SC regimes. Faeces were sampled by rectal collection for the analysis of pH, nitrogen, lactic acid, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and SC. In faeces, mean SC cfu was significantly lower than the quantity supplemented: 0 g SC, no detection; 1 g SC, 1.1 × 10(6) cfu; 3 g SC, 3.6 × 10(6) cfu. Apparent total tract digestibility of crude fibre varied approximately 40% without any treatment-related effects. Short-chain fatty acids, lactic acids and pH in faeces were not significantly affected by SC supplementation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation was not associated with any changes in the fermentation profiles, and fibre digestion accordingly remained unchanged in intact and healthy horses. Taking into account that fibre digestion remained unchanged and recovery rate of SC in faeces was mariginal, colonization and proliferation of SC in the healthy equine intestinal tract seems to be unlikely.

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation with resveratrol on nutrient digestibility, methanogenesis and ruminal microbial flora in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Chen, D-D; Tu, Y; Zhang, N-F; Si, B-W; Deng, K-D; Diao, Q-Y

    2015-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on methanogenesis and microbial flora in Dorper × thin-tailed Han cross-bred ewes. In experiment 1, ten ewes (67.2 ± 2.24 kg BW) were assigned to two dietary treatments, a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with resveratrol (0.25 g/head·day), to investigate the effect of resveratrol on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. In experiment 2, six ewes (64.0 ± 1.85 kg BW) with ruminal cannulae were assigned to the identical dietary treatments used in experiment 1 to investigate supplementary resveratrol on ruminal fermentation and microbial flora using qPCR. The results showed that supplementary resveratrol improved the digestibility of organic matter (OM; p < 0.001), nitrogen (N; p = 0.007), neutral detergent fibre (NDF; p < 0.001) and acid detergent fibre (ADF; p < 0.001). The excretion of faecal N was reduced (p = 0.007), whereas that of urinary N increased (p = 0.002), which led to an unchanged N retention (p = 0.157). Both CO2 and CH4 output scaled to digestible dry matter (DM) intake decreased from 602.5 to 518.7 (p = 0.039) and 68.2 to 56.6 (p < 0.001) respectively. Ruminal pH (p = 0.341), ammonia (p = 0.512) and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) (p = 0.249) were unaffected by resveratrol. The molar proportion of propionate increased from 13.1 to 17.5% (p < 0.001) while that of butyrate decreased from 11.0 to 9.55% (p < 0.001). The ratio of acetate to propionate (A/P) decreased from 5.44 to 3.96 (p < 0.001). Supplementary resveratrol increased ruminal population of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (p < 0.001) while decreased protozoa and methanogens. In conclusion, dietary resveratrol inhibited methanogenesis without adversely affecting ruminal fermentation.

  9. Microalgae treatment removes nutrients and reduces ecotoxicity of diluted piggery digestate.

    PubMed

    Franchino, Marta; Tigini, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Mussat Sartor, Rocco; Bona, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    Liquid digestate is considered as an important by-product of anaerobic digestion of agriculture wastes. Currently, it is very often directly spread on local agricultural land. Yet recently concerns on its environmental risk of this processing has begun to rise. On the other hand, investigations on the effectiveness of microalgae for wastewater treatment have started to consider also this complex matrix. In this study, we cultured the green alga Chlorella vulgaris in diluted digestate coming from the anaerobic digestion of pig slurry and corn, with the aim to significantly reduce its toxicity and its very high nutrient concentration. For this purpose, a battery of toxicity tests composed of four acute and two chronic bioassays was applied after the alga cultivation. Results were compared with those obtained in the initial characterization of the digestate. Results show that highly diluted piggery digestate can be a suitable medium for culturing microalgae, as we obtained a high removal efficiency (>90%) for ammonia, total nitrogen and phosphate, though after a few days phosphorus limitation occurred. Toxicity was significantly reduced for all the organisms tested. Possible solutions for optimizing this approach avoiding high dilution rates are discussed. PMID:27328398

  10. Microalgae treatment removes nutrients and reduces ecotoxicity of diluted piggery digestate.

    PubMed

    Franchino, Marta; Tigini, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Mussat Sartor, Rocco; Bona, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    Liquid digestate is considered as an important by-product of anaerobic digestion of agriculture wastes. Currently, it is very often directly spread on local agricultural land. Yet recently concerns on its environmental risk of this processing has begun to rise. On the other hand, investigations on the effectiveness of microalgae for wastewater treatment have started to consider also this complex matrix. In this study, we cultured the green alga Chlorella vulgaris in diluted digestate coming from the anaerobic digestion of pig slurry and corn, with the aim to significantly reduce its toxicity and its very high nutrient concentration. For this purpose, a battery of toxicity tests composed of four acute and two chronic bioassays was applied after the alga cultivation. Results were compared with those obtained in the initial characterization of the digestate. Results show that highly diluted piggery digestate can be a suitable medium for culturing microalgae, as we obtained a high removal efficiency (>90%) for ammonia, total nitrogen and phosphate, though after a few days phosphorus limitation occurred. Toxicity was significantly reduced for all the organisms tested. Possible solutions for optimizing this approach avoiding high dilution rates are discussed.

  11. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohui; Hua, Yumei; Deng, Liangwei

    2016-04-01

    The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003) compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils. PMID:27058548

  12. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaohui; Hua, Yumei; Deng, Liangwei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003) compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils. PMID:27058548

  13. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohui; Hua, Yumei; Deng, Liangwei

    2016-04-01

    The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003) compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils.

  14. Effect of physical training on nutrient digestibility and faecal fermentative parameters in Standardbred horses.

    PubMed

    Goachet, A G; Harris, P; Philippeau, C; Julliand, V

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating, in previously inactive Standardbreds horses, the effect of 5 weeks of an exercise training programme on nutrient digestibility and faecal fermentative parameters (FFPs). As an increase in digestibility had previously been reported in trained endurance horses, we hypothesized that similar results would be found in horses being trained for other types of exercise on a different type of diet. After 3 weeks of dietary adaptation, a digestibility trial (DT1) was undertaken, over 3 days, in eight untrained Standardbreds with a fresh faecal sample being collected on the second day for FFP determinations. Six of the eight horses undertook a training programme, and after 5 weeks of exercise, the DT and the FFP measurements were then repeated (DT2). DT2 began after 3 days of inactivity. The same natural meadow hay (H) and pelleted complementary feed (CF) were fed throughout. For 5 days before the DTs, horses were fed 2.1% BW on a dry matter basis (55:45 ratio H:CF). Body weight and body condition score remained constant. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre, hemicellulose, crude protein and gross energy, as well as faecal total volatile fatty acids (VFA), acetate and propionate concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher at DT2 than at DT1. A 5-week exercise programme had a positive impact on nutrient digestibility and FFP. Training may improve dietary energy supply, in particular via increased hindgut VFA production. The potential improvement of digestive efficiency with training should be taken into account when formulating nutritional recommendations for the exercising horse, particularly when performing light work, which is low-intensity exercise for 1-3 h per week.

  15. Thermophilic sludge digestion improves energy balance and nutrient recovery potential in full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Smet, Davey; Klok, Jacob; Colsen, Joop; Angenent, Largus T; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-10-01

    The conventional treatment of municipal wastewater by means of activated sludge is typically energy demanding. Here, the potential benefits of: (1) the optimization of mesophilic digestion; and (2) transitioning to thermophilic sludge digestion in three wastewater treatment plants (Tilburg-Noord, Land van Cuijk and Bath) in the Netherlands is evaluated, including a full-scale trial validation in Bath. In Tilburg-Noord, thermophilic sludge digestion covered the energy requirements of the plant (102%), whereas 111% of sludge operational treatment costs could be covered in Bath. Thermophilic sludge digestion also resulted in a strong increase in nutrient release. The potential for nutrient recovery was evaluated via: (1) stripping/absorption of ammonium; (2) autotrophic removal of ammonium via partial nitritation/anammox; and (3) struvite precipitation. This research shows that optimization of sludge digestion may lead to a strong increase in energy recovery, sludge treatment costs reduction, and the potential for advanced nutrient management in full-scale sewage treatment plants.

  16. Effect of dehulling of rapeseed on feed value and nutrient digestibility of rape products in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kracht, W; Dänicke, S; Kluge, H; Keller, Kathrin; Matzke, W; Hennig, U; Schumann, W

    2004-10-01

    In the presented study the influence of dehulling rapeseed on the composition of rapeseed meal (RM) and rapeseed cake (RC) and on its feed value for piglets and growing-finishing pigs was investigated. Before withdrawal of oil, rapeseed (variety Express) was dehulled applying a procedure developed by SKET GmbH Magdeburg and the Section Food-Technology of the University Essen. The steps of the dehulling procedure were described. For RM the oil was removed by the prepress-solvent procedure till a crude fat content of 2.1% in DM. RC was produced by pressing only resulting approximately 13% crude fat in DM. The RM and RC from not dehulled (ND) and dehulled (D) rapeseed were examined analytically. Crude nutrients, sugar and fibre substances, amino acids, some minerals and trace elements, fatty acids, glucosinolates and sinapine, and phytate were determined. By dehulling the seed the crude fibre content was decreased in RM and RC by approximately 40%. The ADF content declined by 35 and 39%, and the NDF content by 28% and 40% in RM and RC, respectively. The decrease in ADL content amounted to 50% and 65% for RM and RC, respectively. On the other hand, the CP content of RM and RC was increased by 7% and 13%, respectively, by dehulling the seed while the amino acid content of rape protein increased only slightly. The contents of glucosinolates and sinapine were also increased by dehulling, while the contents of phytate and phytate P were decreased. In digestibility and balance experiments with piglets and intact hybrid breeds of growing-finishing pigs, the digestibility of organic matter and of crude nutrients and the contents of digestible energy and metabolizable energy were estimated. Furthermore, the precaecal digestibility of crude nutrients and amino acids was determined with fistulated mini-pigs. By dehulling the seeds the digestibility of organic matter from RM and RC was improved in piglets and adult pigs by approximately 10%, and the ME contents increased by 13

  17. Effect of dehulling of rapeseed on feed value and nutrient digestibility of rape products in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kracht, W; Dänicke, S; Kluge, H; Keller, Kathrin; Matzke, W; Hennig, U; Schumann, W

    2004-10-01

    In the presented study the influence of dehulling rapeseed on the composition of rapeseed meal (RM) and rapeseed cake (RC) and on its feed value for piglets and growing-finishing pigs was investigated. Before withdrawal of oil, rapeseed (variety Express) was dehulled applying a procedure developed by SKET GmbH Magdeburg and the Section Food-Technology of the University Essen. The steps of the dehulling procedure were described. For RM the oil was removed by the prepress-solvent procedure till a crude fat content of 2.1% in DM. RC was produced by pressing only resulting approximately 13% crude fat in DM. The RM and RC from not dehulled (ND) and dehulled (D) rapeseed were examined analytically. Crude nutrients, sugar and fibre substances, amino acids, some minerals and trace elements, fatty acids, glucosinolates and sinapine, and phytate were determined. By dehulling the seed the crude fibre content was decreased in RM and RC by approximately 40%. The ADF content declined by 35 and 39%, and the NDF content by 28% and 40% in RM and RC, respectively. The decrease in ADL content amounted to 50% and 65% for RM and RC, respectively. On the other hand, the CP content of RM and RC was increased by 7% and 13%, respectively, by dehulling the seed while the amino acid content of rape protein increased only slightly. The contents of glucosinolates and sinapine were also increased by dehulling, while the contents of phytate and phytate P were decreased. In digestibility and balance experiments with piglets and intact hybrid breeds of growing-finishing pigs, the digestibility of organic matter and of crude nutrients and the contents of digestible energy and metabolizable energy were estimated. Furthermore, the precaecal digestibility of crude nutrients and amino acids was determined with fistulated mini-pigs. By dehulling the seeds the digestibility of organic matter from RM and RC was improved in piglets and adult pigs by approximately 10%, and the ME contents increased by 13

  18. Effects of inclusion level on nutrient digestibility and energy content of wheat middlings and soya bean meal for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Piao, Xiangshu; Liu, Ling; Li, Defa

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of inclusion level of wheat middlings and soya bean meal on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and chemical components of these ingredients in growing pigs. Furthermore, the effects of the inclusion level on their contents of digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) were also determined by the difference method. In Experiment 1, six diets were fed to 36 growing pigs according to a completely randomised design. The basal diet was a corn-soya bean meal diet while the other five diets contained 9.6%, 19.2%, 28.8%, 38.4% or 48.0% of wheat middlings added at the expense of corn and soya bean meal. The measured digestibility of energy and most nutrients of wheat middlings increased (p < 0.05) with increasing levels of that ingredient. Equations were obtained to predict digestibility by inclusion level. At an inclusion level of 9.6% wheat middlings, their DE contents were significantly lower (8.9 MJ/kg DM) than for the higher levels (10.7 to 11.9 MJ/kg DM, p < 0.01). In Experiment 2, three diets were fed to 18 growing pigs according to a completely randomised block design. The basal diet was a corn-based diet while the other two diets were based on corn and two levels of soya bean meal (22.2% and 33.6%). The content of DE in soya bean meal did not differ at 22.2% and 33.6% inclusion levels (16.2 and 16.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively), but the digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter and carbohydrates was increased at a higher inclusion level (p < 0.05). This study revealed that the estimated digestibility of nutrients from soya bean meal and wheat middlings was affected by their dietary inclusion levels. For soya bean meal, the estimated energy contents was independent of its inclusion level, but not for wheat middlings. Therefore, the inclusion level of wheat middlings has to be considered for estimating their energy value.

  19. Effect of ambient temperature on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed brown-midrib maize silage.

    PubMed

    Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the impact of heat stress on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed silages differing in fibre quality. The digestibility trial was conducted at three different ambient temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C for 24 h/d). The tested brown-midrib maize (Bm) silage had a higher nutrient digestibility, except for ether extract (EE) and a higher metabolisable energy (ME) content than the control maize (Con) silage. Nitrogen (N) excretion with faeces was higher but N excretion with urine was lower for sheep fed Bm silage, subsequently N balance did not differ between the two silages. Temperature had no effect on nutrient digestibility, except for crude protein (CP), but N excretion with urine was lower at elevated temperatures. A diet by temperature interaction was found for dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility. When the ambient temperature increased from 15°C to 25°C, the DM and OM digestibility increased in animals fed Con silage, but decreased in animals fed Bm silage. Concomitantly, ME estimated from digestible nutrients was higher for Bm than for Con at 15°C, but no differences were found at 25°C and 35°C. Effects of diet by temperature interaction, furthermore, were observed for EE and CP digestibility. Therefore, forage quality has to be considered when feeding heat-stressed animals.

  20. Digestate as nutrient source for biomass production of sida, lucerne and maize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno Piaz Barbosa, Daniela; Nabel, Moritz; Horsch, David; Tsay, Gabriela; Jablonowski, Nicolai

    2014-05-01

    Biogas as a renewable energy source is supported in many countries driven by climate and energy policies. Nowadays, Germany is the largest biogas producer in the European Union. A sustainable resource management has to be considered within this growing scenario of biogas production systems and its environmental impacts. In this respect, studies aiming to enhance the management of biogas residues, which represents a valuable source of nutrients and organic fertilization, are needed. Our objective was to evaluate the digestate (biogas residue after fermentation process) application as nutrient source for biomass production of three different plants: sida (Sida hermaphrodita - Malvaceae), lucerne (Medicago sativa - Fabaceae) and maize (Zea mays - Poaceae). The digestate was collected from an operating biogas facility (fermenter volume 2500m³, ADRW Natur Power GmbH & Co.KG Titz/Ameln, Germany) composed of maize silage as the major feedstock, and minor amounts of chicken manure, with a composition of 3,29% N; 1,07% P; 3,42% K; and 41,2% C. An arable field soil (Endogleyic Stagnosol) was collected from 0-30 cm depth and 5 mm sieved. The fertilizer treatments of the plants were established in five replicates including digestate (application amount equivalent to 40 t ha-1) and NPK fertilizer (application amount equivalent to 200:100:300 kg ha-1) applications, according to the recommended agricultural doses, and a control (no fertilizer application). The digestate and the NPK fertilizer were thoroughly mixed with the soil in a rotatory shaker for 30 min. The 1L pots were filled with the fertilized soil and the seedlings were transplanted and grown for 30 days under greenhouse conditions (16 h day/8 h night: 24ºC/18ºC; 60% air humidity). After harvesting, the leaf area was immediately measured, and the roots were washed to allow above and below-ground biomass determination. Subsequently, shoots and roots were dried at 60ºC for 48 hours. The biomass and leaf area of sida

  1. Nutrients removal and recovery from anaerobically digested swine wastewater by struvite crystallization without chemical additions.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong-Hui; Qiu, Guang-Lei; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Peng, Jian-Feng; Zeng, Ping; Duan, Liang; Xiang, Lian-Cheng; Qian, Feng

    2011-06-15

    Anaerobically digested swine wastewater contains high concentrations of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). A pilot-scale experiment was carried out for nutrients removal and recovery from anaerobically digested swine wastewater by struvite crystallization. In the pilot plant, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a continuous-flow reactor with struvite accumulation devices were designed and employed. The wastewater pH value was increased by CO(2) stripping, and the struvite crystallization process was performed without alkali and Mg(2+) additions. Results of the long-term operation of the system showed that, both reactors provided up to 85% P removal and recovery over wide ranges of aeration times (1.0-4.0 h), hydraulic retention times (HRT) (6.0-15.0 h) and temperatures (0-29.5°C) for an extended period of 247 d, in which approximate 30% of P was recovered by the struvite accumulation devices. However, 40-90% of NH(4)(+)-N removed was through air stripping instead of being immobilized in the recovered solids. The recovered products were detected and analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, which were proved to be struvite with purity of more than 90%. This work demonstrated the feasibility and effects of nutrients removal and recovery from anaerobically digested swine wastewater by struvite crystallization without chemical additions.

  2. Influence of source and micronization of soybean meal on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Berrocoso, J D; Serrano, M P; Cámara, L; López, A; Mateos, G G

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 piglets weaned at 28 d and weighing 7.6 ± 0.2 kg were used in a 35-d experiment to evaluate the effect of CP content (44% vs. 49% CP) of soybean meal (SBM), micronization (fine grinding) of the 49% CP SBM (HP-SBM), and soy protein concentrate (SPC; 65% CP) on total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) and growth performance. In phase I (d 0 to 21 of experiment), there was a positive control diet that included 6.5% of CP from a SPC with 65% CP and a negative control diet that supplied the same amount of CP as regular SBM (R-SBM) with 44% CP. The other 4 diets included the same amount of dietary CP from 2 different sources of HP-SBM that were either ground (990 μm) or micronized (60 μm). All diets were isonutritive, and the main difference was the source of SBM used. Each treatment was replicated 8 times (6 pigs per pen). In phase II (d 21 to 35), all pigs were fed a common commercial starter diet. For the entire phase I, the type of soy product did not affect growth performance of the pigs. However, from 0 to 7 d of experiment, pigs fed the micronized HP-SBM had better G:F (1.11 vs. 0.98; P<0.05) than piglets fed the ground HP-SBM. Also, from 7 to 14 d of experiment, ADFI tended to be greater (P=0.08) for pigs fed the micronized HP-SBM than for piglets fed the ground HP-SBM. During phase II (all the pigs received the same diet), no differences among treatments were observed. In general, TTAD of nutrients at 7 d of experiment was greater for the SPC than the R-SBM diet, with the HP-SBM diets being intermediate. The TTAD of CP was greater (83.8% vs. 81.9%; P≤0.01) for the SPC diet than the average of the SBM diets. Also, the digestibility of OM and DM was greater (P<0.01) for the HP-SBM either ground or micronized than the R-SBM diet. Micronization of the HP-SBM did not affect nutrient digestibility. It is concluded that when the R-SBM is substituted by SPC, CP digestibility is improved, but no effects are observed on growth performance. The use of

  3. Effect of different fibre types on the digestibility of nutrients in cats.

    PubMed

    Fekete, S G; Hullár, I; Andrásofszky, E; Kelemen, F

    2004-04-01

    In this study the effect of different fibre types was investigated on the acceptance of foods (in a short-term study) and on the nutrients' digestibility by using 10 adult, castrated cats. Peanut hull (PH, source of lignin), dried sugar beet pulp (SBP, source of hemicelluloses and pectin) and alfalfa meal (ALF, source of cellulose) were mixed to a poultry meat based cat food in 10% on dry matter (DM) basis. The average DM intake did only slightly differ according to the type of fibre added. Supplementation of basal food by dried SBP did not influence the digestibility of DM and crude protein (CP) significantly. Using ALF as a fibre source decreased the digestibility of DM (85.8% vs. 78.6%) and CP (93.8% vs. 92.0%) significantly. More severe decline could be observed in the digestibility of DM (85.8% vs. 63.4%) and CP (93.8% vs. 83.7%) when using PH as a fibre source. Fibre sources also influenced the stool DM content significantly. While application of PH increased the DM content of the faeces (45.0% vs. 49.6%), the use of dried sugar beet or ALF reduced the faecal DM content (45.0% vs. 24.1% and 39.0%, respectively). According to these results the less digestible fibre source (PH) increased the DM content of the faeces while by improving the digestibility of the fibre sources the DM content of the faeces decreased. It can be concluded, that not only the absolute fibre content of the food but also the type of fibre must be taken into account when evaluating its possible role as a component of weight loss products.

  4. Interactive effects of dietary protein concentration and aflatoxin B1 on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Naehrer, K; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the impact of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and dietary protein concentration on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks. The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 crude protein (CP) concentrations (16, 22, and 26%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 Each diet was fed to 6 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from zero to 20 d of age. Endogenous N and amino acid loss were estimated from birds fed a N-free diet with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 A significant interaction between AFB1 and CP concentration was observed for growth performance, where reduction of BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, and breast muscle weight by AFB1 were most profound in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, and were completely eliminated when birds were fed the 26%-CP diet (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.023). Similarly, AFB1 reduced serum albumin, total protein, and globulin concentrations in birds fed 16 and 22% CP diets, but not in those fed the 26%-CP (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.071). Gut permeability was increased in birds fed AFB1-contamiated diets as measured by serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (main effect; P = 0.04). Additionally, AFB1 tended to increase endogenous N loss (P = 0.09), and significantly reduced apparent ileal digestible energy and standardized ileal N and amino acid digestibility in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, while birds fed higher dietary CP were not affected (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.01). Further, AFB1 increased the translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP1), claudin1, and multiple jejunal amino acid transporters expression (main effect; P ≤ 0.04). Results from this study indicate that a 1.5 mg AFB1/kg diet significantly impairs growth, major serum biochemistry measures, gut barrier, endogenous loss, and energy and amino acid digestibility. Aflatoxicosis can be augmented by low dietary CP, while higher dietary CP completely eliminated the impairment of

  5. Performance Responses, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Measures of Gastrointestinal Health in Weanling Pigs Fed Protease Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Tactacan, Glenmer B; Cho, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Jin H; Kim, In H

    2016-07-01

    Although exogenous protease enzymes have been used in poultry diets quite extensively, this has not been the case for pig diets. In general, due to their better gut fermentative capacity and longer transit time, pigs have greater capacity to digest dietary proteins than poultry. However, in early-weaned piglets, the stress brought about by weaning adversely affects the digestion of dietary proteins. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the effects of a commercial protease enzyme in weanling pigs. Indices of growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora, fecal gas emission and fecal scores were measured during the study. A total of 50 weanling pigs (6.42±0.12 kg) at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 dietary treatments: i) control diet (corn-soy based) with no supplemental protease (CON), and ii) control diet+200 g/ton protease (PROT) for 42 d. A completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatments, 5 replicates, and 5 pigs in each replicate was used. Growth performance in terms of body weight (27.04±0.38 kg vs 25.75±0.39 kg; p<0.05) and average daily gain (491±7.40 g vs 460±7.46 g; p<0.05) in PROT fed pigs were increased significantly, but gain per feed (0.700±0.01 vs 0.678±0.01; p>0.05) was similar between treatments at d 42. Relative to CON pigs, PROT fed pigs had increased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (84.66%±0.65% vs 81.21%±1.13% dry matter and 84.02%±0.52% vs 80.47%±1.22% nitrogen) and decreased (p<0.05) NH3 emission (2.0±0.16 ppm vs 1.2±0.12 ppm) in the feces at d 42. Except for a decreased (p<0.05) in blood creatinine level, no differences were observed in red blood cell, white blood cell, lymphocyte, urea nitrogen, and IgG concentrations between treatments. Fecal score and fecal microflora (Lactobacillus and E. coli) were also similar between CON and PROT groups. Overall, the supplementation of protease enzyme in weanling pigs resulted in improved growth rate and nutrient

  6. Performance Responses, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Measures of Gastrointestinal Health in Weanling Pigs Fed Protease Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Tactacan, Glenmer B.; Cho, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Jin H.; Kim, In H.

    2016-01-01

    Although exogenous protease enzymes have been used in poultry diets quite extensively, this has not been the case for pig diets. In general, due to their better gut fermentative capacity and longer transit time, pigs have greater capacity to digest dietary proteins than poultry. However, in early-weaned piglets, the stress brought about by weaning adversely affects the digestion of dietary proteins. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the effects of a commercial protease enzyme in weanling pigs. Indices of growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora, fecal gas emission and fecal scores were measured during the study. A total of 50 weanling pigs (6.42±0.12 kg) at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 dietary treatments: i) control diet (corn-soy based) with no supplemental protease (CON), and ii) control diet+200 g/ton protease (PROT) for 42 d. A completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatments, 5 replicates, and 5 pigs in each replicate was used. Growth performance in terms of body weight (27.04±0.38 kg vs 25.75±0.39 kg; p<0.05) and average daily gain (491±7.40 g vs 460±7.46 g; p<0.05) in PROT fed pigs were increased significantly, but gain per feed (0.700±0.01 vs 0.678±0.01; p>0.05) was similar between treatments at d 42. Relative to CON pigs, PROT fed pigs had increased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (84.66%±0.65% vs 81.21%±1.13% dry matter and 84.02%±0.52% vs 80.47%±1.22% nitrogen) and decreased (p<0.05) NH3 emission (2.0±0.16 ppm vs 1.2±0.12 ppm) in the feces at d 42. Except for a decreased (p<0.05) in blood creatinine level, no differences were observed in red blood cell, white blood cell, lymphocyte, urea nitrogen, and IgG concentrations between treatments. Fecal score and fecal microflora (Lactobacillus and E. coli) were also similar between CON and PROT groups. Overall, the supplementation of protease enzyme in weanling pigs resulted in improved growth rate and nutrient

  7. Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.; Kang, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did

  8. Nutrient analysis, metabolizable energy, and digestible amino acids of soybean meals of different origins for broilers.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, V; Abdollahi, M R; Bootwalla, S M

    2014-10-01

    Nutrient composition, ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility, and AME of 55 soybean meal (SBM) samples from the United States (US; n = 16), Argentina (ARG; n = 16), Brazil (BRA; n = 10), and India (IND; n = 13), collected from commercial mills in Southeast Asia, were compared using laboratory analyses and animal studies. There were significant (P < 0.05 to 0.001) differences due to origin in CP, fat, ash, fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) contents of SBM. The average CP content of US, ARG, BRA, and IND samples was determined to be 47.3, 46.9, 48.2, and 46.4% (as-fed basis), respectively. Compared with SBM from other origins, crude fiber and NSP contents were lower (P < 0.05) and sucrose content was higher (P < 0.05) in the US samples. The IND samples had the highest (P < 0.05) contents of fiber, ash, and NSP, and lowest (P < 0.05) contents of fat and sucrose. Differences (P < 0.0001) were observed among origins for in vitro protein quality measures (urease index, KOH protein solubility, and trypsin inhibitor activity). Significant (P < 0.001) effects due to origin were observed for all minerals. Soybean meal from the US and IND had higher (P < 0.05) calcium contents (0.45%) compared with those from ARG and BRA (0.28-0.31%). Phosphorus and potassium contents were lowest (P < 0.05) in SBM from IND, and no differences (P > 0.05) were observed in SBM from other origins. Iron content was markedly high (928 mg/kg) in SBM from IND compared with those from other origins (103-134 mg/kg). Major origin-related differences (P < 0.0001) were observed in the AME of SBM. The average AME content of US, ARG, BRA, and IND samples was 2,375, 2,227, 2,317, and 2,000 kcal/kg (as-fed basis), respectively. Total AA contents of US, ARG, BRA, and IND samples were similar (P > 0.05) for 9 of the 17 amino acids. Major differences (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) due to origin were determined for the digestibility of all AA. The IND samples had the lowest (P < 0.05) digestibility and no

  9. Environmental factors affecting pregnancy: endocrine disrupters, nutrients and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory A; Wang, Xiaoqiu

    2014-12-01

    Uterine adenogenesis, a unique post-natal event in mammals, is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by estrogens and progestins resulting in infertility or reduced prolificacy. The absence of uterine glands results in insufficient transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen to support conceptus development. Arginine, a component of histotroph, is substrate for production of nitric oxide, polyamines and agmatine and, with secreted phosphoprotein 1, it affects cytoskeletal organization of trophectoderm. Arginine is critical for development of the conceptus, pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation and placentation. Conceptuses of ungulates and cetaceans convert glucose to fructose which is metabolized via multiple pathways to support growth and development. However, high fructose corn syrup in soft drinks and foods may increase risks for metabolic disorders and increase insulin resistance in adults. Understanding endocrine disrupters and dietary substances, and novel pathways for nutrient metabolism during pregnancy can improve survival and growth, and prevent chronic metabolic diseases in offspring. PMID:25224489

  10. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  11. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  12. Electrochemical nutrient recovery enables ammonia toxicity control and biogas desulfurization in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Desloover, Joachim; De Vrieze, Jo; Van de Vijver, Maarten; Mortelmans, Jacky; Rozendal, René; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-20

    Organic waste streams can be valorized and reduced in volume with anaerobic digestion (AD). An often-encountered key issue however is the high ammonium (NH4(+)) content of certain waste streams. Ammonia (NH3), in equilibrium with NH4(+), is a toxic compound to the methanogenic community, which limits the organic loading rate and endangers process stability. An electrochemical system (ES) linked to a digester could, besides recovering this nutrient, decrease NH3 toxicity through electrochemical extraction. Therefore, two digesters with and without ES attached in the recirculation loop were operated to test whether the ES could control NH3 toxicity. During periods of high ammonium loading rates, the methane (CH4) production of the ES-coupled reactor was up to 4.5 times higher compared to the control, which could be explained through simultaneous NH4(+) extraction and electrochemical pH control. A nitrogen flux of 47 g N m(–2) membrane d(–1) could be obtained in the ES-coupled reactor, resulting in a current and removal efficiency of 38 ± 5% and 28 ± 2%, respectively, at an electrochemical power input of 17 ± 2 kWh kg(–1) N. The anode also oxidized sulfide, resulting in a significantly lower H2S emission via the biogas. Lastly, limited methanogenic community dynamics pointed to a nonselective influence of the different operational conditions. PMID:25517198

  13. Effect of time of cutting and maceration on nutrient flow, microbial protein synthesis, and digestibility in dual-flow continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Kokko, C; Soder, K J; Brito, A F; Hovey, R C; Berthiaume, R

    2013-04-01

    Maceration and evening-cutting are 2 forage management techniques that have independently improved forage quality and nutrient utilization in ruminants, but have not been evaluated in combination. Using a dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system, this preliminary study was designed to evaluate the individual and combined effects of time of cutting and maceration on in vitro ruminal digestion, nutrient flows, and microbial protein synthesis. Forages were harvested as hay from a timothy (Phleum pratense L.)-birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) stand in the morning (AM) or evening (PM). Half of each morning- and evening-cut treatment was macerated (AM-M, PM-M). The chemical composition (DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF), including nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), was determined for each of the 4 treatments (AM, AM-M, PM, PM-M). Forages were ground to 2 mm and allocated to separate fermenters at 60 g of DM/d in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Fermenters were operated over four 10-d periods with the first 7 d for adaptation followed by 3 d of sampling. Evening-cutting enhanced the apparent digestibility of NDF (P = 0.02) and ADF (P = 0.006), with a tendency (P < 0.10) for improved true DM digestibility and microbial protein synthesis. Molar proportions of individual VFA were not affected (P > 0.10) by time of cutting, though evening-cutting increased (P = 0.02) total concentration of VFA. Maceration had no effect (P > 0.10) on true nutrient digestibility or microbial protein synthesis. An interaction of time of cutting and maceration (P < 0.05) was observed whereby maceration decreased true DM and OM digestibilities in evening-cut treatments, but had no effect in morning-cut treatments. Similarly, maceration reduced total N supply (P < 0.001) and molar proportions of acetate (P = 0.04) and increased molar proportions of propionate (P = 0.01) in evening-cut treatments with no effect on morning-cut treatments. These results indicate

  14. Biodegradation and chemical precipitation of dissolved nutrients in anaerobically digested sludge dewatering centrate.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, G; Eskicioglu, C; Abel-Denee, M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research was to assess specific side-stream treatment processes for biodegradation and precipitation of dissolved nutrients in dewatering centrate. In this study, characterization was made of a conventional suspended growth deammonification treatment process for transforming dissolved polyphosphate (poly-P), dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in two types of dewatering centrate. The deammonification process was configured as a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), combining partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) in a single tank. The first centrate feed studied was from the full-scale Annacis Island wastewater treatment plant (AIWWTP) located in Metro Vancouver, Canada. The second centrate feed was from a lab-scale anaerobic digester (AD) fed waste sludge from the existing City of Kelowna Wastewater Treatment Facility (KWTF), located in the Okanagan Valley, Canada. In addition, poly aluminum chloride (PACL) dosing was assessed for final polishing of dissolved nutrients. The deammonification SBR (DeSBR) process showed similar treatment characteristics for both the KWTF and AIWWTP centrates with excellent DON removal and poor non-reactive dissolved phosphorus (NRDP) removal. A statistical comparison of the DOP and poly-P through the DeSBR process suggests that DOP has a higher biodegradation potential. Future research focused on understanding the variables associated with degradation of DOP could lead to better NRDP removal through deammonification processes. Utilization of a post-anammox PACL chemical dosing stage can achieve the objective of precipitating any residual DON and NRDP and producing an effluent that has lower dissolved nutrients than the pre-digestion KWTF dewatering centrate scenario. PMID:27023924

  15. Food properties affecting the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Björck, I; Granfeldt, Y; Liljeberg, H; Tovar, J; Asp, N G

    1994-03-01

    Carbohydrate foods differ considerably in their effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Qualitative differences among starchy foods are particularly intriguing because of the dominance of starch in human diets. This paper focuses on food properties in cereal (eg, pasta, bread, Arepas, and porridge) and legume products (eg, red kidney beans and lentils) that affect metabolic responses to starch. Studies in healthy subjects have found that postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses are greatly affected by food structure. Any process that disrupts the physical or botanical structure of food ingredients will increase the plasma glucose and insulin responses. The glycemic responses to bread products were reduced by the use of ingredients with an intact botanical or physical structure or a high amylose content or by enrichment with viscous dietary fiber. However, the important of a moderate increase in the amylose-amylopectin ratio and the naturally occurring levels of viscous cereal fiber is less clear. The rate of starch digestion in vitro was shown to be a key determinant of metabolic responses to most products. Assuming the sample preparation mimics chewing, in vitro enzymic procedures can be used to facilitate ranking. One such procedure, based on chewed rather than artificially disintegrated products, was recently developed and correlates well with glycemic and insulinemic indices for several starchy foods. PMID:8116553

  16. Anaerobic digestion technologies for closing the domestic water, carbon and nutrient cycles.

    PubMed

    Hammes, F; Kalogo, Y; Verstraete, W

    2000-01-01

    Sustainable wastewater treatment requires that household wastewater is collected and treated separately from industrial wastewater and rainwater run-offs. This separate treatment is, however, still inadequate, as more than 70% of the nutrients and much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and potential pathogens of a domestic sewage system are confined to the few litres of black water (faeces, urine and toilet water). Whilst grey water can easily be filter treated and re-used for secondary household purposes, black water requires more intensive treatment due to its high COD and microbial (pathogens) content. Recently developed vacuum/dry toilets produce a nutrient rich semi-solid waste stream, which, with proper treatment, offers the possibility of nutrient, carbon, water and energy recovery. This study investigates the terrestrial applicability of Life Support System (LSS) concepts as a framework for future domestic waste management. The possibilities of treating black water together with other types of human-generated solid waste (biowastes/mixed wastes) in an anaerobic reactor system at thermophilic conditions, as well as some post treatment alternatives for product recovery and re-use, are considered. Energy can partially be recovered in the form of biogas produced during anaerobic digestion. The system is investigated in the form of theoretical mass balances, together with an assessment of the current feasibility of this technology and other post-treatment alternatives.

  17. Anaerobic digestion technologies for closing the domestic water, carbon and nutrient cycles.

    PubMed

    Hammes, F; Kalogo, Y; Verstraete, W

    2000-01-01

    Sustainable wastewater treatment requires that household wastewater is collected and treated separately from industrial wastewater and rainwater run-offs. This separate treatment is, however, still inadequate, as more than 70% of the nutrients and much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and potential pathogens of a domestic sewage system are confined to the few litres of black water (faeces, urine and toilet water). Whilst grey water can easily be filter treated and re-used for secondary household purposes, black water requires more intensive treatment due to its high COD and microbial (pathogens) content. Recently developed vacuum/dry toilets produce a nutrient rich semi-solid waste stream, which, with proper treatment, offers the possibility of nutrient, carbon, water and energy recovery. This study investigates the terrestrial applicability of Life Support System (LSS) concepts as a framework for future domestic waste management. The possibilities of treating black water together with other types of human-generated solid waste (biowastes/mixed wastes) in an anaerobic reactor system at thermophilic conditions, as well as some post treatment alternatives for product recovery and re-use, are considered. Energy can partially be recovered in the form of biogas produced during anaerobic digestion. The system is investigated in the form of theoretical mass balances, together with an assessment of the current feasibility of this technology and other post-treatment alternatives. PMID:11381993

  18. Effects of various LED light wavelengths and intensities on microalgae-based simultaneous biogas upgrading and digestate nutrient reduction process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongjun; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Cheng; Zhang, Yuejin

    2013-05-01

    Biogas is a well-known, primary renewable energy source, but its utilizations are possible only after upgrading. The microalgae-based bag photo-bioreactor utilized in this research could effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. Red light was determined as the optimal light wavelength for microalgae growth, biogas upgrading, and digestate nutrient reduction. In the range of moderate light intensities (i.e., 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 μmol m(-2) s(-1)), higher light intensities achieved higher biogas upgrade and larger digestate nutrient reduction. Methane content attained the highest value of 92.74±3.56% (v/v). The highest chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus reduction efficiency of digestate were 85.35±1.04%, 77.98±1.84%, and 73.03±2.14%, respectively. Considering the reduction and economic efficiencies of the carbon dioxide content of biogas and digestate nutrient as well as the biogas upgrading standard, the optimal light intensity range was determined to be from 1200 to 1600 μmol m(-2) s(-1). PMID:23567717

  19. Nutrient digestibility and colonic fermentation processes in species of the families Mustelidae and Canidae fed the same diet.

    PubMed

    Gugołek, Andrzej; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Strychalski, Janusz; Konstantynowicz, Małgorzata; Zwoliński, Cezary

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient digestibility was compared and the influence of colonic fermentation processes on nutrient digestibility was determined in the American mink (Neovison vison) and the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes). It was hypothesized that gut microbiota exert varied effects on digestion processes in the analyzed species. The experiment was performed in December, on a group of 10 male mink and 10 male foxes. All animals were fed identical diets for fur-bearing carnivores, with the following chemical composition (%): dry matter (DM)-33.12, total protein (TP)-12.01, ether extract (EE)-8.64, crude fiber (CF)-12.01, N-free extracts (N-FE)-9.32, and gross energy (GE)-7.313 MJ/kg(-1) . The coefficients of DM, OM, TP and EE digestibility were significantly higher in foxes than in mink. Mink were characterized by significantly higher utilization of N-FE. In foxes, as compared with mink, fermentation rates were higher in the final section of the gastrointestinal tract, which improved nutrient digestibility. In mink, characterized by lower fermentation rates in the colon, increased enzyme secretion by bacterial cells is one of the physiological mechanisms that enable to optimize nutrient absorption in the large intestine.

  20. Effects of Dietary Crude Glycerin Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation, Blood Metabolites, and Nitrogen Balance of Goats

    PubMed Central

    Chanjula, P.; Pakdeechanuan, P.; Wattanasit, S.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin (CGLY) in diets on nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats. Four male crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial weight of 26±3.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design with four 21 days consecutive periods. Treatments diets contained 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of dietary DM of CGLY. Based on this experiment, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF). Likewise, mean serum glucose, BHBA, and PCV concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments, whereas serum insulin concentration linearly increased (L, p = 0.002) with increasing the amount of CGLY supplementation. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and BUN concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except for 20% of CGLY, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (p<0.05) than for the diets 10% of CGLY, while the difference between the diets 0%, 5%, and 20% of CGLY were not significant. The amount of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments. Based on this study, CGLY levels up to 20% in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats and this study elucidates a good approach to exploiting the use of biodiesel production for goat production. PMID:25049963

  1. A coarse-grained simulation to study the digestion and bioaccessibility of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients in emulsion.

    PubMed

    Marze, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    The digestion of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients requires numerous and simultaneous processes of chemical, physical and biological nature. Studying these processes experimentally is challenging, explaining why there is only little information about the mechanisms and interactions involved. Nevertheless, the bioaccessibility of lipophilic micronutrients is poorly understood so new investigation approaches are needed, all the more when digestion of lipophilic nutrients is also involved. In this article, the development of a coarse-grained simulation with no adjustable parameter is reported, enabling the study of the chemical and physical processes controlling bioaccessibility in such systems. The intestinal digestion of a droplet of a pure triglyceride containing a lipophilic vitamin was simulated to obtain their bioaccessibility kinetics (via lipolysis and/or solubilization in bile salt). The parameters examined here were the type of triglyceride, the type of vitamin, the digestive fluid amount, the droplet size, and different digestion conditions reflecting the in vitro or in vivo cases. Among these structure and composition parameters, the type of triglyceride and the digestion conditions had the greatest effects on bioaccessibility. An interplay between triglyceride digestion and micronutrient bioaccessibility kinetics was evidenced, highlighting the roles of the different parameters, in agreement with the experimental literature. This new approach is shown to be relevant to both nutrition and pharmacology.

  2. Impact of co-digestion on existing salt and nutrient mass balances for a full-scale dairy energy project.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Mary Kay; Stringfellow, William T; Spier, Chelsea L; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Domen, Jeremy K

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion of manure and other agricultural waste streams with subsequent energy production can result in more sustainable dairy operations; however, importation of digester feedstocks onto dairy farms alters previously established carbon, nutrient, and salinity mass balances. Salt and nutrient mass balance must be maintained to avoid groundwater contamination and salination. To better understand salt and nutrient contributions of imported methane-producing substrates, a mass balance for a full-scale dairy biomass energy project was developed for solids, carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, chloride, and potassium. Digester feedstocks, consisting of thickened manure flush-water slurry, screened manure solids, sudan grass silage, and feed-waste, were tracked separately in the mass balance. The error in mass balance closure for most elements was less than 5%. Manure contributed 69.2% of influent dry matter while contributing 77.7% of nitrogen, 90.9% of sulfur, and 73.4% of phosphorus. Sudan grass silage contributed high quantities of chloride and potassium, 33.3% and 43.4%, respectively, relative to the dry matter contribution of 22.3%. Five potential off-site co-digestates (egg waste, grape pomace, milk waste, pasta waste, whey wastewater) were evaluated for anaerobic digestion based on salt and nutrient content in addition to bio-methane potential. Egg waste and wine grape pomace appeared the most promising co-digestates due to their high methane potentials relative to bulk volume. Increasing power production from the current rate of 369 kW to the design value of 710 kW would require co-digestion with either 26800 L d(-1) egg waste or 60900 kg d(-1) grape pomace. However, importation of egg waste would more than double nitrogen loading, resulting in an increase of 172% above the baseline while co-digestion with grape pomace would increase potassium by 279%. Careful selection of imported co-digestates and management of digester effluent is required to

  3. Impact of co-digestion on existing salt and nutrient mass balances for a full-scale dairy energy project.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Mary Kay; Stringfellow, William T; Spier, Chelsea L; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Domen, Jeremy K

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion of manure and other agricultural waste streams with subsequent energy production can result in more sustainable dairy operations; however, importation of digester feedstocks onto dairy farms alters previously established carbon, nutrient, and salinity mass balances. Salt and nutrient mass balance must be maintained to avoid groundwater contamination and salination. To better understand salt and nutrient contributions of imported methane-producing substrates, a mass balance for a full-scale dairy biomass energy project was developed for solids, carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, chloride, and potassium. Digester feedstocks, consisting of thickened manure flush-water slurry, screened manure solids, sudan grass silage, and feed-waste, were tracked separately in the mass balance. The error in mass balance closure for most elements was less than 5%. Manure contributed 69.2% of influent dry matter while contributing 77.7% of nitrogen, 90.9% of sulfur, and 73.4% of phosphorus. Sudan grass silage contributed high quantities of chloride and potassium, 33.3% and 43.4%, respectively, relative to the dry matter contribution of 22.3%. Five potential off-site co-digestates (egg waste, grape pomace, milk waste, pasta waste, whey wastewater) were evaluated for anaerobic digestion based on salt and nutrient content in addition to bio-methane potential. Egg waste and wine grape pomace appeared the most promising co-digestates due to their high methane potentials relative to bulk volume. Increasing power production from the current rate of 369 kW to the design value of 710 kW would require co-digestion with either 26800 L d(-1) egg waste or 60900 kg d(-1) grape pomace. However, importation of egg waste would more than double nitrogen loading, resulting in an increase of 172% above the baseline while co-digestion with grape pomace would increase potassium by 279%. Careful selection of imported co-digestates and management of digester effluent is required to

  4. Recovery of energy and nutrient resources from cattle paunch waste using temperature phased anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Paul D; Mehta, Chirag M; Carney, Chris; Batstone, D J

    2016-05-01

    Cattle paunch is comprised of partially digested cattle feed, containing mainly grass and grain and is a major waste produced at cattle slaughterhouses contributing 20-30% of organic matter and 40-50% of P waste produced on-site. In this work, Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion (TPAD) and struvite crystallization processes were developed at pilot-scale to recover methane energy and nutrients from paunch solid waste. The TPAD plant achieved a maximum sustainable organic loading rate of 1-1.5kgCODm(-3)day(-1) using a feed solids concentration of approximately 3%; this loading rate was limited by plant engineering and not the biology of the process. Organic solids destruction (60%) and methane production (230LCH4kg(-1) VSfed) achieved in the plant were similar to levels predicted from laboratory biochemical methane potential (BMP) testing. Model based analysis identified no significant difference in batch laboratory parameters vs pilot-scale continuous parameters, and no change in speed or extent of degradation. However the TPAD process did result in a degree of process intensification with a high level of solids destruction at an average treatment time of 21days. Results from the pilot plant show that an integrated process enabled resource recovery at 7.8GJ/dry tonne paunch, 1.8kgP/dry tonne paunch and 1.0kgN/dry tonne paunch.

  5. Nutrient removal from separated pig manure digestate liquid using hybrid biofilters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingchuan; Lawlor, Peadar G; Hu, Zhenhu; Zhan, Xinmin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, laboratory-scale hybrid biofilters were set up to treat the separated pig manure digestate liquid at two loading rates of 0.12 and 0.07 kg N m(-3) per day. The hybrid biofilters were operated with a sequencing batch reactor mode. Over the operation of 136 days, 84% and 88% of total nitrogen was removed on average in addition with complete nitrification at the high loading rate and low loading rate, respectively. In the anoxic phase, the nitrate reduction rates were 0.31 and 0.24 mg L(-1) min(-1); and in the aerobic phase, nitrification rates were 0.29 and 0.18 mg L(-1) min(-1) at the high loading rate and low loading rate, respectively. It was found that in the hybrid biofilters, biofilm biomass had much higher nitrification and denitrification activities than suspended growth biomass. Phosphorus removals achieved were up to 88%. The results show the hybrid biofilter technology is valid for high nutrient pig manure digestate liquid treatment.

  6. Recovery of energy and nutrient resources from cattle paunch waste using temperature phased anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Paul D; Mehta, Chirag M; Carney, Chris; Batstone, D J

    2016-05-01

    Cattle paunch is comprised of partially digested cattle feed, containing mainly grass and grain and is a major waste produced at cattle slaughterhouses contributing 20-30% of organic matter and 40-50% of P waste produced on-site. In this work, Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion (TPAD) and struvite crystallization processes were developed at pilot-scale to recover methane energy and nutrients from paunch solid waste. The TPAD plant achieved a maximum sustainable organic loading rate of 1-1.5kgCODm(-3)day(-1) using a feed solids concentration of approximately 3%; this loading rate was limited by plant engineering and not the biology of the process. Organic solids destruction (60%) and methane production (230LCH4kg(-1) VSfed) achieved in the plant were similar to levels predicted from laboratory biochemical methane potential (BMP) testing. Model based analysis identified no significant difference in batch laboratory parameters vs pilot-scale continuous parameters, and no change in speed or extent of degradation. However the TPAD process did result in a degree of process intensification with a high level of solids destruction at an average treatment time of 21days. Results from the pilot plant show that an integrated process enabled resource recovery at 7.8GJ/dry tonne paunch, 1.8kgP/dry tonne paunch and 1.0kgN/dry tonne paunch. PMID:26965211

  7. Nutrient digestibility and evaluation of protein and carbohydrate fractionation of citrus by-products.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, S; Taghizadeh, A

    2013-08-01

    The protein and carbohydrate fractionation and nutrient digestibility of citrus by-products were determined. Ruminal, intestinal and total tract CP disappearance values were measured by a modified three-step (MTSP) method and in vitro CP disappearance method (IVCP). Test feeds were orange pulp (OP), lime pulp (LP), lemon pulp (LEP), grapefruit pulp (GP), sweet lemon pulp (SLP), bitter lemon pulp (BLP), bergamot orange pulp (BP) and tangerine pulp (TP). The rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fractions of the feedstuffs were obtained by ruminal incubation in three cannulated wethers and incubation in protease solution (protease type xiv, Streptomyces griseus). The data were analysed using completely randomized design. There were significant differences between the tested feeds in protein fractions and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN; C fraction) was highest in GP (14.56%) (p<0.001). For carbohydrate fraction, the highest C fraction was also observed in GP (2.67%) and in relation to the other citrus pulps (p<0.001). Ruminal CP disappearance was highest in OP (71.89%) (p<0.001). The level of post-ruminal CP disappearance, measured by MTSP, was highest for BP (34.94%) (p<0.001). The highest in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) was found for TP (80.44%) followed by that estimated for BP (78.38%) (p<0.001). The estimated metabolizable energy (MJ/kg DM) varied from 9.77 for LP to 12.91 for BP. Tangerine pulp had the highest true rumen digestibility (TRD) (p<0.001). According to the results, it could be concluded that citrus by-products have high nutritive value and also, the in vitro techniques can be easily used to determine of the nutritive value of citrus by-products.

  8. Thermophilic sludge digestion improves energy balance and nutrient recovery potential in full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Smet, Davey; Klok, Jacob; Colsen, Joop; Angenent, Largus T; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-10-01

    The conventional treatment of municipal wastewater by means of activated sludge is typically energy demanding. Here, the potential benefits of: (1) the optimization of mesophilic digestion; and (2) transitioning to thermophilic sludge digestion in three wastewater treatment plants (Tilburg-Noord, Land van Cuijk and Bath) in the Netherlands is evaluated, including a full-scale trial validation in Bath. In Tilburg-Noord, thermophilic sludge digestion covered the energy requirements of the plant (102%), whereas 111% of sludge operational treatment costs could be covered in Bath. Thermophilic sludge digestion also resulted in a strong increase in nutrient release. The potential for nutrient recovery was evaluated via: (1) stripping/absorption of ammonium; (2) autotrophic removal of ammonium via partial nitritation/anammox; and (3) struvite precipitation. This research shows that optimization of sludge digestion may lead to a strong increase in energy recovery, sludge treatment costs reduction, and the potential for advanced nutrient management in full-scale sewage treatment plants. PMID:27423372

  9. Effects of supplemental organic cobalt on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in lambs fed forage-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental organic cobalt on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in lambs fed forage-based diets. Sixteen wether lambs (avg initial BW = 28.6 ± 1.3 kg) were used in a 2 × 2 Latin square and randomly allotted to one of two treatments b...

  10. Dietary marker effects on fecal microbial ecology, fecal VFA, nutrient digestibility coefficients, and growth performance in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of indigestible markers such as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and TiO2 are commonly used in animal studies to evaluate rate of passage and nutrient digestibility. Yet nothing is known relative to their potential impact on fecal microbial ecology and subsequent VFA generation. Two experiments utilizing a total o...

  11. Expression of an antimicrobial peptide, digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the intestine of E. praecox-infected chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is a major intestinal disease of poultry, caused by several species of the protozoan Eimeria. The objective of this study was to examine changes in expression of digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters and an antimicrobial peptide following an Eimeria praecox challenge of chickens at d...

  12. Alligators and Crocodiles Have High Paracellular Absorption of Nutrients, But Differ in Digestive Morphology and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Christopher R; McWhorter, Todd J; Gienger, C M; Starck, J Matthias; Medley, Peter; Manolis, S Charlie; Webb, Grahame J W; Christian, Keith A

    2015-12-01

    Much of what is known about crocodilian nutrition and growth has come from animals propagated in captivity, but captive animals from the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae respond differently to similar diets. Since there are few comparative studies of crocodilian digestive physiology to help explain these differences, we investigated young Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus in terms of (1) gross and microscopic morphology of the intestine, (2) activity of the membrane-bound digestive enzymes aminopeptidase-N, maltase, and sucrase, and (3) nutrient absorption by carrier-mediated and paracellular pathways. We also measured gut morphology of animals over a larger range of body sizes. The two species showed different allometry of length and mass of the gut, with A. mississippiensis having a steeper increase in intestinal mass with body size, and C. porosus having a steeper increase in intestinal length with body size. Both species showed similar patterns of magnification of the intestinal surface area, with decreasing magnification from the proximal to distal ends of the intestine. Although A. mississippiensis had significantly greater surface-area magnification overall, a compensating significant difference in gut length between species meant that total surface area of the intestine was not significantly different from that of C. porosus. The species differed in enzyme activities, with A. mississippiensis having significantly greater ability to digest carbohydrates relative to protein than did C. porosus. These differences in enzyme activity may help explain the differences in performance between the crocodilian families when on artificial diets. Both A. mississippiensis and C. porosus showed high absorption of 3-O methyl d-glucose (absorbed via both carrier-mediated and paracellular transport), as expected. Both species also showed surprisingly high levels of l-glucose-uptake (absorbed paracellularly), with fractional absorptions as high as those

  13. Alligators and Crocodiles Have High Paracellular Absorption of Nutrients, But Differ in Digestive Morphology and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Christopher R; McWhorter, Todd J; Gienger, C M; Starck, J Matthias; Medley, Peter; Manolis, S Charlie; Webb, Grahame J W; Christian, Keith A

    2015-12-01

    Much of what is known about crocodilian nutrition and growth has come from animals propagated in captivity, but captive animals from the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae respond differently to similar diets. Since there are few comparative studies of crocodilian digestive physiology to help explain these differences, we investigated young Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus in terms of (1) gross and microscopic morphology of the intestine, (2) activity of the membrane-bound digestive enzymes aminopeptidase-N, maltase, and sucrase, and (3) nutrient absorption by carrier-mediated and paracellular pathways. We also measured gut morphology of animals over a larger range of body sizes. The two species showed different allometry of length and mass of the gut, with A. mississippiensis having a steeper increase in intestinal mass with body size, and C. porosus having a steeper increase in intestinal length with body size. Both species showed similar patterns of magnification of the intestinal surface area, with decreasing magnification from the proximal to distal ends of the intestine. Although A. mississippiensis had significantly greater surface-area magnification overall, a compensating significant difference in gut length between species meant that total surface area of the intestine was not significantly different from that of C. porosus. The species differed in enzyme activities, with A. mississippiensis having significantly greater ability to digest carbohydrates relative to protein than did C. porosus. These differences in enzyme activity may help explain the differences in performance between the crocodilian families when on artificial diets. Both A. mississippiensis and C. porosus showed high absorption of 3-O methyl d-glucose (absorbed via both carrier-mediated and paracellular transport), as expected. Both species also showed surprisingly high levels of l-glucose-uptake (absorbed paracellularly), with fractional absorptions as high as those

  14. Comparison of the effects of lanthanum, cerium and praseodymium on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shixin; Wei, Chen; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the trial were to compare the effects of supplementing rare earth elements (REE) lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and praseodymium (Pr) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion, methane (CH4) production, nitrogen (N) balance and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle. Four Simmental male cattle, aged 12 months, with initial average liveweight of 333 ± 9 kg and fitted with rumen cannulas, were fed with a basal ration composed of concentrate mixture and maize silage. Animals received a basal ration without adding REE (Control) or three treatments, i.e. supplementing LaCl3, CeCl3 or PrCl3 at 204 mg/kg DM to the basal ration, respectively, which were allocated in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 15 d, consisting of 12 d for pre-treatment and three subsequent days for sampling. Results showed that all tested levels of REE tended to increase neutral detergent fibre digestibility (p = 0.064) and tended to decrease rumen CH4 production (p = 0.056). Supplementing LaCl3 and CeCl3 decreased total N excretion and urinary N excretion, increased N retention (p < 0.05), tended to increase total urinary purine derivatives (PD) (p = 0.053) and microbial N flow (p = 0.095), whereas supplementing PrCl3 did not affect N retention, urinary PD and microbial N flow. No differences were found in the effects of nutrient digestibility, CH4 production and plasma biochemical parameters among LaCl3, CeCl3 and PrCl3. Further trials using graded levels of LaCl3, CeCl3 and PrCl3 in a wide range are needed to obtain more pronounced results for comparing effects of La, Ce and Pr on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestion in beef cattle.

