Tipton, Kyle A; Coleman, James P; Pesci, Everett C
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that can cause disease in varied sites within the human body and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in those afflicted with cystic fibrosis. P. aeruginosa is able to coordinate group behaviors, such as virulence factor production, through the process of cell-to-cell signaling. There are three intercellular signaling systems employed by P. aeruginosa, and one of these systems utilizes the small molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS]). PQS is required for virulence in multiple infection models and has been found in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients colonized by P. aeruginosa. In this study, we have identified an RpiR family transcriptional regulator, QapR, which is an autoregulatory repressor. We found that mutation of qapR caused overexpression of the qapR operon. We characterized the qapR operon to show that it contains genes qapR, PA5507, PA5508, and PA5509 and that QapR directly controls the transcription of these genes in a negative manner. We also show that derepression of this operon greatly reduces PQS concentration in P. aeruginosa. Our results suggest that qapR affects PQS concentration by repressing an enzymatic pathway that acts on PQS or a PQS precursor to lower the PQS concentration. We believe that this operon comprises a novel mechanism to regulate PQS concentration in P. aeruginosa.
Tipton, Kyle A.; Coleman, James P.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that can cause disease in varied sites within the human body and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in those afflicted with cystic fibrosis. P. aeruginosa is able to coordinate group behaviors, such as virulence factor production, through the process of cell-to-cell signaling. There are three intercellular signaling systems employed by P. aeruginosa, and one of these systems utilizes the small molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS]). PQS is required for virulence in multiple infection models and has been found in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients colonized by P. aeruginosa. In this study, we have identified an RpiR family transcriptional regulator, QapR, which is an autoregulatory repressor. We found that mutation of qapR caused overexpression of the qapR operon. We characterized the qapR operon to show that it contains genes qapR, PA5507, PA5508, and PA5509 and that QapR directly controls the transcription of these genes in a negative manner. We also show that derepression of this operon greatly reduces PQS concentration in P. aeruginosa. Our results suggest that qapR affects PQS concentration by repressing an enzymatic pathway that acts on PQS or a PQS precursor to lower the PQS concentration. We believe that this operon comprises a novel mechanism to regulate PQS concentration in P. aeruginosa. PMID:23708133
Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian
The assessment of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) by means of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule has received a remarkable popularity in the social sciences. Using a meta-analytic tool--namely, reliability generalization (RG)--population reliability scores of both scales have been investigated on the basis of a random…
... Employment and Training Administration Yale Industrial Trucks-PGH, Inc. Monroeville, PA; Notice of Negative... requested administrative reconsideration of the Department's negative determination regarding eligibility to... negative determination of the TAA petition filed on behalf of workers at Yale Industrial Trucks-PGH,...
Ebesutani, Chad; Smith, Ashley; Bernstein, Adam; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Nakamura, Brad
The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children (PANAS-C) is a 27-item youth-report measure of positive affectivity and negative affectivity. Using 2 large school-age youth samples (clinic-referred sample: N = 662; school-based sample: N = 911), in the present study, we thoroughly examined the structure of the PANAS-C NA and PA scales and…
... Employment and Training Administration R.R. Donnelley, Inc., Bloomsburg, PA; Notice of Negative Determination... Regarding Application for Reconsideration for workers and former workers of R.R. Donnelley, Inc., Bloomsburg... assistance for workers and former workers of R.R. Donnelley, Inc., Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania. Accordingly,...
Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis
Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time…
Shepherd, Daniel; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Heikkilä, Kauko; Dirks, Kim N.; Hautus, Michael J.; Welch, David; McBride, David
Some studies indicate that noise sensitivity is explained by negative affect, a dispositional tendency to negatively evaluate situations and the self. Individuals high in such traits may report a greater sensitivity to other sensory stimuli, such as smell, bright light and pain. However, research investigating the relationship between noise sensitivity and sensitivity to stimuli associated with other sensory modalities has not always supported the notion of a common underlying trait, such as negative affect, driving them. Additionally, other explanations of noise sensitivity based on cognitive processes have existed in the clinical literature for over 50 years. Here, we report on secondary analyses of pre-existing laboratory (n = 74) and epidemiological (n = 1005) data focusing on the relationship between noise sensitivity to and annoyance with a variety of olfactory-related stimuli. In the first study a correlational design examined the relationships between noise sensitivity, noise annoyance, and perceptual ratings of 16 odors. The second study sought differences between mean noise and air pollution annoyance scores across noise sensitivity categories. Results from both analyses failed to support the notion that, by itself, negative affectivity explains sensitivity to noise. PMID:25993104
Carmody, Timothy P; Vieten, Cassandra; Astin, John A
This article describes recent theoretical developments and empirical findings regarding the role of negative affect (NA) and emotion regulation in nicotine dependence and smoking cessation. It begins with a review of affect-based models of addiction that address conditioning, affect motivational, and neurobiological mechanisms and then describes the role of NA and emotion regulation in the initiation and maintenance of cigarette smoking. Next, the role of emotion regulation, coping skill deficits, depression, and anxiety sensitivity in explaining the relationship between NA and smoking relapse are discussed. We then review recent models of affect regulation, including emotional intelligence, reappraisal and suppression, and emotional acceptance, and describe implications for substance abuse and smoking cessation interventions. Finally, we point out the need for further investigations of the moderating role of individual differences in response to NA in the maintenance of nicotine dependence, and controlled randomized trials testing the efficacy of acceptance-based interventions in facilitating smoking cessation and relapse prevention.
Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C; Burns, Lawrence R; Kohlmann, Carl-Walter; Hock, Michael
This article proposes the differentiation of Joy, Interest, and Activation in the Positive Affect (PA) scale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; D. Watson, L. A. Clark, & A. Tellegen, 1988). Study 1 analyzed the dynamic course of PA before, during, and after an exam and established the differentiation of the three facets. Study 2 used a multistate-multitrait analysis to confirm this structure. Studies 3-5 used success-failure experiences, speaking tasks, and feedback of exam results to further examine PA facets in affect-arousing settings. All studies provide convincing evidence for the benefit of differentiating three facets of PA in the PANAS: Joy, Interest, and Activation do have distinct and sometimes even opposite courses that make their separation meaningful and rewarding.
Laurent, Jeff; Joiner, Thomas E; Catanzaro, Salvatore J
The Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) and the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C) seem ideal measures for school mental health screenings, because they are theory based, psychometrically sound, and brief. This study provides descriptive information and preliminary cutoff scores in an effort to increase the practical utility of the measures. Scores on the PANAS-C Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA) scales and the PH-C were compared for a general sample of schoolchildren (n = 226), a group of students referred for special education services (n = 83), and youths on an inpatient psychiatric unit (n = 37). Expected patterns of scores emerged for the general school and referred school samples, although only scores on the PH-C were statistically significantly different. Differences in scores between the general school and inpatient samples were significant for all 3 scales. Differences in scores between the referred school and inpatient samples were significant for the NA scale and the PH-C but not for the PA scale. In addition, we used traditional self-report measures to form groups of normal, anxious, depressed, and mixed anxious and depressed youths. Again, predicted general patterns of PA, NA and PH scores were supported, although statistical differences were not always evident. In particular, scores on the PH-C for the anxious and depressed groups were inconsistent with predictions. Possible reasons related to sample and scale issues are discussed. Finally, preliminary cutoff scores were proposed for the PANAS-C scales and the PH-C.
Leventhal, Adam M; Greenberg, Jodie B; Trujillo, Michael A; Ameringer, Katherine J; Lisha, Nadra E; Pang, Raina D; Monterosso, John
Elucidating interrelations between prior affective experience, current affective state, and acute urge to smoke could inform affective models of addiction motivation and smoking cessation treatment development. This study tested the hypothesis that prior levels of positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect predict current smoking urge via a mediational pathway involving current state affect. We also explored if tobacco deprivation moderated affect-urge relations and compared the effects of PA and NA on smoking urge to one another. At a baseline session, smokers reported affect experienced over the preceding few weeks. At a subsequent experimental session, participants were randomly assigned to 12-hr tobacco deprived (n = 51) or nondeprived (n = 69) conditions and reported state affect and current urge. Results revealed a mediational pathway whereby prior NA reported at baseline predicted state NA at the experimental session, which in turn predicted current urge. This mediational pathway was found primarily for an urge subtype indicative of urgent need to smoke and desire to smoke for NA relief, was stronger in the deprived (vs. nondeprived) condition, and remained significant after controlling for PA. Prior PA and current state PA were inversely associated with current urge; however, these associations were eliminated after controlling for NA. These results cohere with negative reinforcement models of addiction and with prior research and suggest that: (a) NA plays a stronger role in smoking motivation than PA; (b) state affect is an important mechanism linking prior affective experience to current urge; and (c) affect management interventions may attenuate smoking urge in individuals with a history of affective disturbance.
Hajcak, G.; McDonald, N.; Simons, R.F.
The error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and error positivity (Pe) have been associated with error detection and response monitoring. More recently, heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) have also been shown to be sensitive to the internal detection of errors. An enhanced ERN has consistently been observed in anxious subjects and there is some…
Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Majeskie, Matthew R.; Fiore, Michael C.
This article offers a reformulation of the negative reinforcement model of drug addiction and proposes that the escape and avoidance of negative affect is the prepotent motive for addictive drug use. The authors posit that negative affect is the motivational core of the withdrawal syndrome and argue that, through repeated cycles of drug use and…
Olino, Thomas M.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Gentzler, Amy L.; Shaw, Daniel S.
Background: Although low positive affect (PA) and high negative affect (NA) have been posited to predispose to depressive disorders, little is known about the developmental trajectories of these affects in children at familial risk for mood disorders. Methods: We examined 202 offspring of mothers who had a history of juvenile-onset unipolar…
Saxholm, S.; Otal, P.; AltintaS, A.; Bermanec, L. G.; Durgut, Y.; Hanrahan, R.; Kocas, I.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Pražák, D.; Sandu, I.; Åetina, J.; Spohr, I.; Steindl, D.; Tammik, K.; Testa, N.
A comparison in the negative gauge pressure range was arranged in the period 2011 - 2012. A total of 14 laboratories participated in this comparison: BEV (Austria), CMI (Czech Republic), DANIAmet-FORCE (Denmark), EIM (Greece), HMI/FSB-LPM (Croatia), INM (Romania), IPQ (Portugal), LNE (France), MCCAA (Malta), METROSERT (Estonia), MIKES (Finland), MIRS/IMT/LMT (Slovenia), NSAI (Ireland) and UME (Turkey). The project was divided into two loops: Loop1, piloted by MIKES, and Loop2, piloted by LNE. The results of the two loops are reported separately: Loop1 results are presented in this paper. The transfer standard was Beamex MC5 no. 25516865 with internal pressure module INT1C, resolution 0.01 hPa. The nominal pressure range of the INT1C is -1000 hPa to +1000 hPa. The nominal pressure points for the comparison were 0 hPa, -200 hPa, -400 hPa, -600 hPa, -800 hPa and -950 hPa. The reference values and their uncertainties as well as the difference uncertainty between the laboratory results and the reference values were determined from the measurement data by Monte Carlo simulations. Stability uncertainty of the transfer standard was included in the final difference uncertainty. Degrees of equivalences and mutual equivalences between the laboratories were calculated. Each laboratory reported results for all twelve measurement points, which means that there were 168 reported values in total. Some 163 of the 168 values (97 %) agree with the reference values within the expanded uncertainties, with a coverage factor k = 2. Among the laboratories, four different methods were used to determine negative gauge pressure. It is concluded that special attention must be paid to the measurements and methods when measuring negative gauge pressures. There might be a need for a technical guide or a workshop that provides information about details and practices related to the measurements of negative gauge pressure, as well as differences between the different methods. The comparison is
Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Angrilli, Alessandro; Calogero, Antonio; Harper, Jeremy; Olson, Lacy A.; Bernat, Edward
Studies that investigate the differences between high and low psychopathic persons in brain activity during emotional facial expression processing are rare and commonly focus on males. The current study assessed whether previously reported behavioral differences would be reflected in differential brain activity in a sample of female offenders. The participants included 23 female forensic inpatients with high and low scores on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). ERPs were recorded during presentation of emotional facial expressions (i.e., fear, angry, and happy). Results revealed no differences in N170, P3 and late positive potential components between groups, but a significant difference in N2 only for angry and fear facial expressions, with high psychopathic participants showing lower reactivity. This N2 effect was found to be related to Factor 2 but not Factor 1 of the PCL-R. In time frequency analysis, theta activity underlying N2 best reflected these differences. Findings in this female sample are consistent with a cortical deficit in processing facial expression of negative emotions in psychopathic men. In addition, differences in processing seem to appear relatively early. PMID:23896396
Sun, Jiarui; Cao, Yinan; Zhang, Xinchen; Zhao, Qiling; Bao, Endong; Lv, Yingjun
Several studies have found that melamine causes damage to the testes, epididymis and sperm. However, few studies have investigated the effect of melamine on the synthesis of testosterone, which plays an import role in testicular development and spermatogenesis. In present study, mice were orally administrated with 2, 10 or 50mg/kg of melamine for 28days. In these groups, various abnormalities were observed including disruption of the seminiferous tubule structure, an increased necrotic germ cells and sperm abnormalities, and a reduced sperm count. Melamine exposure also decreased the level of serum testosterone and levels of testicular StAR, P450scc and 17β-HSD. In addition, melamine exposure reduced the number of Leydig cells. Taken together, these results indicate that melamine exposure reduces the level of testosterone through down-regulation of StAR and testosterone synthetic enzyme expression and also a decreased number of Leydig cells. This may further affect testicular development and lead to sperm damage.
Busseri, Michael; Sadava, Stanley; DeCourville, Nancy
The primary components of subjective well-being (SWB) include life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). There is little consensus, however, concerning how these components form a model of SWB. In this paper, six longitudinal studies varying in demographic characteristics, length of time between assessment periods,…
Bouckenooghe, Dave; Raja, Usman; Butt, Arif Nazir
Capturing data from employee-supervisor dyads (N = 321) from eight organizations in Pakistan, including human service organizations, an electronics assembly plant, a packaging material manufacturing company, and a small food processing plant, we used moderated regression analysis to examine whether the relationships between trait affect (positive affectivity [PA] and negative affectivity [NA]) and two key work outcome variables (job performance and turnover) are contingent upon the level of job satisfaction. We applied the Trait Activation Theory to explain the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between affect and performance and between affect and turnover. Overall, the data supported our hypotheses. Positive and negative affectivity influenced performance and the intention to quit, and job satisfaction moderated these relationships. We discuss in detail the results of these findings and their implications for research and practice.
Cahir, Caitriona; Thomas, Kevin
Although affect is a fundamental element of decision making, there are different theoretical accounts and conflicting empirical evidence of its influence. This experiment was done to begin a more coherent account of the influence of affect by using standardised images to induce affect and a betting task to measure decision making. Eighty-five participants were assigned to a positive, a negative, or a neutral affect condition before making decisions on two hypothetical horse races. Analysis indicated that those in the positive and negative conditions made lower-risk decisions than those in the neutral condition; however, this did not differ between the races, suggesting that task familiarity did not moderate the influence of affect. Contrary to previous research, these results indicate that positive and negative affect do not necessarily exert symmetrical effects on decision making. Implications for the major accounts of the influence of affect on decision making are discussed in relation to the findings.
Diener, E; Larsen, R J; Levine, S; Emmons, R A
Research on emotions and several happiness scales suggest that positive and negative affect are strongly inversely correlated. However, work on subjective well-being indicates that over time, positive and negative affect are independent across persons. In order to reconcile this inconsistency, two dimensions are proposed for personal affective structure: the frequency of positive versus negative affect and the intensity of affect. Subjects in three studies completed daily and momentary reports on their moods. In support of the intensity dimension, the correlations between positive and negative intensity were strong and positive in all three studies. The intensities of specific emotions across persons were also highly correlated. Across the three studies the frequency and intensity of affect varied independently. Although average levels of positive and negative affect showed low correlations, this relation became strongly inverse when intensity was partialed out. Thus the intensity dimension helps explain the relative independence of positive and negative affect. In addition, emotional intensity is offered as a new personality dimension that manifests interesting characteristics.
Ebesutani, Chad; Okamura, Kelsie; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Chorpita, Bruce F.
The current study was the 1st to examine the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children-Parent Version (PANAS-C-P) using a large school-based sample of children and adolescents ages 8 to 18 (N = 606). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor (correlated) model of positive affect (PA) and negative…
Zack, Martin; Poulos, Constantine X; Fragopoulos, Fofo; Woodford, Tracy M; MacLeod, Colin M
Negative affect is consistently associated with pathological aspects of alcohol use. Priming of motivation for alcohol by negative affect cues may contribute to this relationship. This study sought to determine whether: (a) exposure to negative affect words primes actual drinking behavior; (b) this effect is related to severity of alcohol problems; and (c) these effects are moderated by gender and anxiety sensitivity. Prime words (negative, positive, neutral) were administered using a synonym generation task. Primed drinking behavior was measured in a taste-test procedure, using placebo beer. Drinking scores were significantly greater in the negative affect condition than in the other two conditions, which did not differ from each other. Problem drinking severity directly predicted priming effects of negative affect words but was unrelated to drinking in the other two word prime conditions. Anxiety sensitivity was unrelated to drinking in any condition. Even unobtrusive exposure to negative affect cues can prime drinking behavior in young drinkers, and this effect is tied to the severity of alcohol problems.
Ebesutani, Chad; Smith, Ashley; Bernstein, Adam; Chorpita, Bruce F; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Nakamura, Brad
The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children (PANAS-C) is a 27-item youth-report measure of positive affectivity and negative affectivity. Using 2 large school-age youth samples (clinic-referred sample: N = 662; school-based sample: N = 911), in the present study, we thoroughly examined the structure of the PANAS-C NA and PA scales and fit a bifactor model to the PANAS-C NA items. Our exploratory factor analytic results demonstrated that negative affectivity is comprised of 2 main components-NA: Fear and NA: Distress-specifically among older youth. A bifactor model also evidenced the best model fit relative to a unidimensional and second-order factor structure of the PANAS-C NA items. The NA: Fear group factor evidenced significant correspondence with external criterion measures of anxiety. However, the original PANAS-C NA scale evidenced equal (and in some cases greater) correspondence with criterion measures of anxiety. We thus recommend continued usage and interpretation of the full PANAS-C NA scale despite the identification of the fear and distress group factors underlying general negative affectivity. The identification of these fear and distress group factors nonetheless suggest that negative affectivity may be comprised largely of a fear and distress component among older youth. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to better understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood development and informing the development of future treatments of negative emotions.
Payne, Tabitha W; Schnapp, Michael A
The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding of the range of negative affect associated with reported problems with everyday functions and activities, measured by the cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ). Evidence from previous research indicates that individuals meeting criteria for mood disorders, such as major depression or seasonal affective disorder, experience cognitive deficits in memory and attention that can lead to problems with everyday activities reported in the CFQ. The Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) was used to assess potential correlations with a wider range of negative emotions. Findings for a sample of 129 college students revealed that negative affective experiences were significantly correlated with failures of memory and attention on the CFQ (fear = .41, hostility = .38, sadness = .28, and guilt = .43). Conversely, positive affect was negatively correlated with distractibility (r = -.21). Additional affective scales on the PANAS (e.g., shyness and fatigue) were also associated with higher reports of cognitive failures. The results provide converging evidence of a relationship between negative affective experiences and reported frequency of problems on the cognitive failures questionnaire.
Feldner, Matthew T; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Lejuez, C W
The present study examined the relations among a depressive ruminative response style, a general propensity to experience negative affectivity, and negative affect induced by a paced serial auditory addition task (PASAT). Ninety nonclinical individuals completed a computerized version of the PASAT, which elicits a generalized negative affect response [Lejuez, C. W., Kahler, C. W., & Brown, R. A. (2003). A modified computer version of the paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT) as a laboratory-based stressor: Implications for behavioral assessment. Behavior Therapist, 26, 290-292]. As hypothesized, there was a moderate correlation between depressive rumination and a propensity to experience negative affect, as indexed both by a significant association with a negative affect personality factor and the prediction of negative affect elicited during the provocation. Findings also suggested that dispositional negative affectivity moderated the effects of a depressive ruminative response style on the valence but not arousal dimensions of emotional responding to the challenge. These findings are discussed in terms of improving our understanding of rumination and its potential role in emotional vulnerability processes.
Arnold, E H; O'Leary, S G
The effect of children's negative affect on maternal discipline behavior was evaluated in a sample of 39 children (19 to 41 months old) and their mothers. Mothers were randomly assigned to view a videotape that contained either a high level of child negative affect (NA) or no negative affect (NNA). After viewing the videotape, mothers were observed interacting with their own children in three tasks designed to elicit child misbehavior. Mothers in the NA condition displayed significantly greater overreactivity to child misbehavior; no significant difference in laxness was observed between the two groups of mothers. Children of mothers in the NA condition tended to display more misbehavior during the last two tasks of the interaction. Maternal negative affect received mixed support as one possible mediator of this effect.
Bisby, James A; Burgess, Neil
The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine the effects of emotion on memory for items and their associations. By presenting neutral and negative items with background contexts, Experiment 1 demonstrated that item memory was facilitated by emotional affect, whereas memory for an associated context was reduced. In Experiment 2, arousal was manipulated independently of the memoranda, by a threat of shock, whereby encoding trials occurred under conditions of threat or safety. Memory for context was equally impaired by the presence of negative affect, whether induced by threat of shock or a negative item, relative to retrieval of the context of a neutral item in safety. In Experiment 3, participants were presented with neutral and negative items as paired associates, including all combinations of neutral and negative items. The results showed both above effects: compared to a neutral item, memory for the associate of a negative item (a second item here, context in Experiments 1 and 2) is impaired, whereas retrieval of the item itself is enhanced. Our findings suggest that negative affect impairs associative memory while recognition of a negative item is enhanced. They support dual-processing models in which negative affect or stress impairs hippocampal-dependent associative memory while the storage of negative sensory/perceptual representations is spared or even strengthened.
Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz
The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for this switch in operating mode. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by surprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low surprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect) and frontalis (cultural surprise expression) activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes. PMID:25762956
Ebesutani, Chad; Okamura, Kelsie; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Chorpita, Bruce F
The current study was the 1st to examine the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children-Parent Version (PANAS-C-P) using a large school-based sample of children and adolescents ages 8 to 18 (N = 606). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor (correlated) model of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). The PANAS-C-P scale scores also demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent and divergent validity. The PANAS-C-P PA and NA scale scores also related to measures of anxiety and depression in a manner consistent with the tripartite model. Scale means and standard deviations were reported by grade and sex to provide normative data for the PANAS-C-P scales. Results from the present study provide initial support for the PANAS-C-P as a parent-reported perspective of youth PA and NA among school-based youths.
Flett, Gordon L.; Blankstein, Kirk R.; Hewitt, Paul L.
The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect…
Perkins, Kenneth A.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Conklin, Cynthia A.; Sayette, Michael A.; Giedgowd, Grace E.
Background Smoking acutely relieves negative affect (NA) due to smoking abstinence but may not relieve NA from other sources, such as stressors. Methods Dependent smokers (N=104) randomly assigned to one of three smoking conditions (nicotine or denic cigarettes, or no smoking) completed four negative mood induction procedures (one per session): 1) overnight smoking abstinence, 2) challenging computer task, 3) public speech preparation, and 4) watching negative mood slides. A fifth session involved a neutral mood control. The two smoking groups took 4 puffs on their assigned cigarette, and then smoked those same cigarettes ad libitum during continued mood induction. All subjects rated their level of NA and positive affect (PA) on several measures (Mood Form, PANAS, Stress-Arousal Checklist, and STAI-state). They also rated craving and withdrawal. Results NA relief from smoking depended on the NA source (i.e. mood induction procedure) and the affect measure. Smoking robustly relieved NA due to abstinence on all 4 measures, but only modestly relieved NA due to the other sources and typically on only some measures. Smoking’s effects on PA and withdrawal were similar to effects on NA, but relief of craving depended less on NA source. Smoking reinforcement only partly matched the pattern of NA relief. Few responses differed between the nicotine and denic smoking groups. Conclusions Acute NA relief from smoking depends on the situation and the affect measure used but may not depend on nicotine intake. These results challenge the common assumption that smoking, and nicotine in particular, broadly alleviates NA. PMID:20132927
Krajícek, Zdenek; Bergoglio, Mercede; Pražák, Dominik; Pasqualin, Stefano
This report describes a EURAMET bilateral supplementary comparison between Czech CMI and Italian INRIM in low negative gauge pressure in gas (nitrogen), denoted as EURAMET.M.P-S12. The digital non-rotating pressure balance FPG8601 manufactured by Fluke/DH-Instruments, USA is normally used for gauge and absolute pressures in the range from 1 Pa to 15 kPa, but with some modifications it can be used also for the negative gauge pressures in the same range. During the preparation of the visit of INRIM at CMI for the last comparison within the framework of EURAMET.M.P-K4.2010, it was agreed to also perform an additional comparison in the range from 300 Pa to 15 kPa of negative gauge pressure. The measurements were performed in October 2012. Both institutes successfully proved their equivalence in all the tested points in the range from 300 Pa to 15 kPa of negative gauge pressure in a comparison that had, so far, been unique. . Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).
Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Hooe, Eric S
The tripartite model of anxiety and depression has been studied with adults; however, support is still emerging with children concerning measurement and relations between positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect and psychopathology. In this longitudinal study of 270 4th- to 11th-grade children (mean age = 12.9 years, SD = 2.23). confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor orthogonal model of children's self-reported affect and revealed that the concurrent relations of NA and PA to anxiety and depression symptoms were consistent with the tripartite model. Structural equation modeling demonstrated moderate cross-time stability of trait PA and NA, consistent with a temperament view of these factors, as well as partial support for the role of NA and PA in the development of anxiety and depression symptoms in children.
Morgan, Brent; D'Mello, Sidney K
Considerable research has investigated how affect influences performance on a single task; however, little is known about the role of affect in complex multitasking environments. In this paper, 178 participants multitasked in a synthetic work environment (SYNWORK) consisting of memory, visual monitoring, auditory monitoring, and math tasks. Participants multitasked for a 3-min baseline phase (MT1), following which they were randomly assigned to watch one of three affect-induction videos: positive, neutral, or negative. Participants then resumed multitasking for two additional critical phases (MT2, MT3; 3min each). In MT2, performance of the positive and neutral conditions was statistically equivalent and higher than the negative condition. In MT3, the positive condition performed better than the negative condition, with the neutral condition not significantly different from the other two. The differences in overall multitasking scores were largely driven by errors in the Math task (the most cognitively demanding task) in MT2 and the Memory task in MT3. These findings have implications for how positive and negative affective states influence processing in a cognitively demanding multitasking environment.
Shiffman, Saul; Waters, Andrew J.
Relapse is a central problem in smoking treatment. Data collected at the time of relapse episodes indicate that stress and negative affect (NA) promote relapse, but retrospective data are potentially biased. The authors performed a prospective analysis of stress and NA prior to initial lapses in smokers (N = 215). Day-to-day changes in stress…
Scott, D; Ponsoda, V
All previous reports on the phenomenon of flashbulb memories relate to hearing of shocking (or "bad") news: in other words, that of negative affect. This study represents the first attempt to investigate whether those criteria used to define flashbulb memories would similarly apply to events of similar strength but of positive affect. 70 questionnaires were administered relating to 20 events over a 10-yr. period. No significant differences were found on the cardinal features of flasbhulb memories for events of negative versus positive affect. This suggests that an hitherto untapped research area may be explored to clarify controversial issues within this construct such as whether a special mechanism exists in the formation of flashbulb memories.
Green, Michelle; Decourville, Nancy; Sadava, Stanley
Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which positive affect, negative affect, perceived stress, and social support were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between forgiveness and mental and physical health. Six hundred and twenty-three undergraduates completed a battery of self-report measures. Results of the analyses indicated that the forgiveness-health relation was mediated by positive affect, negative affect, stress, and the interrelationship between negative affect and stress. There was limited support for social support and the interrelationship between positive affect and social support as mediators. The results suggested that the relationship between forgiveness and health is mediated rather than direct. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Ruiz, R Jeanne; Trzeciakowski, Jerome; Moore, Tiffany; Ayers, Kimberly S; Pickler, Rita H
Chronic stress may accelerate cellular aging. Telomeres, protective "caps" at the end of chromosomes, modulate cellular aging and may be good biomarkers for the effects of chronic stress, including that associated with acculturation. The purpose of this analysis was to examine telomere length (TL) in acculturating Hispanic Mexican American women and to determine the associations among TL, acculturation, and psychological factors. As part of a larger cross-sectional study of 516 pregnant Hispanic Mexican American women, we analyzed DNA in blood samples (N = 56) collected at 22-24 weeks gestation for TL as an exploratory measure using monochrome multiplex quantitative telomere polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We measured acculturation with the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, depression with the Beck Depression Inventory, discrimination with the Experiences of Discrimination Scale, and stress with the Perceived Stress Scale. TL was negatively moderately correlated with two variables of acculturation: Anglo orientation and greater acculturation-level scores. We combined these scores for a latent variable, acculturation, and we combined depression, stress, and discrimination scores in another latent variable, "negative affectivity." Acculturation and negative affectivity were bidirectionally correlated. Acculturation significantly negatively predicted TL. Using structural equation modeling, we found the model had an excellent fit with the root mean square error of approximation estimate = .0001, comparative fit index = 1.0, Tucker-Lewis index = 1.0, and standardized root mean square residual = .05. The negative effects of acculturation on the health of Hispanic women have been previously demonstrated. Findings from this analysis suggest a link between acculturation and TL, which may indicate accelerated cellular aging associated with overall poor health outcomes.
Ford, Patricia A.; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W.; Youngberg, Wes; Tonstad, Serena
Objective To examine associations between consumption of foods typical of Mediterranean versus Western diets with positive and negative affect. Nutrients influence mental states yet few studies have examined whether foods protective or deleterious for cardiovascular disease affect mood. Methods Participants were 9255 Adventist church attendees in North America who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2002–6. Scores for affect were obtained from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule questionnaire in 2006–7. Multiple linear regression models controlled for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, education, sleep, sleep squared (to account for high or low amounts), exercise, total caloric intake, alcohol and time between the questionnaires. Results Intake of vegetables (β=0.124 [95% CI 0.101, 0.147]), fruit (β=0.066 [95% CI 0.046, 0.085]), olive oil (β=0.070 [95% CI 0.029, 0.111]), nuts (β=0.054 [95% CI 0.026, 0.082]), and legumes (β=0.055 [95% CI 0.032, 0.077]) were associated with positive affect while sweets/desserts (β=−0.066 [95% CI −0.086, −0.046]), soda (β=−0.025 [95% CI −0.037, −0.013]) and fast food frequency (β=−0.046 [95% CI −0.062, −0.030]) were inversely associated with positive affect. Intake of sweets/desserts (β=0.058 [95% CI 0.037, 0.078]) and fast food frequency (β=0.052 [95% CI 0.036, 0.068]) were associated with negative affect while intake of vegetables (β=−0.076 [95% CI −0.099, −0.052]), fruit (β=−0.033 [95% CI −0.053, −0.014]) and nuts (β=−0.088 [95% CI −0.116, −0.060]) were inversely associated with negative affect. Gender interacted with red meat intake (P<.001) and fast food frequency (P<.001) such that these foods were associated with negative affect in females only. Conclusions Foods typical of Mediterranean diets were associated with positive affect as well as lower negative affect while Western foods were associated with low positive affect in general and negative affect in
Taylor, Stephan F; Demeter, Elise; Phan, K Luan; Tso, Ivy F; Welsh, Robert C
Deficits in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system have been reported in postmortem studies of schizophrenia, and therapeutic interventions in schizophrenia often involve potentiation of GABA receptors (GABAR) to augment antipsychotic therapy and treat negative affect such as anxiety. To map GABAergic mechanisms associated with processing affect, we used a benzodiazepine challenge while subjects viewed salient visual stimuli. Fourteen stable, medicated schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients and 13 healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) technique while they viewed salient emotional images. Subjects received intravenous lorazepam (LRZ; 0.01 mg/kg) or saline in a single-blinded, cross-over design (two sessions separated by 1-3 weeks). A predicted group by drug interaction was noted in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) as well as right superior frontal gyrus and left and right occipital regions, such that psychosis patients showed an increased BOLD signal to LRZ challenge, rather than the decreased signal exhibited by the comparison group. A main effect of reduced BOLD signal in bilateral occipital areas was noted across groups. Consistent with the role of the dmPFC in processing emotion, state negative affect positively correlated with the response to the LRZ challenge in the dmPFC for the patients and comparison subjects. The altered response to LRZ challenge is consistent with altered inhibition predicted by postmortem findings of altered GABAR in schizophrenia. These results also suggest that negative affect in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder is associated-directly or indirectly-with GABAergic function on a continuum with normal behavior.
Lonigan, C J; Hooe, E S; David, C F; Kistner, J A
The positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) framework that is embodied in the tripartite model of anxiety and depression has proved useful with adult populations; however, there is as yet little investigation with children concerning either the measurement of PA and NA or the relation between PA and NA and levels of adjustment. A confirmatory factor analysis was used in this study to examine the structure of self-reported affect and its relation to depressive and anxious symptoms in school children (4th to 11th grade). Results supported a 2-factor orthogonal model that was invariant across age and sex. Support for the expected pattern of relations between NA and PA with symptoms of depression and anxiety was strong for the older sample (M = 14.2 years) but weaker for the younger sample (M = 10.3 years). Results also provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for children.