  15. Comparison of the effects of lanthanum, cerium and praseodymium on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shixin; Wei, Chen; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the trial were to compare the effects of supplementing rare earth elements (REE) lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and praseodymium (Pr) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion, methane (CH4) production, nitrogen (N) balance and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle. Four Simmental male cattle, aged 12 months, with initial average liveweight of 333 ± 9 kg and fitted with rumen cannulas, were fed with a basal ration composed of concentrate mixture and maize silage. Animals received a basal ration without adding REE (Control) or three treatments, i.e. supplementing LaCl3, CeCl3 or PrCl3 at 204 mg/kg DM to the basal ration, respectively, which were allocated in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 15 d, consisting of 12 d for pre-treatment and three subsequent days for sampling. Results showed that all tested levels of REE tended to increase neutral detergent fibre digestibility (p = 0.064) and tended to decrease rumen CH4 production (p = 0.056). Supplementing LaCl3 and CeCl3 decreased total N excretion and urinary N excretion, increased N retention (p < 0.05), tended to increase total urinary purine derivatives (PD) (p = 0.053) and microbial N flow (p = 0.095), whereas supplementing PrCl3 did not affect N retention, urinary PD and microbial N flow. No differences were found in the effects of nutrient digestibility, CH4 production and plasma biochemical parameters among LaCl3, CeCl3 and PrCl3. Further trials using graded levels of LaCl3, CeCl3 and PrCl3 in a wide range are needed to obtain more pronounced results for comparing effects of La, Ce and Pr on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestion in beef cattle. PMID:25575216

  16. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongli; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Guoan; Wei, Chunbo; Bao, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05). The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05). Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05). The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  17. Digestion of kiwifruit fiber.

    PubMed

    Henare, Sharon J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber affects the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, it is generally believed that fiber largely escapes digestion in the human small intestine and is therefore mainly a substrate for microbial fermentation in the hindgut. Kiwifruit is a food naturally high in dietary fiber, yet the impact of dietary kiwifruit on nutrient availability has not been reported. The digestion of kiwifruit has been investigated but only in in vitro digestion studies. With its naturally high nonstarch polysaccharide content, it would be expected that kiwifruit would possess the characteristics of a good source of fiber for nutrition and health. Kiwifruit contains soluble and nonsoluble fiber components, both of which would be expected to affect the physical attributes of digesta as it transits the gastrointestinal tract. This chapter summarizes fiber digestion in general and current knowledge of kiwifruit fiber digestion in the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. [The digestibility of crude nutrients in horses. 2. Comparative studies on the digestive capacity of a thoroughbred horse, pony and wether].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M; Steinhöfel, O; Fuchs, R

    1987-04-01

    The digestibility of the crude nutrients of 6 rations on the basis of oat, hay and wheat straw (in one case a straw-concentrate mixture as sole feed) was compared at a nutrition level of 1.0 and 1.3 resp. with adult geldings of the species "Noble Crossbreed", adult pony geldings and wethers The energy concentration of the rations varied between 424 and 585 EFUcattle/kg DM, the crude fibre content between 17 and 25% of the DM. In the studied field, a good agreement between horse and pony could be ascertained as to the digestibility of the organic matter and NFE. There are partly considerable differences between the apparent digestibility of crude protein and crude fibre. The differences in the digestibility of crude fibre between horse and sheep increase with a growing crude fibre content. The differences of the apparent digestibility between horse and pony on the one hand and sheep on the other were highly significant in all cases.

  19. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively) and ether extract (EE) intake was positively affected (p < 0.01). Total tract digestion increased linearly with whole raw soya beans for EE (p < 0.01) and NDF (p = 0.01). The excretion (kg/day) of digested soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively) milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p < 0.01) with whole raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile

  20. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively) and ether extract (EE) intake was positively affected (p < 0.01). Total tract digestion increased linearly with whole raw soya beans for EE (p < 0.01) and NDF (p = 0.01). The excretion (kg/day) of digested soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively) milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p < 0.01) with whole raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile

  1. Effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J B; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Sun, X Z; Pan, L; Zhou, L Y; Liu, W

    2014-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (141±15 d in milk, 35.9±4.3kg of milk/d, and parity 2.0±1.1) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. Treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of true GABA/kg of dry matter (DM). The trial lasted 10wk. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400, and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2, and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on respiration rates at any time point. Dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and milk fat yield tended to increase linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA affected, in a quadratic manner, milk protein and lactose concentrations, and milk protein yield, and the peak values were reached at a dose of 40mg of GABA/kg. Milk urea nitrogen concentration responded quadratically. Total solids content increased linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on milk yield, lactose production, total solids, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, or feed efficiency. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were similar among treatments. These results indicate that rumen-protected GABA supplementation to dairy cows can alleviate heat stress by reducing rectal temperature, increase DM intake and milk production, and improve milk composition. The appropriate supplemental GABA level for heat-stressed dairy cows is 40mg/kg of DM.

  2. Nutrient value of spray field forages fed to pigs and the use of feed enzymes to enhance nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Passos, A A; Andrade, C; Phillips, C E; Coffey, M T; Kim, S W

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the DE, ME, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of N, and N retention of spray field forages (Bermuda grass, forage sorghum, and sweet sorghum) fed to pigs and the effects of the supplemental feed enzymes on energy and N utilization. A basal diet was formulated with 96% corn and 4% amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Test diets contained 85% basal diet + 15% Bermuda grass, forage sorghum, or sweet sorghum. Allzyme SSF (Alltech, Nicholasville, KY) was used as a feed enzyme, which was composed of cellulase, glucanase, xylanase, phytase, and protease. The basal diet and test diets were evaluated by using 4 sets of 2 × 2 Latin square designs consisting of 2 pigs and 2 periods with a total of 32 barrows (38.7 ± 7.9 kg). Each period (10-d adjustment and 4-d collection) had 2 Latin squares. The 2 treatments were levels of enzyme supplementation (0 or 200 mg/kg). Pigs received experimental diets twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) at a fixed amount based on BW of pigs (0.09 × BW0.75 kg). On d 10, chromic oxide (0.5%) was added to the diets at 1700 h as an external marker. Fecal and urine samples were collected during 4 consecutive days. The basal diet contained 3,850 kcal DE/kg, 3,769 kcal ME/kg, 86.06% ATTD of N, and 71.10% N retention and was not affected by enzyme supplementation. Bermuda grass contained 893 kcal DE/kg, 845 kcal ME/kg, -16.50% ATTD of N, and -37.49% N retention and tended to be improved by enzyme supplementation to 1,211 kcal DE/kg (P = 0.098), 1,185 kcal ME/kg (P = 0.081), and -10.54% N retention (P = 0.076). The ATTD of N of Bermuda grass increased (P < 0.05) to 0.08% by enzyme supplementation. The forage sorghum contained 1,520 kcal DE/kg, 1,511 kcal ME/kg, -0.72% ATTD of N, and -16.99% N retention. The sweet sorghum contained 1,086 kcal DE/kg, 1,061 kcal ME/kg, -75.47% ATTD of N, and -49.22% N retention. Enzyme supplementation did not improve energy digestibility of forage sorghum and sweet sorghum. Nitrogen in these

  3. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ranjitkar, S; Karlsson, A H; Petersen, M A; Bredie, W L P; Petersen, J S; Engberg, R M

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was carried out from 21 to 25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), maize-based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize-based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). Compared with MBF, the dry matter (DM) intakes of broilers receiving CKMS-15 and CKMS-30, respectively, were numerically 7.5 and 6.2% higher and feed conversion ratio 6 and 12% poorer (significant for 30% CKMS), although there were no significant differences in AME content between the three diets. At 37 d, the body weight of birds receiving 15% CKMS was similar to birds fed with MBF. However, the inclusion of 30% CKMS decreased broiler growth. Dietary supplementation with CKMS significantly reduced the apparent digestibility of phosphorus. The fat digestibility was significantly lower for CKMS-30 than for the other three diets. Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize-based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed with CKMS-30. An improved litter quality in terms of DM content and a lower frequency of foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. The addition of CKMS to maize-based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding

  4. Moving towards sustainable resources: Recovery and fractionation of nutrients from dairy manure digestate using membranes.

    PubMed

    Gerardo, Michael L; Aljohani, Nasser H M; Oatley-Radcliffe, Darren L; Lovitt, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    The fractionation of nitrogen (as ammonia/ammonium) and phosphorus (as phosphate ions) present in the dairy manure digestate was investigated using a nanofiltration membrane NF270. The filtration and separation efficiencies were correlated to pH across the range 3 < pH < 11. Filtration at pH 11 enabled higher permeate flux of 125-150 LMH at 20 bar, however rejection of ammonia was high at 30-36% and phosphate was 96.4-97.2%. At pH 3 and pH 7, electrostatic charge effects led to higher permeation of ammonium and thus more efficient separation of nitrogen. The rejection of phosphorus was relatively constant at any given pH and determined as 83% at pH 3, 97% at pH 7 and 95% at pH 11. The fractionation of nitrogen and phosphorus from complex aqueous solutions was demonstrated to be highly dependent on the charge of the membrane and ionic speciation. Solutions rich in nitrogen (as ammonia/ammonium) were obtained with almost no phosphorus present (<1 ppm) whilst the purification of the PO4-P was achieved by series of diafiltration (DF) operations which further separated the nitrogen. The separation of nutrients benefited from an advantageous membrane process with potential added value for a wide range of industries. The analysis of the process economics for a membrane based plant illustrates that the recovery of nutrients, particularly NH3-N, may be commercially feasible when compared to manufactured anhydrous NH3.

  5. Moving towards sustainable resources: Recovery and fractionation of nutrients from dairy manure digestate using membranes.

    PubMed

    Gerardo, Michael L; Aljohani, Nasser H M; Oatley-Radcliffe, Darren L; Lovitt, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    The fractionation of nitrogen (as ammonia/ammonium) and phosphorus (as phosphate ions) present in the dairy manure digestate was investigated using a nanofiltration membrane NF270. The filtration and separation efficiencies were correlated to pH across the range 3 < pH < 11. Filtration at pH 11 enabled higher permeate flux of 125-150 LMH at 20 bar, however rejection of ammonia was high at 30-36% and phosphate was 96.4-97.2%. At pH 3 and pH 7, electrostatic charge effects led to higher permeation of ammonium and thus more efficient separation of nitrogen. The rejection of phosphorus was relatively constant at any given pH and determined as 83% at pH 3, 97% at pH 7 and 95% at pH 11. The fractionation of nitrogen and phosphorus from complex aqueous solutions was demonstrated to be highly dependent on the charge of the membrane and ionic speciation. Solutions rich in nitrogen (as ammonia/ammonium) were obtained with almost no phosphorus present (<1 ppm) whilst the purification of the PO4-P was achieved by series of diafiltration (DF) operations which further separated the nitrogen. The separation of nutrients benefited from an advantageous membrane process with potential added value for a wide range of industries. The analysis of the process economics for a membrane based plant illustrates that the recovery of nutrients, particularly NH3-N, may be commercially feasible when compared to manufactured anhydrous NH3. PMID:25996755

  6. Maternal nutrient restriction affects properties of skeletal muscle in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mei J; Ford, Stephen P; Means, Warrie J; Hess, Bret W; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Du, Min

    2006-01-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction (NR) affects fetal development with long-term consequences on postnatal health of offspring, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. Most studies have been conducted in fetuses in late gestation, and little information is available on the persistent impact of NR from early to mid-gestation on properties of offspring skeletal muscle, which was the aim of this study. Pregnant ewes were subjected to 50% NR from day 28–78 of gestation and allowed to deliver. The longissimus dorsi muscle was sampled from 8-month-old offspring. Maternal NR during early to mid-gestation decreased the number of myofibres in the offspring and increased the ratio of myosin IIb to other isoforms by 17.6 ± 4.9% (P < 0.05) compared with offspring of ad libitum fed ewes. Activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, a key enzyme controlling fatty acid oxidation, was reduced by 24.7 ± 4.5% (P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle of offspring of NR ewes and would contribute to increased fat accumulation observed in offspring of NR ewes. Intramuscular triglyceride content (IMTG) was increased in skeletal muscle of NR lambs, a finding which may be linked to predisposition to diabetes in offspring of NR mothers, since enhanced IMTG predisposes to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated downregulation of several catabolic enzymes in 8-month-old offspring of NR ewes. These data demonstrate that the early to mid-gestation period is important for skeletal muscle development. Impaired muscle development during this stage of gestation affects the number and composition of fibres in offspring which may lead to long-term physiological consequences, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. PMID:16763001

  7. Nutrient Exchange through Hyphae in Intercropping Systems Affects Yields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thun, Tim Von

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) play a large role in the current understanding of the soil ecosystem. They increase nutrient and water uptake, improve soil structure, and form complex hyphal networks that transfer nutrients between plants within an ecosystem. Factors such as species present, the physiological balance between the plants in the…

  8. Effect of benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, gastrointestinal microflora and parameters of microbial metabolism in piglets.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H; Broz, J; Eder, K

    2006-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and gastrointestinal microflora of piglets, we conducted a performance experiment and a separate balance study. The performance experiment involved four different dietary treatments: (1) basal diet (negative control); (2) basal diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 g/kg; (3) basal diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg; (4) basal diet supplemented with potassium diformate at 12 g/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to nine replicate groups, each consisting of two piglets. Live weight, daily weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were monitored as performance parameters over a 35-day period. Supplementation of the diet with benzoic acid resulted in a dose-dependent increase in feed intake and body weight gain and an improved feed conversion ratio. Piglets fed the diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg outperformed the control piglets in mean feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio by 9%, 15% and 6% respectively. Growth performance of the piglets fed the diet with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg was similar to that of piglets fed the diet supplemented with potassium diformate. In the balance experiment three groups of six piglets each were fed either a control diet or diets supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 or 10 g/kg respectively. Benzoic acid did not significantly affect nutrient digestibility but increased nitrogen retention. Piglets fed the diets supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 or 10 g/kg retained 5% and 6% more nitrogen, respectively, than control piglets. Supplementation of benzoic acid did not influence the pH value or the concentration of ammonia in the gastrointestinal tract but reduced the number of bacteria in the digesta. In the stomach the number of total aerobic, total anaerobic, lactic acid forming and gram-negative bacteria was reduced; in the duodenum the presence of benzoic acid reduced

  9. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P < 0.05), while crude lipid content of the whole body fed Diet 5 or 6 was significantly higher than that fed Diet 2 ( P < 0.05). Protein digestibilities of Diets 5 and 6 were significantly lower than that of Diet 1 ( P < 0.05). Digestibility of lipids ranged from 96.97% in Diet 6 to 98.34% in Diet 3, whereas dry matter digestibility decreased with increasing replacement level. This study indicates that 20% FM replacement with ESBM in the basic diet containing 40% protein and 30% FM is optimal for juvenile L. vannamei.

  10. Struvite precipitation in raw and co-digested swine slurries for nutrients recovery in batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Taddeo, Raffaele; Lepistö, Raghida

    2015-01-01

    The release of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agro-industrial sources is a major environmental concern. Furthermore, the scarcity of mineable P and the growing demand for food worldwide necessitate that we find an alternative P source. This study applied struvite precipitation for N-P recovery to slurries with high levels of organics and ammonia to achieve environmental protection from excessive nutrients diffusion and to generate a sustainable P source. Batch tests were carried out on raw and co-digested swine slurries to study the feasibility of struvite precipitation and the effect of several parameters, including pH, reaction time, competing ions (Ca²⁺, K⁺), total solids (TS), and alkalinity. The batch assays with raw swine slurries showed high N-P removals (up to 80%), while the anaerobic liquor returned lower recovery efficiency due to the high solids and alkali content. Struvite crystallization was detected at pH values as low as 6, and the characteristics of the recovered struvite matched those of the theoretical. Slight co-precipitation of calcium-phosphates occurred and was dependent on the Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺ ratio rather than on varying pH values. Struvite precipitation was shown to be feasible in complex matrices as agro-industrial effluents, characterized by high NH(4)(+), alkalinity, solids and organic content, and interfering ions such as Ca²⁺ and K⁺. PMID:25812099

  11. Thinning affects nutrient resorption and nutrient-use efficiency in two Pinus sylvestris stands in the Pyrenees.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan A; Imbert, J Bosco; Castillo, Federico J

    2009-04-01

    Needle chemical composition was measured, and nutrient resorption, nutrient-use efficiency (NUE), and other indexes were estimated for 24 months in two contrasting natural Pinus sylvestris L. forests in the western Pyrenees in Spain. For each location (Aspurz, 650 m elevation, 7% slope; Garde, 1335 m elevation, 40% slope), there were three reference plots (P0), three plots with 20% of the basal area removed (P20), and three with 30% of the basal area removed (P30). Needle P, Ca, and Mg concentrations were higher in Garde, but N concentration was higher for Aspurz, without differences for K. Nutrient-resorption efficiency of P was higher in Aspurz, of Mg higher in Garde, and there were no differences between sites in N and K. Nutrient-resorption proficiency was significantly higher in the site with lower soil nutrient availability, i.e., for P, Ca, and Mg in Aspurz, but N in Garde (no differences in K); this may be an indicator of nutrient conservation strategy. Annual nutrient productivity (A) was higher for all nutrients in Aspurz, whereas the mean residence time (MRT) was higher in Garde in all nutrients but P. NUE was significantly higher in Garde for all nutrients but P, which was more efficiently used in Aspurz. In both sites, N, P, and K concentrations were higher in the 2002 cohort, Ca in the 2000 cohort, and maximum Mg was found in the 2001 cohort. Thinning caused a reduction of Mg concentration in the 2001 cohort in Aspurz, an increase of Ca resorption proficiency in Aspurz and Mg resorption at both sites, and reduction of P, K, and Mg nutrient response efficiency (NRE) in Garde. Thinning may have caused an increase of the C:Mg ratio through facilitating the development of more biosynthesis apparatus in a more illuminated canopy, but it seemed not to affect resorption in a significant way. Changes in NRE in Garde after thinning show that forest management can affect how trees use nutrients. Our results indicate that the strategy to optimize NUE is

  12. Nutrient enrichment affects the mechanical resistance of aquatic plants

    PubMed Central

    Puijalon, Sara

    2012-01-01

    For many plant species, nutrient availability induces important anatomical responses, particularly the production of low-density tissues to the detriment of supporting tissues. Due to the contrasting biomechanical properties of plant tissues, these anatomical responses may induce important modifications in the biomechanical properties of plant organs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutrient enrichment on the anatomical traits of two freshwater plant species and its consequences on plant biomechanical performance. Two plant species were grown under controlled conditions in low versus high nutrient levels. The anatomical and biomechanical traits of the plant stems were measured. Both species produced tissues with lower densities under nutrient-rich conditions, accompanied by modifications in the structure of the aerenchyma for one species. As expected, nutrient enrichment also led to important modifications in the biomechanical properties of the stem for both species. In particular, mechanical resistance (breaking force and strength) and stiffness of stems were significantly reduced under nutrient rich conditions. The production of weaker stem tissues as a result of nutrient enrichment may increase the risk of plants to mechanical failure, thus challenging plant maintenance in mechanically stressful or disturbed habitats. PMID:23028018

  13. Nutrient enrichment affects the mechanical resistance of aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Lamberti-Raverot, Barbara; Puijalon, Sara

    2012-10-01

    For many plant species, nutrient availability induces important anatomical responses, particularly the production of low-density tissues to the detriment of supporting tissues. Due to the contrasting biomechanical properties of plant tissues, these anatomical responses may induce important modifications in the biomechanical properties of plant organs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutrient enrichment on the anatomical traits of two freshwater plant species and its consequences on plant biomechanical performance. Two plant species were grown under controlled conditions in low versus high nutrient levels. The anatomical and biomechanical traits of the plant stems were measured. Both species produced tissues with lower densities under nutrient-rich conditions, accompanied by modifications in the structure of the aerenchyma for one species. As expected, nutrient enrichment also led to important modifications in the biomechanical properties of the stem for both species. In particular, mechanical resistance (breaking force and strength) and stiffness of stems were significantly reduced under nutrient rich conditions. The production of weaker stem tissues as a result of nutrient enrichment may increase the risk of plants to mechanical failure, thus challenging plant maintenance in mechanically stressful or disturbed habitats. PMID:23028018

  14. Nutrient omission in Bt cotton affects soil organic carbon and nutrients status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aladakatti, Y. R.; Biradar, D. P.; Satyanarayana, T.; Majumdar, K.; Shivamurthy, D.

    2012-04-01

    Studies carried out at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, in medium black soils assessed the effect of nutrient omission in Bt cotton and its effect on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and available nutrients at the end of second consecutive year of nutrient omission. The study also assessed the extent of contribution of the macro and micronutrients towards seed cotton yield. The experiment consisting 11 treatments omitting a nutrient in each treatment including an absolute control without any nutrients was conducted in a Randomised Block Design with three replications. Cotton crop sufficiently fertilized with macro and micro nutrients (165 : 75 : 120 NPK kg ha-1 and 20 kg each of CaSO4, and MgSO4, 10 kg of S, 20 kg each of ZnSO4, FeSO4 and 0.1 per cent Boron twice as foliar spray) was taken as a standard check to assess the contribution of each nutrient in various nutrient omission treatments. Soils of each treatment were analysed initially and after each crop of cotton for SOC and available nutrient status. Results indicated that the SOC decreased after each crop of cotton in absolute control where no nutrients were applied (0.50 % to 0.38 %) and also in the N omission treatment (0.50 % to 0.35 %). But there was no significant impact of omission of P, K and other nutrients on soil organic carbon. Soil available N, P and K in the soil were reduced as compared to the initial soil status after first and second crop of cotton in the respective treatment where these nutrients were omitted. The soil available N, P and K were reduced to the extent of 61 kg ha-1, 7.1 kg ha-1 and 161.9 kg ha-1 in the respective nutrient omission treatment at end of second crop of cotton as compared to the initial status of these nutrients in the soil. This might be due to the mining of these nutrients from the soil nutrient pool with out addition of these nutrients extraneously. The nutrient status of N, P and K remained almost similar in omission of other nutrients

  15. Influence of thermally oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on energy and nutrient digestibility in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Kerr, B J; Chen, C; Weber, T E; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2014-07-01

    intermediate (8,519, 8,274, and 8,511 kcal/kg), for OL, SO, and RO lipids, respectively, respectively. In conclusion, lipid source affected ATTD of dietary DM, GE, EE, N, and C, and N retention and tended to influence the DE value of the lipid but did not significantly affect their ME value. Rapid and slow heating of lipids used in this study increased lipid peroxidation products but had no detectable effects on nutrient and energy digestibility as well as DE and ME values of the various lipids.

  16. Influence of the inclusion of cooked cereals and pea starch in diets based on soy or pea protein concentrate on nutrient digestibility and performance of young pigs.

    PubMed

    Parera, N; Lázaro, R P; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Mateos, G G

    2010-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare different dietary vegetable sources of starch and protein on the coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of energy and nutrients and performance of piglets from 29 to 60 d of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged factorially with 3 sources of starch (cooked-flaked corn, cooked-flaked rice, and pea starch) and 2 sources of protein [soy protein concentrate (SPC) and pea protein concentrate (PPC)]. The pea starch and the PPC used were obtained by dehulling and grinding pea seeds to a mean particle size of 30 microm. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 pigs per pen). For the entire experiment, piglets fed cooked rice had greater ADG than piglets fed pea starch with piglets fed cooked corn being intermediate (471, 403, and 430 g/d, respectively; P < 0.05). Protein source did not have any effect on piglet performance. The CATTD of DM, OM, and GE were greater (P < 0.05) for diets based on cooked rice than diets based on cooked corn with diets based on pea starch being intermediate. Crude protein digestibility was not affected by source of starch but was greater for the diets based on SPC than for diets based on PPC (0.836 vs. 0.821; P < 0.01). Protein source did not affect the digestibility of any of the other dietary components. It is concluded that cooked rice is an energy source of choice in diets for young pigs. The inclusion of PPC in the diet reduced protein digestibility but had no effects on energy digestibility or piglet performance. Therefore, the finely ground starch and protein fractions of peas can be used in substitution of cooked corn or SPC, respectively, in diets for young pigs.

  17. Effects of timing of corn silage supplementation on digestion, fermentation pattern, and nutrient flow during continuous culture fermentation of a short and intensive orchardgrass meal.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, P; Soder, K J; Waghorn, G

    2010-08-01

    Using a dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system, this study evaluated the effect of timing of corn silage supplementation on ruminal digestion and nutrient flows following a short and intensive orchardgrass herbage meal. Treatments included 28 g dry matter (DM) of corn silage added either 9h (9BH; 0700 h) or 1h (1BH; 1500 h) before adding 42 g DM orchardgrass herbage or no corn silage (control; 70 g DM herbage). Herbage was fed as follows: 66% of the total herbage meal at 1600 h, 22% at 1720 h, and the remaining 12% at 1840 h. Effluent was analyzed for organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Purine concentrations in effluent and bacterial isolates were used to estimate the partition of effluent N flow into bacterial and nonbacterial fractions, and to calculate true OM digestibility. Fermenters were sampled for pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and NH(3)-N at 0730, 1100, 1530, 1600, 1720, 1840, and 2000 h on d 10. Data were analyzed as a 3 x 4 Latin square experimental design. True digestibilities for OM (average of 78.5%) and CP (average of 84.6%), and apparent NDF digestibility (average of 82.7%) were not affected by treatment. Mean ruminal pH was lower for 9BH than for 1BH, averaging 5.6 and 6.5, respectively. Molar proportions of acetate were not affected by treatment. Propionate concentration was greater for 9BH than for 1BH, averaging 20.5 and 18.1mM, respectively. Diurnal patterns of pH, NH(3)-N, and acetate:propionate ratio were affected by treatment: 9BH had the lowest values for all measurements as the day progressed. The NH(3)-N concentration and effluent NH(3)-N flow were higher for 1BH (11.4 mg/100mL and 0.26 g/d, respectively) than for 9BH (8.8 mg/100mL and 0.20 g/d, respectively). Effluent NH(3)-N flow (as a % of total N flow) was the lowest for 9BH. Bacterial efficiency was not affected by treatments, with a mean of 10.5 g of N/kg of OM truly digested. Under the same resource allocation (pasture plus supplement

  18. [Rumen fermentation and digestibility of nutrients studied by the addition of Ca soaps of palm oil fatty acids and their analogous fatty acids in the sheep model].

    PubMed

    Drochner, W; Yildiz, G

    1999-12-01

    The ruminally fistulated sheep was used as a model to study the effects of fat supplementation (Ca-soaps and free long chain fatty acids from palm oil) on rumen physiology and digestibility of the nutrients. The animals were fed with a typical ration of hay and concentrate supplying nutrients according to maintenance levels. The following results should be pointed out: The addition of free fatty acids and their Ca-soaps induced a retarded recovery of postprandially decreased pH-values in ruminal fluid. This retardation was more pronounced after addition of free long chain fatty acids than with their Ca-soap-analogous acids. Compared to the control, the concentration of short chain fatty acids was depressed by fat addition in the period 2 hours after feed intake. The release of ammonia in the first period after feed intake was reduced by fat addition. A lack of synchronity could be observed in this post-prandial period in ruminal fluid between concentration of short chain fatty acids and ammonia. This effect was most obvious with supplementation of unprotected fatty acids. This might be one reason for the better tolerance of Ca soaps from palm oil fatty acids. Formation of hydrides, branched chains and transforms proceeds more effectively with free fatty acids than with their analogous forms of Ca-soaps. The well-known effect of depression of digestibility of nutrients due to fat supplementation was--under present conditions--quite low. This might be different in lactating dairy cows with higher levels of feed intake. With high feed intake, passage time is reduced. This will affect digestibility and interactions with fat supplementation.

  19. Production and sale of energy and nutrients from a multi-farm digester

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Howard, K.; Orrett, E.

    1986-01-01

    An investor-owned anaerobic digestion system was designed to process the wastes from several dairy farms totalling 900 cows. The resulting biogas will fuel a 97 KW engine-generator producing both electricity for sale to the utility, and waste heat for digester heating and supplemental greenhouse heating. The digested solids and liquids will be marketed as nursery soil and fertilizer, respectively.

  20. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with the Combination of Zeolite and Attapulgite on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Secretion of Digestive Enzymes and Intestinal Health in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, P.; Tan, Y. Q.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, Y. M.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of basal diets supplemented with a clay product consisting of zeolite and attapulgite (ZA) at 1:1 ratio on growth performance, digestibility of feed nutrients, activities of digestive enzymes in small intestine and intestinal health in broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 112 one-day-old male chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups with 8 replicates of 7 chickens each. In experiment 2, 84 one-day-old male chickens were randomly allocated into 2 groups consisting 6 replicates of 7 chickens each. The experimental diets both consisted of a maize-soybean basal control diet supplemented with 0% or 2% ZA. The diets were fed from 1 to 42 days of age. The results showed that ZA supplementation could increase body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI), but had no significant effect on feed conversion ratio. The apparent digestibility values of crude protein and gross energy were significantly increased (p<0.05) by ZA from 14 to 16 d and 35 to 37 d. Dietary ZA treatment significantly increased (p<0.05) the activities of amylase, lipase and trypsin in jejunal digesta and the activities of maltase and sucrase in jejunal mucosa on days 21 and 42. The ZA supplementation also significantly increased (p<0.05) the catalase activity, reduced (p<0.05) the malondialdehyde concentration in the jejunal mucosa. In addition, a decrease of serum diamine oxidase activity and an increase (p<0.05) in concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A in jejunal mucosa were observed in birds treated with ZA on 21 and 42 days. It is concluded that ZA supplementation (2%) could partially improve the growth performance by increasing BWG and FI. This improvement was achieved through increasing the secretion of digestive enzymes, enhancing the digestibilites of nutrients, promoting intestinal health of broiler chickens. PMID:25178375

  1. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  2. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  3. Improved nutrient digestibility and retention partially explains feed efficiency gains in pigs selected for low residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Harris, A J; Patience, J F; Lonergan, S M; J M Dekkers, C; Gabler, N K

    2012-12-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a unique measure of feed efficiency (FE) and an alternative to traditional measures. The RFI is defined as the difference between the actual feed intake of a pig and its expected feed intake based on a given amount of growth and backfat. Therefore, selecting pigs with a low RFI (LRFI) results in a more feed-efficient animal for a given rate of growth. Our objective was to determine the extent to which apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy use and retention may explain FE differences between pigs divergently selected for LRFI or high RFI (HRFI). After 7 generations of selection, 12 HRFI and 12 LRFI pigs (62 ± 3 kg BW) were randomly assigned to metabolism crates. Pigs had free access to a standard diet based on corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) meal containing 0.4% TiO(2), an exogenous digestibility marker. After a 7-d acclimation, total urine and feces were collected for 72 h. Nutrient and energy digestibility, P digestibility, and N balance were then measured and calculated to determine differences between the RFI lines. As expected, ADFI was lower (2.0 vs. 2.6 kg; P < 0.01), ADG did not differ, and FE was higher in the LRFI (P < 0.001) compared to the HRFI pigs. The digestibility values for DM (87.3 vs. 85.9%), N (88.3 vs. 86.1%), and GE (86.9 vs. 85.4%) were higher (P ≤ 0.003) in the LRFI vs. HRFI pigs, respectively. The DE (16.59 vs. 16.32 MJ/kg DM) and ME (15.98 vs. 15.72 MJ/kg DM) values were also greater (P < 0.001) in LRFI pigs. When correcting for ADFI, P digestibility did not differ between the lines. However, the LRFI pigs tended to have improved N retention (P = 0.08) compared to HRFI pigs (36.9 vs. 32.1 g/d). In conclusion, the higher energy and nutrient digestibility, use, and retention may partially explain the superior FE seen in pigs selected for LRFI. PMID:23365317

  4. Effects of fat saturation and source of fiber on site of nutrient digestion and milk production by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, J; Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L; Hull, B L

    1994-08-01

    Six primiparous cannulated cows were assigned to six treatments in a 6 x 6 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of degree of fat saturation and amount and source of effective fiber on site of nutrient digestion and milk production. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a control diet with no added fat or diets with 5% added fat from saturated tallow, tallow, or animal-vegetable fat; the diets with animal-vegetable fat had 40% forage, 40% forage plus 20% soyhulls, or 60% forage. Ruminal acetate:propionate was higher when soyhulls replaced forage NDF because of the higher digestibility of soyhulls in the rumen and total tract. Ruminal digestion of NDF was decreased as unsaturation of fat increased. True and apparent efficiencies of bacterial protein synthesis were increased as fat unsaturation increased, probably because of reduced recycling of microbial N in the rumen. The digestibility of fatty acids in the small intestine was higher in cows fed no fat than in those fed fat and was reduced as fat unsaturation decreased, primarily because of the saturated tallow. Dry matter intake was decreased 14% by increased fat unsaturation. All fat supplements depressed milk protein percentage. Production of 4% FCM tended to decrease linearly as unsaturation of fat increased. In diets with 5% added fat, a degree of saturation between saturated tallow and tallow (iodine values of 18 and 62) appears to be optimum for fatty acid digestibility and DMI.

  5. Effect of three different bariatric obesity surgery procedures on nutrient and energy digestibility using a swine experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, Suzanne Marie; Riveros, José Luis; Bas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Morbid obesity is a worldwide health concern that compromises life quality and health status of obese human subjects. Bariatric surgery for treating morbid obesity remains as one of the best alternatives to promote excess weight loss and to reduce co-morbidities. We have not found studies reporting nutrients and energy balance considering digestibility trials in humans following surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine protein, lipid, fiber, energy, calcium, and phosphorous digestibility in a swine model that underwent ileal transposition (IT), sleeve gastrectomy with ileal transposition (SGIT), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), and with sham operated animals (SHAM). Thirty-two pigs were randomly assigned to four laparoscopic procedures: IT (n = 8), RYGBP (n = 8), SGIT (n = 8), and Sham-operated pigs (n = 8). From day 0 postsurgery to 130, pigs were weighed monthly to determine live weight and weight gain was calculated for each month postsurgery until day 130. Food intake in a metabolic weight basis was calculated by measuring ad libitum food intake at day 130. Swine were fitted into metabolic crates to determine digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, fat, fiber, ash, energy, calcium, and phosphorous from day 130. A one-way ANOVA and Student–Newman–Keuls were used to detect differences in weight, food intake, and digestibility coefficients. Digestibility values for dry matter, fiber, phosphorus, and energy showed no differences among groups (P > 0.05). However, significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were encountered among groups for fat, protein, ash, and calcium digestibilities. The RYGBP procedure, when applied to the pig model, significantly reduced calcium, fat, and ash digestibility, which did not occur with SGIT or IT procedure, when compared with Sham-operated animals. PMID:25711878

  6. Effect of three different bariatric obesity surgery procedures on nutrient and energy digestibility using a swine experimental model.

    PubMed

    Gandarillas, Mónica; Hodgkinson, Suzanne Marie; Riveros, José Luis; Bas, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Morbid obesity is a worldwide health concern that compromises life quality and health status of obese human subjects. Bariatric surgery for treating morbid obesity remains as one of the best alternatives to promote excess weight loss and to reduce co-morbidities. We have not found studies reporting nutrients and energy balance considering digestibility trials in humans following surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine protein, lipid, fiber, energy, calcium, and phosphorous digestibility in a swine model that underwent ileal transposition (IT), sleeve gastrectomy with ileal transposition (SGIT), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), and with sham operated animals (SHAM). Thirty-two pigs were randomly assigned to four laparoscopic procedures: IT (n = 8), RYGBP (n = 8), SGIT (n = 8), and Sham-operated pigs (n = 8). From day 0 postsurgery to 130, pigs were weighed monthly to determine live weight and weight gain was calculated for each month postsurgery until day 130. Food intake in a metabolic weight basis was calculated by measuring ad libitum food intake at day 130. Swine were fitted into metabolic crates to determine digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, fat, fiber, ash, energy, calcium, and phosphorous from day 130. A one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls were used to detect differences in weight, food intake, and digestibility coefficients. Digestibility values for dry matter, fiber, phosphorus, and energy showed no differences among groups (P > 0.05). However, significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were encountered among groups for fat, protein, ash, and calcium digestibilities. The RYGBP procedure, when applied to the pig model, significantly reduced calcium, fat, and ash digestibility, which did not occur with SGIT or IT procedure, when compared with Sham-operated animals.

  7. A nutrient combination that can affect synapse formation.

    PubMed

    Wurtman, Richard J

    2014-04-01

    Brain neurons form synapses throughout the life span. This process is initiated by neuronal depolarization, however the numbers of synapses thus formed depend on brain levels of three key nutrients-uridine, the omega-3 fatty acid DHA, and choline. Given together, these nutrients accelerate formation of synaptic membrane, the major component of synapses. In infants, when synaptogenesis is maximal, relatively large amounts of all three nutrients are provided in bioavailable forms (e.g., uridine in the UMP of mothers' milk and infant formulas). However, in adults the uridine in foods, mostly present at RNA, is not bioavailable, and no food has ever been compelling demonstrated to elevate plasma uridine levels. Moreover, the quantities of DHA and choline in regular foods can be insufficient for raising their blood levels enough to promote optimal synaptogenesis. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) the need for extra quantities of the three nutrients is enhanced, both because their basal plasma levels may be subnormal (reflecting impaired hepatic synthesis), and because especially high brain levels are needed for correcting the disease-related deficiencies in synaptic membrane and synapses. PMID:24763080

  8. Effect of β-Mannanase and α-Galactosidase Supplementation to Soybean Meal Based Diets on Growth, Feed Efficiency and Nutrient Digestibility of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    PubMed Central

    Yiğit, Nalan Ozgur; Koca, Seval Bahadir; Didinen, Behire Isıl; Diler, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted with 87 g rainbow trout to evaluate the effects on growth performances, feed efficiency and nutrient digestibility of adding β-mannanase and α-galactosidase enzymes, solely or in combination. Seven diets were prepared by adding β-mannanase, α-galactosidase and mixed enzyme at two different levels (1 g/kg and 2 g/kg) to control diet (without enzyme) including soybean meal. Mixed enzymes (1 g/kg, 2 g/kg) were prepared by adding β-mannanase and α-galactosidase at the same doses (0.5+0.5 g/kg and 1+1 g/kg). At the end of the experiment, addition of β-mannanase, α-galactosidase and mixed enzyme to diet containing 44% soybean meal had no significant effects on growth performance and gain:feed (p>0.05). In addition, adding β-mannanase, α-galactosidase and mixed enzyme in different rations to trout diets had no affect on nutrient digestibility and body composition (p>0.05). PMID:25050005

  9. The impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in eventing horses.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C A A; Azevedo, J F; Martins, J A; Barreto, M P; Silva, V P; Julliand, V; Almeida, F Q

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in conditioning eventing horses. Twenty-four Brazilian Sport Horses, male and female (8.0 to 15.0 yr; 488 ± 32 kg BW), were used in a randomized design with 4 levels of CP diets: 7.5%, 9.0%, 11.0%, and 13.0%. A digestion assay was performed with partial feces collection over 4 d, followed by 1 d of total urine collection. Data were submitted to regression analysis and adjusted to linear and quadratic models (P < 0.05). No differences were observed in the intake of DM, OM, EE, ADF, and NDF as a function of dietary protein levels. Dry matter intake average was 1.7% of BW. CP and N intake showed a linear increase as a function of increasing protein level in diets. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed on the CP and NDF digestibility coefficients, with the maximum estimated level of digestibility at 11.6% and 11.4% CP in the diet, respectively. There was a linear effect on ADF digestibility coefficients, digestible DM and protein intake, and CP/DE ratio according to dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on daily water intake, total water intake, or fecal water excretion. Urinary excretion values showed a linear increase in response to increased dietary protein levels, but no impact was observed on water balance, with an average of 8.4 L/d. Nitrogen intake (NI), N absorption (NA), and urinary N increased linearly as a function of increasing dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on N retention (NR), with an average of 7.5 g N/d. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of NI or NA showed no significant changes in the function of dietary protein levels. There was an impact of dietary protein levels on the digestibility coefficient of CP, NDF, ADF, and digestible protein intake on conditioning eventing horses. The 11.6% CP level in the diet provided an intake of 2.25 g CP/kg BW

  10. Nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation characteristic in swamp buffaloes fed on chemically treated rice straw and urea.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vinh Thi; Wanapat, Metha; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kongmun, Phongthorn

    2012-03-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine effects of urea-lime-treated rice straw and urea levels in concentrate on rumen fermentation, apparent nutrient digestibility, and cellulolytic bacteria population of 4-year-old, rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes. All animals were randomly assigned according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments: factor A, two sources of roughage (rice straw and 2%urea + 2%lime-treated rice straw); factor B, two levels of urea in concentrate mixture (0% and 4%). Roughages were given ad libitum together with 0.3% BW of concentrate. It was found that voluntary feed intake, the digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, acetate, and propionate concentration were significantly increased (P < 0.05) by treated rice straw, while NH(3)-N, BUN, and propionic acid concentration were increased by both factors of treated rice straw and 4% urea in concentrate. The real-time PCR quantification of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus population, and anaerobic fungi were greater (P < 0.05), but the population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, protozoa, and methanogenic bacteria were reduced (P > 0.05) as influenced by treated rice straw and urea level. In conclusion, the combined use of urea-lime-treated rice straw and fed with concentrate (4% urea) could improve rumen ecology, rumen fermentation efficiency, and nutrient digestibility in swamp buffaloes. PMID:21805305

  11. Temperature affects microbial abundance, activity and interactions in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; De Vrieze, Jo; Li, Jiabao; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-06-01

    Temperature is a major factor determining the performance of the anaerobic digestion process. The microbial abundance, activity and interactional networks were investigated under a temperature gradient from 25°C to 55°C through amplicon sequencing, using 16S ribosomal RNA and 16S rRNA gene-based approaches. Comparative analysis of past accumulative elements presented by 16S rRNA gene-based analysis, and the in-situ conditions presented by 16S rRNA-based analysis, provided new insights concerning the identification of microbial functional roles and interactions. The daily methane production and total biogas production increased with temperature up to 50°C, but decreased at 55°C. Increased methanogenesis and hydrolysis at 50°C were main factors causing higher methane production which was also closely related with more well-defined methanogenic and/or related modules with comprehensive interactions and increased functional orderliness referred to more microorganisms participating in interactions. This research demonstrated the importance of evaluating functional roles and interactions of microbial community. PMID:26970926

  12. Digestive physiology of the pig symposium: G protein-coupled receptors in nutrient chemosensation and gastrointestinal hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Liou, A P

    2013-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is a highly effective and efficient organ system that digests and absorbs nutrients, contributes to the regulation of glucose homeostasis, and signals postprandial satiety. A network of enteroendocrine cells orchestrates these events through the release of neuropeptide hormones secreted in response to the specific nutrient components within the intraluminal milieu. Nutrient chemosensing by these cells is mediated by cell membrane proteins that have been localized to hormone-producing cells. However, functional studies of the nutrient detection abilities of the endocrine cell population have been limited due to its rare and singly distributed cell type. Recent technological advances have enabled investigations with primary endocrine cells that promise to enhance our current understanding of enteroendocrine cell biology. This review focuses on a particular subset of chemosensing receptors, the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), that have been identified as putative nutrient sensors of the major macronutrients, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates by enteroendocrine cells. The contributions of these receptors in directly activating and stimulating hormone secretion in several subsets of enteroendocrine cells will be discussed, based on evidence gathered by functional studies in animal models, in vitro studies in endocrine cell lines, and newly described findings in primary endocrine cells. Key insights in chemosensory detection and hormone secretion from enteroendocrine cells may help further the studies in larger animal models and guide the formulation of feed or supplements to influence the gastrointestinal signals regulating optimal food intake, absorptive capacity, and growth. PMID:23230119

  13. Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Cho, J H; Zhang, S; Kim, I H

    2012-11-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg laquer tree extract. From wk 0 to 5, the JH, HCT and LE groups presented higher (p<0.05) ADFI, ADG and gain/feed ratio (G/F) than CON and DP groups. During wk 5 to 10, Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets indicated higher (p<0.05) ADG and ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. During the entire experimental period, a significant increase of ADG appeared in JH, HCT and LE (p<0.05). Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets got a higher (p<0.05) ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. Pigs fed diets with supplementations of herb additives revealled lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhea pigs during d 2 to d 6 compared with pigs fed CON diet. In Exp 2, 60 growing-finishing barrows and gilts (average BW = 54.10±1.20 kg, average age = 54±3 d) were allotted to three treatments: i) CON, basal diet; ii) YG, basal diet+1 g/kg yellow ginger and iii) HR, basal dietary+1 g/kg hoantchy root, respectively. From wk 0 to 5, Dietary supplementation of YG and HR enhanced (p<0.05) ADG. No difference was found between YG and HR treatments. During, wk 5 to 10, ADG also was observed higher in YG and HR treatments than CON group (p<0.05). Additional, YG had the highest ADG (p<0.05) among treatments. There was always an increase of ADG in YG and HR (p<0.05) through all periods. HR treatment showed a lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhoeal pigs on d 1and d 2 compared with CON treatment. Pigs fed YG and HR diets had a higher (p<0.05) longissimus muscle area (LMA) than pigs fed CON diet. In conclusion, anti-diarrhoeal herbs can

  14. Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cho, J. H.; Zhang, S.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg laquer tree extract. From wk 0 to 5, the JH, HCT and LE groups presented higher (p<0.05) ADFI, ADG and gain/feed ratio (G/F) than CON and DP groups. During wk 5 to 10, Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets indicated higher (p<0.05) ADG and ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. During the entire experimental period, a significant increase of ADG appeared in JH, HCT and LE (p<0.05). Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets got a higher (p<0.05) ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. Pigs fed diets with supplementations of herb additives revealled lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhea pigs during d 2 to d 6 compared with pigs fed CON diet. In Exp 2, 60 growing-finishing barrows and gilts (average BW = 54.10±1.20 kg, average age = 54±3 d) were allotted to three treatments: i) CON, basal diet; ii) YG, basal diet+1 g/kg yellow ginger and iii) HR, basal dietary+1 g/kg hoantchy root, respectively. From wk 0 to 5, Dietary supplementation of YG and HR enhanced (p<0.05) ADG. No difference was found between YG and HR treatments. During, wk 5 to 10, ADG also was observed higher in YG and HR treatments than CON group (p<0.05). Additional, YG had the highest ADG (p<0.05) among treatments. There was always an increase of ADG in YG and HR (p<0.05) through all periods. HR treatment showed a lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhoeal pigs on d 1and d 2 compared with CON treatment. Pigs fed YG and HR diets had a higher (p<0.05) longissimus muscle area (LMA) than pigs fed CON diet. In conclusion, anti-diarrhoeal herbs can

  15. The effect of 1-week feed restriction on performance, digestibility of nutrients and digestive system development in the growing rabbit.

    PubMed

    Tůmová, E; Volek, Z; Chodová, D; Härtlová, H; Makovický, P; Svobodová, J; Ebeid, T A; Uhlířová, L

    2016-01-01

    A 3 to 4 week feed restriction of about 20% to 25% of the free intake is widely applied in rabbit breeding systems to reduce post-weaning digestive disorders. However, a short intensive feed restriction is described in few studies and can be beneficial for growing rabbits due to a longer re-alimentation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ad libitum (AL) and two restriction levels of feeding (50 and 65 g/rabbit per day) applied for 1 week on performance, gastrointestinal morphology and physiological parameters during the restriction and during the re-alimentation period. Rabbits were divided into three experimental groups: AL rabbits were fed AL, R1 rabbits were restricted from 42 to 49 days of age and received 50 g daily (29% of AL) and R2 rabbits were restricted at the same age and were fed 65 g of feed daily (37% of AL). In the 1(st) week after weaning and in the weeks after restriction, all the groups were fed AL. During the restriction period, daily weight gain (DWG) in R1 significantly dropped to 11% (experiment 1) and 5% (experiment 2) compared with rabbits in the AL group, although they were fed 29% of AL, whereas in the R2 group it decreased to 20% (experiment 1) and 10% (experiment 2). In the week following feed restriction, DWG in the restricted groups increased (P<0.001) to 166% and 148% in R1 and to 128% and 145% in R2. Restricted rabbits in both the experiments reached up to 90% to 93% of the final live weight (70 days) of the AL group. Over the entire experimental period, feed restriction significantly decreased feed intake to 85% to 88% of the AL group; however, the feed conversion ratio was lower (P<0.05) only in experiment 1 (-6% in R1 and -4% in R2). Digestibilities of CP and fat were not significantly higher during the restriction period and during the 1(st) week of re-alimentation compared with the AL group. Significant interactions between feeding regime and age revealed the shortest large intestine in the AL group at

  16. Factors affecting plant growth in membrane nutrient delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of the tubular membrane plant growth unit for the delivery of water and nutrients to roots in microgravity has recently focused on measuring the effects of changes in physical variables controlling solution availability to the plants. Significant effects of membrane pore size and the negative pressure used to contain the solution were demonstrated. Generally, wheat grew better in units with a larger pore size but equal negative pressure and in units with the same pore size but less negative pressure. Lettuce also exhibited better plant growth at less negative pressure.

  17. Feed intake, growth, digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen in young pigs as affected by dietary cation-anion difference and supplementation of xylanase.

    PubMed

    Dersjant-Li, Y; Schulze, H; Schrama, J W; Verreth, J A; Verstegen, M W

    2001-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (CAD, Na(+) + K(+)-Cl(-), mEq/kg diet) and xylanase addition on feed consumption, digestibility of nutrients, plasma electrolyte balance and growth performance in young pigs. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement with three dietary CAD levels (-100, 200, and 500 mEq/kg) and two levels of xylanase supplementation (0 and 0.1% xylanase derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum) was used. Thirty-six individually housed, castrated pigs (5 weeks old) with an initial body weight of 9.34 +/- 0.28 kg (mean +/- SEM) were randomly assigned to the six treatments. Diets were provided to pigs as cold pellets. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed and water. Venous plasma Cl(-) concentration was higher (p < 0.0001) in dietary CAD of - 100 mEq/kg group compared with the other two CAD groups. Dietary CAD did not affect Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in the venous plasma. Growth rates were higher (p < 0.05) in pigs receiving dietary CAD of 200 mEq/kg (657 g/pig.day) and dietary CAD of 500 mEq/kg (603 g/pig.day) than in pigs receiving dietary CAD of -100 mEq/kg (484 g/pig.day). Faecal dry matter and nitrogen decreased with increasing dietary CAD. Faecal apparent digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen was higher (p < 0.05) in the dietary CAD of 500 mEq/kg compared to the two lower level CAD groups. Supplementation of xylanase did not affect the performance of pigs. Xylanase addition in the diet significantly increased apparent faecal digestibility of dry matter and tended to increase apparent digestibility of nitrogen. No interaction between dietary CAD and xylanase was found. In conclusion, dietary CAD influenced the performance and digestibility of nutrients of pigs. Xylanase supplementation improved digestibility of dry matter.

  18. Effects of temporary intensive feed restriction on performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass criteria of growing male Californian rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wareth, Ahmed A A; Kehraus, Saskia; Ali, Abdalla H H; Ismail, Zeinhom S H; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a temporary quantitative feed restriction on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass criteria of rabbits. A total of 80 weaned male Californian rabbits (30 d of age) were randomly assigned to four treatments of 20 rabbits each. The Control group was fed ad libitum during the whole experimental period (days 30-72 of age). For the three restricted fed groups the feed intake was reduced by 15%, 30% and 45% compared to the Control group, respectively. The feed restriction was applied after weaning and lasted for 21 d. Thereafter, at 51 d of age, in all treatments the feed supply returned to ad libitum intake till 72 d of age (AL period). The feed restriction decreased the body weight gain of rabbits (during the restriction period and the whole experimental period, p < 0.001) and improved feed conversion ratio during all tested periods (p < 0.001). In the AL period, the daily body weight gain of all groups was similar. After the AL period, the digestibility of all measured nutrients was significantly higher for animals fed restrictively. Furthermore, feed restrictions significantly decreased the proportion of perirenal and scapular fat and increased relative weight and length of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it can be concluded that the applied feed restriction improved feed conversion, nutrient digestibility and reduced fat at the slaughter age of Californian rabbits, but the reduced body weight gain could not be compensated by a subsequent ad libitum feeding for 3 weeks.

  19. Prawn Shell Chitosan Has Anti-Obesogenic Properties, Influencing Both Nutrient Digestibility and Microbial Populations in a Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Egan, Áine M; Sweeney, Torres; Hayes, Maria; O'Doherty, John V

    2015-01-01

    The potential of natural products to prevent obesity have been investigated, with evidence to suggest that chitosan has anti-obesity effects. The current experiment investigated the anti-obesity potential of prawn shell derived chitosan on a range of variables relevant to obesity in a pig model. The two dietary treatment groups included in this 63 day study were: T1) basal diet and T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group (70 ± 0.90 kg). The parameter categories which were assessed included: performance, nutrient digestibility, serum leptin concentrations, nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression and gut microbial populations. Pigs offered chitosan had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001), lower ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) (P< 0.05) and reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy and nitrogen (P<0.05) when compared to the basal group. Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene expression was down-regulated in pigs offered chitosan (P = 0.05) relative to the basal diet. Serum leptin concentrations increased (P< 0.05) in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to pigs offered the basal diet. Fatness traits, back-fat depth (mm), fat content (kg), were significantly reduced while lean meat (%) was increased (P<0.05) in chitosan supplemented pigs. Pigs offered chitosan had decreased numbers of Firmicutes in the colon (P <0.05), and Lactobacillus spp. in both the caecum (P <0.05) and colon (P <0.001). Bifidobacteria populations were increased in the caecum of animals offered the chitosan diet (P <0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that prawn shell chitosan has potent anti-obesity/body weight control effects which are mediated through multiple biological systems in vivo.

  20. Effects of cooked navy bean powder on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and safety in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Forster, G M; Hill, D; Gregory, G; Weishaar, K M; Lana, S; Bauer, J E; Ryan, E P

    2012-08-01

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) are a low glycemic index food containing protein, fiber, minerals, essential vitamins, and bioactive compounds and have not been evaluated for inclusion in commercial canine diets. The objective of this study was to establish the apparent total tract digestibility and safety of cooked navy bean powder when incorporated into a canine diet formulation at 25% (wt/wt) compared with a macro- and micro-nutrient matched control. Twenty-one healthy, free-living, male and female adult dogs of different breeds were used in a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled, 28-d dietary intervention study. Apparent total tract energy and nutrient digestibility of the navy bean powder diet were compared with the control diet. Digestibilities and ME content were 68.58 and 68.89% DM, 78.22 and 79.49% CP, 77.57 and 74.91% OM, 94.49 and 93.85% acid hydrolyzed fat, and 3,313 and 3,195 kcal ME/kg for the navy bean diet and control diet, respectively. No differences were observed between the groups. No increased flatulence or major change in fecal consistency was observed. Navy bean powder at 25% (wt/wt) of total diet was determined to be palatable (on the basis of intake and observation) and digestible in a variety of dog breeds. No changes were detected in clinical laboratory values, including complete blood counts, blood biochemical profiles, and urinalysis in either the bean or control diet groups. These results indicate that cooked navy bean powder can be safely included as a major food ingredient in canine diet formulations and provide a novel quality protein source, and its use warrants further investigation as a functional food for chronic disease control and prevention.

  1. Prawn Shell Chitosan Has Anti-Obesogenic Properties, Influencing Both Nutrient Digestibility and Microbial Populations in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Áine M.; Sweeney, Torres; Hayes, Maria; O’Doherty, John V.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of natural products to prevent obesity have been investigated, with evidence to suggest that chitosan has anti-obesity effects. The current experiment investigated the anti-obesity potential of prawn shell derived chitosan on a range of variables relevant to obesity in a pig model. The two dietary treatment groups included in this 63 day study were: T1) basal diet and T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group (70 ± 0.90 kg). The parameter categories which were assessed included: performance, nutrient digestibility, serum leptin concentrations, nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression and gut microbial populations. Pigs offered chitosan had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001), lower ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) (P< 0.05) and reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy and nitrogen (P<0.05) when compared to the basal group. Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene expression was down-regulated in pigs offered chitosan (P = 0.05) relative to the basal diet. Serum leptin concentrations increased (P< 0.05) in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to pigs offered the basal diet. Fatness traits, back-fat depth (mm), fat content (kg), were significantly reduced while lean meat (%) was increased (P<0.05) in chitosan supplemented pigs. Pigs offered chitosan had decreased numbers of Firmicutes in the colon (P <0.05), and Lactobacillus spp. in both the caecum (P <0.05) and colon (P <0.001). Bifidobacteria populations were increased in the caecum of animals offered the chitosan diet (P <0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that prawn shell chitosan has potent anti-obesity/body weight control effects which are mediated through multiple biological systems in vivo. PMID:26636332

  2. Effects of cooked navy bean powder on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and safety in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Forster, G M; Hill, D; Gregory, G; Weishaar, K M; Lana, S; Bauer, J E; Ryan, E P

    2012-08-01

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) are a low glycemic index food containing protein, fiber, minerals, essential vitamins, and bioactive compounds and have not been evaluated for inclusion in commercial canine diets. The objective of this study was to establish the apparent total tract digestibility and safety of cooked navy bean powder when incorporated into a canine diet formulation at 25% (wt/wt) compared with a macro- and micro-nutrient matched control. Twenty-one healthy, free-living, male and female adult dogs of different breeds were used in a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled, 28-d dietary intervention study. Apparent total tract energy and nutrient digestibility of the navy bean powder diet were compared with the control diet. Digestibilities and ME content were 68.58 and 68.89% DM, 78.22 and 79.49% CP, 77.57 and 74.91% OM, 94.49 and 93.85% acid hydrolyzed fat, and 3,313 and 3,195 kcal ME/kg for the navy bean diet and control diet, respectively. No differences were observed between the groups. No increased flatulence or major change in fecal consistency was observed. Navy bean powder at 25% (wt/wt) of total diet was determined to be palatable (on the basis of intake and observation) and digestible in a variety of dog breeds. No changes were detected in clinical laboratory values, including complete blood counts, blood biochemical profiles, and urinalysis in either the bean or control diet groups. These results indicate that cooked navy bean powder can be safely included as a major food ingredient in canine diet formulations and provide a novel quality protein source, and its use warrants further investigation as a functional food for chronic disease control and prevention. PMID:22367072

  3. Prawn Shell Chitosan Has Anti-Obesogenic Properties, Influencing Both Nutrient Digestibility and Microbial Populations in a Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Egan, Áine M; Sweeney, Torres; Hayes, Maria; O'Doherty, John V

    2015-01-01

    The potential of natural products to prevent obesity have been investigated, with evidence to suggest that chitosan has anti-obesity effects. The current experiment investigated the anti-obesity potential of prawn shell derived chitosan on a range of variables relevant to obesity in a pig model. The two dietary treatment groups included in this 63 day study were: T1) basal diet and T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group (70 ± 0.90 kg). The parameter categories which were assessed included: performance, nutrient digestibility, serum leptin concentrations, nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression and gut microbial populations. Pigs offered chitosan had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001), lower ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) (P< 0.05) and reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy and nitrogen (P<0.05) when compared to the basal group. Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene expression was down-regulated in pigs offered chitosan (P = 0.05) relative to the basal diet. Serum leptin concentrations increased (P< 0.05) in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to pigs offered the basal diet. Fatness traits, back-fat depth (mm), fat content (kg), were significantly reduced while lean meat (%) was increased (P<0.05) in chitosan supplemented pigs. Pigs offered chitosan had decreased numbers of Firmicutes in the colon (P <0.05), and Lactobacillus spp. in both the caecum (P <0.05) and colon (P <0.001). Bifidobacteria populations were increased in the caecum of animals offered the chitosan diet (P <0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that prawn shell chitosan has potent anti-obesity/body weight control effects which are mediated through multiple biological systems in vivo. PMID:26636332

  4. Changes in diarrhea, nutrients apparent digestibility, digestive enzyme activities of weaned piglets in response to chitosan-zinc chelate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lichun; Yue, Xiaojing; Hu, Luansha; Ma, Yuanfei; Han, Xinyan

    2016-04-01

    A total of 120 weanling barrows weighing 6.11 ± 0.20 kg were randomly allotted to four treatments with three replications (i.e. pen) of ten piglets per replicate. Pigs were received corn-soybean basal diet (control) or the same basal diet supplemented with the following sources of zinc: (i) 100 mg/kg of Zn as ZnSO4 ; (ii) 100 mg/kg of Zn as chitosan-Zn chelate (CS-Zn); and (iii) 100 mg/kg of Zn as ZnSO4 mixed with chitosan (CS + ZnSO4 ). The results showed that CS-Zn could highly improve average daily gain and average daily feed intake than those of ZnSO4 or CS+ ZnSO4 (P < 0.05). The pigs fed dietary CS-Zn had lower diarrhea incidence and higher apparent digestibility of crude protein than those of the pigs fed dietary ZnSO4 (P < 0.05). The protease activities in duodenal content of the pigs receiving CS-Zn diets was higher than that of the pigs fed dietary ZnSO4 or CS + ZnSO4 (P < 0.05). The amylase activity in duodenal content of the pigs fed dietary CS-Zn was higher than that of the pigs receiving ZnSO4 diets or basal diets (P < 0.05). These results indicated that dietary CS-Zn showed different bioactivities from ZnSO4 or CS + ZnSO4 in reducing the incidence of diarrhea, improving activities of digestive enzymes and growth performance of weaned pigs.

  5. The addition of a Buttiauxella sp. phytase to lactating sow diets deficient in phosphorus and calcium reduces weight loss and improves nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wealleans, A L; Bold, R M; Dersjant-Li, Y; Awati, A

    2015-11-01

    Improving the efficiency of P use by pigs is especially important for lactating sows, whose metabolic requirements for P and Ca are high. The effect of a sp. phytase on lactating sow performance and nutrient digestibility was investigated using the combined data set for 6 studies. Treatments included a nutritionally adequate positive control diet (PC), a negative control diet (NC; with an average reduction of 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca vs. PC), and NC supplemented with a sp. phytase at 250, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 phytase unit (FTU)/kg, respectively. Phosphorus and Ca deficiency in the NC resulted in significantly higher BW loss compared with the PC. All phytase treatments maintained BW loss at the same level as the PC. Increasing doses of phytase significantly ( < 0.05) reduced sow BW loss and increased energy intake, with improvements most apparent in sows older than parity 5. The positive effects on BW and energy intake were not observed in first-parity sows. This may be a consequence of fewer first parity sows in the data set. The apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP were not affected by phytase supplementation. Digestible P and Ca were significantly improved (linear, < 0.0001; quadratic, < 0.0001) by increasing the dose of phytase supplementation. Significantly lower apparent total tract digestibility of energy, Ca, and P was found in the NC treatment vs. the PC treatment, whereas no significant differences were found between phytase treatment and the PC treatment. In conclusion, phytase supplementation at a level of 250 FTU/kg can replace 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca; however, increasing the phytase dose can further reduce BW loss in sows fed P- and Ca- deficient diets.

  6. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P < 0.05) across the treatment as a result of increased undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P < 0.05) improvements in feed intake, weight gain, and final weight as well as the feed to gain ratio. Survivability was not affected by the treatments imposed. Dry matter digestibility were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced due to high undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P < 0.05) digestibility values than those on diets without enzyme supplementation. However ether extract digestibility was

  7. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P < 0.05) across the treatment as a result of increased undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P < 0.05) improvements in feed intake, weight gain, and final weight as well as the feed to gain ratio. Survivability was not affected by the treatments imposed. Dry matter digestibility were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced due to high undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P < 0.05) digestibility values than those on diets without enzyme supplementation. However ether extract digestibility was

  8. Phosphorus Concentrations in Sequentially Fractionated Soil Samples as Affected by Digestion Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Nascimento, Carlos A. C.; Pagliari, Paulo H.; Schmitt, Djalma; He, Zhongqi; Waldrip, Heidi

    2015-12-01

    Sequential fractionation has helped improving our understanding of the lability and bioavailability of P in soil. Nevertheless, there have been no reports on how manipulation of the different fractions prior to analyses affects the total P (TP) concentrations measured. This study investigated the effects of sample digestion, filtration, and acidification on the TP concentrations determined by ICP-OES in 20 soil samples. Total P in extracts were either determined without digestion by ICP-OES, or ICP-OES following block digestion, or autoclave digestion. The effects of sample filtration, and acidification on undigested alkaline extracts prior to ICP-OES were also evaluated. Results showed that, TP concentrations were greatest in the block-digested extracts, though the variability introduced by the block-digestion was the highest. Acidification of NaHCO3 extracts resulted in lower TP concentrations, while acidification of NaOH randomly increased or decreased TP concentrations. The precision observed with ICP-OES of undigested extracts suggests this should be the preferred method for TP determination in sequentially extracted samples. Thus, observations reported in this work would be helpful in appropriate sample handling for P determination, thereby improving the precision of P determination. The results are also useful for literature data comparison and discussion when there are differences in sample treatments.

  9. Phosphorus Concentrations in Sequentially Fractionated Soil Samples as Affected by Digestion Methods

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Carlos A. C.; Pagliari, Paulo H.; Schmitt, Djalma; He, Zhongqi; Waldrip, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sequential fractionation has helped improving our understanding of the lability and bioavailability of P in soil. Nevertheless, there have been no reports on how manipulation of the different fractions prior to analyses affects the total P (TP) concentrations measured. This study investigated the effects of sample digestion, filtration, and acidification on the TP concentrations determined by ICP-OES in 20 soil samples. Total P in extracts were either determined without digestion by ICP-OES, or ICP-OES following block digestion, or autoclave digestion. The effects of sample filtration, and acidification on undigested alkaline extracts prior to ICP-OES were also evaluated. Results showed that, TP concentrations were greatest in the block-digested extracts, though the variability introduced by the block-digestion was the highest. Acidification of NaHCO3 extracts resulted in lower TP concentrations, while acidification of NaOH randomly increased or decreased TP concentrations. The precision observed with ICP-OES of undigested extracts suggests this should be the preferred method for TP determination in sequentially extracted samples. Thus, observations reported in this work would be helpful in appropriate sample handling for P determination, thereby improving the precision of P determination. The results are also useful for literature data comparison and discussion when there are differences in sample treatments. PMID:26647644

  10. Influence of conditioning temperature on the performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on maize- and wheat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Ravindran, G; Thomas, D V

    2010-10-01

    1. The influence of conditioning temperature on the performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on maize- and wheat-based diets was examined up to 21 d of age. The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two grain types (maize and wheat) and three conditioning temperatures (60°C, 75°C and 90°C). Broiler starter diets, each based on one grain (maize or wheat), were formulated and pelleted at the three temperatures. 2. Increasing conditioning temperature decreased the body-weight gain and feed intake in wheat-based diets, but birds fed on maize-based diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C had higher body-weight gain and feed intake than those fed on the diet conditioned at 75°C. Increasing conditioning temperature increased feed per body-weight gain in both grain-type diets but improved pellet durability index (PDI) only in wheat-based diets; PDI was unaffected in maize-based diets. 3. In wheat-based diets, increasing conditioning temperature decreased the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and starch. Ileal nitrogen digestibility of maize-based diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C was higher than at 75°C. Starch digestibility was unaffected by conditioning temperature in maize-based diets. No effect of conditioning temperature was found for apparent metabolisable energy (AME). Increasing conditioning temperature decreased digestible protein and AME intakes in wheat-based diets but, in maize-based diets, birds fed on the diet conditioned at 75°C had lower digestible protein and AME intakes compared to those fed on diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C. 4. Small intestine was longer in birds fed on diets conditioned at 75°C and 90°C compared with those fed on diets conditioned at 60°C. 5. Overall, the data suggest that while the effects of conditioning temperature on body-weight gain and feed intake of broilers to 21 d of age differed depending on the grain type, feed per body-weight gain

  11. Biological nutrients removal from the supernatant originating from the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Di Fabio, S; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F

    2014-09-01

    This study critically evaluates the biological processes and techniques applied to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the anaerobic supernatant produced from the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and from its co-digestion with other biodegradable organic waste (BOW) streams. The wide application of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of several organic waste streams results in the production of high quantities of anaerobic effluents. Such effluents are characterized by high nutrient content, because organic and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus are hydrolyzed in the anaerobic digestion process. Consequently, adequate post-treatment is required in order to comply with the existing land application and discharge legislation in the European Union countries. This may include physicochemical and biological processes, with the latter being more advantageous due to their lower cost. Nitrogen removal is accomplished through the conventional nitrification/denitrification, nitritation/denitritation and the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal process; the latter is accomplished by nitritation coupled with the anoxic ammonium oxidation process. As anaerobic digestion effluents are characterized by low COD/TKN ratio, conventional denitrification/nitrification is not an attractive option; short-cut nitrogen removal processes are more promising. Both suspended and attached growth processes have been employed to treat the anaerobic supernatant. Specifically, the sequencing batch reactor, the membrane bioreactor, the conventional activated sludge and the moving bed biofilm reactor processes have been investigated. Physicochemical phosphorus removal via struvite precipitation has been extensively examined. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from the anaerobic supernatant can take place through the sequencing anaerobic/aerobic process. More recently, denitrifying phosphorus removal via nitrite or nitrate has been explored. The removal of

  12. Biological nutrients removal from the supernatant originating from the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Di Fabio, S; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F

    2014-09-01

    This study critically evaluates the biological processes and techniques applied to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the anaerobic supernatant produced from the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and from its co-digestion with other biodegradable organic waste (BOW) streams. The wide application of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of several organic waste streams results in the production of high quantities of anaerobic effluents. Such effluents are characterized by high nutrient content, because organic and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus are hydrolyzed in the anaerobic digestion process. Consequently, adequate post-treatment is required in order to comply with the existing land application and discharge legislation in the European Union countries. This may include physicochemical and biological processes, with the latter being more advantageous due to their lower cost. Nitrogen removal is accomplished through the conventional nitrification/denitrification, nitritation/denitritation and the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal process; the latter is accomplished by nitritation coupled with the anoxic ammonium oxidation process. As anaerobic digestion effluents are characterized by low COD/TKN ratio, conventional denitrification/nitrification is not an attractive option; short-cut nitrogen removal processes are more promising. Both suspended and attached growth processes have been employed to treat the anaerobic supernatant. Specifically, the sequencing batch reactor, the membrane bioreactor, the conventional activated sludge and the moving bed biofilm reactor processes have been investigated. Physicochemical phosphorus removal via struvite precipitation has been extensively examined. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from the anaerobic supernatant can take place through the sequencing anaerobic/aerobic process. More recently, denitrifying phosphorus removal via nitrite or nitrate has been explored. The removal of

  13. Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Productive Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and White Blood Cells of Lactating Sows

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.; Seo, J.; Kim, W.; Yun, H. M.; Kim, S. C.; Jang, Y.; Jang, K.; Kim, K.; Kim, B.; Park, S.; Park, I.; Kim, M. K.; Seo, K. S.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, I. H.; Seo, S.; Song, M.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and changes in white blood cells (WBC) of lactating sows. A total of 14 sows (200±12 kg of average body weight [BW]; 2.5 of average parity) were used and moved from gestation room to farrowing room on d 109 of gestation. Sows were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were a diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE). Sows were fed the treatments for 28 days (weaning) after farrowing. Blood was collected from each sow and 4 randomly selected piglets from each sow before farrowing or on d 3, 7, or 14 of lactation. Sows were fed respective treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 15 to 21 of lactation. Fecal samples were collected daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were performances and WBC changes of sows and litter, nutrient digestibility of sows, and daily diarrhea of litter. Sows fed PKE had greater average daily feed intake (7.38 vs 7.10 kg/d; p<0.05) and lost less BW (−6.85 vs −8.54 kg; p<0.05) and backfat depth (−0.42 vs −0.71 mm; p<0.05) than those fed CON. However, there were no differences on digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy and weaning to estrus interval of sows fed either CON or PKE. Piglets from sows fed PKE gained more BW (203 vs 181 g/d; p = 0.08) and had less frequency of diarrhea (6.80 vs 8.56%; p = 0.07) than those from sows fed CON. On the other hand, no difference was found on preweaning mortality of piglets from sows fed either CON or PKE. Sows fed PKE had lower number of WBC (9.57 vs 11.82 ×103/μL; p = 0.09) before farrowing than those fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. Similarly, piglets from sows fed PKE had also lower number of WBC (7.86 vs 9.80 ×103/μL; p<0.05) on d 14 of lactation than those from sows fed CON, but no

  14. Stable operation during pilot-scale anaerobic digestion of nutrient-supplemented maize/sugar beet silage.

    PubMed

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Björn, Annika; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-08-01

    Biogas production from maize/sugar beet silage was studied under mesophilic conditions in a continuous stirred tank reactor pilot-scale process. While energy crop mono-digestion is often performed with very long hydraulic retention times (HRTs), the present study demonstrated an efficient process operating with a 50-day HRT and a corrected total solids (TS(corr)) based organic loading rate of 3.4 kg/m(3)d. The good performance was attributed to supplementation with both macro- and micronutrients and was evidenced by good methane yields (318 m(3)/ton TS(corr)), which were comparable to laboratory maximum expected yields, plus low total volatile fatty acid concentrations (<0.8 g/L). A viscoplastic and thixotropic digester fluid behaviour was observed, and the viscosity problems common in crop mono-digestion were not seen in this study. The effluent also complied with Swedish certification standards for bio-fertilizer for farmland application. Nutrient addition thus rendered a stable biogas process, while the effluent was a good quality bio-fertilizer.

  15. Ruminal Degradability and Summative Models Evaluation for Total Digestible Nutrients Prediction of Some Forages and Byproducts in Goats

    PubMed Central

    López, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In in vitro true dry matter degradability (IVTDMD), in situ dry matter degradability, and neutral detergent fiber degradability, both in vitro (IVNDFD) and in situ (ISNDFD) techniques were used with crossbred goats to determine dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ruminal degradability in eight forages and four industrial byproducts. Total digestible nutrients (TDN) content obtained with five different summative models (summative equations) were studied to compare the precision of estimates. All these models included digestible fractions of crude protein, ether extract, and nonfiber carbohydrates that were calculated from chemical composition, but digestible NDF (dNDF) was obtained from IVNDFD (IVdNDF), ISNDFD (ISdNDF), or by using the Surface Law approach. On the basis of the coefficient of determination (R2) of the simple lineal regression of predicted TDN (y-axes) and observed IVTDMD (x-axes), the precision of models was tested. The predicted TDN by the National Research Council model exclusively based on chemical composition only explains up to 41% of observed IVTDMD values, whereas the model based on IVdNDF had a high precision (96%) to predict TDN from forage and byproducts fiber when used in goats. PMID:23762592

  16. Responses of feeding prebiotics on nutrient digestibility, faecal microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Patra, A K

    2011-09-01

    The effects of prebiotics on digestibility, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and bacterial populations in the faeces and immunity in dogs were evaluated by meta-analyses. Overall, data from 15 published studies containing 65 different treatment means of 418 observations from different breeds of dogs were included in the data set. Feeding of prebiotics to dogs did not affect the nutrient intake (P > 0.10), nor did prebiotics change (P > 0.10) the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and fat. However, crude protein (CP) digestibility tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) with increasing dosages of prebiotics, although the degree of prediction was low (R(2) = 0.33). The concentration of total SCFA (P = 0.08; R(2) = 0.90) tended to increase linearly, whereas concentration of acetate (R(2) = 0.25), propionate (R(2) = 0.88) and butyrate (R(2) = 0.85) increased quadratically with increasing dosage of prebiotics in the faeces of dogs. The numbers of beneficial bifidobacteria (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.62) increased quadratically, but lactobacilli (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.66) increased linearly with increasing supplementation of prebiotics. The changes in healthy bacterial numbers were affected by the interaction of initial bacterial numbers and dose of prebiotics; bacterial numbers increased relatively more when initial bacterial numbers were low. Dietary composition did not influence the response of prebiotics on lactobacilli and bifidobacterial numbers in this study. The numbers of pathogenic Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli were not affected by prebiotics. Prebiotics did not affect the serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations such as IgG, IgA and IgM in dogs. Although prebiotics may tend to have an adverse effect on CP digestibility, prebiotics at doses up to 1.40% food intake (DM basis) might increase the beneficial bacterial populations and SCFA concentrations in the faeces of dogs. Thus, the feeding of prebiotics has a great prospective to improve the

  17. Responses of feeding prebiotics on nutrient digestibility, faecal microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Patra, A K

    2011-09-01

    The effects of prebiotics on digestibility, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and bacterial populations in the faeces and immunity in dogs were evaluated by meta-analyses. Overall, data from 15 published studies containing 65 different treatment means of 418 observations from different breeds of dogs were included in the data set. Feeding of prebiotics to dogs did not affect the nutrient intake (P > 0.10), nor did prebiotics change (P > 0.10) the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and fat. However, crude protein (CP) digestibility tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) with increasing dosages of prebiotics, although the degree of prediction was low (R(2) = 0.33). The concentration of total SCFA (P = 0.08; R(2) = 0.90) tended to increase linearly, whereas concentration of acetate (R(2) = 0.25), propionate (R(2) = 0.88) and butyrate (R(2) = 0.85) increased quadratically with increasing dosage of prebiotics in the faeces of dogs. The numbers of beneficial bifidobacteria (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.62) increased quadratically, but lactobacilli (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.66) increased linearly with increasing supplementation of prebiotics. The changes in healthy bacterial numbers were affected by the interaction of initial bacterial numbers and dose of prebiotics; bacterial numbers increased relatively more when initial bacterial numbers were low. Dietary composition did not influence the response of prebiotics on lactobacilli and bifidobacterial numbers in this study. The numbers of pathogenic Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli were not affected by prebiotics. Prebiotics did not affect the serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations such as IgG, IgA and IgM in dogs. Although prebiotics may tend to have an adverse effect on CP digestibility, prebiotics at doses up to 1.40% food intake (DM basis) might increase the beneficial bacterial populations and SCFA concentrations in the faeces of dogs. Thus, the feeding of prebiotics has a great prospective to improve the

  18. Response of turkey poults to soybean lectin levels typically encountered in commercial diets. 1. Effect on growth and nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Y O; Garlich, J D; Classen, H L; Ferket, P R; Havenstein, G B; Grimes, J L; Qureshi, M A; Christensent, V L

    2004-09-01

    Lectins are known to bind to the intestinal brush border membrane and induce antinutritional effects such as disruption of the brush border membrane (BBM) and reduced nutrient digestibility in laboratory rodents. Because soybean lectin (SBL) is usually present in poult starter diets, 2 similar experiments with starting turkey poults were conducted to investigate the effects of purified SBL on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. Experimental diets were a corn starch-casein based control (lectin-free) semipurified diet (PD), semipurified diets containing 0.024 or 0.048% soybean lectin (PDL, PDH), and a corn-soybean meal diet (SBD). Experimental diets were fed from hatch to 14 d. Antibodies specific for soybean lectin were detected in the serum of poults fed the PDL and PDH diets, implying that the SBL in these diets remained active in the digestive tract. Poults fed the control PD or SBD grew equally well. The 0.024% SBL level in PDL had no significant detrimental effect on any parameters assessed in the 2 experiments. In contrast, the 0.048% SBL level in the PDH gave inconsistent results for feed efficiency (FE) and brush border enzyme levels. For instance, on d 6 in experiment 2, poults fed the PDH had poorer FE (P < 0.05) compared with the control PD treatment, but had similar FE to poults fed the PD in experiment 1. In conclusion, SBL present at levels up to 0.024% of the diet would not cause antinutritional effect in turkey poults up to 2 wk of age. PMID:15384908

  19. Effects of flaxseed and chia seed on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and long-chain fatty acid flow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    PubMed

    Silva, L G; Bunkers, J; Paula, E M; Shenkoru, T; Yeh, Y; Amorati, B; Holcombe, D; Faciola, A P

    2016-04-01

    Flaxseed (FS) and chia seed (CS) are oilseeds rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may change meat and milk composition when added to ruminants' diets and may have health benefits for humans. Literature on the effects of CS supplementation on ruminal metabolism is nonexistent. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system consisting of 6 fermenters was used to assess the effect of FS and CS supplementation in an alfalfa hay-based diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and long-chain fatty acid flow. Diets were randomly assigned to fermenters in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, with 3 consecutive periods of 10 d each, consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Each fermenter was fed a total of 72 g of DM/d divided in 6 equal portions. Treatments were 1) alfalfa hay + calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid (MEG; 69.3 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 2.7 g DM/d of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid), 2) alfalfa hay + FS (FLAX; 68.4 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.6 g DM/d of ground FS), and 3) alfalfa hay + CS (CHIA; 68.04 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.96 g DM/d of ground CS). Dietary treatments had similar amounts of total fat, and fat supplements were ground to 2-mm diameter. Effluents from the last 3 d of incubation were composited for analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Ruminal apparent and true nutrient digestibility of all nutrients did not differ ( > 0.05) among treatments. Compared with MEG, FLAX and CHIA increased the flows of C18:3 -3, C20:4 -6, and total PUFA ( < 0.01). Both CHIA and FLAX treatments had greater ruminal concentrations of C18:0, indicating that both CS and FS fatty acids were extensively biohydrogenated in the rumen. The NH-N concentration, microbial N flow, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected ( > 0.05) by treatments. Lastly, there were no differences ( > 0.05) among diets for total VFA concentration and molar proportions

  20. Effects of inclusion of graded amounts of soya bean hulls on feed intake, chewing activity and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, H; Rezayazdi, K; Nikkhah, A

    2014-06-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square changeover design to evaluate the effects of graded inclusion of soya bean hulls (SHs) in replacement of diet forages at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of dietary dry matter (DM) basis on peNDF > 8 and peNDF > 1.18 contents of diets and their resulting effects on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and milk production of dairy cattle. The control diet contained 50% forage, 50% concentrate and no SH. In the other three diets, SH was substituted for alfalfa hay, corn silage and wheat bran to supply 10%, 20% and 30% of the dietary DM. Increasing SH concentration in the diets resulted in decreasing concentrations of forage neutral detergent fibre (NDF), physically effective NDF (peNDF) and mean particle size (p < 0.01). Chewing activity per kilogram of daily dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by the different diets tested. However, chewing activity significantly decreased for kilogram intake of NDF, but increased for peNDF > 1.18 when SH was included in the diets (p < 0.01). Total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients significantly increased for DM, organic matter (p < 0.05) and NDF (p < 0.01) but decreased for crude protein (p < 0.05) as the proportion of SH was increased in the diets. Rumen pH value of cattle was not influenced by the diets. Including medium and high amounts of SH in the diets decreased DMI of the animals (p < 0.05) without any significant effect on their daily milk or 4% fat-corrected milk production. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the NDF from a non-forage fibre source like SH had a lower potential for stimulating chewing activity than did forage NDF. Despite this, the small size of dietary particles increased not only the chewing activity per kilogram of peNDF intake but also saliva secretion as well as the potential for rumen to neutralize acids. The findings of this study demonstrate the greater differences in peNDF > 8 among the diets

  1. Effects of flaxseed and chia seed on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and long-chain fatty acid flow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    PubMed

    Silva, L G; Bunkers, J; Paula, E M; Shenkoru, T; Yeh, Y; Amorati, B; Holcombe, D; Faciola, A P

    2016-04-01

    Flaxseed (FS) and chia seed (CS) are oilseeds rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may change meat and milk composition when added to ruminants' diets and may have health benefits for humans. Literature on the effects of CS supplementation on ruminal metabolism is nonexistent. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system consisting of 6 fermenters was used to assess the effect of FS and CS supplementation in an alfalfa hay-based diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and long-chain fatty acid flow. Diets were randomly assigned to fermenters in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, with 3 consecutive periods of 10 d each, consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Each fermenter was fed a total of 72 g of DM/d divided in 6 equal portions. Treatments were 1) alfalfa hay + calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid (MEG; 69.3 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 2.7 g DM/d of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid), 2) alfalfa hay + FS (FLAX; 68.4 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.6 g DM/d of ground FS), and 3) alfalfa hay + CS (CHIA; 68.04 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.96 g DM/d of ground CS). Dietary treatments had similar amounts of total fat, and fat supplements were ground to 2-mm diameter. Effluents from the last 3 d of incubation were composited for analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Ruminal apparent and true nutrient digestibility of all nutrients did not differ ( > 0.05) among treatments. Compared with MEG, FLAX and CHIA increased the flows of C18:3 -3, C20:4 -6, and total PUFA ( < 0.01). Both CHIA and FLAX treatments had greater ruminal concentrations of C18:0, indicating that both CS and FS fatty acids were extensively biohydrogenated in the rumen. The NH-N concentration, microbial N flow, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected ( > 0.05) by treatments. Lastly, there were no differences ( > 0.05) among diets for total VFA concentration and molar proportions

  2. Effects of inclusion of graded amounts of soya bean hulls on feed intake, chewing activity and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, H; Rezayazdi, K; Nikkhah, A

    2014-06-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square changeover design to evaluate the effects of graded inclusion of soya bean hulls (SHs) in replacement of diet forages at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of dietary dry matter (DM) basis on peNDF > 8 and peNDF > 1.18 contents of diets and their resulting effects on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and milk production of dairy cattle. The control diet contained 50% forage, 50% concentrate and no SH. In the other three diets, SH was substituted for alfalfa hay, corn silage and wheat bran to supply 10%, 20% and 30% of the dietary DM. Increasing SH concentration in the diets resulted in decreasing concentrations of forage neutral detergent fibre (NDF), physically effective NDF (peNDF) and mean particle size (p < 0.01). Chewing activity per kilogram of daily dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by the different diets tested. However, chewing activity significantly decreased for kilogram intake of NDF, but increased for peNDF > 1.18 when SH was included in the diets (p < 0.01). Total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients significantly increased for DM, organic matter (p < 0.05) and NDF (p < 0.01) but decreased for crude protein (p < 0.05) as the proportion of SH was increased in the diets. Rumen pH value of cattle was not influenced by the diets. Including medium and high amounts of SH in the diets decreased DMI of the animals (p < 0.05) without any significant effect on their daily milk or 4% fat-corrected milk production. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the NDF from a non-forage fibre source like SH had a lower potential for stimulating chewing activity than did forage NDF. Despite this, the small size of dietary particles increased not only the chewing activity per kilogram of peNDF intake but also saliva secretion as well as the potential for rumen to neutralize acids. The findings of this study demonstrate the greater differences in peNDF > 8 among the diets

  3. Effect of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Silage on Intake and Nutrient Digestibility in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Cottonseed Cake

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Ho Thanh; Udén, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Four crossbred Sindhi heifers with an average body weight (BW) of 135 kg and a mean age of 17 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding different combinations of rice straw and ensiled water hyacinth (EWH) supplemented with a source of protein in the form of cottonseed cake (CSC) on intake and digestibility. Four treatments consisting of graded levels of EWH were arranged in a 4×4 Latin square. The levels of EWH were set at: 0 (EWH0), 15 (EWH15), 30 (EWH30), and 45% (EWH45) of an expected total dietary dry matter (DM) intake of 30 g total DM per kg BW per day. Rice straw was offered ad libitum, while CSC was given at a fixed level of 5 g DM/kg body weight (BW). Voluntary intake and digestibility were measured consecutively in the 4 experimental periods which each lasted 28 days. The crude protein (CP) content of EWH, rice straw and CSC were 174, 53 and 370 g/kg DM, respectively. Rice straw had the highest neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content (666 g/kg DM), followed by EWH (503 g/kg DM) and the lowest content was 418 g/kg DM in the CSC. The actual EWH contents in the consumed diets were 0, 17, 32 and 52% for EWH0, EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45, respectively. Rice straw intake decreased with level of EWH offered from 3049 for EWH0 to 1014 g/day for EWH45. Crude protein intake was 16, 25 and 33% higher (p<0.001) in EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45 treatments, respectively, as compared to EWH0. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, NDFom and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) increased with increasing level of EWH offered. The highest OM digestibility (72.2%) was found for treatment EWH45 and the lowest (47.4%) for treatment EWH0. In spite of similar dietary CP contents, CP digestibility increased by 21 (EWH15), 31 (EWH30) and 40% (EWH45) with increasing level of EWH in comparison with treatment EWH0. It is concluded that increasing level of EWH in cattle diets considerably improved CP intake and digestibility of nutrients. PMID:25049834

  4. Effects of Dietary Zinc Pectin Oligosaccharides Chelate Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Tissue Zinc Concentrations of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongcheng; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Cui, Hu; Wan, Chunmeng; Gao, Xiuhua

    2016-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc pectin oligosaccharides (Zn-POS) chelate on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and tissue zinc concentrations of Arbor Acre broilers aged from 1 to 42 days. A total of 576 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 9 replicates per group and 16 chicks per replicate. Chicks were fed either a basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with Zn-POS at 300 (Zn-POS-300), 600 (Zn-POS-600), or 900 mg/kg (Zn-POS-900), respectively, for 42 days. A 3-day metabolism trial was conducted during the last week of the experiment feeding. The average daily gain and the average daily feed intake of Zn-POS-600 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of either the control, Zn-POS-300, or Zn-POS-900. Zn-POS-600 had the highest apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and metabolic energy among all groups. The control group had the lowest apparent digestibility of dry matter (P < 0.05), whereas the apparent digestibility of dry matter in Zn-POS-600 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Zn-POS-300. The apparent digestibility of crude protein in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P < 0.05) compared to Zn-POS-300 or the control. The apparent digestibility of metabolic energy in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Zn-POS-300. Zn-POS-600 had the highest liver zinc concentrations (P < 0.05), while Zn-POS-900 had the highest pancreatic zinc concentrations (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that the supplementation of 600 mg/kg Zn-POS is optimal in improving the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake, utilization of dietary dry matter and crude protein, and increasing tissue zinc concentrations in liver and pancreas of broilers.

  5. Influence of source and level of glycerin in the diet on growth performance, liver characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in broilers from hatching to 21 days of age.

    PubMed

    Mandalawi, H A; Kimiaeitalab, M V; Obregon, V; Menoyo, D; Mateos, G G

    2014-11-01

    The influence of source and level of inclusion of raw glycerin (GLYC) in the diet on growth performance, digestive traits, total tract apparent retention (TTAR), and apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients was studied in broilers from 1 to 21 d of age. There was a control diet based on corn and soybean meal and 8 additional diets that formed a 2 × 4 factorial with 2 sources of GLYC and 4 levels of inclusion (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10%). The GLYC used were obtained from the same original batch of soy oil that was dried under different processing conditions and contained 87.5 or 81.6% glycerol, respectively. Type of processing of the GLYC did not affect any of the variables studied except DM and organic matter retention (P < 0.05) that was higher for the 87.5% glycerol diet. From d 1 to 21, feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved linearly (L, P ≤ 0.01) as the GLYC content of the diet increased, but ADG was not affected. On d 21, the relative weight (% BW) of the liver and the digestive tract increased (L, P < 0.01) as the level of GLYC in the diet increased, but lipid concentration in the liver was not affected. The TTAR of DM and organic matter increased quadratically (Q, P < 0.05) and the AME(n) content of the diet increased linearly (L, P < 0.01) with increases in dietary GLYC. Also, the apparent ileal digestibility of DM (L, P < 0.05; Q, P = 0.07) and gross energy (L, P < 0.01) increased as the GLYC content of the diet increased. It is concluded that raw GLYC from the biodiesel industry can be used efficiently, up to 10% of the diet, as a source of energy for broilers from 1 to 21 d of age and that the energy content of well-processed raw GLYC depends primarily on its glycerol content.

  6. Influence of source and level of glycerin in the diet on growth performance, liver characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in broilers from hatching to 21 days of age.

    PubMed

    Mandalawi, H A; Kimiaeitalab, M V; Obregon, V; Menoyo, D; Mateos, G G

    2014-11-01

    The influence of source and level of inclusion of raw glycerin (GLYC) in the diet on growth performance, digestive traits, total tract apparent retention (TTAR), and apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients was studied in broilers from 1 to 21 d of age. There was a control diet based on corn and soybean meal and 8 additional diets that formed a 2 × 4 factorial with 2 sources of GLYC and 4 levels of inclusion (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10%). The GLYC used were obtained from the same original batch of soy oil that was dried under different processing conditions and contained 87.5 or 81.6% glycerol, respectively. Type of processing of the GLYC did not affect any of the variables studied except DM and organic matter retention (P < 0.05) that was higher for the 87.5% glycerol diet. From d 1 to 21, feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved linearly (L, P ≤ 0.01) as the GLYC content of the diet increased, but ADG was not affected. On d 21, the relative weight (% BW) of the liver and the digestive tract increased (L, P < 0.01) as the level of GLYC in the diet increased, but lipid concentration in the liver was not affected. The TTAR of DM and organic matter increased quadratically (Q, P < 0.05) and the AME(n) content of the diet increased linearly (L, P < 0.01) with increases in dietary GLYC. Also, the apparent ileal digestibility of DM (L, P < 0.05; Q, P = 0.07) and gross energy (L, P < 0.01) increased as the GLYC content of the diet increased. It is concluded that raw GLYC from the biodiesel industry can be used efficiently, up to 10% of the diet, as a source of energy for broilers from 1 to 21 d of age and that the energy content of well-processed raw GLYC depends primarily on its glycerol content. PMID:25214552

  7. Digestive development of the early-weaned pig. 1. Effect of continuous nutrient supply on the development of the digestive tract and on changes in digestive enzyme activity during the first week post-weaning.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D; Smyth, J A; McCracken, K J

    1991-03-01

    Gastric intubation was adopted to examine the effect of continuous nutrient supply on digestive development of the pig during the immediate post-weaning period. The 14 d-weaned animals were slaughtered at 3, 5 and 7 d post-weaning (3W, 5W and 7W respectively) and the suckled animals were slaughtered at 14 and 22 d of age (14SR and 22SR respectively). The weight of the pancreas (g/kg bodyweight) was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) in the 5W and 7W groups, as was the weight of large intestine (g/kg) in all weaned groups (P less than 0.01) compared with sow-reared pigs. The stomach weight (g/kg) tended to be greater in the weaned groups. Weaning, in conjunction with a continuous nutrient supply, did not significantly alter the time-related changes in the weight of the small intestine (SI) or the SI mucosa, although both variables tended to be lowest in the 3W group. However, there was a 20% reduction in the protein content of the mucosa within the first 3 d post-weaning (P less than 0.01) which persisted during the 7 d experimental period. Lactase, (beta-galactosidase; EC 3.2.1.23) activity (mumol/g protein and mol/d) of the 7W group was reduced to approximately 40% of the 22SR value. Hence, continuous nutrient supply may have delayed, but did not prevent, the loss of lactase activity at weaning. The activity of sucrase (sucrose-alpha-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.48) was significantly higher in 22SR compared with 14SR animals. Sucrase activity in weaned pigs was intermediate to the values for sow-reared pigs whereas maltase (alpha-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.20) and glucoamylase (glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.3) were significantly increased in relation to their sow-reared counterparts. Continuous nutrient supply did not prevent the reduction in villous height and the crypt hypertrophy associated with weaning. The results of the present study suggest that there may be some degree of interaction between nutrient intake and gut development during the immediate post

  8. Effect of supplementation of phytogenic feed additives (powdered vs. encapsulated) on performance and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Schieder, C; Zentek, J

    2016-03-01

    Inclusion of phytogenic feed additives (PFA) in feed may enhance performance of broilers. Levels of essential oils in powdered form (characterized by menthol and anethole) at 150 mg/kg (P-150) and matrix-encapsulated form (characterized by carvacrol, thymol, and limonene) at 100 mg/kg (ME-100) were supplemented in diet to investigate their effect on performance (trial 1) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients (trial 2) in broilers. A total of 480 1-day-old broilers (Cobb 500) were used in trial 1 and 120 broilers in trial 2. Broilers were distributed in 24 pens with 8 pens per treatment (trial 1) and 6 pens with 2 pens per treatment (trial 2), with 20 birds per pen. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the experimental periods in both trials. In trial 1, body weight of birds at d 42 and overall body weight gain from d 1 to d 42, was higher in treatment ME-100 than birds in control treatment (P = 0.023 and P = 0.024, respectively). Feed efficiency during finisher phase was improved in treatment ME-100 relatively to control and P-150 treatments (P = 0.035). At d 21 in trial 2, the apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein was higher in ME-100 treatment in comparison with control and P-150 treatments (P < 0.001). Apparent ileal absorption (AIA) of phosphorus was higher in ME-100 treatment than control treatment (P = 0.028). AID of cysteine was higher in both phytogenic additive supplemented treatments in comparison with control treatment (P = 0.001). In conclusion, inclusion of a powdered phytogenic additive characterized by menthol and anethole at 150 mg/kg had no effect but only a tendency towards improved performance and AIA of phosphorus, whereas essential oils addition in encapsulated form characterized by caravacol, thymol, and limonene at 100 mg/kg improved performance as well as apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients in broilers, possibly due to improved secretion of digestive enzymes.

  9. Strategies for the recovery of nutrients and metals from anaerobically digested dairy farm sludge using cross-flow microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Gerardo, M L; Zacharof, M P; Lovitt, R W

    2013-09-15

    This work reports on the recovery of nutrients and metals from anaerobically digested manure sludge using a pilot scale microfiltration membrane system. Soluble nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and metals are valuable commodities which exist in high concentration in anaerobically digested manure sludge. The typical disposal of sludge on farmland can cause serious harm to the ecosystem due to eutrophication. The recovery of these materials in clarified solutions represents an added value product and a less contaminated sludge that is environmentally less hazardous. The objective of this study was to investigate the recovery of nutrients and metals using a pilot scale cross-flow membrane filtration system. A ceramic membrane of 0.22 m(2) and 0.2 μm pore size was used to perform solid-liquid separations and soluble materials were recovered in particle and bacteria free solutions. Strategies such as batch diafiltration (DF) and acid pre-treatment were investigated and the fractions collected compared against the initial permeate containing 686.2 mg NH3-N L(-1) and 41.51 mg PO4-P L(-1). Clarified fractions obtained through DF with no acid pre-treatment yielded N:P ratios of around 30 and relatively low levels of P (364.24 mg NH3-N L(-1) and 25.60 mg PO4-P L(-1)) and metals. Acid pre-treatment of the sludge resulted in a two-fold increase of P extracted (271.11 mg NH3-N L(-1) and 71.60 mg PO4-P L(-1)), altering N:P ratios to 8. Depending on the metal species, a 2-9 fold increase in concentration was also observed. Thus it has been demonstrated that different treatment strategies influence the removal and recovery of nutrients and metals from sludge. The best treatment conditions therefore depend on the targeted materials to be recovered. By careful manipulation of the treatment processes the production of specific nutrient compositions in terms of N:P ratios is possible. PMID:23871254

  10. Digestion under duress: nutrient acquisition and metabolism during hypoxia in the Pacific hagfish.

    PubMed

    Bucking, Carol; Glover, Chris N; Wood, Chris M

    2011-01-01

    Hagfish feed by immersing themselves in the body cavities of decaying animals. This ensures a rich nutrient source for absorption via the gills, skin, and gut, but it may also subject hagfish to reduced levels of dissolved oxygen and elevated levels of the products of biological degradation. This study investigated the impacts of hypoxia and ammonia on the assimilation and metabolism of selected nutrients (glycine, l-alanine, and glucose) in Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii). Throughout exposure to hypoxia, plasma glucose levels increased. This was not accompanied by an increase in gut glucose transport, which suggests mobilization of glucose from body glycogen stores. Hypoxia preexposure enhanced glycine absorption across the gut and the gill, although l-alanine uptake was unchanged in these tissues. A 24-h period of exposure to hypoxia in hagfish concurrently exposed to waterborne radio-labeled glycine led to a large (5.7-fold) increase in brain glycine accumulation. Preexposure to high levels of waterborne ammonia (10 mM) for 24 h had no impact on gut or skin glycine uptake. These results indicate that hagfish are adapted to maintain nutrient assimilation despite environmental stressors and that tissue-specific absorption of key nutrients such as glycine can even be enhanced in order to sustain critical functions during hypoxia. PMID:22030853

  11. Interacting Physical and Biological Processes Affecting Nutrient Transport Through Human Dominated Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities increasingly dominate biogeochemical cycles of limiting nutrients on Earth. Urban and agricultural landscapes represent the largest sources of excess nutrients that drive water quality degradation. The physical structure of both urban and agricultural watersheds has been extensively modified, and these changes have large impacts on water and nutrient transport. Despite strong physical controls over nutrient transport in human dominated landscapes, biological processes play important roles in determining the fates of both nitrogen and phosphorus. This talk uses examples from research in urban and agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern USA to illustrate interactions of physical and biological controls over nutrient cycles that have shifted nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sources and cycling in unexpected ways in response to management changes. In urban watersheds, efforts to improve water quality have been hindered by legacy sources of phosphorus added to storm water through transport to drainage systems by vegetation. Similarly, reductions in field erosion in agricultural watersheds have not led to major reductions in phosphorus transport, because of continued release of biological sources of P. Where management of phosphorus has been most effective in reducing eutrophication of lakes, decreases in N removal processes have led to long term increases in N concentration and transport. Together, these examples show important roles for biological processes affecting nutrient movement in highly modified landscapes. Consideration of the downstream physical and biological responses of management changes are thus critical toward identification of actions that will most effectively reduce excess nutrients watersheds and coastal zones.

  12. Factors affecting nutrient trends in major rivers of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, Lori A.; Langland, M.J.; Yochum, S.E.; Edwards, R.E.; Blomquist, J.D.; Phillips, S.W.; Shenk, G.W.; Preston, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    Trends in nutrient loads and flow-adjusted concentrations in the major rivers entering Chesapeake Bay were computed on the basis of water-quality data collected between 1985 and 1998 at 29 monitoring stations in the Susquehanna, Potomac, James, Rappahannock, York, Patuxent, and Choptank River Basins. Two computer models?the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model (WSM) and the U.S. Geological Survey?s 'Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes' (SPARROW) Model?were used to help explain the major factors affecting the trends. Results from WSM simulations provided information on temporal changes in contributions from major nutrient sources, and results from SPARROW model simulations provided spatial detail on the distribution of nutrient yields in these basins. Additional data on nutrient sources, basin characteristics, implementation of management practices, and ground-water inputs to surface water were analyzed to help explain the trends. The major factors affecting the trends were changes in nutrient sources and natural variations in streamflow. The dominant source of nitrogen and phosphorus from 1985 to 1998 in six of the seven tributary basins to Chesapeake Bay was determined to be agriculture. Because of the predominance of agricultural inputs, changes in agricultural nutrient sources such as manure and fertilizer, combined with decreases in agricultural acreage and implementation of best management practices (BMPs), had the greatest impact on the trends in flow-adjusted nutrient concentrations. Urban acreage and population, however, were noted to be increasing throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, and as a result, delivered loads of nutrients from urban areas increased during the study period. Overall, agricultural nutrient management, in combination with load decreases from point sources due to facility upgrades and the phosphate detergent ban, led to downward trends in flow-adjusted nutrient concentrations atmany of the monitoring stations in the

  13. Effects of dietary nitrogen source and concentration in high-grain diets on finishing steer performance and nutrient digestion.

    PubMed

    Milton, C T; Brandt, R T; Titgemeyer, E C

    1997-10-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate dietary N source and concentration on finishing steer performance and nutrient digestion. In Exp. 1, 100 steers were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with 2 x 2 + 1 factorially arranged treatments. Diets contained 1.93 or 2.24% N supplemented by urea or soybean meal (SBM), or 2.24% N supplemented by cottonseed meal (CSM). Steers fed SBM-supplemented diets gained 13% faster (P < .01) and were 9% (P < .01) more efficient converting feed to gain than steers receiving urea. Steers fed diets containing 2.24% N were 4% (P < .05) more efficient than those fed diets containing 1.93% N. Steers fed CSM-supplemented diets gained 6% (P < .10) less efficiently than steers receiving SBM. Increasing dietary N with urea from 1.93 to 2.24% decreased carcass weights 3%, whereas increasing dietary N with SBM increased carcass weights 3%. Carcass-adjusted gains were reduced 8% by increasing urea from .9 to 1.5% but increased 7% by increasing SBM from 6.1 to 10.5% of DM. In Exp. 2, four ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (390 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate urea and SBM supplementation on digestion. Diets contained no supplemental N, 1.84% N with urea or SBM as the supplement, or 2.16% N with SBM as the supplement. Total tract starch digestion, duodenal microbial N flow, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen were higher (P < .10) in steers fed SBM- than in those fed urea-supplemented diets. Supplementation with SBM increased metabolizable protein supply and dietary energy utilization. PMID:9331888

  14. Effect of feeding macerated alfalfa silage on nutrient digestibility and milk yield in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Koegel, R G; Mauries, M J; Schneeberger, E; Kraus, T J

    1999-11-01

    Five feeding studies were conducted with 141 lactating Holstein cows comparing macerated and control alfalfa silage harvested at two cuttings in each of 2 yr. Overall, silage made from macerated alfalfa contained more ash (suggesting improved soil contamination); greater fiber and lower nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) content suggested greater fermentation in the silo. In a digestion study, two diets were fed containing [dry matter (DM) basis] 72% of either control or macerated second-cutting alfalfa. Apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber (ADF) was increased by maceration, and similar changes in digestibility were observed with Yb or indigestible ADF as marker; indigestible ADF was used as a marker in later studies. Lactation trials were conducted with first- and second-cutting alfalfa from each year. In each study, diets were formulated from alfalfa silage plus concentrate based on processed high moisture ear corn; mean compositions were (DM basis): negative control (61% control alfalfa silage), macerated (61% macerated alfalfa silage), and positive control (50% control alfalfa silage). All diets contained 2% crude protein from either roasted soybeans or low-solubles fish meal; soybean meal was added to make the positive control isonitrogenous (but not equal in ruminal undergraded protein). Milk yield was greater on macerated than negative control in two of four trials but not different in the other two trials. Yields of milk and milk components were not different between macerated and positive control in one of four trials. Versus the negative control, milk fat synthesis was depressed on macerated alfalfa in one trial. Overall performance on macerated versus negative control indicated greater apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM), greater yield of milk, protein, and solids not fat, but lower milk fat content. Yields of milk and milk components were greater overall on positive control versus macerated. Estimation of net

  15. Further Comparison of Direct and Indirect Estimates of Apparent Nutrient Digestibility with Effort to Reduce Variation by Pooling of Multi-day Fecal Samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients (DIG) is traditionally assessed by either total collection (TC) or by the indicator method (IM). The IM saves labor by measuring the concentration of an indigestible indicator (e.g. Cr2O3 [CO]) in feed and feces, purportedly resulting in similar DIG va...

  16. Fed-batch cultivation of Desmodesmus sp. in anaerobic digestion wastewater for improved nutrient removal and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Ji, Fang; Zhou, Yuguang; Pang, Aiping; Ning, Li; Rodgers, Kibet; Liu, Ying; Dong, Renjie

    2015-05-01

    Desmodesmus sp. was used in anaerobically digested wastewater (ADW) for nutrients removal and the biodiesel production was measured and compared using fed-batch cultivation was investigated and compared with batch cultivation. The Desmodesmus sp. was able to remove 236.143, 268.238 and 6.427 mg/L of TN, NH4-N and PO4-P respectively after 40 d of fed-batch cultivation, while in batch cultivation the quantities of TN, NH4-N and PO4-P removed were 33.331, 37.227 and 1.323 mg/L. Biomass production of Desmodesmus sp. was also enhanced in fed-batch cultivation, when ADW loading was carried out every 2 days; the biomass concentration peaked at 1.039 g/L, which was three times higher than that obtained in batch cultivation (0.385 g/L). The highest lipid production (261.8 mg/L) was also recorded in fed-batch cultivation as compared to batch cultivation (83.3 mg/L). Fed-batch cultivation of Desmodesmus sp. could provide effective control of nutrients limitation and/or ammonia inhibition on microalgae cultivation.

  17. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs.

    PubMed

    Jin, X H; Heo, P S; Hong, J S; Kim, N J; Kim, Y Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight) were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day) were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01), average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.01). During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08). In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01), ADFI (p<0.05) and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07) during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05). In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05) and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03) were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs' diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses.

  18. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Olijhoek, D W; Hellwing, A L F; Brask, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Højberg, O; Larsen, M K; Dijkstra, J; Erlandsen, E J; Lund, P

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and blood methemoglobin. In a 4×4 Latin square design 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows fitted with rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were assigned to 4 calcium ammonium nitrate addition levels: control, low, medium, and high [0, 5.3, 13.6, and 21.1g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively]. Diets were made isonitrogenous by replacing urea. Cows were fed ad libitum and, after a 6-d period of gradual introduction of nitrate, adapted to the corn-silage-based total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio 50:50 on DM basis) for 16d before sampling. Digesta content from duodenum, ileum, and feces, and rumen liquid were collected, after which methane production and hydrogen emissions were measured in respiration chambers. Methane production [L/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] linearly decreased with increasing nitrate concentrations compared with the control, corresponding to a reduction of 6, 13, and 23% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Methane production was lowered with apparent efficiencies (measured methane reduction relative to potential methane reduction) of 82.3, 71.9, and 79.4% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Addition of nitrate increased hydrogen emissions (L/kg of DMI) quadratically by a factor of 2.5, 3.4, and 3.0 (as L/kg of DMI) for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively, compared with the control. Blood methemoglobin levels and nitrate concentrations in milk and urine increased with increasing nitrate intake, but did not constitute a threat for animal health and human food safety. Microbial crude protein synthesis and efficiency were unaffected. Total volatile fatty acid

  19. Effect of dietary lactulose supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, relative organ weight, and excreta microflora in broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, P Y; Li, H L; Mohammadi, M; Kim, I H

    2016-01-01

    A 35 d trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lactulose on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, relative organ weight, and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 816 1-day-old male Ross broilers (40.2 ± 0.4 g) were allotted to 4 dietary treatments using 12 cages with 17 chicks per cage. Treatments were: 1) CON, basal diet; 2) L05, CON + 0.05% lactulose; 3) L10, CON + 0.10% lactulose; and 4) L15, CON + 0.15% lactulose. Higher (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) and lower (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in broilers fed the L15 diet compared with those fed the CON diet during d 22 to 35. During d 0 to 35, BWG was higher (P < 0.05) and FCR was lower (P < 0.05) in broilers fed lactulose diets than those fed the CON diet. Additionally, broilers fed L15 diets had the highest BWG (P < 0.05) and lowest FCR (P < 0.05). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and nitrogen (N) was increased (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the L15 diet compared with those fed the CON diet. Drip loss was decreased (P < 0.05) in L10 and L15 treatments compared with CON treatment on d 1, d 3, and d 5. On d 3, lowest (P < 0.05) drip loss was observed in the L15 treatment. Excreta E. coli counts in the L15 treatment were decreased (P < 0.05) on d 14, but Lactobacillus counts in the L15 treatment were increased (P < 0.05) on d 14 and d 35 compared with the CON diet. A linear effect (P < 0.05) was observed on BWG (d 22 to 35), FCR (d 0 to 35), the ATTD of DM and N, drip loss, E. coli (d 14), and Lactobacillus (d 14 and d 35) counts. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 0.15% lactulose can improve growth performance and nutrient digestibility; as well as increase the proliferation of Lactobacillus and decrease E. coli counts in excreta. PMID:26542810

  20. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Jin, X. H.; Heo, P. S.; Hong, J. S.; Kim, N. J.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight) were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day) were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01), average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.01). During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08). In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01), ADFI (p<0.05) and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07) during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05). In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05) and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03) were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs’ diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses. PMID:27282974

  1. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Olijhoek, D W; Hellwing, A L F; Brask, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Højberg, O; Larsen, M K; Dijkstra, J; Erlandsen, E J; Lund, P

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and blood methemoglobin. In a 4×4 Latin square design 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows fitted with rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were assigned to 4 calcium ammonium nitrate addition levels: control, low, medium, and high [0, 5.3, 13.6, and 21.1g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively]. Diets were made isonitrogenous by replacing urea. Cows were fed ad libitum and, after a 6-d period of gradual introduction of nitrate, adapted to the corn-silage-based total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio 50:50 on DM basis) for 16d before sampling. Digesta content from duodenum, ileum, and feces, and rumen liquid were collected, after which methane production and hydrogen emissions were measured in respiration chambers. Methane production [L/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] linearly decreased with increasing nitrate concentrations compared with the control, corresponding to a reduction of 6, 13, and 23% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Methane production was lowered with apparent efficiencies (measured methane reduction relative to potential methane reduction) of 82.3, 71.9, and 79.4% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Addition of nitrate increased hydrogen emissions (L/kg of DMI) quadratically by a factor of 2.5, 3.4, and 3.0 (as L/kg of DMI) for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively, compared with the control. Blood methemoglobin levels and nitrate concentrations in milk and urine increased with increasing nitrate intake, but did not constitute a threat for animal health and human food safety. Microbial crude protein synthesis and efficiency were unaffected. Total volatile fatty acid

  2. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs.