Wells-Parker, Elisabeth; Mann, Robert E; Dill, Patricia L; Stoduto, Gina; Shuggi, Rania; Cross, Ginger W
This review summarizes evidence on negative affect among drinking drivers. Elevations in negative affect, including depressed mood, anxiety and hostility, have long been noted in convicted drinking drivers, and recent evidence suggests an association between negative affect and driving after drinking in the general population. Previous efforts to understand the significance of this negative affective state have ranged from suggestions that it may play a causal role in drinking driving to suggestions that it may interfere with response to treatment and remedial interventions. Recent studies have uncovered an important paradox involving negative affect among convicted drinking drivers (hereafter DUI offenders). DUI offenders with high levels of negative affect recidivated more frequently following a DUI program than did those reporting no or minimal negative affect. However, when a brief supportive motivational intervention was added to the program, offenders with high negative affect levels showed lower recidivism rates than did those with no or minimal negative affect. The review includes studies from the general literature on alcohol treatment in which the same negative affect paradox was reported. In an attempt to understand this paradox, we present a conceptual model involving well-established psychological processes, with a focus on salient discrepancy, the crucial component of cognitive dissonance. In this model, negative affect plays an important role in motivating both continued high-risk drinking as well as therapeutic change. This model suggests that links between motivational states and negative affective processes may be more complex than previously thought. Implications for intervention with DUI offenders are discussed.
Pombo, Samuel; Luísa Figueira, M; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto
Craving is thought to play an important role in alcohol use disorders. The recent inclusion of "craving" as a formal diagnostic symptom calls for further investigation of this subjective phenomenon with multiple dimensions. Considering that alcohol-dependent patients compensate negative physical/emotional states with alcohol, the aim of this study is to investigate alcohol craving and its correlation with drinking measures and affective personality dimensions. A sample of 135 alcohol-dependent patients (104 males and 31 females) was collected from a clinical setting. Subjects self-rated their cravings (Penn Alcohol Craving Scale) and the stage of change. Several personality scales were also administered. Craving was related to drinking status, abstinence time, age, and taking steps. After controlling for these conditions, psychological characteristics related to low self-concept, neuroticism, cyclothymic affective temperament, depression, and hostility were found to be predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients. Our results support craving as a component of the phenomenology of alcohol dependence and highlight the presence of unpleasant feelings as predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients without co-occurring psychiatric conditions. The predisposition to experience negative emotions may induce a stronger craving response and increase the likelihood of a first drink and a subsequent loss of control.
Peterson, Carly K; Gravens, Laura C; Harmon-Jones, Eddie
Ostracism arouses negative affect. However, little is known about variables that influence the intensity of these negative affective responses. Two studies fill this void by incorporating work on approach- and withdrawal-related emotional states and their associated cortical activations. Study 1 found that following ostracism anger related directly to relative left frontal cortical activation. Study 2 used unilateral hand contractions to manipulate frontal cortical activity prior to an ostracizing event. Right-hand contractions, compared to left-hand contractions, caused greater relative left frontal cortical activation during the hand contractions as well as ostracism. Also, right-hand contractions caused more self-reported anger in response to being ostracized. Within-condition correlations revealed patterns of associations between ostracism-induced frontal asymmetry and emotive responses to ostracism consistent with Study 1. Taken together, these results suggest that asymmetrical frontal cortical activity is related to angry responses to ostracism, with greater relative left frontal cortical activity being associated with increased anger.
Laurent, Jeff; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Catanzaro, Salvatore J.
The Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) and the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C) seem ideal measures for school mental health screenings, because they are theory based, psychometrically sound, and brief. This study provides descriptive information and preliminary cutoff scores in an effort to increase the…
Faigle, Roland; Marsh, Elisabeth B.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Urrutia, Victor C.
Background and Purpose Patients who receive intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for ischemic stroke are currently monitored in an intensive care unit (ICU) or a comparable stroke unit for at least 24 hours due to the high frequency of neurological exams and vital sign checks. The present study evaluates ICU needs in patients with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) negative MRI after IV tPA. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 209 patients who received IV tPA for acute stroke. Data on stroke risk factors, physiologic parameters, stroke severity, MRI characteristics, and final diagnosis were collected. The timing and nature of ICU interventions, if needed, was recorded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with subsequent ICU needs. Results Patients with cerebral infarct on MRI after tPA had over 9 times higher odds of requiring ICU care compared to patients with DWI negative MRI (OR 9.2, 95% CI 2.49–34.15). All DWI negative patients requiring ICU care did so by the end of tPA infusion (p = 0.006). Among patients with DWI negative MRI, need for ICU interventions was associated with higher NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (p<0.001), uncontrolled hypertension (p<0.001), seizure at onset (p = 0.002), and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p = 0.010). Conclusions Only a small number of DWI negative patients required ICU care. In patients without critical care needs by the end of thrombolysis, post-tPA MRI may be considered for triaging DWI negative patients to a less resource intense monitoring environment. PMID:26517543
Lee, Kaziya M; Coehlo, Michal; McGregor, Hadley A; Waltermire, Ryan S; Szumlinski, Karen K
Cessation from chronic alcohol abuse often produces a dysphoric state that can persist into protracted withdrawal. This dysphoric state is theorized to function as a negative reinforcer that maintains excessive alcohol consumption and/or precipitates relapse in those struggling to abstain from alcohol. However, we know relatively little regarding the impact of cessation from binge drinking on behavioral measures of negative affect and related neurobiology. Male C57BL/6J mice were given access to unsweetened 20% alcohol for 6 weeks under modified Drinking-in-the-dark procedures, followed by behavioral testing beginning either 1 or 21 days into withdrawal. Mice were administered a behavioral test battery consisting of: the elevated plus maze, light/dark box, novel object test, marble burying test, Porsolt forced swim test and sucrose preference test to assess anxiogenic and depressive signs. Egr1 immunostaining was used to quantify cellular activity within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), basolateral amygdala (BLA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and the nucleus accumbens (Acb) shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC). Compared to water controls, alcohol-drinking mice exhibited higher indices of emotionality in the majority of behavioral assays. The hyper-emotionality exhibited by binge drinking mice was apparent at both withdrawal time-points and correlated with higher Egr1+ cell counts in the CEA and BNST, compared to controls. These data show that affective symptoms emerge very early after cessation of binge drinking and persist into protracted withdrawal. A history of binge drinking is capable of producing enduring neuroadaptations within brain circuits mediating emotional arousal.
Racine, Sarah E; Keel, Pamela K; Burt, S Alexandra; Sisk, Cheryl L; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L
Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to engage in rash action in response to negative affect) has emerged as a critical personality trait contributing to individual differences in binge eating. However, studies investigating the extent to which genetic and/or environmental influences underlie the effects of negative urgency on binge eating are lacking. Moreover, it remains unclear whether negative urgency-binge eating associations are simply a result of the well-established role of negative affect in the development/maintenance of binge eating. The current study addresses these gaps by examining phenotypic and etiologic associations between negative urgency, negative affect, and dysregulated eating (i.e., binge eating, emotional eating) in a sample of 222 same-sex female twin pairs from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Negative urgency was significantly associated with both dysregulated eating symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of negative affect. Genetic factors accounted for the majority (62-77%) of this phenotypic association, although a significant proportion of this genetic covariation was due to genetic influences in common with negative affect. Nonshared environmental factors accounted for a relatively smaller (23-38%) proportion of the association, but these nonshared environmental effects were independent of negative affect. Findings suggest that the presence of emotion-based rash action, combined with high levels of negative affect, may significantly increase genetic risk for dysregulated eating.
Gasper, Karen; Danube, Cinnamon L
To determine how naturally arising affect alters judgment, we examined whether (a) affective states exert a specific, rather than a general, influence on valenced-specific judgments; (b) neutral affect is associated with increased neutral judgments, independent of positive, negative, and ambivalent affects, and whether neutral judgments are associated with behavioral disengagement; and (c) the informational value of naturally arising states may be difficult to alter via salience and relevance manipulations. The results support several conclusions: (a) Affective states exerted a judgment-specific effect-positive affect was most strongly associated with positive judgments, negative affect with negative judgments, and neutral affect with neutral judgments. (b) Neutral affect influenced judgments, taking into account positive, negative, and ambivalent affects; and neutral judgments predicted behavioral disengagement. (c) With the exception of negative affect, naturally arising affective states typically influenced judgments regardless of their salience and relevance.
Abstract Background The association of HER2 status with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) levels raises the question whether uPA/PAI-1 level carries additional clinically relevant prognostic information independently from HER2 status. The aim of our study was to compare the prognostic value of uPA/PAI-1 level, HER2 status, and traditional prognostic factors for survival in node-negative breast cancer patients. Patients and methods A retrospective analysis of 858 node-negative breast cancer patients treated in Maribor University Clinical Center, Slovenia, in the years 2000–2009 was performed. Data were obtained from patient medical records. The median follow-up time was 100 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses of disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were performed using the Cox regression and the Cox proportional hazards model. Results In univariate analysis, age, tumor size, grade, lymphovascular invasion, HER2 status and UPA/PAI-1 level were associated with DFS, and age, tumor size, grade, and uPA/PAI-1 level were associated with OS. In the multivariate model, the most important determinants of DFS were age, estrogen receptor status and uPA/PAI-1 level, and the most important factors for OS were patient age and tumor grade. The HR for death from any cause in the multivariate model was 1.98 (95% CI 0.83–4.76) for patients with high uPA and/or PAI-1 compared to patients with both values low. Conclusions uPA/PAI-1 level clearly carries an independent prognostic value regardless of HER2 status in node-negative breast cancer and could be used in addition to HER2 and other markers to guide clinical decisions in this setting. PMID:28265234
Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.
People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…
Lanteigne, Marie-Eve; Brodeur, Jacques; Jenni, Sylvie; Boivin, Guy
This study investigated the effects of partial plant resistance on the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a major pest of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and one of its parasitoids, Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Aphids were reared on susceptible (L. sativa variety Estival; S) or partially resistant (Lactuca serriola L. PI 491093; PR) lettuce, and next parasitized by A. ervi females. Fitness proxies were measured for both aphids and parasitoids. Developmental time to adult stage took longer for alate and apterous aphids (an average of 3.5 and 1.5 additional days, respectively) on PR than on S lettuce, and fecundity of alate aphids reared on PR lettuce was reduced by 37.8% relative to those reared on S lettuce. Size (tibia length) and weight of aphids reared on PR lettuce were lower than for aphids reared on S lettuce from the third and second instar onward, respectively. Parasitism of aphids reared on PR plants resulted in lower parasitoid offspring emergence (-49.9%), lower adult female (-30.3%) and male (-27.5%) weight, smaller adult female (-17.5%) and male (-11.9%) size, and lower female fecundity (37.8% fewer eggs) than when parasitoids developed from aphids reared on S plants. Our results demonstrate that partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects both the second and third trophic levels. Host plant resistance in cultivated lettuce may therefore create an ecological sink for aphid parasitoids.
Franklin, Joseph C; Lee, Kent M; Hanna, Eleanor K; Prinstein, Mitchell J
Although pain itself induces negative affect, the removal (or offset) of pain induces a powerful state of relief. Despite being implicated in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenomena, relief remains a poorly understood emotion. In particular, some theorists associate relief with increased positive affect, whereas others associate relief with diminished negative affect. In the present study, we examined the affective nature of relief in a pain-offset paradigm with psychophysiological measures that were specific to negative valence (startle eyeblink reactivity) and positive valence (startle postauricular reactivity). Results revealed that pain offset simultaneously stimulates positive affect and diminishes negative affect for at least several seconds. Results also indicated that pain intensity differentially affects the positive and negative valence aspects of relief. These findings clarify the affective nature of relief and provide insight into why people engage in both normal and abnormal behaviors associated with relief.
Witkiewitz, Katie; Villarroel, Nadia Aracelliz
Clinical research has found a strong association between negative affect and returning to alcohol use after a period of abstinence. Yet little is known about the probability of a lapse given a particular level of negative affect or whether there is a reciprocal relationship between negative affect and alcohol use across time. The goal of the…
Brondolo, Elizabeth; Brady, Nisha; Thompson, Shola; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Sweeney, Monica; McFarlane, Delano; Contrada, Richard J
Racism is a significant psychosocial stressor that is hypothesized to have negative psychological and physical health consequences. The Reserve Capacity Model (Gallo & Matthews, 2003) suggests that low socioeconomic status may influence health through its effects on negative affect. We extend this model to study the effects of racism, examining the association of lifetime perceived racism to trait and daily negative affect. A multiethnic sample of 362 American-born Black and Latino adults completed the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version (PEDQ-CV). Trait negative affect was assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and state negative affect was measured using ecological momentary assessments (EMA), in the form of an electronic diary. Analyses revealed a significant relationship of lifetime perceived racism to both daily negative affect and trait negative affect, even when controlling for trait hostility and socioeconomic status. The relationship of perceived racism to negative affect was moderated by education, such that the relationships were strongest for those with less than a high school education. The findings support aspects of the Reserve Capacity Model and identify pathways through which perceived racism may affect health status.
Hughes, Alicia A; Kendall, Philip C
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) (Laurent et al. Psychol Asses 1: 326-338, 1999) in a sample of 139 children (ages 7-14 years) diagnosed with a principal anxiety disorder. Results from this study provided support for the convergent validity of the PANAS-C with established measures of childhood anxiety and depression. As predicted, negative affect was significantly associated with measures of anxiety and depression whereas positive affect was associated with depression. However, weaknesses in discriminant validity were found, most notably with regard to social anxiety. Consistent with previous research, social anxiety was significantly associated with low levels of positive affect (PA). Furthermore, results from regression analyses indicated that PA made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of social anxiety as well as depression scores. Findings are discussed with regard to the usefulness of the PANAS-C to differentiate anxiety and depression in children with anxiety disorders.
da Hora, G C A; Archilha, N L; Lopes, J L S; Müller, D M; Coutinho, K; Itri, R; Soares, T A
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cationic peptides that kill bacteria with a broad spectrum of action, low toxicity to mammalian cells and exceptionally low rates of bacterial resistance. These features have led to considerable efforts in developing AMPs as an alternative antibacterial therapy. In vitro studies have shown that AMPs interfere with membrane bilayer integrity via several possible mechanisms, which are not entirely understood. We have performed the synthesis, membrane lysis measurements, and biophysical characterization of a novel hybrid peptide. These measurements show that PA-Pln149 does not form nanopores, but instead promotes membrane rupture. It causes fast rupture of the bacterial model membrane (POPG-rich) at concentrations 100-fold lower than that required for the disruption of mammalian model membranes (POPC-rich). Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for single and multiple copies of PA-Pln149 in the presence of mixed and pure POPC/POPG bilayers to investigate the concentration-dependent membrane disruption by the hybrid peptide. These simulations reproduced the experimental trend and provided a potential mechanism of action for PA-Pln149. It shows that the PA-Pln149 does not form nanopores, but instead promotes membrane destabilization through peptide aggregation and induction of membrane negative curvature with the collapse of the lamellar arrangement. The sequence of events depicted for PA-Pln149 may offer insights into the mechanism of action of AMPs previously shown to induce negative deformation of membrane curvature and often associated with peptide translocation via non-bilayer intermediate structures.
Curci, Antonietta; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Rimé, Bernard
Following an emotional experience, individuals are confronted with the persistence of ruminative thoughts that disturb the undertaking of other activities. In the present study, we experimentally tested the idea that experiencing a negative emotion triggers a ruminative process that drains working memory (WM) resources normally devoted to other tasks. Undergraduate participants of high versus low WM capacity were administered the operation-word memory span test (OSPAN) as a measure of availability of WM resources preceding and following the presentation of negative emotional versus neutral material. Rumination was assessed immediately after the second OSPAN session and at a 24-hr delay. Results showed that both the individual's WM capacity and the emotional valence of the material influenced WM performance and the persistence of ruminative thoughts. Following the experimental induction, rumination mediated the relationship between the negative emotional state and the concomitant WM performance. Based on these results, we argue that ruminative processes deplete WM resources, making them less available for concurrent tasks; in addition, rumination tends to persist over time. These findings have implications for the theoretical modeling of the long-term effects of emotions in both daily life and clinical contexts.
Zeman, Janice; Shipman, Kimberly
Examines the influence of socialization figures (parents, friends), emotion type (anger, sadness, physical pain), age, and gender on 66 second-grade and 71 fifth-grade children's reasons for and methods of affect expression. Found that girls reported using verbal means to communicate emotion, whereas boys cited mildly aggressive methods. (MDM)
Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil
The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…
The aim of the present study was to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis and biliary dyskinesia (BD) occur in children, and if so, to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis affects clinical outcome in children with BD. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with BD (ejecti...
Moberly, Nicholas J; Watkins, Edward R
The authors conducted an experience sampling study to investigate the relationship between momentary ruminative self-focus and negative affect. Ninety-three adults recorded these variables at quasi-random intervals 8 times daily for 1 week. Scores on questionnaire measures of dispositional rumination were associated with mean levels of momentary ruminative self-focus over the experience sampling week. Concurrently, momentary ruminative self-focus was positively associated with negative affect. Cross-lagged analyses revealed that whereas ruminative self-focus predicted negative affect at a subsequent occasion, negative affect also predicted ruminative self-focus at a subsequent occasion. Decomposition of the dispositional rumination measure suggested that brooding, but not reflective pondering, was associated with higher mean levels of negative affect. Though broadly consistent with Nolen-Hoeksema's (1991) response styles theory, these results suggest that a reciprocal relationship exists between ruminative self-focus and negative affect.
Forbush, Kelsie T; Hagan, Kelsey E; Salk, Rachel H; Wildes, Jennifer E
Bulimia nervosa can be reliably classified into subtypes based on dimensions of dietary restraint and negative affect. Community and clinical studies have shown that dietary-negative affect subtypes have greater test-retest reliability and concurrent and predictive validity compared to subtypes based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Although dietary-negative affect subtypes have shown utility for characterizing eating disorders that involve binge eating, this framework may have broader implications for understanding restrictive eating disorders.
Dermody, Sarah Siodmok; Cheong, JeeWon; Manuck, Stephen
The stress-negative affect model for alcohol use was examined. The mediating roles of different components of negative affect were tested in the context of coping style. Data from 1,057 drinking adults (Mage = 44.45) and 352 drinking college students (Mage = 19.07) collected during 2001-2005 and in 2010, respectively, were examined separately. Participants completed self-administered measures of alcohol use, coping strategies, negative life events, and negative affect. A structural equation modeling framework detected stress-related drinking only in the adult sample. Sadness, anger, and guilt were significant mediators and the significant pathways differed based on coping style. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Lavender, Jason M.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Cao, Li; Mitchell, James E.
Objective Negative affect precedes binge eating and purging in bulimia nervosa (BN), but little is known about factors that precipitate negative affect in relation to these behaviors. We aimed to assess the temporal relation among stressful events, negative affect, and bulimic events in the natural environment using ecological momentary assessment. Method A total of 133 women with current BN recorded their mood, eating behavior, and the occurrence of stressful events every day for two weeks. Multi-level structural equation mediation models evaluated the relations among Time 1 stress measures (i.e., interpersonal stressors, work/environment stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal), Time 2 negative affect, and Time 2 binge eating and purging, controlling for Time 1 negative affect. Results Increases in negative affect from Time 1 to Time 2 significantly mediated the relations between Time 1 interpersonal stressors, work/environment stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal, and Time 2 binge eating and purging. When modeled simultaneously, confidence intervals for interpersonal stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal did not overlap, suggesting that each had a distinct impact on negative affect in relation to binge eating or purging. Conclusions Our findings indicate that stress precedes the occurrence of bulimic behaviors and that increases in negative affect following stressful events mediate this relation. Results suggest that stress and subsequent negative affect may function as maintenance factors for bulimic behaviors and should be targeted in treatment. PMID:24219182
Fadardi, Javad S; Azadi, Zeinab
We aimed to test the relationships between Trust-in-God, positive and negative affect, and feelings of hope. A sample of university students (N = 282, 50 % female) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and a Persian measure of Trust-in-God for Muslims. The results of a series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that Trust-in-God was positively associated with participants' scores for hope and positive affect but was negatively associated with their scores for negative affect. The results support the relationship between Trust-in-God and indices of mental health.
Pronove, Lisa M.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Brown, Whitney C.; Solhan, Marika B.; Wood, Phillip K.; Trull, Timothy J.
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report experiencing several negative emotions simultaneously, an indicator of “undifferentiated” negative affect. The current study examined the relationship between undifferentiated negative affect and impulsivity. Participants with a current BPD (n = 67) or depressive disorder (DD; n = 38) diagnosis carried an electronic diary for 28 days, reporting on emotions and impulsivity when randomly prompted (up to 6 times per day). Undifferentiated negative affect was quantified using momentary intraclass correlation coefficients, which indicated how consistently negative emotion items were rated across fear, hostility, and sadness subscales. Undifferentiated negative affect at the occasion-level, day-level, and across 28 days was used to predict occasion-level impulsivity. Multilevel modeling was used to test the hypothesis that undifferentiated negative emotion would be a significant predictor of momentary impulsivity above and beyond levels of overall negative affect. Undifferentiated negative affect at the occasion and day levels were significant predictors of occasion-level impulsivity, but undifferentiated negative affect across the 28-day study period was only marginally significant. Results did not differ depending on BPD or DD status, though BPD individuals did report significantly greater momentary impulsivity and undifferentiated negative affect. Undifferentiated negative affect may increase risk for impulsivity among individuals with BPD and depressive disorders, and the current data suggest that this process can be relatively immediate as well as cumulative over the course of a day. This research supports the consideration of undifferentiated negative affect as a transdiagnostic construct, but one that may be particularly relevant for those with BPD. PMID:26147324
Beck, Brianna; Cardini, Flavia; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Bertini, Caterina
Enfacement is an illusion wherein synchronous visual and tactile inputs update the mental representation of one’s own face to assimilate another person’s face. Emotional facial expressions, serving as communicative signals, may influence enfacement by increasing the observer’s motivation to understand the mental state of the expresser. Fearful expressions, in particular, might increase enfacement because they are valuable for adaptive behavior and more strongly represented in somatosensory cortex than other emotions. In the present study, a face was seen being touched at the same time as the participant’s own face. This face was either neutral, fearful, or angry. Anger was chosen as an emotional control condition for fear because it is similarly negative but induces less somatosensory resonance, and requires additional knowledge (i.e., contextual information and social contingencies) to effectively guide behavior. We hypothesized that seeing a fearful face (but not an angry one) would increase enfacement because of greater somatosensory resonance. Surprisingly, neither fearful nor angry expressions modulated the degree of enfacement relative to neutral expressions. Synchronous interpersonal visuo-tactile stimulation led to assimilation of the other’s face, but this assimilation was not modulated by facial expression processing. This finding suggests that dynamic, multisensory processes of self-face identification operate independently of facial expression processing. PMID:26291532
Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre
Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)—that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word’s more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system. PMID:27152129
Beck, Brianna; Cardini, Flavia; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Bertini, Caterina
Enfacement is an illusion wherein synchronous visual and tactile inputs update the mental representation of one's own face to assimilate another person's face. Emotional facial expressions, serving as communicative signals, may influence enfacement by increasing the observer's motivation to understand the mental state of the expresser. Fearful expressions, in particular, might increase enfacement because they are valuable for adaptive behavior and more strongly represented in somatosensory cortex than other emotions. In the present study, a face was seen being touched at the same time as the participant's own face. This face was either neutral, fearful, or angry. Anger was chosen as an emotional control condition for fear because it is similarly negative but induces less somatosensory resonance, and requires additional knowledge (i.e., contextual information and social contingencies) to effectively guide behavior. We hypothesized that seeing a fearful face (but not an angry one) would increase enfacement because of greater somatosensory resonance. Surprisingly, neither fearful nor angry expressions modulated the degree of enfacement relative to neutral expressions. Synchronous interpersonal visuo-tactile stimulation led to assimilation of the other's face, but this assimilation was not modulated by facial expression processing. This finding suggests that dynamic, multisensory processes of self-face identification operate independently of facial expression processing.
Gunaydin, Gul; Selcuk, Emre; Ong, Anthony D.
Past research on emotion regulation has provided evidence that cognitive reappraisal predicts reactivity to affective stimuli and challenge tests in laboratory settings. However, little is known about how trait reappraisal might contribute to affective reactivity to everyday positive and negative events. Using a large, life-span sample of adults (N = 1755), the present study addressed this important gap in the literature. Respondents completed a measure of trait reappraisal and reported on their daily experiences of positive and negative events and positive and negative affect for eight consecutive days. Results showed that trait reappraisal predicted lower increases in negative affect in response to daily negative events and lower increases in positive affect in response to daily positive events. These findings advance our understanding of the role of reappraisal in emotion regulation by showing how individual differences in the use of this strategy relate to emotional reactions to both positive and negative events outside the laboratory. PMID:27445954
Otal, P.; Boineau, F.; Medina, N.; Pražák, D.; Wüthrich, C.; Saxholm, S.; Sabuga, W.; Kocas, I.; Durgut, Y.
This report gives the results of a comparison of pressure standards of seven European National Metrology institutes in the range of negative gauge pressure from -950 hPa to 0 hPa. This comparison was piloted by LNE and was carried out from January 2011 to March 2012. This work is a part of the EURAMET project 1170 and is registered as a supplementary comparison EURAMET.M.P-S9. The transfer standard used was a pressure monitor RPM4 A160Ks manufactured by DH Instruments Inc., with a resolution of 0.1 Pa. The reference values have been determined from the weighted mean of the deviations reported by the participants for each specified pressure. Seventy-three of the seventy-seven values (96%) reported by the laboratories agree with the reference values within the expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor k = 2. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).
Luong, Gloria; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela
Bad moods are considered "bad" not only because they may be aversive experiences in and of themselves, but also because they are associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and health. We propose that people differ in their negative affect valuation (NAV; the extent to which negative affective states are valued as pleasant, useful/helpful, appropriate, and meaningful experiences) and that affect-health links are moderated by NAV. These predictions were tested in a life span sample of 365 participants ranging from 14-88 years of age using reports of momentary negative affect and physical well-being (via experience sampling) and assessments of NAV and psychosocial and physical functioning (via computer-assisted personal interviews and behavioral measures of hand grip strength). Our study demonstrated that the more individuals valued negative affect, the less pronounced (and sometimes even nonexistent) were the associations between everyday experiences of negative affect and a variety of indicators of poorer psychosocial functioning (i.e., emotional health problems, social integration) and physical health (i.e., number of health conditions, health complaints, hand grip strength, momentary physical well-being). Exploratory analyses revealed that valuing positive affect was not associated with the analogous moderating effects as NAV. These findings suggest that it may be particularly important to consider NAV in models of affect-health links.
Zheng, Yao; Plomin, Robert; von Stumm, Sophie
Positive affect (e.g., attentiveness) and negative affect (e.g., upset) fluctuate over time. We examined genetic influences on interindividual differences in the day-to-day variability of affect (i.e., ups and downs) and in average affect over the duration of a month. Once a day, 17-year-old twins in the United Kingdom (N = 447) rated their positive and negative affect online. The mean and standard deviation of each individual’s daily ratings across the month were used as the measures of that individual’s average affect and variability of affect. Analyses revealed that the average of negative affect was significantly heritable (.53), but the average of positive affect was not; instead, the latter showed significant shared environmental influences (.42). Fluctuations across the month were significantly heritable for both negative affect (.54) and positive affect (.34). The findings support the two-factor theory of affect, which posits that positive affect is more situational and negative affect is more dispositional. PMID:27729566
Haller, Moira; Chassin, Laurie
Using a high-risk community sample, multiple regression analyses were conducted separately for mothers (n = 416) and fathers (n = 346) to test the unique, prospective influence of parental negative affect on adolescent maladjustment (internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and negative emotionality) 2 years later over and above parental…
Ekas, Naomi V.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Zentall, Shannon R.; Maxwell, Scott M.
The present study investigated temporal associations between putative emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in 20-month-old toddlers. Toddlers' parent-focused, self-distraction, and toy-focused strategies, as well as negative affect, were rated on a second-by-second basis during laboratory parent-toddler interactions. Longitudinal…
Flancbaum, Meir; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Abela, John R. Z.; Young, Jamie F.; Stolow, Darren; Hankin, Benjamin L.
The current study examined whether rumination serves as a moderator of the temporal association between maternal and child negative affect. Participants included 88 mothers with a history of major depressive episodes and their 123 children. During an initial assessment, mothers and their children completed measures assessing negative affect and…
Witkiewitz, Katie; Villarroel, Nadia Aracelliz
Clinical research has found a strong association between negative affect and returning to alcohol use after a period of abstinence. Yet little is known about the probability of a lapse given a particular level of negative affect or whether there is a reciprocal relationship between negative affect and alcohol use across time. The goal of the current study was to examine the association between negative affect and drinking behavior in the 1st year following alcohol treatment. The authors applied an associative latent transition analysis to the Project MATCH outpatient data (n = 952) and then replicated the model in the Project MATCH aftercare data (n = 774). Changes in drinking following treatment were significantly associated with current and prior changes in negative affect, and changes in negative affect were related to prior changes in drinking (effect size range = 0.13-0.33). The results supported the hypothesis that negative affect and alcohol lapses are dynamically linked and suggest that targeting the relationship between negative affect and alcohol use could greatly decrease the probability of lapses and improve alcohol treatment outcomes.
Chester, David S.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J.; Estus, Steven; Peters, Jessica R.; Lynam, Donald R.; Jiang, Yang
Low functioning MAOA genotypes have been reliably linked to increased reactive aggression, yet the psychological mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. The low functioning MAOA genotype’s established link to diminished inhibition and greater reactivity to conditions of negative affect suggest that negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in the context of negative affect, may fill this mediating role. Such MAOA carriers may have higher negative urgency, which may in turn predict greater aggressive responses to provocation. To test these hypotheses, 277 female and male participants were genotyped for an MAOA SNP yet to be linked to aggression (rs1465108), and then reported their negative urgency and past aggressive behavior. We replicated the effect of the low functioning MAOA genotype on heightened aggression, which was mediated by greater negative urgency. These results suggest that disrupted serotonergic systems predispose individuals towards aggressive behavior by increasing impulsive reactivity to negative affect. PMID:25637908
Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J; Estus, Steven; Peters, Jessica R; Lynam, Donald R; Jiang, Yang
Low functioning MAOA genotypes have been reliably linked to increased reactive aggression, yet the psychological mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. The low functioning MAOA genotype's established link to diminished inhibition and greater reactivity to conditions of negative affect suggest that negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in the context of negative affect, may fill this mediating role. Such MAOA carriers may have higher negative urgency, which may in turn predict greater aggressive responses to provocation. To test these hypotheses, 277 female and male participants were genotyped for an MAOA SNP yet to be linked to aggression (rs1465108), and then reported their negative urgency and past aggressive behavior. We replicated the effect of the low functioning MAOA genotype on heightened aggression, which was mediated by greater negative urgency. These results suggest that disrupted serotonergic systems predispose individuals towards aggressive behavior by increasing impulsive reactivity to negative affect.
Severi-Aguiar, Grasiela Dias de Campos; Pinto, Suellen Josine; Capucho, Cristina; Oliveira, Camila Andrea; Diamante, Maria Aparecida; Barbieri, Renata; Predes, Fabrícia Souza; Dolder, Heidi
Background: Human and animal evidence suggests that environmental toxicants may have an adverse impact on male reproductive health, reducing the population's reproductive output. Owing to the renewed attraction for natural products, some of them constitute effective alternatives to mitigate these effects. Propolis is a candidate for this use because of its intrinsic properties. In many situations, it improved the testicular damage and alleviated the toxic effects induced by environmental contaminant exposure. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate possible alterations of testicular parameters and certify if its use is really advantageous to the testis, since this could affect rat reproductive function. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (Co = control, T1 = 3 mg propolis/kg/day, T2 = 6 mg/kg/day, T3 = 10 mg/kg/day) and were exposed during 56 days. The testes were assessed with morphometrical, stereological, and ultrastructural analyses. Cell proliferation and death were diagnosed, respectively, by immunocytochemistry. Connexin 43 (Cx43) and N-cadherin transcript levels were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Increased cell proliferation and Leydig cell volume were observed in T2, and in contrast, Cx43 upregulation and cell death were observed in T3. Both T2 and T3 showed ultrastructural abnormalities in testicular parenchyma. Conclusion: We recommend a cautious intake of propolis to avoid deleterious effects. SUMMARY Chronic intake of Brazilian green propolis induced N.-cadherin downregulation and decreased on seminiferous tubule volumeIncrease on connexin 43 expression and cell death and decrease in Leydig cell.(LC) number/testis with the concentration of 10 mg/kg/day were observedIncrease on cell proliferation, cytoplasmic proportion, and volume of LC with the concentration of 6 mg/kg/day was detectedThe presence of empty spaces between spermatids and malformed
Crouch, Julie L; Irwin, Lauren M; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J; Rutledge, Ericka; Davila, America L
The present study examined the associations between authoritarian parenting beliefs, attributions of hostile intent, negative affect, and harsh parenting practices. General population parents (N=183; 31.1% fathers) completed self-report measures of authoritarian parenting beliefs and read vignettes describing children engaging in transgressions. Following each vignette, parents indicated the extent to which they would attribute hostile intent to the child, feel negative affect, and respond with harsh parenting practices (e.g., yelling, hitting). As hypothesized, parents who subscribed to higher levels of authoritarian beliefs attributed more hostile intent to the child and expected to feel more negative affect in response to the transgressions. In turn, higher levels of hostile attributions and negative affect were associated with increased likelihood of harsh parenting practices. Results from a path analysis revealed that the association between authoritarian parenting beliefs and harsh parenting practices was fully explained by attributions of hostile intent and negative affect.