    PubMed

    Jin, X H; Heo, P S; Hong, J S; Kim, N J; Kim, Y Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight) were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day) were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01), average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.01). During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08). In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01), ADFI (p<0.05) and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07) during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05). In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05) and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03) were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs' diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses. PMID:27282974

  3. Effects of diet acidification and xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, duodenal histology and gut microflora of broilers fed wheat based diet.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilipour, O; Moravej, H; Shivazad, M; Rezaian, M; Aminzadeh, S; Van Krimpen, M M

    2012-01-01

    1. The objective of this experiment was to study the influences of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient digestibility, digesta viscosity, duodenal histology, and gut microflora of broilers fed on a wheat based diet. 2. The experiment was carried out as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two concentrations of xylanase (0 and 200 mg/kg) and three concentrations of citric acid (0, 20 and 40 g/kg). A total of 408 one-day-old chickens with similar body weight were distributed into 24 pens with 17 birds/pen. Each dietary treatment was given to 4 replicate pens from 0 to 24 d of age. To determine the apparent nutrient digestibility, chromic oxide (3 g/kg) was added to the diets as an indigestible marker. 3. Xylanase significantly increased body weight gain at 24 d of age by 1·4% and improved gain-to-feed (G:F) by 3·6%. The inclusion of 40 g/kg citric acid decreased feed intake and body weight gain by 15·4% and 11·8%, respectively. The inclusion of 20 g/kg of citric acid decreased feed intake, but it did not affect body weight gain of broilers at 24 d of age. The inclusion of 20 and 40 g/kg citric acid improved G:F by 3·8 and 4·3% respectively. Xylanase significantly decreased the viscosity of digesta and improved retention of DM, CP, and energy. 4. Xylanase and citric acid did not have any effect on the histo-morphology of the duodenum and intestinal microbial population. 5. In conclusion, citric acid at 20 g/kg decreased feed intake, did not have a negative effect on body weight gain, and improved G:F. Xylanase decreased digesta viscosity, increased nutrient retention and consequently improved performance of broilers fed on a wheat based diet.

  4. Effect of different levels of raw and heated grass pea seed (Lathyrus sativus) on nutrient digestibility, intestinal villus morphology and growth performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Riasi, A; Mahdavi, A H; Bayat, E

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate chemical composition and effect of different levels (0%, 10% and 20%) of raw grass pea (RGP) and heat-treated (120 °C for 30 min) grass pea seed (HGP) on nutrient digestibility, dressing percentage, relative internal organ weights, intestinal villous morphology and broiler chicks' performance. A total number of 200 day-old male chicks were raised under similar condition for 10 days. On day 11, chicks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and four replicates of 10 birds each. The result of chemical analysis indicated that Iranian grass pea seed has low levels of total and condensed tannin, and it may be considered as a good source of protein (36.1%) and energy (17.09 kJ GE/g). Heat treatment reduced (p < 0.05) the total and condensed tannin to 21% and 78% respectively. Grass peas seed had higher levels of nitrogen-free extract, P, Na, Mg and Zn than soya bean meal. The apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid was affected (p < 0.01) by the treatment diets, and it was the lowest after feeding 20% of HGP (p < 0.05). The relative weight of breast and pancreas (p < 0.05) was affected by treatments. Percentage weight of breast and pancreas increased (p < 0.05) after feeding high levels (20%) of RGP and HGP. Substitution of 20% of RGP and HGP increased the duodenal crypt depth (p < 0.05); however, it had no suppressive effect on villus height as the absorptive surface of intestine. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by the treatments in the total experimental period. This study showed that, although the high level of grass pea seed caused a remarkable increase in the relative weight of pancreas and decreased the apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid, it had beneficial effect on breast relative weight. It seems that heat processing is not effective method for improving quality of Iranian grass pea seed.

  5. Effect of different levels of raw and heated grass pea seed (Lathyrus sativus) on nutrient digestibility, intestinal villus morphology and growth performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Riasi, A; Mahdavi, A H; Bayat, E

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate chemical composition and effect of different levels (0%, 10% and 20%) of raw grass pea (RGP) and heat-treated (120 °C for 30 min) grass pea seed (HGP) on nutrient digestibility, dressing percentage, relative internal organ weights, intestinal villous morphology and broiler chicks' performance. A total number of 200 day-old male chicks were raised under similar condition for 10 days. On day 11, chicks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and four replicates of 10 birds each. The result of chemical analysis indicated that Iranian grass pea seed has low levels of total and condensed tannin, and it may be considered as a good source of protein (36.1%) and energy (17.09 kJ GE/g). Heat treatment reduced (p < 0.05) the total and condensed tannin to 21% and 78% respectively. Grass peas seed had higher levels of nitrogen-free extract, P, Na, Mg and Zn than soya bean meal. The apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid was affected (p < 0.01) by the treatment diets, and it was the lowest after feeding 20% of HGP (p < 0.05). The relative weight of breast and pancreas (p < 0.05) was affected by treatments. Percentage weight of breast and pancreas increased (p < 0.05) after feeding high levels (20%) of RGP and HGP. Substitution of 20% of RGP and HGP increased the duodenal crypt depth (p < 0.05); however, it had no suppressive effect on villus height as the absorptive surface of intestine. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by the treatments in the total experimental period. This study showed that, although the high level of grass pea seed caused a remarkable increase in the relative weight of pancreas and decreased the apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid, it had beneficial effect on breast relative weight. It seems that heat processing is not effective method for improving quality of Iranian grass pea seed. PMID:25846572

  6. Effect of dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharides on performance, blood metabolites, ileal nutrient digestibility, and gut microflora in Escherichia coli-challenged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, R; Ashnagar, M

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of different levels of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) on performance, egg quality, immune responses, and gut microflora in laying hens exposed to Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge. A total of 180 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens, 55 wk of age, were randomly distributed among 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 6 hens each. Experimental diets consisted of 5 graded levels of MOS (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2% of diet). The study lasted 77 d including 7 d for adaptation and 70 d as the main experimental period subdivided into two 35-d periods. The results showed increases (P<0.05) in egg production percentage and egg mass, and a decrease (P<0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR) in birds fed the diets containing 0.1 and 0.15% MOS compared with control birds during the first 35-d period. In addition, there were significant differences between dietary treatments for egg mass and FCR during the second 35-d, with the best (P<0.05) values observed for hens fed on 0.1% MOS-supplemented diet. Feed intake and egg weight, however, were not influenced by dietary treatments throughout the experimental period. Compared to control birds, supplemental MOS resulted in 9.8% (P<0.01) and 8.1% (P<0.05) increases in hen-day egg production and egg mass, respectively, during the entire experimental period. Dietary supplementation with 0.1 to 0.2% MOS decreased (P<0.01) serum triglycerides concentration compared with control birds. In addition, serum concentration of low-density lipoproteins was reduced (P<0.001) by all supplemental MOS levels. In contrast to Newcastle antibody titer, primary antibody response against sheep red blood cell was significantly (P<0.05) affected by supplemental MOS. Supplementation of MOS into the diet caused increases in digestibility coefficients of DM (P<0.05) and CP (P<0.01). In addition, there was a significant (P<0.01) difference between dietary treatments for ileal ether

  7. Plant Products Affect Growth and Digestive Efficiency of Cultured Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) Fed Compounded Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Gregory P.; Reigh, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25–30 percent SBM in combination with 43–39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient. PMID:22536344

  8. Plant products affect growth and digestive efficiency of cultured Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) fed compounded diets.

    PubMed

    Lech, Gregory P; Reigh, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25-30 percent SBM in combination with 43-39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient.

  9. A mesocosm experiment of suspended particulate matter dynamics in nutrient- and biomass-affected waters.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fiona H M; Maggi, Federico

    2016-02-01

    An experimental study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the biomass growing after an increase in available nutrient in an aquatic ecosystem affects the flocculation dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM). The experiment was carried out in a settling column equipped with a turbulence generating system, a water quality monitoring system, and an automated μPIV system to acquire micro photographs of SPM. Three SPM types were tested combinatorially at five turbulence shear rates, three nutrient concentrations, and three mineral concentrations. Analyses of experimental data showed that nutrient availability together with the presence of biomass increased the SPM size by about 60% at low shear as compared to nutrient- and biomass-free conditions; a lower increase was observed at higher shears. In contrast, only 2% lower fractal (capacity) dimension and nearly invariant settling velocity were observed than in nutrient- and biomass-free conditions. Likewise, SPM size and capacity dimension were found to be insensitive to the SPM concentration. Although limited to nearly homogeneous mineral mixes (kaolinite), these experimental findings not only reject the hypothesis that SPM in natural waters can be dealt with as purely mineral systems in all instances, but also anticipate that SPM dynamics in natural waters increasingly exposed to the threat of anthropogenic nutrient discharge would lead to an increased advective flow of adsorbed chemicals and organic carbon.

  10. A mesocosm experiment of suspended particulate matter dynamics in nutrient- and biomass-affected waters.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fiona H M; Maggi, Federico

    2016-02-01

    An experimental study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the biomass growing after an increase in available nutrient in an aquatic ecosystem affects the flocculation dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM). The experiment was carried out in a settling column equipped with a turbulence generating system, a water quality monitoring system, and an automated μPIV system to acquire micro photographs of SPM. Three SPM types were tested combinatorially at five turbulence shear rates, three nutrient concentrations, and three mineral concentrations. Analyses of experimental data showed that nutrient availability together with the presence of biomass increased the SPM size by about 60% at low shear as compared to nutrient- and biomass-free conditions; a lower increase was observed at higher shears. In contrast, only 2% lower fractal (capacity) dimension and nearly invariant settling velocity were observed than in nutrient- and biomass-free conditions. Likewise, SPM size and capacity dimension were found to be insensitive to the SPM concentration. Although limited to nearly homogeneous mineral mixes (kaolinite), these experimental findings not only reject the hypothesis that SPM in natural waters can be dealt with as purely mineral systems in all instances, but also anticipate that SPM dynamics in natural waters increasingly exposed to the threat of anthropogenic nutrient discharge would lead to an increased advective flow of adsorbed chemicals and organic carbon. PMID:26641013

  11. Effect of Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profiles on Intake, Nutrient Digestion and Ruminal Fermentation of Feedlot Nellore Steers

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Carvalho, Isabela P. C.; Messana, Juliana D.; Canesin, Roberta C.; Castagnino, Pablo S.; Lage, Josiane F.; Arcuri, Pedro B.; Berchielli, Telma T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation. Ten rumen and duodenal fistulated Nellore steers (268 body weight±27 kg) were distributed in a duplicated 5×5 Latin square. Dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The roughage feed was corn silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The higher intake of DM and organic matter (OM) (p<0.001) was found in animals on the diet with PF and WF (around 4.38 and 4.20 kg/d, respectively). Treatments with PO and LO decreased by around 10% the total digestibility of DM and OM (p<0.05). The addition of LO decreased by around 22.3% the neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p = 0.047) compared with other diets. The higher microbial protein synthesis was found in animals on the diet with LO and WS (33 g N/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen; p = 0.040). The highest C18:0 and linolenic acid intakes occurred in animals fed LO (p<0.001), and the highest intake of oleic (p = 0.002) and C16 acids (p = 0.022) occurred with the diets with LO and PF. Diet with PF decreased biohydrogenation extent (p = 0.05) of C18:1 n9,c, C18:2 n6,c, and total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; around 20%, 7%, and 13%, respectively). The diet with PF and WF increased the concentration of NH3-N (p<0.001); however, the diet did not change volatile fatty acids (p>0.05), such as the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the acetate:propionate ratio. Treatments PO, LO and with WS decreased by around 50% the concentration of protozoa (p<0.001). Diets with some type of protection (PF and WS) decreased the effects of lipid on ruminal fermentation and presented similar outflow of benefit UFA as LO. PMID:26580282

  12. Providing lipid-based nutrient supplements does not affect developmental milestones among Malawian children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to assess whether using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to complement the diets of infants and young children affected when they achieved selected developmental milestones. In rural Malawi, 840 6-month-old healthy infants were enrolled to a randomised trial. Control particip...

  13. High-fibre sunflower cake affects small intestinal digestion and health in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kalmendal, R; Elwinger, K; Holm, L; Tauson, R

    2011-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate high-fibre sunflower cake (HF-SFC); a feed ingredient distinguished by large amounts of crude fibre and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (i-NSP). 2. Broiler chickens (n = 160) were fed on pelleted maize-based diets free from coccidiostats and antibiotic growth promoters between 15 and 31 d of age. Diets included 0, 10, 20 or 30% HF-SFC. Performance and small intestinal health were assessed. 3. In general, HF-SFC inclusion mediated significant linear increases in ileal digestibility of fat and protein and significant linear decreases in ileal digestibility of dry matter, ash and energy. 4. Weight gain increased linearly with HF-SFC inclusion. Feed conversion was negatively affected by 30% HF-SFC but not by 20% HF-SFC. 5. In the jejunal lumen, inclusion of HF-SFC was associated with significant decreases in colony counts of Clostridium spp. 6. HF-SFC inclusion resulted in significant linear reductions of villus height, thickness of muscularis mucosa, and the circular and longitudinal layers of muscularis in the jejunum. Crypt depth and submucosal thickness were not affected. 7. The data indicate that broiler chickens may thrive on feeds with insoluble fibre contents far exceeding those used in practice, and that HF-SFC exerts some positive effects on digestion and small intestinal health. PMID:21337203

  14. Effects of cereal grain supplementation on apparent digestibility of nutrients and concentrations of fermentation end-products in the feces and serum of horses consuming alfalfa cubes.

    PubMed

    Hussein, H S; Vogedes, L A; Fernandez, G C J; Frankeny, R L

    2004-07-01

    Twenty geldings (five groups; similar age and BW) were used in a completely randomized design experiment to determine effects of grain supplementation of an alfalfa-cube diet on apparent nutrient digestibility and hindgut fermentation. The geldings were housed individually, fed their diets in two equal meals (0600 and 1800), and adapted to five dietary treatments over 6 wk. The treatments were alfalfa cubes (1% of BW; DM basis) without (control) or with one of four rolled cereal grains (i.e., barley, corn, naked oats, or oats) to provide a target level of 0.4% of BW as total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC). Due to acute laminitis, three geldings (one in the control group and two in the barley group) were excluded. Because of this and multiple incidents of gas colic, TNC level was decreased to 0.2% of BW to ensure the geldings' health throughout the adaptation (7 d) and sample collection (5 d) periods. Grain intakes varied (P < 0.05) and reflected the different TNC concentrations. Apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, and cellulose were not affected (P > 0.05) by grain supplementation and averaged 63.2, 63.1, 79.5, 42.7, 39.9, and 50.3%, respectively. Regardless of the source, grain supplementation increased (P < 0.05) apparent digestibility of TNC (from 85.6 to 94.6%) and decreased (P < 0.05) fecal pH (from 7.04 to 6.74). Fecal concentrations of total VFA (mg/g of DM) were greatest for the barley and naked oats diets (averaging 11.73), intermediate for the oats diet (8.00), and least for the control and corn diets (averaging 5.00; P < 0.05). Fecal concentrations of lactate (microg/g of DM) were greatest for the barley diet (254), intermediate for the oats diet (138), and least for the remaining diets (averaging 100; P < 0.05). Fecal concentrations of NH3 N (mg/g of DM) were greatest for the naked oats diet (1.68), intermediate for the barley and oats diets (averaging 0.86), and least for the remaining diets (averaging 0.63; P < 0.05). Serum

  15. Growth of non-Saccharomyces yeasts affects nutrient availability for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    Yeast produces numerous secondary metabolites during fermentation that impact final wine quality. Although it is widely recognized that growth of diverse non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast can positively affect flavor complexity during Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine fermentation, the inability to control spontaneous or co-fermentation processes by NS yeast has restricted their use in winemaking. We selected two NS yeasts from our Uruguayan native collection to study NS-S. cerevisiae interactions during wine fermentation. The selected strains of Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima had different yeast assimilable nitrogen consumption profiles and had different effects on S. cerevisiae fermentation and growth kinetics. Studies in which we varied inoculum size and using either simultaneous or sequential inoculation of NS yeast and S. cerevisiae suggested that competition for nutrients had a significant effect on fermentation kinetics. Sluggish fermentations were more pronounced when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24h after the initial stage of fermentation with a NS strain compared to co-inoculation. Monitoring strain populations using differential WL nutrient agar medium and fermentation kinetics of mixed cultures allowed for a better understanding of strain interactions and nutrient addition effects. Limitation of nutrient availability for S. cerevisiae was shown to result in stuck fermentations as well as to reduce sensory desirability of the resulting wine. Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and a vitamin mix to a defined medium allowed for a comparison of nutrient competition between strains. Addition of DAP and the vitamin mix was most effective in preventing stuck fermentations. PMID:22687186

  16. Growth of non-Saccharomyces yeasts affects nutrient availability for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    Yeast produces numerous secondary metabolites during fermentation that impact final wine quality. Although it is widely recognized that growth of diverse non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast can positively affect flavor complexity during Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine fermentation, the inability to control spontaneous or co-fermentation processes by NS yeast has restricted their use in winemaking. We selected two NS yeasts from our Uruguayan native collection to study NS-S. cerevisiae interactions during wine fermentation. The selected strains of Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima had different yeast assimilable nitrogen consumption profiles and had different effects on S. cerevisiae fermentation and growth kinetics. Studies in which we varied inoculum size and using either simultaneous or sequential inoculation of NS yeast and S. cerevisiae suggested that competition for nutrients had a significant effect on fermentation kinetics. Sluggish fermentations were more pronounced when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24h after the initial stage of fermentation with a NS strain compared to co-inoculation. Monitoring strain populations using differential WL nutrient agar medium and fermentation kinetics of mixed cultures allowed for a better understanding of strain interactions and nutrient addition effects. Limitation of nutrient availability for S. cerevisiae was shown to result in stuck fermentations as well as to reduce sensory desirability of the resulting wine. Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and a vitamin mix to a defined medium allowed for a comparison of nutrient competition between strains. Addition of DAP and the vitamin mix was most effective in preventing stuck fermentations.

  17. Effect of Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics in Weanling Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and twenty weanling pigs in experiment 1 (Exp. 1) (6.91±0.99 kg; 21 d of age) and Exp. 2 (10.20±1.09 kg; 28 d of age) were used in two 42-d and 35-d experiments to evaluate the effect of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and blood profile. In both of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were utilized as follows : i) negative control (NC), ii) positive control (PC), NC+antibiotics (40 mg/kg Tiamulin, 110 mg/kg Tylosin, and 10 mg/kg Enramycin, iii) MCT3, NC+0.32% (phase 1, 2 and 3) MCT, and iv) MCT5, NC+0.55% (phase 1), 0.32% (phase 2 and 3) MCT. In Exp. 1, the pigs fed MCT5 diets had higher (p<0.05) ADG compared to NC treatment during the first 2 wk. From d 15 to 28, the ATTD of energy was improved (p<0.05) by MCT3 compared to the PC treatment. No effect has been observed on the blood profiles [red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), immunoglobulin-G (IgG), lymphocyte concentration] measured in this study. In Exp. 2, the ADG were increased (p<0.05) by the MCT5 treatment than the PC treatment from d 0 to 14. Pigs fed PC treatment diet had lower ADFI (p<0.05) and better FCR (p<0.05) than NC treatment, whereas no differences were shown between MCT treatments and NC or PC treatment from d 15 to 35 and overall phase. The ATTD of DM and nitrogen were improved (p<0.05) by the effect of MCT5 related to the NC and PC treatment at the end of 2nd and 5th wk. The pigs fed MCT3 had higher (p<0.05) energy digestibility than PC treatment. No effects were seen in the blood profiles we measured (WBC, RBC, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin-G). In conclusion, the addition of MCT in the weanling pigs diet can improve the ADG and digestibility during the earlier period (first 2 wks), but had little effect on the blood characteristics. PMID:25049656

  18. Effect of milk replacer program on calf performance and digestion of nutrients in dairy calves to 4 months of age.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Bateman, H G; Suarez-Mena, F X; Dennis, T S; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-10-01

    all nutrients except starch were greater at 16 versus 11wk of age. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were less for HI versus MOD at 11wk of age explaining much of the why postweaning body weight gain advantages were lost postweaning in calves fed the HI program. Feeding more than 0.66kg of dry matter intake from a MR during the preweaning phase did not increase total body weight or hip width gain from 0 to 4mo of age.

  19. Effect of milk replacer program on calf performance and digestion of nutrients in dairy calves to 4 months of age.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Bateman, H G; Suarez-Mena, F X; Dennis, T S; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-10-01

    all nutrients except starch were greater at 16 versus 11wk of age. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were less for HI versus MOD at 11wk of age explaining much of the why postweaning body weight gain advantages were lost postweaning in calves fed the HI program. Feeding more than 0.66kg of dry matter intake from a MR during the preweaning phase did not increase total body weight or hip width gain from 0 to 4mo of age. PMID:27497902

  20. Dry fractionation creates fractions of wheat distillers dried grains and solubles with highly digestible nutrient content for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; therefore, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (Fraction A [FA], Fraction C [FC], and Fraction D [FD]). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 times maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 × 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 μm in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than

  1. Influence of graded inclusion of white lupin (Lupinus albus) meal on performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, S A; Hejdysz, M; Kubiś, M; Rutkowski, A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of white lupin (Lupinus albus) meal (WLM) addition on the intestinal viscosity, bird performance, nutrient utilisation and villi morphology of growing broiler chicks. The experiment was conducted with 480 broiler chicks divided into 6 dietary treatments, including a maize-soybean meal control diet (CON) and 5 experimental diets containing 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 g/kg WLM. During the period from d 0 to 35, birds fed on 200 or higher WLM/kg were characterised by lower body weight gain and feed intake than CON. The use of 150 g of WLM/kg increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to CON treatment. Apparent metabolisable energy corrected to zero N balance (AMEN) and apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter, ether extract, crude protein and starch, linearly decreased as WLM increased from 0 to 300 g/kg. There was a quadratic effect of WLM dose on sialic acid excretion. A strong negative linear correlation was found between the excretion of sialic acid and AMEN. The viscosity of ileal digesta was linearly increased as WLM increased. The effect of WLM dose on ileum villus height (VH) was linear, while that on ileum villus area (VA) was quadratic. Both parameters decreased as WLM increased from 0 to 300 g/kg. In conclusion, the use of over 150 g/kg of WLM in broiler diets depressed performance results. However, depression of nutrient utilisation was only observed when 250 or 300 g/kg of WLM was used. PMID:27025275

  2. Influence of feed form and source of soybean meal on growth performance, nutrient retention, and digestive organ size of broilers. 2. Battery study.

    PubMed

    Serrano, M P; Frikha, M; Corchero, J; Mateos, G G

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of the amino acids (AA) of 4 commercial soybean meals (SBM) from the United States (USA-1, 48.1% CP and USA-2, 46.2% CP), Brazil (BRA, 47.6% CP), and Argentina (ARG, 46.3% CP) and the effects of the inclusion of these SBM in diets in mash, crumble, or pellet form on growth performance, total tract apparent retention of nutrients, and digestive organ size in broilers reared in cages from 1 to 25 d of age. In experiment 1, the AID of Lys was higher (P < 0.05) for the USA-2 than for the BRA SBM, with the SBM from USA-1 and ARG being intermediate. In experiment 2, 12 diets were arranged as a 3 × 4 factorial with 3 feed forms (mash, crumbles, and pellets) and the 4 sources of SBM used in experiment 1. The feeds were isonutritive and the AID of the AA of the SBM obtained in experiment 1 was used for diet formulation. Broilers fed mash had lower (P < 0.001) ADFI and ADG and poorer (P < 0.001) feed-to-gain ratio than broilers fed crumbles or pellets but source of SBM did not affect growth performance. Nitrogen retention was higher (P < 0.01) in birds fed mash than in birds fed crumbles or pellets at all ages. The total tract apparent retention of nutrients was lower (P < 0.05) for the BRA and ARG SBM diets than for the USA-1 and USA-2 SBM diets. Gizzard empty relative weight (% BW) was higher and gizzard pH lower for broilers fed mash than for broilers fed crumbles or pellets (P < 0.001). The results indicate that crumbling or pelleting of the diets improved growth performance of broilers from 1 to 25 d of age. Diets formulated with analyzed rather than calculated AID of AA of the SBM sources resulted in similar broiler performance.

  3. Influence of source and micronization of soya bean meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and ileal mucosal morphology of Iberian piglets.

    PubMed

    Berrocoso, J D; Cámara, L; Rebollar, P G; Guzmán, P; Mateos, G G

    2014-04-01

    The effects of inclusion in the diet of different sources of soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of major dietary components and mucosal ileum morphology were studied in Iberian pigs weaned at 30 days of age. From 30 to 51 days of age (phase I), there was a control diet based on regular soya bean meal (R-SBM; 44% CP) of Argentina (ARG) origin and five extra diets in which a high-protein soya bean meal (HP-SBM; 49% CP) of the USA or ARG origin, either ground (990 μm) or micronized (60 μm), or a soya protein concentrate (SPC; 65% CP) substituted the R-SBM. From 51 to 61 days of age (phase II), all pigs were fed a common commercial diet in mash form. The following pre-planned orthogonal contrasts were conducted: (1) R-SBM v. all the other diets, (2) SPC v. all the HP-SBM diets, (3) micronized HP-SBM v. ground HP-SBM, (4) HP-SBM of ARG origin v. HP-SBM of US origin and (5) interaction between source and the degree of grinding of the HP-SBM. Dietary treatment did not affect growth performance of the pigs at any age but from 30 to 51 days of age, post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was higher (P<0.001) and the TTAD and AID of all nutrients were lower for pigs fed the R-SBM diet than for pigs fed the HP-SBM or the SPC diets. However, no differences between the HP-SBM and the SPC containing diets were detected for any trait. The TTAD of organic matter (P=0.07) and gross energy (GE) (P=0.05) tended to be higher for the micronized HP-SBM than for the ground HP-SBM and that of GE was higher (P<0.05) for US meal than for the ARG meal. Pigs fed R-SBM had lower villus height (P<0.01) than pigs fed HP-SBM or SPC but no differences in ileal mucosal morphology were detected between SPC and HP-SBM containing diets. It is concluded that feeding the HP-SBM or SPC-reduced PWD and improved nutrient digestibility and ileal morphology as compared with feeding the R-SBM, but had no effect on pig performance

  4. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in Eimeria-challenged broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian coccidiosis is a disease caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. The site of invasion and lesions in the intestine is species-specific, for example E. acervulina affects the duodenum, E. maxima the jejunum, and E. tenella the ceca. Lesions in the intestinal mucosa cause reduced feed effic...

  5. A study of nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broiler chicks fed hairy and hairless canary seed (Phalaris canariensis L.) products.

    PubMed

    Newkirk, R W; Ram, J I; Hucl, P; Patterson, C A; Classen, H L

    2011-12-01

    A nutrient retention study and a growth study were conducted with broiler chickens to evaluate the nutritive value and potential toxicity of 2 hairless canary seed products-hulled seed and groats (cultivar CDC Maria), and one hairy hulled canary seed (cultivar Keet). Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 groups of 4 birds each). The hairless canary seed groat, hairless hulled canary seed, and the hairy hulled canary seed contained 24.5, 21.8, and 16.3% CP; 7.1, 5.8, and 6.6% ether extract; 1.5, 14.2, and 12.3% acid detergent fiber, and 3,867, 3,205 and 3,292 kcal/kg of AME(n), on a DM basis, respectively. The hairless canary seed groat, hairless hulled canary seed, and the hairy hulled canary seed protein comprised, respectively, 0.49, 0.33, and 0.33% lysine (DM basis), which was 79, 78, and 67% digestible (apparent ileal); 0.65, 0.53, and 0.60% cysteine (DM basis), which was 86, 87, and 85% apparent ileal digestible; and 0.40, 0.30, and 0.25% methionine (DM basis), which was 89, 90, and 86% apparent ileal digestible. In the second study, a 35-d feeding study with male broiler chickens was conducted. The canary seed products were compared with a Canadian Western Red Spring wheat control. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 groups of 4 birds each). The test ingredients comprised 50% of the corn/soybean diets. The birds fed the hulled canary seed (hairy or hairless) had similar weight gain, feed intake, and G:F to those fed wheat. There were no statistically significant (P = 0.05) differences in the weights of the bursa, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, or the pancreas, nor was there any effect on serum lactate dehydrogenase or creatine kinase. The data indicated that feeding hulled canary seed increased the number of gizzard ulcers (P < 0.01). It was concluded that canary seed does not contain anti-nutritional components that negatively affect broiler performance or bird health. However, the canary seed hulls may damage the gizzard lining. PMID:22080017

  6. Vertical nutrient and trace element migration in cambisoils after application of residues from anaerobic digestion of pig manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Manfred; Unterfrauner, Hans

    2013-04-01

    Cambisols sampled in alpine pastures were packed into soil columns in order to monitor downward migration of nutrient and trace elements, applied within the residue from anaerobic digestion of a pig manure. 2 rain events per week were simulated. The manure added substantial amounts of K, ammonium, Na, Ca, P, S, Cl, B, Zn and Cu to the soil, whereas Mg, Mn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd and V were at the same level. In the eluates, total elemental composition as well as nitrate and ammonium were monitored. Addition of soluble Fe (at 1000 mg/l as FeCl3) decreased the release of soluble sulphate, but had no significant effect on the release of Fe and P. During subsequent rain events, exchangeable K remained enriched in the topsoil, wheras total sulfur moved to deeper layers. After 8 weeks, the columns were dismantled and analyzed for quasi-total and mobile fractions. Both in topsoils and subsoils, manure addition finally increased soil pH in case of low P soils, but decreased soil pH in case of high pH soils. Effects of manure applications on groundwater formation processes will be discussed.

  7. Nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs fed phytase-supplemented barley-based diets containing soybean meal or canola meal as a protein source.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, Tofuko A; Dickson, Taryn; Sands, Jason S; Nyachoti, Charles M

    2009-04-01

    The effect of phytase on nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs fed barley-based diet with soybean meal or canola meal as protein source was investigated. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (70 kg initial BW) were fed five diets in a 5 x 5 Latin square design with one added column. The five diets were based on barley-soybean meal (BSBM) or barley-canola meal (BCM) without or with phytase at 500 FTU/kg, and a casein-cornstarch-based diet, which was used to estimate standardised ileal AA digestibilities. No interactions were detected between phytase and diet on any of the response criteria measured except for apparent total tract N digestibility, which was reduced in BSBM diet but not BCM diet by phytase. Phytase increased (p < 0.01) apparent ileal and total tract P digestibility in both BSBM and BCM diets by at least 17 percentage units, and tended (p < 0.10) to increase the apparent ileal digestibilities of histidine, isoleucine, threonine, valine, cysteine, glycine and tyrosine. In conclusion, the effect of phytase in barley-based diets for finishing pigs on all response criteria measured in this study, except apparent total tract N digestibility, was not influenced by protein source.

  8. A meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of forage particle size, level, source, and preservation method on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi, S M; Imani, M; Zebeli, Q

    2015-12-01

    A meta-analysis of the effect of forage particle size (FPS) on nutrient intake, digestibility, and milk production of dairy cattle was conducted using published data from the literature (1998-2014). Meta-regression was used to evaluate the effect of forage level, source, and preservation method on heterogeneity of the results for FPS. A total of 46 papers and 28 to 91 trials (each trial consisting of 2 treatment means) that reported changes in FPS in the diet of dairy cattle were identified. Estimated effect sizes of FPS were calculated on nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. Intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber increased with decreasing FPS (0.527 and 0.166kg/d, respectively) but neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (0.6%) with decreasing FPS. Heterogeneity (amount of variation among studies) was significant for all intake and digestibility parameters and the improvement in feed intake only occurred with decreasing FPS for diets containing a high level of forage (>50%). Also, the improvement in dry matter intake due to lowering FPS occurred for diets containing silage but not hay. Digestibility of dry matter increased with decreasing FPS when the forage source of the diet was not corn. Milk production consistently increased (0.541kg/d; heterogeneity=19%) and milk protein production increased (0.02kg/d) as FPS decreased, but FCM was not affected by FPS. Likewise, milk fat percentage decreased (0.058%) with decreasing FPS. The heterogeneity of milk parameters (including fat-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein), other than milk production, was also significant. Decreasing FPS in high-forage diets (>50%) increased milk protein production by 0.027%. Decreasing FPS increased milk protein content in corn forage-based diets and milk fat and protein percentage in hay-based diets. In conclusion, FPS has the potential to affect feed intake and milk production of dairy cows, but its effects depend upon

  9. A meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of forage particle size, level, source, and preservation method on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi, S M; Imani, M; Zebeli, Q

    2015-12-01

    A meta-analysis of the effect of forage particle size (FPS) on nutrient intake, digestibility, and milk production of dairy cattle was conducted using published data from the literature (1998-2014). Meta-regression was used to evaluate the effect of forage level, source, and preservation method on heterogeneity of the results for FPS. A total of 46 papers and 28 to 91 trials (each trial consisting of 2 treatment means) that reported changes in FPS in the diet of dairy cattle were identified. Estimated effect sizes of FPS were calculated on nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. Intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber increased with decreasing FPS (0.527 and 0.166kg/d, respectively) but neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (0.6%) with decreasing FPS. Heterogeneity (amount of variation among studies) was significant for all intake and digestibility parameters and the improvement in feed intake only occurred with decreasing FPS for diets containing a high level of forage (>50%). Also, the improvement in dry matter intake due to lowering FPS occurred for diets containing silage but not hay. Digestibility of dry matter increased with decreasing FPS when the forage source of the diet was not corn. Milk production consistently increased (0.541kg/d; heterogeneity=19%) and milk protein production increased (0.02kg/d) as FPS decreased, but FCM was not affected by FPS. Likewise, milk fat percentage decreased (0.058%) with decreasing FPS. The heterogeneity of milk parameters (including fat-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein), other than milk production, was also significant. Decreasing FPS in high-forage diets (>50%) increased milk protein production by 0.027%. Decreasing FPS increased milk protein content in corn forage-based diets and milk fat and protein percentage in hay-based diets. In conclusion, FPS has the potential to affect feed intake and milk production of dairy cows, but its effects depend upon

  10. Increasing concentrations of phenol progressively affect anaerobic digestion of cellulose and associated microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Chapleur, Olivier; Madigou, Céline; Civade, Raphaël; Rodolphe, Yohan; Mazéas, Laurent; Bouchez, Théodore

    2016-02-01

    Performance stability is a key issue when managing anaerobic digesters. However it can be affected by external disturbances caused by micropollutants. In this study the influence of phenol on the methanization of cellulose was evaluated through batch toxicity assays. Special attention was given to the dynamics of microbial communities by means of automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. We observed that, as phenol concentrations increased, the different steps of anaerobic cellulose digestion were unevenly and progressively affected, methanogenesis being the most sensitive: specific methanogenic activity was half-inhibited at 1.40 g/L of phenol, whereas hydrolysis of cellulose and its fermentation to VFA were observed at up to 2.00 g/L. Depending on the level of phenol, microbial communities resisted either through physiological or structural adaptation. Thus, performances at 0.50 g/L were maintained in spite of the microbial community's shift. However, the communities' ability to adapt was limited and performances decreased drastically beyond 2.00 g/L of phenol. PMID:26614490

  11. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue.

  12. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  13. Diet quality and food limitation affect the dynamics of body composition and digestive organs in a migratory songbird (Zonotrichia albicollis).

    PubMed

    Pierce, Barbara J; McWilliams, Scott R

    2004-01-01

    Migrating songbirds interrupt their feeding to fly between stopover sites that may vary appreciably in diet quality. We studied the effects of fasting and food restriction on body composition and digestive organs in a migratory songbird and how these effects interacted with diet quality to influence the rate of recovery of nutrient reserves. Food limitation caused white-throated sparrows to reduce both lean and fat reserves, with about 20% of the decline in lean mass represented by a decline in stomach, small intestine, and liver. During refeeding on diets similar in nutrient composition to either grain or fruit, food-limited grain-fed birds ate 40% more than did control birds, and they regained body mass, with on average 60% of the increase in body mass composed of lean mass including digestive organs. In contrast, food-limited fruit-fed birds did not eat more than did control birds and did not regain body mass, suggesting that a digestive constraint limited their food intake. The interacting effects of food limitation and diet quality on the dynamics of body composition and digestive organs in sparrows suggest that the adequacy of the diet at stopover sites can directly influence the rate of recovery of body reserves in migrating songbirds and hence the pace of their migration.

  14. The effect of level of crude protein and available lysine on finishing pig performance, nitrogen balance and nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Ball, M E E; Magowan, E; McCracken, K J; Beattie, V E; Bradford, R; Gordon, F J; Robinson, M J; Smyth, S; Henry, W

    2013-04-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of decreasing the crude protein (CP) content of diets for finishing pigs containing two levels of available lysine on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and production performance. Ten finishing diets containing five levels of CP (on average 144, 155, 168, 182 and 193 g/kg fresh basis) and two levels of available lysine (6.9 and 8.2 g/kg fresh basis) were formulated. The diets were offered to pigs on a performance trial (n = 800 Large White (LW)×Landrace (LR) pigs) from 10 wk of age until finish at 21 wks+5 d of age. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. In addition, a digestibility/N balance trial was conducted using pigs (n = 80 LW×LR) housed in metabolism crates. Digestibility of dry matter (DM), CP, oil, fibre and energy was determined. N balance values were determined through analysis of N content of urine and faeces ('as determined'). N balance values were also calculated using ADG values and assuming that 16% of growth is protein deposition ("as calculated"). Pig performance was poor between 10 and 13 wk of age which indicated that the dietary treatments were nutritionally inadequate for pigs less than 40 kg. There was a significant (p<0.01) quadratic effect of increasing CP level on feed intake, ADG and FCR from 10 to 13 wk which indicated that the lower CP levels did not supply adequate levels of essential or non-essential amino acids. There was no effect of increasing available lysine level throughout the early period, which in conjunction with the response in older pigs, suggested that both 8.2 and 6.9 g/kg available lysine were insufficient to drive optimum growth. There was a positive response (p<0.05) to increasing available lysine level from 13 wk to finish which indicated that 6.9 g/kg available lysine was not adequate for finishing pigs. Energy digestibility decreased with decreasing CP level of diets containing 6

  15. Effects of long period feeding pistachio by-product silage on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters of Holstein male calves.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, P; Riasi, A; Alikhani, M

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pistachio by-product silage (PBPS) as a partial replacement for corn silage (CS) on chewing activity, nutrients digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters in Holstein male calves over a 6-month assay. For this purpose, 24 Holstein male calves (4 to 5 months of age and 155.6±13.5 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments (n=6). In these treatments, CS was substituted with different levels of PBPS (0%, 6%, 12% and 18% of dry matter (DM)). Nutrient digestibility was measured at the end of the experimental period (days 168 to 170). Ruminal fermentation parameters were determined on days 90 and 180 and chewing activity was determined on days 15 of the 3rd and 6th month of the experiment. Results showed that calves fed rations containing 6% PBPS spent more time ruminating (P<0.05) than the control group on the 3rd and 6th months. Feeding PBPS was found to have no effects on DM, organic matter (OM), ether extract or ash digestibility, but apparent digestibility of CP, NDFom and ADFom linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing substitutions. On days 90 and 180, ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids and NH3-N linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing levels of PBPS in the diets; however, ruminal pH and molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate were similar across the treatments. It was concluded that partial substitution of CS with PBPS (6% or 12%) would have no adverse effects on nutrient digestibility, total chewing activity and ruminal fermentation parameters.

  16. Comparison of corn silage hybrids for yield, nutrient composition, in vitro digestibility, and milk yield by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E D; Mandebvu, P; Ballard, C S; Sniffen, C J; Carter, M P; Beck, J

    2001-10-01

    A study was undertaken to compare Novartis N29-F1, a dual-purpose 90-d relative maturity corn hybrid, and Novartis NX3018, a 90-d relative maturity leafy corn silage hybrid for dry matter (DM) yield, in vitro digestibility, plant components, nutrient composition, and lactational performance by Holstein cows. The two corn hybrids were planted in replicated 15.2- x 321-m plots. Plant population and DM yield were similar between the two corn hybrids. Novartis NX3018 had higher content of crude protein and ash, a higher proportion of leaves and stalks, and a lower proportion of grain compared with Novartis N29-F1. The cob, grain, and leaves of Novartis NX3018 had higher in vitro true DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearances compared with the respective plant components of Novartis N29-F1. Thirty-eight midlactation multiparous Holstein cows (78 +/- 23.0 days in milk) producing 47.2 +/- 8.9 kg of milk per cow per day were blocked and assigned randomly to one of two total mixed ration (TMR) containing (DM basis) approximately 26% Novartis N29-F1 or Novartis NX3018 corn silage. Cows were housed in a free-stall barn and group fed ad libitum. The lactation study was conducted as a crossover design with two 28-d periods. Samples and data were collected during the final 7 d of each period. The total mixed rations were formulated using the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy nutrition model. Cows that were fed the total mixed rations containing Novartis NX3018 corn silage produced higher yields of milk 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM), milk crude protein, and milk lactose compared to cows that were fed the TMR containing Novartis N29-F1 corn silage. In conclusion, the Novartis NX3018 corn hybrid was leafier and more digestible in vitro, and when fed to dairy cows as silage, promoted higher milk yield compared with the Novartis N29-F1 corn hybrid.

  17. Replacing corn silage with different forage millet silage cultivars: effects on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of corn silage (CS) with 2 cultivars of forage millet silages [i.e., regular millet (RM) and sweet millet (SM)] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a high-forage total mixed ration (68:32 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included CS (control), RM, and SM diets. Experimental silages constituted 37% of each diet DM. Three ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Relative to CS, RM and SM silages contained 36% more crude protein, 66% more neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 88% more acid detergent fiber. Cows fed CS consumed more dry matter (DM; 24.4 vs. 22.7 kg/d) and starch (5.7 vs. 3.7 kg/d), but less NDF (7.9 vs. 8.7 kg/d) than cows fed RM or SM. However, DM, starch and NDF intakes were not different between forage millet silage types. Feeding RM relative to CS reduced milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (35.8 vs. 38.0 kg/d) and SCM (32.7 vs. 35.3 kg/d). However, cows fed SM had similar milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk yields than cows fed CS or RM. Milk efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Milk protein concentration was greatest for cows fed CS, intermediate for cows fed SM, and lowest for cows fed RM. Milk concentration of solids-not-fat was lesser, whereas milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RM than for those fed CS. However, millet silage type had no effect on milk solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen levels. Concentrations of milk fat, lactose and total solids were not affected by silage type. Ruminal pH and ruminal NH3-N were greater for cows fed RM and SM than for cows fed CS. Total-tract digestibility of DM (average=67.9%), NDF (average=53

  18. Effects of spontaneous heating on estimates of total digestible nutrients for alfalfa-orchardgrass hays packaged in large round bales.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Hoffman, P C

    2010-07-01

    Large round or large square hay packages are more likely to heat spontaneously during storage than hay packaged in conventional (45 kg) bales, and the effects of this phenomenon on the associated energy estimates for these hays can be severe. Our objectives for this project were to assess the relationship between estimates of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and spontaneous heating and to describe any important differences in energy estimates that may result specifically from 2 methods of estimating truly digestible fiber (TD-Fiber). Using the summative approach to estimate TDN, TD-Fiber can be estimated from inputs of protein-corrected neutral detergent fiber (NDFn) and acid detergent lignin (TD-FiberLIG) or from NDFn and 48-h neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TD-FiberNDFD). Throughout 2006 and 2007, mixed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) hays from 3 individual harvests were obtained from the same 8.2-ha research site near Stratford, Wisconsin. Both options for estimating TD-Fiber (TD-FiberLIG or TD-FiberNDFD) were then used independently via the summative approach to estimate the total TDN concentrations (TDN-LIG or TDN-NDFD, respectively) within these hays. Estimates of both TDN-LIG and TDN-NDFD then were related to heating degree days >30 degrees C accumulated during storage by various regression techniques. Changes (poststorage - prestorage) in TDN-LIG that occurred during storage (DeltaTDN-LIG) were best fitted with a nonlinear decay model in which the independent variable was squared [Y=(11.7 x e(-0.0000033xxxx)) - 11.6; R(2)=0.928]. For changes in TDN-NDFD (DeltaTDN-NDFD), a quadratic regression model provided the best fit (Y=0.0000027x(2) - 0.010x+0.4; R(2)=0.861). Generally, DeltaTDN-LIG estimates were 2.0 to 4.0 percentage units lower than DeltaTDN-NDFD estimates when heating exceeded 500 HDD. For regressions on maximum internal bale temperature, both DeltaTDN-LIG (Y=-0.38x+16.3; R(2)=0.954) and DeltaTDN-NDFD (Y=-0

  19. Influence of incrementally substituting dietary soya bean meal for rapeseed meal on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, growth performance and ammonia emissions from growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Patrick; O'Shea, Cormac; Figat, Sylwia; O'Doherty, John V

    2010-10-01

    A completely randomised design experiment was performed to examine the effects of replacing different levels of soya bean meal (SBM) with rapeseed meal (RSM) on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, apparent nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and manure ammonia emissions of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs (n = 336; mean live weight 42.1 kg) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments containing per kg diet: 210 g SBM; 140 g SBM and 70 g RSM; 70 g SBM and 140 g RSM; and 210 g RSM. All diets were formulated on an ileal digestible amino acid, net energy and available phosphorus basis. There was no significant treatment effect on average daily gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and carcass characteristics. There was a linear decrease in gross energy digestibility (p < 0.01) as RSM increased at the expense of SBM in the diet. There was a linear decrease in urinary N excretion (p < 0.01), N digestibility (p < 0.05), total N excretion (p < 0.05) and N retention (p < 0.05) with increasing levels of RSM. There was no effect of dietary treatment on manure ammonia emissions. The results of this study indicate that RSM can be used as a direct replacement for SBM with no associated depression in performance, when formulated on an ileal digestible amino acid and net energy basis. Consumption of diets containing incremental levels of RSM linearly decreased urinary N and total N excretion, reflecting the associated decrease in crude protein concentrations.

  20. The food matrix affects the anthocyanin profile of fortified egg and dairy matrices during processing and in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Vadillo, Carlos; Nau, Françoise; Guerin-Dubiard, Catherin; Jardin, Julien; Lechevalier, Valérie; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Guadarrama, Alberto; Tóth, Tamás; Csavajda, Éva; Hingyi, Hajnalka; Karakaya, Sibel; Sibakov, Juhani; Capozzi, Francesco; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand to what extent the inclusion of anthocyanins into dairy and egg matrices could affect their stability after processing and their release and solubility during digestion. For this purpose, individual and total anthocyanin content of four different enriched matrices, namely custard dessert, milkshake, pancake and omelettete, was determined after their manufacturing and during in vitro digestion. Results showed that anthocyanin recovery after processing largely varied among matrices, mainly due to the treatments applied and the interactions developed with other food components. In terms of digestion, the present study showed that the inclusion of anthocyanins into food matrices could be an effective way to protect them against intestinal degradation, and also the incorporation of anthocyanins into matrices with different compositions and structures could represent an interesting and effective method to control the delivery of anthocyanins within the different compartments of the digestive tract. PMID:27507502

  1. The food matrix affects the anthocyanin profile of fortified egg and dairy matrices during processing and in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Vadillo, Carlos; Nau, Françoise; Guerin-Dubiard, Catherin; Jardin, Julien; Lechevalier, Valérie; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Guadarrama, Alberto; Tóth, Tamás; Csavajda, Éva; Hingyi, Hajnalka; Karakaya, Sibel; Sibakov, Juhani; Capozzi, Francesco; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand to what extent the inclusion of anthocyanins into dairy and egg matrices could affect their stability after processing and their release and solubility during digestion. For this purpose, individual and total anthocyanin content of four different enriched matrices, namely custard dessert, milkshake, pancake and omelettete, was determined after their manufacturing and during in vitro digestion. Results showed that anthocyanin recovery after processing largely varied among matrices, mainly due to the treatments applied and the interactions developed with other food components. In terms of digestion, the present study showed that the inclusion of anthocyanins into food matrices could be an effective way to protect them against intestinal degradation, and also the incorporation of anthocyanins into matrices with different compositions and structures could represent an interesting and effective method to control the delivery of anthocyanins within the different compartments of the digestive tract.

  2. Evaluation of nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of exotic felids fed horse- or beef-based diets: use of the domestic cat as a model for exotic felids.

    PubMed

    Vester, Brittany M; Beloshapka, Alison N; Middelbos, Ingmar S; Burke, Sarah L; Dikeman, Cheryl L; Simmons, Lee G; Swanson, Kelly S

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding commercially available beef- and horse-based diets on nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of large captive exotic felids and domestic cats. Four species of large exotic felids including cheetahs, Malayan tigers, jaguars, and Amur tigers, and domestic cats were utilized in a crossover design. Raw meat diets included a beef-based diet (57% protein; 28% fat) and a horse-based diet (51% protein; 30% fat). All cats were acclimated to the diet for 16 days followed by a 4 day collection period, where total feces, including one fresh sample, were collected. All feces were scored on collection. Intake did not differ due to diet, but fecal output was greater when cats consumed the horse-based diet. Total tract apparent dry matter (DM) digestibility was higher (P<0.05) and organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) digestibilities were lower (P<0.05) when cats were fed the beef-based diet compared with the horse-based diet. CP digestibility was similar in domestic cats and cheetahs, and greater (P<0.05) than Amur tigers. Fecal scores were lower and fecal DM was greater (P<0.05) when cats consumed the horse-based diet compared with the beef-based diet. Domestic cats had lower (P<0.05) fecal ammonia concentrations compared with all other species. Fecal ammonia concentrations were lowest (P<0.05) when cats were fed the horse-based diet. Fecal total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA), and butyrate concentrations were higher (P<0.05) when cats consumed the beef-based diet. Our results suggest that the domestic cat serves as an appropriate model for large exotic felid species, but differences among the species exist. Decreased nutrient digestibility by tigers and jaguars should be considered when developing feeding recommendations for these species based on domestic cat data.

  3. Evaluation of two milk replacers fed to hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus): nutrient composition, apparent total tract digestibility, and comparison to maternal cheetah milk.

    PubMed

    Bell, Katherine M; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Cottam, Yvette H; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2011-01-01

    Commercially prepared milk replacers are frequently used to provide the sole source of nutrition for hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus). The nutrient composition of two commonly used milk replacers was determined. Using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker, nutrient digestibility was calculated from the analyses of fecal samples collected from each cub (n = 4 on formula 1, and n = 2 on formula 2). Mean apparent total tract digestibility for both formulas was >90% for all nutrients analyzed (crude protein, amino acids, crude fat (CF), and dry matter). However, the total CF content and the concentration of the essential fatty acids, such as α-linolenic, linolenic, and arachidonic acid, of both formulas was lower than reported for maternal cheetah milk. Additionally, one formula contained a comparatively high amount of carbohydrate, at the expense of protein. Although data were lacking for cheetah maternal milk, comparison with domestic cat milk revealed high concentrations of a number of minerals (K, Fe, Zn, and Cu), while vitamin D(3) was not detected in one formula. Both formulas were low in the majority of essential amino acids compared with domestic cat maternal milk. Despite their apparently high digestibility, neither formula was complete or balanced in terms of nutrient concentrations and ratios when maternal cheetah milk and/or the requirements established for growth in domestic cats were used as estimates of ideal. On this basis, although all cubs in this study were healthy and maintained good body conditions for the duration of the trial, the results of dietary analyses indicate that these milk replacers may not provide optimal nutrition for growth in cheetah cubs when used for extended periods.

  4. Effects of exogenous proteases without or with carbohydrases on nutrient digestibility and disappearance of non-starch polysaccharides in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Olukosi, O. A.; Beeson, L. A.; Englyst, K.; Romero, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a subtilisin protease, without or with inclusion of carbohydrases, on digestibility and retention of energy and protein, as well as the solubilization and disappearance of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) from corn-soybean meal based diets fed to broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty-eight Ross 308 male broiler chickens were used for the experiment. On d 14, the birds were weighed and allocated to 6 treatments and 8 replicates per treatment with 6 birds per replicate. Treatments were: 1) corn-soybean meal based control diet; 2) control diet plus supplemental protease at 5,000 (P5000) protease units (PU)/kg); 3) control plus 10,000 PU/kg protease (P10000); or control plus an enzyme combination containing xylanase, amylase, and protease (XAP) added to achieve protease activity of: 4) 2,500 PU/kg (XAP2500); 5) 5,000 PU/kg (XAP5000); or 6) 10,000 PU/kg (XAP10000). The enzymes in XAP were combined at fixed ratios of 10:1:25 of xylanase:amylase:protease. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and specific orthogonal contrasts between treatments were performed. Addition of xylanase and amylase increased (P < 0.05) the ileal digestibility of protein by 4.2% and 2.1% at XAP5000 and XAP10000, respectively (relative to P5000 and P10000, respectively), exhibiting a plateau after the XAP5000 dose. Increment (P < 0.05) in AME due to protease was evident, particularly in P10000. At the ileal level, XAP reduced (P < 0.05) the flow of insoluble xylose and arabinose, which indicates an increase in the solubilization of arabinoxylan polymers in the small intestine. Protease on its own reduced (P < 0.05) the flow of insoluble arabinose but did not affect the flow of insoluble xylose. XAP reduced (P < 0.05) the pre-cecal flow of insoluble and total glucose and galactose. It was concluded that whereas protease by itself improved nutrient utilization and increased solubilization of NSP components, at the lower dose, a

  5. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources.

  6. Recovering biomethane and nutrients from anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and its co-digestion with fruit and vegetable waste.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Shek, M A; Cadavid-Rodríguez, L S; Bolaños, I V; Agudelo-Henao, A C

    2016-01-01

    The potential to recover bioenergy from anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (WH) and from its co-digestion with fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was investigated. Initially, biogas and methane production were studied using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test at 2 g volatile solids (VS) L(-1) of substrate concentration, both in the digestion of WH alone and in its co-digestion with FVW (WH-FVW ratio of 70:30). Subsequently, the biogas production was optimized in terms of total solids (TS) concentration, testing 4 and 6% of TS. The BMP test showed a biogas yield of 0.114 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded for WH alone. On the other hand, the biogas potential from the WH-FVW co-digestion was 0.141 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded, showing an increase of 23% compared to that of WH alone. Maximum biogas production of 0.230 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded was obtained at 4% of TS in the co-digestion of WH-FVW. Using semi-continuously stirred tank reactors, 1.3 m(3) biogas yield kg(-1) VSadded was produced using an organic loading rate of 2 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. It was also found that a WH-FVW ratio of 80:20 improved the process in terms of pH stability. Additionally, it was found that nitrogen can be recovered in the liquid effluent with a potential for use as a liquid fertilizer. PMID:26819391

  7. Recovering biomethane and nutrients from anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and its co-digestion with fruit and vegetable waste.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Shek, M A; Cadavid-Rodríguez, L S; Bolaños, I V; Agudelo-Henao, A C

    2016-01-01

    The potential to recover bioenergy from anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (WH) and from its co-digestion with fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was investigated. Initially, biogas and methane production were studied using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test at 2 g volatile solids (VS) L(-1) of substrate concentration, both in the digestion of WH alone and in its co-digestion with FVW (WH-FVW ratio of 70:30). Subsequently, the biogas production was optimized in terms of total solids (TS) concentration, testing 4 and 6% of TS. The BMP test showed a biogas yield of 0.114 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded for WH alone. On the other hand, the biogas potential from the WH-FVW co-digestion was 0.141 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded, showing an increase of 23% compared to that of WH alone. Maximum biogas production of 0.230 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded was obtained at 4% of TS in the co-digestion of WH-FVW. Using semi-continuously stirred tank reactors, 1.3 m(3) biogas yield kg(-1) VSadded was produced using an organic loading rate of 2 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. It was also found that a WH-FVW ratio of 80:20 improved the process in terms of pH stability. Additionally, it was found that nitrogen can be recovered in the liquid effluent with a potential for use as a liquid fertilizer.

  8. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while BHBA and TAG decreased. The content of some of the milk metabolites changed during 24 h day/night periods: BHBA, cholesterol, uric acid and TAG increased whereas free glucose decreased in the night period. Certain associations between milk metabolites and calculated energy parameters like ECM, body condition score (BCS), and body weight gain were found, however, these associations were to some extent explained by an interaction with DIM, just as changes in milk metabolites during a 24 h period seems to interfere. It is concluded that the practical use of the suggested milk variables should be based on more than one metabolite and that stage of lactation and possibly time of the day where the milk is collected should be incorporated in predictive models.

  9. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, C H; Vu, C C; Sommer, S G; Bruun, S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank.

  10. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, C H; Vu, C C; Sommer, S G; Bruun, S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. PMID:25050049

  11. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pham, C. H.; Vu, C. C.; Sommer, S. G.; Bruun, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. PMID:25050049

  12. Methane digester effluent from swine excreta as a nutrient and water source for growing and finishing swine.

    PubMed

    Veum, T L; Saenz, C A; Iannotti, E L

    2015-01-01

    The experimental objective was to evaluate swine methane digester effluent (SMDE) as a water and nutrient source for swine. The mesophilic methane digester was loaded daily with manure from finishing swine fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Dry diet was mixed with SMDE (3.7% DM) and fed twice daily in troughs. Tap water was provided and consumption measured. Barrows were group fed (3 pigs/pen) and adapted to SMDE by increasing SMDE for 7 d, with the full amount fed from d 8 to the end of the feeding phase (d 21, 14, 23, or 37 for Exp. 1 to 4, respectively). Blood samples were collected on d 0, 10, 21, and 31 to determine plasma concentrations of glucose and plasma urea N (PUN). Barrows were placed in individual metabolism cages for a 5-d acclimation and a 5-d fecal and urine collection to determine apparent N and energy utilization. For Exp. 1, 18 pigs averaging 75 kg BW were allotted to diets with 0, 48.6, or 63.7% SMDE, as-fed basis. For Exp. 2 and 3, 12 pigs/experiment averaged 117 and 70 kg, respectively, and were allotted to diets with 0 or 63.7% SMDE, as-fed basis. At the end of Exp. 2 and 3, pigs were sacrificed and liver samples were collected to determine urea cycle enzyme activity, and loin was saved for taste panel evaluation. For Exp. 4, pigs averaged 40 kg and were allotted to diets with 0 or 57.5% SMDE, as-fed basis. The ADFI, ADG, and G:F of finishing swine (Exp. 1 to 3) were not reduced by feeding diets containing 63.7% SMDE (as-fed basis), whereas ADG and G:F of growing swine (Exp. 4) were reduced (P < 0.01) by feeding a diet containing 57.5% SMDE. Pigs fed diets containing SMDE consumed 31 to 56% less (P < 0.05) water and had greater (P < 0.01) PUN concentrations than pigs fed control diets. Pigs fed diets containing SMDE excreted more (g, P < 0.05) fecal N and absorbed and retained less N (%; P < 0.01) and energy (DE and ME) than pigs fed control diets. Treatment had no effect on urea cycle enzyme activity. In conclusion, finishing swine adapted to

  13. The potential for avermectins to affect the nutrient economy of grazed pastures.

    PubMed

    King, K L

    1993-06-01

    This examination of the potential ecotoxic effects of the avermectins in temperature pastures grazed by sheep is based on a community approach and is focussed on one important aspect of ecosystem function, the nutrient cycle. Data on the amount and distribution of sheep dung on pastures grazed at different stocking rates indicated that areas of high stocking and sheep camps would be affected by avermectin residues to the greatest extent. Mineral losses from sheep dung which does not contain ivermectin, have been examined to provide a background against which the potential effects of avermectins on nutrient cycling can be appraised. The source of the diet is important; for example, dung from sheep grazing on improved pasture loses sulphur faster, and has higher microbial activity, than that of native pasture, regardless of whether it is fresh or old. Dung-dwelling fauna such as dung beetles and microarthropods are most abundant in areas of high dung concentration and microbial activity is greatest in sheep camps where a large quantity of excreta is voided. However, while there is evidence that avermectin does affect certain of the larger dung-dwelling fauna, little is known of its effects on the smaller invertebrate biota such as free-living nematodes and microarthropods. Calculations for phosphorus budgets on both native and improved pastures indicate that the amount of phosphorus recycled in these systems could be reduced by up to 5% the dosage levels currently recommended for the drug. PMID:8346639

  14. Struvite Precipitation as a Means of Recovering Nutrients and Mitigating Ammonia Toxicity in a Two-Stage Anaerobic Digester Treating Protein-Rich Feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shunli; Hawkins, Gary L; Kiepper, Brian H; Das, Keshav C

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of ammonia, measured as total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), a product of protein decomposition in slaughterhouse wastes, inhibits the anaerobic digestion process, reducing digester productivity and leading to failure. Struvite precipitation (SP) is an effective means to remove TAN and enhance the buffering of substrates. Different Mg and P sources were evaluated as reactants in SP in acidogenic digester effluents to reduce its TAN levels. In order to measure impact of TAN removal, a standard biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was conducted to measure methane yield from treatments that had the highest TAN reductions. SP results showed 6 of 9 reagent combinations resulted in greater than 70% TAN removal. The BMP results indicated that SP treatment by adding Mg(OH)₂ and H₃PO₄ resulted in 57.6% nitrogen recovery and 41.7% increase in methane yield relative to the substrate without SP. SP is an effective technology to improve nutrient recovery and methane production from the anaerobic digestion of protein-rich feedstocks. PMID:27527128

  15. Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions Enhance Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Beef Cattle by Relieving Heat Stress Responses and Increasing Apparent Nutrient Digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaozhen; Luo, Junrong; Fu, Daibo; Zhao, Xianghui; Bunlue, Kornmatitsuk; Xu, Zhensong; Qu, Mingren

    2014-01-01

    The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i) high temperature control (HTC), ii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I) and iii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+high temperature (TCM II) (n = 9 per group). The results showed that the mean body temperature declined in TCM II treatment (p<0.05). Serum T3 and T4 levels with TCM I and TCM II treatments elevated (p<0.05), and serum cortisol levels of TCM I treatments decreased (p<0.05), compared with the HTC group. Total protein, albumin, globulin in TCM II treatments elevated and blood urea nitrogen levels of both TCM treatments increased, but glucose levels of both TCM treatments decreased, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein with TCM I treatment increased, and the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber elevated in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). Average daily feed intake was not different among three groups, however average daily gain increased and the feed:gain ratio decreased with both TCM treatments, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with TCM I or TCM II improves growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing nutrient apparent digestibility. PMID:25178304

  16. Biomass production and nutrient removal by Chlorella sp. as affected by sludge liquor concentration.

    PubMed

    Åkerström, Anette M; Mortensen, Leiv M; Rusten, Bjørn; Gislerød, Hans Ragnar

    2014-11-01

    The use of microalgae for biomass production and nutrient removal from the reject water produced in the dewatering process of anaerobically digested sludge, sludge liquor, was investigated. The sludge liquor was characterized by a high content of total suspended solids (1590 mg L(-1)), a high nitrogen concentration (1210 mg L(-1)), and a low phosphorus concentration (28 mg L(-1)). Chlorella sp. was grown in sludge liquor diluted with wastewater treatment plant effluent water to different concentrations (12, 25, 40, 50, 70, and 100%) using batch mode. The environmental conditions were 25 °C, a continuous lightning of 115 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and a CO2 concentration of 3.0%. The highest biomass production (0.42-0.45 g dry weight L(-1) Day(-1)) was achieved at 40-50% sludge liquor, which was comparable to the production of the control culture grown with an artificial fertilizer. The biomass production was 0.12 and 0.26 g dry weight L(-1) Day(-1) at 12% and 100% sludge liquor, respectively. The percentage of nitrogen in the algal biomass increased from 3.6% in 12% sludge liquor and reached a saturation of ∼10% in concentrations with 50% sludge liquor and higher. The phosphorus content in the biomass increased linearly from 0.2 to 1.5% with increasing sludge liquor concentrations. The highest nitrogen removal rates by algal biosynthesis were 33.6-42.6 mg TN L(-1) Day(-1) at 40-70% sludge liquor, while the highest phosphorus removal rates were 3.1-4.1 mg TP L(-1) Day(-1) at 50-100% sludge liquor. PMID:24935023

  17. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women <20 gestation weeks. Women were provided with one daily iron-folic acid capsule (IFA), one capsule with 18 micronutrients (MMN) or one sachet of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) containing protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids and 21 micronutrients. Oral examination of 1024 participants was conducted and panoramic X-ray taken within 6 weeks after delivery. The supplement groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed.

  18. Toxic metal interactions affect the bioaccumulation and dietary intake of macro- and micro-nutrients.

    PubMed

    Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Sardar; Alam, Mehboob; Khan, Muhammad Amjad; Aamir, Muhammad; Qamar, Zahir; Ur Rehman, Zahir; Perveen, Sajida

    2016-03-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and Cd-Pb mix) on bioaccumulation of different nutrients. Three plant species including potato, tomato and lettuce were grown in pots containing soil contaminated with Cd, Pb and Cd-Pb mix at four different levels. The edible portions of each plant were analysed for Cd, Pb and different macro- and micro-nutrients including protein, vitamin C, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). Results indicated significant variations in selected elemental concentrations in all the three plants grown in different treatments. The projected daily dietary intake values of selected metals were significant (P < 0.001) for Fe, Mn, Ca and Mg but not significant for protein, vitamin C, N and P. The elemental contribution to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) was significant for Mn. Similarly, Fe and Mg also showed substantial contribution to RDA, while Ca, N, P, K, protein and vitamin C showed the minimal contribution for different age groups. This study suggests that vegetables cultivated on Cd and Pb contaminated soil may significantly affect their quality, and the consumption of such vegetables may result in substantial negative effects on nutritional composition of the consumer body. Long term and continuous use of contaminated vegetables may result in malnutrition.

  19. Toxic metal interactions affect the bioaccumulation and dietary intake of macro- and micro-nutrients.

    PubMed

    Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Sardar; Alam, Mehboob; Khan, Muhammad Amjad; Aamir, Muhammad; Qamar, Zahir; Ur Rehman, Zahir; Perveen, Sajida

    2016-03-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and Cd-Pb mix) on bioaccumulation of different nutrients. Three plant species including potato, tomato and lettuce were grown in pots containing soil contaminated with Cd, Pb and Cd-Pb mix at four different levels. The edible portions of each plant were analysed for Cd, Pb and different macro- and micro-nutrients including protein, vitamin C, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). Results indicated significant variations in selected elemental concentrations in all the three plants grown in different treatments. The projected daily dietary intake values of selected metals were significant (P < 0.001) for Fe, Mn, Ca and Mg but not significant for protein, vitamin C, N and P. The elemental contribution to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) was significant for Mn. Similarly, Fe and Mg also showed substantial contribution to RDA, while Ca, N, P, K, protein and vitamin C showed the minimal contribution for different age groups. This study suggests that vegetables cultivated on Cd and Pb contaminated soil may significantly affect their quality, and the consumption of such vegetables may result in substantial negative effects on nutritional composition of the consumer body. Long term and continuous use of contaminated vegetables may result in malnutrition. PMID:26714294

  20. Influence of granite-grit on nutrient digestibility and haematological parameters of broiler chickens fed rice offal based diets.

    PubMed

    Idachaba, C U; Abeke, F O; Olugbemi, T S; Ademu, L A

    2013-10-01

    A total of 270 broiler chickens were used for the study. The birds were fed common diet containing 23% Crude protein and 2864 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy at the starter phase while 20% Crude protein and 2923 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy was fed at the finisher phase. Starter and finisher diets contained 10 and 15% inclusion levels of rice offal respectively. Granite grit was added to the basal diet at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g per bird per month thus making a total of six treatments. Each treatment was replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Packed cell volume and haemoglobin level were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by dietary grit levels while total protein increased across the graded levels of granite grit. Crude protein, crude fibre and nitrogen free extract significantly (p<0.05) improved with increasing grit levels. These parameters improved up to the highest level of grit addition (10.0 g) granite-grit. It was concluded that 10.0 g granite grit per bird per month is beneficial to broiler chickens as it allows for efficient nutrient utilization. Further study to determine the optimum level of granite grit in broiler diet is encouraged since result obtained showed the optimum level was not attained. PMID:24502172

  1. Influence of granite-grit on nutrient digestibility and haematological parameters of broiler chickens fed rice offal based diets.

    PubMed

    Idachaba, C U; Abeke, F O; Olugbemi, T S; Ademu, L A

    2013-10-01

    A total of 270 broiler chickens were used for the study. The birds were fed common diet containing 23% Crude protein and 2864 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy at the starter phase while 20% Crude protein and 2923 kcal kg(-1) Metabolizable energy was fed at the finisher phase. Starter and finisher diets contained 10 and 15% inclusion levels of rice offal respectively. Granite grit was added to the basal diet at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g per bird per month thus making a total of six treatments. Each treatment was replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Packed cell volume and haemoglobin level were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by dietary grit levels while total protein increased across the graded levels of granite grit. Crude protein, crude fibre and nitrogen free extract significantly (p<0.05) improved with increasing grit levels. These parameters improved up to the highest level of grit addition (10.0 g) granite-grit. It was concluded that 10.0 g granite grit per bird per month is beneficial to broiler chickens as it allows for efficient nutrient utilization. Further study to determine the optimum level of granite grit in broiler diet is encouraged since result obtained showed the optimum level was not attained.

  2. Effects of oregano essential oil with or without feed enzymes on growth performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Basmacioğlu Malayoğlu, H; Baysal, S; Misirlioğlu, Z; Polat, M; Yilmaz, H; Turan, N

    2010-02-01

    1. The study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of enzyme and oregano essential oil at two levels, alone or together, on performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal based diets. 2. The following dietary treatments were used from d 0 to 21. Diet 1 (control, CONT): a commercial diet containing no enzyme or oregano essential oil, diet 2 (ENZY): supplemented with enzyme, diet 3 (EO250): supplemented with essential oil at 250 mg/kg feed, diet 4 (EO500): supplemented with essential oil at 500 mg/kg feed, diet 5 (ENZY + EO250): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 250 mg/kg, and diet 6 (ENZY + EO500): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 500 mg/kg. 3. Birds fed on diets containing ENZY, EO250 and ENZY + EO250 had significantly higher weight gain than those given CONT diet from d 0 to 7. No significant effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, organ weights except for jejunum weight and intestinal lengths was found with either enzyme or essential oil, alone or in combination, over the 21-d growth period. The supplementation of essential oil together with enzyme decreased jejunum weight compared with essential oil alone. 4. Supplementation with enzyme significantly decreased viscosity and increased dry matter of digesta, but did not alter pH of digesta. There was no effect of essential oil alone at either concentration on viscosity, dry matter or pH of digesta. A significant decrease in viscosity of digesta appeared when essential oil was used with together enzyme. 5. The supplementation of essential oil at both levels with or without enzyme significantly increased chymotrypsin activity in the digestive system, and improved crude protein digestibility. 6. The higher concentration of essential oil with and without enzyme significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentrations. No significant effect on immune response

  3. Factors Affecting Stream Nutrient Loads: A Synthesis of Regional SPARROW Model Results for the Continental United States1

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Stephen D; Alexander, Richard B; Schwarz, Gregory E; Crawford, Charles G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models – 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus – all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales. PMID:22457574

  4. Factors affecting stream nutrient loads: A synthesis of regional SPARROW model results for the continental United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models - 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus - all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Effect of xylanases on ileal viscosity, intestinal fiber modification, and apparent ileal fiber and nutrient digestibility of rye and wheat in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Lærke, H N; Arent, S; Dalsgaard, S; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2015-09-01

    in Exp. 1. In Exp. 2, the enzyme combination increased AID of arabinoxylan by 91% to 107% ( < 0.001) across cereal matrices. Enzyme addition did not affect AID of nutrients in any of the experiments except for a higher starch and crude fat digestibility of fine wheat with enzyme addition ( < 0.012) in Exp. 2. Collectively, the results suggest that xylanase is more efficient in degrading arabinoxylan from wheat than from rye.

  6. Partial nitrification and nutrient removal in intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactors treating separated digestate liquid after anaerobic digestion of pig manure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingchuan; Lawlor, Peadar G; Wu, Guangxue; Lynch, Brendan; Zhan, Xinmin

    2011-11-01

    The performance of an intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor (IASBR) technology was investigated in achieving partial nitrification, organic matter removal and nitrogen removal from separated digestate liquid after anaerobic digestion of pig manure. The wastewater had chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of 11,540 ± 860 mg/L, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) concentrations of 2,900 ± 200 mg/L and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations of 4,041 ± 59 mg/L, with low COD:N ratios (2.9) and BOD(5):COD ratios (0.25). Synthetic wastewater, simulating the separated digestate liquid with similar COD and nitrogen concentrations but BOD(5) of 11,500 ± 100 mg/L, was also treated using the IASBR technology. At a mean organic loading rate of 1.15 kg COD/(m(3) d) and a nitrogen loading rate of 0.38 kg N/(m(3) d), the COD removal efficiency was 89.8% in the IASBR (IASBR-1) treating digestate liquid and 99% in the IASBR (IASBR-2) treating synthetic wastewater. The IASBR-1 effluent COD was mainly due to inert organic matter and can be further reduced to less than 40 mg/L through coagulation. The partial nitrification efficiency of 71-79% was achieved in the two IASBRs and one cause for the stable long-term partial nitrification was the intermittent aeration strategy. Nitrogen removal efficiencies were 76.5 and 97% in IASBR-1 and IASBR-2, respectively. The high nitrogen removal efficiencies show that the IASBR technology is a promising technology for nitrogen removal from low COD:N ratio wastewaters. The nitrogen balance analysis shows that 59.4 and 74.3% of nitrogen removed was via heterotrophic denitrification in the non-aeration periods in IASBR-1 and IASBR-2, respectively.

  7. The effects of active dried and killed dried yeast on subacute ruminal acidosis, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; Uwizeye, A; Mohammed, R; Yang, W Z; Walker, N D; Beauchemin, K A

    2014-02-01

    The study addressed the importance of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) viability for reducing the incidence of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and improving total tract nutrient digestibility in beef heifers. Six ruminally cannulated beef heifers (680 ± 50 kg BW) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design and were fed a diet consisting of 40% barley silage, 10% chopped grass hay, and 50% barley grain-based concentrate (DM basis). Treatments were 1) no yeast (Control), 2) active dried yeast (ADY; 4 g providing 10(10) cfu/g; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK), and 3) killed dried yeast (KDY; 4 g autoclaved ADY). The treatments were directly dosed via the ruminal cannula daily at the time of feeding. The periods consisted of 2 wk of adaptation (d 1 to 14) and 7 d of measurements (d 15 to 21). Ruminal pH was continuously measured (d 15 to 21) using an indwelling system. Ruminal contents were sampled on d 15 and 17 at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after feeding. Total tract nutrient digestibility was measured using an external marker (YbCl3) from d 15 to 19. No treatment difference was observed for DMI (P = 0.86). Yeast supplementation (ADY and KDY) tended to increase total tract digestibility of starch (P = 0.07) whereas no effects were observed on digestibility of other nutrients. Both ADY and KDY elevated minimum (P < 0.01) and mean ruminal pH (P = 0.02) whereas no effects were observed on maximum pH (P = 0.12). Irrespective of its viability, yeast supplementation was effective in reducing time that ruminal pH was below 5.8 (P < 0.01) and 5.6 (P < 0.01). No treatment differences were observed for the ruminal VFA profile and lactate concentration. No treatment differences were observed on the relative population size of Streptococcus bovis, Fibrobacter succinogenes, and Megasphaera elsdenii (P > 0.10); however, the proportion of Ruminococcus flavefaciens in solid fraction of digesta was greater with KDY (P = 0.05). The study demonstrates the positive effects of yeast

  8. Sugar-rich sweet sorghum is distinctively affected by wall polymer features for biomass digestibility and ethanol fermentation in bagasse.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Feng, Shengqiu; Wu, Leiming; Li, Ying; Fan, Chunfen; Zhang, Rui; Zou, Weihua; Tu, Yuanyuan; Jing, Hai-Chun; Li, Shizhong; Peng, Liangcai

    2014-09-01

    Sweet sorghum has been regarded as a typical species for rich soluble-sugar and high lignocellulose residues, but their effects on biomass digestibility remain unclear. In this study, we examined total 63 representative sweet sorghum accessions that displayed a varied sugar level at stalk and diverse cell wall composition at bagasse. Correlative analysis showed that both soluble-sugar and dry-bagasse could not significantly affect lignocellulose saccharification under chemical pretreatments. Comparative analyses of five typical pairs of samples indicated that DP of crystalline cellulose and arabinose substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses distinctively affected lignocellulose crystallinity for high biomass digestibility. By comparison, lignin could not alter lignocellulose crystallinity, but the KOH-extractable G-monomer predominately determined lignin negative impacts on biomass digestions, and the G-levels released from pretreatments significantly inhibited yeast fermentation. The results also suggested potential genetic approaches for enhancing soluble-sugar level and lignocellulose digestibility and reducing ethanol conversion inhibition in sweet sorghum.

  9. Biofuel feedstock and blended coproducts compared with deoiled corn distillers grains in feedlot diets: Effects on cattle growth performance, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Opheim, T L; Campanili, P R B; Lemos, B J M; Ovinge, L A; Baggerman, J O; McCuistion, K C; Galyean, M L; Sarturi, J O; Trojan, S J

    2016-01-01

    Crossbred steers (British × Continental; = 192; initial BW 391 ± 28 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding ethanol coproducts on feedlot cattle growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Steers were blocked by initial BW and assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments within block. Treatments (replicated in 8 pens with 4 steers/pen) included 1) control, steam-flaked corn-based diet (CTL), 2) corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS; DRY-C), 3) deoiled corn dried DGS (DRY-CLF), 4) blended 50/50 corn/sorghum dried DGS (DRY-C/S), 5) sorghum dried DGS (DRY-S), and 6) sorghum wet DGS (WET-S). Inclusion of DGS was 25% (DM basis). The DGS diets were isonitrogenous, CTL was formulated for 13.5% CP, and all diets were balanced for ether extract. Final shrunk BW, ADG, and DMI did not differ among CTL and DGS treatments ( ≥ 0.19). Overall G:F did not differ from CTL for DRY-C, DRY-CLF, or WET-S ( ≥ 0.12); however, G:F was 9.6% less for DRY-S compared with CTL ( < 0.01) and tended ( = 0.09) to be less for DRY-C/S than CTL. For grain source, ADG and G:F were less for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.05), but blending DRY-C/S tended ( = 0.07) to increase ADG and increased ( = 0.05) carcass-adjusted G:F vs. DRY-S. For WET-S, final BW and ADG were greater ( < 0.05), and G:F tended ( = 0.06) to be greater than for DRY-S. There was no difference in ADG, DMI, or G:F of steers fed DRY-C vs. DRY-CLF ( ≥ 0.35). Apparent DM and OM digestibility did not differ for CTL, DRY-C, DRY-CLF, and WET-S ( ≥ 0.30) but were lower for DRY-C/S and DRY-S ( < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility was lower for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.01), but apparent digestibility of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, ether extract, and starch were increased ( < 0.01) for DRY-C/S vs. DRY-S. Although starch digestibility did not differ between DRY-S and WET-S ( 0.18), digestibility of other measured nutrients was greater for WET-S vs. DRY-S ( < 0.01). Ether extract digestibility was

  10. Effects of dietary supplementation of fermented Ginkgo biloba L. residues on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters and immune function in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Wang, Chengzhang; Ye, Jianzhong; Chen, Hongxia; Tao, Ran

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of fermented Ginkgo biloba L. residues (FGBLR) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters and immune function in weaned piglets. Pigs were allotted to five dietary treatments, including negative control (NC: antibiotic free basal diet), positive control (PC) (NC + 30 mg apramycin/kg) and FGBLR-50, 100, 150 (NC + 50, 100, 150 g FGBLR/kg). Pigs in FGBLR-100 and PC treatments showed increased final body weight, average daily gain, gain:feed and apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, N and gross energy (P < 0.05) compared with NC, FGBLR-50 and FGBLR-150 treatments, In addition, pigs fed with FGBLR-100 diet showed higher serum total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, hemoglobin, total iron, total iron binding capacity, superoxide dismutase and glutathione superoxide dismutase levels, and lower serum blood urea nitrogen, malondialdehyde, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels than those fed with PC and NC diets (P < 0.05). Moreover, feeding FGBLR-100 could increase levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA and IgM, as well as lymphocyte transformation rates, ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ cells and proportions of CD2+, CD4+, B, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I and MHC-II cells, and can decrease proportion of CD8+ cells in blood of piglets compared with PC and NC groups (P < 0.05). These results indicate that dietary supplementation with 10% of FGBLR showed greatest beneficial effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters and immune function in weaned piglets, which were superior to antibiotic supplemental diets.

  11. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum metabolites, gut morphology, and microflora of growing guinea fowl.

    PubMed

    Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Awe, Abdul Wahab; Awosoga, Fiyinfunjesu Gedion; Bello, Foyeke A; Akinfenwa, Taiwo A; Ogunremi, Emmanuel Babatunde

    2013-11-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of dried ginger meal (DGM) on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum parameters, gut morphology, and microflora of growing helmeted guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris). One hundred sixty 28-day-old male keets were assigned to four dietary treatments. There were 40 birds per treatment replicated four times with 10 keets each. The experimental diets consisted of the basal diet (control), ginger-supplemented diets containing 20, 40, and 60 g/kg DGM, respectively. Guinea fowls fed diet supplemented with DGM had higher (P <0.05) final body weight, body weight gain and lower (P <0.05) feed intake. Optimum weight gain was obtained with supplementation level of 36.15-g DGM (R (2) = 0.923). Guinea fowls fed diet supplemented with 40 g/kg DGM recorded the highest (P <0.05) coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, ether extract and longest (P <0.05) duodenal and ileal villus heights. The crypt depth of the duodenum and ileum reduced (P <0.05) with increasing level of dietary supplementation of DGM. Dietary supplementation of DGM resulted in increased (P <0.05) total serum protein, serum albumin and low (P <0.05) serum cholesterol concentration. Ileum content of birds fed diet supplemented with 40 g/kg DGM recorded the highest (P <0.05) lactobacillus count. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of 40-g DGM per kilogram diet is hereby recommended for improved growth, apparent nutrient digestibility, gut morphology, serum chemistry, and stimulation of balanced intestinal microflora in growing guinea fowl. PMID:23765551

  12. Nutrient Deprivation Affects Salmonella Invasion and Its Interaction with the Gastrointestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Tupin, Audrey; Valdez, Yanet; Antunes, L. Caetano M.; Yen, Ryan; Finlay, B. Brett

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a foodborne enteric pathogen and a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans. It is known that molecules derived from the human fecal microbiota downregulate S. Typhimurium virulence gene expression and induce a starvation-like response. In this study, S. Typhimurium was cultured in minimal media to mimic starvation conditions such as that experienced by S. Typhimurium in the human intestinal tract, and the pathogen’s virulence in vitro and in vivo was measured. S. Typhimurium cultured in minimal media displayed a reduced ability to invade human epithelial cells in a manner that was at least partially independent of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1) type III secretion system. Nutrient deprivation did not, however, alter the ability of S. Typhimurium to replicate and survive inside epithelial cells. In a murine model of S. Typhimurium-induced gastroenteritis, prior cultivation in minimal media did not alter the pathogen’s ability to colonize mice, nor did it affect levels of gastrointestinal inflammation. Upon examining the post-infection fecal gastrointestinal microbiota, we found that specifically in the 129Sv/ImJ murine strain S. Typhimurium cultured in minimal media induced differential microbiota compositional shifts compared to that of S. Typhimurium cultured in rich media. Together these findings demonstrate that S. Typhimurium remains a potent pathogen even in the face of nutritional deprivation, but nevertheless that nutrient deprivation encountered in this environment elicits significant changes in the bacterium genetic programme, as well as its capacity to alter host microbiota composition. PMID:27437699

  13. How meristem plasticity in response to soil nutrients and light affects plant growth in four Festuca grass species.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shu-ichi; Gotoh, Minako

    2010-02-01

    Investigation of responses of meristems to environmental conditions is important for understanding the mechanisms and consequences of plant phenotypic plasticity. Here, we examined how meristem plasticity to light and soil nutrients affected leaf growth and relative growth rate (RGR) in fast- and slow-growing Festuca grass species. Activity in shoot apical meristems was measured by leaf appearance rate, and that in leaf meristems by the duration and rate of cell production, which was further divided into single cell cycle time and the number of dividing cells. Light and soil nutrients affected activity in shoot apical meristems similarly. The high nutrient supply increased the number of dividing cells, which was responsible for enhancement of cell production rate; shaded conditions extended the duration of cell production. As a result, leaf length increased under high nutrient and shaded conditions. The RGR was correlated positively with the total meristem size of the shoot under a low nutrient supply, implying inhibition of RGR by cell production under nutrient-limited conditions. Fast-growing species were more plastic for cell production rate and specific leaf area (SLA) but less plastic for RGR than slow-growing species. This study demonstrates that meristem plasticity plays key roles in characterizing environmental responses of plant species.

  14. Effects of supplementing rare earth element cerium on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lin, S X; Wei, C; Zhao, G Y; Zhang, T T; Yang, K

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing rare earth element (REE) cerium (Ce) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, methane (CH4 ) production, nitrogen (N) balance and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle. Four Simmental male cattle, aged at 14 months, with initial liveweight of 355 ± 8 kg and fitted with permanent rumen cannulas, were used as experimental animals. The cattle were fed with a total mixed ration (TMR) composed of concentrate mixture and corn silage. Four levels of cerium chloride (CeCl3 ·7H2 O, purity 99.9%), that is 0, 80, 160 and 240 mg CeCl3 /kg DM, were added to basal ration in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pre-treatment and the last 3 days were for sampling. The results showed that supplementing CeCl3 at 160 or 240 mg/kg DM increased neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility (p < 0.05) and tended to increased acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility (p = 0.083). Supplementing CeCl3 at 80, 160 or 240 mg/kg DM decreased the molar ratio of rumen acetate to propionate linearly (p < 0.05). Supplementing CeCl3 at 160 or 240 mg/kg DM decreased total N excretion, urinary N excretion and increased N retention (p < 0.05), increased excretion of total urinary purine derivatives (PD) (p < 0.05) and decreased CH4 /kg DMI (p < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementing CeCl3 at 160 or 240 mg/kg DM in the ration of beef cattle increased the digestibility of NDF, decreased the molar ratio of rumen acetate to propionate, increased N retention and microbial N flow and decreased CH4 /kg DMI.

  15. Inclusion of psyllium in milk replacer for neonatal calves. 1. Effects on growth, digesta viscosity, rate of passage, nutrient digestibilities, and metabolites in blood.

    PubMed

    Cannon, S J; Fahey, G C; Murphy, M R; Dikeman, C L; Miller, B L; Drackley, J K

    2010-08-01

    Based on research in other species, inclusion of psyllium in milk replacer might improve nutrient utilization and gastrointestinal function in neonatal calves. Male Holstein calves were fed a milk replacer (22% crude protein, 20% fat) either without or with psyllium (1.1% of dry matter) from 2 d through 28 d of age. Milk replacer was reconstituted to 12.5% dry matter (DM) and fed at 12% of calf body weight (BW), adjusted weekly. Water was offered ad libitum but no starter was fed. Three calves per treatment were harvested weekly to sample digesta from the rumen, abomasum, jejunum, proximal colon, and distal colon. Mean daily intakes of water, DM, crude protein, and metabolizable energy did not differ between treatments. Average daily gain of BW did not differ between treatments. Digesta from the abomasum and colon of calves fed psyllium was more viscous than digesta from control calves. Mean retention time of digesta in the total digestive tract tended to be greater for calves supplemented with psyllium (9.7 vs. 8.4h). Feces and digesta from the proximal and distal colon of calves fed psyllium had lower DM content than feces and digesta from control calves. Total-tract apparent digestibility of DM (92.8 vs. 94.1%) was lower for psyllium-fed calves, likely as an effect of the addition of the more poorly digestible psyllium; digestibilities of energy and ash also tended to be lower. The prefeeding plasma glucose concentration (10h after previous feeding) tended to be greater for psyllium-fed calves but concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, urea N, and total protein did not differ between treatments. Blood components did not differ between treatments at 2h postfeeding. Inclusion of psyllium in the milk replacer of neonatal calves increased digesta viscosity and slowed passage of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:20655435

  16. Effects of replacing grass silage with forage pearl millet silage on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of grass silage (GS) with forage millet silages that were harvested at 2 stages of maturity [i.e., vegetative stage and dough to ripe seed (mature) stage] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included control (GS), vegetative millet silage (EM), and mature millet silage (MM) diets. Experimental silages comprised 24% of dietary dry matter (DM). Soybean meal and slow-release urea were added in millet diets to balance for crude protein (CP). Three additional ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Cows fed the GS diet consumed more DM (22.9 vs. 21.7 ± 1.02 kg/d) and CP (3.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.19 kg/d), and similar starch (4.9 ± 0.39 kg/d) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 8.0 ± 0.27 kg/d) compared with cows fed the MM diet. Replacing the EM diet with the MM diet did not affect DM, NDF, or CP intakes. Cows fed the MM diet produced less milk (26.1 vs. 29.1 ± 0.79 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (28.0 vs.30.5 ± 0.92 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (26.5 vs. 28.3 ± 0.92 kg/d) yields than cows fed the GS diet. However, cows fed diets with EM and GS produced similar yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk. Feed efficiency (milk yield:DM intake) was greater only for cows fed the GS diet than those fed the MM diet. Milk protein yield and concentration were greater among cows fed the GS diet compared with those fed the EM or MM diets. Milk fat and lactose concentrations were not influenced by diet. However, milk urea N was lower for cows fed the GS diet than for those fed the MM diet. Ruminal NH3-N was greater for cows fed the EM diet than for

  17. Effects of Post-harvest Storage Duration and Variety on Nutrient Digestibility and Energy Content Wheat in Finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Guo, P P; Li, P L; Li, Z C; Stein, H H; Liu, L; Xia, T; Yang, Y Y; Ma, Y X

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of post-harvest storage duration and wheat variety on the digestibility and energy content of new season wheat fed to finishing pigs. Two wheat varieties (Shi and Zhong) were harvested in 2013 and stored in the warehouse of the Fengning Pig Experimental Base at China Agricultural University for 3, 6, 9, or 12 mo. For each storage period, 12 barrows were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to diets containing 1 of the 2 wheat varieties in a randomized complete block design. The experimental diets contained 97.34% wheat and 2.66% of a vitamin and trace mineral premix. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the gross energy (GE) and crude protein (CP) of the wheat decreased by 2.0% and 12.01%, respectively, while the concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and starch content increased by 30.26%, 19.08%, and 2.46%, respectively. Total non-starch polysaccharide, total arabinose, total xylose and total mannose contents decreased by 46.27%, 45.80%, 41.71%, and 75.66%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in the chemical composition between the two wheat varieties with the exception of ADF which was approximately 13.37% lower in Shi. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content and the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, CP, dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, ADF and metabolizability of energy in wheat decreased linearly (p<0.01) by 5.74%, 7.60%, 3.75%, 3.88%, 3.50%, 2.47%, 26.22%, 27.62%, and 3.94%, respectively. But the digestibility of NDF changed quadratically (p<0.01). There was an interaction between wheat variety and storage time for CP digestibility (p<0.05), such that the CP digestibility of variety Zhong was stable during 9 mo of storage, while the CP digestibility of variety Shi decreased (p<0.05). In conclusion, the GE, DE, and ME of wheat

  18. Effects of Post-harvest Storage Duration and Variety on Nutrient Digestibility and Energy Content Wheat in Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Guo, P. P.; Li, P. L.; Li, Z. C.; Stein, H. H.; Liu, L.; Xia, T.; Yang, Y. Y.; Ma, Y. X.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of post-harvest storage duration and wheat variety on the digestibility and energy content of new season wheat fed to finishing pigs. Two wheat varieties (Shi and Zhong) were harvested in 2013 and stored in the warehouse of the Fengning Pig Experimental Base at China Agricultural University for 3, 6, 9, or 12 mo. For each storage period, 12 barrows were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to diets containing 1 of the 2 wheat varieties in a randomized complete block design. The experimental diets contained 97.34% wheat and 2.66% of a vitamin and trace mineral premix. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the gross energy (GE) and crude protein (CP) of the wheat decreased by 2.0% and 12.01%, respectively, while the concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and starch content increased by 30.26%, 19.08%, and 2.46%, respectively. Total non-starch polysaccharide, total arabinose, total xylose and total mannose contents decreased by 46.27%, 45.80%, 41.71%, and 75.66%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in the chemical composition between the two wheat varieties with the exception of ADF which was approximately 13.37% lower in Shi. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content and the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, CP, dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, ADF and metabolizability of energy in wheat decreased linearly (p<0.01) by 5.74%, 7.60%, 3.75%, 3.88%, 3.50%, 2.47%, 26.22%, 27.62%, and 3.94%, respectively. But the digestibility of NDF changed quadratically (p<0.01). There was an interaction between wheat variety and storage time for CP digestibility (p<0.05), such that the CP digestibility of variety Zhong was stable during 9 mo of storage, while the CP digestibility of variety Shi decreased (p<0.05). In conclusion, the GE, DE, and ME of wheat

  19. Effects of Post-harvest Storage Duration and Variety on Nutrient Digestibility and Energy Content Wheat in Finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Guo, P P; Li, P L; Li, Z C; Stein, H H; Liu, L; Xia, T; Yang, Y Y; Ma, Y X

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of post-harvest storage duration and wheat variety on the digestibility and energy content of new season wheat fed to finishing pigs. Two wheat varieties (Shi and Zhong) were harvested in 2013 and stored in the warehouse of the Fengning Pig Experimental Base at China Agricultural University for 3, 6, 9, or 12 mo. For each storage period, 12 barrows were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to diets containing 1 of the 2 wheat varieties in a randomized complete block design. The experimental diets contained 97.34% wheat and 2.66% of a vitamin and trace mineral premix. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the gross energy (GE) and crude protein (CP) of the wheat decreased by 2.0% and 12.01%, respectively, while the concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and starch content increased by 30.26%, 19.08%, and 2.46%, respectively. Total non-starch polysaccharide, total arabinose, total xylose and total mannose contents decreased by 46.27%, 45.80%, 41.71%, and 75.66%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in the chemical composition between the two wheat varieties with the exception of ADF which was approximately 13.37% lower in Shi. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content and the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, CP, dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, ADF and metabolizability of energy in wheat decreased linearly (p<0.01) by 5.74%, 7.60%, 3.75%, 3.88%, 3.50%, 2.47%, 26.22%, 27.62%, and 3.94%, respectively. But the digestibility of NDF changed quadratically (p<0.01). There was an interaction between wheat variety and storage time for CP digestibility (p<0.05), such that the CP digestibility of variety Zhong was stable during 9 mo of storage, while the CP digestibility of variety Shi decreased (p<0.05). In conclusion, the GE, DE, and ME of wheat

  20. Interactive effects of bulk density of steam-flaked corn and concentration of Sweet Bran on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Domby, E M; Anele, U Y; Gautam, K K; Hergenreder, J E; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Galyean, M L

    2014-03-01

    Two hundred twenty-four steers (initial BW = 363 ± 1.57 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the interactive effects of concentration of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and bulk density (BD) of steam-flaked corn (SFC) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility. Diets consisted of 0, 15, or 30% WCGF (DM basis) with a BD of SFC at 283 or 360 g/L. The additional treatment consisted of 15% WCGF, SFC at 283 g/L, and a 6% inclusion of alfalfa hay vs. 9% for all other treatments. Steers were fed once daily for an average of 163 d. During a 5-d digestion period, DMI was measured, and fecal samples were collected for measurement of nutrient digestibility using dietary acid insoluble ash as a marker. There were few WCGF × BD interactions for feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility. Similarly, contrasts between the treatment containing 15% WCGF/360 g/L SFC and 15% WCGF/360 g/L with 6% hay yielded few differences for performance and carcass data. Final BW responded quadratically (P ≤ 0.02) to WCGF inclusion and showed increased (P ≤ 0.007) BW for greater BD. As WCGF inclusion increased, G:F and calculated NE values (P ≤ 0.03) decreased quadratically. Steers consuming 360 g/L SFC had greater (P < 0.05) G:F than those fed 283 g/L SFC. Marbling score, HCW, 12th-rib fat thickness, and calculated yield grade increased quadratically (P ≤ 0.04) with increased inclusion of WCGF. Percentage of cattle grading premium Choice or greater responded quadratically (P = 0.04) to WCGF concentration. Increasing BD increased (P ≤ 0.01) HCW, dressing percent, marbling score, and 12th-rib fat thickness and decreased calculated yield grade and percentage of cattle grading Select; however, lower BD tended (P = 0.09) to increase LM area. Intake of DM, OM, CP, and NDF and fecal output during the digestibility period increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) with increasing WCGF, and greater BD

  1. Feeding distillers dried grains in replacement of forage in limit-fed dairy heifer rations: Effects on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and total-tract digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Manthey, A K; Anderson, J L; Perry, G A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasing dietary concentration of distillers dried grains (DDGS) in dairy heifer rations. A 16-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 48 Holstein heifers [199±2 d of age; body weight (BW) 206±2kg] to evaluate effects of dietary treatment on dry matter (DM) intake, average daily gain, growth performance, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility. Treatments were (1) 30% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.65% of BW, (2) 40% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.50% of BW, and (3) 50% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.35% of BW. The remainder of the diet consisted of grass hay and 1.5% mineral mix. Heifers were individually limit-fed using Calan gates. Heifers were weighed every 2 wk and the ration amount offered was adjusted accordingly. Frame measurements and body condition score were recorded every 2wk. Rumen fluid was collected via esophageal tubing during wk 12 and 16 for pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acid analysis. Total-tract digestibility of nutrients was evaluated during wk 16 using fecal grab sampling. No treatment by week interactions were found for any of the growth parameters measured, and growth parameters did not differ among treatments. Heifer DM intake linearly decreased with increasing concentrations of DDGS. Body weight and average daily gain were similar among treatments, whereas gain:feed linearly increased across treatments, with a tendency for a treatment by time interaction. As the dietary concentrations of DDGS increased, rumen ammonia N linearly increased. Acetate proportion and acetate:propionate linearly decreased as DDGS increased, whereas propionate linearly increased. There were treatment by time interactions for propionate proportion and acetate:propionate. Increasing dietary concentrations of DDGS linearly increased total-tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, and crude protein. Limit-feeding diets with greater concentrations of DDGS improved gain:feed and

  2. Effects of added chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract in horses. Part I: Blood nutrient concentration and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M E; Edwards, M S; Sweeney, C R; Jerina, M L

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that feed additives such as chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract would improve nutrient digestibility when included in an equine diet. Horses (Quarter Horse geldings 4.5 to 16 yr of age; mean BW 522 kg ± 46 kg) were acclimated to 100% pelleted diets formulated with (ADD) and without (CTRL) commercially available sources of the aforementioned additives followed by a 14-d collection period of feces and urine. Chelated sources of Cu, Zn, Mn and Co were utilized versus sulfated forms, at a 100% replacement rate. No significant differences among apparent the digestibility of DM, ADF, or NDF (P= 0.665, P = 0.866, P = 0.747, respectively) were detected between dietary treatments. Likewise, no differences in apparent digestibility of Cu (P = 0.724), Zn (P = 0.256), Mn (P = 0.888), Co (P = 0.71), or Se (P = 0.588) were observed. No differences were observed in serum Cu, Mn, or Co concentrations between ADD and CTRL at acclimation or collection time points (P > 0.05). While no difference in serum Zn concentrations were observed between ADD and CTRL groups at acclimation (P > 0.05), they were statistically higher at the collection time period for horses consuming CTRL (P < 0.0001). Whole blood Se concentration was greater in the CTRL group versus the ADD group both at acclimation (P = 0.041) and collection (P = 0.005) time periods. In reference to time, serum Cu concentrations increased (P = 0.012) for animals consuming CTRL, but not ADD (P > 0.05). Serum Zn concentrations of horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.021) and CTRL (P < 0.0001) increased over time from acclimation to collection time points. No time differences (P > 0.05) were observed in serum Mn concentrations. Serum Co concentrations increased over time in horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.001) and CTRL (P = 0.021). From acclimation to collection, whole blood Se concentration increased for horses

  3. Feeding distillers dried grains in replacement of forage in limit-fed dairy heifer rations: Effects on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and total-tract digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Manthey, A K; Anderson, J L; Perry, G A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasing dietary concentration of distillers dried grains (DDGS) in dairy heifer rations. A 16-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 48 Holstein heifers [199±2 d of age; body weight (BW) 206±2kg] to evaluate effects of dietary treatment on dry matter (DM) intake, average daily gain, growth performance, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility. Treatments were (1) 30% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.65% of BW, (2) 40% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.50% of BW, and (3) 50% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.35% of BW. The remainder of the diet consisted of grass hay and 1.5% mineral mix. Heifers were individually limit-fed using Calan gates. Heifers were weighed every 2 wk and the ration amount offered was adjusted accordingly. Frame measurements and body condition score were recorded every 2wk. Rumen fluid was collected via esophageal tubing during wk 12 and 16 for pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acid analysis. Total-tract digestibility of nutrients was evaluated during wk 16 using fecal grab sampling. No treatment by week interactions were found for any of the growth parameters measured, and growth parameters did not differ among treatments. Heifer DM intake linearly decreased with increasing concentrations of DDGS. Body weight and average daily gain were similar among treatments, whereas gain:feed linearly increased across treatments, with a tendency for a treatment by time interaction. As the dietary concentrations of DDGS increased, rumen ammonia N linearly increased. Acetate proportion and acetate:propionate linearly decreased as DDGS increased, whereas propionate linearly increased. There were treatment by time interactions for propionate proportion and acetate:propionate. Increasing dietary concentrations of DDGS linearly increased total-tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, and crude protein. Limit-feeding diets with greater concentrations of DDGS improved gain:feed and

  4. Biomass digestibility is predominantly affected by three factors of wall polymer features distinctive in wheat accessions and rice mutants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat and rice are important food crops with enormous biomass residues for biofuels. However, lignocellulosic recalcitrance becomes a crucial factor on biomass process. Plant cell walls greatly determine biomass recalcitrance, thus it is essential to identify their key factors on lignocellulose saccharification. Despite it has been reported about cell wall factors on biomass digestions, little is known in wheat and rice. In this study, we analyzed nine typical pairs of wheat and rice samples that exhibited distinct cell wall compositions, and identified three major factors of wall polymer features that affected biomass digestibility. Results Based on cell wall compositions, ten wheat accessions and three rice mutants were classified into three distinct groups each with three typical pairs. In terms of group I that displayed single wall polymer alternations in wheat, we found that three wall polymer levels (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) each had a negative effect on biomass digestibility at similar rates under pretreatments of NaOH and H2SO4 with three concentrations. However, analysis of six pairs of wheat and rice samples in groups II and III that each exhibited a similar cell wall composition, indicated that three wall polymer levels were not the major factors on biomass saccharification. Furthermore, in-depth detection of the wall polymer features distinctive in rice mutants, demonstrated that biomass digestibility was remarkably affected either negatively by cellulose crystallinity (CrI) of raw biomass materials, or positively by both Ara substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses (reverse Xyl/Ara) and p-coumaryl alcohol relative proportion of KOH-extractable lignin (H/G). Correlation analysis indicated that Ara substitution degree and H/G ratio negatively affected cellulose crystallinity for high biomass enzymatic digestion. It was also suggested to determine whether Ara and H monomer have an interlinking with cellulose chains

  5. Persistence and functional impact of a microbial inoculant on native microbial community structure, nutrient digestion and fermentation characteristics in a rumen model.

    PubMed

    Ziemer, C J; Sharp, R; Stern, M D; Cotta, M A; Whitehead, T R; Stahl, D A

    2002-10-01

    Small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were used to monitor the persistence of a genetically engineered bacterium inoculated in model rumens. Eight dual flow continuous culture fermenters were operated with either standard artificial saliva buffer or buffer with chondroitin sulfate (0.5 g/l) added. After 168 h of operation, fermenters were inoculated with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BTX (BTX), at approximately 1% of total bacteria. B. thetaiotaomicron was quantified using a species-specific probe and shown to persist in fermenters 144 h after inoculation (relative abundance 0.48% and 1.42% of total SSU rRNA with standard and chondroitin sulfate buffers, respectively). No B. thetaiotaomicron SSU rRNA was detected in fermenter samples prior to inoculation with strain BTX. Relative abundances of Bacteria, Eucarya and Archaea were not affected by either inoculation or buffer type. Fiber digestion, in particular the hemicellulose fraction, increased after strain BTX addition. Chondroitin sulfate addition to the buffer increased bacterial nitrogen flow in fermenters, but did not alter fiber digestion. Neither inoculum nor buffer type altered total short chain fatty acid (VFA) concentrations but proportions of individual VFA differed. In model rumens, B. thetaiotaomicron BTX increased fiber digestion when added to mixed ruminal microbes, independent of chondroitin sulfate addition; but further study is needed to determine effects on other fiber-digesting bacteria.

  6. Nutrient loads and sediment losses in sprinkler irrigation runoff affected by compost and manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High water application rates beneath the outer spans of center pivot sprinkler systems can cause runoff, erosion, and nutrient losses, particularly from sloping fields. This study determined runoff, sediment losses, and loads of nutrients (dissolved organic C, Nitrate-N, ammonium-N, total phosphoru...

  7. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests. PMID:23266071

  8. Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage neutral detergent fiber content during the immediate postpartum and carryover periods in Holstein cows: Production responses and digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-05-01

    Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between a highly saturated free FA supplement (SFFA) and dietary forage neutral detergent fiber (fNDF) content on production responses and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows in the postpartum period. Treatment diets were offered from 1 to 29d postpartum (postpartum period; PP) and contained 20 or 26% fNDF (50:50 corn silage:alfalfa silage and hay, dry matter basis) and 0 or 2% SFFA [Energy Booster 100 (Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN); 96.1% FA: 46.2% C18:0 and 37.0% C16:0]. From 30 to 71d postpartum (carryover period), a common diet (~23% fNDF, 0% SFFA) was offered to all cows to evaluate carryover effects of the treatment diets early in lactation. During the PP, higher fNDF decreased dry matter intake (DMI) by 2.0 kg/d, whereas SFFA supplementation increased it by 1.4kg/d. In addition, high fNDF with 0% SFFA decreased DMI compared with the other diets and this difference increased throughout the PP. Treatments did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield during the PP but did during the carryover period when SFFA supplementation decreased 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield for the low-fNDF diet (51.1 vs. 58.7kg/d), but not for the high-fNDF diet (58.5 vs. 58.0kg/d). During the PP, lower fNDF and SFFA supplementation decreased body condition score loss. A tendency for an interaction between fNDF and SFFA indicated that low fNDF with 2% SFFA decreased body condition score loss compared with the other diets (-0.49 vs. -0.89). During the PP, lower fNDF and 2% SFFA supplementation decreased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DMI) by 0.30 and 0.23 units, respectively. The low-fNDF diet with 2% SFFA decreased feed efficiency compared with other diets early in the PP, but this difference decreased over time. Supplementation of SFFA in the PP favored energy partitioning to body reserves and

  9. Biogas digestates affect crop P uptake and soil microbial community composition.

    PubMed

    Hupfauf, Sebastian; Bachmann, Silvia; Fernández-Delgado Juárez, Marina; Insam, Heribert; Eichler-Löbermann, Bettina

    2016-01-15

    Fermentation residues from biogas production are known as valuable organic fertilisers. This study deals with the effect of cattle slurry, co-digested cattle slurry, co-digested energy crops and mineral fertilisers on the activity and composition of soil microbiota. Furthermore, the effect of solid-liquid separation as a common pre-treatment of digestate was tested. The fertilising effects were analysed in an 8-week pot experiment on loamy sand using two crops, Amaranthus cruentus and Sorghum bicolor. Amaranth, as a crop with significantly higher P uptake, triggered stress for occurring soil microbes and thereby caused a reduction of microbial biomass C in the soil. Irrespective of the crop, microbial basal respiration and metabolic quotient were higher with the digestates than with the untreated slurry or the mineral treatments. Community level physiological profiles with MicroResp showed considerable differences among the treatments, with particularly strong effects of solid-liquid separation. Similar results were also found on a structural level (PCR-DGGE). Alkaline phosphatase gene analyses revealed high sensitivity to different fertilisation regimes.

  10. Structural features affecting the enzymatic digestibility of pine wood pretreated with ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Torr, Kirk M; Love, Karen T; Simmons, Blake A; Hill, Stefan J

    2016-03-01

    Pretreating lignocellulosic biomass with certain ionic liquids results in structural and chemical changes that make the biomass more digestible by enzymes. In this study, pine wood was pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride/acetate ([C2 mim]Cl and [C2 mim][OAc]) at different temperatures to investigate the relative importance of substrate features, such as accessible surface area, cellulose crystallinity, and lignin content, on enzymatic digestibility. The ionic liquid pretreatments resulted in glucan conversions ranging from 23% to 84% on saccharification of the substrates, with [C2 mim][OAc] being more effective than [C2 mim]Cl. The pretreatments resulted in no delignification of the wood, some loss of cellulose crystallinity under certain conditions, and varying levels of increased surface area. Enzymatic digestibility closely correlated with accessible surface area and porosity measurements obtained using Simons' staining and thermoporosimetry techniques. Increased accessible surface area was identified as the principal structural feature responsible for the improved enzymatic digestibility. PMID:26369903

  11. Biogas digestates affect crop P uptake and soil microbial community composition.

    PubMed

    Hupfauf, Sebastian; Bachmann, Silvia; Fernández-Delgado Juárez, Marina; Insam, Heribert; Eichler-Löbermann, Bettina

    2016-01-15

    Fermentation residues from biogas production are known as valuable organic fertilisers. This study deals with the effect of cattle slurry, co-digested cattle slurry, co-digested energy crops and mineral fertilisers on the activity and composition of soil microbiota. Furthermore, the effect of solid-liquid separation as a common pre-treatment of digestate was tested. The fertilising effects were analysed in an 8-week pot experiment on loamy sand using two crops, Amaranthus cruentus and Sorghum bicolor. Amaranth, as a crop with significantly higher P uptake, triggered stress for occurring soil microbes and thereby caused a reduction of microbial biomass C in the soil. Irrespective of the crop, microbial basal respiration and metabolic quotient were higher with the digestates than with the untreated slurry or the mineral treatments. Community level physiological profiles with MicroResp showed considerable differences among the treatments, with particularly strong effects of solid-liquid separation. Similar results were also found on a structural level (PCR-DGGE). Alkaline phosphatase gene analyses revealed high sensitivity to different fertilisation regimes. PMID:26410342

  12. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the small intestine of Eimeria acervulina-infected chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is a major disease of poultry caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. Eimeria acervulina mainly infects the duodenum, causing lesions in epithelial tissue. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of E. acervulina infection on the expression of 18 nutrient transport...

  13. The effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on nutrient intake, digestibility and finishing performance of lambs fed a diet based on dried molasses sugar beet-pulp.

    PubMed

    Payandeh, S; Kafilzadeh, F

    2007-12-15

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SC47) on finishing performance, digestibility, some blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of male lambs fed a diet based on dried Molasses Sugar Beet-Pulp (MSBP). Eighteen Sanjabi male lambs (20.95 +/- 2.7 kg initial body weight and 3 month of age) were used in a completely randomized design. Animals were assigned to one of the two dietary treatments (with or without yeast). Digestibility and nitrogen balance experiment was carried out using six mature rams on finishing diet with and without yeast. Serum metabolites were determined in samples taken from lambs at the end of finishing period. Dry matter digestibility of finishing diet was significantly increased by yeast addition. However, yeast did not have any significant effect on apparent digestibility of OM, NDF, CP and energy. Nitrogen retention was also not affected by yeast addition. Yeast resulted in a significant increase in the average daily gain, dry matter and organic matter intake. However, feed conversion ratio was not significantly affected by addition of yeast. The concentration of the serum metabolites including glucose, urea, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous and cratinine were not affected significantly by yeast supplementation, but triglyceride concentrations increased significantly when yeast was fed. Addition of yeast to the diet did not have any significant effect on the carcass characteristics. Results of this study suggest that feeding saccharomyces cerevisiae with a diet based on MSBP can improve the performance of fattening lambs without any change in carcass characteristics or cuts.