Grove, Tyler B; Tso, Ivy F; Chun, Jinsoo; Mueller, Savanna A; Taylor, Stephan F; Ellingrod, Vicki L; McInnis, Melvin G; Deldin, Patricia J
Most people with a serious mental illness experience significant functional impairment despite ongoing pharmacological treatment. Thus, in order to improve outcomes, a better understanding of functional predictors is needed. This study examined negative affect, a construct comprised of negative emotional experience, as a predictor of social functioning across serious mental illnesses. One hundred twenty-seven participants with schizophrenia, 113 with schizoaffective disorder, 22 with psychosis not otherwise specified, 58 with bipolar disorder, and 84 healthy controls (N=404) completed self-report negative affect measures. Elevated levels of negative affect were observed in clinical participants compared with healthy controls. For both clinical and healthy control participants, negative affect measures were significantly correlated with social functioning, and consistently explained significant amounts of variance in functioning. For clinical participants, this relationship persisted even after accounting for cognition and positive/negative symptoms. The findings suggest that negative affect is a strong predictor of outcome across these populations and treatment of serious mental illnesses should target elevated negative affect in addition to cognition and positive/negative symptoms.
Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Bradizza, Clara M.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Coffey, Scott F.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Gudleski, Gregory; Bole, Christopher W.
Although negative affect is a common precipitant of alcohol relapse, there are few interventions for alcohol dependence that specifically target negative affect. In this Stage 1a/1b treatment development study, several affect regulation strategies (e.g., mindfulness, prolonged exposure, distress tolerance) were combined to create a new treatment supplement called Affect Regulation Training (ART), which could be added to enhance Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for alcohol dependence. A draft therapy manual was given to therapists and treatment experts before being administered to several patients who also provided input. After two rounds of manual development (Stage 1a), a pilot randomized clinical trial (N = 77) of alcohol-dependent outpatients who reported drinking often in negative affect situations was conducted (Stage 1b). Participants received 12-weekly, 90-minute sessions of either CBT for alcohol dependence plus ART (CBT + ART) or CBT plus a healthy lifestyles control condition (CBT + HLS). Baseline, end-of-treatment, and 3- and 6-month posttreatment interviews were conducted. For both treatment conditions, participant ratings of treatment satisfaction were high, with CBT + ART rated significantly higher. Drinking outcome results indicated greater reductions in alcohol use for CBT + ART when compared to CBT + HLS, with moderate effect sizes for percent days abstinent, drinks per day, drinks per drinking day, and percent heavy drinking days. Overall, findings support further research on affect regulation interventions for negative affect drinkers. PMID:23876455
Karyadi, Kenny; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Dir, Allyson L.; Cyders, Melissa A.
Prior studies have suggested that affect lability might reduce the risk for problematic drinking among sensation seekers by compensating for their deficiencies in emotional reactivity and among individuals high on negative urgency by disrupting stable negative emotions. Due to the high prevalence of college drinking, this study examined whether affect lability interacted with sensation seeking and negative urgency to influence college student problematic drinking. 414 college drinkers (mean age: 20, 77% female, and 74% Caucasian) from a US Midwestern University completed self-administered questionnaires online. Consistent with our hypotheses, our results indicated that the effects of sensation seeking and negative urgency on problematic drinking weakened at higher levels of affect lability. These findings emphasize the importance of considering specific emotional contexts in understanding how negative urgency and sensation seeking create risk for problematic drinking among college students. These findings might also help us better understand how to reduce problematic drinking among sensation seekers and individuals high on negative urgency. PMID:24826366
Brooker, Rebecca J; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Scaramella, Laura V; Reiss, David
Little is known about child-based effects on parents' anxiety symptoms early in life despite the possibility that child characteristics may contribute to the quality of the early environment and children's own long-term risk for psychological disorder. We examined bidirectional effects between parent anxiety symptoms and infant negative affect using a prospective adoption design. Infant negative affect and adoptive parent anxiety symptoms were assessed at child ages 9, 18, and 27 months. Birth parent negative affect was assessed at child age 18 months. More anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents at child age 9 months predicted more negative affect in infants 9 months later. More infant negative affect at child age 9 months predicted more anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents 18 months later. Patterns of results did not differ for adoptive mothers and adoptive fathers. Birth parent negative affect was unrelated to infant or adoptive parent measures. Consistent with expectations, associations between infant negative affect and rearing parents' anxiety symptoms appear to be bidirectional. In addition to traditional parent-to-child effects, our results suggest that infants' characteristics may contribute to parent qualities that are known to impact childhood outcomes.
Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E; Braitman, Abby L; Lewis, Robin J
Negative affect and dietary restraint are key predictors of binge eating, yet less is known about the impact of social factors on binge eating. The study sought to replicate and extend research on the relationships between negative affect, dietary restraint, perceived social isolation and binge eating using a daily diary methodology. College women (N = 54) completed measures of dietary restraint, negative affect, perceived social isolation, and binge eating daily for 14 days. Participants completed the measures nightly each day. A series of generalized estimating equations showed that dietary restraint was associated with less binge eating while controlling for negative affect and for perceived social isolation separately. Negative affect and perceived social isolation were associated with greater binge eating while controlling for restraint in separate analyses, but only perceived social isolation was significant when modeled simultaneously. All two-way interactions between negative affect, dietary restraint, and perceived social isolation predicting binge eating were nonsignificant. This study furthers our understanding of predictors of binge eating in a nonclinical sample. Specifically, these data suggest perceived social isolation, negative affect, and dietary restraint are important variables associated with binge eating in daily life and warrant further research.
Lüdecke, Christina; Baumann, Nicola
Terror management theory assumes that death arouses existential anxiety in humans which is suppressed in focal attention. Whereas most studies provide indirect evidence for negative affect under mortality salience by showing cultural worldview defenses and self-esteem strivings, there is only little direct evidence for implicit negative affect under mortality salience. In the present study, we assume that this implicit affective reaction towards death depends on people's ability to self-regulate negative affect as assessed by the personality dimension of action versus state orientation. Consistent with our expectations, action-oriented participants judged artificial words to express less negative affect under mortality salience compared to control conditions whereas state-oriented participants showed the reversed pattern.
Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric
Binge eating is often preceded by reports of negative affect, but the mechanism by which affect may lead to binge eating is unclear. This study evaluated the effect of negative affect on neural response to anticipation and receipt of palatable food in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) versus healthy controls. We also evaluated connectivity between the amygdala and reward-related brain regions. Females with and without BN (n=26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless solution. We measured negative affect just prior to the scan. Women with BN showed a positive correlation between negative affect and activity in the putamen, caudate, and pallidum during anticipated receipt of milkshake (versus tasteless solution). There were no significant relations between negative affect and receipt of milkshake. Connectivity analyses revealed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula during anticipated receipt of milkshake in the bulimia group relative to the control group. The opposite pattern was found for the taste of milkshake; the control group showed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula in response to milkshake receipt than the bulimia group. Results show that as negative affect increases, so does responsivity of reward regions to anticipated intake of palatable food, implying that negative affect may increase the reward value of food for individuals with bulimia nervosa or that negative affect has become a conditioned cue due to a history of binge eating in a negative mood.
Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wiegering, Sarah
Late-life development of affect may unfold terminal changes that are driven more by end-of-life processes and not so much by time since birth. This study aimed to explore time-to-death-related effects in measures of affect in a sample of the very old. We used longitudinal data (2 measurement occasions: 2002 and 2003) from 140 deceased…
Tian, Wei; Su, Yunyan; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shouju; Su, Xiaodan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yunlei; Tang, Yuxia; Ni, Qianqian; Liu, Wenfei; Dang, Meng; Wang, Chunyan; Zhang, Junjie
Complete eradication of highly aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a notable challenge today. In this work, an imaging‐guided photothermal‐chemotherapy strategy for TNBC is developed for the first time based on a periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) coated Prussian blue (PB@PMO) nanoplatform. The PB@PMOs have organic‐inorganic hybrid frameworks, uniform diameter (125 nm), high surface area (866 m2 g−1), large pore size (3.2 nm), excellent photothermal conversion capability, high drug loading capacity (260 µg mg−1), and magnetic resonance (MR) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging abilities. The MR and PA properties of the PB@PMOs are helpful for imaging the tumor and showing the accumulation of the nanoplatform in the tumor region. The bioluminescence intensity and tumor volume of the MDA‐MB‐231‐Luc tumor‐bearing mouse model demonstrate that TNBC can be effectively inhibited by the combined photothermal‐chemotherapy than monotherapy strategy. Histopathological analysis further reveals that the combination therapy results in most extensive apoptotic and necrotic cells in the tumor without inducing obvious side effect to major organs. PMID:28331788
Machin, M Anthony; Hoare, P Nancey
A survey was conducted on a sample of 159 Australian bus drivers to determine the extent to which workload and self-reported driver coping styles predicted their subjective health status. The model that was proposed incorporated the hours spent driving as a measure of workload, both adaptive and maladaptive driver coping styles, and self-report measures of need for recovery (i.e., fatigue), positive and negative affect (PA and NA), and physical symptoms. The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the workload was a significant predictor of drivers' need for recovery, but not of their PA and NA nor of their physical symptoms. Need for recovery was in turn a significant predictor of PA and NA and of their physical symptoms, indicating that it mediates the influence of workload on PA and NA and physical symptoms. Two maladaptive coping strategies added to the prediction of need for recovery, as well as to the prediction of NA, even after controlling for the influence of need for recovery. One adaptive coping strategy added to the prediction of PA. Strategies for management of fatigue in bus drivers should focus on the assessment and remediation of maladaptive coping strategies which impact of drivers' need for recovery, which in turn predicts PA and NA and physical symptoms.
Roesch, Scott C; Aldridge, Arianna A; Vickers, Ross R; Helvig, Linda K
The current study examined how trait-consistent coping and trait-inconsistent coping were predictive of negative and positive affect. It was hypothesized that coping behaviors (e.g., social support) that were consistent with dimensions of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of Personality (e.g., Extraversion) would be associated with positive affect, whereas traits that were inconsistent would be associated with negative affect. Longitudinal data from 673 military recruits revealed that dimensions of the FFM moderated the relationship between coping and affect. Individuals either high on Neuroticism, high on Agreeableness, or low on Conscientiousness who used more avoidance coping experienced more negative affect. Individuals high in Extraversion who used more approach coping and individuals low in Agreeableness who used more avoidance coping experienced more positive affect. The results are discussed with respect to the behavioral concordance model (BCM) (Coté & Moskowitz, 1998) and the differential coping choice-effectiveness model (Bolger & Zuckerman, 1995).
Markey, Megan A; Vander Wal, Jillon S
Emotions, particularly emotion dysregulation, play an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders as evidenced by the emphasis given to addressing emotions in a number of psychotherapeutic approaches that have been adapted for the treatment of women with disordered eating. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of emotional intelligence and other emotion regulation variables in the relationship between negative affect and bulimic symptomatology. One hundred fifty undergraduate females were assessed via a packet of self-report questionnaires that included measures of emotion regulation, including emotional intelligence (BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory -- Short Form), alexithymia (Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale), and coping (Brief COPE Inventory), negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule -- Expanded Form and Affect Intensity Measure), and bulimic symptomatology (Bulimia Test -- Revised). Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that each conceptual area of interest contributed to the prediction of bulimic symptomatology. In addition, the measures of emotion regulation accounted for significant variance in bulimic symptomatology even after controlling for negative affect. Emotional intelligence and other emotion regulation variables did not moderate the relationship between negative affect and bulimic symptomatology. However, results highlight the role of emotion in disordered eating behaviors and support the negative affect and emotion dysregulation theories of eating disorders.
Deniz, M Engin; Işik, Erkan
The purpose was to investigate positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and coping with stress in relation to attachment styles. Undergraduate students (N=421) completed the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Coping with Stress Scale. Results indicated that secure attachment style was the unique predictor of positive affect while fearful and preoccupied attachment styles significantly predicted negative affect. Regarding life satisfaction, a positive correlation with secure attachment style and a negative correlation with fearful and preoccupied styles were seen. However, the unique predictor of life satisfaction was preoccupied attachment style. In terms of coping with stress, there was no significant association between attachment variables and avoidance coping style, but significant links were observed between problem-focused coping and dismissing, and fearful and preoccupied attachment styles.
Affrunti, Nicholas W; Woodruff-Borden, Janet
Separate lines of research have linked the temperament factor negative affect and perfectionism with internalizing disorders. Despite theory, no previous studies have connected these lines of research to examine internalizing pathology. The current study tested a path model to investigate the mediating effect of perfectionism domains on the relation between negative affect and child anxiety, worry, and depression symptoms. Participants were 61 parent-child dyads recruited from the community. Children were 7-13 years old (54.1 % male; 88.2 % Caucasian). Overall the model fit the data well. Analyses indicated that separate domains of perfectionism mediated separate relations between negative affect and child anxiety, worry, and depression symptoms. The findings suggest that domains of perfectionism may be implicated in specific paths between negative affect and child anxiety, depression, and worry. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Cremone, Amanda; de Jong, Desiree M; Kurdziel, Lauri B F; Desrochers, Phillip; Sayer, Aline; LeBourgeois, Monique K; Spencer, Rebecca M C; McDermott, Jennifer M
Temperamental negative affect and insufficient sleep have been independently associated with behavior problems during early childhood. However, it is unknown whether these factors interact to contribute to behavioral difficulties in young children. The current study examined the interactions between temperamental negative affect and both sleep onset time and sleep midpoint, assessed by actigraphy, in predicting externalizing and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 117 children (34-69 months of age). Children with high temperamental negative affect and either later sleep onset time or later sleep midpoint were more likely to exhibit externalizing and internalizing behaviors. These results emphasize the association between temperamental negative affect and behavioral difficulties, particularly for children with insufficient sleep.
Tan, Patricia Z; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Dahl, Ronald E; Nelson, Eric E; Stroud, Laura J; Siegle, Greg J; Morgan, Judith K; Silk, Jennifer S
Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths' emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent-adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents' neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence.
Falcone, Mary; Gold, Allison B.; Wileyto, E. Paul; Ray, Riju; Ruparel, Kosha; Newberg, Andrew; Dubroff, Jacob; Logan, Jean; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Blendy, Julie A.; Lerman, Caryn
Rationale The perception that smoking relieves negative affect contributes to smoking persistence. Endogenous opioid neurotransmission, and the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) in particular, plays a role in affective regulation and is modulated by nicotine. Objectives We examined the relationship of µ-opioid receptor binding availability in the amygdala to the motivation to smoke for negative affect relief and to the acute effects of smoking on affective responses. Methods Twenty-two smokers were scanned on two separate occasions after overnight abstinence using [11C]carfentanil positron emission tomography imaging: after smoking a nicotine-containing cigarette and after smoking a denicotinized cigarette. Self-reports of smoking motives were collected at baseline, and measures of positive and negative affect were collected pre- and post- cigarette smoking. Results Higher MOR availability in the amygdala was associated with motivation to smoke to relieve negative affect. However, MOR availability was unrelated to changes in affect after smoking either cigarette. Conclusions Increased MOR availability in amygdala may underlie the motivation to smoke for negative affective relief. These results are consistent with previous data highlighting the role of µ-opioid receptor neurotransmission in smoking behavior. PMID:22389047
Larsen, Jeff T; Hershfield, Hal E; Stastny, Bradley J; Hester, Neil
Understanding the nature of emotional experience requires understanding the relationship between positive and negative affect. Two particularly important aspects of that relationship are the extent to which positive and negative affect are correlated with one another and the extent to which they co-occur. Some researchers have assumed that weak negative correlations imply greater co-occurrence (i.e., more mixed emotions) than do strong negative correlations, but others have noted that correlations may imply very little about co-occurrence. We investigated the relationship between the correlation between positive and negative affect and co-occurrence. Participants in each of 2 samples provided moment-to-moment happiness and sadness ratings as they watched an evocative film and listened to music. Results indicated (a) that 4 measures of the correlation between positive and negative affect were quite highly related to 1 another; (b) that the strength of the correlation between measures of mixed emotions varied considerably; (c) that correlational measures were generally (but not always) weakly correlated with mixed emotion measures; and (d) that bittersweet stimuli consistently led to elevations in mixed emotion measures but did not consistently weaken the correlation between positive and negative affect. Results highlight that the correlation between positive and negative affect and their co-occurrence are distinct aspects of the relationship between positive and negative affect. Such insight helps clarify the implications of existing work on age-related and cultural differences in emotional experience and sets the stage for greater understanding of the experience of mixed emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record
Witkiewitz, Katie; McCallion, Elizabeth; Vowles, Kevin E.; Kirouac, Megan; Frohe, Tessa; Maisto, Stephen A.; Hodgson, Ray; Heather, Nick
Objective Physical pain and negative affect have been described as risk factors for alcohol use following alcohol treatment. The current study was a secondary analysis of two clinical trials for alcohol use disorder (AUD) to examine the associations between pain, negative affect and AUD treatment outcomes. Method Participants included 1383 individuals from the COMBINE Study (COMBINE Study Group, 2003; 31% female, 23% ethnic minorities, average age=44.4 (SD=10.2)), a multisite combination pharmacotherapy and behavioral intervention study for AUD in the United States, and 742 individuals from the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT Research Team, 2001; 25.9% female, 4.4% ethnic minorities, average age=41.6 (SD=10.1)) a multisite behavioral intervention study for AUD in the United Kingdom. The Form-90 was used to collect alcohol use data, the Short Form Health Survey and Quality of Life measures were used to assess pain, and negative affect was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory (COMBINE) and the General Health Questionnaire (UKATT). Results Pain scores were significantly associated with drinking outcomes in both datasets. Greater pain scores were associated with greater negative affect and increases in pain were associated with increases in negative affect. Negative affect significantly mediated the association between pain and drinking outcomes and this effect was moderated by social behavior network therapy (SBNT) in the UKATT study, with SBNT attenuating the association between pain and drinking. Conclusion Findings suggest pain and negative affect are associated among individuals in AUD treatment and that negative affect mediated pain may be a risk factor for alcohol relapse. PMID:26098375
Isik, Serife; Üzbe, Nazife
This study examines the impact of positive and negative affects and personality traits on meaning in life in an adult population. The sample consisted of 335 subjects: 190 females and 145 males, and a Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), positive and negative schedule (PANAS), and adjective-based personality scale (ABPT) were used in the research.…
Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Hart, Sara A.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Taylor, Jeanette
The co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing disorders suggests that they may have common underlying vulnerability factors. Research has shown that negative affect is moderately positively correlated with both internalizing and externalizing disorders in children. The present study is the first to provide an examination of negative affect…
Barden, R. Christopher; And Others
A study was conducted in which negative affective states were induced in children by one of several different types of cognition or experience. Subjects were 150 second-grade children, evenly divided by sex, from suburban elementary schools. In particular, cognitive induction procedures involved children's thinking about negative events that might…
Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Nazir, Niaman
Objective: Expectancies about nicotine's ability to alleviate negative mood states may play a role in the relationship between smoking and depression. The authors examined the role of negative affect regulation expectancies as a potential mediator of depression (history of depression and depressive symptoms) and smoking among college students.…
Holtom, Brooks C.; Burton, James P.; Crossley, Craig D.
We integrated the unfolding model of turnover, job embeddedness theory and affective events theory to build and test a model specifying the relationship between negative shocks, on-the-job embeddedness and important employee behaviors. The results showed that embeddedness mediates the relationship between negative shocks and job search behaviors…
Tonnsen, Bridgette L; Malone, Patrick S; Hatton, Deborah D; Roberts, Jane E
Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) face high risk for anxiety disorders, yet no studies have explored FXS as a high-risk sample for investigating early manifestations of anxiety outcomes. Negative affect is one of the most salient predictors of problem behaviors and has been associated with both anxiety and autistic outcomes in clinical and non-clinical pediatric samples. In light of the high comorbidity between autism and anxiety within FXS, the present study investigates the relationship between longitudinal trajectories of negative affect (between 8 and 71 months) and severity of anxiety and autistic outcomes in young males with FXS (n = 25). Multilevel models indicated associations between elevated anxiety and higher fear and sadness, lower soothability, and steeper longitudinal increases in approach. Autistic outcomes were unrelated to negative affect. These findings suggest early negative affect differentially predicts anxiety, not autistic symptoms, within FXS. Future research is warranted to determine the specificity of the relationship between negative affect and anxiety, as well as to explore potential moderators. Characterizing the relationship between early negative affect and anxiety within FXS may inform etiology and treatment considerations specific to children with FXS, as well as lend insight into precursors of anxiety disorders in other clinical groups and community samples.
Kassel, Jon D; Evatt, Daniel P; Greenstein, Justin E; Wardle, Margaret C; Yates, Marisa C; Veilleux, Jennifer C
Although adolescent cigarette smoking remains a critical public health concern, little is known about the reinforcing mechanisms governing smoking in this vulnerable population. To assess predictions derived from both positive and negative reinforcement models of drug use, the authors measured the acute effects of nicotine, as administered via tobacco cigarettes, on both positive and negative affect in a group of 15- to 18-year-old smokers. A matched group of nonsmokers served as a comparison group. Findings revealed that whereas adolescents who smoked a cigarette experienced reductions in both positive and negative affect, the observed reductions in negative affect were moderated by nicotine content of the cigarette (high yield vs. denicotinized), level of nicotine dependence, level of baseline craving, and smoking expectancies pertinent to negative affect regulation. Nonsmokers experienced no change in affect over the 10-min assessment period, and no interaction effects were observed for positive affect. Overall, the findings conform to a negative reinforcement model of nicotine effects and strongly suggest that, even among young light smokers, nicotine dependence and resultant withdrawal symptomatology may serve as motivating factors governing smoking behavior.
Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Carpenter, Matthew J; LaRowe, Steven D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P
There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking- and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n = 37) and men (n = 53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: (1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and (2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking versus neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress versus neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed.
Saladin, Michael E.; Gray, Kevin M.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; LaRowe, Steven D.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.
There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking-and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n=37) and men (n=53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: 1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and 2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking vs. neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress vs. neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed. PMID:22494223
Watson, D; Clark, L A; Tellegen, A
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.
I investigated whether negative affective states enhance encoding of and memory for item-specific information reducing false memories. Positive, negative, and neutral moods were induced, and participants then completed a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false-memory task. List items were presented in unique spatial locations or unique fonts to serve as measures for item-specific encoding. The negative mood conditions had more accurate memories for item-specific information, and they also had fewer false memories. The final experiment used a manipulation that drew attention to distinctive information, which aided learning for DRM words, but also promoted item-specific encoding. For the condition that promoted item-specific encoding, false memories were reduced for positive and neutral mood conditions to a rate similar to that of the negative mood condition. These experiments demonstrated that negative affective cues promote item-specific processing reducing false memories. People in positive and negative moods encode events differently creating different memories for the same event.
Brown, Wilson J; Dewey, Daniel; Bunnell, Brian E; Boyd, Stephen J; Wilkerson, Allison K; Mitchell, Melissa A; Bruce, Steven E
Forms of cognitive and behavioral therapies (CBTs), including prolonged exposure and cognitive processing therapy, have been empirically validated as efficacious treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the assumption that PTSD develops from dysregulated fear circuitry possesses limitations that detract from the potential efficacy of CBT approaches. An analysis of these limitations may provide insight into improvements to the CBT approach to PTSD, beginning with an examination of negative affect as an essential component to the conceptualization of PTSD and a barrier to the implementation of CBT for PTSD. As such, the literature regarding the impact of negative affect on aspects of cognition (i.e., attention, processing, memory, and emotion regulation) necessary for the successful application of CBT was systematically reviewed. Several literature databases were explored (e.g., PsychINFO and PubMed), resulting in 25 articles that met criteria for inclusion. Results of the review indicated that high negative affect generally disrupts cognitive processes, resulting in a narrowed focus on stimuli of a negative valence, increased rumination of negative autobiographical memories, inflexible preservation of initial information, difficulty considering counterfactuals, reliance on emotional reasoning, and misinterpretation of neutral or ambiguous events as negative, among others. With the aim to improve treatment efficacy of CBT for PTSD, suggestions to incorporate negative affect into research and clinical contexts are discussed.
Two studies examined the influence of transient affective states and issue framing on issue interpretation and risk taking within the context of strategic decision making. In Study 1, participants in whom transient positive or negative affective states were induced by reading a short story showed systematic differences in issue interpretation and risk taking in a strategic decision making context. Compared to negative mood participants, those in a positive mood were more likely to interpret the strategic issue as an opportunity and displayed lower levels of risk taking. Study 2 replicated and extended these results by crossing affective states with threat and opportunity frames. Results showed that framing an issue (as a threat or an opportunity) had a stronger impact on issue interpretation among negative affect participants than among positive affect participants. Affective states also moderated the impact of issue framing on risk taking: the effect of framing on risk-taking was stronger under negative rather than positive affect. These results are interpreted via information-processing and motivational effects of affect on a decision maker. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
Cohen, Lawrence H.; Gunthert, Kathleen C.; Butler, Andrew C.; Parrish, Brendt P.; Wenze, Susan J.; Beck, Judith S.
This study evaluated the predictive role of depressed outpatients' (N = 62) affective reactivity to daily stressors in their rates of improvement in cognitive therapy (CT). For 1 week before treatment, patients completed nightly electronic diaries that assessed daily stressors and negative affect (NA). The authors used multilevel modeling to…
Barker, Erin T.; Howard, Andrea L.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Wrosch, Carsten
We examined how positive and negative affect covary within individuals over time and how patterns of association between affective traits and states relate to academic success across 4 years of university. Participants were 187 full-time first-year students at a large Canadian university who completed questionnaires about recent affective…
Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.
This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…
LaNoue, Marianna; Graeber, David A; Helitzer, Deborah L; Fawcett, Jan
Adverse childhood events (ACE's) have been empirically related to a wide range of negative health and mental health outcomes. However, not all individuals who experience ACE's follow a trajectory of poor outcomes, and not all individuals perceive the impact of ACE's as necessarily negative. The purpose of this study was to investigate positive and negative affect as predictors of adults' ratings of both the childhood and adult impact of their childhood adversity. Self-report data on ACE experiences, including number, severity, and 'impact' were collected from 158 community members recruited on the basis of having adverse childhood experiences. Results indicated that, regardless of event severity and number of different types of adverse events experienced, high levels of negative affect were the strongest predictor of whether the adult impact of the adverse childhood events was rated as negative. All individuals rated the childhood impact of events the same. Implications are discussed.
Robinson, Michael D; Meier, Brian P; Vargas, Patrick T
The authors sought to measure a component of the avoidance self-regulation system, specifically one related to object appraisal functions. Participants performed a choice reaction time task (Studies 1 & 2) or a go/no go task (Study 3) in which they were asked to categorize words (e.g., knife) as threatening in nature. In a series of three studies involving 236 undergraduates, the authors found that introverts who were skilled at categorizing events as threatening (vs. introverts slow to do so) experienced more negative affect in their daily lives. Among extraverts, threat categorization performance did not predict negative affect. The authors suggest that implicit threat categorizations render individuals vulnerable to negative affect but that high levels of Extraversion are capable of inhibiting such affective consequences. The authors discuss implications of the findings for extant views of Extraversion, avoidance motivation, and self-regulation.
Costarelli, Sandro; Colloca, Pasquale
In South Tyrol, a multiethnic Italian province, the authors examined the self-directed negative affect that members of an Italian group experienced after they evaluated members of the German and Albanian groups. The authors examined the affect as a function of out-group derogation. The authors argued that to the extent that out-group derogation may run counter to norms toward intergroup fairness, such normative nonconformity will elicit negative affect directed at the self as a function of perceived intergroup conflict. The findings support the authors' line of reasoning: among Italian South Tyroleans, those who expressed greater out-group derogation were led to experience stronger negative self-directed affect when they rated a low-conflict out-group, but not when they rated a high-conflict out-group, compared to participants whose out-group derogation was less.
Soltis, Joseph; Blowers, Tracy E; Savage, Anne
As in other mammals, there is evidence that the African elephant voice reflects affect intensity, but it is less clear if positive and negative affective states are differentially reflected in the voice. An acoustic comparison was made between African elephant "rumble" vocalizations produced in negative social contexts (dominance interactions), neutral social contexts (minimal social activity), and positive social contexts (affiliative interactions) by four adult females housed at Disney's Animal Kingdom®. Rumbles produced in the negative social context exhibited higher and more variable fundamental frequencies (F(0)) and amplitudes, longer durations, increased voice roughness, and higher first formant locations (F1), compared to the neutral social context. Rumbles produced in the positive social context exhibited similar shifts in most variables (F(0 )variation, amplitude, amplitude variation, duration, and F1), but the magnitude of response was generally less than that observed in the negative context. Voice roughness and F(0) observed in the positive social context remained similar to that observed in the neutral context. These results are most consistent with the vocal expression of affect intensity, in which the negative social context elicited higher intensity levels than the positive context, but differential vocal expression of positive and negative affect cannot be ruled out.
Veronese, Guido; Pepe, Alessandro
In the present study, we assessed the psychometric proprieties of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale-Child Version (PANAS-C) in a large sample of Palestinian children (N = 1,376) of different age ranges living in refugee camps. In particular, we used standard confirmatory factor analysis to test competing factor structures for the PANAS-C, with a view to developing a stable version of the instrument, suitable for speedy administration in applied and research settings in the contexts of military violence. Four alternative models of the PANAS-C were evaluated: unidimensional; two-dimensional with independent PA and NA scales and covariance of item-level errors unallowed; two-dimensional with dependent PA and NA scales and covariance of item-level errors unallowed; and two-dimensional with dependent PA and NA scales and covariance of item-level errors. The results of the statistical analysis supported a 20-item measurement model comprising the PANAS-C20 Arabic version for children. The items in this best fitting model loaded on two different and negatively correlated factors. These findings encourage full adoption of the PANAS-C20 as a tool for assessing both PA and NA in Palestinian children living in contexts of warfare.
Abrantes, Ana M.; Strong, David R.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.; Niaura, Raymond; Brown, Richard A.
Individual differences in the ability to tolerate negative affect due to psychological and/or physical discomfort (e.g., distress tolerance) are emerging as an important predictor of smoking cessation outcomes. The purpose of this study was to build on existing evidence by exploring the relationship between levels of distress tolerance (DT) and negative affect on quit date in relation to risk for early lapse. Eighty-one smokers (48% female; M age = 42.6 years) who completed laboratory-based, behavioral distress tolerance tasks prior to an unaided quit attempt were categorized into low, average, and high persistence on the tasks. Low persistence smokers were significantly more likely to lapse on the assigned quit day. Among smokers able to achieve abstinence on quit day, low persistence smokers demonstrated higher levels of negative affect and urges compared to high persistence smokers. Further, negative affect-related risk for early lapse was strongest among those with low persistence. These findings suggest that smokers low in distress tolerance may be particularly vulnerable to very early lapse to smoking and that increases in negative affect may contribute to the risk for early lapse in this high-risk group of smokers. PMID:18684569
Steinberg, Marc L.; Williams, Jill M.
Objective: Task persistence describes the act of persisting with a difficult or effortful task. Although there are likely individual differences in persistence, the same person may also display different levels of persistence under different circumstances. This study sought to examine whether task persistence can be conceptualized as both a state and as a trait, and to examine the self-control strength model with negative affect as a drain on limited resources necessary for persisting. Method: Smokers with schizophrenia (n = 43), schizoaffective disorder (n = 28), and nonpsychiatric smokers (n = 78) seeking treatment at state-funded tobacco-dependence treatment clinics completed two behavioral measures and two self-report measures of task persistence along with a measure of negative affect before their target quit date. Results: Analyses of covariance suggest that behavioral measures of persistence were significantly related to negative affect while two self-report measures of persistence were not. Conclusions: These findings suggest that behavioral, but not self-report, measures of persistence are related to negative affect. We argue that these behavioral measures capture “state” persistence whereas the self-report measures capture “trait” persistence. These data also lend support to the self-control strength model by suggesting that negative affect can drain the limited resources necessary for persisting with difficult behavioral tasks. PMID:23739022
Zastrow, Brittany L; Martel, Michelle M; Widiger, Thomas A
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is conceptualized as a disorder of negative affect and low effortful control. Yet empirical tests of trait associations with ODD remain limited. The current study examined the relationship between temperament and personality traits and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) ODD symptom domains and related impairment in a preschool-age sample. Participants were 109 children ages 3-6 (59% male), overrecruited for ODD from the community, and their primary caregivers (87% mothers). ODD symptoms and impairment were measured using the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule, temperament traits were measured using parent report on the Child Behavior Questionnaire and the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery, and personality traits were measured using examiner report on the California Child Q-Sort. Results suggest that high negative affect was associated with all three ODD symptom domains, whereas low agreeableness was specifically associated with the angry/irritable ODD symptom domain, and high surgency was associated with the argumentative/defiant and vindictive ODD symptom domains. Negative affect and surgency interacted with agreeableness to predict impairment, but not symptoms: Low agreeableness was associated with high impairment, regardless of other trait levels, whereas high negative affect and high surgency predicted high impairment in the presence of high agreeableness. Overall, results suggest ODD is a disorder of high negative affect. Furthermore, low agreeableness is differentially associated with affective ODD symptoms, and high surgency is associated with behavioral ODD symptoms. These traits interact in complex ways to predict impairment. Therefore, negative affect, agreeableness, and surgency may be useful early markers of ODD symptoms and impairment.
Hunt-Shanks, Tiffany; Blanchard, Christopher; Reid, Robert D
Female cardiac patients frequently experience greater anxiety and depression and engage in less exercise when compared with their male counterparts. This study considered whether exercise had similar effects on male and female cardiac patients' autonomic anxiety, negative affect and depression, and whether exercise behavior explained the gender difference in their affective functioning (e.g. autonomic anxiety, negative affect and depression). Eight hundred one participants completed the Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and the leisure score index (LSI) of the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire at baseline, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months. Female cardiac patients had greater autonomic anxiety, negative affect and depression and reduced exercise when compared with male cardiac patients at all time points. Although exercise was significantly related to affective outcomes at various time points for both men and women, gender did not moderate any of the exercise/affective relationships, and exercise did not mediate any of the gender/affective relationships. Further research is needed to clarify the complex relationships between gender, exercise, and the affective functioning of cardiac patients.