  14. Influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Amerah, A M; Péron, A; Zaefarian, F; Ravindran, V

    2011-02-01

    1. The aim of the present experiment was to examine the influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils (EO; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) supplementation on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens. 2. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two wheat forms (ground wheat [GW] and whole wheat [WW]; 100 and 200 g/kg WW replacing GW during starter [1 to 21 d] and finisher [22 to 35 d] diets respectively) and two levels of EO inclusion (0 or 100 g/tonne diet). All dietary treatments were supplemented with 2000 xylanase units/kg feed. Broiler starter and finisher diets based on wheat and soybean meal were formulated and each diet fed ad libitum to 6 pens of 8 male broilers. 3. During the trial period (1-35 d), wheat form had no significant effect on weight gain or feed intake. However, WW inclusion tended (P = 0.06) to improve feed per gain. Essential oil supplementation significantly improved weight gain in both diets, but the improvements were greater in the GW diet as indicated by a significant wheat form × EO interaction. 4. Main effects of wheat form and EO on the relative weight, length and digesta content of various segments of the digestive tract were not significant. Significant interactions, however, were found for relative gizzard and caecal weights. Essential oil supplementation significantly increased the relative gizzard weight and lowered relative caecal weight in birds fed on the GW based diet, but had no effect in those fed on the WW based diet. 5. Whole wheat inclusion and EO supplementation significantly improved apparent ileal nitrogen digestibility. Apparent ileal digestible energy was not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments. 6. Ileal microbiota profiling, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, showed that the ileal microbiota composition was influenced by feed form. The mean numbers of

  15. Influence of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation of pregnant ewes on maternal and fetal pancreatic digestive enzymes and insulin-containing clusters.

    PubMed

    Keomanivong, F E; Lemley, C O; Camacho, L E; Yunusova, R; Borowicz, P P; Caton, J S; Meyer, A M; Vonnahme, K A; Swanson, K C

    2016-03-01

    Primiparous ewes (n=32) were assigned to dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement to determine effects of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation on maternal and fetal pancreatic weight, digestive enzyme activity, concentration of insulin-containing clusters and plasma insulin concentrations. Treatments consisted of nutrient intake with 60% (RES) or 100% (ADQ) of requirements and melatonin supplementation at 0 (CON) or 5 mg/day (MEL). Treatments began on day 50 of gestation and continued until day 130. On day 130, blood was collected under general anesthesia from the uterine artery, uterine vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein for plasma insulin analysis. Ewes were then euthanized and the pancreas removed from the ewe and fetus, trimmed of mesentery and fat, weighed and snap-frozen until enzyme analysis. In addition, samples of pancreatic tissue were fixed in 10% formalin solution for histological examination including quantitative characterization of size and distribution of insulin-containing cell clusters. Nutrient restriction decreased (P⩽0.001) maternal pancreatic mass (g) and α-amylase activity (U/g, kU/pancreas, U/kg BW). Ewes supplemented with melatonin had increased pancreatic mass (P=0.03) and α-amylase content (kU/pancreas and U/kg BW). Melatonin supplementation decreased (P=0.002) maternal pancreatic insulin-positive tissue area (relative to section of tissue), and size of the largest insulin-containing cell cluster (P=0.04). Nutrient restriction decreased pancreatic insulin-positive tissue area (P=0.03) and percent of large (32 001 to 512 000 µm2) and giant (⩾512 001 µm2) insulin-containing cell clusters (P=0.04) in the fetus. Insulin concentrations in plasma from the uterine vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein were greater (P⩽0.01) in animals receiving 100% requirements. When comparing ewes to fetuses, ewes had a greater percentage of medium insulin-containing cell clusters (2001 to 32 000 µm2) while fetuses

  16. Nutrient digestibility of solvent-extracted Brassica napus and Brassica juncea canola meals and their air-classified fractions fed to ileal-cannulated grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Zijlstra, R T; Beltranena, E

    2015-01-01

    Energy and nutrient digestibility of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) is limited in pigs by its relatively high fiber content. The seed hull, which greatly contributes to the fiber content of CM, is denser than the oil-free cotyledon. By utilizing streams of air, air classification partially separates these seed components on the basis of their different sizes and densities to produce a low-fiber, light-particle fraction and a high-fiber, heavy-particle fraction. Compared with parent CM, ADF and NDF were reduced by 31.9% and 29.5% in the light-particle fraction and were enriched by 16.5% and 9.0% in the heavy-particle fraction (DM basis), respectively. Particle size was 638, 18.9, and 76.1 µm for the parent CM and light- and heavy-particle fractions, respectively. To determine the nutrient digestibility of CM and their air-classified fractions, Brassica napus and B. juncea CM and their 2 air-classified fractions were evaluated in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement together with a basal diet and an N-free diet. The experiment was conducted as an 8 × 8 Latin square in which diets contained 40% B. napus or B. juncea CM or their air-classified fractions and 60% basal diet. Digesta data from pigs fed the N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses. Eight ileal-cannulated barrows (32 kg initial BW) were fed the 8 diets at 2.7 times maintenance DE for eight 11-d periods. At the end of each period, feces were collected for 48 h, and ileal digesta were collected for two 12-h periods. The DE and calculated NE values and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE were 6.3%, 10.0%, and 7.8% greater (P < 0.001) for B. juncea CM than for B. napus CM; 6.1%, 10.8%, and 5.3% greater (P < 0.001) for the light-particle fraction than for parent CM; and 5.4%, 7.2%, and 3.8% lower (P < 0.001) for the heavy-particle fraction than for parent CM, respectively. The standardized ileal digestibilities (SID) of His, Ile, Val, Asp, and Tyr were greater (P < 0.05) for B

  17. Nutrient digestibility of solvent-extracted Brassica napus and Brassica juncea canola meals and their air-classified fractions fed to ileal-cannulated grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Zijlstra, R T; Beltranena, E

    2015-01-01

    Energy and nutrient digestibility of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) is limited in pigs by its relatively high fiber content. The seed hull, which greatly contributes to the fiber content of CM, is denser than the oil-free cotyledon. By utilizing streams of air, air classification partially separates these seed components on the basis of their different sizes and densities to produce a low-fiber, light-particle fraction and a high-fiber, heavy-particle fraction. Compared with parent CM, ADF and NDF were reduced by 31.9% and 29.5% in the light-particle fraction and were enriched by 16.5% and 9.0% in the heavy-particle fraction (DM basis), respectively. Particle size was 638, 18.9, and 76.1 µm for the parent CM and light- and heavy-particle fractions, respectively. To determine the nutrient digestibility of CM and their air-classified fractions, Brassica napus and B. juncea CM and their 2 air-classified fractions were evaluated in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement together with a basal diet and an N-free diet. The experiment was conducted as an 8 × 8 Latin square in which diets contained 40% B. napus or B. juncea CM or their air-classified fractions and 60% basal diet. Digesta data from pigs fed the N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses. Eight ileal-cannulated barrows (32 kg initial BW) were fed the 8 diets at 2.7 times maintenance DE for eight 11-d periods. At the end of each period, feces were collected for 48 h, and ileal digesta were collected for two 12-h periods. The DE and calculated NE values and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE were 6.3%, 10.0%, and 7.8% greater (P < 0.001) for B. juncea CM than for B. napus CM; 6.1%, 10.8%, and 5.3% greater (P < 0.001) for the light-particle fraction than for parent CM; and 5.4%, 7.2%, and 3.8% lower (P < 0.001) for the heavy-particle fraction than for parent CM, respectively. The standardized ileal digestibilities (SID) of His, Ile, Val, Asp, and Tyr were greater (P < 0.05) for B

  18. Effects of Dietary Coptis Chinensis Herb Extract on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics and Meat Quality in Growing-finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, T. X.; Zhang, Z. F.; Kim, I. H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary Coptis chinensis herb extract (CHE) on growth performance, blood characteristics, nutrient digestibility and meat quality of growing-finishing pigs were investigated in an 18-wk feeding trial. A total of 36 Landrace×Yorkshire-Duroc pigs with an initial body weight of 20±1.0 kg were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. A maize-soybean meal-based diet was formulated as a control diet and other treatment diets were supplemented with 0.5, or 1 g CHE/kg, respectively. After the feeding period, meat samples were collected from those pigs that had reached the market BW. During the experimental periods, growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen were unaffected (p>0.05) by the dietary supplementation of CHE. Plasma erythrocytes counts were increased (Linearly, p<0.05) in response to application of CHE at the end of the experiment. Moreover, pigs fed the CHE diets had better (p<0.05) meat color, pH and water holding capacity (WHC) than pigs fed the control diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with CHE could increase blood erythrocytes counts and improve meat quality in growing-finishing pigs but not improve growth performance. PMID:25049712

  19. Evaluation of the Effect of Low Dietary Fermentable Carbohydrate Content on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Meat Quality in Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 96 pigs (49.23±3.20 kg) were used in an 11 wk growth trial to evaluate the effect of fermentable carbohydrate (FC) content on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrient, blood profile, and meat quality. The dietary treatments were: i) negative control (NC), basal diet, ii) positive control (PC), NC+antibiotics (positive control diet with 5 ppm flavomycin), iii) PCL, PC-13% lower FC, and iv) NCL, NC-13% lower FC. The growth performance (average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and gain/feed) didn’t differ among treatments through the whole experiment. These pigs fed the PCL diet had the greater (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter than those from PC and NC treatment at the end of the experiment. No differences were observed in white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), and lymphocyte concentration among different treatments. After the feeding period, meat samples were collected from the pigs at slaughter. The pigs in NCL and PCL treatments had greater (p<0.05) backfat thickness and lower lean percentage. The color value of loin was higher (p<0.05) in NCL treatment compared to PCL treatment. Also, the NCL treatment had higher (p<0.05) marbling value than PC treatment. The drip loss was depressed by PCL and NCL treatment comapared to NC treatments. The water holding capacity (WHC) was higher (p<0.05) in NC and PCL treatment. In conclusion, the low FC can improve digestibility and meat quality of finishing pigs. PMID:25049693

  20. Thermal acclimation and nutritional history affect the oxidation of different classes of exogenous nutrients in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D; Voigt, Christian C; Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2014-11-01

    During acclimatization to winter, changes in morphology and physiology combined with changes in diet may affect how animals use the nutrients they ingest. To study (a) how thermal acclimation and (b) nutritional history affect the rates at which Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) oxidize different classes of dietary nutrients, we conducted two trials in which we fed hamsters one of three (13) C-labeled compounds, that is, glucose, leucine, or palmitic acid. We predicted that under acute cold stress (3 hr at 2°C) hamsters previously acclimated to cold temperatures (10°C) for 3 weeks would have higher resting metabolic rate (RMR) and would oxidize a greater proportion of dietary fatty acids than animals acclimated to 21°C. We also investigated how chronic nutritional stress affects how hamsters use dietary nutrients. To examine this, hamsters were fed four different diets (control, low protein, low lipid, and low-glycemic index) for 2 weeks. During cold challenges, hamsters previously acclimated to cold exhibited higher thermal conductance and RMR, and also oxidized more exogenous palmitic acid during the postprandial phase than animals acclimated to 21°C. In the nutritional stress trial, hamsters fed the low protein diet oxidized more exogenous glucose, but not more exogenous palmitic acid than the control group. The use of (13) C-labeled metabolic tracers combined with breath testing demonstrated that both thermal and nutritional history results in significant changes in the extent to which animals oxidize dietary nutrients during the postprandial period.

  1. Arabinose substitution degree in xylan positively affects lignocellulose enzymatic digestibility after various NaOH/H2SO4 pretreatments in Miscanthus.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengcheng; Ren, Shuangfeng; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Zhengdan; Xie, Guosheng; Chen, Yan; Tu, Yuanyuan; Li, Qing; Zhou, Shiguang; Li, Yu; Tu, Fen; Liu, Lin; Wang, Yanting; Jiang, Jianxiong; Qin, Jingping; Li, Shizhong; Li, Qiwei; Jing, Hai-Chun; Zhou, Fasong; Gutterson, Neal; Peng, Liangcai

    2013-02-01

    Xylans are the major hemicelluloses in grasses, but their effects on biomass saccharification remain unclear. In this study, we examined the 79 representative Miscanthus accessions that displayed a diverse cell wall composition and varied biomass digestibility. Correlation analysis showed that hemicelluloses level has a strong positive effect on lignocellulose enzymatic digestion after NaOH or H(2)SO(4) pretreatment. Characterization of the monosaccharide compositions in the KOH-extractable and non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses indicated that arabinose substitution degree of xylan is the key factor that positively affects biomass saccharification. The xylose/arabinose ratio after individual enzyme digestion revealed that the arabinose in xylan is partially associated with cellulose in the amorphous regions, which negatively affects cellulose crystallinity for high biomass digestibility. The results provide insights into the mechanism of lignocellulose enzymatic digestion upon pretreatment, and also suggest a goal for the genetic modification of hemicelluloses towards the bioenergy crop breeding of Miscanthus and grasses.

  2. Posttraumatic growth moderates the effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms on adjustment and positive affective reactions in digestive system cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Cohen, Miri; Gouzman, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The study aims were twofold: (1) To investigate the associations of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) with adjustment and affective reactions of digestive system cancer patients and (2) To assess the moderating effects of PTG on the associations of PTSS with adjustment and affective reactions. The sample consisted of 200 respondents 1-4 years following diagnosis and treatment for digestive system cancer. Participants completed questionnaires assessing PTSS, PTG, adjustment, positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). The results showed that PTG was positively associated with adjustment and PA, while PTSS was negatively associated with these outcomes and positively associated with NA. Moderation effects of PTG were also observed: The negative associations between PTSS and adjustment or PA were weaker under high levels than under low levels of PTG. It was concluded that PTG is important both as a contributor to better adjustment and PA, as well as a moderator of the detrimental effects of PTSS on adjustment and PA following recovery from cancer. Thus, when developing post-cancer intervention programs, PTG should be viewed as a factor to be encouraged and nurtured for the benefit of cancer patients' adjustment and their long-term well-being.

  3. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

  4. Influence of breed and diet on growth, nutrient digestibility, body composition and plasma hormones of Brangus and Angus steers.

    PubMed

    Beaver, E E; Williams, J E; Miller, S J; Hancock, D L; Hannah, S M; O'Connor, D L

    1989-09-01

    Two split-plot designed experiments were conducted to determine the effects of breed (Angus, A, or Brangus, B) and diet (fescue hay, FH; corn silage, CS; or concentrate) on composition and rate of growth, diet digestibility and plasma hormones of steers. In Exp. 1, 10 steers (five of each breed) were fed a CS-based diet followed by a FH-based diet for two consecutive 60-d periods. Both breeds had lower (P less than .01) DM intake and digestibility when fed FH than when fed CS diets. The B steers had higher (P less than .01) plasma insulin concentrations than A steers when fed the CS diet. In Exp. 2, during two consecutive years, 10 steers previously fed CS- and FH-based diets were finished with a corn silage-whole shelled corn-based diet. During yr 1, A steers had higher (P less than .01) DM intake and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations (P less than .05) than B steers did. Although final weights were similar (P greater than .10), A steers had heavier (P less than .05) carcass weights than B steers did. During yr 2, A steers had higher (P less than .07) DM and starch digestibilities and higher (P less than .01) plasma T4 concentrations than B steers did. The greater (P less than .01) energetic efficiency of A steers was attributed to the greater rates of fat deposition during yr 2. Regardless of type of diet fed, A steers were more efficient at depositing energy. Higher circulating T4 concentrations of A than B steers may explain some of the physiological differences between these breeds. PMID:2689419

  5. Upland disturbance affects headwater stream nutrients and suspended sediments during baseflow and stormflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, J.N.; Mulholland, P.J.; Maloney, K.O.

    2006-01-01

    Because catchment characteristics determine sediment and nutrient inputs to streams, upland disturbance can affect stream chemistry. Catchments at the Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia) experience a range of upland disturbance intensities due to spatial variability in the intensity of military training. We used this disturbance gradient to investigate the effects of upland soil and vegetation disturbance on stream chemistry. During baseflow, mean total suspended sediment (TSS) concentration and mean inorganic suspended sediment (ISS) concentration increased with catchment disturbance intensity (TSS: R2 = 0.7, p = 0.005, range = 4.0-10.1 mg L-1; ISS: R2 = 0.71, p = 0.004, range = 2.04-7.3 mg L-1); dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (R2 = 0.79, p = 0.001, range = 1.5-4.1 mg L-1) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration (R2 = 0.75, p = 0.008, range = 1.9-6.2 ??g L-1) decreased with increasing disturbance intensity; and ammonia (NH 4+), nitrate (NO3-), and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations were unrelated to disturbance intensity. The increase in TSS and ISS during storms was positively correlated with disturbance (R2 = 0.78 and 0.78, p = 0.01 and 0.01, respectively); mean maximum change in SRP during storms increased with disturbance (r = 0.7, p = 0.04); and mean maximum change in NO3- during storms was marginally correlated with disturbance (r = 0.58, p = 0.06). Soil characteristics were significant predictors of baseflow DOC, SRP, and Ca 2+, but were not correlated with suspended sediment fractions, any nitrogen species, or pH. Despite the largely intact riparian zones of these headwater streams, upland soil and vegetation disturbances had clear effects on stream chemistry during baseflow and stormflow conditions. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  6. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions. PMID:26064101

  7. Management Practices Affect Soil Nutrients and Bacterial Populations in Backgrounding Beef Feedlot.

    PubMed

    Netthisinghe, A M P; Cook, K L; Gilfillen, R A; Sistani, K R; Woosley, P B

    2015-11-01

    Contaminants associated with manure in animal production sites are of significant concern. Unless properly managed, manure-derived soil nutrients in livestock production sites can deteriorate soil and water quality. This 3-yr study evaluated a soil nutrient management strategy with four sequentially imposed management practices: 12-mo backgrounding (BG), manure removal from the feeder area (FD), 12-mo destocking (DS), and 12-mo grass hay harvesting (H) in a small backgrounding feedlot. Resulting soil nutrient levels, total (), and N cycling bacterial ( and ) populations after each management practice in feedlot feeder and grazing (GR) areas and in crop grown at the control location (CT) were measured. Irrespective of management practice, FD contained greater soil nutrient concentrations than the GR and CT. Regardless of management practice, total bacteria cells (1.4 × 10 cells g soil) and nitrate reducers (5.2 × 10 cells g soil) were an order of magnitude higher in the FD than in the GR and CT, whereas nitrifying bacteria concentrations (1.4 × 10 cells g soil) were higher in the GR. Manure removal from the feeder area reduced M3-P (39%), total C (21%), total N (23%), NH-N (47%), and NO-N (93%) levels established in the FD during BG. Destocking lowered total C and N (45%) in the FD and NH-N (47%), NO-N (76%), and Zn (16%) in the GR. Hay harvesting reduced all soil nutrients in the FD and GR marginally. The management strategy has potential to lower soil nutrient concentrations, control soil nutrient buildup, and limit nutrient spread within the feedlot. PMID:26641341

  8. Nutrient addition differentially affects ecological processes of Avicennia germinans in nitrogen versus phosphorus limited mangrove ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feller, Ilka C.; Lovelock, C.E.; McKee, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is a major threat to marine environments, but system-specific attributes of coastal ecosystems may result in differences in their sensitivity and susceptibility to eutrophication. We used fertilization experiments in nitrogen (N)- and phosphorus (P)-limited mangrove forests to test the hypothesis that alleviating different kinds of nutrient limitation may have different effects on ecosystem structure and function in natural systems. We compared a broad range of ecological processes to determine if these systems have different thresholds where shifts might occur in nutrient limitation. Growth responses indicated N limitation in Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) forests in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, and P limitation at Twin Cays, Belize. When nutrient deficiency was relieved, A. germinans grew out of its stunted form by increasing wood relative to leaf biomass and shoot length relative to lateral growth. At the P-limited site, P enrichment (+P) increased specific leaf area, N resorption, and P uptake, but had no effect on P resorption. At the N-limited site, +N increased both N and P resorption, but did not alter biomass allocation. Herbivory was greater at the P-limited site and was unaffected by +P, whereas +N led to increased herbivory at the N-limited site. The responses to nutrient enrichment depended on the ecological process and limiting nutrient and suggested that N- versus P-limited mangroves do have different thresholds. +P had a greater effect on more ecological processes at Twin Cays than did +N at the IRL, which indicated that the P-limited site was more sensitive to nutrient loading. Because of this sensitivity, eutrophication is more likely to cause a shift in nutrient limitation at P-limited Twin Cays than N-limited IRL. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. Nutrient Enrichment and Food Web Composition Affect Ecosystem Metabolism in an Experimental Seagrass Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, Amanda C.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Richardson, J. Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Food web composition and resource levels can influence ecosystem properties such as productivity and elemental cycles. In particular, herbivores occupy a central place in food webs as the species richness and composition of this trophic level may simultaneously influence the transmission of resource and predator effects to higher and lower trophic levels, respectively. Yet, these interactions are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental seagrass mesocosm system, we factorially manipulated water column nutrient concentrations, food chain length, and diversity of crustacean grazers to address two questions: (1) Does food web composition modulate the effects of nutrient enrichment on plant and grazer biomasses and stoichiometry? (2) Do ecosystem fluxes of dissolved oxygen and nutrients more closely reflect above-ground biomass and community structure or sediment processes? Nutrient enrichment and grazer presence generally had strong effects on biomass accumulation, stoichiometry, and ecosystem fluxes, whereas predator effects were weaker or absent. Nutrient enrichment had little effect on producer biomass or net ecosystem production but strongly increased seagrass nutrient content, ecosystem flux rates, and grazer secondary production, suggesting that enhanced production was efficiently transferred from producers to herbivores. Gross ecosystem production (oxygen evolution) correlated positively with above-ground plant biomass, whereas inorganic nutrient fluxes were unrelated to plant or grazer biomasses, suggesting dominance by sediment microbial processes. Finally, grazer richness significantly stabilized ecosystem processes, as predators decreased ecosystem production and respiration only in the zero- and one- species grazer treatments. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results indicate that consumer presence and species composition strongly influence ecosystem responses to nutrient enrichment, and that increasing

  10. Management Practices Affect Soil Nutrients and Bacterial Populations in Backgrounding Beef Feedlot.

    PubMed

    Netthisinghe, A M P; Cook, K L; Gilfillen, R A; Sistani, K R; Woosley, P B

    2015-11-01

    Contaminants associated with manure in animal production sites are of significant concern. Unless properly managed, manure-derived soil nutrients in livestock production sites can deteriorate soil and water quality. This 3-yr study evaluated a soil nutrient management strategy with four sequentially imposed management practices: 12-mo backgrounding (BG), manure removal from the feeder area (FD), 12-mo destocking (DS), and 12-mo grass hay harvesting (H) in a small backgrounding feedlot. Resulting soil nutrient levels, total (), and N cycling bacterial ( and ) populations after each management practice in feedlot feeder and grazing (GR) areas and in crop grown at the control location (CT) were measured. Irrespective of management practice, FD contained greater soil nutrient concentrations than the GR and CT. Regardless of management practice, total bacteria cells (1.4 × 10 cells g soil) and nitrate reducers (5.2 × 10 cells g soil) were an order of magnitude higher in the FD than in the GR and CT, whereas nitrifying bacteria concentrations (1.4 × 10 cells g soil) were higher in the GR. Manure removal from the feeder area reduced M3-P (39%), total C (21%), total N (23%), NH-N (47%), and NO-N (93%) levels established in the FD during BG. Destocking lowered total C and N (45%) in the FD and NH-N (47%), NO-N (76%), and Zn (16%) in the GR. Hay harvesting reduced all soil nutrients in the FD and GR marginally. The management strategy has potential to lower soil nutrient concentrations, control soil nutrient buildup, and limit nutrient spread within the feedlot.

  11. Reducing crude protein and rumen degradable protein with a constant concentration of rumen undegradable protein in the diet of dairy cows: Production performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    The goals of ruminant protein nutrition are to provide adequate amounts of RDP for optimal ruminal efficiency and to obtain the desired animal productivity with a minimum amount of dietary CP. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of decreasing dietary protein by decreasing RDP with the optimum concentration of RUP on production performance, nutrient digestibility, N retention, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood metabolites in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Nine multiparous lactating cows (second parities, averaging 50 ± 12 d in milk and milk yield of 48 ± 5 kg/d) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 rations: 1) a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 16.4% CP (10.9% RDP based on DM), 2) a TMR containing 15.6% CP (10% RDP), and 3) a TMR containing 14.8% CP (9.3% RDP). The level of RUP was constant at 5.5% DM across the treatments. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal lysine to methionine ratio of about 3:1. Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk were not significantly affected by decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Cows fed 16.4% CP diets had greater ( < 0.01) CP and RDP intakes, which resulted in a trend toward greater concentrations of plasma urea N compared with other treatments. Daily N intake linearly decreased ( < 0.01) with decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels, whereas the intake of RUP and fecal N excretion (g/d) did not change. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, ruminal pH, and NH-N concentration were not affected with decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Apparent N efficiency increased, and RDP N intake and predicted urine N output decreased with decreased concentration of dietary CP and RDP in the diets ( < 0.01). Blood metabolites were not affected by treatments. In conclusion, to improve the efficiency of N utilization by early-lactation dairy cows, 9.3% RDP in rations provides adequate protein to optimize milk

  12. Effect of Grape Pomace Powder, Mangosteen Peel Powder and Monensin on Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, Nitrogen Balance and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Dairy Steers.

    PubMed

    Foiklang, S; Wanapat, M; Norrapoke, T

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of grape pomace powder (GPP), mangosteen peel powder (MPP) and monensin on feed intake, nutrients digestibility, microorganisms, rumen fermentation characteristic, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance in dairy steers. Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial body weight (BW) of 220±15 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four treatments. The treatments were as follows: T1 = control, T2 = supplementation with monensin at 33 mg/kg diet, T3 = supplementation with GPP at 2% of dry matter intake, and T4 = supplementation with MPP at 30 g/kg diet. The steers were offered the concentrate diet at 0.2% BW and 3% urea treated rice straw (UTRS) was fed ad libitum. It was found that GPP supplemented group had higher UTRS intake and nutrient digestibility in terms of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber than those in control group (p<0.05). Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and blood urea-nitrogen concentration were higher in monensin, GPP and MPP supplemented groups (p<0.05). Total volatile fatty acids and propionate in the GPP group were higher than those in the control group (p<0.05) while acetate concentration, and acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (p<0.01) when steers were supplemented with GPP, monensin, and MPP, respectively. Moreover, protozoal populations in GPP, MPP, and monensin supplementation were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05), while cellulolytic bacterial population was significantly higher in the control group (p<0.05). Nitrogen retention, microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis were found significantly higher in steers that received GPP (p<0.05). Based on this study it could be concluded that the GPP has potential as an alternative feed supplement in concentrate diets which can result in improved rumen fermentation efficiency, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis in

  13. Influence of partial replacement of ground wheat with whole wheat and exogenous enzyme supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and energy utilization in young broilers.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Amerah, A M

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of pre-pelleting inclusion of whole wheat (WW) and exogenous enzyme supplementation on growth performance, coefficient of apparent ileal nutrient digestibility (CAID) and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) in broilers fed wheat-based pelleted diets. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with two methods of wheat inclusion [622 g/kg ground wheat (GW) and 250 g/kg WW replaced GW (wt/wt) pre-pelleting (PWW)] and three enzymes (xylanase, phytase and xylanase plus phytase). A total of 288, one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were individually weighed and allocated to 36 cages (8 broilers/cage), and the cages were randomly assigned to the six dietary treatments. Birds fed PWW diets gained more (p < 0.05) weight than those fed GW diets. There was no effect (p > 0.05) of WW inclusion on feed intake (FI). Phytase alone increased (p < 0.05) FI compared to xylanase or the combination. Whole wheat inclusion increased (p < 0.05) the gain-to-feed ratio (G:F). Feeding xylanase plus phytase and phytase-added diets resulted in the greatest and lowest G:F, respectively, with xylanase supplemented diets being intermediate. Birds fed PWW diets had greater (p < 0.05) relative gizzard weights than those fed GW diets. There was no effect (p > 0.05) of WW inclusion on the CAID of nitrogen (N), starch and fat. Combination of xylanase and phytase resulted in greater (p < 0.05) digestibility of N, starch and fat than that of individual additions. Feeding PWW diets resulted in greater (p < 0.05) AME values than GW diets. Combination of xylanase and phytase increased (p < 0.05) the AME compared to the diets with individual additions of xylanase or phytase. The current results suggest that the influence of pre-pelleting WW inclusion and exogenous enzymes on nutrient digestibility and broiler performance is not additive.

  14. Effect of Grape Pomace Powder, Mangosteen Peel Powder and Monensin on Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, Nitrogen Balance and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Dairy Steers

    PubMed Central

    Foiklang, S.; Wanapat, M.; Norrapoke, T.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of grape pomace powder (GPP), mangosteen peel powder (MPP) and monensin on feed intake, nutrients digestibility, microorganisms, rumen fermentation characteristic, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance in dairy steers. Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial body weight (BW) of 220±15 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four treatments. The treatments were as follows: T1 = control, T2 = supplementation with monensin at 33 mg/kg diet, T3 = supplementation with GPP at 2% of dry matter intake, and T4 = supplementation with MPP at 30 g/kg diet. The steers were offered the concentrate diet at 0.2% BW and 3% urea treated rice straw (UTRS) was fed ad libitum. It was found that GPP supplemented group had higher UTRS intake and nutrient digestibility in terms of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber than those in control group (p<0.05). Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and blood urea-nitrogen concentration were higher in monensin, GPP and MPP supplemented groups (p<0.05). Total volatile fatty acids and propionate in the GPP group were higher than those in the control group (p<0.05) while acetate concentration, and acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (p<0.01) when steers were supplemented with GPP, monensin, and MPP, respectively. Moreover, protozoal populations in GPP, MPP, and monensin supplementation were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05), while cellulolytic bacterial population was significantly higher in the control group (p<0.05). Nitrogen retention, microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis were found significantly higher in steers that received GPP (p<0.05). Based on this study it could be concluded that the GPP has potential as an alternative feed supplement in concentrate diets which can result in improved rumen fermentation efficiency, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis in

  15. Influence of partial replacement of ground wheat with whole wheat and exogenous enzyme supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and energy utilization in young broilers.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Amerah, A M

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of pre-pelleting inclusion of whole wheat (WW) and exogenous enzyme supplementation on growth performance, coefficient of apparent ileal nutrient digestibility (CAID) and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) in broilers fed wheat-based pelleted diets. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with two methods of wheat inclusion [622 g/kg ground wheat (GW) and 250 g/kg WW replaced GW (wt/wt) pre-pelleting (PWW)] and three enzymes (xylanase, phytase and xylanase plus phytase). A total of 288, one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were individually weighed and allocated to 36 cages (8 broilers/cage), and the cages were randomly assigned to the six dietary treatments. Birds fed PWW diets gained more (p < 0.05) weight than those fed GW diets. There was no effect (p > 0.05) of WW inclusion on feed intake (FI). Phytase alone increased (p < 0.05) FI compared to xylanase or the combination. Whole wheat inclusion increased (p < 0.05) the gain-to-feed ratio (G:F). Feeding xylanase plus phytase and phytase-added diets resulted in the greatest and lowest G:F, respectively, with xylanase supplemented diets being intermediate. Birds fed PWW diets had greater (p < 0.05) relative gizzard weights than those fed GW diets. There was no effect (p > 0.05) of WW inclusion on the CAID of nitrogen (N), starch and fat. Combination of xylanase and phytase resulted in greater (p < 0.05) digestibility of N, starch and fat than that of individual additions. Feeding PWW diets resulted in greater (p < 0.05) AME values than GW diets. Combination of xylanase and phytase increased (p < 0.05) the AME compared to the diets with individual additions of xylanase or phytase. The current results suggest that the influence of pre-pelleting WW inclusion and exogenous enzymes on nutrient digestibility and broiler performance is not additive. PMID:27080922

  16. CO₂ and inorganic nutrient enrichment affect the performance of a calcifying green alga and its noncalcifying epiphyte.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Laurie C; Bischof, Kai; Baggini, Cecilia; Johnson, Andrew; Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Teichberg, Mirta

    2015-04-01

    Ocean acidification studies in the past decade have greatly improved our knowledge of how calcifying organisms respond to increased surface ocean CO2 levels. It has become evident that, for many organisms, nutrient availability is an important factor that influences their physiological responses and competitive interactions with other species. Therefore, we tested how simulated ocean acidification and eutrophication (nitrate and phosphate enrichment) interact to affect the physiology and ecology of a calcifying chlorophyte macroalga (Halimeda opuntia (L.) J.V. Lamouroux) and its common noncalcifying epiphyte (Dictyota sp.) in a 4-week fully crossed multifactorial experiment. Inorganic nutrient enrichment (+NP) had a strong influence on all responses measured with the exception of net calcification. Elevated CO2 alone significantly decreased electron transport rates of the photosynthetic apparatus and resulted in phosphorus limitation in both species, but had no effect on oxygen production or respiration. The combination of CO2 and +NP significantly increased electron transport rates in both species. While +NP alone stimulated H. opuntia growth rates, Dictyota growth was significantly stimulated by nutrient enrichment only at elevated CO2, which led to the highest biomass ratios of Dictyota to Halimeda. Our results suggest that inorganic nutrient enrichment alone stimulates several aspects of H. opuntia physiology, but nutrient enrichment at a CO2 concentration predicted for the end of the century benefits Dictyota sp. and hinders its calcifying basibiont H. opuntia. PMID:25648647

  17. Cereal β-glucan alters nutrient digestibility and microbial activity in the intestinal tract of pigs, and lower manure ammonia emission: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Zebeli, Q

    2013-07-01

    Cereal β-glucan may be detrimental in pig production because of negative effects on nutrient digestibility, but they may act as functional ingredients by stimulating the intestinal microbiota. This study primarily aimed to investigate relations between dietary β-glucan and nutrient digestibility, intestinal fermentation, and manure NH3 emission in weaned, growing, and finishing pigs. Effects of dietary xylose, NDF, and CP, and pig BW on animal responses were also evaluated. A meta-analytical approach, accounting for inter- and intraexperiment variations, was used to compute prediction models. Data from 26 studies including 107 different dietary treatments with appropriate dietary and physiological measurements were used to parameterize these models. Dietary β-glucan inclusion ranged from 0 to 6.7%. Increasing dietary β-glucan reduced apparent ileal (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP and energy (R(2) = 0.12 to 0.29; P < 0.05), whereas the ATTD of DM was reduced by 10% up to a threshold β-glucan of 3.5%, above which the response became asymptotic (R(2) = 0.34; P < 0.01). Increasing dietary NDF content decreased ATTD of DM and energy, and increasing xylose concentration reduced ATTD of energy and CP (R(2) = 0.24 to 0.85; P < 0.05). Broken-line model indicated that cecal total VFA and butyrate concentrations increased up to a threshold of 2.5 and 1.4% β-glucan in the diet, respectively, above which these responses became asymptotic (R(2) = 0.77 to 0.96; P < 0.05). Ileal butyrate was negatively and colonic iso-butyrate was positively linked to increasing β-glucan concentration (R(2) = 0.17 to 0.41; P < 0.05). Greater β-glucan concentration were negatively related (R(2) = 0.86; P < 0.01) to NH3 emission, indicating a reduction in NH3 emission by one-half with 6% β-glucan. Backward elimination analysis indicated that greater BW of pigs counteracted (P < 0.05) the negative effect of β-glucan on AID of CP and energy and ATTD of DM and CP. Pig BW also

  18. Volume ratios between the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of a temperature-phased anaerobic digestion system affect their performance and microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wen; Zhang, Wenfei; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-25

    An experimental temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system, with the thermophilic digester operated at neutral pH and with a balanced acidogenesis and methanogenesis (referred to as NT-TPAD), was evaluated with respect to the microbial communities and population dynamics of methanogens when digesting dairy cattle manure at 15-day overall system hydraulic retention time (HRT). When fed a manure slurry of 10% total solid (TS), similar system performance, 36-38% volatile solid (VS) removal and 0.21-0.22 L methane g(-1) VS fed, was achieved between a 5-day and 7.5-day HRT for the thermophilic digester. However, the thermophilic digester achieved a greater volumetric biogas yield when operated at a 5-day RT than at a 7.5-day HRT (6.3 vs. 4.7 L/L/d), while the mesophilic digester had a stable volumetric biogas yield (about 1.0 L/L/d). Each of the digesters harbored distinct yet dynamic microbial populations, and some of the methanogens were significantly correlated with methane productions. Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta were the most important methanogenic genera in the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters, respectively. The microbiological findings may help understand the metabolism that underpins the anaerobic processes within each of the two digesters of TPAD systems when fed dairy manure.

  19. Determination of the adequate dose of garlic diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide for effecting changes in growth performance, total-tract nutrient and energy digestibility, ileal characteristics, and serum immune parameters in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Horn, Nathan L; Ruch, Frank; Miller, Guy; Ajuwon, Kolapo M; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to determine the adequate dose and impact of graded concentrations of garlic diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) on growth performance, total-tract nutrient and energy digestibility, serum immune parameters, and ileal morphology in broiler chickens. At 28-d post-hatch, male broiler chickens were allotted on the basis of initial body weight (1.34 ± 0.106 kg) in a randomized complete block desing ( RCBD: ) to one of six treatments that consisted of an oral gavage of 0, 0.45, 0.90, 1.80, 3.6, or 7.2 mg of DADS + DATS per kg bodyweight (BW) with 8 replicate cages per treatment and 4 birds per cage. The DADS + DATS was administered to birds by daily oral gavage for a period of 6 d. Growth performance was recorded and excreta were collected for analysis of DM, nitrogen ( N: ), and energy ( E: ) digestibility and on the last day of the experiment, the median bird in each cage was euthanized and the mid ileum was excised for morphological and gene expression measurements and blood was collected for serum natural antibody and complement assays. Body weight gain and villus height were linearly increased (P < 0.01) with oral gavage of DADS + DATS. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) of the oral gavage on digestibility of DM, N, and E that corresponded to an average broken-line regression-derived adequate dose of 1.16 mg DADS + DATS per kg BW. Supplementation of DADS + DATS by oral gavage had no impact on gene expression markers although there was a tendency for an increase (P = 0.10) in serum natural antibody activity due to treatment. Results from the current study indicate that supplementation of a gavage containing DADS + DATS improves BW gain, ileal morphology, and digestibility of DM, N, and E and may affect serum immune parameters in broiler chickens. The average broken-line regression-derived adequate dose to optimize BW gain and villus height response was 2.51 mg DADS + DATS per kg BW.

  20. Determination of the adequate dose of garlic diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide for effecting changes in growth performance, total-tract nutrient and energy digestibility, ileal characteristics, and serum immune parameters in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Horn, Nathan L; Ruch, Frank; Miller, Guy; Ajuwon, Kolapo M; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to determine the adequate dose and impact of graded concentrations of garlic diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) on growth performance, total-tract nutrient and energy digestibility, serum immune parameters, and ileal morphology in broiler chickens. At 28-d post-hatch, male broiler chickens were allotted on the basis of initial body weight (1.34 ± 0.106 kg) in a randomized complete block desing ( RCBD: ) to one of six treatments that consisted of an oral gavage of 0, 0.45, 0.90, 1.80, 3.6, or 7.2 mg of DADS + DATS per kg bodyweight (BW) with 8 replicate cages per treatment and 4 birds per cage. The DADS + DATS was administered to birds by daily oral gavage for a period of 6 d. Growth performance was recorded and excreta were collected for analysis of DM, nitrogen ( N: ), and energy ( E: ) digestibility and on the last day of the experiment, the median bird in each cage was euthanized and the mid ileum was excised for morphological and gene expression measurements and blood was collected for serum natural antibody and complement assays. Body weight gain and villus height were linearly increased (P < 0.01) with oral gavage of DADS + DATS. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) of the oral gavage on digestibility of DM, N, and E that corresponded to an average broken-line regression-derived adequate dose of 1.16 mg DADS + DATS per kg BW. Supplementation of DADS + DATS by oral gavage had no impact on gene expression markers although there was a tendency for an increase (P = 0.10) in serum natural antibody activity due to treatment. Results from the current study indicate that supplementation of a gavage containing DADS + DATS improves BW gain, ileal morphology, and digestibility of DM, N, and E and may affect serum immune parameters in broiler chickens. The average broken-line regression-derived adequate dose to optimize BW gain and villus height response was 2.51 mg DADS + DATS per kg BW. PMID

  1. Influence of Palm Kernel Meal Inclusion and Exogenous Enzyme Supplementation on Growth Performance, Energy Utilization, and Nutrient Digestibility in Young Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, M. R.; Hosking, B. J.; Ning, D.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of palm kernel meal (PKM) inclusion and exogenous enzyme supplementation on growth performance, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) and total tract retention of nutrients in young broilers fed corn-based diets. Four inclusion levels of PKM (no PKM [PKM0], 8% [PKM8], 16% [PKM16], and 24% [PKM24]) and two enzyme additions were evaluated in a 4×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A total of 384, one-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) were individually weighed and allocated to 48 cages (eight broilers/cage), and cages were randomly assigned to eight dietary treatments. Results indicated that the inclusion of 8% and 16% PKM increased (p<0.05) the weight gain compared to the PKM0 diet. Birds fed the PKM8 diets had the highest (p<0.05) feed intake. Weight gain and feed intake were severely reduced (p<0.05) by feeding the PKM24 diet. Enzyme supplementation increased weight gain (p<0.05), independent of PKM inclusion level. In PKM0 and PKM8 diets, enzyme addition significantly (p<0.05) lowered feed conversion ratio (FCR); whereas enzyme addition had no effect on FCR of birds fed PKM16 and PKM24 diets. In PKM0 and PKM16 diets, enzyme addition significantly (p<0.05) increased CAID of nitrogen and energy but had no effect in the PKM8 and PKM24 diets. Inclusion of PKM into the basal diet, irrespective of inclusion level, enhanced (p<0.05) starch and fat digestibility. Inclusion of PKM at 16% and 24% resulted in similar CAID of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) but higher (p<0.05) than that of the PKM0 and PKM8 diets. Enzyme addition, regardless of the level of PKM inclusion, significantly (p<0.05) increased CAID of NDF. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in AMEn with PKM inclusion of 24%. The present data suggest that inclusion of PKM in broiler diets could be optimized if PKM-containing diets are formulated based on digestible amino

  2. Use of larvae meal as protein source in broiler diet: Effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits.

    PubMed

    Bovera, F; Loponte, R; Marono, S; Piccolo, G; Parisi, G; Iaconisi, V; Gasco, L; Nizza, A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of insect meal from larvae ( larvae meal [TML]) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits of broilers. A total of eighty 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were homogenously divided into 2 groups (each consisting of 8 replicates of 5 birds). Up to 62 d of age, the groups were fed 2 isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for the ingredient used as the main protein source: the control group was fed a corn-SBM-based diet, whereas in the TML group, the SBM was completely replaced by TML. Broiler growth performance was measured during the trial. At 62 d of age, 2 broilers per replicate (16 per group) were slaughtered and apparent ileal digestibility coefficients and carcass and meat traits were determined. The use of TML as the main protein source in the broiler diet had no significant effect on most growth performance and carcass traits and chemical and physical properties of meat, the latter being important for marketing purposes. The feed conversion ratio in the entire experimental period (from 30 to 62 d) was improved in the TML group compared with the SBM group ( < 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, and CP in broilers fed the SBM diet were greater ( < 0.01) than the other group. The full digestive system in broilers fed SBM had a lower ( < 0.05) absolute and relative weight than that of broilers fed TML. Also, the weight and the percentage of the spleen in the SBM group were lower ( < 0.05) than those in the TML group. The length of the entire intestine in the group fed TML was greater ( < 0.05) than the other group and the same happened when intestinal length was expressed as percentage of broiler BW ( < 0.05). Among the different intestinal tracts, the ileum and ceca of broilers fed TML had a greater ( < 0.05) length than that of broilers fed SBM. Also, ceca weight (as an absolute value or percentage on

  3. Effects of essential oils, yeast culture and malate on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Baluchi lambs fed high-concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Malekkhahi, M; Tahmasbi, A M; Naserian, A A; Danesh Mesgaran, M; Kleen, J L; Parand, A A

    2015-04-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with a mixture of essential oils (MEO), yeast culture (YC) and malate on performance, nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites of lambs fed high-concentrate growing diets. For this purpose, twenty Baluchi lambs (17.3 ± 0.5 kg body weight and 3 months old) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with five lambs per treatment. The treatment groups were as follows: (i) control: basal diet without any additive, (ii) basal diet plus 400 mg/day MEO (thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, limonene and cinnamaldehyde), (iii) basal diet with 4 g/day YC and (iv) basal diet plus 4 g/day malate. No differences between the dietary treatments were observed in dry matter intake, average daily gain or feed conversion ratio (p > 0.05). Compared with control and malate treatment, lambs fed MEO and YC had an improved crude protein digestibility (p < 0.05). Yeast culture significantly increased (p > 0.05) cell wall digestibility compared to the other treatments. No differences were observed between treatments with respect to nitrogen balance or ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations (p > 0.05). No differences were observed between treatments with respect to ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportions of acetate, butyrate and valerate. Molar proportion of propionate was higher (p < 0.05) for YC and malate compared to control and MEO. Plasma glucose concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in lambs fed YC and malate than in lambs fed the control or the MEO diet. Blood concentration of triglycerides significantly decreased when feeding the MEO and YC diets (p < 0.05). It was concluded that YC may be more useful as a feed additive for manipulation of rumen fermentation in lambs fed with high-concentrate diets than MEO and malate, because YC enhanced crude protein and cell wall digestibility, ruminal molar proportion

  4. Use of larvae meal as protein source in broiler diet: Effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits.

    PubMed

    Bovera, F; Loponte, R; Marono, S; Piccolo, G; Parisi, G; Iaconisi, V; Gasco, L; Nizza, A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of insect meal from larvae ( larvae meal [TML]) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits of broilers. A total of eighty 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were homogenously divided into 2 groups (each consisting of 8 replicates of 5 birds). Up to 62 d of age, the groups were fed 2 isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for the ingredient used as the main protein source: the control group was fed a corn-SBM-based diet, whereas in the TML group, the SBM was completely replaced by TML. Broiler growth performance was measured during the trial. At 62 d of age, 2 broilers per replicate (16 per group) were slaughtered and apparent ileal digestibility coefficients and carcass and meat traits were determined. The use of TML as the main protein source in the broiler diet had no significant effect on most growth performance and carcass traits and chemical and physical properties of meat, the latter being important for marketing purposes. The feed conversion ratio in the entire experimental period (from 30 to 62 d) was improved in the TML group compared with the SBM group ( < 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, and CP in broilers fed the SBM diet were greater ( < 0.01) than the other group. The full digestive system in broilers fed SBM had a lower ( < 0.05) absolute and relative weight than that of broilers fed TML. Also, the weight and the percentage of the spleen in the SBM group were lower ( < 0.05) than those in the TML group. The length of the entire intestine in the group fed TML was greater ( < 0.05) than the other group and the same happened when intestinal length was expressed as percentage of broiler BW ( < 0.05). Among the different intestinal tracts, the ileum and ceca of broilers fed TML had a greater ( < 0.05) length than that of broilers fed SBM. Also, ceca weight (as an absolute value or percentage on

  5. Dairy manure and plant nutrient management issues affecting water quality and the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, L E

    1994-07-01

    Specific requirements for dairy manure management to protect water quality from nutrient pollution depend on the organization of individual farms. Further, the management requirements and options are different for point (farmstead) and nonpoint (field-applied) sources of pollution from farms. A formal management process can guide decisions about existing crop nutrient utilization potential, provide a framework for tracking nutrients supplied to crops, and identify future requirements for dairy manure management to protect water quality. Farm managers can use the process to plan daily activities, to assess annual nutrient management performance, and to chart future requirements as herd size increases. Agronomic measures of nutrient balance and tracking of inputs and outputs for various farm management units can provide the quantitative basis for management to allocate better manure to fields, to modify dairy rations, or to develop alternatives to on-farm manure application. Changes in agricultural production since World War II have contributed to a shift from land-based dairy production to a reliance on capital factors of production supplied by the dairy industry. Meanwhile, management of dairy manure to meet increasingly stringent water quality protection requirements is still a land-based activity. Involving the dairy industry and off-farm stakeholders as participants in the management process for field, farm, and regional dairy production can be the basis for decision-making to reconcile the sometimes conflicting demands of production and water quality protection. PMID:7929961

  6. Nutrients removal and lipids production by Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation using anaerobic digested starch wastewater and alcohol wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Libin; Tan, Xiaobo; Li, Deyi; Chu, Huaqiang; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei; Yu, Hong

    2015-04-01

    The cultivation of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) using anaerobic digested starch wastewater (ADSW) and alcohol wastewater (AW) was evaluated in this study. Different proportions of mixed wastewater (AW/ADSW=0.176:1, 0.053:1, 0.026:1, v/v) and pure ADSW, AW were used for C. pyrenoidosa cultivation. The different proportions between ADSW and AW significantly influenced biomass growth, lipids production and pollutants removal. The best performance was achieved using mixed wastewater (AW/ADSW=0.053:1, v/v), leading to a maximal total biomass of 3.01±0.15 g/L (dry weight), lipids productivity of 127.71±6.31 mg/L/d and pollutants removal of COD=75.78±3.76%, TN=91.64±4.58% and TP=90.74±4.62%.

  7. Nutrients removal and lipids production by Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation using anaerobic digested starch wastewater and alcohol wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Libin; Tan, Xiaobo; Li, Deyi; Chu, Huaqiang; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei; Yu, Hong

    2015-04-01

    The cultivation of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) using anaerobic digested starch wastewater (ADSW) and alcohol wastewater (AW) was evaluated in this study. Different proportions of mixed wastewater (AW/ADSW=0.176:1, 0.053:1, 0.026:1, v/v) and pure ADSW, AW were used for C. pyrenoidosa cultivation. The different proportions between ADSW and AW significantly influenced biomass growth, lipids production and pollutants removal. The best performance was achieved using mixed wastewater (AW/ADSW=0.053:1, v/v), leading to a maximal total biomass of 3.01±0.15 g/L (dry weight), lipids productivity of 127.71±6.31 mg/L/d and pollutants removal of COD=75.78±3.76%, TN=91.64±4.58% and TP=90.74±4.62%. PMID:25638404

  8. Threonine affects digestion capacity and hepatopancreatic gene expression of juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Habte-Tsion, Habte-Michael; Ren, Mingchun; Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Chen, Ruli; Zhou, Qunlan; Pan, Liangkun

    2015-08-28

    The present study conducted a 9-week feeding trial to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr) on the digestion capacity and hepatopancreas gene expression of juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). For this purpose, three tanks (300 litres/tank) were randomly arranged and assigned to each experimental diet. Juvenile fish were fed with diets containing graded Thr levels (0·58, 1·08, 1·58, 2·08 or 2·58 % of the diet) to apparent satiation four times daily. At the end of the feeding trial, the results indicated that hepatopancreas weight, hepatosomatic index, hepatopancreatic protein content, intestinal weight, intestosomatic index and intestinal protein content increased with increasing dietary Thr levels up to 1·58 % and thereafter decreased (P< 0·05). The activities of chymotrypsin, trypsin, amylase and lipase elevated as dietary Thr levels increased up to 1·58 % (P< 0·05), while these activities decreased in most cases after 1·58 % dietary Thr except for chymotrypsin and trypsin in the hepatopancreas (plateau 1·58-2·08 % Thr). The relative gene expression levels of chymotrypsin, trypsin, amylase, lipase, target of rapamycin and insulin-like growth factor-I were up-regulated, and the highest values were observed with 1·58 % dietary Thr or 1·58 and 2·08 % dietary Thr, whereas the relative gene expression levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 2 gradually decreased (P< 0·10) as dietary Thr levels increased up to 1·58 % and thereafter significantly increased (P< 0·05), which could explain that about 1·58 % dietary Thr could improve the growth and development of digestive organs and activities of digestive enzymes of juvenile blunt snout bream. PMID:26202077

  9. Growth and anaerobic digestion characteristics of microalgae cultivated using various types of sewage.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Taira; Inoue, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Tsumori, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Microalgal cultivation combined with anaerobic digestion at wastewater treatment plants is promising to recover energy. This study investigated the growth and anaerobic digestion characteristics of microalgae cultivated using nutrients in sewage. Microalgae were cultivated using primary effluent, secondary effluent, and dewatering filtrate. Microscopic observation indicated that Chlorella was cultivated using dewatering filtrate of anaerobic digestion without controlling the type of species. Batch anaerobic digestion experiments with digested sludge showed that the methane conversion ratio of the cultivated mixture was approximately 40-65%. Different cultivation time did not affect the microalgal contents. Methane recovery mass was 0.13NL-methane/L-cultivation liquor. The C/N ratio of the cultivated mixture was approximately 3-5, but the apparent ammonia release ratio was smaller than that of sewage sludge during digestion. These results proved the applicability of methane recovery from microalgae cultivated using nutrients included in anaerobically digested sludge.

  10. A review: factors affecting excess sludge anaerobic digestion for volatile fatty acids production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Xiaoshuai; Jia, Shuting; Dai, Lingling; Zhao, Jianfu; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of methods that improve the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from excess sludge during the anaerobic digestion process. These methods are mainly divided into two approaches. The first approach is located in the pre-treatment methods, which change the properties of the substrates, such as thermal pre-treatment, alkaline pre-treatment, microwave pre-treatment and ultrasonic pre-treatment. The other approach is found in the fermentation process control methods, which influence the environment of anaerobic digestion for the production of VFA, such as pH, temperature, mixing, additives and solids retention time control. In the text recent research studies of each method are listed and analyzed in detail. Comparably, microwave and ultrasonic pre-treatment methods are considered emerging and promising technologies due to their efficiency and environmentally friendly characteristics. However, the microwave pre-treatment has high electricity demand, which might make the process economically unfeasible. In order to calculate optimal operation, further studies still need to be done. PMID:26287825

  11. A review: factors affecting excess sludge anaerobic digestion for volatile fatty acids production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Xiaoshuai; Jia, Shuting; Dai, Lingling; Zhao, Jianfu; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of methods that improve the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from excess sludge during the anaerobic digestion process. These methods are mainly divided into two approaches. The first approach is located in the pre-treatment methods, which change the properties of the substrates, such as thermal pre-treatment, alkaline pre-treatment, microwave pre-treatment and ultrasonic pre-treatment. The other approach is found in the fermentation process control methods, which influence the environment of anaerobic digestion for the production of VFA, such as pH, temperature, mixing, additives and solids retention time control. In the text recent research studies of each method are listed and analyzed in detail. Comparably, microwave and ultrasonic pre-treatment methods are considered emerging and promising technologies due to their efficiency and environmentally friendly characteristics. However, the microwave pre-treatment has high electricity demand, which might make the process economically unfeasible. In order to calculate optimal operation, further studies still need to be done.

  12. Relationships Among Watershed Condition, Nutrients, and Algae in New England Streams Affected by Urbanization

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined algal metrics as indicators of altered watershed land cover and nutrients to inform their potential use in monitoring programs. Multiple regression models, in which impervious cover explained the most variation, indicated concentrations <0.202 mg/l NO3 and <0.015 mg/l...

  13. Nutrient concentrations of runoff as affected by the diameter of unconsolidated material from feedlot surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle feedlots contain unconsolidated material that accumulates on the feedlot surface during a feeding cycle. This study was conducted to measure the effects of varying diameters of unconsolidated surface material and varying flow rates on nutrient concentrations in runoff. Unconsolidated sur...

  14. Carrot, Corn, Lettuce and Soybean Nutrient Contents are Affected by Biochar

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis of cellulosic and manure feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and to improve soil water-holding and nutrient properties- thereby enhancing plant growth. However, biochar produced from so...

  15. Runoff nutrient transport as affected by land application method, swine growth stage, and runoff rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to measure the effects of slurry application method, swine growth stage, and flow rate on runoff nutrient transport. Swine slurry was obtained from production units containing grower pigs, finisher pigs, or sows and gilts. The swine slurry was applied using broadcast, disk, ...

  16. Continual feeding of two types of microalgal biomass affected protein digestion and metabolism in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Chou, K; Magnuson, A; Lei, X G

    2015-01-01

    A 14-wk study was conducted to determine the nutritional efficacy and ssmetabolic impact of 2 types of microalgal biomass as alternative protein sources in laying hen diets. Shaver hens (total = 150 and 26 wk old) were fed 1 of 5 diets: a control or a defatted green microalgal biomass (DG; Desmodesmus spp.) at 25% and a full-fatted diatom biomass (FD; Staurosira spp.) at 11.7% inclusion with or without protease. This experiment consisted of 5 replicates per treatment and each replicate contained 6 hens individually reared in cages (1 hen for biochemical data/replicate). Despite decreased ADFI (P = 0.03), hens fed DG or FD had final BW, overall hen-day egg production, and egg quality similar to the controls. Feeding DG or FD did not alter plasma concentrations of insulin, glutamine, and uric acid or alkaline phosphatase activity at wk 8 or 14 but decreased plasma 3-methyhistine concentrations (P = 0.03) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities (P < 0.001) at wk 14 and improved (P = 0.002) ileal total AA digestibility. Although DG or FD exhibited moderate effects on intestinal brush border protease activities and mRNA levels of duodenal transporters Pept1, Lat1, and Cat1, both substantially enhanced (P < 0.05) phosphorylation of hepatic protein synthesis key regulator S6 ribosomal protein (S6) and the ratio of phospho-S6 to S6 in the liver of hens. However, DG and FD manifested with different impacts on weights of egg and egg albumen, proteolytic activity of jejunal digesta, plasma TRAP activity, ileal total AA digestibility, and several intestinal genes and hepatic proteins. Supplemental protease in the DG and FD diets produced mixed effects on a number of measures. In conclusion, our findings revealed the feasibility of including greater levels of microalgal biomass as a source of feed protein for laying hens and a novel potential of the biomass in improving dietary protein digestion and body protein metabolism than previously perceived. PMID

  17. Continual feeding of two types of microalgal biomass affected protein digestion and metabolism in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Chou, K; Magnuson, A; Lei, X G

    2015-01-01

    A 14-wk study was conducted to determine the nutritional efficacy and ssmetabolic impact of 2 types of microalgal biomass as alternative protein sources in laying hen diets. Shaver hens (total = 150 and 26 wk old) were fed 1 of 5 diets: a control or a defatted green microalgal biomass (DG; Desmodesmus spp.) at 25% and a full-fatted diatom biomass (FD; Staurosira spp.) at 11.7% inclusion with or without protease. This experiment consisted of 5 replicates per treatment and each replicate contained 6 hens individually reared in cages (1 hen for biochemical data/replicate). Despite decreased ADFI (P = 0.03), hens fed DG or FD had final BW, overall hen-day egg production, and egg quality similar to the controls. Feeding DG or FD did not alter plasma concentrations of insulin, glutamine, and uric acid or alkaline phosphatase activity at wk 8 or 14 but decreased plasma 3-methyhistine concentrations (P = 0.03) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities (P < 0.001) at wk 14 and improved (P = 0.002) ileal total AA digestibility. Although DG or FD exhibited moderate effects on intestinal brush border protease activities and mRNA levels of duodenal transporters Pept1, Lat1, and Cat1, both substantially enhanced (P < 0.05) phosphorylation of hepatic protein synthesis key regulator S6 ribosomal protein (S6) and the ratio of phospho-S6 to S6 in the liver of hens. However, DG and FD manifested with different impacts on weights of egg and egg albumen, proteolytic activity of jejunal digesta, plasma TRAP activity, ileal total AA digestibility, and several intestinal genes and hepatic proteins. Supplemental protease in the DG and FD diets produced mixed effects on a number of measures. In conclusion, our findings revealed the feasibility of including greater levels of microalgal biomass as a source of feed protein for laying hens and a novel potential of the biomass in improving dietary protein digestion and body protein metabolism than previously perceived.

  18. Evaluation of Houttuynia cordata and Taraxacum officinale on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Fecal Microbial Shedding in Diet for Weaning Pigs.

    PubMed

    Yan, L; Zhang, Z F; Park, J C; Kim, I H

    2012-10-01

    A total of 144 pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] with an average initial BW of 8.45±0.57 kg were used in a 5-wk growth trial. Pigs were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 9 replications per pen in a randomized complex block design. Dietary treatments included: i) CON (basal diet), ii) ANT (CON+tylosin 1 g/kg), iii) H1 (CON+H. cordata 1 g/kg) and iv) T1 (CON+T. officinale 1 g/kg). In this study, pigs fed the ANT and T1 treatment had a higher (p<0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed (G:F) ratio than those fed CON and H1 treatment. Dietary ANT and T1 treatment led to a higher energy digestibility than the CON group. No difference (p>0.05) was observed on the growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility with H1 supplementation compared with the CON treatment. The inclusion of ANT treatment led to a higher (p<0.05) lymphocyte concentration compared with the CON treatment. Dietary supplementation of herbs did not affect (p>0.05) the blood characteristics (white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), IgG, lymphocyte). No difference was observed on (p<0.05) fecal microbial shedding (E. coli and lactobacillus) between ANT and CON groups. Treatments H1 and T1 reduced the fecal E. coli concentration compared with the CON treatment, whereas the fecal lactobacillus concentration was not affected by the herb supplementation (p>0.05). In conclusion, the inclusion of T. officinale (1 g/kg) increased growth performance, feed efficiency, energy digestibility similarly to the antibiotic treatment. Dietary supplementation of T. officinale and H. cordata (1 g/kg) reduced the fecal E. coli concentration in weaning pigs. PMID:25049500

  19. Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Jagat R; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2009-01-01

    Background Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC), heat treated skim milk powder, and other commercially available milk derived products. Results Enprocal (undigested) and digested (Enprocal D) selectively enhanced cell proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs74-Int) and showed no cytotoxicity. In a dose dependent manner Enprocal induced cell death in Caco-2 cells (human colon adencarcinoma epithelial cells). Digested Enprocal (Enprocal D: gut enzyme cocktail treated) maintained the intestinal integrity in transepithelial resistance (TEER) assay, increased the permeability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and did not induce oxidative stress to the gut epithelial cells. Enprocal D upregulated the surface expression of co-stimulatory (CD40, CD86, CD80), MHC I and MHC II molecules on PMA differentiated THP-1 macrophages in coculture transwell model, and inhibited the monocyte/lymphocyte (THP-1/Jurkat E6-1 cells)-epithelial cell adhesion. In cytokine secretion analyses, Enprocal D down-regulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and up-regulated IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10. Conclusion Our results indicate that Enprocal creates neither oxidative injury nor cytotoxicity, stimulates normal gut cell proliferation, up regulates immune cell activation markers and may aid in the production of antibodies. Furthermore, through downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, Enprocal appears to be beneficial in reducing the effects of chronic gut inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel

  20. The Effect of Bacillus-based Feed Additive on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Fecal Gas Emission, and Pen Cleanup Characteristics of Growing-finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, S D; Kim, S C; Valientes, R A; Kim, I H

    2015-07-01

    Bacillus-based feed additive was evaluated for its efficacy on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal gas emission, and the consumption of time and amount of water for cleaning the pen of growing finishing pigs. A total of 120 growing pigs (23.59±1.41 kg) were used in a 16-wk feeding trial. Pigs were randomly distributed into 1 of 2 treatments on the basis of body weight and sex. There were 12 replicate pens per treatment, with 5 pigs (3 barrows and 2 gilts) per pen. Dietary treatments were CON which was basal diet, and T1 which was CON+62.5 ppm microbial feed additive that provided 1.47×10(8) cfu of Bacillus organisms per gram of supplement. During the weeks 0 to 6, average daily gain (ADG) in T1 treatment was higher (p<0.05) than CON, but no improvement in average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed efficiency (G:F) was noted. During 6 to 16 weeks, no difference (p>0.05) was noted in growth performance. However, ADG was improved (p<0.05) and overall ADFI tended (p = 0.06) to improve in T1 compared with CON. At week 6, the co-efficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of dry matter (DM) nitrogen (N) was increased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON. Fecal NH3 emission was decreased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON, at the end of 6th and 15th weeks. The time and water consumed for washing the pens were decreased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON. In conclusion, supplementation with Bacillus-based feed additive could improve the overall growth performances, increase the CATTD of DM and decrease the fecal NH3 content and the time and water consumed in washing the pens for growing-finishing pigs.

  1. The Effect of Bacillus-based Feed Additive on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Fecal Gas Emission, and Pen Cleanup Characteristics of Growing-finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Upadhaya, S. D.; Kim, S. C.; Valientes, R. A.; Kim, I. H.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus-based feed additive was evaluated for its efficacy on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal gas emission, and the consumption of time and amount of water for cleaning the pen of growing finishing pigs. A total of 120 growing pigs (23.59±1.41 kg) were used in a 16-wk feeding trial. Pigs were randomly distributed into 1 of 2 treatments on the basis of body weight and sex. There were 12 replicate pens per treatment, with 5 pigs (3 barrows and 2 gilts) per pen. Dietary treatments were CON which was basal diet, and T1 which was CON+62.5 ppm microbial feed additive that provided 1.47×108 cfu of Bacillus organisms per gram of supplement. During the weeks 0 to 6, average daily gain (ADG) in T1 treatment was higher (p<0.05) than CON, but no improvement in average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed efficiency (G:F) was noted. During 6 to 16 weeks, no difference (p>0.05) was noted in growth performance. However, ADG was improved (p<0.05) and overall ADFI tended (p = 0.06) to improve in T1 compared with CON. At week 6, the co-efficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of dry matter (DM) nitrogen (N) was increased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON. Fecal NH3 emission was decreased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON, at the end of 6th and 15th weeks. The time and water consumed for washing the pens were decreased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON. In conclusion, supplementation with Bacillus-based feed additive could improve the overall growth performances, increase the CATTD of DM and decrease the fecal NH3 content and the time and water consumed in washing the pens for growing-finishing pigs. PMID:26104405

  2. Effects of formaldehyde treated soybean meal on milk yield, milk composition, and nutrient digestibility in the dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Crooker, B A; Clark, J H; Shanks, R D

    1983-03-01

    The nutritional value of soybean meal that had been treated with formaldehyde (.3 g/100 g) to inhibit microbial degradation of soybean meal protein in the rumen was investigated. Four experimental diets were fed ad libitum during wk 4 to 43 of lactation to Holstein cows randomly assigned to diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of dietary crude protein (12 and 14%) and formaldehyde treatment (untreated and treated soybean meal). Concentrate, corn silage, and alfalfa-grass hay provided 53.0, 35.4, and 11.6% of the daily intake of dry matter. Analysis of covariance revealed that digestibility of dietary crude protein by cows fed formaldehyde treated soybean meal was lower than by cows fed untreated soybean meal (62.4 versus 65.4%). Similar quantities of milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk solids-not-fat (overall means of 7998, 7402, 281, and 660 kg/301 days of lactation) were produced by cows fed different diets. This was true whether the data were summarized during peak production (day 22 to 63), during days 22 to 119 when crude protein intake did not meet requirements, or during the complete experiment (days 22 to 301 of lactation). Milk protein (total nitrogen x 6.38) produced by cows fed soybean meal treated with formaldehyde was less than by cows fed untreated soybean meal during days 22 to 63 and during days 22 to 119 (47 versus 44 kg/cow and 103 versus 97 kg/cow). Changes in body weight of cows during lactation were similar among treatments. Treating soybean meal with .3 g formaldehyde/100 g may decrease availability of soybean meal protein for use by lactating dairy cows.

  3. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation activities in sheep-fed peanut hulls treated with Trichoderma viride or urea.

    PubMed

    Abo-Donia, Fawzy M; Abdel-Azim, Safa N; Elghandour, Mona M Y; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Buendía, Germán; Soliman, N A M

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess impacts of fungal treatment on the nutritional value of peanut hulls (PH) or urea at the rate of 5 kg/100 g of PH. Fermented sugar beet pulp inoculated with Trichoderma viride was supplemented to PH at rates of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 g/100 g air dry of PH and mixed well before aerobic incubation for 21 days. Organic matter (OM) content of PH declined with increased levels of fermented sugar beet pulp inoculums, while crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and ash increased. Fiber contents were decreased with both treatments of fermented sugar beet pulp and urea. Total N of PH increased with urea treatment, which reduced the true protein N to total protein N ratio. In sacco degradabilities of dry matter (DM), OM, and CP with urea treatment increased compared with fungal treatment. The DM intake of peanut hulls treated with fungus (PHF) was higher (P < 0.05) than with peanut hulls treated with urea (PHU). Digestibility of OM, CP, neutral detergent fiber, and non-fiber carbohydrate by native breed Ossimi sheep with PH were higher (P < 0.05) than with PH or urea treated PH. The intakes, losses, and balance of N increased (P < 0.01) with PHF versus PH feeding. Feeding PHF increased (P < 0.01) ruminal concentrations of NH3-N, acetic acid, butyric acid, and the acetic to propionic acid ratio. Bacterial and protozoal counts increased (P < 0.05) with feeding PHF or PHU versus PH. Overall, this fungal treatment of peanut hulls created a higher nutritive value feed for ruminants. PMID:24085418

  4. Super High Dosing with a Novel Buttiauxella Phytase Continuously Improves Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Mineral Status of Weaned Pigs.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhikai; Li, Qingyun; Tian, Qiyu; Zhao, Panfeng; Xu, Xiao; Yu, Shukun; Piao, Xiangshu

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a novel Buttiauxella phytase to pigs fed P-deficient, corn-soybean meal diets. One hundred and twenty crossbred piglets (9.53 ± 0.84 kg) were allocated to one of five treatments which consisted of four low P diets (0.61 % Ca and 0.46 % total P) supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 20,000 FTU/kg phytase as well as a positive control diet (0.77 % Ca and 0.62 % total P). Each treatment had six replicated pens with four pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 28 days. Phytase supplementation linearly improved (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, gross energy, crude protein, Ca, and P in weaned pigs. Super high dosing with phytase (20,000 FTU/kg) further increased (P < 0.05) ADG compared with 500 FTU/kg phytase inclusion group, as well as ATTD of Ca and P. Metacarpal bone characteristics and several trace mineral concentration in bone, plasma, or organ tissues were linearly (P < 0.05) improved at increasing dose of phytase. Super high dosing with phytase (20,000 FTU/kg) supplementation improved (P < 0.05) Mn and Zn concentration in bone compared to normal dose of phytase supplementation (500 or 1,000 FTU/kg). In conclusion, supplementation of 500 FTU of Buttiauxella phytase/kg and above effectively hydrolyzed phytate in a low-P corn-soybean diet for pigs. In addition, a super high dosing with phytase (20,000 FTU/kg) improved macro- or micro mineral availability and growth performance.

  5. Do dietary intakes affect search for nutrient information on food labels?

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Yen, Steven T

    2004-11-01

    Nutrition labels on food packages are designed to promote and protect public health by providing nutrition information so that consumers can make informed dietary choices. High levels of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol in diets are linked to increased blood cholesterol levels and a greater risk of heart disease. Therefore, an understanding of consumer use of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol information on food labels has important implications for public health and nutrition education. This study explores the association between dietary intakes of these three nutrients and psychological or demographic factors and the search for total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol information on food labels. Psychology literature suggests a negative association between intakes of these nutrients and probability of search for their information on food labels. Health behavior theories also suggest perceived benefits and costs of using labels and perceived capability of using labels are associated with the search behavior. We estimate the relationship between label information search and its predictors using logistic regressions. Our samples came from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture. Results suggest that search for total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol information on food labels is less likely among individuals who consume more of the three nutrients, respectively. The search is also related to perceived benefits and costs of using the label, perceived capability of using the label, knowledge of nutrition and fats, perceived efficacy of diets in reducing the risk of illnesses, perceived importance of nutrition in food shopping, perceived importance of a healthy diet, and awareness of linkage between excessive consumption of the nutrients and health problems. These findings suggest encouraging search of food label information among

  6. Revising the daily values may affect food fortification and in turn nutrient intake adequacy.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mary M; Spungen, Judith H; Barraj, Leila M; Bailey, Regan L; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-12-01

    The Nutrition Facts panel on food labels in the United States currently displays Daily Values (DVs) that are based on outdated RDAs. The FDA has indicated that it plans to update the DVs based on the newer Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), but there is controversy regarding the best method for calculating new DVs from the DRIs. To better understand the implications of DV revisions, assuming that manufacturers choose to maintain current label claims for micronutrients from voluntarily fortified foods, we modeled intake of 8 micronutrients using NHANES 2007-2008 data and 2 potential methods for calculating DVs: the population-weighted Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and the population-coverage RDA. In each scenario, levels of fortified nutrients were adjusted to maintain the current %DV. Usual nutrient intakes and percentages with usual intakes less than the EAR were estimated for the U.S. population and subpopulations aged ≥ 4 y (n = 7976). For most nutrients, estimates of the percentage of the U.S. population with intakes below the EAR were similar regardless of whether the DV corresponded to the population-weighted EAR or the population-coverage RDA. Potential decreases were observed in adequacy of nutrients of concern for women of childbearing age, namely iron and folate (up to 9% and 3%, respectively), adequacy of calcium among children (up to 6%), and adequacy of vitamin A intakes in the total population (5%) assuming use of the population-weighted EAR compared with the population-coverage RDA for setting the DV. Results of this modeling exercise will help to inform decisions in revising the DVs. PMID:24132571

  7. Effects of ionised or chelated water-soluble mineral mixture supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality and intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, S D; Lee, B R; Kim, I H

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of water-soluble ionised or chelated mineral mixture on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, meat quality and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 408 Arbor Acres broilers (17 birds in 8 replicate pens) were randomly allocated into one of the following three treatments: (1) Control/basal diet (CON), (2) T1 (basal diet + 0.5% ionised mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0) and (3) T2 (basal diet + 0.5% chelated mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0). The body weight gain was greater and feed conversion ratio was lower in broilers supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral liquid complex compared to CON during the grower and overall phase of the experiment. No significant effect in the concentration of Ca and P in the blood was observed in birds supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral mixture solution. No adverse effects were observed in organ weight and meat quality with ionised or chelated mineral mixture supplementation. Regarding intestinal microbiota counts there was a reduction of Escherichia coli counts in the small intestine in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In the large intestine, E. coli as well as Salmonella populations were reduced in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In conclusion, ionised or chelated minerals have partial positive effects in improving growth performance and reducing pathogenic bacteria load in the gastro-intestinal tract. PMID:27088481

  8. Dietary fiber for dogs: I. Effects of graded levels of dietary beet pulp on nutrient intake, digestibility, metabolizable energy and digesta mean retention time.

    PubMed

    Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Corbin, J E; Hamilton, A K; Serbe, K A; Lewis, S M; Hirakawa, D A

    1990-12-01

    The optimal level of beet pulp (BP) inclusion in a meat-based dog diet and the effects of graded levels of dietary BP on fecal excretion responses and mean retention time of marked fiber in the gastrointestinal tract of the dog were evaluated using 30 female English Pointers assigned to isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 or 12.5% BP (DM basis). Beet pulp replaced portions of dietary cornstarch. Digestibilities of DM and OM decreased by an average of 6% when comparing diets containing BP to the control diet, and quadratic and cubic responses were noted in digestibilities of fiber constituents (lower values at the 7.5 and 10.0% levels, higher values at the 2.5, 5.0 and 12.5% levels). Digestible energy (DE) and ME intakes (kcal/d) were not affected by treatment, but when expressed as a percentage of GE, values decreased (4.8% for DE; 6.2% for ME) linearly with increasing BP levels. Wet weight of feces increased (from 117 to 374 g/d) linearly as percentage of dietary BP increased. Frequency of defecation was higher (P less than .05) for dogs fed the diet containing 12.5% BP than for dogs fed the other diets (5.2 vs mean value of 2.8/24 h). Mean retention time of marked fiber decreased linearly (high value of 23.4 h for the 2.5% BP treatment, low value of 13.0 h for the 10.0% BP treatment) with increased level of BP. Beet pulp levels up to 7.5% of diet DM appear acceptable as a dietary fiber source in a meat-based canine diet.

  9. Effects of beta-mannanase addition to corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance, carcass traits, and nutrient digestibility of weanling and growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pettey, L A; Carter, S D; Senne, B W; Shriver, J A

    2002-04-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding a beta-mannanase preparation (Hemicell, ChemGen, Gaithersburg, MD) to corn-soybean meal-based diets on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of weanling and growing-finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 156 weanling pigs (20 d, 6.27 kg BW) were allotted to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were a factorial arrangement of diet complexity (complex vs simple) and addition of 3-mannanase preparation (0 vs 0.05%). Pigs were fed in three dietary phases (Phase 1, d 0 to 14; Phase 2, d 14 to 28; and Phase 3, d 28 to 42). Pigs fed complex diets gained faster and were more efficient (P < 0.05) during Phase 1 compared with pigs fed simple diets. Overall, gain:feed ratio (G:F) tended to be improved (P < 0.10) for pigs fed complex diets and it was improved (P < 0.01) for those fed diets with beta-mannanase. In Exp. 2, 117 pigs (44 d, 13.62 kg BW) were allotted randomly to three dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were 1) a corn-soybean meal-based control, 2) the control diet with soybean oil added to increase metabolizable energy (ME) by 100 kcal/kg, and 3) the control diet with 0.05% beta-mannanase preparation. Beta-mannanase or soybean oil improved (P < 0.05) G:F compared with pigs fed the control diet. In Exp. 3, 60 pigs (22.5 kg BW) were allotted randomly to the three dietary treatments used in Exp. 2. Dietary treatments were fed in three phases (23 to 53 kg, 53 to 82 kg, and 82 to 109 kg with 0.95, 0.80, and 0.65% lysine, respectively). Overall, the addition of soybean oil tended to improve G:F (P < 0.10) compared with that of pigs fed the control diet, and G:F was similar (P > 0.54) for pigs fed diets with soybean oil or beta-mannanase. Also, addition of beta-mannanase increased ADG (P < 0.05) compared with that of pigs fed the control or soybean oil diets. There were no differences (P > or = 0.10) in longissimus muscle area or backfat; however, on a fat-free basis

  10. Land use and nutrient inputs affect priming in Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mganga, Kevin; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Organic C and nutrients additions in soil can accelerate mineralisation of soil organic matter i.e. priming effects. However, only very few studies have been conducted to investigate the priming effects phenomenon in tropical Andosols. Nutrients (N, P, N+P) and 14C labelled glucose were added to Andosols from six natural and intensively used ecosystems at Mt. Kilimanjaro i.e. (1) savannah, (2) maize fields, (3) lower montane forest, (4) coffee plantation, (5) grasslands and (6) Chagga homegardens. Carbon-dioxide emissions were monitored over a 60 days incubation period. Mineralisation of glucose to 14CO2 was highest in coffee plantation and lowest in Chagga homegarden soils. Maximal and minimal mineralisation rates immediately after glucose additions were observed in lower montane forest with N+P fertilisation (9.1% ± 0.83 d -1) and in savannah with N fertilisation (0.9% ± 0.17 d -1), respectively. Glucose and nutrient additions accelerated native soil organic matter mineralisation i.e. positive priming. Chagga homegarden soils had the lowest 14CO2 emissions and incorporated the highest percent of glucose into microbial biomass. 50-60% of the 14C input was retained in soil. We attribute this mainly to the high surface area of non-crystalline constituents i.e. allophanes, present in Andosols and having very high sorption capacity for organic C. The allophanic nature of Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro especially under traditional Chagga homegarden agroforestry system shows great potential for providing essential environmental services, notably C sequestration. Key words: Priming Effects, Andosols, Land Use Changes, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Allophanes, Tropical Agroforestry

  11. Arsenate exposure affects amino acids, mineral nutrient status and antioxidants in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, R D; Tripathi, P; Kumar, A; Dave, R; Mishra, S; Singh, R; Sharma, D; Rai, U N; Chakrabarty, D; Trivedi, P K; Adhikari, B; Bag, M K; Dhankher, O P; Tuli, R

    2010-12-15

    Simulated pot experiments were conducted on four rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes (Triguna, IR-36, PNR-519, and IET-4786) to examine the effects of As(V) on amino acids and mineral nutrient status in grain along with antioxidant response to arsenic exposure. Rice genotypes responded differentially to As(V) exposure in terms of amino acids and antioxidant profiles. Total amino acid content in grains of all rice genotypes was positively correlated with arsenic accumulation. While, most of the essential amino acids increased in all cultivars except IR-36, glutamic acid and glycine increased in IET-4786 and PNR-519. The level of nonprotein thiols (NPTs) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) increased in all rice cultivars except IET-4786. A significant genotypic variation was also observed in specific arsenic uptake (SAU; mg kg(-1)dw), which was in the order of Triguna (134) > IR-36 (71) > PNR-519 (53) > IET-4786 (29). Further, application of As(V) at lower doses (4 and 8 mg L(-1) As) enhanced the accumulation of selenium (Se) and other nutrients (Fe, P, Zn, and S), however, higher dose (12 mg L(-1) As) limits the nutrient uptake in rice. In conclusion, low As accumulating genotype, IET-4786, which also had significantly induced level of essential amino acids, seems suitable for cultivation in moderately As contaminated soil and would be safe for human consumption. PMID:21077666

  12. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with different levels of canola meal from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow.

    PubMed

    Sanjayan, N; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    Nutrient digestibility and the effect of high dietary inclusion of canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) on growing and weaned pigs performance were determined. In Exp.1, 6 ileal cannulated barrows (initial BW = 20.7 ± 1.5 kg) were used to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in BNB and BJY. Pigs were allotted to diets containing either BNB or BJY as the sole source of protein in a crossover design to give 6 replicates per diet. The SID of all AA in BNB and BJY were similar. In Exp. 2, 168 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.61 ± 0.76 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to 7 diets (n = 24) consisting of a wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 6 diets containing 5, 10 or 15% of canola meal derived from either BNB or BJY to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion on growth performance over a 28-d period postweaning. Diets were formulated to contain similar NE and SID of Lys. There were no differences in growth performance among treatments. In Exp. 3, 162 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.26 ± 0.70 kg) were used to determine the effect of high BNB and BJY inclusion level without or with multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP, DM, and GE. A wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 8 diets containing 20 and 25% of either BNB or BJY without or with added multi-carbohydrase were formulated (n = 18) to contain comparable NE and similar SID of Lys contents. Feeding the diets containing 25% of BNB or BJY supported similar growth performance as those containing 20%. The multi-carbohydrase had no effect on growth performance but improved (P < 0.05) the ATTD of DM, CP, and GE compared with those fed nonsupplemented diets irrespective of canola meal type. Diets containing 25% canola meal had lower (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, CP, and GE regardless of canola meal type compared with the 20

  13. Archaeal community composition affects the function of anaerobic co-digesters in response to organic overload

    SciTech Connect

    Lerm, S.; Kleyboecker, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Alawi, M.; Kasina, M.; Liebrich, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two types of methanogens are necessary to respond successfully to perturbation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diversity of methanogens correlates with the VFA concentration and methane yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aggregates indicate tight spatial relationship between minerals and microorganisms. - Abstract: Microbial community diversity in two thermophilic laboratory-scale and three full-scale anaerobic co-digesters was analysed by genetic profiling based on PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. In parallel operated laboratory reactors a stepwise increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) resulted in a decrease of methane production and an accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). However, almost threefold different OLRs were necessary to inhibit the gas production in the reactors. During stable reactor performance, no significant differences in the bacterial community structures were detected, except for in the archaeal communities. Sequencing of archaeal PCR products revealed a dominance of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila, while hydrogenotrophic methanogens were of minor importance and differed additionally in their abundance between reactors. As a consequence of the perturbation, changes in bacterial and archaeal populations were observed. After organic overload, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanospirillum hungatei and Methanoculleus receptaculi) became more dominant, especially in the reactor attributed by a higher OLR capacity. In addition, aggregates composed of mineral and organic layers formed during organic overload and indicated tight spatial relationships between minerals and microbial processes that may support de-acidification processes in over-acidified sludge. Comparative analyses of mesophilic stationary phase full-scale reactors additionally indicated a correlation between the diversity of methanogens and the VFA concentration combined with the methane yield. This study

  14. Children's nutrient intake variability is affected by age and body weight status according to results from a Brazilian multicenter study.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Michelle A; Verly, Eliseu; Fisberg, Mauro; Fisberg, Regina M

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in nutritional studies focusing on children is estimating "true" intake because the type and amount of foods eaten change throughout growth and development, thereby affecting the variability of intake. The present study investigated the hypothesis that age and body weight status affect the ratio of the within- and between-subject variation of intakes (VR) as well as the number of days of dietary assessment (D) of energy and nutrients. A total of 2,981 Brazilian preschoolers aged 1-6 years were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Weighed food records and estimated food records were used to assess dietary intake inside and outside of school. Within- and between-subject variations of intakes were estimated by multilevel regression models. VR and D were calculated according to age group and body weight status. VR ranged from 1.17 (calcium) to 8.70 (fat) in the 1- to 2-year-old group, and from 1.47 (calcium) to 8.95 (fat) in the 3- to 6-year-old group. Fat, fiber, riboflavin, folate, calcium, phosphorus, and iron exhibited greater VR and D in the 3- to 6-year-old group. For energy, carbohydrates, and protein, both within- and between-subject variation increased with increasing age. In both body weight groups, calcium showed the lowest VR. Fat showed the highest VR in nonoverweight/obese children (9.47), and fiber showed the highest VR in overweight/obese children (8.74). For most nutrients, D = 7 was sufficient to correctly rank preschoolers into tertiles of intake. In conclusion, age and body weight status affected the within- and between-subject variation and the VR of energy and nutrient intakes among Brazilian preschool children.

  15. Agronomic characteristics of five different urban waste digestates.

    PubMed

    Tampio, Elina; Salo, Tapio; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-03-15

    The use of digestate in agriculture is an efficient way to recycle materials and to decrease the use of mineral fertilizers. The agronomic characteristics of the digestates can promote plant growth and soil properties after digestate fertilization but also harmful effects can arise due to digestate quality, e.g. pH, organic matter and heavy metal content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences and similarities in agronomic characteristics and the value of five urban waste digestates from different biogas plants treating either food waste, organic fraction of organic solid waste or a mixture of waste-activated sludge and vegetable waste. The digestate agronomic characteristics were studied with chemical analyses and the availability of nutrients was also assessed with growth experiments and soil mineralization tests. All studied urban digestates produced 5-30% higher ryegrass yields compared to a control mineral fertilizer with a similar inorganic nitrogen concentration, while the feedstock source affected the agronomic value. Food waste and organic fraction of municipal solid waste digestates were characterized by high agronomic value due to the availability of nutrients and low heavy metal load. Waste-activated sludge as part of the feedstock mixture, however, increased the heavy metal content and reduced nitrogen availability to the plant, thus reducing the fertilizer value of the digestate. PMID:26773433

  16. Agronomic characteristics of five different urban waste digestates.

    PubMed

    Tampio, Elina; Salo, Tapio; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-03-15

    The use of digestate in agriculture is an efficient way to recycle materials and to decrease the use of mineral fertilizers. The agronomic characteristics of the digestates can promote plant growth and soil properties after digestate fertilization but also harmful effects can arise due to digestate quality, e.g. pH, organic matter and heavy metal content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences and similarities in agronomic characteristics and the value of five urban waste digestates from different biogas plants treating either food waste, organic fraction of organic solid waste or a mixture of waste-activated sludge and vegetable waste. The digestate agronomic characteristics were studied with chemical analyses and the availability of nutrients was also assessed with growth experiments and soil mineralization tests. All studied urban digestates produced 5-30% higher ryegrass yields compared to a control mineral fertilizer with a similar inorganic nitrogen concentration, while the feedstock source affected the agronomic value. Food waste and organic fraction of municipal solid waste digestates were characterized by high agronomic value due to the availability of nutrients and low heavy metal load. Waste-activated sludge as part of the feedstock mixture, however, increased the heavy metal content and reduced nitrogen availability to the plant, thus reducing the fertilizer value of the digestate.

  17. Nutrient transport in human annulus fibrosus is affected by compressive strain and anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alicia R; Yuan, Tai-Yi; Huang, Chun-Yuh; Brown, Mark D; Gu, Wei Yong

    2012-12-01

    The avascular intervertebral disc (IVD) receives nutrition via transport from surrounding vasculature; poor nutrition is believed to be a main cause of disc degeneration. In this study, we investigated the effects of mechanical deformation and anisotropy on the transport of two important nutrients--oxygen and glucose--in human annulus fibrosus (AF). The diffusivities of oxygen and glucose were measured under three levels of uniaxial confined compression--0, 10, and 20%--and in three directions--axial, circumferential, and radial. The glucose partition coefficient was also measured at three compression levels. Results for glucose and oxygen diffusivity in AF ranged from 4.46 × 10(-7) to 9.77 × 10(-6) cm(2)/s and were comparable to previous studies; the glucose partition coefficient ranged from 0.71 to 0.82 and was also similar to previous results. Transport properties were found to decrease with increasing deformation, likely caused by fluid exudation during tissue compression and reduction in pore size. Furthermore, diffusivity in the radial direction was lower than in the axial or circumferential directions, indicating that nutrient transport in human AF is anisotropic. This behavior is likely a consequence of the layered structure and unique collagen architecture of AF tissue. These findings are important for better understanding nutritional supply in IVD and related disc degeneration.

  18. Changing nutrient stoichiometry affects phytoplankton production, DOP accumulation and dinitrogen fixation - a mesocosm experiment in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Löscher, C. R.; Neulinger, S. C.; Reichel, A. F.; Loginova, A.; Borchard, C.; Schmitz, R. A.; Hauss, H.; Kiko, R.; Riebesell, U.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean deoxygenation due to climate change may alter redox-sensitive nutrient cycles in the marine environment. The productive eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) upwelling region may be particularly affected when the relatively moderate oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) deoxygenates further and microbially driven nitrogen (N) loss processes are promoted. Consequently, water masses with a low nitrogen to phosphorus (N : P) ratio could reach the euphotic layer, possibly influencing primary production in those waters. Previous mesocosm studies in the oligotrophic Atlantic Ocean identified nitrate availability as a control of primary production, while a possible co-limitation of nitrate and phosphate could not be ruled out. To better understand the impact of changing N : P ratios on primary production and N2 fixation in the ETNA surface ocean, we conducted land-based mesocosm experiments with natural plankton communities and applied a broad range of N : P ratios (2.67-48). Silicic acid was supplied at 15 µmol L-1 in all mesocosms. We monitored nutrient drawdown, biomass accumulation and nitrogen fixation in response to variable nutrient stoichiometry. Our results confirmed nitrate to be the key factor determining primary production. We found that excess phosphate was channeled through particulate organic matter (POP) into the dissolved organic matter (DOP) pool. In mesocosms with low inorganic phosphate availability, DOP was utilized while N2 fixation increased, suggesting a link between those two processes. Interestingly this observation was most pronounced in mesocosms where nitrate was still available, indicating that bioavailable N does not necessarily suppress N2 fixation. We observed a shift from a mixed cyanobacteria-proteobacteria dominated active diazotrophic community towards a diatom-diazotrophic association of the Richelia-Rhizosolenia symbiosis. We hypothesize that a potential change in nutrient stoichiometry in the ETNA might lead to a general shift within

  19. Soil nutrients affect spatial patterns of aboveground biomass and emergent tree density in southwestern Borneo.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Gary D; Curran, Lisa M; Slik, J W F

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the relationship between soil fertility and aboveground biomass in lowland tropical forests have yielded conflicting results, reporting positive, negative and no effect of soil nutrients on aboveground biomass. Here, we quantify the impact of soil variation on the stand structure of mature Bornean forest throughout a lowland watershed (8-196 m a.s.l.) with uniform climate and heterogeneous soils. Categorical and bivariate methods were used to quantify the effects of (1) parent material differing in nutrient content (alluvium > sedimentary > granite) and (2) 27 soil parameters on tree density, size distribution, basal area and aboveground biomass. Trees > or =10 cm (diameter at breast height, dbh) were enumerated in 30 (0.16 ha) plots (sample area = 4.8 ha). Six soil samples (0-20 cm) per plot were analyzed for physiochemical properties. Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equations. Across all plots, stem density averaged 521 +/- 13 stems ha(-1), basal area 39.6 +/- 1.4 m(2) ha(-1) and aboveground biomass 518 +/- 28 Mg ha(-1) (mean +/- SE). Adjusted forest-wide aboveground biomass to account for apparent overestimation of large tree density (based on 69 0.3-ha transects; sample area = 20.7 ha) was 430 +/- 25 Mg ha(-1). Stand structure did not vary significantly among substrates, but it did show a clear trend toward larger stature on nutrient-rich alluvium, with a higher density and larger maximum size of emergent trees. Across all plots, surface soil phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium and percentage sand content were significantly related to stem density and/or aboveground biomass (R (Pearson) = 0.368-0.416). In multiple linear regression, extractable P and percentage sand combined explained 31% of the aboveground biomass variance. Regression analyses on size classes showed that the abundance of emergent trees >120 cm dbh was positively related to soil P and exchangeable bases, whereas trees 60-90 cm dbh were negatively related to these

  20. Soil nutrients affect spatial patterns of aboveground biomass and emergent tree density in southwestern Borneo.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Gary D; Curran, Lisa M; Slik, J W F

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the relationship between soil fertility and aboveground biomass in lowland tropical forests have yielded conflicting results, reporting positive, negative and no effect of soil nutrients on aboveground biomass. Here, we quantify the impact of soil variation on the stand structure of mature Bornean forest throughout a lowland watershed (8-196 m a.s.l.) with uniform climate and heterogeneous soils. Categorical and bivariate methods were used to quantify the effects of (1) parent material differing in nutrient content (alluvium > sedimentary > granite) and (2) 27 soil parameters on tree density, size distribution, basal area and aboveground biomass. Trees > or =10 cm (diameter at breast height, dbh) were enumerated in 30 (0.16 ha) plots (sample area = 4.8 ha). Six soil samples (0-20 cm) per plot were analyzed for physiochemical properties. Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equations. Across all plots, stem density averaged 521 +/- 13 stems ha(-1), basal area 39.6 +/- 1.4 m(2) ha(-1) and aboveground biomass 518 +/- 28 Mg ha(-1) (mean +/- SE). Adjusted forest-wide aboveground biomass to account for apparent overestimation of large tree density (based on 69 0.3-ha transects; sample area = 20.7 ha) was 430 +/- 25 Mg ha(-1). Stand structure did not vary significantly among substrates, but it did show a clear trend toward larger stature on nutrient-rich alluvium, with a higher density and larger maximum size of emergent trees. Across all plots, surface soil phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium and percentage sand content were significantly related to stem density and/or aboveground biomass (R (Pearson) = 0.368-0.416). In multiple linear regression, extractable P and percentage sand combined explained 31% of the aboveground biomass variance. Regression analyses on size classes showed that the abundance of emergent trees >120 cm dbh was positively related to soil P and exchangeable bases, whereas trees 60-90 cm dbh were negatively related to these

  1. Fate of Compost Nutrients as Affected by Co-Composting of Chicken and Swine Manures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunwande, Gbolabo A.; Ogunjimi, Lawrence A. O.; Osunade, James A.

    2014-04-01

    Passive aeration co-composting using four mixtures of chicken manure and swine manure at 1:0, 1:1, 3:7 and 0:1 with sawdust and rice husk was carried out to study the effects of co-composting on the physicochemical properties of the organic materials. The experiment, which lasted 66 days, was carried out in bins equipped with inverted T aeration pipes. The results showed that nutrient losses decreased as the proportion of chicken manure in the mixtures decreased for saw dust and rice husk treatments. This indicates better nutrientst conservation during composting in swine than chicken manure. Manure mixtures with rice husk had higher pile temperatures (> 55°C), total carbon and total nitrogen losses, while manure mixtures with saw dust had higher total phosphorus loss and carbon to nitrogen ratio. Composts with rice husk demonstrated the ability to reach maturity faster by the rate of drop of the carbon to nitrogen ratio.

  2. Nutrient availability affects pigment production but not growth in lichens of biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Koch, G.W.; Belnap, J.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that micronutrients such as Mn may limit growth of slow-growing biological soil crusts (BSCs) in some of the drylands of the world. These soil surface communities contribute strongly to arid ecosystem function and are easily degraded, creating a need for new restoration tools. The possibility that Mn fertilization could be used as a restoration tool for BSCs has not been tested previously. We used microcosms in a controlled greenhouse setting to investigate the hypothesis that Mn may limit photosynthesis and consequently growth in Collema tenax, a dominant N-fixing lichen found in BSCs worldwide. We found no evidence to support our hypothesis; furthermore, addition of other nutrients (primarily P, K, and Zn) had a suppressive effect on gross photosynthesis (P = 0.05). We also monitored the growth and physiological status of our microcosms and found that other nutrients increased the production of scytonemin, an important sunscreen pigment, but only when not added with Mn (P = 0.01). A structural equation model indicated that this effect was independent of any photosynthesis-related variable. We propose two alternative hypotheses to account for this pattern: (1) Mn suppresses processes needed to produce scytonemin; and (2) Mn is required to suppress scytonemin production at low light, when it is an unnecessary photosynthate sink. Although Mn fertilization does not appear likely to increase photosynthesis or growth of Collema, it could have a role in survivorship during environmentally stressful periods due to modification of scytonemin production. Thus, Mn enrichment should be studied further for its potential to facilitate BSC rehabilitation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Do breakfast skipping and breakfast type affect energy intake, nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in young adults? NHANES 1999-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed on energy/nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality using a cross-sectional design. The setting was The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002. The sub...

  4. Interaction with ectomycorrhizal fungi and endophytic Methylobacterium affects nutrient uptake and growth of pine seedlings in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pohjanen, Johanna; Koskimäki, Janne J; Sutela, Suvi; Ardanov, Pavlo; Suorsa, Marja; Niemi, Karoliina; Sarjala, Tytti; Häggman, Hely; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

    2014-09-01

    Tissues of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) contain several endophytic microorganisms of which Methylobacterium extorquens DSM13060 is a dominant species throughout the year. Similar to other endophytic bacteria, M. extorquens is able to colonize host plant tissues without causing any symptoms of disease. In addition to endophytic bacteria, plants associate simultaneously with a diverse set of microorganisms. Furthermore, plant-colonizing microorganisms interact with each other in a species- or strain-specific manner. Several studies on beneficial microorganisms interacting with plants have been carried out, but few deal with interactions between different symbiotic organisms and specifically, how these interactions affect the growth and development of the host plant. Our aim was to study how the pine endophyte M. extorquens DSM13060 affects pine seedlings and how the co-inoculation with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi [Suillus variegatus (SV) or Pisolithus tinctorius (PT)] alters the response of Scots pine. We determined the growth, polyamine and nutrient contents of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings in vitro. Our results show that M. extorquens is able to improve the growth of seedlings at the same level as the ECM fungi SV and PT do. The effect of co-inoculation using different symbiotic organisms was seen in terms of changes in growth and nutrient uptake. Inoculation using M. extorquens together with ECM fungi improved the growth of the host plant even more than single ECM inoculation. Symbiotic organisms also had a strong effect on the potassium content of the seedling. The results indicate that interaction between endophyte and ECM fungus is species dependent, leading to increased or decreased nutrient content and growth of pine seedlings.

  5. Diffusion of Nutrients in an Isolated Wetland Resulting From Shallow Pore Water Gradients Affected by Antecedent Soil Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Jawitz, J. W.; Dunne, E. J.; Perkins, D. B.

    2007-05-01

    Historically sequestered nutrients in wetland soils may be gradually released to the water column through the process commonly referred to as internal loading. The watershed for Lake Okeechobee, FL (USA) is heavily agricultural and excess nutrients in this area are drained to the Lake by ditches and canals. Formerly isolated, wetlands in this area have also been extensively ditched and drained. In this study, diffusive fluxes of nutrients were calculated using Fick's First Law from shallow pore water gradients, and later compared to fluxes measured by an incubated laboratory experiment on 10-cm intact soil cores from the same sites. Three intact soil cores from a wetland located on an operational beef farm were used to measure total phosphorus (TP), along with soil properties such as porosity, bulk density, and pH. Simultaneously, pore water concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) were also measured at the same three sites for a period of twelve months, and compared to surface water concentrations during flooded periods. A strong correlation between concentration gradients in pore water SRP and those observed in soil TP, suggests that shallow pore water concentrations reflect antecedent soil conditions. If this is true, then fluxes associated with diffusion and advection could greatly affect the total ground water fluxes across the soil-water interface. Fickian diffusive fluxes, estimated six times over a twelve month sampling period, were found to vary between 7-38 mg.m-2.d-1 for TOC, 1-18 mg.m-2.d-1 for TKN, and 0.04-0.86 mg.m-2.d-1 for SRP. While factors such as wetland stage and hydroperiod may have affected the fluxes, it is ultimately the concentration gradients across the soil-water interface that drives diffusive fluxes.

  6. Interaction with ectomycorrhizal fungi and endophytic Methylobacterium affects nutrient uptake and growth of pine seedlings in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pohjanen, Johanna; Koskimäki, Janne J; Sutela, Suvi; Ardanov, Pavlo; Suorsa, Marja; Niemi, Karoliina; Sarjala, Tytti; Häggman, Hely; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

    2014-09-01

    Tissues of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) contain several endophytic microorganisms of which Methylobacterium extorquens DSM13060 is a dominant species throughout the year. Similar to other endophytic bacteria, M. extorquens is able to colonize host plant tissues without causing any symptoms of disease. In addition to endophytic bacteria, plants associate simultaneously with a diverse set of microorganisms. Furthermore, plant-colonizing microorganisms interact with each other in a species- or strain-specific manner. Several studies on beneficial microorganisms interacting with plants have been carried out, but few deal with interactions between different symbiotic organisms and specifically, how these interactions affect the growth and development of the host plant. Our aim was to study how the pine endophyte M. extorquens DSM13060 affects pine seedlings and how the co-inoculation with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi [Suillus variegatus (SV) or Pisolithus tinctorius (PT)] alters the response of Scots pine. We determined the growth, polyamine and nutrient contents of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings in vitro. Our results show that M. extorquens is able to improve the growth of seedlings at the same level as the ECM fungi SV and PT do. The effect of co-inoculation using different symbiotic organisms was seen in terms of changes in growth and nutrient uptake. Inoculation using M. extorquens together with ECM fungi improved the growth of the host plant even more than single ECM inoculation. Symbiotic organisms also had a strong effect on the potassium content of the seedling. The results indicate that interaction between endophyte and ECM fungus is species dependent, leading to increased or decreased nutrient content and growth of pine seedlings. PMID:25149086

  7. Galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide Supplementation affects Nutrient Digestibility, Fermentation End-product Production, and Large Bowel Microbiota of the Dog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide (GGMO) obtained from fiberboard production was evaluated as a dietary supplement for dogs. The GGMO substrate contained high concentrations of mannose, xylose, and glucose oligosaccharides. Adult dogs assigned to a 6x6 Latin square design were fed six diets, ea...

  8. High levels of inorganic nutrients affect fertilization kinetics, early development and settlement of the scleractinian coral Platygyra acuta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, E. K. Y.; Chui, A. P. Y.; Kwok, C. K.; Ip, A. H. P.; Chan, S. W.; Leung, H. N.; Yeung, L. C.; Ang, P. O.

    2015-09-01

    Dose-response experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of ammonia nitrogen (NH3/NH4 +) and orthophosphate (PO4 3-) on four stages of larval development in Platygyra acuta, including fertilization, embryonic development and the survival, motility, and settlement of planula larvae. Fertilization success was reduced significantly under 200 μM NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. These high doses of NH3/NH4 + and PO4 - affected egg viability (or sperm viability and polyspermic block simultaneously) and polyspermic block, respectively. These results provide the first evidence to indicate the mechanisms of how inorganic nutrients might affect coral fertilization processes. For embryonic development, NH3/NH4 + at 25-200 μM caused delay in cell division after 2-h exposure and NH3/NH4 + at 100-200 μM resulted in larval death after 72 h. However, no significant differences were observed in the mobility and survivorship of either planula or competent larvae under different levels of NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. There was a significant (~30 %) drop in the settlement of competent larvae under the combined effect of 100 μM NH3/NH4 + and PO4 3-. The effects of elevated nutrients appeared to become more significant only on gametes or larvae undergoing active cellular activities at fertilization, early development, and settlement.

  9. How Does Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) Affect Methane Production from the Anaerobic Digestion of Waste-Activated Sludge?

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Zhao, Jianwei; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Yinguang; Bond, Philip L; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-10-20

    Recent studies demonstrate that, besides being used for production of biodegradable plastics, poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) that is accumulated in heterotrophic microorganisms during wastewater treatment has another novel application direction, i.e., being utilized for enhancing methane yield during the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge (WAS). To date, however, the underlying mechanism of how PHA affects methane production remains largely unknown, and this limits optimization and application of the strategy. This study therefore aims to fill this knowledge gap. Experimental results showed that with the increase of sludge PHA levels from 21 to 184 mg/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS) the methane yield linearly increased from 168.0 to 246.1 mL/g of VSS (R(2) = 0.9834). Compared with protein and carbohydrate (the main components of a cell), PHA exhibited a higher biochemical methane potential on a unit VSS basis. It was also found that the increased PHA not only enhanced cell disruption of PHA cells but also benefited the soluble protein conversion of both PHA- and non-PHA cells. Moreover, the reactor fed with higher PHA sludge showed greater sludge hydrolysis and acidification than those fed with the lower PHA sludges. Further investigations using fluorescence in situ hybridization and enzyme analysis revealed that the increased PHA enhanced the abundance of methanogenic Archaea and increased the activities of protease, acetate kinase, and coenzyme F420, which were consistent with the observed methane yield. This work provides insights into PHA-involved WAS digestion systems and may have important implications for future operation of wastewater treatment plants. PMID:26381110

  10. How Does Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) Affect Methane Production from the Anaerobic Digestion of Waste-Activated Sludge?

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Zhao, Jianwei; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Yinguang; Bond, Philip L; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-10-20

    Recent studies demonstrate that, besides being used for production of biodegradable plastics, poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) that is accumulated in heterotrophic microorganisms during wastewater treatment has another novel application direction, i.e., being utilized for enhancing methane yield during the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge (WAS). To date, however, the underlying mechanism of how PHA affects methane production remains largely unknown, and this limits optimization and application of the strategy. This study therefore aims to fill this knowledge gap. Experimental results showed that with the increase of sludge PHA levels from 21 to 184 mg/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS) the methane yield linearly increased from 168.0 to 246.1 mL/g of VSS (R(2) = 0.9834). Compared with protein and carbohydrate (the main components of a cell), PHA exhibited a higher biochemical methane potential on a unit VSS basis. It was also found that the increased PHA not only enhanced cell disruption of PHA cells but also benefited the soluble protein conversion of both PHA- and non-PHA cells. Moreover, the reactor fed with higher PHA sludge showed greater sludge hydrolysis and acidification than those fed with the lower PHA sludges. Further investigations using fluorescence in situ hybridization and enzyme analysis revealed that the increased PHA enhanced the abundance of methanogenic Archaea and increased the activities of protease, acetate kinase, and coenzyme F420, which were consistent with the observed methane yield. This work provides insights into PHA-involved WAS digestion systems and may have important implications for future operation of wastewater treatment plants.

  11. Effects of dietary inclusion of sunflower soap stocks on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, and ruminal and blood metabolites of light fattening lambs.

    PubMed

    Blanco, C; Giráldez, F J; Prieto, N; Morán, L; Andrés, S; Benavides, J; Tejido, M L; Bodas, R

    2014-09-01

    Forty-four merino lambs (6 to 8 wk old; BW 15.6 ± 0.21 kg) were used to study the effect of adding different proportions of sunflower soap stock (SS) to pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) for fattening lambs on feed intake, animal growth and dressing percentage, ruminal fluid characteristics, and blood acid-base parameters. Lambs were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups (11 lambs per group), each randomly assigned to 1 dietary treatment: 00SS (0 g SS/kg TMR pellet), 15SS (15 g SS/kg TMR pellet), 30SS (30 g SS/kg TMR pellet), and 60SS (60 g SS/kg TMR pellet). Lambs were individually fed the corresponding diet ad libitum. On d 19 to 23, total feces were collected and sampled from 4 lambs per group. When lambs reached 27 kg BW, they were slaughtered. Dry matter intake, ADG, and length of fattening period were not affected by the dietary treatment (P > 0.10). Animals in the 30SS group tended to show the best G:F values (P < 0.10). Dressing percentage tended to linearly decrease as SS increased (P < 0.10). Animals in the 60SS groups showed the lowest DM and fiber digestibility values (P < 0.05). Total VFA contents in ruminal fluid were not affected (P > 0.10), but the propionate proportion linearly increased (P < 0.05), and the acetate to propionate ratio tended to decrease with SS supplementation. Increasing dietary content of SS linearly decreased the cold carcass weight (P < 0.05) but did not affect other measured carcass characteristics. Ruminal fluid pH tended to decrease (P < 0.10) and mucosa color decreased as SS increased in the TMR (P < 0.05). Blood pH and Na concentration increased (P < 0.05), whereas the anion gap, CO2 pressure, and K concentration linearly decreased (P < 0.05) as SS increased. Including more than 30 g SS/kg TMR in the diet for fattening lambs reduces DM and fiber digestibility without affecting feed intake and ADG. The acidotic rumen conditions that induced a darkening of rumen mucosa were counteracted by blood acid-base parameters. The

  12. Effects of pelleting, extrusion, or extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing different levels of fiber and fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rojas, O J; Vinyeta, E; Stein, H H

    2016-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine effects of pelleting, extrusion, and extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing low, medium, or high concentrations of fiber. Three diets were formulated: 1) the low-fiber diet contained corn and soybean meal; 2) the medium-fiber diet contained corn, soybean meal, and 25% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS); and 3) the high-fiber diet contained corn, soybean meal, 25% DDGS, and 20% soybean hulls. Each diet was divided into 4 batches after mixing. One batch was not further processed and was fed in a meal form, one batch was pelleted at 85°C, one batch was extruded at 115°C using a single-screw extruder, and one batch was extruded at 115°C and then pelleted at 85°C. Thus, 12 different diets were produced. Twenty-four growing pigs (26.5 ± 1.5 kg initial BW) had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum and were allotted to the 12 diets in a split-plot design with 8 pigs allotted to the low-fiber diets, the medium-fiber diets, and the high-fiber diets, respectively. Diets were fed to the pigs during four 14-d periods. Within each type of diet, the 8 pigs were fed the diets produced using the 4 processing technologies. Therefore, there were 8 replicate pigs per diet. Pigs were adjusted to their diets for 14 d before the experiment was initiated. Each of the four 14-d periods consisted of 5 d for adaptation, 5 d of fecal collection according to the marker to marker approach, and ileal digesta were collected on d 13 and 14. Results indicated that pelleting, extrusion, or extrusion and pelleting improved ( < 0.05) the apparent ileal digestibility of starch and most indispensable AA. In most cases, there were no differences between the pelleted, the extruded, and the extruded and pelleted diets. The apparent total tract digestibility of GE was also improved ( < 0.05) by pelleting and by the combination of extrusion and pelleting. The ME of pelleted diets was greater ( < 0.05) than

  13. Effect of feeding silages or carrots as supplements to laying hens on production performance, nutrient digestibility, gut structure, gut microflora and feather pecking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Kjaer, J B; Engberg, R M

    2007-08-01

    1. An experiment was carried out to examine the suitability of using maize silage, barley-pea silage and carrots as foraging materials for egg-laying hens. Production performance, nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal characteristics, including the composition of the intestinal microflora as well as feather pecking behaviour were the outcome variables. 2. The protein content of the foraging material (g/kg DM) was on average 69 g in carrots, 94 g in maize silage and 125 g in barley-pea silage. The starch content was highest in the maize silage (312 g/kg DM), and the content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) varied from 196 to 390 g/kg, being lowest in carrots. Sugars were just traceable in the silages, whereas carrots contained on average 496 g/kg DM. 3. Egg production was highest in hens fed either carrots or maize silage, whereas hens fed barley-pea silage produced less (219 vs. 208). Although the consumption of foraging material was high (33, 35 and 48% of the total feed intake on 'as fed' basis for maize silage, barley-pea silage and carrots, respectively) only a minor effect on nitrogen corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AME(n)) and apparent digestibility was seen. At 53 weeks of age, hens fed maize silage had AME(n) and apparent digestibility values close to the control group (12.61 and 12.82, respectively), whereas access to barley-pea silage and carrots resulted in slightly lower values (12.36 and 12.42, respectively). Mortality was reduced dramatically in the three groups given supplements (0.5 to 2.5%) compared to the control group (15.2%). 4. Hens receiving silage had greater relative gizzard weights than the control or carrot-fed groups. At 53 weeks of age, the gizzard-content pH of hens receiving silage was about 0.7 to 0.9 units lower than that of the control or carrot-fed hens. Hens fed both types of silage had higher concentrations of lactic acid (15.6 vs. 3.2 micromoles/g) and acetic acid (3.6 vs. 6.1 micromoles/g) in the gizzard contents

  14. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Trzcinski, Antoine P.; Stuckey, David C.