Mennella, Rocco; Patron, Elisabetta; Palomba, Daniela
Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated to each individual's affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect, although its specific effects on left/right frontal activity and approach/withdrawal motivation are still unclear. The present study employed a neurofeedback training to increase frontal alpha asymmetry (right - left), in order to evaluate discrete changes in alpha power at left and right sites, as well as in positive and negative affect, anxiety and depression. Thirty-two right-handed females were randomly assigned to receive either the neurofeedback on frontal alpha asymmetry, or an active control training (N = 16 in each group). The asymmetry group showed an increase in alpha asymmetry driven by higher alpha at the right site (p < 0.001), as well as a coherent reduction in both negative affect and anxiety symptoms (ps < 0.05), from pre-to post-training. No training-specific modulation emerged for positive affect and depressive symptoms. These findings provide a strong rationale for the use of frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety in clinical settings.
Borges, Allison M; Dahne, Jennifer; Lim, Aaron C; MacPherson, Laura
Distress tolerance is associated with a range of psychopathology and risk-taking behavior. Current research suggests that the behavioral ability to persist at goal-directed behavior when distressed may be malleable. However, little is known about the contributing factors that underlie individual differences in distress tolerance. Trait urgency, or the tendency to act impulsively in the context of acute changes in affect, may predict distress tolerance because the prepotent response to avoid or remove an aversive state may undermine persistence. To date, most research has examined the role of negative urgency, a valenced subfactor of urgency, in relation to distress tolerance. However, the broad trait of urgency may be associated with a greater change in affect that precedes the inability to tolerate distress. The current study examined whether greater changes in negative affect was indeed a mediator in the relationship between trait urgency and behavioral distress tolerance. The effects of both positive and negative urgency on affect change were examined to investigate the potential contribution of the broader urgency trait. The results suggest that a greater change in negative affect over the course of a stressor mediated the association between both subfactors of urgency and distress tolerance. These findings suggest that trait urgency, regardless of valence, may be associated with experiencing greater changes in affect that ultimately undermine the ability to tolerate distress. These findings also highlight important components of distress tolerance that could inform behavioral interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record
A central hypothesis of classical motivation theory is that affect underlies motivation and its behavioural manifestations. However, this has been largely ignored in the past 30 years because social cognitivism has been the dominant theory. As a result, studies have concentrated on social cognitive processes when analysing those factors that…
Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Józan, Anna; Morgan, Antony; Szemenyei, Eszter; Urbán, Róbert; Reinhardt, Melinda; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as trait rumination and worry can influence somatic health. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between perseverative thoughts and somatic complaints, and the possible mediating effects of perceived stress, negative and positive affectivity in adolescence. Having an acute or a chronic condition was also assessed to be controlled for and to reveal their effects on symptom reporting. Three hundred and six adolescents from 7th to 12th grade with mean age of 16.33 (SD = 1.29) participated in the study. Mediation analysis suggested that impact of trait-like perseverative thoughts on complaints were mediated by perceived stress and negative affectivity. Having an acute condition had also an effect on symptom reporting through increased negative affectivity. Our results highlight that ruminations or worry as stable intrapersonal characteristics are relevant processes in health and can be potential targets in prevention programmes in adolescence.
Ebesutani, Chad; Kim, Eunha; Young, John
Aggressive behaviors in youth tend to be relatively stable across the lifespan and are associated with maladaptive functioning later in life. Researchers have recently identified that both violence exposure and negative affective experiences are related to the development of aggressive behaviors. Children exposed to violence also often experience negative affect (NA) in the form of anxiety and depression. Bringing these findings together, the current study used a clinical sample of youth (N = 199; ages 7-17 years) referred to a psychiatric residential treatment facility to examine the specific contributions of NA and exposure to violence on the development of aggressive behaviors in youth. Using structural equation modeling, both NA and recent exposure to violence significantly predicted aggressive behaviors. More importantly, negative affect partially mediated the relationship between exposure to violence and aggression. Implications of these findings from a clinical perspective and future directions for research on aggression are discussed.
McLennan, J; Bates, G W
In two studies, 97 and 176 individuals (47 men and 50 women, M age 34.2 yr.; and 88 men and 88 women, M age 34.8) known to have experienced a recent period of psychological distress were compared with otherwise similar individuals who reported no such experience on measures of neuroticism, extraversion, and positive and negative affect. In both studies, the neuroticism measure was a significant independent discriminator between the groups while the negative affect measure was not. This suggests that (a) measures of neuroticism tap factors additional to those tapped by scales measuring only levels of characteristic negative affect and (b) these factors are related to individual differences in vulnerability to psychological distress.
Hill, Kaylin E; Samuel, Douglas B; Foti, Dan
The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neural measure of error processing that has been implicated as a neurobehavioral trait and has transdiagnostic links with psychopathology. Few studies, however, have contextualized this traitlike component with regard to dimensions of personality that, as intermediate constructs, may aid in contextualizing links with psychopathology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between error monitoring and dimensions of personality within a large adult sample (N = 208). Building on previous research, we found that the ERN relates to a combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness. At low levels of conscientiousness, negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative affect) predicted an increased ERN; at high levels of conscientiousness, the effect of negative urgency was not significant. This relationship was driven specifically by the conscientiousness facets of competence, order, and deliberation. Links between personality measures and error positivity amplitude were weaker and nonsignificant. Post-error slowing was also related to conscientiousness, as well as a different facet of impulsivity: lack of perseverance. These findings suggest that, in the general population, error processing is modulated by the joint combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness (i.e., the profile across traits), perhaps more so than any one dimension alone. This work may inform future research concerning aberrant error processing in clinical populations.
Abolghasemi, Abbas; Rajabi, Saied; Sheikhi, Moslem; Kiamarsi, Azar; Sadrolmamaleki, Vida
Objective: To compare resilience, positive/negative effect, and psychological vulnerability between fertile and infertile men. Methods: The research sample consisted of 40 fertile and 40 infertile men who were selected among men who presented to an infertility clinic. To collect data, Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Positive/Negative Affect Schedule, and Brief Symptoms Inventory were used. Results: The MANOVA results showed that infertile men had higher mean (SD) score for negative affect (46.15±8.31 vs. 23.10±8.50) and psychological vulnerability (37.90±12.39 vs. 23.30±6.40) than fertile men (P= 0.001); while infertile men had lower resilience (59.35±14.25 vs. 82.17±13.03) and positive affect (43.01±10.46 vs. 61.85±8.14) than fertile men (P= 0.001).The results of multiple regressions showed that resilience and negative affect had the highest significant contribution in prediction of psychological vulnerability in the infertile. Conclusion: Resilience and negative effects are the best predicators for mental vulnerability of infertile men. These factors may be addressed in future studies in infertile men. Declaration of Interest: None. PMID:24644494
Rubin, David C.; Boals, Adriel; Hoyle, Rick H.
Reactions to stressful negative events have long been studied using approaches based on either the narrative interpretation of the event or the traits of the individual. Here, we integrate these two approaches by using individual differences measures of both the narrative interpretation of the stressful event as central to one’s life and the personality characteristic of negative affectivity. We show that they each have independent contributions to stress reactions, and that high levels on both produce greater than additive effects. The effects on posttraumatic stress symptoms are substantial for both undergraduates (Study 1, n = 2,296; Study 3, n = 488) and veterans (Study 2, n = 104), with mean levels for participants low on both measures near floor on posttraumatic stress symptoms and those high on both measures scoring at or above diagnostic thresholds. Study 3 included three measures of narrative centrality and three of negative affectivity to demonstrate that the effects were not limited to a single measure. In Study 4 (n = 987), measures associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress correlated substantially with either with measures of narrative centrality or measures of negative affectivity. The concepts of narrative centrality and negative affectivity and the results are consistent with findings from clinical populations using similar measures and with current approaches to therapy. In broad non-clinical populations, such as those used here, the results suggest that we might be able to substantially increase our ability to account for the severity of stress response by including both concepts. PMID:24294867
Rubin, David C; Boals, Adriel; Hoyle, Rick H
Reactions to stressful negative events have long been studied using approaches based on either the narrative interpretation of the event or the traits of the individual. Here, we integrate these 2 approaches by using individual-differences measures of both the narrative interpretation of the stressful event as central to one's life and the personality characteristic of negative affectivity. We show that they each have independent contributions to stress reactions and that high levels on both produce greater than additive effects. The effects on posttraumatic stress symptoms are substantial for both undergraduates (Study 1, n = 2,296; Study 3, n = 488) and veterans (Study 2, n = 104), with mean levels for participants low on both measures near floor on posttraumatic stress symptoms and those high on both measures scoring at or above diagnostic thresholds. Study 3 included 3 measures of narrative centrality and 3 of negative affectivity to demonstrate that the effects were not limited to a single measure. In Study 4 (n = 987), measures associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress correlated substantially with either measures of narrative centrality or measures of negative affectivity. The concepts of narrative centrality and negative affectivity and the results are consistent with findings from clinical populations using similar measures and with current approaches to therapy. In broad nonclinical populations, such as those used here, the results suggest that we might be able to substantially increase our ability to account for the severity of stress response by including both concepts.
Joiner, T E; Catanzaro, S J; Laurent, J
The tripartite model of depression and anxiety suggests that depression and anxiety have shared (generalized negative affect) and specific (anhedonia and physiological hyperarousal) components. In one of the 1st studies to examine the structure of mood-related symptoms in youngsters, this model was tested among 116 child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients, ages 8-16 (M = 12.46; SD = 2.33). Consistent with the tripartite model, a 3-factor (Depression, Anxiety, and Negative Affect) model represented the observed data well. Follow-up analyses suggested that a nonhierarchical arrangement of the 3 factors may be preferable to a hierarchical one.
Zvolensky, Michael J; Gonzalez, Adam; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Bernstein, Amit; Goodwin, Renee D
The present investigation evaluated the incremental validity of negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies in the prediction of anxious and fearful responding to bodily sensations. Participants included 171 daily smokers (82 women, 89 men; mean age = 25.67 years, SD = 10.54). Consistent with prediction, negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies were significantly predictive of anxiety focused on bodily sensations and postchallenge intensity of cognitive panic attack symptoms, but not of physical panic symptoms. The observed effects were evident above and beyond the statistically significant variance accounted for by the covariates of anxiety sensitivity, negative affectivity, cigarettes per day, and weekly alcohol use and independent of other smoking outcome expectancy factors. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies and vulnerability for panic symptoms and psychopathology.
Abbasi, Irum Saeed
The influence of neuroticism on stress perception and its associated negative affect is explored in a quasi-experimental repeated measure study. The study involves manipulating the stress perception and affect of high N group (n = 24) and low N group (n = 28) three times; first, through exposure to neutral stimuli; second, through exposure to a laboratory stressor; third, through exposure to positive stimuli. The results reveal that after exposure to neutral stimuli, there is a significant difference in the baseline Perceived Stress Scores (PSS) (p = .005) and Negative Affect (NA) scores (p = .001) of the two groups. During the stress task, however, both groups show a non-significant difference in the PSS (p = .200) and NA scores (p = .367). After exposure to positive stimuli, there is a significant difference in the PSS scores (p = .001), but a non-significant difference in the NA scores (p = .661) of the two groups. When compared across three conditions, the high N group report significantly higher perceived stress (p = .002), but not significantly higher negative affect (p = .123) than the low N group. Finally for both PSS and NA scores, there is no interaction between neuroticism and any of the three treatment conditions (p = .176; p = .338, respectively). This study shows that the high N group may be at risk for health disparities due to maintaining a chronic higher baseline stress perception and negative affect state under neutral conditions, than the low N group. Implications of the study are discussed.
Gulley, Lauren D; Hankin, Benjamin L; Young, Jami F
Theories of temperament suggest that individual differences in affective reactivity (e.g., negative affectivity) may confer risk for internalizing psychopathology in youth and that self-regulatory aspects of temperament (e.g., effortful control) may protect against the deleterious effects of high negative affective reactivity. However, no study to date has examined how the relationship between temperament and youth internalizing psychopathology may be moderated by stress. The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the interaction of temperament (e.g., negative affectivity and effortful control) and stressors as a predictor of youth (ages 7-16; 56 % female; N = 576) depressive and anxious symptoms over a 3-month period. Findings show that at low levels of stress, high levels of effortful control protect against the development of depressive and anxious symptoms among youth with high levels of negative affectivity. However, at high levels of stress, this buffering effect is not observed. Gender and grade did not moderate this relationship. Overall, findings extend current understanding of how the interaction of individual psychosocial vulnerabilities and environmental factors may confer increased or decreased risk for depressive and anxious symptoms.
Gulley, Lauren D.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Young, Jami F.
Theories of temperament suggest that individual differences in affective reactivity (e.g., negative affectivity) may confer risk for internalizing psychopathology in youth and that self-regulatory aspects of temperament (e.g., effortful control) may protect against the deleterious effects of high negative affective reactivity. However, no study to date has examined how the relationship between temperament and youth internalizing psychopathology may be moderated by stress. The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the interaction of temperament (e.g., negative affectivity and effortful control) and stressors as a predictor of youth (ages 7–16; 56% female; N = 576) depressive and anxious symptoms over a 3-month period. Findings show that at low levels of stress, high levels of effortful control protect against the development of depressive and anxious symptoms among youth with high levels of negative affectivity. However, at high levels of stress, this buffering effect is not observed. Gender and grade did not moderate this relationship. Overall, findings extend current understanding of how the interaction of individual psychosocial vulnerabilities and environmental factors may confer increased or decreased risk for depressive and anxious symptoms. PMID:25870113
Otto, M W; Yeo, R A; Dougher, M J
Several lines of inquiry provide converging evidence for a critical role for the right cerebral hemisphere in negative affective experiences. This research includes the assessment of affective consequences of both focal cerebral lesions and pharmacological inactivation of one or the other hemisphere, as well as experimental and physiological techniques assessing differential hemispheric activation. The specific nature of right hemispheric involvement is conceptualized as a tendency to become activated by aversive experiences, and once activated, to process stimuli in a manner consistent with the right hemisphere's more negative affective tone. A theory of right hemisphere involvement in depressive affect is presented in detail and its relevance to clinical phenomena, e.g., the co-occurrence of depression and pain, and sex differences in depression, is examined, as is congruence with cognitive theories of depression.
van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart
Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect
van der Ploeg, Melanie M.; Brosschot, Jos F.; Thayer, Julian F.; Verkuil, Bart
Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect
Salvatore, Paola; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K.; Indic, Premananda; Maggini, Carlo; Tohen, Mauricio
Objectives Plausible candidates of psychopathological phenomena that may associate with or anticipate suicidal risk, include negative affects, including admixtures of dysphoria, depression and anxiety described mainly in nonpsychotic disorders. We ascertained the distribution of such affective features in various first-episode psychotic disorders and correlated these and other clinical and antecedent features with intake suicidal status. Methods We evaluated 516 adult subjects in first-lifetime episodes of various DSM-IV-TR psychotic disorders. Blinded, protocol-guided, assessments of clinical features ascertained in SCID examinations, self- and family reports and clinical records supported analyses of associations of suicide attempts at first-psychotic episodes with antecedent and intake clinical characteristics, including negative affects and diagnoses, using standard bivariate and multivariate methods. Results Negative affective features in various combinations were prevalent (90%) and at >75% in both affective and nonaffective psychotic disorders; anxious depression was most common (22%). We identified antecedent and intake clinical factors preliminarily associated with suicide attempts. Factors remaining independently associated in multivariate logistic modelling (ranked by OR) were: (a) prior suicide attempt, (b) prior aggressive assault, (c) bipolar-mixed state or psychotic major depression diagnosis, (d) prior dysphoria, (e) intake dysphoric-anxiousdepression, (f) prior impulsivity, (g) previous affective instability, (h) previous nonpsychotic depression, (i) previous decline in vital drive, and (j) prior sleep disturbances. Conclusions Various types and combinations of negative affective features (especially anxious depression with and without dysphoria) were prevalent across nonaffective as well as affective first psychotic episodes and strongly associated with suicide attempts. These findings extend previous observations in nonpsychotic disorders. PMID
Yuan, Su-Chuan; Weng, Shuo-Chun; Chou, Ming-Chih; Tang, Yih-Jing; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Chen, Der-Yuan; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Yu, Chia-Hui; Kuo, Hsien-Wen
The more support elderly people have from their family, the less likely they are to suffer from chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate how family support affects the PA middle-aged and elderly people engage in before and after they suffer from chronic diseases. We interviewed 428 middle-aged and elderly people using a structured questionnaire to measure their aerobic PA. Eighteen percent of middle-aged and elderly people did participate in PA after suffering from chronic diseases. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we found that middle-aged and elderly people who rely on family members when they are sick (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.08-3.25) and who are accompanied by family members (OR=2.09, 95%CI=1.20-3.62) when they are healthy are more likely to exercise. The more middle-aged and elderly people are supported by their family, the more likely they are to exercise. Strengthening family relationships should help reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases among middle-aged and elderly people.
Watson, David; Pennebaker, James W.
Studies involving several population types (300 college students and 222 adults) and an assessment of related research examined assumptions that stress adversely affects physical health. Results indicate that self-report measures tend to overestimate the true association between stress and health due to the existence of negative affectivity…
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Vasey, Michael W.
There is increasing recognition of temperamental influences on risk for psychopathology. Whereas the link between the broad temperament construct of negative affectivity (NA) and problems associated with anxiety and depression is now well-established, the mechanisms through which this link operate are not well understood. One possibility involves…
Atkinson, Melissa J.; Wade, Tracey D.
Objective: To investigate engagement in metacognitive acceptance and subsequent efficacy with respect to decreasing 2 risk factors for disordered eating, body dissatisfaction (BD), and negative affect (NA). Method: In a pilot experiment, 20 female undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 24.35, SD = 9.79) underwent a BD induction procedure, received…
Shackman, Jessica E; Pollak, Seth D
Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children's allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders.
Elbogen, Eric B.; Johnson, Sally C.; Newton, Virginia M.; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Vasterling, Jennifer J.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Beckham, Jean C.
Objective: Although criminal behavior in veterans has been cited as a growing problem, little is known about why some veterans are at increased risk for arrest. Theories of criminal behavior postulate that people who have been exposed to stressful environments or traumatic events and who report negative affect such as anger and irritability are at…
Geake, John G.; Gross, Miraca U. M.
A frequent reason for teachers not making special provisions for a gifted child is that the child is "not fitting in socially." The conjecture that a psychological source of such negative affect has evolved along with human language was tested with a large sample (N = 377) of teachers in England, Scotland, and Australia who were…
Dill, Edward J.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Gamm, Bridget K.
This study evaluated the validity of mediating pathways in predicting self-assessed negative affect from shyness/social withdrawal, peer rejection, victimization by peers (overt and relational), and the attitude that aggression is legitimate and warranted. Participants were 296 3rd through 5th graders (156 girls, 140 boys) from 10 elementary…
Telef, Bülent Baki
This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…
Tart, Candyce D.; Leyro, Teresa M.; Richter, Ashley; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A. J.
The present cross-sectional study evaluated whether people who engage in vigorous-intensity exercise are better able to regulate negative affective states, thereby changing core maintenance factors of smoking. Participants were a community sample of adults (n = 270) who completed self-report measures of physical activity, cigarette smoking, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affect. Consistent with hypothesis, vigorous-intensity exercise was related to lower levels of cigarette smoking, accounting for 10% of the variance in smoking. Additionally, negative affect mediated the relationship between vigorous-intensity physical activity and cigarette smoking, accounting for about 12% of this relation. Furthermore, these relationships were stronger for individuals with high anxiety sensitivity than for those with low anxiety sensitivity; including anxiety sensitivity as a moderator of the mediated relationship increased the amount of variance accounted for by negative affect to 17%. The findings are discussed in relation to developing further scientific insight into the mechanisms and pathways relevant to understanding the association among vigorous-intensity exercise, smoking, and emotional vulnerability. PMID:20171786
Tonnsen, Bridgette L.; Malone, Patrick S.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Roberts, Jane E.
Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) face high risk for anxiety disorders, yet no studies have explored FXS as a high-risk sample for investigating early manifestations of anxiety outcomes. Negative affect is one of the most salient predictors of problem behaviors and has been associated with both anxiety and autistic outcomes in clinical and…
O'Brien, Erin M; Atchison, James W; Gremillion, Henry A; Waxenberg, Lori B; Robinson, Michael E
Somatic focus refers to the tendency to notice and report physical symptoms, and has been investigated in relation to chronically painful conditions. This study investigated the relationship between somatic focus, as measured by the Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness (PILL), negative affect and pain. A secondary purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in these relationships. Participants included 280 chronic pain patients (69.6% females, 88.9% Caucasian), who completed a battery of self-report measures on somatic focus, pain, negative affect, coping, and dysfunction. Results for the overall sample revealed that the PILL shares considerable variance with measures of negative affect, particularly with the physiological components of anxiety and depression. When the results were analyzed separately for male and female patients, it was found that several components of negative affect and cognitive factors play a stronger role in predicting somatic focus among men compared to women. Additional analyses then examined whether somatic focus was predictive of male and female patients' pain reports. Results indicated that somatic focus explained a small, but unique amount of variance in female patients' pain reports, which differed from the relationship observed among male patients.
Hamad, Mona M.
This study investigated factors negatively affect English language speaking skills in Saudi colleges for girls in the South in terms of: a) Instructors. b) Students. c) Curriculum and textbook. d) English Language teaching methods and exercises. e) Teaching and learning environment. To collect data for the study, a questionnaire papers were…
SHACKMAN, JESSICA E.; POLLAK, SETH D.
Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children’s allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders. PMID:24914736
Crawford, Nicole A.; Schrock, Matthew; Woodruff-Borden, Janet
Research has traditionally focused on the role of genetic and environmental variables in the development and maintenance of childhood internalizing disorders. Temperament variables, such as negative affect and effortful control have gained considerable interest within the field of developmental psychopathology. Environmental factors such as…
Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross
School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…
Vasilieva, L G; Fufina, T Y; Gabdulkhakov, A G; Leonova, M M; Khatypov, R A; Shuvalov, V A
To explore the influence of the I(L177)H single mutation on the properties of the nearest bacteriochlorophylls (BChls), three reaction centers (RCs) bearing double mutations were constructed in the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and their properties and pigment content were compared with those of the correspondent single mutant RCs. Each pair of the mutations comprised the amino acid substitution I(L177)H and another mutation altering histidine ligand of BChl P(A) or BChl B(B). Contrary to expectations, the double mutation I(L177)H+H(L173)L does not bring about a heterodimer RC but causes a 46nm blue shift of the long-wavelength P absorbance band. The histidine L177 or a water molecule were suggested as putative ligands for P(A) in the RC I(L177)H+H(L173)L although this would imply a reorientation of the His backbone and additional rearrangements in the primary donor environment or even a repositioning of the BChl dimer. The crystal structure of the mutant I(L177)H reaction center determined to a resolution of 2.9Å shows changes at the interface region between the BChl P(A) and the monomeric BChl B(B). Spectral and pigment analysis provided evidence for β-coordination of the BChl B(B) in the double mutant RC I(L177)H+H(M182)L and for its hexacoordination in the mutant reaction center I(L177)H. Computer modeling suggests involvement of two water molecules in the β-coordination of the BChl B(B). Possible structural consequences of the L177 mutation affecting the coordination of the two BChls P(A) and B(B) are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial.
Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael
Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20) or negative affectivity (N = 20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger's faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger's face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood.
Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is regarded as a multifactorial disease in which alterations in the brain-gut axis signaling play a major role. The biopsychosocial model applied to the understanding of IBS pathophysiology assumes that psychosocial factors, interacting with peripheral/central neuroendocrine and immune changes, may induce symptoms of IBS, modulate symptom severity, influence illness experience and quality of life, and affect outcome. The present review focuses on the role of negative affects, including depression, anxiety, and anger, on pathogenesis and clinical expression of IBS. The potential role of the autonomic nervous system, stress-hormone system, and immune system in the pathophysiology of both negative affects and IBS are taken into account. Psychiatric comorbidity and subclinical variations in levels of depression, anxiety, and anger are further discussed in relation to the main pathophysiological and symptomatic correlates of IBS, such as sensorimotor functions, gut microbiota, inflammation/immunity, and symptom reporting.
Kahler, Christopher W.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth; Niaura, Raymond
Introduction: Bupropion and cognitive–behavioral treatment (CBT) for depression have been used as components of treatments designed to alleviate affective disturbance during smoking cessation. Studies of treatment-related changes in precessation affect or urges to smoke are needed to evaluate the proposed mechanisms of these treatments. Methods: The present report examines affective trajectories and urges to smoke prior to, on quit day, and after quitting in a sample of 524 smokers randomized to receive bupropion versus placebo and CBT versus standard smoking cessation CBT. Results: Bupropion and/or CBT did not affect the observed decreases in positive affect and increases in negative affect prior to cessation. However, on quit day, observed levels of negative affect and urges to smoke were diminished significantly among individuals receiving bupropion. Decreases in positive affect prior to quitting, lower levels of positive affect, and increased levels of negative affect and urges to smoke on quit day were each related to higher risk of smoking lapse. Depression proneness was an independent predictor of lower positive affect and higher negative affect but did not moderate the effects of bupropion on outcomes. In mediational analyses, the effect of bupropion was accounted for in part by lower negative affect and urges to smoke on quit day. Discussion: Results support the efficacy of bupropion in reducing relapse risk associated with urges to smoke and negative affect and suggest the need to better understand the role of low positive affect as a risk factor for early lapse. PMID:19574407
Mollet, Gina A; Harrison, David W
The current experiment examined the effects of hostility and a pain stressor on affective verbal learning. Participants were classified as high or low hostile and randomly assigned to a cold pressor or a non-cold pressor group. The subsequent effects on acquisition of the Auditory Affective Verbal Learning Test [AAVLT; Snyder, K. A., & Harrison, D. W. (1997). The Affective Verbal Learning Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 12(5), 477-482] were measured. As expected, high hostiles learned negative emotional words significantly better than they learned positive words. Additionally, high hostiles were impaired in their acquisition of verbal material relative to low hostile participants. A significant primacy effect for negative emotional words and an overall better recall of negative information was also found. These results support the idea that high hostiles differ from low hostiles in a number of modalities and demonstrate the persistence of negative emotional material. Future work should address the implications these results have on high hostiles in daily interactions.
Tuvblad, Catherine; Bezdjian, Serena; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.
Purpose Previous studies that have explored the relationship between parenting style and children’s antisocial behavior have generally found significant bidirectional effects, whereby parenting behaviors influence their child’s antisocial outcomes, but a child’s behaviors also lead to changes in parenting style. Methods The present study investigated the genetic and environmental underpinnings of the longitudinal relationship between negative parent-to-child affect and psychopathic personality in a sample of 1,562 twins. Using a biometrical cross-lag analysis, bidirectional effects were investigated across two waves of assessment when the twins were ages 9–10 and 14–15, utilizing both caregiver and youth self-reports. Results Results demonstrated that negative parental affects observed at ages 9–10 influenced the child’s later psychopathic personality at ages 14–15, based on both caregiver and youth self-reports. For these ‘parent-driven effects’, both genetic and non-shared environmental factors were important in the development of later psychopathic personality during adolescence. There were additional ‘child-driven effects’ such that children’s psychopathic personality at ages 9–10 influenced negative parent-to-child affect at ages 14–15, but only within caregiver reports. Conclusions Thus, children’s genetically influenced psychopathic personality seemed to evoke parental negativity at ages 14–15, highlighting the importance of investigating bidirectional effects in parent-child relationships to understand the development of these traits. PMID:24223446
Quest, Kelsey M; Byiers, Breanne J; Payen, Ameante; Symons, Frank J
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting females. It is characterized by apparently normative development of motor and communicative abilities followed by deterioration in these domains. Stereotypic hand movements are one of the core diagnostic criteria for RTT. There is some anecdotal but limited scientific evidence that changes in hand stereotypy may be a sign of increased anxiety or arousal (i.e., a 'stress response') in RTT. Understanding stress responsivity is difficult in RTT because almost all individuals are nonverbal or otherwise severely communicatively impaired. This study used direct behavioral observation to quantify and compare the frequency of hand stereotypy and signs of negative affect during presumed periods of high and low stress associated with functional analysis conditions (negative reinforcement ['escape'] and control ['free play'], respectively) for 5 females with RTT (mean age=17.8; range 4-47). Negative affect was more likely to occur during negative reinforcement ('stress') conditions for each participant whereas hand stereotypies did not differ across conditions for any of the participants. Although preliminary, the results suggest that hand stereotypy may not be a valid behavioral 'stress-response' indicator in females with RTT. Alternatively, the approach we used may have been limited and not sufficient to evoke a stress response. Either way, more work with direct relevance to improving our understanding of hand stereotypy and anxiety in RTT in relation to social context appears warranted.
Gable, Philip; Harmon-Jones, Eddie
Positive and negative affects high in motivational intensity cause a narrowing of attentional focus. In contrast, positive affects low in motivational intensity cause a broadening of attentional focus. The attentional consequences of negative affects low in motivational intensity have not been experimentally investigated. Experiment 1 compared the attentional consequences of negative affect low in motivational intensity (sadness) relative to a neutral affective state. Results indicated that low-motivation negative affect caused attentional broadening. Experiment 2 found that disgust, a high-motivation negative affect not previously investigated in attentional studies, narrowed attentional focus. These experiments support the conceptual model linking high-motivation affective states to narrowed attention and low-motivation affective states to broadened attention.
Prather, Aric A.; Bogdan, Ryan; Ahmad R. Hariri, PhD
Objective Research demonstrates a negative impact of sleep disturbance on mood and affect; however, the biological mechanisms mediating these links are poorly understood. Amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli has emerged as one potential pathway. Here, we investigate the influence of self-reported sleep quality on associations between threat-related amygdala reactivity and measures of negative affect and perceived stress. Methods Analyses on data from 299 participants (125 men, 50.5% white, mean [standard deviation] age = 19.6 [1.3] years) who completed the Duke Neurogenetics Study were conducted. Participants completed several self-report measures of negative affect and perceived stress. Threat-related (i.e., angry and fearful facial expressions) amygdala reactivity was assayed using blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results Amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions predicted greater depressive symptoms and higher perceived stress in poor (β values = 0.18–1.86, p values < .05) but not good sleepers (β values = −0.13 to −0.01, p values > .05). In sex-specific analyses, men reporting poorer global sleep quality showed a significant association between amygdala reactivity and levels of depression and perceived stress (β values = 0.29–0.44, p values < .05). In contrast, no significant associations were observed in men reporting good global sleep quality or in women, irrespective of sleep quality. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence that self-reported sleep quality moderates the relationships between amygdala reactivity, negative affect, and perceived stress, particularly among men. PMID:23592753
Leung, Mei-Kei; Lau, Way K W; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Wong, Samuel S Y; Fung, Annis L C; Lee, Tatia M C
Recent evidence suggests that the effects of meditation practice on affective processing and resilience have the potential to induce neuroplastic changes within the amygdala. Notably, literature speculates that meditation training may reduce amygdala activity during negative affective processing. Nonetheless, studies have thus far not verified this speculation. In this longitudinal study, participants (N = 21, 9 men) were trained in awareness-based compassion meditation (ABCM) or matched relaxation training. The effects of meditation training on amygdala activity were examined during passive viewing of affective and neutral stimuli in a non-meditative state. We found that the ABCM group exhibited significantly reduced anxiety and right amygdala activity during negative emotion processing than the relaxation group. Furthermore, ABCM participants who performed more compassion practice had stronger right amygdala activity reduction during negative emotion processing. The lower right amygdala activity after ABCM training may be associated with a general reduction in reactivity and distress. As all participants performed the emotion processing task in a non-meditative state, it appears likely that the changes in right amygdala activity are carried over from the meditation practice into the non-meditative state. These findings suggest that the distress-reducing effects of meditation practice on affective processing may transfer to ordinary states, which have important implications on stress management.
Bellack, A S; Mueser, K T; Wade, J; Sayers, S; Morrison, R L
Thirty-four schizophrenic patients in an acute in-patient hospital were compared with 24 in-patients with major affective disorder and 19 non-patient controls on a role-play test of social skills and a test of affect perception. The role-play test consisted of 12 simulated conversations in which the subject was confronted by parents and friends expressing high-EE criticism or non-critical dissatisfaction. Schizophrenic patients lacked assertiveness and social skills in all conditions, but they did not show any differential impairment when presented with high EE. They consistently lied and denied errors rather than responding assertively or apologizing, whether confronted with high-EE or benign criticisms. On the affect perception test, schizophrenic patients consistently underestimated the intensity or negativeness of negative emotions, but they were not deficient in perception of positive emotional displays. The data do not support the hypothesis that schizophrenic patients are poor at dealing with high-EE behaviours, but do indicate that their ability to cope with even mild negative affect is impaired. Possible explanations for this impairment include limited attentional capacity, a neurologically based perceptual deficit, and a self-protective mechanism to reduce or avoid stress.
Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi
Cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were sprayed with fluoranthene and mixture of fluoranthene and mannitol solutions for 30d. The exposure was carried out in growth chambers in field conditions, and the air was filtered through charcoal filters to remove atmospheric contaminants. Plants were sprayed with 10microM fluoranthene as mist until they reached the fruiting stage, and the eco-physiological parameters were measured to determine the effects of the treatments. We measured CO(2) uptake and water vapour exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, visual symptoms and biomass allocation. Fluoranthene which was deposited as mist onto leaves negatively affected both growth and the quality of tomato plants, while other treatments did not. The photosynthetic rate measured at saturated irradiance was approximately 37% lower in fluoranthene-treated plants compared with the control group. Other variables, such as stomata conductance, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark, Chl a, Chl b, and the total chlorophyll contents of the tomato leaves were significantly reduced in the fluoranthene-treated plants. Tomato plants treated with fluoranthene showed severe visible injury symptoms on the foliage during the exposure period. Mannitol (a reactive oxygen scavenger) mitigated effects of fluoranthene; thus, reactive oxygen species generated through fluoranthene may be responsible for the damaged tomato plants. It is possible for fluoranthene to decrease the aesthetic and hence the economic value of this valuable crop plant.