    2011-07-15

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

  15. Uptake of Pharmaceuticals Influences Plant Development and Affects Nutrient and Hormone Homeostases.

    PubMed

    Carter, Laura J; Williams, Mike; Böttcher, Christine; Kookana, Rai S

    2015-10-20

    The detection of a range of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the soil environment has led to a number of publications demonstrating uptake by crops, however very few studies have explored the potential for impacts on plant development as a result of API uptake. This study investigated the effect of carbamazepine and verapamil (0.005-10 mg/kg) on a range of plant responses in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo). Uptake increased in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum leaf concentrations of 821.9 and 2.2 mg/kg for carbamazepine and verapamil, respectively. Increased carbamazepine uptake by zucchini resulted in a decrease in above (<60%) and below (<30%) ground biomass compared to the controls (p < 0.05). At soil concentrations >4 mg/kg the mature leaves suffered from burnt edges and white spots as well as a reduction in photosynthetic pigments but no such effects were seen for verapamil. For both APIs, further investigations revealed significant differences in the concentrations of selected plant hormones (auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and jasmonates), and in the nutrient composition of the leaves in comparison to the controls (p < 0.05). This is some of the first research to demonstrate that the exposure of plants to APIs is likely to cause impacts on plant development with unknown implications.

  16. Growth rate and nutrient limitation affect the transport of Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22 through sand.

    PubMed

    Priestley, James T; Coleman, Nicholas V; Duxbury, Trevor

    2006-12-01

    Rhodococcus strain DN22 grows on the nitramine explosive RDX as a sole nitrogen source, and is potentially useful for bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soil. In order for strain DN22 to be effectively applied in situ, inoculum cells must reach zones of RDX contamination via passive transport, a process that is difficult to predict at field-scale. We examined the effect of growth conditions on the transport of DN22 cells through sand columns, using chemostat-grown cultures. Strain DN22 formed smaller coccoid cells at low dilution rate (0.02 h(-1)) and larger rods at high dilution rate (0.1 h(-1)). Under all nutrient limitation conditions studied, smaller cells grown at low dilution rate were retained more strongly by sand columns than larger cells grown at high dilution rate. At a dilution rate of 0.05, cells from nitrate-limited cultures were retained more strongly than cells from RDX-limited or succinate-limited cultures. Breakthrough concentrations (C/C (0)) from sand columns ranged from 0.04 (nitrate-limited, D=0.02 h(-1)) to 0.98 (succinate-limited, D=0.1 h(-1)). The observed strong effect of culture conditions on transport of DN22 cells emphasizes the importance of physiology studies in guiding the development of bioremediation technologies.

  17. Factors affecting population of filamentous bacteria in wastewater treatment plants with nutrients removal.

    PubMed

    Miłobędzka, Aleksandra; Witeska, Anna; Muszyński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous population in activated sludge and key operational parameters of full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with bulking problems representative for Poland were investigated with quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Statistical analyses revealed few relationships between operational parameters and biovolume of filamentous bacteria. Sludge age was not only positively correlated with abundance of Chloroflexi (parametric correlation and principal component analysis (PCA)), but also differentiated Microthrix population (analysis of variance (ANOVA)). Phylum Chloroflexi and pH presented a negative relation during the study (PCA). ANOVA showed that pH of influent and sludge volume index (SVI) differentiated abundance of types 0803 and 1851 of Chloroflexi and candidate division TM7. SVI increased along with higher abundance of Microthrix (positive parametric and non-parametric correlations and positive relation in PCA). Biovolumes of morphotypes 0803 and 1851 of Chloroflexi were differentiated by organic matter in influent, also by nutrients in the case of Chloroflexi type 1851. Chemical and biological oxygen demands (COD and BOD5, respectively) were negatively correlated with Microthrix. COD also differentiated the abundance of Haliscomenobacter hydrossis. Results of the study can be used to prevent WWTPs from excessive proliferation of filamentous bacteria and operational problems caused by them--bulking and foaming of activated sludge. PMID:26901721

  18. Uptake of Pharmaceuticals Influences Plant Development and Affects Nutrient and Hormone Homeostases.

    PubMed

    Carter, Laura J; Williams, Mike; Böttcher, Christine; Kookana, Rai S

    2015-10-20

    The detection of a range of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the soil environment has led to a number of publications demonstrating uptake by crops, however very few studies have explored the potential for impacts on plant development as a result of API uptake. This study investigated the effect of carbamazepine and verapamil (0.005-10 mg/kg) on a range of plant responses in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo). Uptake increased in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum leaf concentrations of 821.9 and 2.2 mg/kg for carbamazepine and verapamil, respectively. Increased carbamazepine uptake by zucchini resulted in a decrease in above (<60%) and below (<30%) ground biomass compared to the controls (p < 0.05). At soil concentrations >4 mg/kg the mature leaves suffered from burnt edges and white spots as well as a reduction in photosynthetic pigments but no such effects were seen for verapamil. For both APIs, further investigations revealed significant differences in the concentrations of selected plant hormones (auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and jasmonates), and in the nutrient composition of the leaves in comparison to the controls (p < 0.05). This is some of the first research to demonstrate that the exposure of plants to APIs is likely to cause impacts on plant development with unknown implications. PMID:26418514

  19. Factors affecting population of filamentous bacteria in wastewater treatment plants with nutrients removal.

    PubMed

    Miłobędzka, Aleksandra; Witeska, Anna; Muszyński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous population in activated sludge and key operational parameters of full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with bulking problems representative for Poland were investigated with quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Statistical analyses revealed few relationships between operational parameters and biovolume of filamentous bacteria. Sludge age was not only positively correlated with abundance of Chloroflexi (parametric correlation and principal component analysis (PCA)), but also differentiated Microthrix population (analysis of variance (ANOVA)). Phylum Chloroflexi and pH presented a negative relation during the study (PCA). ANOVA showed that pH of influent and sludge volume index (SVI) differentiated abundance of types 0803 and 1851 of Chloroflexi and candidate division TM7. SVI increased along with higher abundance of Microthrix (positive parametric and non-parametric correlations and positive relation in PCA). Biovolumes of morphotypes 0803 and 1851 of Chloroflexi were differentiated by organic matter in influent, also by nutrients in the case of Chloroflexi type 1851. Chemical and biological oxygen demands (COD and BOD5, respectively) were negatively correlated with Microthrix. COD also differentiated the abundance of Haliscomenobacter hydrossis. Results of the study can be used to prevent WWTPs from excessive proliferation of filamentous bacteria and operational problems caused by them--bulking and foaming of activated sludge.

  20. Effects of exogenous enzyme supplementation to corn- and soybean meal-based or complex diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood metabolites in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Jo, J K; Ingale, S L; Kim, J S; Kim, Y W; Kim, K H; Lohakare, J D; Lee, J H; Chae, B J

    2012-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of exogenous enzymes on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients, blood metabolites, fecal VFA, and fecal ammonia-N in growing pigs (Sus scrofa) fed a corn (Zea mays L.)- and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal (SBM)-based diet. In Exp. 1, 240 growing barrows (initial BW: 55.6 ± 0.9 kg) were randomly allotted to 5 treatments on the basis of BW. There were 4 replicates in each treatment with 12 pigs per replicate. The 5 treatments consisted of a corn-SBM-based control diet and 4 additional diets were similar to the control diet, with the exception that 0.05% β-mannanase (M), α-amylase + β-mannanase (AM), β-mannanase + protease (MPr), or α-amylase + β-mannanase + protease (AMP) was added to the diets, which were fed for 28 d. Pigs fed the AM, MPr, or AMP diet had greater (P < 0.05) ADG than pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed the AMP diet also had greater (P < 0.05) ADG than pigs fed the M, AM, or MPr diet. Pigs fed the AMP diet had greater (P < 0.05) G:F than pigs fed the control diet. The G:F of the pigs fed the M, AM, or MPr diet were not different (P > 0.05) from the G:F in pigs fed the AMP or control diet. The ADFI, ATTD of nutrients, blood metabolites, and fecal VFA and ammonia-N concentrations were not different among treatments. In Exp. 2, 192 growing barrows (initial BW: 56.9 ± 1.0 kg) were allotted to 4 treatments. There were 4 replicates in each treatment with 12 pigs per replicate. Pigs were fed a corn-SBM-based diet (CSD) or a complex diet (CD) that contained corn, SBM, 3% rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) meal, 3% copra (Cocos nucifera L.) meal, and 3% palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) kernel meal. Each diet was prepared without exogenous enzymes or with 0.05% AMP and all diets were fed for 28 d. The ADG and G:F of pigs fed the CSD were greater (P < 0.05) than pigs fed the CD. However, the type of diet had no effect on the

  1. Shade, irrigation, and nutrients affect flavanoid concentration and yield in American Skullcap.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L.) is valued for its sedative properties that are associated with flavonoids. Information on how growing conditions affect flavonoid content is lacking. A 2x2x3 factorial experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (r = 4) with a split ...

  2. Tassel Removal Positively Affects Biomass Production Coupled with Significantly Increasing Stem Digestibility in Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunqiao; Fan, Xifeng; Hou, Xincun; Zhu, Yi; Yue, Yuesen; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Juying

    2015-01-01

    In this study, tassels of Cave-in-Rock (upland) and Alamo (lowland) were removed at or near tassel emergence to explore its effects on biomass production and quality. Tassel-removed (TR) Cave-in-Rock and Alamo both exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant heights (not including tassel length), tiller number, and aboveground biomass dry weight (10% and 12%, 30% and 13%, 13% and 18%, respectively by variety) compared to a control (CK) treatment. Notably, total sugar yields of TR Cave-in-Rock and Alamo stems increased significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) by 19% and 19%, 21% and 14%, 52% and 18%, respectively by variety, compared to those of control switchgrass under 3 treatments by direct enzymatic hydrolysis (DEH), enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% NaOH pretreatment (EHAL) and enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% H2SO4 pretreatment (EHAC). These differences were mainly due to significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) higher cellulose content, lower cellulose crystallinity indexes (CrI) caused by higher arabinose (Ara) substitution in xylans, and lower S/G ratio in lignin. However, the increases of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentration negatively affects the combustion quality of switchgrass aboveground biomass. This work provides information for increasing biomass production and quality in switchgrass and also facilitates the inhibition of gene dispersal of switchgrass in China. PMID:25849123

  3. Tassel removal positively affects biomass production coupled with significantly increasing stem digestibility in switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunqiao; Fan, Xifeng; Hou, Xincun; Zhu, Yi; Yue, Yuesen; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Juying

    2015-01-01

    In this study, tassels of Cave-in-Rock (upland) and Alamo (lowland) were removed at or near tassel emergence to explore its effects on biomass production and quality. Tassel-removed (TR) Cave-in-Rock and Alamo both exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant heights (not including tassel length), tiller number, and aboveground biomass dry weight (10% and 12%, 30% and 13%, 13% and 18%, respectively by variety) compared to a control (CK) treatment. Notably, total sugar yields of TR Cave-in-Rock and Alamo stems increased significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) by 19% and 19%, 21% and 14%, 52% and 18%, respectively by variety, compared to those of control switchgrass under 3 treatments by direct enzymatic hydrolysis (DEH), enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% NaOH pretreatment (EHAL) and enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% H2SO4 pretreatment (EHAC). These differences were mainly due to significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) higher cellulose content, lower cellulose crystallinity indexes (CrI) caused by higher arabinose (Ara) substitution in xylans, and lower S/G ratio in lignin. However, the increases of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentration negatively affects the combustion quality of switchgrass aboveground biomass. This work provides information for increasing biomass production and quality in switchgrass and also facilitates the inhibition of gene dispersal of switchgrass in China. PMID:25849123

  4. Processes Affecting Nutrients and Other Chemicals in Shallow Ground Waters of the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, B. T.

    2001-05-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed with water-quality data from studies conducted during 1993-1995 to explore processes influencing concentrations of selected nutrients, major ions, and trace elements in shallow ground waters of the southeastern United States. Results indicate that nitrate reduction is an important attenuation process in selected areas of the Southeast. A "nitrate-reduction" component explains 23% of the total variance in the data and indicates that nitrate and dissolved oxygen are inversely related to ammonium, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon. Additional components extracted by PCA include "calcite dissolution" (18% of variance explained) and "phosphate dissolution" (9% of variance explained). Reducing conditions in ground waters of the region influence nitrate behavior through bacterially mediated reduction in the presence of organic matter, and by inhibition of nitrate formation in anoxic ground water beneath forested areas. Component scores are consistent with observed water-quality conditions in the region. For example, median nitrate concentration in ground-water samples from the Albemarle-Pamlico Coastal Plain is <0.05 mg/L, median dissolved organic carbon concentration is 4.2 mg/L, and median dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is 2.1 mg/L, consistent with denitrification. Nitrate reduction, however, does not occur uniformly throughout the Southeast. Median DO concentrations in ground-water samples from the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin are 6.2-7.1 mg/L, and median nitrate concentrations are 0.61-2.2 mg/L, inconsistent with denitrification. Similarly, median DO concentration in samples from the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain is 6.0 mg/L and median nitrate concentration is 5.8 mg/L.

  5. Digestion and nutrient net fluxes across the rumen, and the mesenteric- and portal-drained viscera in sheep fed with fresh forage twice daily: net balance and dynamic aspects.

    PubMed

    Rémond, Didier; Bernard, Laurence; Chauveau, Béatrice; Nozière, Pierre; Poncet, Claude

    2003-05-01

    Digestion and portal net flux of nutrients were studied in sheep fed twice daily with fresh orchard-grass. Digestive flows were measured in six fistulated sheep using the double-marker technique. Three sheep were fitted with catheters and blood-flow probes, allowing nutrient net flux measurements across the portal-drained viscera (PDV), the mesenteric-drained viscera (MDV) and the rumen. Total tract apparent digestion of N was similar to portal net appearance of N, calculated as the sum of free amino acids (FAA), peptide amino acids (PAA), NH3, and urea net fluxes. PAA accounted for 25 % of non-protein amino acid net release across the PDV. With the exception of glycine and glutamate, the small intestine was the main contributor to this PAA net release. The essential amino acid (EAA) apparent disappearance between the duodenum and the ileum was lower than the net appearance of EAA (FAA + PAA) across the MDV. The value of PDV:MDV flux of free EAA was, on average, 78 %. The rumen accounted for 30 % of the net uptake of EAA by the PDV tissues not drained by the mesenteric vein. Rumen net release of acetate, propionate, butyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and lactate accounted for 70, 55, 46, 77 and 52 %, respectively, of their portal net releases. Conversely, the small intestine was a net consumer of arterial acetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate. Dynamic study of nutrient net fluxes across the PDV showed that throughout a feeding cycle, the liver faced a constant flux of amino acids (AA), whereas volatile fatty acid and NH3 net fluxes varied in response to the meal. The present study specified, in forage-fed sheep, the partitioning of nutrient net fluxes across the PDV and the role of peptides in portal net release of AA.

  6. Factors affecting the sorption of cesium in a nutrient-poor boreal bog.

    PubMed

    Lusa, M; Bomberg, M; Virtanen, S; Lempinen, J; Aromaa, H; Knuutinen, J; Lehto, J

    2015-09-01

    (135)Cs is among the most important radionuclides in the long-term safety assessments of spent nuclear fuel, due to its long half-life of 2.3 My and large inventory in spent nuclear fuel. Batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption behavior of radiocesium ((134)Cs) in the surface moss, peat, gyttja, and clay layers of 7-m-deep profiles taken from a nutrient-poor boreal bog. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of radiocesium increased as a function of sampling depth. The highest Kd values, with a geometric mean of 3200 L/kg dry weight (DW), were observed in the bottom clay layer and the lowest in the 0.5-1.0 m peat layer (50 L/kg DW). The maximum sorption in all studied layers was observed at a pH between 7 and 9.5. The in situ Kd values of (133)Cs in surface Sphagnum moss, peat and gyttja samples were one order of magnitude higher than the Kd values obtained using the batch method. The highest in situ Kd values (9040 L/kg DW) were recorded for the surface moss layer. The sterilization of fresh surface moss, peat, gyttja and clay samples decreased the sorption of radiocesium by 38%, although the difference was not statistically significant. However, bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Rhodococcus and Burkholderia isolated from the bog were found to remove radiocesium from the solution under laboratory conditions. The highest biosorption was observed for Paenibacillus sp. V0-1-LW and Pseudomonas sp. PS-0-L isolates. When isolated bacteria were added to sterilized bog samples, the removal of radiocesium from the solution increased by an average of 50% compared to the removal recorded for pure sterilized peat. Our results demonstrate that the sorption of radiocesium in the bog environment is dependent on pH and the type of the bog layer and that common environmental bacteria prevailing in the bog can remove cesium from the solution phase.

  7. Factors affecting the sorption of cesium in a nutrient-poor boreal bog.

    PubMed

    Lusa, M; Bomberg, M; Virtanen, S; Lempinen, J; Aromaa, H; Knuutinen, J; Lehto, J

    2015-09-01

    (135)Cs is among the most important radionuclides in the long-term safety assessments of spent nuclear fuel, due to its long half-life of 2.3 My and large inventory in spent nuclear fuel. Batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption behavior of radiocesium ((134)Cs) in the surface moss, peat, gyttja, and clay layers of 7-m-deep profiles taken from a nutrient-poor boreal bog. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of radiocesium increased as a function of sampling depth. The highest Kd values, with a geometric mean of 3200 L/kg dry weight (DW), were observed in the bottom clay layer and the lowest in the 0.5-1.0 m peat layer (50 L/kg DW). The maximum sorption in all studied layers was observed at a pH between 7 and 9.5. The in situ Kd values of (133)Cs in surface Sphagnum moss, peat and gyttja samples were one order of magnitude higher than the Kd values obtained using the batch method. The highest in situ Kd values (9040 L/kg DW) were recorded for the surface moss layer. The sterilization of fresh surface moss, peat, gyttja and clay samples decreased the sorption of radiocesium by 38%, although the difference was not statistically significant. However, bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Rhodococcus and Burkholderia isolated from the bog were found to remove radiocesium from the solution under laboratory conditions. The highest biosorption was observed for Paenibacillus sp. V0-1-LW and Pseudomonas sp. PS-0-L isolates. When isolated bacteria were added to sterilized bog samples, the removal of radiocesium from the solution increased by an average of 50% compared to the removal recorded for pure sterilized peat. Our results demonstrate that the sorption of radiocesium in the bog environment is dependent on pH and the type of the bog layer and that common environmental bacteria prevailing in the bog can remove cesium from the solution phase. PMID:26010098

  8. Nutrient availability affects the response of the calcifying chlorophyte Halimeda opuntia (L.) J.V. Lamouroux to low pH.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Laurie C; Heiden, Jasmin; Bischof, Kai; Teichberg, Mirta

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions cause a decrease in the pH and aragonite saturation state of surface ocean water. As a result, calcifying organisms are expected to suffer under future ocean conditions, but their physiological responses may depend on their nutrient status. Because many coral reefs experience high inorganic nutrient loads or seasonal changes in nutrient availability, reef organisms in localized areas will have to cope with elevated carbon dioxide and changes in inorganic nutrients. Halimeda opuntia is a dominant calcifying primary producer on coral reefs that contributes to coral reef accretion. Therefore, we investigated the carbon and nutrient balance of H. opuntia exposed to elevated carbon dioxide and inorganic nutrients. We measured tissue nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon content as well as the activity of enzymes involved in inorganic carbon uptake and nitrogen assimilation (external carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase, respectively). Inorganic carbon content was lower in algae exposed to high CO₂, but calcification rates were not significantly affected by CO₂ or inorganic nutrients. Organic carbon was positively correlated to external carbonic anhydrase activity, while inorganic carbon showed the opposite correlation. Carbon dioxide had a significant effect on tissue nitrogen and organic carbon content, while inorganic nutrients affected tissue phosphorus and N:P ratios. Nitrate reductase activity was highest in algae grown under elevated CO₂ and inorganic nutrient conditions and lowest when phosphate was limiting. In general, we found that enzymatic responses were strongly influenced by nutrient availability, indicating its important role in dictating the local responses of the calcifying primary producer H. opuntia to ocean acidification.

  9. Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal (Arachniotus sp.) Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, F.; Abdullah, M.; Chaudhry, A. S.; Bhatti, J. A.; Jabbar, M. A.; Ahmed, F.; Mehmood, T.; Asim, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kamran, Z.; Irshad, I.; Tahir, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1), 33 (TMR2), 67 (TMR3), and 100% (TMR4) fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6) according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves. PMID:26950866

  10. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water table regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straková, P.; Niemi, R. M.; Freeman, C.; Peltoniemi, K.; Toberman, H.; Heiskanen, I.; Fritze, H.; Laiho, R.

    2011-09-01

    Peatlands are carbon (C) storage ecosystems sustained by a high water table (WT). High WT creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WT drawdown caused by climate and/or land-use change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WT drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WT drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter at two stages of decomposition (incubated in the field for 1 or 2 years). We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine to short-term (years) and long-term (decades) WT drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes (bog and fen). The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation: Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees. Litter type was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns and explained about 30 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Overall, enzyme activities were higher in vascular plant litters compared to Sphagnum litters, and the allocation of enzyme activities towards C or nutrient acquisition was related to the initial litter quality (chemical composition). Direct effects of WT regime, site nutrient regime and litter decomposition stage (length of incubation period) summed to only about 40 % of the litter type effect. WT regime alone explained about 5 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Generally, enzyme activity increased following the long-term WT drawdown and the activity allocation turned from P and N acquisition towards C

  11. Methane production, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, N balance, and milk production of cows fed timothy silage- or alfalfa silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Massé, D I; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changing forage source in dairy cow diets from timothy silage (TS) to alfalfa silage (AS) on enteric CH₄ emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40, dry matter basis), with the forage portion consisting of either TS (0% AS; 0% AS and 54.4% TS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% AS; 27.2% AS and 27.2% TS in the TMR), or AS (100% AS; 54.4% AS and 0% TS in the TMR). Compared with TS, AS contained less (36.9 vs. 52.1%) neutral detergent fiber but more (20.5 vs. 13.6%) crude protein (CP). In sacco 24-h ruminal degradability of organic matter (OM) was higher for AS than for TS (73.5 vs. 66.9%). Replacement of TS with AS in the diet entailed increasing proportions of corn grain and bypass protein supplement at the expense of soybean meal. As the dietary proportion of AS increased, CP and starch concentrations increased, whereas fiber content declined in the TMR. Dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing AS proportions in the diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of OM and gross energy remained unaffected, whereas CP digestibility increased linearly and that of fiber decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of AS in the diet. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was not affected, whereas ruminal concentration of ammonia (NH₃) and molar proportion of branched-chain VFA increased as the proportion of AS in the diet increased. Daily CH₄ emissions tended to increase (476, 483, and 491 g/d for cows fed 0% AS, 50% AS, and 100% AS, respectively) linearly as cows were fed increasing proportions of AS. Methane production adjusted for dry matter intake (average=19.8 g/kg) or gross energy intake (average=5.83%) was not affected by increasing AS inclusion

  12. Food, nutrients and nutraceuticals affecting the course of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Uranga, José Antonio; López-Miranda, Visitación; Lombó, Felipe; Abalo, Raquel

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease) are debilitating relapsing inflammatory disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract, with deleterious effect on quality of life, and increasing incidence and prevalence. Mucosal inflammation, due to altered microbiota, increased intestinal permeability and immune system dysfunction underlies the symptoms and may be caused in susceptible individuals by different factors (or a combination of them), including dietary habits and components. In this review we describe the influence of the Western diet, obesity, and different nutraceuticals/functional foods (bioactive peptides, phytochemicals, omega 3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics and prebiotics) on the course of IBD, and provide some hints that could be useful for nutritional guidance. Hopefully, research will soon offer enough reliable data to slow down the spread of the disease and to make diet a cornerstone in IBD therapy. PMID:27267792

  13. Food, nutrients and nutraceuticals affecting the course of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Uranga, José Antonio; López-Miranda, Visitación; Lombó, Felipe; Abalo, Raquel

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease) are debilitating relapsing inflammatory disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract, with deleterious effect on quality of life, and increasing incidence and prevalence. Mucosal inflammation, due to altered microbiota, increased intestinal permeability and immune system dysfunction underlies the symptoms and may be caused in susceptible individuals by different factors (or a combination of them), including dietary habits and components. In this review we describe the influence of the Western diet, obesity, and different nutraceuticals/functional foods (bioactive peptides, phytochemicals, omega 3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics and prebiotics) on the course of IBD, and provide some hints that could be useful for nutritional guidance. Hopefully, research will soon offer enough reliable data to slow down the spread of the disease and to make diet a cornerstone in IBD therapy.

  14. Digestibility and antigenicity of β-lactoglobulin as affected by heat, pH and applied shear.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Toheder; Vasiljevic, Todor; Ramchandran, Lata

    2017-02-15

    Processing induced conformational changes can modulate digestibility of food allergens and thereby their antigenicity. Effect of different pH (3, 5, 7), temperature (room temperature, 120°C) and shear (0s(-1), 1000s(-1)) on simulated gastrointestinal digestibility of β-lg and post digestion antigenic characteristics have been studied. At all pH levels unheated β-lg showed resistance to peptic digestion with high antigenic value while it was fairly susceptible to pancreatin with moderate reduction in antigenicity. Heating at 120°C significantly improved both peptic and pancreatic digestion attributed to structural alterations that resulted in much lower antigenicity; the level of reduction being pH dependant. The lowest antigenicity was recorded at pH 5. Shearing (1000s(-1)) had a minor impact reducing digestibility and thereby enhancing antigenicity of unheated β-lg at pH 5 and 7 slightly; however in conjunction with heating (120°C) it reduced antigenicity further irrespective of the pH. Overall, treatment at pH 5, 120°C and 1000s(-1) could potentially reduce post digestion antigenicity of β-lg. PMID:27664667

  15. Digestibility and antigenicity of β-lactoglobulin as affected by heat, pH and applied shear.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Toheder; Vasiljevic, Todor; Ramchandran, Lata

    2017-02-15

    Processing induced conformational changes can modulate digestibility of food allergens and thereby their antigenicity. Effect of different pH (3, 5, 7), temperature (room temperature, 120°C) and shear (0s(-1), 1000s(-1)) on simulated gastrointestinal digestibility of β-lg and post digestion antigenic characteristics have been studied. At all pH levels unheated β-lg showed resistance to peptic digestion with high antigenic value while it was fairly susceptible to pancreatin with moderate reduction in antigenicity. Heating at 120°C significantly improved both peptic and pancreatic digestion attributed to structural alterations that resulted in much lower antigenicity; the level of reduction being pH dependant. The lowest antigenicity was recorded at pH 5. Shearing (1000s(-1)) had a minor impact reducing digestibility and thereby enhancing antigenicity of unheated β-lg at pH 5 and 7 slightly; however in conjunction with heating (120°C) it reduced antigenicity further irrespective of the pH. Overall, treatment at pH 5, 120°C and 1000s(-1) could potentially reduce post digestion antigenicity of β-lg.

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation of modified zinc oxide on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbial shedding and fecal score in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin Ho; Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Kim, In Ho

    2015-06-01

    One hundred and forty piglets ((Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc, 21 day of age) with an initial weight of 6.50 ± 0.71 kg, were randomly allotted into four treatments to determine the effects of a modified form of zinc oxide (ZnO) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbial shedding and fecal score in weanling pigs. Dietary treatments were: (i) NC, negative control, basal diet containing zinc (Zn) from the premix; (ii) PC, positive control, basal diet containing Zn-free premix + 3000 ppm ZnO; (iii) H1, basal diet containing Zn-free premix + 3000 ppm ZnO (phase 1, days 1 to 14)/200 ppm modified ZnO (phase 2, days 15 to 42); (iv) H2, basal diet containing Zn-free premix + 300 ppm modified ZnO (phase 1)/200 ppm modified ZnO (phase 2). During days 1 to 14, average daily gains (ADG) were higher (P = 0.04) in PC, H1 and H2 groups than that in NC group. Overall, H1 treatment increased the ADG compared with NC (P = 0.05). On day 14, the alkaline phosphatase and plasma Zn concentration were increased (P = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively) in PC, H1 and H2 treatments compared with NC treatment. On days 14 and 42, the fecal Lactobacillus counts in NC group were lowest (P = 0.01, P = 0.04 respectively) among treatments. All supplemented groups showed lower (P = 0.03) fecal score than NC treatment on days 21 and 28. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with modified ZnO increased growth rates and reduced fecal scores in weanling pig. Modified ZnO could be used as a substitute to ZnO as a growth promoter and reduce Zn excretion to the environment because of the lower dosage. [Correction added on 3 February 2015, after first online publication: the initial weight of '6.50 ± 1.11 kg' has been replaced with '6.50 ± 0.71 kg' in the abstract.].

  17. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. The effect of different dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations and ratios on nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S J; Bradbury, E J; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each

  18. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. The effect of different dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations and ratios on nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S J; Bradbury, E J; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each

  19. Common Prairie feeds with different soluble and insoluble fractions used for CPM diet formulation in dairy cattle: impact of carbohydrate-protein matrix structure on protein and other primary nutrient digestion.

    PubMed

    Peng, Quanhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship of carbohydrates molecular spectral characteristics to rumen degradability of primary nutrients in Prairie feeds in dairy cattle. In total, 12 different types of feeds were selected, each type of feed was from three different source with total 37 samples. Six types of them were energy-sourced feeds and the others were protein-sourced feeds. The carbohydrates molecular spectral intensity of various functional groups were collected using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FT/IR) spectroscopy. In the in situ study, the results showed that the rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of primary nutrients (DM, OM, NCP, and CP) were significantly different (P<0.05) among the feeds. The spectral bands features were significantly different (P<0.05) among the feeds. Spectral intensities of A_Cell, H_1415 and H_1370 were weakly positively correlated with in situ rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of DM, OM and NCP. Spectral intensities of H_1150, H_1015, A_1, and A_3 were weakly negatively associated with in situ rumen degradation of CP. Spectral intensities of A_1240 and H_1240, mainly associated with cellulosic compounds, were correlated with rumen CP degradation. The multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the spectral intensities of A_3 and H_1415 played the most important role and could be used as a potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feeds in dairy cattle. In conclusion, this study showed that the carbohydrates as a whole have an effect on protein rumen degradation, rather than cellulose alone, indicating carbohydrate-protein matrix structure impact protein utilization in dairy cattle. The non-invasive molecular spectral technique (ATR-FT/IR) could be used as a rapid potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feedstuffs by using molecular spectral bands intensities in carbohydrate fingerprint region.

  20. Muscle composition slightly affects in vitro digestion of aged and cooked meat: identification of associated proteomic markers.

    PubMed

    Bax, M-L; Sayd, T; Aubry, L; Ferreira, C; Viala, D; Chambon, C; Rémond, D; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2013-02-15

    Meat is an appropriate source of proteins and minerals for human nutrition. Technological treatments modify the physical-chemical properties of proteins, making them liable to decrease the nutritional potential of meat. To counteract this damage, antioxidants and chaperone proteins in muscle cells can prevent oxidation, restore the function of denatured proteins, and thus prevent aggregation. This study aimed to explore the impact of indoor vs outdoor-reared meat protein composition on digestion and to associate protein markers to in vitro digestion parameters. Indoor-reared meat tended to show less oxidation and denaturation than outdoor-reared meat and was characterised by an overexpression of contractile and chaperone proteins. Outdoor-reared meat showed amplification of antioxidant and detoxification metabolism defending against oxidised compounds. Impacts on digestion remained minor. Several protein markers of in vitro digestion parameters were found for aged and cooked meat, linked to the detoxification process and to muscle contraction.

  1. Casein Supplementation Does Not Affect the Estimates of True Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Soybean Meal for Growing Pigs Determined by the Regression Method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J. B.; Adeola, O.

    2016-01-01

    Forty-eight barrows with an average initial body weight of 25.5±0.3 kg were assigned to 6 dietary treatments arranged in a 3×2 factorial of 3 graded levels of P at 1.42, 2.07, or 2.72 g/kg, and 2 levels of casein at 0 or 50 g/kg to compare the estimates of true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of P in soybean meal (SBM) for pigs fed diets with or without casein supplementation. The SBM is the only source of P in diets without casein, and in the diet with added casein, 1.0 to 2.4 g/kg of total dietary P was supplied by SBM as dietary level of SBM increased. The experiment consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and a 5-d total collection period with ferric oxide as a maker to indicate the initiation and termination of fecal collection. There were interactive effects of casein supplementation and total dietary P level on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of P (p<0.05). Dietary P intake, fecal P output, digested P and retained P were increased linearly with graded increasing levels of SBM in diets regardless of casein addition (p<0.01). Compared with diets without casein, there was a reduction in fecal P in the casein-supplemented diets, which led to increases in digested P, retained P, ATTD, and retention of P (p<0.01). Digested N, ATTD of N, retained N, and N retention were affected by the interaction of casein supplementation and dietary P level (p<0.05). Fecal N output, urinary N output, digested N, and retained N increased linearly with graded increasing levels of SBM for each type of diet (p<0.01). The estimates of TTTD of P in SBM, derived from the regression of daily digested P against daily P intake, for pigs fed diets without casein and with casein were calculated to be 37.3% and 38.6%, respectively. Regressing daily digested N against daily N intake, the TTTD of N in SBM were determined at 94.3% and 94.4% for diets without casein and with added casein, respectively. There was no difference in determined values of TTTD of P or N in

  2. A study by (1)H NMR on the influence of some factors affecting lipid in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Nieva-Echevarría, Bárbara; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Manzanos, María J; Guillén, María D

    2016-11-15

    This article focuses on the impact of several experimental factors, including gastric acidification, intestinal transit time, presence of gastric lipase, sample/digestive fluids ratio, concentration and nature of the enzymes in intestinal juice, and bile concentration, on the extent of in vitro lipolysis when using a static model that simulates human digestion processes in mouth, stomach and small intestine. The study was carried out by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR). This technique provides a complete molecular picture of lipolysis, evidencing for the first time, whether preferential hydrolysis of certain glycerides over others occurs. A lipolysis degree similar to that reported in vivo was reached by varying certain variables within a physiological range; among them, bile concentration was found to be crucial. The holistic view of this (1)H NMR study provides information of paramount importance to design sound in vitro digestion models to determine the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of lipophilic compounds. PMID:27283602

  3. Net energy value of two low-digestible carbohydrates, Lycasin HBC and the hydrogenated polysaccharide fraction of Lycasin HBC in healthy human subjects and their impact on nutrient digestive utilization.

    PubMed

    Sinau, S; Montaunier, C; Wils, D; Verne, J; Brandolini, M; Bouteloup-Demange, C; Vermorel, M

    2002-02-01

    The metabolizable energy content of low-digestible carbohydrates does not correspond with their true energy value. The aim of the present study was to determine the tolerance and effects of two polyols on digestion and energy expenditure in healthy men, as well as their digestible, metabolizable and net energy values. Nine healthy men were fed for 32 d periods a maintenance diet supplemented either with dextrose, Lycasin HBC (Roquette Frères, Lestrem, France), or the hydrogenated polysaccharide fraction of Lycasin HBC, at a level of 100 g DM/d in six equal doses per d according to a 3 x 3 Latin square design with three repetitions. After a 20 d progressive adaptation period, food intake was determined for 12d using the duplicate meal method and faeces and urine were collected for 10 d for further analyses. Subjects spent 36 h in one of two open-circuit whole-body calorimeters with measurements during the last 24h. Ingestion of the polyols did not cause severe digestive disorders, except excessive gas emission, and flatulence and gurgling in some subjects. The polyols induced significant increases in wet (+45 and +66% respectively, P<0.01) and dry (+53 and +75 % respectively, P<0.002) stool weight, resulting in a 2% decrease in dietary energy digestibility (P<0.001). They resulted also in significant increases in sleeping (+4.1%, P<0.03) and daily energy expenditure (+2.7 and +2.9% respectively, P<0.02) compared with dextrose ingestion. The apparent energy digestibility of the two polyols was 0.82 and 0.79 respectively, their metabolizable energy value averaged 14.1 kJ/g DM, and their net energy value averaged 10.8 kJ/g DM, that is, 35 % less than those of sucrose and starch.

  4. Net energy value of two low-digestible carbohydrates, Lycasin HBC and the hydrogenated polysaccharide fraction of Lycasin HBC in healthy human subjects and their impact on nutrient digestive utilization.

    PubMed

    Sinau, S; Montaunier, C; Wils, D; Verne, J; Brandolini, M; Bouteloup-Demange, C; Vermorel, M

    2002-02-01

    The metabolizable energy content of low-digestible carbohydrates does not correspond with their true energy value. The aim of the present study was to determine the tolerance and effects of two polyols on digestion and energy expenditure in healthy men, as well as their digestible, metabolizable and net energy values. Nine healthy men were fed for 32 d periods a maintenance diet supplemented either with dextrose, Lycasin HBC (Roquette Frères, Lestrem, France), or the hydrogenated polysaccharide fraction of Lycasin HBC, at a level of 100 g DM/d in six equal doses per d according to a 3 x 3 Latin square design with three repetitions. After a 20 d progressive adaptation period, food intake was determined for 12d using the duplicate meal method and faeces and urine were collected for 10 d for further analyses. Subjects spent 36 h in one of two open-circuit whole-body calorimeters with measurements during the last 24h. Ingestion of the polyols did not cause severe digestive disorders, except excessive gas emission, and flatulence and gurgling in some subjects. The polyols induced significant increases in wet (+45 and +66% respectively, P<0.01) and dry (+53 and +75 % respectively, P<0.002) stool weight, resulting in a 2% decrease in dietary energy digestibility (P<0.001). They resulted also in significant increases in sleeping (+4.1%, P<0.03) and daily energy expenditure (+2.7 and +2.9% respectively, P<0.02) compared with dextrose ingestion. The apparent energy digestibility of the two polyols was 0.82 and 0.79 respectively, their metabolizable energy value averaged 14.1 kJ/g DM, and their net energy value averaged 10.8 kJ/g DM, that is, 35 % less than those of sucrose and starch. PMID:11895165

  5. Digestive Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  6. Adaptive contraction of diet breadth affects sexual maturation and specific nutrient consumption in an extreme generalist omnivore.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K; Schal, C; Silverman, J

    2015-04-01

    Animals balance their intake of specific nutrients, but little is known about how they do so when foraging in an environment with toxic resources and whether toxic foods promote adaptations that affect life history traits. In German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations, glucose aversion has evolved in response to glucose-containing insecticidal baits. We restricted newly eclosed glucose-averse (GA) and wild-type (WT) female cockroaches to nutritionally defined diets varying in protein-to-carbohydrate (P : C) ratio (3 : 1, 1 : 1, or 1 : 3) or gave them free choice of the 3 : 1 and 1 : 3 diets, with either glucose or fructose as the sole carbohydrate source. We measured consumption of each diet over 6 days and then dissected the females to measure the length of basal oocytes in their ovaries. Our results showed significantly lower consumption by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also lower fructose intake by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to high fructose diets or given choice of fructose-containing diets. Protein intake was regulated tightly regardless of carbohydrate intake, except by GA cockroaches restricted to glucose-containing diets. Oocyte growth was completely suppressed in GA females restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also significantly slower in GA than in WT females restricted to fructose-containing diets. Our findings suggest that GA cockroaches have adapted to reduced diet breadth through endocrine adjustments which reduce requirements for energetic fuels. Our study illustrates how an evolutionary change in the chemosensory system may affect the evolution of other traits that govern animal life histories.

  7. Accumulation of nutrients in soils affected by perennial colonies of piscivorous birds with reference to biogeochemical cycles of elements.

    PubMed

    Ligeza, Slawomir; Smal, Halina

    2003-07-01

    The accumulation of selected N, K, and P forms in soils within three perennial colonies of black cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and grey heron (Ardea cinerea) located in northern and eastern Poland were investigated. Soil samples were collected beneath the nests from the most representative for each colony plots. Control samples were taken outside the colonies within sites adjacent to the nesting areas but not affected by bird excrement. From each genetic horizon (20 horizons) in soil profiles, a cumulative sample of about 25-30 kg of soil was taken for analysis. Nitrogen by Kjeldahl, ammonium ions (N(NH(4))), nitrates (N(NO(3))), exchangeable potassium (K(ex)), available potassium (K(av)), and available phosphorus (P(av)) were determined. The soils affected by birds demonstrated a very strong enrichment with N, K, and P in comparison to the control sites, especially in the topsoil horizons. The content of N(NH(4)) in individual soil horizons from the colonies was from 1.7 to 10.1 times higher than the respective control, N(NO(3)) from 2.9 to 215.7, K(ex) from 2.0 to 35.1, K(av) from 1.1 to 48.1, and P(av) in the range from 2.4 to 53.0 times. The highest increment of chemical elements was noticeable in the soils of territories inhabited by cormorants and the least in forest occupied by herons. Some relationships between soil texture and accumulation of biogenic nutrients were determined. Clay loam soil showed the greatest enrichment with analysed forms of elements with the exception of N(NH(4)).

  8. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  9. Magnitude Differences in Bioactive Compounds, Chemical Functional Groups, Fatty Acid Profiles, Nutrient Degradation and Digestion, Molecular Structure, and Metabolic Characteristics of Protein in Newly Developed Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Canola Lines.

    PubMed

    Theodoridou, Katerina; Zhang, Xuewei; Vail, Sally; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-06-10

    Recently, new lines of yellow-seeded (CS-Y) and black-seeded canola (CS-B) have been developed with chemical and structural alteration through modern breeding technology. However, no systematic study was found on the bioactive compounds, chemical functional groups, fatty acid profiles, inherent structure, nutrient degradation and absorption, or metabolic characteristics between the newly developed yellow- and black-seeded canola lines. This study aimed to systematically characterize chemical, structural, and nutritional features in these canola lines. The parameters accessed include bioactive compounds and antinutrition factors, chemical functional groups, detailed chemical and nutrient profiles, energy value, nutrient fractions, protein structure, degradation kinetics, intestinal digestion, true intestinal protein supply, and feed milk value. The results showed that the CS-Y line was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in neutral detergent fiber (122 vs 154 g/kg DM), acid detergent fiber (61 vs 99 g/kg DM), lignin (58 vs 77 g/kg DM), nonprotein nitrogen (56 vs 68 g/kg DM), and acid detergent insoluble protein (11 vs 35 g/kg DM) than the CS-B line. There was no difference in fatty acid profiles except C20:1 eicosenoic acid content (omega-9) which was in lower in the CS-Y line (P < 0.05) compared to the CS-B line. The glucosinolate compounds differed (P < 0.05) in terms of 4-pentenyl, phenylethyl, 3-CH3-indolyl, and 3-butenyl glucosinolates (2.9 vs 1.0 μmol/g) between the CS-Y and CS-B lines. For bioactive compounds, total polyphenols tended to be different (6.3 vs 7.2 g/kg DM), but there were no differences in erucic acid and condensed tannins with averages of 0.3 and 3.1 g/kg DM, respectively. When protein was portioned into five subfractions, significant differences were found in PA, PB1 (65 vs 79 g/kg CP), PB2, and PC fractions (10 vs 33 g/kg CP), indicating protein degradation and supply to small intestine differed between two new lines. In terms of protein structure spectral

  10. Growth, allocation and tissue chemistry of Picea abies seedlings affected by nutrient supply during the second growing season.

    PubMed

    Kaakinen, Seija; Jolkkonen, Annika; Iivonen, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2004-06-01

    One-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber to investigate the effects of low and high nutrient availability (LN; 0.25 mM N and HN; 2.50 mM N) on growth, biomass allocation and chemical composition of needles, stem and roots during the second growing season. Climatic conditions in the growth chamber simulated the mean growing season from May to early October in Flakaliden, northern Sweden. In the latter half of the growing season, biomass allocation changed in response to nutrient availability: increased root growth and decreased shoot growth led to higher root/shoot ratios in LN seedlings than in HN seedlings. At high nutrient availability, total biomass, especially stem biomass, increased, as did total nonstructural carbohydrate and nitrogen contents per seedling. Responses of stem chemistry to nutrient addition differed from those of adult trees of the same provenance. In HN seedlings, concentrations of alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased in the secondary xylem. Our results illustrate the significance of retranslocation of stored nutrients to support new growth early in the season when root growth and nutrient uptake are still low. We conclude that nutrient availability alters allocation patterns, thereby influencing the success of 2-year-old Norway spruce seedlings at forest planting sites. PMID:15059771

  11. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows.

  12. Effects of treating sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles with fibrolytic enzymes on nutrient digestibility and performance in finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of treating sorghum WDG with solubles (SWDG) with an enzyme, or enzyme-buffer combination on diet digestibility and feedlot performance. Experimental treatments are; 1) untreated SWDG (control), 2) addition of an enzyme complex to SWDG (enzyme...

  13. Variability in climate change simulations affects needed long-term riverine nutrient reductions for the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Bring, Arvid; Rogberg, Peter; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    Changes to runoff due to climate change may influence management of nutrient loading to the sea. Assuming unchanged river nutrient concentrations, we evaluate the effects of changing runoff on commitments to nutrient reductions under the Baltic Sea Action Plan. For several countries, climate projections point to large variability in load changes in relation to reduction targets. These changes either increase loads, making the target more difficult to reach, or decrease them, leading instead to a full achievement of the target. The impact of variability in climate projections varies with the size of the reduction target and is larger for countries with more limited commitments. In the end, a number of focused actions are needed to manage the effects of climate change on nutrient loads: reducing uncertainty in climate projections, deciding on frameworks to identify best performing models with respect to land surface hydrology, and increasing efforts at sustained monitoring of water flow changes. PMID:26022321

  14. Feed supplemented with organic acids does not affect starch digestibility, nor intestinal absorptive or secretory function in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Knorr, F; Mader, A; Hafeez, A; Zentek, J

    2015-04-01

    The current study aimed to determine the impact of acidified feed on apparent ileal starch digestibility, intestinal transport and barrier function and intestinal glucose transporter expression. The experiment included a control group and a treatment group with broilers fed a standard diet without or with 1.5% of a commercial organic acid product (64% formic acid, 25% propionic acid, 11% water). Broilers were fed with the experimental diets from hatching until days 32-35. Starch digestibility was determined using 0.2% titanium dioxide as ingestible marker. Gene expressions of the intestinal sodium glucose transporter 1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2) were analysed using qPCR analysis. Additionally, SGLT-1 function and chloride secretion were analysed in Ussing chamber experiments. Jejunal samples were sequentially exposed to 10 mm glucose, 100 μm phloridzin, 100 μm histamine and 100 μm carbachol. Apparent ileal starch digestibility (±SEM) of the control group (97.5 ± 0.35%) and the acid-treated group (97.0 ± 0.59%) did not differ (p = 0.674). The mean tissue conductance of intestinal samples obtained from the control group and the treatment group was similar [10.6 mS/cm(2) (±0.68) and 9.4 mS/cm(2) (±0.80) respectively (p = 0.147)]. The mean short-circuit currents (ΔIsc ) of the samples exposed to glucose, phloridzin, histamine and carbachol did not differ (p > 0.05). Additionally, no differences in the expression of SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 could be observed (p = 0.942, p = 0.413). Based on this study, the consumption of feed supplemented with organic acids was not associated with effects on ileal starch digestibility and functional traits of jejunal tissues, indicating that these additives have no major impact on the small intestinal function in broilers.

  15. Factors Affecting Spatial and Temporal Variability in Nutrient and Pesticide Concentrations in the Surficial Aquifer on the Delmarva Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debrewer, Linda M.; Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2007-01-01

    Water quality in the unconfined, unconsolidated surficial aquifer on the Delmarva Peninsula is influenced by the availability of soluble ions from natural and human sources, and by geochemical factors that affect the mobility and fate of these ions within the aquifer. Ground-water samples were collected from 60 wells completed in the surficial aquifer of the peninsula in 2001 and analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and selected pesticides and degradation products. Analytical results were compared to similar data from a subset of sampled wells in 1988, as well as to land use, soils, geology, depth, and other potential explanatory variables to demonstrate the effects of natural and human factors on water quality in the unconfined surficial aquifer. This study was conducted as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, which is designed (in part) to describe the status and trends in ground-water quality and to provide an understanding of natural and human factors that affect ground-water chemistry in different parts of the United States. Results of this study may be useful for water-resources managers tasked with addressing water-quality issues of local and regional importance because the surficial aquifer on the Delmarva Peninsula is a major source of water for domestic and public supply and provides the majority of flow in local streams. Human impacts are apparent in ground-water quality throughout the surficial aquifer. The surficial aquifer on the Delmarva Peninsula is generally sandy and very permeable with well-oxygenated ground water. Dissolved constituents found throughout various depths of the unconfined aquifer are likely derived from the predominantly agricultural practices on the peninsula, although effects of road salt, mineral dissolution, and other natural and human influences are also apparent in some areas. Nitrate occurred at concentrations exceeding natural levels in many areas, and commonly exceeded 10

  16. Grazing-induced changes in plant composition affect litter quality and nutrient cycling in flooding Pampa grasslands.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, Lucas A; Semmartin, María; Chaneton, Enrique J

    2007-04-01

    Changes in plant community composition induced by vertebrate grazers have been found to either accelerate or slow C and nutrient cycling in soil. This variation may reflect the differential effects of grazing-promoted (G+) plant species on overall litter quality and decomposition processes. Further, site conditions associated with prior grazing history are expected to influence litter decay and nutrient turnover. We studied how grazing-induced changes in plant life forms and species identity modified the quality of litter inputs to soil, decomposition rate and nutrient release in a flooding Pampa grassland, Argentina. Litter from G+ forbs and grasses (two species each) and grazing-reduced (G-) grasses (two species) was incubated in long-term grazed and ungrazed sites. G+ species, overall, showed higher rates of decomposition and N and P release from litter. However, this pattern was primarily driven by the low-growing, high litter-quality forbs included among G+ species. Forbs decomposed and released nutrients faster than either G+ or G- grasses. While no consistent differences between G+ and G- grasses were observed, patterns of grass litter decay and nutrient release corresponded with interspecific differences in phenology and photosynthetic pathway. Litter decomposition, N release and soil N availability were higher in the grazed site, irrespective of species litter type. Our results contradict the notion that grazing, by reducing more palatable species and promoting less palatable ones, should decrease nutrient cycling from litter. Plant tissue quality and palatability may not unequivocally link patterns of grazing resistance and litter decomposability within a community, especially where grazing causes major shifts in life form composition. Thus, plant functional groups defined by species' "responses" to grazing may only partially overlap with functional groups based on species "effects" on C and nutrient cycling. PMID:17242908

  17. The light: nutrient ratio in lakes: the balance of energy and materials affects ecosystem structure and process.

    PubMed

    Sterner, R W; Elser, J J; Fee, E J; Guildford, S J; Chrzanowski, T H

    1997-12-01

    The amounts of solar energy and materials are two of the chief factors determining ecosystem structure and process. Here, we examine the relative balance of light and phosphorus in a set of freshwater pelagic ecosystems. We calculated a ratio of light: phosphorus by putting mixed-layer mean light in the numerator and total P concentration in the denominator. This light: phosphorus ratio was a good predictor of the C:P ratio of particulate matter (seston), with a positive correlation demonstrated between these two ratios. We argue that the balance between light and nutrients controls "nutrient use efficiency" at the base of the food web in lakes. Thus, when light energy is high relative to nutrient availability, the base of the food web is carbon rich and phosphorus poor. In the opposite case, where light is relatively less available compared to nutrients, the base of the food web is relatively P rich. The significance of this relationship lies in the fact that the composition of sestonic material is known to influence a large number of ecosystem processes such as secondary production, nutrient cycling, and (we hypothesize) the relative strength of microbial versus grazing processes. Using the central result of increased C:P ratio with an increased light: phosphorus ratio, we make specific predictions of how ecosystem structure and process should vary with light and nutrient balance. Among these predictions, we suggest that lake ecosystems with low light: phosphorus ratios should have several trophic levels simultaneously carbon or energy limited, while ecosystems with high light: phosphorus ratios should have several trophic levels simultaneously limited by phosphorus. Our results provide an alternative perspective to the question of what determines nutrient use efficiency in ecosystems.

  18. Dietary fiber for dogs: III. Effects of beet pulp and oat fiber additions to dog diets on nutrient intake, digestibility, metabolizable energy, and digesta mean retention time.

    PubMed

    Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Corbin, J E; Hamilton, A K; Bauer, L L; Titgemeyer, E C; Hirakawa, D A

    1992-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine whether alkaline hydrogen peroxide-treated oat hulls (termed oat fiber; OF) are nutritionally efficacious as a source of dietary fiber in meat-based dog foods. Thirty female English Pointers were assigned in a completely randomized design to isonitrogenous diets. Treatments were 1) control diet, 2) 7.5% added beet pulp (BP), and 3) 2.5, 4) 5.0, and 5) 7.5% added OF. Inclusion of 7.5% BP increased (P less than .05) DM intake and decreased (P less than .05) digestibility of DM and OM compared with the control. Dry matter intake increased (P less than .05) with increasing level of OF and digestibility of DM, OM, and total dietary fiber (TDF) decreased (P less than .05). Digestibility of DM, OM, and TDF were higher for dogs fed the 7.5% BP than for those fed the 7.5% OF treatment. Digestible energy, expressed as a percentage of GE, was greater for the control treatment than for the 7.5% BP treatment. A linear decrease in DE (percentage of GE) was noted as the concentration of OF increased, and the DE value (percentage of GE) for the 7.5% BP treatment was greater (P less than .05) than that for the 7.5% OF treatment. A linear decrease (P less than .05) was noted in ME, expressed as a percentage of GE, as the level of OF increased. Frequency of defecation and mean retention time were unaffected (P greater than .05) by treatment. Oat fiber was an effective substitute for BP in dog diets.

  19. High-level hemicellulosic arabinose predominately affects lignocellulose crystallinity for genetically enhancing both plant lodging resistance and biomass enzymatic digestibility in rice mutants.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengcheng; Zhang, Mingliang; Guo, Kai; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Ran; Feng, Yongqing; Yi, Xiaoyan; Zou, Weihua; Wang, Lingqiang; Wu, Changyin; Tian, Jinshan; Lu, Tiegang; Xie, Guosheng; Peng, Liangcai

    2015-05-01

    Rice is a major food crop with enormous biomass residue for biofuels. As plant cell wall recalcitrance basically decides a costly biomass process, genetic modification of plant cell walls has been regarded as a promising solution. However, due to structural complexity and functional diversity of plant cell walls, it becomes essential to identify the key factors of cell wall modifications that could not much alter plant growth, but cause an enhancement in biomass enzymatic digestibility. To address this issue, we performed systems biology analyses of a total of 36 distinct cell wall mutants of rice. As a result, cellulose crystallinity (CrI) was examined to be the key factor that negatively determines either the biomass enzymatic saccharification upon various chemical pretreatments or the plant lodging resistance, an integrated agronomic trait in plant growth and grain production. Notably, hemicellulosic arabinose (Ara) was detected to be the major factor that negatively affects cellulose CrI probably through its interlinking with β-1,4-glucans. In addition, lignin and G monomer also exhibited the positive impact on biomass digestion and lodging resistance. Further characterization of two elite mutants, Osfc17 and Osfc30, showing normal plant growth and high biomass enzymatic digestion in situ and in vitro, revealed the multiple GH9B candidate genes for reducing cellulose CrI and XAT genes for increasing hemicellulosic Ara level. Hence, the results have suggested the potential cell wall modifications for enhancing both biomass enzymatic digestibility and plant lodging resistance by synchronically overexpressing GH9B and XAT genes in rice.

  20. The effects of weed-crop competition on nutrient uptake as affected by crop rotation and fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Mohammaddoust-E-Chamanabad, Hamid Reza; Asghari, Ali; Tulikov, Aleksander Mikhailovic

    2007-11-15

    A field study at the Agricultural University of Timiriazev, Moscow, was conducted to determine the effect of crop rotation and Long-term fertilizer application on differences in the competitive ability of spring barley and weeds to nutrient uptake in 2004 and 2005. Spring barley was cultivated in continuous and in crop rotation with winter rye, potato, clover, flax and fallow, with and without NPK application since 1912. Spring barley, especially in no fertilizer plots grown in crop rotation has greater dry mass than spring barley grown in continuous. While dry weed mass markedly decreased in crop rotation. Decrease dry weeds mass was greater when NPK had applied. The statistical analyses show that when spring barley grew in competition with weeds in the no fertilizer plots, crop rotation significantly increased nutrient content in spring barley, but when fertilizer applied the content of N, P2O5 and K2O in barley did not change. Lowest weeds nutrient content observed where soil fertility was increased by crop rotation and NPK application. Crop rotation significantly increased total nutrient uptake of soils by spring barley, but decreased total nutrient uptake by weeds. PMID:19090292

  1. The effects of weed-crop competition on nutrient uptake as affected by crop rotation and fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Mohammaddoust-E-Chamanabad, Hamid Reza; Asghari, Ali; Tulikov, Aleksander Mikhailovic

    2007-11-15

    A field study at the Agricultural University of Timiriazev, Moscow, was conducted to determine the effect of crop rotation and Long-term fertilizer application on differences in the competitive ability of spring barley and weeds to nutrient uptake in 2004 and 2005. Spring barley was cultivated in continuous and in crop rotation with winter rye, potato, clover, flax and