Armeli, Stephen; Conner, Tamlin S; Cullum, Jerry; Tennen, Howard
We examined among college students (N = 530; 276 women) the moderating effects of avoidance (coping) and appetitive (social-enhancement) drinking motives on the within-person associations between anxious and depressive affect and drinking frequency and quantity. Once per year for up to 4 years participants completed standard measures of drinking motives and retrospective reports of affect and drinking in the previous month. In addition, each year they completed a 30-day daily diary of affect and drinking. Results from models examining both the retrospective and aggregate daily data indicated that individuals with high compared with low social-enhancement motives showed stronger positive associations among changes in monthly negative affect and drinking frequency. Weak evidence was found for the predicted moderating effects of coping motives, although some results indicated that its effects were contingent on levels of social-enhancement motives. Our findings suggest that appetitive drinking motives might play an integral role in stress- and negative-affect related drinking among college students.
Armeli, Stephen; Sullivan, Tami P.; Tennen, Howard
Objective: Consistent with research indicating that drinking to cope (DTC) motivation might exacerbate negative affective states within or immediately proximal to discrete drinking episodes, we examined whether yearly deviations in more global levels of DTC motivation prospectively predicted depressive and anxious affect over several weeks. Method: College students (N = 521, 52% women) completed baseline measures of drinking motives, recent depression and anxiety symptoms, recent alcohol use, and alcohol use disorder symptoms on a secure website. Approximately 2 weeks after completing this survey, participants completed the 30-day daily diary portion of the study in which they reported on their current-day affective states. This yearly assessment burst in which participants completed a baseline survey and a daily diary assessment was repeated for 3 additional years. Results: We found that changes in DTC motivation were positively associated with changes in depressive and anxious affect in the subsequent month, after we controlled for changes in concurrent anxiety and depressive symptoms, drinking level, enhancement drinking motivation, and alcohol use disorder symptoms. Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with the notion that DTC motivation confers a unique vulnerability for emotion dysregulation, and that drinking for such reasons possibly prolongs or exacerbates negative affective states. PMID:26098033
Perry, Yael; Henry, Julie D; Nangle, Matthew R; Grisham, Jessica R
Although general emotion coping difficulties are well documented in schizophrenia, there has been limited study of specific regulatory strategies such as suppression, reappraisal, and acceptance. In the present study, clinical and control participants were asked to watch video clips selected to elicit negative affect while engaging in one of these three different emotion regulation strategies (counterbalanced), versus a passive viewing condition. The experiential and expressive components of emotion were quantified using self-report and facial electromyography, respectively. A major finding was that, in contrast to control participants, individuals with schizophrenia did not report a greater willingness to reexperience negative emotion after engaging in acceptance. These data are discussed in the context of evidence highlighting the potentially important role of acceptance in understanding affective abnormalities in clinical conditions such as schizophrenia.
Mena, Christina G; Macfie, Jenny; Strimpfel, Jennifer M
Research has examined temperament in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) but not in their offspring, despite offspring's risk of developing BPD and the importance of temperament in the etiology of BPD. We recruited a low-socioeconomic sample of 36 mothers with BPD and their children ages 4 through 7, and 34 normative comparisons. Replicating prior studies, mothers with BPD reported themselves as having more negative affectivity (frustration, fear) and less effortful control (inhibitory control, attentional control, activation control) than did comparisons. Mothers with BPD also reported that their offspring had more negative affectivity (anger/frustration, fear) and less effortful control (inhibitory control, attentional focusing) than did comparisons. We were concerned about potential bias and shared method variance. We therefore provided validity support for mothers' ratings of their children with teacher ratings of child behavior and child self-report via their story-stem completion narratives. We discuss children's temperamental vulnerability versus differential susceptibility to the environment.
Tasca, Giorgio A; Kowal, John; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Virley, Barbara; Bissada, Hany
The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of attachment insecurity in a clinical sample of 268 eating disordered women. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, BMI, perceived pressure to diet, body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and negative affect were assessed. A heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking women with a diagnosed eating disorder completed psychometric tests prior to receiving treatment. The data were analysed using structural equation modeling. Fit indices indicated that the hypothesized model fit adequately to the data. Although cross-sectional in nature, the data suggested that attachment insecurity may lead to negative affect. As well, attachment insecurity may lead to body dissatisfaction, which in turn may lead to restrained eating among women with eating disorders. Attachment insecurity could be a possible vulnerability factor for the development of eating disorder symptoms among women.
Craigie, Mark; Osseiran-Moisson, Rebecca; Hemsworth, David; Aoun, Samar; Francis, Karen; Brown, Janie; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare
For this study, we examined the nature of the unique relationships trait-negative affect and compassion satisfaction had with compassion fatigue and its components of secondary traumatic stress and burnout in 273 nurses from 1 metropolitan tertiary acute hospital in Western Australia. Participants completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale (Stamm, 2010), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 2004), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983). Bivariate correlation and hierarchical regression analyses were performed to examine and investigate 4 hypotheses. The results demonstrate a clear differential pattern of relationships with secondary traumatic stress and burnout for both trait-negative affect and compassion satisfaction. Trait-negative affect was clearly the more important factor in terms of its contribution to overall compassion fatigue and secondary traumatic stress. In contrast, compassion satisfaction's unique protective relationship only related to burnout, and not secondary traumatic stress. The results are therefore consistent with the view that compassion satisfaction may be an important internal resource that protects against burnout, but is not directly influential in protecting against secondary traumatic stress for nurses working in an acute-care hospital environment. With the projected nursing workforce shortages in Australia, it is apparent that a further understanding is warranted of how such personal variables may work as protective and risk factors.
Beck, R; Miller, J P
The authors investigated the effects of religiosity and negative affect on beliefs in the paranormal and supernatural among 94 undergraduate students enrolled in psychology classes at a small, private U.S. university. They hypothesized that religiosity would predict differential beliefs in the supernatural versus the paranormal but that negative affect would attenuate these beliefs. In addition, the authors predicted that belief in the supernatural and negative affect would interact to predict belief in the paranormal. Overall, the results were consistent with predictions. The religious participants were skeptical of paranormal phenomena but were accepting of supernatural phenomena. In addition, increased reports of negative affect over the preceding year appeared to attenuate belief in the supernatural for the religious participants. By contrast, for the nonreligious participants, increased belief in both the supernatural and paranormal was predicted when reports of negative affect were high. Finally, the interaction of supernatural belief and negative affect significantly predicted belief in the paranormal.
Green, ReJoyce; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O; Ray, Lara A
Heavy drinking smokers represent a sizeable subgroup of smokers for whom nicotine deprivation and alcohol use increases the urge to smoke in the laboratory and predicts lapses during smoking cessation. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e. smoking topography) provides a reliable index of smoking intensity and reinforcement, yet the effects of affect on smoking topography have not been thoroughly examined in heavy drinking smokers. The current study examined how affect and nicotine deprivation predict smoking behavior as participants (N=27) smoked one cigarette using a smoking topography device after 12-h of nicotine abstinence and after a priming dose of alcohol (target BrAC=0.06g/dl). Primary smoking topography measures were puff volume, velocity, duration, and inter-puff interval (IPI). The effect of nicotine deprivation was measured by the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Measures were obtained at baseline (i.e. 12-h of nicotine abstinence and pre-alcohol) and 30-minutes after alcohol administration (i.e. peak BrAC). Results revealed post-priming negative affect significantly moderated the trajectories of puff volume, puff duration and IPI (p's<0.05) over the course of the cigarette, such that those with greater negative affect had flatter slopes for volume and duration and increasingly infrequent puffs. Our results suggest that baseline and post-priming negative affect following nicotine deprivation alters smoking patterns and increases nicotine exposure throughout a single cigarette. Future studies need to examine differential amounts of nicotine deprivation on response to alcohol and smoking in heavy drinking smokers.
Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H.; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael
Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20) or negative affectivity (N = 20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger’s faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger’s face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802
Shiozaki, Mariko; Hirai, Kei; Koyama, Atsuko; Inui, Hiroki; Yoshida, Rika; Tokoro, Akihiro
Significant others play an important role in providing support in patients' lives, but some types of support negatively affect the patients. This study was conducted in early-stage breast cancer patients to examine the structure of support, which was provided by their significant others and assessed negatively by the patients, and to identify negative support relating to the psychological adjustment of these patients. Thus, we first conducted interviews among 28 breast cancer patients to identify these support items assessed as negative; next, we conducted a questionnaire survey using the resulting items in 109 postoperative patients who had early-stage breast cancer. We performed exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and obtained a valid second-order factor structure, including superordinate factors (excessive engagement, avoidance of problems and underestimation) and subordinate factors (overprotection, encouragement and management). Among these factors, the avoidance of problems was the only factor to be negatively associated with psychological adjustment of the patients, suggesting that these patients receive problem-avoiding support. The results of our study suggest that such problem-avoiding support from significant others can be counter-productive and potentially worsen the psychological adjustment of breast cancer patients.
Luck, Camilla C; Lipp, Ottmar V
Negative conditional stimulus (CS) valence acquired during fear conditioning may enhance fear relapse and is difficult to remove as it extinguishes slowly and does not respond to the instruction that unconditional stimulus (US) presentations will cease. We examined whether instructions targeting CS valence would be more effective. In Experiment 1, an image of one person (CS+) was paired with an aversive US, while another (CS-) was presented alone. After acquisition, participants were given positive information about the CS+ poser and negative information about the CS- poser. Instructions reversed the pattern of differential CS valence present during acquisition and eliminated differential electrodermal responding. In Experiment 2, we compared positive and negative CS revaluation by providing positive/negative information about the CS+ and neutral information about CS-. After positive revaluation, differential valence was removed and differential electrodermal responding remained intact. After negative revaluation, differential valence was strengthened and differential electrodermal responding was eliminated. Unexpectedly, the instructions did not affect the reinstatement of differential electrodermal responding.
Tolomeo, Serenella; Christmas, David; Jentzsch, Ines; Johnston, Blair; Sprengelmeyer, Reiner; Matthews, Keith; Douglas Steele, J
Converging evidence has linked the anterior mid-cingulate cortex to negative affect, pain and cognitive control. It has previously been proposed that this region uses information about punishment to control aversively motivated actions. Studies on the effects of lesions allow causal inferences about brain function; however, naturally occurring lesions in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex are rare. In two studies we therefore recruited 94 volunteers, comprising 15 patients with treatment-resistant depression who had received bilateral anterior cingulotomy, which consists of lesions made within the anterior mid-cingulate cortex, 20 patients with treatment-resistant depression who had not received surgery and 59 healthy control subjects. Using the Ekman 60 faces paradigm and two Stroop paradigms, we tested the hypothesis that patients who received anterior cingulotomy were impaired in recognizing negative facial affect expressions but not positive or neutral facial expressions, and impaired in Stroop cognitive control, with larger lesions being associated with more impairment. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that larger volume lesions predicted more impairment in recognizing fear, disgust and anger, and no impairment in recognizing facial expressions of surprise or happiness. However, we found no impairment in recognizing expressions of sadness. Also consistent with the hypothesis, we found that larger volume lesions predicted impaired Stroop cognitive control. Notably, this relationship was only present when anterior mid-cingulate cortex lesion volume was defined as the overlap between cingulotomy lesion volume and Shackman's meta-analysis-derived binary masks for negative affect and cognitive control. Given substantial evidence from healthy subjects that the anterior mid-cingulate cortex is part of a network associated with the experience of negative affect and pain, engaging cognitive control processes for optimizing behaviour in the presence of such
Wonderlich, Joseph A.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott G.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crosby, Ross D.
Objective Data gathered via retrospective forms of assessment are subject to various recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is an alternative approach involving repeated momentary assessments within a participant's natural environment, thus reducing recall biases and improving ecological validity. EMA has been used in numerous prior studies examining various constructs of theoretical relevance to eating disorders. Method This investigation includes data from three previously published studies with distinct clinical samples: (a) women with anorexia nervosa (N=118), (b) women with bulimia nervosa (N=133), and (c) obese men and women (N=50; 9 with current binge eating disorder). Each study assessed negative affective states and eating disorder behaviors using traditional retrospective assessments and EMA. Spearman rho correlations were used to evaluate the concordance of retrospective versus EMA measures of affective and/or behavioral constructs in each sample. Bland-Altman plots were also used to further evaluate concordance in the assessment of eating disorder behaviors. Results There was moderate to strong concordance for the measures of negative affective states across all three studies. Moderate to strong concordance was also found for the measures of binge eating and exercise frequency. The strongest evidence of concordance across measurement approaches was found for purging behaviors. Discussion Overall, these preliminary findings support the convergence of retrospective and EMA assessments of both negative affective states and various eating disorder behaviors. Given the advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these assessment approaches, the specific questions being studied in future empirical studies should inform decisions regarding selection of the most appropriate method. PMID:25195932
Fodor, Oana C.; Pintea, Sebastian
The experience of work in an entrepreneurial context is saturated with emotional experiences. While the literature on the relation between affect and entrepreneurial performance (EP) is growing, there was no quantitative integration of the results so far. This study addresses this gap and meta-analytically integrates the results from 17 studies (N = 3810) in order to estimate the effect size for the relation between positive (PA) and negative affect (NA), on the one hand, and EP, on the other hand. The meta-analysis includes studies in English language, published until August 2016. The results indicate a significant positive relation between PA and EP, r = 0.18. The overall NA – EP relation was not significant, r = -0.12. Only state NA has a significant negative relation with EP (r = -0.16). The moderating role of several conceptual (i.e., emotion duration, integrality etc.), sample (i.e., gender, age, education) and methodological characteristics of the studies (i.e., type of measurements etc.) are explored and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:28348534
Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K
With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper.
Wright, Alexandra J; de Kroon, Hans; Visser, Eric J W; Buchmann, Tina; Ebeling, Anne; Eisenhauer, Nico; Fischer, Christine; Hildebrandt, Anke; Ravenek, Janneke; Roscher, Christiane; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Mommer, Liesje
Flooding is expected to increase in frequency and severity in the future. The ecological consequences of flooding are the combined result of species-specific plant traits and ecological context. However, the majority of past flooding research has focused on individual model species under highly controlled conditions. An early summer flooding event in a grassland biodiversity experiment in Jena, Germany, provided the opportunity to assess flooding responses of 60 grassland species in monocultures and 16-species mixtures. We examined plant biomass, species-specific traits (plant height, specific leaf area (SLA), root aerenchyma, starch content) and soil porosity. We found that, on average, plant species were less negatively affected by the flood when grown in higher-diversity plots in July 2013. By September 2013, grasses were unaffected by the flood regardless of plant diversity, and legumes were severely negatively affected regardless of plant diversity. Plants with greater SLA and more root aerenchyma performed better in September. Soil porosity was higher in higher-diversity plots and had a positive effect on plant performance. As floods become more frequent and severe in the future, growing flood-sensitive plants in higher-diversity communities and in soil with greater soil aeration may attenuate the most negative effects of flooding.
Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro
East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect-but not recalled negative affect-for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans' life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life.
Sobkow, Agata; Traczyk, Jakub; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz
Recent research has documented that affect plays a crucial role in risk perception. When no information about numerical risk estimates is available (e.g., probability of loss or magnitude of consequences), people may rely on positive and negative affect toward perceived risk. However, determinants of affective reactions to risks are poorly understood. In a series of three experiments, we addressed the question of whether and to what degree mental imagery eliciting negative affect and stress influences risk perception. In each experiment, participants were instructed to visualize consequences of risk taking and to rate riskiness. In Experiment 1, participants who imagined negative risk consequences reported more negative affect and perceived risk as higher compared to the control condition. In Experiment 2, we found that this effect was driven by affect elicited by mental imagery rather than its vividness and intensity. In this study, imagining positive risk consequences led to lower perceived risk than visualizing negative risk consequences. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that negative affect related to higher perceived risk was caused by negative feelings of stress. In Experiment 3, we introduced risk-irrelevant stress to show that participants in the stress condition rated perceived risk as higher in comparison to the control condition. This experiment showed that higher ratings of perceived risk were influenced by psychological stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that affect-laden mental imagery dramatically changes risk perception through negative affect (i.e., psychological stress).
Sobkow, Agata; Traczyk, Jakub; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz
Recent research has documented that affect plays a crucial role in risk perception. When no information about numerical risk estimates is available (e.g., probability of loss or magnitude of consequences), people may rely on positive and negative affect toward perceived risk. However, determinants of affective reactions to risks are poorly understood. In a series of three experiments, we addressed the question of whether and to what degree mental imagery eliciting negative affect and stress influences risk perception. In each experiment, participants were instructed to visualize consequences of risk taking and to rate riskiness. In Experiment 1, participants who imagined negative risk consequences reported more negative affect and perceived risk as higher compared to the control condition. In Experiment 2, we found that this effect was driven by affect elicited by mental imagery rather than its vividness and intensity. In this study, imagining positive risk consequences led to lower perceived risk than visualizing negative risk consequences. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that negative affect related to higher perceived risk was caused by negative feelings of stress. In Experiment 3, we introduced risk-irrelevant stress to show that participants in the stress condition rated perceived risk as higher in comparison to the control condition. This experiment showed that higher ratings of perceived risk were influenced by psychological stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that affect-laden mental imagery dramatically changes risk perception through negative affect (i.e., psychological stress). PMID:27445901
Heilig, M.; Egli, M.; Crabbe, J.C.; Becker, H.C.
The role of withdrawal-related phenomena in development and maintenance of alcohol addiction remains under debate. A “self-medication” framework postulates that emotional changes are induced by a history of alcohol use, persist into abstinence, and are a major factor in maintaining alcoholism. This view initially focused on negative emotional states during early withdrawal: these are pronounced, occur in the vast majority of alcohol dependent patients, and are characterized by depressed mood and elevated anxiety. This concept lost popularity with the realization that, in most patients, these symptoms abate over 3 – 6 weeks of abstinence, while relapse risk persists long beyond this period. More recently, animal data have established that a prolonged history of alcohol dependence induces more subtle neuroadaptations. These confer altered emotional processing that persists long into protracted abstinence. The resulting behavioral phenotype is characterized by excessive voluntary alcohol intake and increased behavioral sensitivity to stress. Emerging human data support the clinical relevance of negative emotionality for protracted abstinence and relapse. These developments prompt a series of research questions: 1) Are processes observed during acute withdrawal, while transient in nature, mechanistically related to those that remain during protracted abstinence? 2) Is susceptibility to negative emotionality in acute withdrawal in part due to heritable factors, similar to what animal models have indicated for susceptibility to physical aspects of withdrawal? 3) To what extent is susceptibility to negative affect that persists into protracted abstinence heritable? PMID:20148778
Maia, Deborah B.; Marmar, Charles R.; Henn-Haase, Clare; Nóbrega, Augusta; Fiszman, Adriana; Marques-Portella, Carla; Mendlowicz, Mauro V.; Coutinho, Evandro S.F.; Figueira, Ivan
Background Exposure to traumatic events is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pretrauma, peritrauma and posttrauma factors interact to impact on symptom severity. The aim of the present study is to determine risk factors for PTSD symptoms in Brazilian police officers. Method In a cross-sectional sample of active duty officers (n = 212), participants were asked to complete a socio-demographic questionnaire and self-report scales on affective traits, cumulative critical incident exposure, peritraumatic distress and dissociation, PTSD symptoms, and social support. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to examine predictors of PTSD symptoms. Results Variables related to negative affect, job duration, frequency of critical incident exposure, peritraumatic dissociation, and lack of social support remained significant in the final model and explained 55% of the variance in PTSD symptoms. When interaction terms were evaluated, a synergistic effect between negative affect and peritraumatic dissociation was found. Conclusions The risk factors found in this study provide clues on how to elaborate primary prevention strategies regarding PTSD symptoms in police officers. Such initiatives may lessen the impact of repeated exposure to traumatic events on police officers over the course of their careers. PMID:22189925
Boone, M.D.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.
We examined the interactive effects of overwintered Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles and pond hydroperiod on a community of larval amphibians in outdoor mesocosms including American Toads (Bufo americanus), Southern Leopard Frogs (Rana sphenocephala), and Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) - species within the native range of Bullfrogs. Spotted Salamanders and Southern Leopard Frogs were negatively influenced by the presence of overwintered Bullfrogs. Spotted Salamanders had shorter larval periods and slightly smaller masses at metamorphosis, and Southern Leopard Frogs had smaller masses at metamorphosis when reared with Bullfrogs than without. Presence of overwintered Bullfrogs, however, did not significantly affect American Toads. Longer pond hydroperiods resulted in greater survival, greater size at metamorphosis, longer larval periods, and later time until emergence of the first metamorphs for Southern Leopard Frog tadpoles and Spotted Salamander larvae. Our study demonstrated that overwintered Bullfrog tadpoles can respond to changing pond hydroperiods and can negatively impact metamorphosis of native amphibians.
Kuhlmann, Michael; Hofmann, Markus J; Briesemeister, Benny B; Jacobs, Arthur M
Single words have affective and aesthetic properties that influence their processing. Here we investigated the processing of a special case of word stimuli that are extremely difficult to evaluate, bivalent noun-noun-compounds (NNCs), i.e. novel words that mix a positive and negative noun, e.g. 'Bombensex' (bomb-sex). In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment we compared their processing with easier-to-evaluate non-bivalent NNCs in a valence decision task (VDT). Bivalent NNCs produced longer reaction times and elicited greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) than non-bivalent words, especially in contrast to words of negative valence. We attribute this effect to a LIFG-grounded process of semantic integration that requires greater effort for processing converse information, supporting the notion of a valence representation based on associations in semantic networks.
Kuhlmann, Michael; Hofmann, Markus J.; Briesemeister, Benny B.; Jacobs, Arthur M.
Single words have affective and aesthetic properties that influence their processing. Here we investigated the processing of a special case of word stimuli that are extremely difficult to evaluate, bivalent noun-noun-compounds (NNCs), i.e. novel words that mix a positive and negative noun, e.g. ‘Bombensex’ (bomb-sex). In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment we compared their processing with easier-to-evaluate non-bivalent NNCs in a valence decision task (VDT). Bivalent NNCs produced longer reaction times and elicited greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) than non-bivalent words, especially in contrast to words of negative valence. We attribute this effect to a LIFG-grounded process of semantic integration that requires greater effort for processing converse information, supporting the notion of a valence representation based on associations in semantic networks. PMID:27491491
Davis, Seth; Ferrar, Saskia; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Binik, Yitzchak; Carrier, Serge
Peyronie's disease (PD) has a negative impact on men's sexual functioning and quality of life, but little is known about why some men cope better than others and what the effects of PD are on their relationships. The aims of the present study were to describe negative affect, pain, and relationship and sexual satisfaction in men with PD, and to explore their psychosocial correlates. Participants were 110 men diagnosed with PD. All men completed questionnaires. The main outcome measures were as follows: Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Negative Affect Scale. The predictor variables were the following: Experience of Shame Scale, Body Esteem Scale, Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale, Index of Male Genital Image, a modified Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and a modified Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Although men with PD had mean sexual/relationship satisfaction and negative affect scores indicating mild impairment, there was a wide range of variation, with 42% to 52% scoring in the clinical range. Catastrophizing was significantly associated with reduced sexual satisfaction and increased negative affect and pain. Shame was also associated with increased negative affect. The significant associations of relationship satisfaction were partner responses and shame. Given the lack of curative treatment in PD, understanding why some men cope better than others may guide therapy. Shame, catastrophizing, and partner responses may be important therapeutic targets.
Lindauer, Steven E.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Fisher, Wayne W.
This study evaluated effects of an enriched environment, based on a paired-choice preference assessment, on rates of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and frequency of negative affect displayed by a woman with mental retardation and a mood disorder. Results suggested that SIB and negative affect were highly correlated and that the enriched environment…
Park, Andres E; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M; Baker, Laura A
Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress.
Pires, Pedro; Filgueiras, Alberto; Ribas, Rodolfo; Santana, Cristina
This study is about the validity and item analysis for the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), respectively through the Exploratory Factor Analysis (principal components method) and the Partial Credit Model (PCM). The scale has been largely used in areas ranging from clinical to social psychology since its release in 1988 by Watson, Clark, and Tellegen. In order to assess validity and item properties (Item Response Theory paradigm), this is study administered PANAS to 354 respondents, 115 male and 239 female subjects, with an average age of 29.5 (SD = 10,18). The results show PANAS's excellent psychometric properties, with consistent dimensions and reliable item functioning, considering the Rasch measurement paradigm expressed in the PCM as an Item Response Theory model for polytomous data. The study considers important cultural issues and the results support more cautious translations for scales as well as further studies concerned with cross-cultural differences on the perception of affect states.
May, Emily M; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Ferrari, Joseph; Noel, Nicole; Jason, Leonard A
Goal-oriented thinking, including hope and self-efficacy, might play a constructive and integral role in the substance abuse recovery process, although such an effect may differ by race. The current study investigated hope and self-efficacy, specifically abstinence self-efficacy, as predictors of negative affect (i.e. depression and anxiety) in a longitudinal sample of men and women in substance abuse recovery who lived in sober living homes. We found hope agency and self-efficacy were related but not identical constructs; hope agency and self-efficacy predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms for individuals in recovery, yet these relationships were moderated by race. Theoretical and clinical implications for promoting positive affect among individuals in substance abuse recovery are discussed.
Erbacher, Monica K; Schmidt, Karen M; Boker, Steven M; Bergeman, Cindy S
Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are important constructs in health and well-being research. Good longitudinal measurement is crucial to conducting meaningful research on relationships between affect, health, and well-being across the lifespan. One common affect measure, the PANAS, has been evaluated thoroughly with factor analysis, but not with Racsh-based latent trait models (RLTMs) such as the Partial Credit Model (PCM), and not longitudinally. Current longitudinal RLTMs can computationally handle few occasions of data. The present study compares four methods of anchoring PCMs across 56 occasions to longitudinally evaluate the psychometric properties of the PANAS plus additional items. Anchoring item parameters on mean parameter values across occasions produced more desirable results than using no anchor, using first occasion parameters as anchors, or allowing anchor values to vary across occasions. Results indicated problems with NA items, including poor category utilization, gaps in the item distribution, and a lack of easy-to-endorse items. PA items had much more desirable psychometric qualities.
Najolia, Gina M; Buckner, Julia D; Cohen, Alex S
Emerging research suggests that cannabis use might be related to psychosis onset in people vulnerable to developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Furthermore, individuals with high-positive and disorganized schizotypy traits report more cannabis use and cannabis-related problems than controls. Social anxiety, a frequently co-occurring schizotypal feature, is related to increased cannabis-related problems in the general population. Building on this research, we explored the impact of social anxiety, measured by the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), and depression and trait anxiety reported on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), on the relationship of schizotypy, measured by the Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised (SPQ-BR), to cannabis use (n=220 schizotypy, 436 controls) and frequent use and cannabis-related problems among users (n=88 schizotypy, 83 controls) in college undergraduates. Among cannabis users, social anxiety moderated the relationships of schizotypy to frequent cannabis use and more cannabis-related problems in the total schizotypy group, and across high-positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy subgroups. Depression and trait anxiety also moderated the relationship of schizotypy to frequent cannabis use and more cannabis-related problems, but results varied across high-positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy subgroups. Results suggest therapeutically targeting negative affective states may be useful in psychosocial intervention for cannabis-related problems in schizotypy.
Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi
Ozone (O(3)) fumigated at 120 microg L(-1) for 12 hd(-1) was combined with 10 microM fluoranthene, and other treatments, including Mannitol solution to investigate the interaction of the two pollutants on tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Using ten treatments including Mannitol solution and a control, exposure experiment was conducted for 34 d inside six growth chambers used for monitoring the resulted ecophysiological changes. Visible foliar injury, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, CO(2) uptake and water vapor exchange were monitored in tomato. Ozone or fluoranthene independently affected some ecophysiological traits of the tomato. In addition, simultaneous treatments with the duo had increased (additive) negative effects on the photosynthesis rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), chlorophyll pigment contents (Chl a, Chl b and Chl((a+b))) and visible foliar symptoms. Contrarily, alleviation of the negative effects of O(3) on the leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence variables by fluoranthene occurred. Mannitol solution, which functioned as a reactive oxygen species scavenger was able to mitigate some negative effects of the two pollutants on the tomato plants.
Queiroz, A C M; Ribas, C R
We tested the hypothesis of a negative relationship between vegetation characteristics and ant species richness in a Brazilian open vegetation habitat, called candeial. We set up arboreal pitfalls to sample arboreal ants and measured the following environmental variables, which were used as surrogate of environmental heterogeneity: tree richness, tree density, tree height, circumference at the base of the plants, and canopy cover. Only canopy cover had a negative effect on the arboreal ant species richness. Vegetation characteristics and plant species composition are probably homogeneous in candeial, which explains the lack of relationship between other environmental variables and ant richness. Open vegetation habitats harbor a large number of opportunistic and generalist species, besides specialist ants from habitats with high temperatures. An increase in canopy cover decreases sunlight incidence and may cause local microclimatic differences, which negatively affect the species richness of specialist ants from open areas. Canopy cover regulates the richness of arboreal ants in open areas, since only few ant species are able to colonize sites with dense vegetation; most species are present in sites with high temperature and luminosity. Within open vegetation habitats the relationship between vegetation characteristics and species richness seems to be the opposite from closed vegetation areas, like forests.
Northerner, Laura M; Trentacosta, Christopher J; McLear, Caitlin M
This study examined cumulative risk, temperament traits, and their interplay as predictors of internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems in at-risk toddlers. Participants were 104 low-income mother-toddler dyads recruited from Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) sites in a large city. The sample was primarily African American, and mothers were 21 years of age or younger at the child's birth. The dyads were assessed when the toddlers were approximately 18 months old and again at 24 months of age. Though all toddlers were from low-income families with young mothers, the families varied in the degree to which other contextual risk factors were present. A cumulative risk index was calculated based on five contextual factors: maternal education, neighborhood dangerousness, social support, household overcrowding and single parenting. In multiple regressions, cumulative risk predicted sleep and externalizing problems. In addition, negative affectivity predicted all three domains of problem behaviors, effortful control predicted fewer externalizing problems, and surgency predicted fewer internalizing problems. Moreover, low negative affectivity buffered the association between cumulative risk and both internalizing and sleep problems. These findings suggest that it is important to consider children's temperament traits in conjunction with the constellation of family risks when designing prevention programs to reduce the prevalence of behavior problems early in life.
Beaton, Alan A; Mutinelli, Sofia; Corr, Philip J
The Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (AHPQ), as modified by Briggs and Nebes [(1975). Patterns of hand preference in a student population. Cortex, 11(3), 230-238. doi: 10.1016/s0010-9452(75)80005-0 ], was administered to a sample of 177 participants alongside the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire [RST-PQ; Corr, P. J., & Cooper, A. (2016). The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire (RST-PQ): Development and validation. Psychological Assessment. doi: 10.1037/pas000 ], which measures two factors of defensive negative emotion, motivation and affectivity-the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and the Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS)-and one positive-approach dimension related to reward sensitivity, persistence and reactivity-the Behavioural Approach System. We sought to clarify the nature of negative, and positive, affectivity in relation to handedness. ANOVAs and multiple regression analyses converged on the following conclusions: left-handers were higher on the BIS, not the FFFS, than right-handers; in right-handers only, strength of hand preference was positively correlated with the FFFS, not the BIS. The original assessment method proposed by Annett was also used to assess handedness, but associations with RST-PQ factors were not found. These findings help us to clarify existing issues in the literature and raise new ones for future research.
Northerner, Laura M.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; McLear, Caitlin M.
This study examined cumulative risk, temperament traits, and their interplay as predictors of internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems in at-risk toddlers. Participants were 104 low-income mother-toddler dyads recruited from Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) sites in a large city. The sample was primarily African American, and mothers were 21 years of age or younger at the child’s birth. The dyads were assessed when the toddlers were approximately 18 months old and again at 24 months of age. Though all toddlers were from low-income families with young mothers, the families varied in the degree to which other contextual risk factors were present. A cumulative risk index was calculated based on five contextual factors: maternal education, neighborhood dangerousness, social support, household overcrowding and single parenting. In multiple regressions, cumulative risk predicted sleep and externalizing problems. In addition, negative affectivity predicted all three domains of problem behaviors, effortful control predicted fewer externalizing problems, and surgency predicted fewer internalizing problems. Moreover, low negative affectivity buffered the association between cumulative risk and both internalizing and sleep problems. These findings suggest that it is important to consider children’s temperament traits in conjunction with the constellation of family risks when designing prevention programs to reduce the prevalence of behavior problems early in life. PMID:26924917
Eichberg, Carsten; Wohde, Manuel; Müller, Kerstin; Rausch, Anja; Scherrmann, Christina; Scheuren, Theresa; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Donath, Tobias W.
In animal farming, anthelmintics are regularly applied to control gastrointestinal nematodes. There is plenty of evidence that also non-target organisms, such as dung beetles, are negatively affected by residues of anthelmintics in faeces of domestic ungulates. By contrast, knowledge about possible effects on wild plants is scarce. To bridge this gap of knowledge, we tested for effects of the common anthelmintic formulation Cydectin and its active ingredient moxidectin on seed germination. We conducted a feeding experiment with sheep and germination experiments in a climate chamber. Three wide-spread plant species of temperate grasslands (Centaurea jacea, Galium verum, Plantago lanceolata) were studied. We found significant influences of both, Cydectin and moxidectin, on germination of the tested species. Across species, both formulation and active ingredient solely led to a decrease in germination percentage and synchrony of germination and an increase in mean germination time with the formulation showing a more pronounced response pattern. Our study shows for the first time that anthelmintics have the potential to negatively affect plant regeneration. This has practical implications for nature conservation since our results suggest that treatments of livestock with anthelmintics should be carefully timed to not impede endozoochorous seed exchange between plant populations. PMID:27846249
Varni, J W; Katz, E
Conceptually-driven investigations on the potentially modifiable predictors of individual differences among children with newly-diagnosed cancer may facilitate the identification of pediatric cancer patients at risk for maladjustment during the profound adversity associated with this life-threatening disease and aversive biomedical treatment. Within a risk and resistance theoretical framework, perceived stress and social support were investigated concurrently and prospectively within an exploratory design as predictors of negative affectivity (anxiety and depressive symptoms composite construct) in newly-diagnosed pediatric cancer patients at Time 1 (within one month after diagnosis), Time 2 (6 months postdiagnosis), and Time 3 (9 months postdiagnosis). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis findings indicate that perceived stress and social support have direct and independent effects on negative affectivity principally at the 9-month time interval. These findings are discussed in terms of the cognitive-behavioral treatment implications for enhancing child adjustment during the transition from the initial cancer diagnosis and aversive biomedical treatment to subsequent school and social reintegration.
Heckman, Bryan W.; Carpenter, Mathew J.; Correa, John B.; Wray, Jennifer M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Froeliger, Brett; Drobes, David J.; Brandon, Thomas H.
Aims To quantify the effect of negative affect (NA), when manipulated experimentally, upon smoking as measured within laboratory paradigms. Quantitative meta-analyses tested the effects of NA vs. neutral conditions on 1) latency to smoke and 2) number of puffs taken. Methods Twelve experimental studies tested the influence of NA induction, relative to a neutral control condition (N = 1,190; range = 24–235). Those providing relevant data contributed to separate random effects meta-analyses to examine the effects of NA on two primary smoking measures: 1) latency to smoke (nine studies) and 2) number of puffs taken during ad lib smoking (eleven studies). Hedge’s g was calculated for all studies through the use of post-NA cue responses relative to post-neutral cue responses. This effect size estimate is similar to Cohen’s d, but corrects for small sample size bias. Results NA reliably decreased latency to smoke (g = −.14; CI = −.23 to −.04; p = .007) and increased number of puffs taken (g = .14; CI = .02 to .25; p = .02). There was considerable variability across studies for both outcomes (I2 = 51% and 65% for latency and consumption, respectively). Potential publication bias was indicated for both outcomes, and adjusted effect sizes were smaller and no longer statistically significant. Conclusions In experimental laboratory studies of smokers, negative affect appears to reduce latency to smoking and increase number of puffs taken but this could be due to publication bias. PMID:25641624
Wang, Jianping; Xu, Wei; Fu, Zhongfang; Yu, Wei; He, Li; Sun, Ling; He, Jiao; Hofmann, Stefan
The Affective Style Questionnaire is a self-report instrument for assessing affective style. Study 1 investigated the psychometric properties of the Chinese Affective Style Questionnaire in a sample of 459 Chinese participants. The confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure. Study 1 indicated that the Chinese Affective Style Questionnaire can be used as a simple, reliable, and valid scale for measuring individual differences in affective style. Study 2 examined the moderating role of different affective styles in the relationship between stress and negative affect. Concealing and tolerating moderated the relationship between stress and anxiety, and adjusting moderated the relationship between stress and depression.
Vickery, Charlotte E.; Dorjee, Dusana
Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7–9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7–9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting ‘liking’ practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p < 0.001). Self-report comparisons revealed that relative to controls, the training group showed significant decreases in negative affect at follow-up, with a large effect size (p = 0.010, d = 0.84). Teacher reports (but not parental ratings) of meta-cognition also showed significant improvements at follow-up with a large effect size (p = 0.002, d = 1.08). Additionally, significant negative correlations were found between changes in mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7–9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and (c) may significantly decrease negative affect and improve meta-cognition. PMID:26793145
Govers, Laura L; Pieck, Timon; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Suykerbuyk, Wouter; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Katwijk, Marieke M
When two ecosystem engineers share the same natural environment, the outcome of their interaction will be unclear if they have contrasting habitat-modifying effects (e.g., sediment stabilization vs. sediment destabilization). The outcome of the interaction may depend on local environmental conditions such as season or sediment type, which may affect the extent and type of habitat modification by the ecosystem engineers involved. We mechanistically studied the interaction between the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii and the bioturbating and sediment-destabilizing lugworm Arenicola marina, which sometimes co-occur for prolonged periods. We investigated (1) if the negative sediment destabilization effect of A. marina on Z. noltii might be counteracted by positive biogeochemical effects of bioirrigation (burrow flushing) by A. marina in sulfide-rich sediments, and (2) if previously observed nutrient release by A. marina bioirrigation could affect seagrasses. We tested the individual and combined effects of A. marina presence and high porewater sulfide concentrations (induced by organic matter addition) on seagrass biomass in a full factorial lab experiment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find an effect of A. marina on porewater sulfide concentrations. A. marina activities affected the seagrass physically as well as by pumping nutrients, mainly ammonium and phosphate, from the porewater to the surface water, which promoted epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves in our experimental set-up. We conclude that A. marina bioirrigation did not alleviate sulfide stress to seagrasses. Instead, we found synergistic negative effects of the presence of A. marina and high sediment sulfide levels on seagrass biomass.
Margolin, Gayla; And Others
Compared affective responses of physically aggressive (PA), verbally aggressive (VA), withdrawing (WI), and nondistressed/nonaggressive (ND) couples during problem-oriented discussions. PA husbands exhibited more overtly negative behaviors, reported a more negative emotional state, and showed greater physiological arousal. PA wives demonstrated…
Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro
East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect—but not recalled negative affect—for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans’ life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life. PMID:19558439
Finan, P.H.; Okun, M.A.; Kruszewski, D.; Davis, M.C.; Zautra, A.J.; Tennen, H.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the interaction of daily concurrent positive interpersonal events (PIE) and negative interpersonal events (NIE) on the daily experience of negative affect and fatigue in a sample of men and women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The blunting hypothesis posits that NIE nullify the beneficial influence of PIE whereas the buffering hypothesis posits that PIE offset the adverse influence of NIE. Participants completed up to 30 consecutive daily diaries in which they reported ratings for fatigue and negative affect, along with the occurrence of PIE and NIE throughout the day. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the interaction of daily PIE and NIE on daily negative affect and fatigue. In support of the blunting hypothesis, on days when NIE were diminished, PIE were associated with a greater reduction in fatigue. In contrast, consistent with the buffering hypothesis, on days when PIE were elevated, NIE were associated with a lesser increase in negative affect. Whereas the main effects of PIE and NIE carried over to the next day, the joint effects of PIE and NIE did not. The clinical utility of assessing the impact of co-occurring PIE and NIE is discussed. PMID:20658831
Baruch, Kuti; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; David, Eyal; Castellano, Joseph M; Miller, Omer; Kertser, Alexander; Berkutzki, Tamara; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Bezalel, Dana; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Amit, Ido; Schwartz, Michal
Aging-associated cognitive decline is affected by factors produced inside and outside the brain. By using multiorgan genome-wide analysis of aged mice, we found that the choroid plexus, an interface between the brain and the circulation, shows a type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent gene expression profile that was also found in aged human brains. In aged mice, this response was induced by brain-derived signals, present in the cerebrospinal fluid. Blocking IFN-I signaling within the aged brain partially restored cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis and reestablished IFN-II-dependent choroid plexus activity, which is lost in aging. Our data identify a chronic aging-induced IFN-I signature, often associated with antiviral response, at the brain's choroid plexus and demonstrate its negative influence on brain function, thereby suggesting a target for ameliorating cognitive decline in aging.
Lind, Teresa; Bernard, Kristin; Ross, Emily; Dozier, Mary
Exposure to early adversity places young children at risk for behavioral, physiological, and emotional dysregulation, predisposing them to a range of long-term problematic outcomes. Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) is a 10-session intervention designed to enhance children's self-regulatory capabilities by helping parents to behave in nurturing, synchronous, and non-frightening ways. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed in a randomized clinical trial, with parents who had been referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) for allegations of maltreatment. Parent-child dyads received either the ABC intervention or a control intervention. Following the intervention, children from the ABC intervention (n=56) expressed lower levels of negative affect during a challenging task compared to children from the control intervention (n=61).
Lind, Teresa; Bernard, Kristin; Ross, Emily; Dozier, Mary
Exposure to early adversity places young children at risk for behavioral, physiological, and emotional dysregulation, predisposing them to a range of long-term problematic outcomes. Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) is a 10-session intervention designed to enhance children’s self-regulatory capabilities by helping parents to behave in nurturing, synchronous, and non-frightening ways. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed in a randomized clinical trial, with parents who had been referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) for allegations of maltreatment. Parent-child dyads received either the ABC intervention or a control intervention. Following the intervention, children from the ABC intervention (n = 56) expressed lower levels of negative affect during a challenging task compared to children from the control intervention (n = 61). PMID:24814751
Collins, Bradley N; Nair, Uma S; Komaroff, Eugene
Designing and implementing cue exposure procedures to treat nicotine dependence remains a challenge. This study tested the hypothesis that gender and negative affect (NA) influence changes in smoking urge over time using data from a pilot project testing the feasibility of massed extinction procedures. Forty-three smokers and ex-smokers completed the behavioral laboratory procedures. All participants were over 17 years old, smoked at least 10 cigarettes daily over the last year (or the year prior to quitting) and had expired CO below 10 ppm at the beginning of the ~4-hour session. After informed consent, participants completed 45 min of baseline assessments, and then completed a series of 12 identical, 5-minute exposure trials with inter-trial breaks. Smoking cues included visual, tactile, and olfactory cues with a lit cigarette, in addition to smoking-related motor behaviors without smoking. After each trial, participants reported urge and negative affect (NA). Logistic growth curve models supported the hypothesis that across trials, participants would demonstrate an initial linear increase followed by a decrease in smoking urge (quadratic effect). Data supported hypothesized gender, NA, and gender×NA effects. Significant linear increases in urge were observed among high and low NA males, but not among females in either NA subgroup. A differential quadratic effect showed a significant decrease in urge for the low NA subgroup, but a non-significant decrease in urge in the high NA group. This is the first study to demonstrate gender differences and the effects of NA on the extinction process using a smoking cue exposure paradigm. Results could guide future cue reactivity research and exposure interventions for nicotine dependence.
Carrard, Isabelle; Crépin, Christelle; Ceschi, Grazia; Golay, Alain; Van der Linden, Martial
To investigate potential predictors of the severity of binge eating disorder (BED), two subtypes of patients with the disorder, a pure dietary subtype and a dietary-negative affect subtype, were identified. This study investigated the relationships between the two subtypes and impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity. Ninety-two women meeting threshold and subthreshold criteria for BED diagnosis filled out questionnaires to determine eating disorder severity, impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity before and after participating in an online guided self-help program for BED. Cluster analyses revealed a pure dietary subtype (N=66, 71.7%) and a dietary-negative affect subtype (N=26, 28.3%). Compared to the pure dietary subtype, the dietary-negative affect subtype reported a higher frequency of objective binge episodes, more severe eating disorders, higher urgency scores (defined as a tendency to act rashly in the context of negative affect), a greater sensitivity to punishment, and a higher dropout rate during treatment. These findings suggest that BED patients in the dietary-negative affect subtype exhibit heightened anxiety and are highly impulsive, especially in contexts of negative affect. For these individuals, psychological interventions for BED should focus on inhibiting automatic responses to negative emotions.
Stevanovic, Dejan; Laurent, Jeff; Lakic, Aneta
This study extended previous cross-cultural work regarding the tripartite model of anxiety and depression by developing Serbian translations of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C), the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C), and the Affect and Arousal Scale (AFARS). Characteristics of the scales were examined using 449 students (M age = 12.61 years). Applying item retention criteria established in other studies, PH-C, PANAS-C, and AFARS translations with psychometric properties similar to English-language versions were identified. Preliminary validation of the scales was conducted using a subset of 194 students (M age = 12.37 years) who also completed measures of anxiety and depression. Estimates of reliability, patterns of correlations among scales, and age and gender differences were consistent with previous studies with English-speaking samples. Findings regarding scale validity were mixed, although consistent with existing literature. Serbian translations of the PH-C, PANAS-C, and AFARS mirror the original English-language scales in terms of both strengths and weaknesses.
Deutsch, Roland; Smith, Kevin J. M.; Kordts-Freudinger, Robert; Reichardt, Regina
The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion, and motivational systems. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors, self destructive behaviors, and social influence. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO) that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO. PMID:25806008
Boone, Michelle D.; Bridges, Christine M.; Fairchild, James F.; Little, Edward E.
Many habitats may be exposed to multiple chemical contaminants, particularly in agricultural areas where fertilizer and pesticide use are common; however, the singular and interactive effects of contaminants are not well understood. The objective of our study was to examine how realistic, sublethal environmental levels of ammonium nitrate fertilizer (0, 10, 20 mg/L and ammonium chloride control) and the common insecticide carbaryl (0 or 2.5 mg/L) individually and interactively affect the development, size, and survival of green frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles. We reared tadpoles for 95 d in outdoor 1,000-L polyethylene ponds. We found that the combination of carbaryl and nitrate had a negative effect on development and mass of tadpoles compared to the positive effect that either contaminant had alone. Presence of carbaryl was generally associated with short-term increases in algal resources, including ponds exposed to both carbaryl and nitrate. However, with exposure to nitrate and carbaryl, tadpole mass and development were not positively affected as with one chemical stressor alone. The combination of these sublethal contaminants may reduce the ability of amphibians to benefit from food-rich environments or have metabolic costs. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering multiple stressors when evaluating population-level responses.
Huang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Jian; Zeng, Hong-Da; Chen, Guang-Shui; Zhong, Xian-Fang
Negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an important indicator comprehensively reflecting air quality, and has significance to human beings living environment. This paper summarized the spatiotemporal distribution features of urban NAI concentration, and discussed the causes of these features based on the characteristics of the environmental factors in urban area and their effects on the physical and chemical processes of NAI. The temporal distribution of NAI concentration is mainly controlled by the periodic variation of solar radiation, while the spatial distribution of NAI concentration along the urban-rural gradient is mainly affected by the urban aerosol distribution, underlying surface characters, and urban heat island effect. The high NAI concentration in urban green area is related to the vegetation life activities and soil radiation, while the higher NAI concentration near the water environment is attributed to the water molecules that participate in the generation of NAI through a variety of ways. The other environmental factors can also affect the generation, life span, component, translocation, and distribution of NAI to some extent. To increase the urban green space and atmospheric humidity and to maintain the soil natural attributes of underlying surface could be the effective ways to increase the urban NAI concentration and improve the urban air quality.
O'Doherty, Alan M; O'Gorman, Aoife; al Naib, Abdullah; Brennan, Lorraine; Daly, Edward; Duffy, Pat; Fair, Trudee
Ovarian follicle development in post-partum, high-producing dairy cows, occurs in a compromised endogenous metabolic environment (referred to as negative energy balance, NEB). Key events that occur during oocyte/follicle growth, such as the vital process of genomic imprinting, may be detrimentally affected by this altered ovarian environment. Imprinting is crucial for placental function and regulation of fetal growth, therefore failure to establish and maintain imprints during oocyte growth may contribute to early embryonic loss. Using ovum pick-up (OPU), oocytes and follicular fluid samples were recovered from cows between days 20 and 115 post-calving, encompassing the NEB period. In a complimentary study, cumulus oocyte complexes were in vitro matured under high non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and in the presence of the methyl-donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Pyrosequencing revealed the loss of methylation at several imprinted loci in the OPU derived oocytes. The loss of DNA methylation was observed at the PLAGL1 locus in oocytes, following in vitro maturation (IVM) in the presence of elevated NEFAs and SAM. Finally, metabolomic analysis of postpartum follicular fluid samples revealed significant differences in several branched chain amino acids, with fatty acid profiles bearing similarities to those characteristic of lactating dairy cows. These results provide the first evidence that (1) the postpartum ovarian environment may affect maternal imprint acquisition and (2) elevated NEFAs during IVM can lead to the loss of imprinted gene methylation in bovine oocytes.
Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin
The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.
Danner, Unna N; Sternheim, Lot; Bijsterbosch, Jojanneke M; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Evers, Catharine; van Elburg, Annemarie A
The present study aims to examine the influence of negative affect on decision making in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to healthy control women and, secondly, to assess differences between the restrictive (ANR) and binge-purge (ANBP) subtypes. One hundred four women (32 with ANR, 32 with ANBP, and 40 healthy controls) participated. All women were asked to watch either a negative or a control film fragment, both followed by the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT). Before and after the fragments negative affect was measured. Additionally, relevant characteristics (e.g., overall depressive symptoms) were assessed. Differences in negative affect did not influence decision making performance. Independent of affective state, decision making was found to be impaired in women with ANBP (no learning effect on the BGT), but not in women with ANR. These findings highlight the importance of considering different AN subtypes when examining decision making processes. However, the role of negative affect on decision making remains uncertain. Since other affect related factors such as affect dysregulation may also play a role, future studies on decision making in AN should take the role of affect into account.
Weich, W; Block, E; Litherland, N B
Low postpartum blood calcium remains one of the largest constraints to postpartum feed intake, milk yield, and energy balance in transitioning dairy cows. Supplemental dietary anions decrease the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and reduce the risk for postpartum hypocalcemia. Prepartum management strategies aiming to minimize social stress and diet changes have resulted in a need to explore the effects of extended exposure to a negative DCAD (>21 d) diet. Holstein and Holstein-cross dairy cows (n=60) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments 42 d before expected calving to evaluate effects of supplying anions for 21 or 42 d during the dry period on energy status, postpartum production, and Ca homeostasis. Treatments included (1) a control diet (CON; DCAD=12 mEq/100 g of DM), (2) a 21-d negative DCAD diet (21-ND; DCAD=12 and -16 mEq/100 g of DM), and (3) a 42-d negative DCAD diet (42-ND; DCAD=-16 mEq/100 g of DM). Cows fed CON were fed positive DCAD prepartum for 42 d. Cows fed 21-ND received the positive DCAD (12 mEq/100 g of DM) diet for the first 21 d of the dry period and the anionic diet (-16 mEq/100 g of DM) from d 22 until calving. Cows fed 42-ND received the anionic diet for the entire dry period. Control and anionic diets were formulated by using 2 isonitrogenous protein mixes: (1) 97.5% soybean meal and (2) 52.8% BioChlor (Church & Dwight Co. Inc.), 45.8% soybean meal. Supplementing anions induced a mild metabolic acidosis, reducing urine pH for 21-ND and 42-ND compared with CON. Prepartum DMI was not different among treatments. Postpartum DMI was higher for 21-ND compared with CON (20.8 vs. 18.1±1.1 kg/d), and 42-ND had similar DMI compared with 21-ND. During the first 56 d of lactation 21-ND had greater average milk production compared with CON (44.8 vs. 39.2±2.1 kg/d). Average milk production by 42-ND was similar to 21-ND. Postpartum total blood Ca concentration was greater for 42-ND. Cows fed anionic diets prepartum tended to have lower lipid
Serafini, Kelly; Malin-Mayor, Bo; Nich, Charla; Hunkele, Karen; Carroll, Kathleen M.
Background The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a widely used measure of affect, and a comprehensive psychometric evaluation has never been conducted among substance users. Objective To examine the psychometric properties of the PANAS in a sample of outpatient treatment substance users. Methods We used pooled data from four randomized clinical trials (N = 416; 34% female, 48% African American). Results A confirmatory factor analysis indicated adequate support for a two-factor correlated model comprised of Positive Affect and Negative Affect with correlated item errors (Comparative Fit Index = .93, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .07, χ2 = 478.93, df = 156). Cronbach’s α indicated excellent internal consistency for both factors (.90 and .91, respectively). The PANAS factors had good convergence and discriminability (Composite Reliability >.7; Maximum Shared Variance < Average Variance Extracted). A comparison from baseline to Week 1 indicated acceptable test-retest reliability (Positive Affect = .80, Negative Affect = .76). Concurrent and discriminant validity were demonstrated with correlations with the Brief Symptom Inventory and Addiction Severity Index. The PANAS scores were also significantly correlated with treatment outcomes (e.g., Positive Affect was associated with the maximum days of consecutive abstinence from primary substance of abuse, r = .16, p = .001). Conclusion Our data suggest that the psychometric properties of the PANAS are retained in substance using populations. Although several studies have focused on the role of Negative Affect, our findings suggest that Positive Affect may also be an important factor in substance use treatment outcomes. PMID:26905228
Eldridge, David J; Poore, Alistair G B; Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Letnic, Mike; Soliveres, Santiago
Reports of positive or neutral effects of grazing on plant species richness have prompted calls for livestock grazing to be used as a tool for managing land for conservation. Grazing effects, however, are likely to vary among different response variables, types, and intensity of grazing, and across abiotic conditions. We aimed to examine how grazing affects ecosystem structure, function, and composition. We compiled a database of 7615 records reporting an effect of grazing by sheep and cattle on 278 biotic and abiotic response variables for published studies across Australia. Using these data, we derived three ecosystem measures based on structure, function, and composition, which were compared against six contrasts of grazing pressure, ranging from low to heavy, two different herbivores (sheep, cattle), and across three different climatic zones. Grazing reduced structure (by 35%), function (24%), and composition (10%). Structure and function (but not composition) declined more when grazed by sheep and cattle together than sheep alone. Grazing reduced plant biomass (40%), animal richness (15%), and plant and animal abundance, and plant and litter cover (25%), but had no effect on plant richness nor soil function. The negative effects of grazing on plant biomass, plant cover, and soil function were more pronounced in drier environments. Grazing effects on plant and animal richness and composition were constant, or even declined, with increasing aridity. Our study represents a comprehensive continental assessment of the implications of grazing for managing Australian rangelands. Grazing effects were largely negative, even at very low levels of grazing. Overall, our results suggest that livestock grazing in Australia is unlikely to produce positive outcomes for ecosystem structure, function, and composition or even as a blanket conservation tool unless reduction in specific response variables is an explicit management objective.
Vickery, Charlotte E; Dorjee, Dusana
Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7-9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7-9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting 'liking' practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p < 0.001). Self-report comparisons revealed that relative to controls, the training group showed significant decreases in negative affect at follow-up, with a large effect size (p = 0.010, d = 0.84). Teacher reports (but not parental ratings) of meta-cognition also showed significant improvements at follow-up with a large effect size (p = 0.002, d = 1.08). Additionally, significant negative correlations were found between changes in mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7-9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and
Madrid, Hector P; Patterson, Malcolm G; Leiva, Pedro I
Employees can help to improve organizational performance by sharing ideas, suggestions, or concerns about practices, but sometimes they keep silent because of the experience of negative affect. Drawing and expanding on this stream of research, this article builds a theoretical rationale based on core affect and cognitive appraisal theories to describe how differences in affect activation and boundary conditions associated with cognitive rumination and cognitive problem-solving demands can explain employee silence. Results of a diary study conducted with professionals from diverse organizations indicated that within-person low-activated negative core affect increased employee silence when, as an invariant factor, cognitive rumination was high. Furthermore, within-person high-activated negative core affect decreased employee silence when, as an invariant factor, cognitive problem-solving demand was high. Thus, organizations should manage conditions to reduce experiences of low-activated negative core affect because these feelings increase silence in individuals high in rumination. In turn, effective management of experiences of high-activated negative core affect can reduce silence for individuals working under high problem-solving demand situations.
De Taeye, Leen; Pourtois, Gilles; Meurs, Alfred; Boon, Paul; Vonck, Kristl; Carrette, Evelien; Raedt, Robrecht
Patients with epilepsy have a high prevalence of comorbid mood disorders. This study aims to evaluate whether negative affect in epilepsy is associated with dysfunction of emotion regulation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are used in order to unravel the exact electrophysiological time course and investigate whether a possible dysfunction arises during early (attention) and/or late (regulation) stages of emotion control. Fifty epileptic patients with (n = 25) versus without (n = 25) comorbid negative affect plus twenty-five matched controls were recruited. ERPs were recorded while subjects performed a face- or house-matching task in which fearful, sad or neutral faces were presented either at attended or unattended spatial locations. Two ERP components were analyzed: the early vertex positive potential (VPP) which is normally enhanced for faces, and the late positive potential (LPP) that is typically larger for emotional stimuli. All participants had larger amplitude of the early face-sensitive VPP for attended faces compared to houses, regardless of their emotional content. By contrast, in patients with negative affect only, the amplitude of the LPP was significantly increased for unattended negative emotional expressions. These VPP results indicate that epilepsy with or without negative affect does not interfere with the early structural encoding and attention selection of faces. However, the LPP results suggest abnormal regulation processes during the processing of unattended emotional faces in patients with epilepsy and comorbid negative affect. In conclusion, this ERP study reveals that early object-based attention processes are not compromised by epilepsy, but instead, when combined with negative affect, this neurological disease is associated with dysfunction during the later stages of emotion regulation. As such, these new neurophysiological findings shed light on the complex interplay of epilepsy with negative affect during the processing of emotional
Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Medvedeva, Angela; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Manning, Kara; Schmidt, Norman B
From a public health perspective, primary care medical settings represent a strategic location to address mental health disapirty among Latinos. Yet, there is little empirical work that addresses affective vulnerability processes for mental health problems in such settings. To help address this gap in knowledge, the present investigation examined an interactive model of negative affectivity (tendency to experience negative mood states) and anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of aversive sensations) among a Latino sample in primary care in terms of a relatively wide range of anxiety/depression indices. Participants included 390 Latino adults (Mage=38.7, SD=11.3; 86.9% female; 95.6% reported Spanish as first language) from a primary care health clinic. Primary dependent measures included depressive, suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, number of mood and anxiety disorders, and disability. Consistent with prediction, the interaction between negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, as well as number of mood/anxiety diagnoses and disability among the primary care Latino sample. The form of the interactions indicated a synergistic effect, such that the greatest levels of each outcome were found among those with high negative affectivity and high anxiety sensitivity. There was a trending interaction for depressive symptoms. Overall, these data provide novel empirical evidence suggesting that there is a clinically-relevant interplay between anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity in regard to the expression of anxiety and depressive symptoms among a Latino primary care sample.
Farris, Samantha G.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.
Background Negative-reinforcement based cognitive processes have been implicated in the maintenance of cigarette smoking. Given the expectation that smoking will attenuate aversive internal experiences, smokers may be particularly unwilling to experience or remain in contact with smoking-related distress (i.e., experiential avoidance). Yet, there is little known about a cognitive-based processes termed smoking-specific experiential avoidance in regard to withdrawal, craving, or negative affect during a quit attempt. Method Data were collected from adult daily smokers (n = 259) participating in a larger smoking cessation trial. Pre- and post-quit experiences of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and negative affect were examined in terms of cognitive-based smoking-specific experimental avoidance, measured by the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS). Results Results indicated that baseline smoking-specific experiential avoidance was associated with greater overall levels of withdrawal, craving, and negative affect at treatment initiation (pre-cessation). Reductions in smoking-specific experiential avoidance from baseline to quit day were associated with increased likelihood of quit day abstinence. Such reductions were also predictive of lower levels of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and negative affect on quit day. Also, less reduction in experiential avoidance was associated with experiencing greater withdrawal in the early phase of quitting. Discussion The impact of cognitive-based experiential avoidance pertaining to smoking impacts both pre- and post-cessation experiences in terms of negative affect, withdrawal, and smoking cravings and may represent an important treatment target. PMID:25146128
Short, Nicole A.; Oglesby, Mary E.; Raines, Amanda M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.
Introduction Many cigarette smokers have experienced a traumatic event, and elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with increased smoking levels. Previous research has found that elevated PTSS are associated with smoking to cope with negative affect, and it has been posited that perceptions of being unable to cope with the consequences of smoking cessation interfere with smoking cessation in this population. However, the mechanism of the relationship between PTSS and these smoking maintenance factors (i.e., smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation) has not been established. Emotion dysregulation is one potential mechanism as it is associated with PTSS as well as addictive behavior aimed at avoiding and reducing negative emotional states. Methods We cross-sectionally tested the hypotheses that 1) PTSS and emotion dysregulation would be incrementally associated with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and 2) that emotion dysregulation would mediate the relationships between PTSS, smoking to reduce negative affect, and barriers to cessation among a community sample of trauma-exposed individuals presenting for smoking cessation treatment (N=315). Results Results demonstrated elevated PTSS were associated with increased smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and that emotion dysregulation mediated these relationships. Conclusion These findings provide evidence of a mechanism between PTSS and psychological smoking maintenance factors, and suggest that emotion dysregulation may be a useful target for smoking cessation interventions among trauma-exposed individuals. PMID:26070492
Charyton, Christine; Hutchison, Shannon; Snow, Lindsay; Rahman, Mohammed A.; Elliott, John O.
Positive psychology explores how optimism can lead to health, happiness, and creativity. However, questions remain as to how affective states influence creativity. Data on creative personality, optimism, pessimism, positive and negative affect, and current and usual happiness ratings were collected on 161 college students enrolled in an…
Brooker, Rebecca J.; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill
Maternal negative affect in the early environment is believed to sensitize long-term coping capacities in children. Yet, little work has identified physiological systems associated with coping responses, which may serve as mechanisms for links between early maternal negativity and child outcomes. Using a longitudinal twin sample (N = 89), we found that high levels of maternal negative affect during infancy were associated with dysregulation of diurnal cortisol and EEG asymmetry, two physiological systems that may support active, approach oriented coping when children were 7 years old. Flattened slopes of diurnal cortisol were also associated with greater numbers of concurrent overanxious behaviors in children. A mediation analysis supported the role of dysregulated diurnal cortisol as a mediator of the link between maternal negative affect in the early environment and childhood risk for anxiety problems. PMID:26422661
Touchon, Justin Charles; Warkentin, Karen Michelle
1. The importance of rainfall is recognized in arid habitats, but has rarely been explored in ecosystems not viewed as rainfall limited. In addition, most attempts to study how rainfall affects organismal survival have focused on long-term rainfall metrics (e.g. monthly or seasonal patterns) instead of short-term measures. For organisms that are short lived or are sensitive to desiccation, short-term patterns of rainfall may provide insight to understanding what determines survival in particular habitats. 2. We monitored daily rainfall and survival of arboreal eggs of the treefrog Dendropsophus ebraccatus at two ponds during the rainy season in central Panama. Desiccation and predation were the primary sources of egg mortality and their effects were not independent. Rainfall directly reduced desiccation mortality by hydrating and thickening the jelly surrounding eggs. In addition, rainfall reduced predation on egg clutches. 3. To elucidate the mechanism by which rainfall alters predation, we exposed experimentally hydrated and dehydrated egg clutches to the two D. ebraccatus egg predators most common at our site, ants and social wasps. Ants and wasps preferentially preyed on dehydrated clutches and ants consumed dehydrated eggs three times faster than hydrated eggs. 4. Rainfall patterns are expected to change and the responses of organisms that use rainfall as a reliable cue to reproduce may prove maladaptive. If rainfall becomes more sporadic, as is predicted to happen during this century, it may have negative consequences for desiccation-sensitive organisms.
Leonard, N. E.
As wetlands are invaded by Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera), native trees are displaced and detrital inputs to amphibian breeding ponds are altered. I used a mesocosm experiment to examine the effect of Chinese tallow leaf litter on the survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis of amphibian larvae. Fifty 1000-L cattle watering tanks were treated with 1500 g dry weight of one of five leaf litter treatments: Chinese tallow, laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), or a 3:1:1:1 mixture. Each tank received 45 tadpoles of Pseudacris feriarum, Bufo terrestris, and Hyla cinerea in sequence according to their natural breeding phonologies. Every Pseudacris feriarum and Bufo terrestris tadpole exposed to Chinese tallow died prior to metamorphosis. Hyla cinerea survival in tanks with tallow-only was significantly lower than that observed for all other leaf treatments. Hyla cinerea tadpoles from tallow-only and mixed-leaf treatments were larger at metamorphosis and transformed faster than those in tanks with native leaves only. These results suggest that Chinese tallow leaf litter may negatively affect tadpoles of early breeding frogs and that Chinese tallow invasion may change the structure of amphibian communities in temporary ponds.
Burgess, Rebecca C; Rahman, Sadia; Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney; Zhao, Xiaolan
Recombination is important for repairing DNA lesions, yet it can also lead to genomic rearrangements. This process must be regulated, and recently, sumoylation-mediated mechanisms were found to inhibit Rad51-dependent recombination. Here, we report that the absence of the Slx5-Slx8 complex, a newly identified player in the SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) pathway, led to increased Rad51-dependent and Rad51-independent recombination. The increases were most striking during S phase, suggesting an accumulation of DNA lesions during replication. Consistent with this view, Slx8 protein localized to replication centers. In addition, like SUMO E2 mutants, slx8Delta mutants exhibited clonal lethality, which was due to the overamplification of 2 microm, an extrachromosomal plasmid. Interestingly, in both SUMO E2 and slx8Delta mutants, clonal lethality was rescued by deleting genes required for Rad51-independent recombination but not those involved in Rad51-dependent events. These results suggest that sumoylation negatively regulates Rad51-independent recombination, and indeed, the Slx5-Slx8 complex affected the sumoylation of several enzymes involved in early steps of Rad51-independent recombination. We propose that, during replication, the Slx5-Slx8 complex helps prevent DNA lesions that are acted upon by recombination. In addition, the complex inhibits Rad51-independent recombination via modulating the sumoylation of DNA repair proteins.
Heron, Kristin E.; Scott, Stacey B.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.
Objective A growing body of research seeks to understand the relationship between mood and eating behaviors. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) methods provide a method for assessing these processes in natural settings. We used EMA to examine the relationship between mood and eating behaviors in everyday life among women with subclinical disordered eating behaviors. Method Participants (N=127, age M=19.6, BMI M=25.5) completed 5 daily EMA reports on palmtop computers for 1 week. Assessments included measures of negative affect (NA) and eating-related behavior during eating (eating large amounts of food, loss of control over eating, restricting food intake) and non-eating episodes (skip eating to control weight/shape). Time-lagged multi-level models tested mood-eating behavior relationships. Results Higher NA did not precede any unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors. However, NA was higher when women reported eating large quantities of food, losing control over eating, and restricting food intake during their most recent eating episode, but not after skipping eating to control weight/shape. Discussion These findings elucidate processes in daily life that may influence the development and maintenance of unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors that, in turn, can inform interventions. PMID:24797029
Ryan, Sinéad M; Nolan, Yvonne M
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is believed to be integral for certain forms of learning and memory. Dysregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis has been shown to be an important mechanism underlying the cognitive impairment associated with normal aging, as well as the cognitive deficits evident in preclinical models of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroinflammation is a significant pathological feature of these conditions; it contributes to the observed cognitive decline, and recent evidence demonstrates that it also negatively affects hippocampal neurogenesis. Conversely, during the past twenty years, it has been robustly shown that exercise is a potent inducer of hippocampal neurogenesis, and it is believed that the positive beneficial effect of exercise on cognitive function is likely due to its pro-neurogenic effects. However, the interplay between exercise- and neuroinflammatory-induced changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and associated cognitive function has only recently begun to receive attention. Here we review the current literature on exercise-induced effects on hippocampal neurogenesis, cognitive function and neuroinflammation, and consider exercise as a potential pro-neurogenic and anti-inflammatory intervention for cognition.
Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F.
Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m-2, i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared
Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E
The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress.
Sims, Tamara; Tsai, Jeanne L; Jiang, Da; Wang, Yaheng; Fung, Helene H; Zhang, Xiulan
Previous studies have demonstrated that European Americans have fewer mixed affective experiences (i.e., are less likely to experience the bad with the good) compared with Chinese. In this article, we argue that these cultural differences are due to "ideal affect," or how people ideally want to feel. Specifically, we predict that people from individualistic cultures want to maximize positive and minimize negative affect more than people from collectivistic cultures, and as a result, they are less likely to actually experience mixed emotions (reflected by a more negative within-person correlation between actual positive and negative affect). We find support for this prediction in 2 experience sampling studies conducted in the United States and China (Studies 1 and 2). In addition, we demonstrate that ideal affect is a distinct construct from dialectical view of the self, which has also been related to mixed affective experience (Study 3). Finally, in Study 4, we demonstrate that experimentally manipulating the desire to maximize the positive and minimize the negative alters participants' actual experience of mixed emotions during a pleasant (but not unpleasant or combined pleasant and unpleasant) TV clip in the United States and Hong Kong. Together, these findings suggest that across cultures, how people want to feel shapes how they actually feel, particularly people's experiences of mixed affect.
Sims, Tamara; Tsai, Jeanne L.; Jiang, Da; Wang, Yaheng; Fung, Helene H.; Zhang, Xiulan
Previous studies have demonstrated that European Americans have fewer mixed affective experiences (i.e., are less likely to experience the bad with the good) compared to Chinese. In this paper, we argue that these cultural differences are due to “ideal affect,” or how people ideally want to feel. Specifically, we predict that people from individualistic cultures want to maximize positive and minimize negative affect more than people from collectivistic cultures, and as a result, they are less likely to actually experience mixed emotions (reflected by a more negative within-person correlation between actual positive and negative affect). We find support for this prediction in two experience sampling studies conducted in the U.S. and China (Studies 1 and 2). In addition, we demonstrate that ideal affect is a distinct construct from dialectical view of the self, which has also been related to mixed affective experience (Study 3). Finally, in Study 4, we demonstrate that experimentally manipulating the desire to maximize the positive and minimize the negative alters participants' actual experience of mixed emotions during a pleasant (but not unpleasant or combined pleasant and unpleasant) television clip in the U.S. and Hong Kong. Together, these findings suggest that across cultures, how people want to feel shapes how they actually feel, particularly people's mixed affective experience. PMID:26121525
Marroquín, Brett; Boyle, Chloe C; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Stanton, Annette L
Predictions about the future are susceptible to mood-congruent influences of emotional state. However, recent work suggests individuals also differ in the degree to which they incorporate emotion into cognition. This study examined the role of such individual differences in the context of state negative emotion. We examined whether trait tendencies to use negative or positive emotion as information affect individuals' predictions of what will happen in the future (likelihood estimation) and how events will feel (affective forecasting), and whether trait influences depend on emotional state. Participants (N=119) reported on tendencies to use emotion as information ("following feelings"), underwent an emotion induction (negative versus neutral), and made likelihood estimates and affective forecasts for future events. Views of the future were predicted by both emotional state and individual differences in following feelings. Whereas following negative feelings affected most future-oriented cognition across emotional states, following positive feelings specifically buffered individuals' views of the future in the negative emotion condition, and specifically for positive future events, a category of future-event prediction especially important in psychological health. Individual differences may confer predisposition toward optimistic or pessimistic expectations of the future in the context of acute negative emotion, with implications for adaptive and maladaptive functioning.
Atkinson, John; Sharp, Carla; Schmitz, Joy; Yaroslavsky, Ilya
The prevalence of pathological gambling among college students is increasing. Few studies have directly examined the relation between reward processing and gambling severity while concurrently examining the effects of co-occurring negative affect in this at risk population. This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques to analyze results from an online survey of 352 female and 96 male students age 18-25. Participants completed measures of past year gambling behavior and severity of gambling problems using the Canadian Problem Gambling Index and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Negative affect and reward processing were measured by the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales, respectively. Thirty-five percent of participants reported gambling in the previous 12 months, and 11% had gambling severity scores indicative of "moderate-risk" or "problem gambling." Gambling severity was associated with negative affect. Negative affect, in turn, was correlated with the unitary BIS scale and inversely associated with the BAS reward responsiveness scale. Reward responsiveness was also inversely associated with gambling severity. In the SEM models, the association between reward responsiveness and gambling severity was mediated by negative affect among males but not among females. Potential explanations for these findings and their implications for addressing problem gambling are discussed.
Groch, Sabine; Preiss, Andrea; McMakin, Dana L; Rasch, Björn; Walitza, Susanne; Huber, Reto; Wilhelm, Ines
Cognitive models propose a negative memory bias as one key factor contributing to the emergence and maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The long-term consolidation of memories relies on memory reactivations during sleep. We investigated in SAD patients and healthy controls the role of memory reactivations during sleep in the long-term consolidation of positive and negative information. Socially anxious and healthy children and adolescents learnt associations between pictures showing ambiguous situations and positive or negative words defining the situations' outcome. Half of the words were re-presented during postlearning sleep (i.e., they were cued). Recall of picture-word associations and subjective ratings of pleasantness and arousal in response to the pictures was tested for cued and uncued stimuli. In the morning after cueing, cueing facilitated retention of positive and negative memories equally well in SAD patients and healthy controls. One week later, cueing led to reduced ratings of pleasantness of negative information in SAD but not in healthy controls. Coincidental to these findings was more pronounced EEG theta activity over frontal, temporal and parietal regions in response to negative stimuli in SAD patients. Our findings suggest that the preferential abstraction of negative emotional information during sleep might represent one factor underlying the negative memory bias in SAD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We aim to uncover mechanisms underlying the characteristic negative memory bias in social anxiety disorder (SAD). The formation of long-lasting memories-a process referred to as memory consolidation-depends on the reactivation of newly acquired memories during sleep. We demonstrated that experimentally induced memory reactivation during sleep renders long-term memories of negative experiences more negative in SAD patients but not in healthy controls. We also found in SAD patients that the reactivation of negative experiences coincided with more
.... PA-28, PA-32, PA- 34, and PA-44 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Aircraft, Inc. (Piper) PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44 series airplanes. This AD requires you to inspect the... apply to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Piper) PA-28, PA-32, PA- 34, and PA-44 series airplanes....
Hentati, Olfa; Oliveira, Vanessa; Sena, Clara; Bouji, Mohamed Seddik Mahmoud; Wali, Ahmed; Ksibi, Mohamed
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological effects of olive mill waste (OMW) on soil habitat function. To this end, soil samples from OMW evaporating ponds (S1-S5) located at Agareb (Sfax, Tunisia) and a reference soil (R) were collected. The effects of OMW on the springtails Folsomia candida (F.c.), the earthworm species Eisenia fetida (E.f.), Enchytraeus crypticus (E.c.) reproduction and on the soil living microbial communities were investigated. E.f. reproduction and tomato growth assays were performed in the reference soil amended with 0.43 to 7.60 % (wOMW/wref-soil) mass ratios of dried OMW. Changes in microbial function diversity were explored using sole-carbon-source utilization profiles (BiologEcoPlates(®)). E.f. absolutely avoided (100 %) the most polluted soil (S4) while the F.c. moderately avoided (37.5 ± 7.5 %) the same soil. E.c. reproduction in S4 was significantly lower than in S1, S2, S3 and S5, and was the highest in R soil. Estimated effect concentration EC50 for juveniles' production by E.f., and for tomato fresh weight and chlorophyll content were 0.138, 0.6 and 1.13 %, respectively. Community level physiological profiles (CLPPs) were remarkably different in R and S4 and a higher similarity was observed between soils S1, S2, S3 and S5. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that differences between soil microbial functional diversity were mainly due to high polyphenol concentrations, while the salinity negatively affected E.c. reproduction in OMW contaminated soils. These results clearly reflect the high toxicity of dried OMW when added to agricultural soils, causing severe threats to terrestrial ecosystem functions and services provided by invertebrates and microbial communities.
Parthymou, Anastasia; Lampropoulou, Evgenia; Mikelis, Constantinos; Drosou, Georgia; Papadimitriou, Evangelia
Heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP) or pleiotrophin seems to be involved in the progression of several tumors of diverse origin. In this study, we tried to determine the role of HARP in rat C6 glioma cells by using an antisense strategy for inhibition of HARP expression. Decrease of the expression of endogenous HARP in C6 cells (AS-C6 cells) significantly increased proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth of cells. Implantation of AS-C6 cells onto chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes resulted in a significant increase of tumor-induced angiogenesis compared with that induced by non-transfected or C6 cells transfected with the plasmid alone (PC-C6 cells). In the same line, conditioned medium from AS-C6 cells significantly increased endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro compared with the effect of conditioned medium from C6 or PC-C6 cells. Interestingly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced C6 cell proliferation and migration, and SU1496, a selective inhibitor of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), blocked increased glioma cell growth, migration, and angiogenicity observed in AS-C6 cell cultures. The above results seem to be due to a direct interaction between HARP and VEGF in the culture medium of C6 and PC-C6 cells, while AS-C6 cells secreted comparable amounts of VEGF that do not interact with HARP. Collectively, these data suggest that HARP negatively affects diverse biological activities in C6 glioma cells, mainly due to binding of HARP to VEGF, which may sequester secreted VEGF from signalling through VEGFR2.
Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Peltonen, Kirsi; Diab, Marwan; Qouta, Samir R
Post traumatic cognitions (PTCs) are important determinants of post traumatic stress symptoms (PTS symptoms). We tested whether risk factors of PTS symptoms (trauma, demographics, social and family-related factors) predict PTCs and whether PTCs mediate the association between risk factors and PTS symptoms among war-affected children. The participants were 240 Palestinian children 10-12 years old, half boys and half girls, and their parents. Children reported about psychological maltreatment, sibling and peer relations, war trauma, PTCs, PTS symptoms, and depression. Parents reported about their socioeconomic status and their own PTS symptoms. The associations between the variables were estimated in structural equation models. In models which included all the variables, PTCs were predicted by and mediated the effects of psychological maltreatment, war trauma, sibling conflict, and peer unpopularity on PTS symptoms. Other predictors had statistically non-significant effects. Psychological maltreatment had the largest indirect effect (b* = 0.29, p = 0.002) and the indirect effects of war trauma (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), sibling conflict (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), and peer unpopularity (b* = 0.10, p = 0.094) were lower and about the same size. Age-salient social relationships are potentially important in the development of both PTCs and PTS symptoms among preadolescents. Furthermore, PTCs mediate the effects of the risk factors of PTS symptoms. The causality of the associations among the variables is not established but it could be studied in the future with interventions which improve the negative aspects of traumatized children's important social relationships.
Barba-Espín, G; Clemente-Moreno, M J; Alvarez, S; García-Legaz, M F; Hernández, J A; Díaz-Vivancos, P
We studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment on the response of pea plants to salinity. Sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced damage to leaves was increased by SA, which was correlated with a reduction in plant growth. The content of reduced ascorbate and glutathione in leaves of salt-treated plants increased in response to SA, although accumulation of the respective oxidised forms occurred. An increase in hydrogen peroxide also occurred in leaves of salt-exposed plants treated with SA. In the absence of NaCl, SA increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX; 100 μm) and glutathione-S transferase (GST; 50 μm) activities and increased catalase (CAT) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Salinity decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity, but increased GST and CAT activity. In salt-stressed plants, SA also produced changes in antioxidative enzymes: 100 μm SA decreased APX but increased GST. Finally, a concentration-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was induced by SA treatment in salt-stressed plants. Induction of PR-1b was observed in NaCl-stressed plants treated with SA. The treatment with SA, as well as the interaction between salinity and SA treatment, had a significant effect on PsMAPK3 expression. The expression of PsMAPK3 was not altered by 70 mm NaCl, but was statistically higher in the absence than in the presence of SA. Overall, the results show that SA treatment negatively affected the response of pea plants to NaCl, and this response correlated with an imbalance in antioxidant metabolism. The data also show that SA treatment could enhance the resistance of salt-stressed plants to possible opportunistic pathogen attack, as suggested by increased PR-1b gene expression.
Wiers, Reinout W
Goldman and Darkes (2004) argued that all three basic alcohol-expectancy factors can be assessed with a brief questionnaire (AEMax), related to the circumplex model of emotion. I argue that negative reinforcement, one of the three basic expectancy factors, is not assessed with the AEMax. Importantly, negative reinforcement is positively related to problem drinking while sedation (the AEMax-factor that comes closest) is not. In a new dataset (from 119 students, collected in 2002), I demonstrate that sedation is related to negative expectancies and not to negative reinforcement. Different ways to assess all major expectancy factors are proposed.
Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony J.; Benos, Alexis; Maes, Stan
Negative affectivity has been defined as a predisposition to experience intense states of negative emotions. As a trait concept it is a dimension that reflects stable and pervasive differences in negative mood and self-concept. There has been systematic evidence linking negative affectivity to anxiety, depression, psychosomatic complaints, pain…
Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey; Evans, Gary
The present study examined the concurrent and prospective, longitudinal effects of childhood negative emotionality and self-regulation on allostatic load (AL), a physiological indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that negative emotionality in combination with poor self-regulation would predict elevated AL. Mothers reported on children's…
Machell, Kyla A; Kashdan, Todd B; Short, Jerome L; Nezlek, John B
Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis. One hundred sixty-two college students completed daily reports for 2 weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms on these relationships. Positive daily social and achievement events were related to greater daily meaning, above and beyond the contributions of daily positive and negative affect. Negative social and achievement events were related to less daily meaning, and negative achievement events covaried with daily meaning above and beyond positive and negative affect. Depression moderated the relationships between positive events and meaning, such that people who reported more depressive symptoms had greater increases in daily meaning in response to positive social and achievement events than individuals who reported fewer symptoms. These findings suggest the important role that daily events may play in fluctuations in people's affective experiences and sense of meaning in life.
Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghaei, Abbas
Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases. PMID:26234976
Montero-Marin, Jesús; Tops, Mattie; Manzanera, Rick; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo M.; Álvarez de Mon, Melchor; García-Campayo, Javier
Purpose: Primary care health professionals suffer from high levels of burnout. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations of mindfulness and resilience with the features of the burnout types (overload, lack of development, neglect) in primary care physicians, taking into account the potential mediating role of negative and positive affect. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. Six hundred and twenty-two Spanish primary care physicians were recruited from an online survey. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-12) questionnaires were administered. Polychoric correlation matrices were calculated. The unweighted least squares (ULS) method was used for developing structural equation modeling. Results: Mindfulness and resilience presented moderately high associations (φ = 0.46). Links were found between mindfulness and overload (γ = −0.25); resilience and neglect (γ = −0.44); mindfulness and resilience, and negative affect (γ = −0.30 and γ = −0.35, respectively); resilience and positive affect (γ = 0.70); negative affect and overload (β = 0.36); positive affect and lack of development (β = −0.16). The links between the burnout types reached high and positive values between overload and lack of development (β = 0.64), and lack of development and neglect (β = 0.52). The model was a very good fit to the data (GFI = 0.96; AGFI = 0.96; RMSR = 0.06; NFI = 0.95; RFI = 0.95; PRATIO = 0.96). Conclusions: Interventions addressing both mindfulness and resilience can influence burnout subtypes, but their impact may occur in different ways, potentially mediated by positive and negative affect. Both sorts of trainings could constitute possible tools against burnout; however, while mindfulness seems a suitable intervention for preventing its initial stages, resilience may be more effective for
Hormes, Julia M; Rozin, Paul
Ambivalence is thought to impact consumption of food, alcohol and drugs, possibly via influences on craving, with cravers often being simultaneously drawn toward and repelled from ingestion. So far, little is known about the temporal dynamics of ambivalence, especially as it varies in relationship to consumption. Participants (n=482, 56.8% female) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule prior to, immediately and 30 min after the opportunity to eat a bar of chocolate. Affective ambivalence was calculated based on the relative strengths of and discrepancy between ratings of positive and negative affect. Ambivalence peaked prior to a decision about consumption and subsequently decreased, whether or not the decision was in favor of or against consuming. Decreasing ambivalence was driven by a drop in positive affect over time; positivity decreased more rapidly in those who consumed chocolate. Findings represent a first step in characterizing the dynamics of ambivalence in interactions with a target stimulus.
Bozkurt, Nurgül; Yurdasal, Belkıs; Bozkurt, Ali İhsan; Yılmaz, Özlem; Tekin, Mahmut
volume in one second (FEV1). While restrictive disorder was found 25% in the first PFT evaluations, this ratio increased to 31% in the second PFT. When the radiological results were considered, 62% of the first X-ray results were found to be normal but this ratio decreased to 18% in 2013. While reticular/reticulonodular opacities were found in 11% of cases in 2008, it increased to 30% in 2013. Seven technicians were diagnosed with pneumoconiosis (5.6%). Conclusion: Respiratory tracts of the technicians were negatively affected during the five year period. The number of pneumoconiosis cases (5.6%) shows that it is necessary to adopt comprehensive work health and safety precautions for laboratories. PMID:27606139
Gibbons, Henning; Schnuerch, Robert; Stahl, Jutta
Previous studies on the neurophysiological underpinnings of feedback processing almost exclusively used low-ambiguity feedback, which does not fully address the diversity of situations in everyday life. We therefore used a pseudo trial-and-error learning task to investigate ERPs of low- versus high-ambiguity feedback. Twenty-eight participants tried to deduce the rule governing visual feedback to their button presses in response to visual stimuli. In the blocked condition, the same two feedback words were presented across several consecutive trials, whereas in the random condition feedback was randomly drawn on each trial from sets of five positive and five negative words. The feedback-related negativity (FRN-D), a frontocentral ERP difference between negative and positive feedback, was significantly larger in the blocked condition, whereas the centroparietal late positive complex indicating controlled attention was enhanced for negative feedback irrespective of condition. Moreover, FRN-D in the blocked condition was due to increased reward positivity (Rew-P) for positive feedback, rather than increased (raw) FRN for negative feedback. Our findings strongly support recent lines of evidence that the FRN-D, one of the most widely studied signatures of reinforcement learning in the human brain, critically depends on feedback discriminability and is primarily driven by the Rew-P. A novel finding concerned larger frontocentral P2 for negative feedback in the random but not the blocked condition. Although Rew-P points to a positivity bias in feedback processing under conditions of low feedback ambiguity, P2 suggests a specific adaptation of information processing in case of highly ambiguous feedback, involving an early negativity bias. Generalizability of the P2 findings was demonstrated in a second experiment using explicit valence categorization of highly emotional positive and negative adjectives.
Proverbio, Alice Mado; La Mastra, Francesca; Zani, Alberto
During social interactions, we make inferences about people’s personal characteristics based on their appearance. These inferences form a potential prejudice that can positively or negatively bias our interaction with them. Not much is known about the effects of negative bias on face perception and the ability to recognize people faces. This ability was investigated by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) from 128 sites in 16 volunteers. In the first session (encoding), they viewed 200 faces associated with a short fictional story that described anecdotal positive or negative characteristics about each person. In the second session (recognition), they underwent an old/new memory test, in which they had to distinguish 100 new faces from the previously shown faces. ERP data relative to the encoding phase showed a larger anterior negativity in response to negatively (vs. positively) biased faces, indicating an additional processing of faces with unpleasant social traits. In the recognition task, ERPs recorded in response to new faces elicited a larger FN400 than to old faces, and to positive than negative faces. Additionally, old faces elicited a larger Old-New parietal response than new faces, in the form of an enlarged late positive (LPC) component. An inverse solution SwLORETA (450–550 ms) indicated that remembering old faces was associated with the activation of right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), left medial temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus. Only negatively connoted faces strongly activated the limbic and parahippocampal areas and the left SFG. A dissociation was found between familiarity (modulated by negative bias) and recollection (distinguishing old from new faces). PMID:27655327
Zhuang, Yun; Feng, Wenfeng; Liao, Yu
The primary goal of the present study was to investigate how positive and negative feedback may differently facilitate learning throughout development. In addition, the role of motivation as a modulating factor was examined. Participants (children, adolescents, and adults) completed two forms of the guess and application task (GAT). Feedback from the Cool-GAT task has low motivational salience because there are no consequences, while feedback from the Hot-GAT task has high motivational salience as it pertains to receiving a reward. The results indicated that negative feedback leads to a reduction in learning compared to positive feedback. The effect of negative feedback was greater in adolescent participants compared to children and adults in the Hot-GAT task, suggesting an interaction between age and motivation level on learning. Further analysis indicated that greater risk was associated with a greater reduction in learning from negative feedback and again, the reduction was greatest in adolescents. In summary, the current study supports the idea that learning from positive feedback and negative feedback differs throughout development. In a rule-based learning task, when associative learning is primarily in practice, participants learned less from negative feedback. This reduction is amplified during adolescence when task-elicited motivation is high.
Zhuang, Yun; Feng, Wenfeng; Liao, Yu
The primary goal of the present study was to investigate how positive and negative feedback may differently facilitate learning throughout development. In addition, the role of motivation as a modulating factor was examined. Participants (children, adolescents, and adults) completed two forms of the guess and application task (GAT). Feedback from the Cool-GAT task has low motivational salience because there are no consequences, while feedback from the Hot-GAT task has high motivational salience as it pertains to receiving a reward. The results indicated that negative feedback leads to a reduction in learning compared to positive feedback. The effect of negative feedback was greater in adolescent participants compared to children and adults in the Hot-GAT task, suggesting an interaction between age and motivation level on learning. Further analysis indicated that greater risk was associated with a greater reduction in learning from negative feedback and again, the reduction was greatest in adolescents. In summary, the current study supports the idea that learning from positive feedback and negative feedback differs throughout development. In a rule-based learning task, when associative learning is primarily in practice, participants learned less from negative feedback. This reduction is amplified during adolescence when task-elicited motivation is high. PMID:28191003
Putnam, Samuel P.; Stifter, Cynthia A.
In this study, 126 children were observed at 6 months, 12 months, and 2 years. During infancy, latencies to reach for novel objects were measured. At 2 years, positive and negative affect, and behavioral approach-inhibition to low- and high-intensity situations were coded, and mothers assessed behavior problems. Confirmatory factor analysis…
Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng
This research is comprised of two studies designed to explore the effects of online discussion forum aggressive messages and Internet cognitive distortion on users' negative affect and aggression. The results of study 1 revealed 69 users could perceive both disgust and hostility feelings toward aggressive messages conducted by the authors, and…
Hughes, Alicia A.; Kendall, Philip C.
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) (Laurent et al. Psychol Asses 1: 326-338, 1999) in a sample of 139 children (ages 7-14 years) diagnosed with a principal anxiety disorder. Results from this study provided support for the convergent validity of the PANAS-C with…
Kapikiran, Necla Acun
The main purpose of this study is to examine the mediator and moderator role of positive and negative affectivity variables on the relationship between optimism and life satisfaction in university students. 397 university students, ranging in age from 18 to 27 (M = 20.98), attending different departments of the Faculty of Education, at Pamukkale…
Hutchinson, Delyse M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Taylor, Alan
This study tested five proposed models of the relationship of negative affect and peer factors in early adolescent body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic behaviors. A large community sample of girls in early adolescence was assessed via questionnaire (X[overbar] age = 12.3 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that negative…
McNamara, Robert S.; Swaim, Randall C.; Rosen, Lee A.
This study examines the moderating effects of negative affect on the relationship between early drinking onset and binge-drinking behavior. Six hundred and thirty-five eleventh- and twelfth-grade students completed the American Drug and Alcohol Survey and reported on a variety of measures, including items assessing anxiety, anger, depression, age…
Sevinç, Seda; Gizir, Cem Ali
This qualitative case study aims to investigate the most common factors that negatively affect adjustment to university and coping strategies used by first-year university students in the adaptation process from the viewpoint of first-year university students. The participants were 25 first-year university students from various faculties at Mersin…
Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Fischer, Kathryn
Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective…
Lindquist, Kristen A; Satpute, Ajay B; Wager, Tor D; Weber, Jochen; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
The ability to experience pleasant or unpleasant feelings or to represent objects as "positive" or "negative" is known as representing hedonic "valence." Although scientists overwhelmingly agree that valence is a basic psychological phenomenon, debate continues about how to best conceptualize it scientifically. We used a meta-analysis of 397 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography studies (containing 914 experimental contrasts and 6827 participants) to test 3 competing hypotheses about the brain basis of valence: the bipolarity hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by a brain system that monotonically increases and/or decreases along the valence dimension, the bivalent hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by independent brain systems, and the affective workspace hypothesis that positive and negative affect are supported by a flexible set of valence-general regions. We found little evidence for the bipolar or bivalent hypotheses. Findings instead supported the hypothesis that, at the level of brain activity measurable by fMRI, valence is flexibly implemented across instances by a set of valence-general limbic and paralimbic brain regions.
Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.
People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…
Villodas, Feion; Villodas, Miguel T.; Roesch, Scott
The psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule were examined in a multiethnic sample of adolescents. Results from confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the original two-factor model did not adequately fit the data. Exploratory factor analyses revealed that four items were not pure markers of the factors. (Contains 1…
Mayhew, Matthew J.; Engberg, Mark E.
How do interactions with diverse peers affect moral reasoning development? Results from a longitudinal study of 171 students enrolled in an Intergroup Dialogue or Introduction to Sociology course indicate that students who experience more negative interactions with diverse peers report lower developmental gains in moral reasoning, although the…
Davis, Molly; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne
The present study sought to further specify conceptual models of youth positive affect (PA) by examining mothers' observed PA as a mediator of the relation between family risk (based on maternal reports of demographic factors) and children's PA in a sample of 82 mothers (M = 31.25 years, SD = 6.16) and their preschool-aged children (M = 3.51 years, SD = .49, 63.00% boys). Results yielded a significant, negative correlation between family risk and child PA. Mediation analyses indicated that family risk was related to child PA through its effects on maternal PA, even after controlling for maternal depression symptoms. Findings suggest that family risk and maternal PA are important factors to consider in understanding preschoolers' PA development. Identifying children at risk for developing PA difficulties can aid in the implementation of prevention and intervention strategies for promoting young children's PA specifically, and their psychosocial functioning more broadly.
Davis, Molly; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne
The present study sought to further specify conceptual models of youth positive affect (PA) by examining mothers’ observed PA as a mediator of the relation between family risk (based on maternal reports of demographic factors) and children’s PA in a sample of 82 mothers (M = 31.25 years, SD = 6.16) and their preschool-aged children (M = 3.51 years, SD = .49, 63.00% boys). Results yielded a significant, negative correlation between family risk and child PA. Mediation analyses indicated that family risk was related to child PA through its effects on maternal PA, even after controlling for maternal depression symptoms. Findings suggest that family risk and maternal PA are important factors to consider in understanding preschoolers’ PA development. Identifying children at risk for developing PA difficulties can aid in the implementation of prevention and intervention strategies for promoting young children’s PA specifically, and their psychosocial functioning more broadly. PMID:25326667
Telman, Machteld D; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F
Adolescent anxiety is common, impairing and costly. Given the scale of adolescent anxiety and its impact, fresh innovations for therapy are in demand. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) studies of adults show that by training individuals to endorse benign interpretations of ambiguous situations can improve anxious mood-states particularly in response towards stress. While, these investigations have been partially extended to adolescents with success, inconsistent training effects on anxious mood-states have been found. The present study investigated whether positive versus negative CBM-I training influenced appraisals of stress, in forty-nine adolescents, aged 15-18. Data supported the plasticity of interpretational styles, with positively-trained adolescents selecting more benign resolutions of new ambiguous situations, than negatively-trained adolescents. Positively-trained adolescents also rated recent stressors as having less impact on their lives than negatively-trained adolescents. Thus, while negative styles may increase negative responses towards stress, positive styles may boost resilience.
Riepl, Korbinian; Mussel, Patrick; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes
The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants’ behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task) via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions) via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states) led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on depression and
Riepl, Korbinian; Mussel, Patrick; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes
The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task) via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions) via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states) led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on depression and
Samson, Andrea C; Kreibig, Sylvia D; Soderstrom, Blake; Wade, A Ayanna; Gross, James J
We describe the creation of a film library designed for researchers interested in positive (amusing), negative (repulsive), mixed (amusing and repulsive) and neutral emotional states. Three hundred 20- to 33-second film clips videotaped by amateurs were selected from video-hosting websites and screened in laboratory studies by 75 female participants on self-reported amusement and repulsion (Experiments 1 and 2). On the basis of pre-defined cut-off values, 51 positive, 39 negative, 59 mixed and 50 neutral film clips were selected. These film clips were then presented to 411 male and female participants in a large online study to identify film clips that reliably induced the target emotions (Experiment 3). Depending on the goal of the study, researchers may choose positive, negative, mixed or neutral emotional film clips on the basis of Experiments 1 and 2 or Experiment 3 ratings.
Understanding, prioritizing and responding to infant affective cues is a key component of motherhood, with long-term implications for infant socio-emotional development. This important task includes identifying unique characteristics of one's own infant, as they relate to differences in affect valen...
Snyder, J; Schrepferman, L; St Peter, C
Theoretical models specifying the contribution of two social-familial mechanisms, negative reinforcement and affect dysregulation, to the development of child antisocial behavior were tested using a sample of 57 8- to 13-year-old boys referred for treatment of conduct problems. Negative reinforcement of boys' aggressive behavior and boys' affect dysregulation were found to covary with the boys' irritability toward parents and siblings and were reliable predictors of a composite measure of child antisocial behavior, defined by out-of-home placement, arrests, and school discipline incidents 2 years later. Reinforcement of aggression and affect dysregulation during family interaction may play complementary roles in the development of antisocial behavior by fostering the use of coercive means of dealing with social conflict. The findings are discussed in terms of research strategies for identifying social mechanisms contributing to child psychopathology and of implications for modification of current family interventions targeting child antisocial behavior.
Eippert, Falk; Wiens, Stefan; Birbaumer, Niels; Lotze, Martin; Wildgruber, Dirk
Affective neuroscience has been strongly influenced by the view that a ‘feeling’ is the perception of somatic changes and has consequently often neglected the neural mechanisms that underlie the integration of somatic and other information in affective experience. Here, we investigate affective processing by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging in nine cortically blind patients. In these patients, unilateral postgeniculate lesions prevent primary cortical visual processing in part of the visual field which, as a result, becomes subjectively blind. Residual subcortical processing of visual information, however, is assumed to occur in the entire visual field. As we have reported earlier, these patients show significant startle reflex potentiation when a threat-related visual stimulus is shown in their blind visual field. Critically, this was associated with an increase of brain activity in somatosensory-related areas, and an increase in experienced negative affect. Here, we investigated the patients’ response when the visual stimulus was shown in the sighted visual field, that is, when it was visible and cortically processed. Despite the fact that startle reflex potentiation was similar in the blind and sighted visual field, patients reported significantly less negative affect during stimulation of the sighted visual field. In other words, when the visual stimulus was visible and received full cortical processing, the patients’ phenomenal experience of affect did not closely reflect somatic changes. This decoupling of phenomenal affective experience and somatic changes was associated with an increase of activity in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and a decrease of affect-related somatosensory activity. Moreover, patients who showed stronger left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activity tended to show a stronger decrease of affect-related somatosensory activity. Our findings show that similar affective somatic changes can be associated with
Ruva, Christine L.; McEvoy, Cathy
The experiment examined the effects of exposure to pretrial publicity (PTP) and delay on juror memory and decision-making. Mock jurors read news articles containing negative PTP, positive PTP, or unrelated articles. Five days later, they viewed a videotaped murder trial, after which they made decisions about guilt. Finally, all participants…
Brunelliere, Angele; Dufour, Sophie; Nguyen, Noel
Using the mismatch negativity (MMN) response, we examined how Standard French and Southern French speakers access the meaning of words ending in /e/ or /[epsilon]/ vowels which are contrastive in Standard French but not in Southern French. In Standard French speakers, there was a significant difference in the amplitude of the brain response after…
Beck, Kenneth H.; Davis, Clive M.
An experiment was performed to test two hypotheses. One was that there would be a curvilinear relationship between increased degrees of a negative communication and persuasion, and the other was that there would be a positive and linear relationship between a positive communication and persuasion. College undergraduate smokers and nonsmokers were…
Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Mohamadi, Amin; Mellema, Jos J; Tourjee, Stephen M; Ring, David; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria
Negative affectivity is a personality trait that predisposes people to psychological distress and low life satisfaction. Negative affectivity may also affect pain intensity and physical function in patients with musculoskeletal conditions. We explored the association of negative affectivity to pain intensity and self-reported physical function, and tested whether pain intensity mediates the effect of negative affectivity on physical function. In a cross-sectional study, 102 patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal conditions presenting to an orthopedic surgeon completed self-report measures of negative affectivity, pain intensity, and physical function in addition to demographic and injury information. We used the Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping approach to quantify the indirect effect of negative affectivity on physical function through pain intensity. Negative affectivity correlated with greater pain intensity and lower self-reported physical function significantly. Also, pain intensity mediated the association of negative affectivity with physical function. The indirect effect accounted for one-third of the total effect. To conclude, negative affectivity is associated with decreased engagement in daily life activities both directly, but also indirectly through increased pain intensity. Treatments targeting negative affectivity may be more economical and efficient for alleviation of pain and limitations associated with musculoskeletal illness than those addressing coping strategies or psychological distress.
Mareckova, Klara; Holsen, Laura M; Admon, Roee; Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry; Buka, Stephen; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Goldstein, Jill M
Negative affective stimuli elicit behavioral and neural responses which vary on a continuum from adaptive to maladaptive, yet are typically investigated in a dichotomous manner (healthy controls vs. psychiatric diagnoses). This practice may limit our ability to fully capture variance from acute responses to negative affective stimuli to psychopathology at the extreme end. To address this, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to examine the neural responses to negative valence/high arousal and neutral valence/low arousal images as a function of dysphoric mood and sex across individuals (n = 99) who represented traditional categories of healthy controls, major depressive disorder, bipolar psychosis, and schizophrenia. Observation of negative (vs. neutral) stimuli elicited blood oxygen-level dependent responses in the following circuitry: periaqueductal gray, hypothalamus (HYPO), amygdala (AMYG), hippocampus (HIPP), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and greater connectivity between AMYG and mPFC. Across all subjects, severity of dysphoric mood was associated with hyperactivity of HYPO, and, among females, right (R) AMYG. Females also demonstrated inverse relationships between severity of dysphoric mood and connectivity between HYPO - R OFC, R AMYG - R OFC, and R AMYG - R HIPP. Overall, our findings demonstrated sex-dependent deficits in response to negative affective stimuli increasing as a function of dysphoric mood state. Females demonstrated greater inability to regulate arousal as mood became more dysphoric. These findings contribute to elucidating biosignatures associated with response to negative stimuli across disorders and suggest the importance of a sex-dependent lens in determining these biosignatures. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3733-3744, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kiesner, Jeff; Poulin, François
The causal factors associated with increases in depressive symptoms among adolescent girls remain an area of theoretical debate, and the limited research considering a hormonal influence has provided mixed results. The goal of the present study was to test a set of longitudinal associations, that, if found, would provide support for a hormonal contribution to these changes. Specifically, this study tested the hypotheses that changes in depressive symptoms among adolescent girls would be associated with phase-specific symptoms of the menstrual cycle during early adulthood; that these associations would differ across three phases of the menstrual cycle; and that the pattern of associations would differ for changes in depressive symptoms during early- and late-adolescence. The sample consisted of 47 women with longitudinal data from 12 to 21 years old (approximately 91% European Canadian, 4% Middle Eastern Canadian, 2% Haitian Canadian, and 2% Asian Canadian). Consistent with expectations, results showed that early-adolescent increases in depressive symptoms were negatively associated with menstrual-phase negative affect, and positively associated with mid-cycle negative affect, but not associated with premenstrual negative affect; whereas late-adolescent change in depressive symptoms was only associated with depressive symptoms at 20-21 years. Thus, early-adolescent changes in depressive symptoms are longitudinally associated with later mood change across the menstrual cycle, suggesting a common underlying cause, which is hypothesized to be hormonal. Moreover, results suggest that, with respect to variables that are involved in affective development, important differences exist between early- and late-adolescence. The discussion considers menstrual-cycle-related symptoms (e.g., dysmenorrhea) during adolescence, and the need to study their effects on development. It is suggested that focused intervention and prevention efforts may be indicated to interrupt negative
Saeki, Urara; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Sekine, Michikazu; Kagamimori, Sadanobu
We conducted this longitudinal study to evaluate the relationships of positive and negative affectivity (Affect Balance Scale) to sleep quality among civil servants. For this study we evaluated 827 civil servants of T city in Toyama prefecture in the springs of 2001 (Baseline) and 2004 with complete information in both phases of the study. Based on the median score at each phase, we divided Affect Balance Scale (ABS) scores into high and low groups. We conducted logistic regression analysis to determine the odds ratios (OR) of 3-yr follow-up sleep quality by baseline and follow-up ABS scores. After adjusting for baseline sleep quality scores, age, sex, employment, job strain, and exercise habits, participants who had high ABS scores were more likely (OR: 3.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.78-5.53) to have better sleep quality than those with low ABS scores at both phases. In addition, participants with low ABS scores at baseline and high ABS scores 3 yr later had better sleep quality (OR: 1.81, 95%CI: 1.02-3.20) than those with low ABS scores at both phases. These findings substantiate the relationships of positive and negative affectivity to sleep quality. Improving the affect balance condition as well as maintaining good affect balance condition may be important determinants of sleep quality in civil servants.
Morandi, Brunella; Losciale, Pasquale; Manfrini, Luigi; Zibordi, Marco; Anconelli, Stefano; Galli, Fabio; Pierpaoli, Emanuele; Corelli Grappadelli, Luca
Drought stress negatively affects many physiological parameters and determines lower yields and fruit size. This paper investigates on the effects of prolonged water restriction on leaf gas exchanges, water relations and fruit growth on a 24-h time-scale in order to understand how different physiological processes interact to each other to face increasing drought stress and affect pear productive performances during the season. The diurnal patterns of tree water relations, leaf gas exchanges, fruit growth, fruit vascular and transpiration flows were monitored at about 50, 95 and 145 days after full bloom (DAFB) on pear trees of the cv. Abbé Fétel, subjected to two irrigation regimes, corresponding to a water restitution of 100% and 25% of the estimated Etc, respectively. Drought stress progressively increased during the season due to lower soil tensions and higher daily vapour pressure deficits (VPDs). Stem water potential was the first parameter to be negatively affected by stress and determined the simultaneous reduction of fruit xylem flow, which at 95 DAFB was reflected by a decrease in fruit daily growth. Leaf photosynthesis was reduced only from 95 DAFB on, but was not immediately reflected by a decrease in fruit phloem flow, which instead was reduced only at 145 DAFB. This work shows how water stress negatively affects pear fruit growth by reducing first its xylem and then its phloem inflow. This determines a progressive increase in the phloem relative contribution to growth, which lead to the typical higher dry matter percentages of stressed fruit.
Yao, Ziqing; Yu, Rongjun
Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection) but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection). We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain. PMID:27253877
Yao, Ziqing; Yu, Rongjun
Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection) but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection). We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain.
Khanna, Maya M
The study described in this article provides behavioral evidence that boys experience the deleterious cognitive effects of lead more than girls do. In fact, girls with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs - 10 μg/dL) performed as well as girls without elevated BLLs on behavioral measures of cognition. This was shown by testing executive function and reading readiness skills of 40 young children (aged three to six years; 23 with elevated blood lead levels, 17 without) residing within a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-designated lead Superfund site. The results also indicate that elevated BLLs are related to a more pronounced negative impact on executive function than on reading readiness. These findings support recent research on adults indicating that lead exposure is related to atrophy within the prefrontal cortex and other work suggesting that estrogen and estradiol may act as neuroprotectants against the negative impact of neurotoxins.
Puterman, Eli; Haritatos, Jana; Adler, Nancy E; Sidney, Steve; Schwartz, Joseph E; Epel, Elissa S
Daily affect is important to health and has been linked to cortisol. The combination of high negative affect and low positive affect may have a bigger impact on increasing HPA axis activity than either positive or negative affect alone. Financial strain may both dampen positive affect as well as increase negative affect, and thus provides an excellent context for understanding the associations between daily affect and cortisol. Using random effects mixed modeling with maximum likelihood estimation, we examined the relationship between self-reported financial strain and estimated mean daily cortisol level (latent cortisol variable), based on six salivary cortisol assessments throughout the day, and whether this relationship was mediated by greater daily negative to positive affect index measured concurrently in a sample of 776 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study participants. The analysis revealed that while no total direct effect existed for financial strain on cortisol, there was a significant indirect effect of high negative affect to low positive affect, linking financial strain to elevated cortisol. In this sample, the effects of financial strain on cortisol through either positive affect or negative affect alone were not significant. A combined affect index may be a more sensitive and powerful measure than either negative or positive affect alone, tapping the burden of chronic financial strain, and its effects on biology.
Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E
We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps < .05. Effects were observed for men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.
Downey, Christina A; Chang, Edward C
This study examined body dissatisfaction and negative affect in understanding the link between perfectionism and dieting and bulimic symptoms in a sample of 307 female college students. Perfectionism was found to be associated with dieting and bulimic symptoms. Body dissatisfaction was found to interact with socially prescribed perfectionism in predicting both dieting and bulimic symptoms. Support for a prediction model involving negative affect as a mediator between socially prescribed perfectionism and bulimic symptoms was found only among those who reported a moderate level of body dissatisfaction. For those who reported a high level of body dissatisfaction, socially prescribed perfectionism was the only significant predictor of bulimic symptoms. Implications of the present findings for future research and for working with female college students at risk for eating disturbances are discussed.
The causal neurophysiological processes, such as autonomic nervous system activity, that mediate behavioral and physiological reactivity to an environment have largely been ignored. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a clinical diagnostic tool used to assess affective states (stressful and ple...
Gadea, Marien; Espert, Raul; Salvador, Alicia; Marti-Bonmati, Luis
Dichotic Listening (DL) is a valuable tool to study emotional brain lateralization. Regarding the perception of sadness and anger through affective prosody, the main finding has been a left ear advantage (LEA) for the sad but contradictory data for the anger prosody. Regarding an induced mood in the laboratory, its consequences upon DL were a…
Hoffner, Cynthia; Haefner, Margaret J.
Describes a study of students in grades three to six that examined how children's emotions about the Gulf War were related to their interest in the war news coverage. Topics addressed include theoretical approaches to selective viewing and the relationship between affective responses and casualty news versus neutral/background news. (Contains 30…
Kuchinke, Lars; Fritsch, Nathalie; Müller, Christina J
The present study examined the effect of contextual learning on the neural processing of previously meaningless pseudowords. During an evaluative conditioning session on 5 consecutive days, participants learned to associate 120 pseudowords with either positive, neutral or negative pictures. In a second session, participants were presented all conditioned pseudowords again together with 40 new pseudowords in a recognition memory task while their event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The behavioral data confirm successful learning of pseudoword valence. At the neural level, early modulations of the ERPs are visible at the P1 and the N1 components discriminating between positively and negatively conditioned pseudowords. Differences to new pseudowords were visible at later processing stages as indicated by modulations of the LPC. These results support a contextual learning hypothesis that is able to explain very early emotional ERP modulations in visual word recognition. Source localization indicates a role of medial-frontal brain regions as a likely origin of these early valence discrimination signals which are discussed to promote top-down signals to sensory processing.
Jones, D L; Quilliam, R S
Pyrolysis or combustion of waste wood can provide a renewable source of energy and produce byproducts which can be recycled back to land. To be sustainable requires that these byproducts pose minimal threat to the environment or human health. Frequently, reclaimed waste wood is contaminated by preservative-treated timber containing high levels of heavy metals. We investigated the effect of feedstock contamination from copper-preservative treated wood on the behaviour of pyrolysis-derived biochar and combustion-derived ash in plant-soil systems. Biochar and wood ash were applied to soil at typical agronomic rates. The presence of preservative treated timber in the feedstock increased available soil Cu; however, critical Cu guidance limits were only exceeded at high rates of feedstock contamination. Negative effects on plant growth and soil quality were only seen at high levels of biochar contamination (>50% derived from preservative-treated wood). Negative effects of wood ash contamination were apparent at lower levels of contamination (>10% derived from preservative treated wood). Complete removal of preservative treated timber from wood recycling facilities is notoriously difficult and low levels of contamination are commonplace. We conclude that low levels of contamination from Cu-treated wood should pose minimal environmental risk to biochar and ash destined for land application.
Leung, Christy Y Y; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko A; Chen, Yu Pu; Rosenblum, Katherine; Miller, Alison L
Despite increased attention to the role of temperament in children's obesogenic eating behaviors, there is a paucity of research examining whether different dimensions of temperament may be differentially associated with specific eating behaviors among preschool-age children. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether three temperament dimensions (surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control) were uniquely associated with six obesogenic eating behaviors (caregiver-reported food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, satiety responsiveness, and tantrums over food; and observed eating in the absence of hunger) among low-income preschool-age children, covarying home environment quality. Results showed that temperament dimensions were differentially associated with different eating behaviors. Specifically, preschoolers with higher surgency were more likely to overeat in response to external cues, have frequent desire to eat, derive pleasure from food, and eat in the absence of hunger. In contrast, preschoolers with higher negative affectivity were more likely to have tantrums over being denied food and less likely to eat in the absence of hunger. Effortful control was not uniquely associated with obesogenic eating behavior. Findings remained significant even when home chaos was accounted for, suggesting that child surgency and negative affectivity are important to consider, independent of home environment. Results are discussed with regard to theoretical implications for the study of childhood obesity and for applied prevention implications.
Aurbach, Elyse L.; Inui, Edny Gula; Turner, Cortney A.; Hagenauer, Megan H.; Prater, Katherine E.; Li, Jun Z.; Absher, Devin; Shah, Najmul; Blandino, Peter; Bunney, William E.; Myers, Richard M.; Barchas, Jack D.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda
Both gene expression profiling in postmortem human brain and studies using animal models have implicated the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in affect regulation and suggest a potential role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). FGF2, the most widely characterized family member, is down-regulated in the depressed brain and plays a protective role in rodent models of affective disorders. By contrast, using three microarray analyses followed by quantitative RT-PCR confirmation, we show that FGF9 expression is up-regulated in the hippocampus of individuals with MDD, and that FGF9 expression is inversely related to the expression of FGF2. Because little is known about FGF9’s function in emotion regulation, we used animal models to shed light on its potential role in affective function. We found that chronic social defeat stress, an animal model recapitulating some aspects of MDD, leads to a significant increase in hippocampal FGF9 expression, paralleling the elevations seen in postmortem human brain tissue. Chronic intracerebroventricular administration of FGF9 increased both anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. In contrast, knocking down FGF9 expression in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus using a lentiviral vector produced a decrease in FGF9 expression and ameliorated anxiety-like behavior. Collectively, these results suggest that high levels of hippocampal FGF9 play an important role in the development or expression of mood and anxiety disorders. We propose that the relative levels of FGF9 in relation to other members of the FGF family may prove key to understanding vulnerability or resilience in affective disorders. PMID:26351673
Davis, Nick J.
Advances in neuroscience and pharmacology have led to improvements in the cognitive performance of people with neurological disease and other forms of cognitive decline. These same methods may also afford cognitive enhancement in people of otherwise normal cognitive abilities. “Cosmetic”, or supranormal, cognitive enhancement offers opportunities to enrich our social or financial status, our interactions with others, and the common wealth of our community. It is common to focus on the potential benefits of cognitive enhancement, while being less than clear about the possible drawbacks. Here I examine the harms or side-effects associated with a range of cognitive enhancement interventions. I propose a taxonomy of harms in cognitive enhancement, with harms classified as (neuro)biological, ethical, or societal. Biological harms are those that directly affect the person’s biological functioning, such as when a drug affects a person’s mood or autonomic function. Ethical harms are those that touch on issues such as fairness and cheating, or on erosion of autonomy and coercion. Societal harms are harms that affect whole populations, and which are normally the province of governments, such as the use of enhancement in military contexts. This taxonomy of harms will help to focus the debate around the use and regulation of cognitive enhancement. In particular it will help to clarify the appropriate network of stakeholders who should take an interest in each potential harm, and in minimizing the impact of these harms. PMID:28261075
Davis, Nick J
Advances in neuroscience and pharmacology have led to improvements in the cognitive performance of people with neurological disease and other forms of cognitive decline. These same methods may also afford cognitive enhancement in people of otherwise normal cognitive abilities. "Cosmetic", or supranormal, cognitive enhancement offers opportunities to enrich our social or financial status, our interactions with others, and the common wealth of our community. It is common to focus on the potential benefits of cognitive enhancement, while being less than clear about the possible drawbacks. Here I examine the harms or side-effects associated with a range of cognitive enhancement interventions. I propose a taxonomy of harms in cognitive enhancement, with harms classified as (neuro)biological, ethical, or societal. Biological harms are those that directly affect the person's biological functioning, such as when a drug affects a person's mood or autonomic function. Ethical harms are those that touch on issues such as fairness and cheating, or on erosion of autonomy and coercion. Societal harms are harms that affect whole populations, and which are normally the province of governments, such as the use of enhancement in military contexts. This taxonomy of harms will help to focus the debate around the use and regulation of cognitive enhancement. In particular it will help to clarify the appropriate network of stakeholders who should take an interest in each potential harm, and in minimizing the impact of these harms.
Cohn, Amy M; Cameron, Amy Y; Udo, Tomoko; Hagman, Brett T; Mitchell, Jessica; Bramm, Stephanie; Ehlke, Sarah
Problem drinkers may use alcohol to avoid negative mood states and may develop implicit cognitive associations between negative emotional states and reinforcing properties of drinking. It is paradoxical that attempts to control drinking, such as among those high in drinking restraint, may inadvertently increase desire to drink and subsequent alcohol consumption, and this may be exaggerated under times of emotional distress when urges to drink are high. We examined whether individuals who are high on drinking restraint would demonstrate stronger alcohol-related thoughts elicited by stimuli that represent the desire to use alcohol, in response to stronger versus weaker negative mood arousal. Seventy hazardous drinkers completed measurements of drinking restraint, alcohol consumption, and consequences of use. After being randomized to view negative or positive pictures sets, participants completed an Implicit Association Task (IAT) to test differences in the strength of the association between desire to approach or avoid alcohol or water cues, and then a measurement of subjective craving following the IAT. Regression analyses showed that trait restriction not temptation was positively related to IAT scores, after controlling for relevant covariates and explained 7% of the total variance. Trait temptation not IAT predicted subjective craving. Negative affect was unrelated to IAT scores, singly or in conjunction with measures of drinking restraint, contrary to predictions. In sum, implicit alcohol cognitions are related to attempts to restrict drinking not temptation to drink and are less strongly influenced by mood state.
Cohn, Amy M.; Cameron, Amy Y.; Udo, Tomoko; Hagman, Brett T.; Mitchell, Jessica; Bramm, Stephanie; Ehlke, Sarah
Problem drinkers may use alcohol to avoid negative mood states and may develop implicit cognitive associations between negative emotional states and reinforcing properties of drinking. Ironically, attempts to control drinking, such as among those high in drinking restraint, may inadvertently increase desire to drink and subsequent alcohol consumption, and this may be exaggerated under times of emotional distress when urges to drink are high. We examined whether individuals who are high on drinking restraint would demonstrate stronger alcohol-related thoughts elicited by stimuli that represent the desire to use alcohol, in response to stronger versus weaker negative mood arousal. Seventy hazardous drinkers completed measurements of drinking restraint, alcohol consumption, and consequences of use. After being randomized to view negative or positive pictures sets, participants completed an Implicit Association Task (IAT) to test differences in the strength of the association between desire to approach or avoid alcohol or water cues, and then a measurement of subjective craving following the IAT. Regression analyses showed that trait restriction, but not temptation, was positively related to IAT scores, after controlling for relevant covariates and explained 7% of the total variance. Trait temptation, but not IAT, predicted subjective craving. Negative affect was unrelated to IAT scores, singly or in conjunction with measures of drinking restraint, contrary to predictions. In sum, implicit alcohol cognitions are related to attempts to restrict drinking, but not temptation to drink, and are less strongly influenced by mood state. PMID:22369223
Shaw, W. Robert; Marcenac, Perrine; Childs, Lauren M.; Buckee, Caroline O.; Baldini, Francesco; Sawadogo, Simon P.; Dabiré, Roch K.; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Catteruccia, Flaminia
The maternally inherited alpha-proteobacterium Wolbachia has been proposed as a tool to block transmission of devastating mosquito-borne infectious diseases like dengue and malaria. Here we study the reproductive manipulations induced by a recently identified Wolbachia strain that stably infects natural mosquito populations of a major malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii, in Burkina Faso. We determine that these infections significantly accelerate egg laying but do not induce cytoplasmic incompatibility or sex-ratio distortion, two parasitic reproductive phenotypes that facilitate the spread of other Wolbachia strains within insect hosts. Analysis of 221 blood-fed A. coluzzii females collected from houses shows a negative correlation between the presence of Plasmodium parasites and Wolbachia infection. A mathematical model incorporating these results predicts that infection with these endosymbionts may reduce malaria prevalence in human populations. These data suggest that Wolbachia may be an important player in malaria transmission dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27243367
Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women
Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett
The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…
Devylder, J E; Gearing, R E
Social support for individuals with psychosis is associated with decreased symptom severity, improved outcomes, and recovery. In adolescents, declining social support prior to the first hospitalization has been shown to predict time to relapse, which may have implications for early intervention. Data were collected on adolescents (n=84) following a first hospitalization for a psychotic episode in order to examine how change in social support relates to the duration and type of untreated symptoms. Most adolescents experienced a decline in social support (n=46) prior to index hospitalization. Chi-square analyses showed that declining social support was related to negative symptoms and longer duration of untreated psychosis, whereas stable social support was associated with manic symptoms and diagnosis of Bipolar disorder. When entered together into a logistic regression model, the decline in social support was primarily explained by the type of symptoms, rather than by the duration of untreated symptoms. These findings are relevant for targeting psychosocial treatments toward adolescents who may have particular deficits in social support during the prodromal phase and first episode of psychosis.
Aleksandrov, Aleksander A.; Knyazeva, Veronika M.; Stankevich, Ludmila N.; Dmitrieva, Elena S.; Shestakova, Anna N.
We examined the effect of involuntary attention switching (related to mismatch negativity generation in the oddball paradigm) on fatigue development during trials of different durations. The experiment consisted of two trials, long (40 min) and short (15 min), and two experimental conditions in each trial: the simple reaction task (deviants-only paradigm) and the stimuli recognition task (oddball paradigm). In each condition, a participant responded to each target acoustic stimulus by squeezing a handgrip dynamometer. We found the significantly lower rates of fatigue development in the short-trial deviants-only paradigm compared to the long trial. The short- and the long-trial oddball paradigms differed significantly from both the short- and the long-trial deviants-only paradigms. The results demonstrated that the fatigue developed differently depending on the expected trial duration. The involuntary activation of attention broke this subconscious regulative mechanism leading to increase of the compression force during the long trial and its decrease during the short. PMID:26869932
Kimura, Motohiro; Takeda, Yuji
Visual mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related brain potential (ERP) component that is elicited by prediction-incongruent events in successive visual stimulation. Previous oddball studies have shown that visual MMN in response to task-irrelevant deviant stimuli is insensitive to the manipulation of task difficulty, which supports the notion that visual MMN reflects attention-independent predictive processes. In these studies, however, visual MMN was evaluated in deviant-minus-standard difference waves, which may lead to an underestimation of the effects of task difficulty due to the possible superposition of N1-difference reflecting refractory effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of task difficulty on visual MMN, less contaminated by N1-difference. While the participant performed a size-change detection task regarding a continuously-presented central fixation circle, we presented oddball sequences consisting of deviant and standard bar stimuli with different orientations (9.1 and 90.9%) and equiprobable sequences consisting of 11 types of control bar stimuli with different orientations (9.1% each) at the surrounding visual fields. Task difficulty was manipulated by varying the magnitude of the size-change. We found that the peak latencies of visual MMN evaluated in the deviant-minus-control difference waves were delayed as a function of task difficulty. Therefore, in contrast to the previous understanding, the present findings support the notion that visual MMN is associated with attention-demanding predictive processes.
A classic debate in cognitive science revolves around understanding how children learn complex linguistic patterns, such as restrictions on verb alternations and contractions, without negative evidence. Recently, probabilistic models of language learning have been applied to this problem, framing it as a statistical inference from a random sample of sentences. These probabilistic models predict that learners should be sensitive to the way in which sentences are sampled. There are two main types of sampling assumptions that can operate in language learning: strong and weak sampling. Strong sampling, as assumed by probabilistic models, assumes the learning input is drawn from a distribution of grammatical samples from the underlying language and aims to learn this distribution. Thus, under strong sampling, the absence of a sentence construction from the input provides evidence that it has low or zero probability of grammaticality. Weak sampling does not make assumptions about the distribution from which the input is drawn, and thus the absence of a construction from the input as not used as evidence of its ungrammaticality. We demonstrate in a series of artificial language learning experiments that adults can produce behavior consistent with both sets of sampling assumptions, depending on how the learning problem is presented. These results suggest that people use information about the way in which linguistic input is sampled to guide their learning. PMID:27310576
Wright, Clayton; Iyer, Anand Krishnan V.; Kulkarni, Yogesh; Azad, Neelam
Autophagy is a catabolic cellular mechanism involving lysosomal degradation of unwanted cellular components. Interaction between Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 proteins is known to play a critical role in the initiation of autophagy. We report that malignantly transformed lung epithelial cells are resistant to autophagy and express lower basal levels of autophagic proteins, Beclin-1 and LC3-II as compared to non-tumorigenic cells. Additionally, increased levels of nitric oxide (NO) and Bcl-2 were observed in transformed cells. Nitric oxide was found to negatively regulate autophagy initiation and autophagic flux by nitrosylating Bcl-2 and stabilizing its interaction with Beclin-1, resulting in inhibition of Beclin-1 activity. An increase in the apoptotic initiator caspase-9 and the apoptosis and autophagy-associated kinase p38/MAPK in both cell types indicated possible autophagy–apoptosis crosstalk. Pre-treatments with ABT-737 (Bcl-2 inhibitor) and aminoguanidine (NO inhibitor), and transfection with a non-nitrosylable Bcl-2 cysteine double-mutant plasmid resulted in increased autophagic flux (LC3-II/p62 upregulation) corresponding with decreased S-nitrocysteine expression, thus corroborating the regulatory role of Bcl-2 S-nitrosylation in autophagy. In conclusion, our study reveals a novel mechanism of autophagy resistance via post-translational modification of Bcl-2 protein by NO, which may be critical in driving cellular tumorigenesis. PMID:26241894
Mumm, Roland; Poelman, Erik H.; Yang, Yue; Pichersky, Eran; Dicke, Marcel
The indirect defense mechanisms of plants comprise the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that can attract natural enemies of plant attackers. One of the often emitted compounds after herbivory is methyl salicylate (MeSA). Here, we studied the importance of this caterpillar-induced compound in the attraction of the parasitoid wasp Diadegma semiclausum by using a mutant Arabidopsis line. Pieris rapae infested AtBSMT1-KO mutant Arabidopsis plants, compromised in the biosynthesis of MeSA, were more attractive to parasitoids than infested wild-type plants. This suggests that the presence of MeSA has negative effects on parasitoid host-finding behavior when exposed to wild-type production of herbivore-induced Arabidopsis volatiles. Furthermore, in line with this, we recorded a positive correlation between MeSA dose and repellence of D. semiclausum when supplementing the headspace of caterpillar-infested AtBSMT1-KO plants with synthetic MeSA. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886-010-9787-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20407809
Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu
The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10–13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC. PMID:24788141
Antonelli, Roberta; Pizzarelli, Rocco; Pedroni, Andrea; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Del Sal, Giannino; Cherubini, Enrico; Zacchi, Paola
The cell adhesion molecule Neuroligin2 (NL2) is localized selectively at GABAergic synapses, where it interacts with the scaffolding protein gephyrin in the post-synaptic density. However, the role of this interaction for formation and plasticity of GABAergic synapses is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous NL2 undergoes proline-directed phosphorylation at its unique S714-P consensus site, leading to the recruitment of the peptidyl-prolyl cis–trans isomerase Pin1. This signalling cascade negatively regulates NL2’s ability to interact with gephyrin at GABAergic post-synaptic sites. As a consequence, enhanced accumulation of NL2, gephyrin and GABAA receptors was detected at GABAergic synapses in the hippocampus of Pin1-knockout mice (Pin1−/−) associated with an increase in amplitude of spontaneous GABAA-mediated post-synaptic currents. Our results suggest that Pin1-dependent signalling represents a mechanism to modulate GABAergic transmission by regulating NL2/gephyrin interaction. PMID:25297980
Jiang, T; Busboom, J R; Nelson, M L; Mengarelli, R
The objective was to determine the impact of increasing levels of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n3) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n3) on beef palatability. Two commercial supplements of EPA and DHA were added to 85% lean ground beef patties (176.2 ± 3.76 g) with different levels (0, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 1% as-is). Olive oil was added so that all patties contained 1% added lipid. A control treatment was also prepared with no supplement or olive oil. Sensory evaluation and fatty acid analysis was conducted. Ground beef flavor decreased linearly (P<0.001) with increasing levels of EPA and DHA. Off-aroma and off-flavor increased linearly and then plateaued with increasing levels of EPA (P<0.0001). In conclusion, EPA had a greater negative impact on beef palatability than DHA. Also, the panelists were more sensitive to EPA in off-flavor perception than off-aroma.
Lymbery, Alan J; Kay, Gavin D; Doupé, Robert G; Partridge, Gavin J; Norman, Hayley C
Dryland salinity is a major problem affecting food production from agricultural land in Australia and throughout the world. Although there is much interest in using saline groundwater to grow marine fish on salt-affected farmland, the disposal of nutrient enriched, saline aquaculture effluent is a major environmental problem. We investigated the potential of the salt-tolerant NyPa Forage plant (Distichlis spicata L. Greene var. yensen-4a) to trap nutrients from saline aquaculture effluent and subsequently to provide a fodder crop for livestock. Sub-surface flow wetlands containing NyPa Forage were constructed and their efficacy in removing total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate was monitored under different levels of nutrients and salinity. The wetlands removed 60-90% of total nitrogen loads and at least 85% of ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate loads, with greater efficiency at high nutrient and low salinity levels. The above-ground yield, sodium, crude protein (CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD) of NyPa Forage plants were measured after fertilisation with different nutrient levels and cropping at different frequencies. Yield of plants increased with increased nutrient, while nutritive value was greater when nutrients were applied but did not differ among nutrient levels. Yield was not affected by cropping frequency, but nutritive value was greatest when plants were cropped at intervals of 21 or 42 days. At optimum nutrient addition and cropping levels, the plants had a mean CP content of 16.7% and an in vitro DMD of 67.6%, equivalent to an energy value of 9.5 MJ kg(-1). Assuming an equivalent fibre content and voluntary food intake as grass hay, and no accumulation of other toxic minerals, these nutritive values would be sufficient for maintenance or moderate liveweight gains in dry adult sheep or cattle.
Alcock, J. . Dept. of Environmental Science); Wagner, M.E. . Geology); Srogi, L.A. . Dept. of Geology and Astronomy)
Post-Taconian transcurrent faulting in the Appalachian Piedmont presents a significant problem to workers attempting to reconstruct the Early Paleozoic tectonic history. One solution to the problem is to identify blocks that lie between zones of transcurrent faulting and that retain the Early Paleozoic arrangement of litho-tectonic units. The authors propose that a comparison of metamorphic histories of different units can be used to recognize blocks of this type. The Wilmington Complex (WC) arc terrane, the pre-Taconian Laurentian margin rocks (LM) exposed in basement-cored massifs, and the Wissahickon Group metapelites (WS) that lie between them are three litho-tectonic units in the PA-DE Piedmont that comprise a block assembled in the Early Paleozoic. Evidence supporting this interpretation includes: (1) Metamorphic and lithologic differences across the WC-WS contact and detailed geologic mapping of the contact that suggest thrusting of the WC onto the WS; (2) A metamorphic gradient in the WS with highest grade, including spinel-cordierite migmatites, adjacent to the WC indicating that peak metamorphism of the WS resulted from heating by the WC; (3) A metamorphic discontinuity at the WS-LM contact, evidence for emplacement of the WS onto the LM after WS peak metamorphism; (4) A correlation of mineral assemblage in the Cockeysville Marble of the LM with distance from the WS indicating that peak metamorphism of the LM occurred after emplacement of the WS; and (5) Early Paleozoic lower intercept zircon ages for the LM that are interpreted to date Taconian regional metamorphism. Analysis of metamorphism and its timing relative to thrusting suggest that the WS was associated with the WC before the WS was emplaced onto the LM during the Taconian. It follows that these units form a block that has not been significantly disrupted by later transcurrent shear.
Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J
Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities.
Pestaña, Montserrat; Santolamazza-Carbone, Serena
In this work, by artificially reproducing severe (75%) and moderate (25%) defoliation on maritime pines Pinus pinaster in NW Spain, we investigated, under natural conditions, the consequences of foliage loss on reproduction, abundance, diversity and richness of the fungal symbionts growing belowground and aboveground. The effect of defoliation on tree growth was also assessed. Mature needles were clipped during April 2007 and 2008. Root samples were collected in June-July 2007 and 2008. Collection of sporocarps was performed weekly from April 2007 to April 2009. Taxonomic identity of ectomycorrhizal fungi was assessed by using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA through the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, subsequent direct sequencing and BLAST search. Ectomycorrhizal colonization was significantly reduced (from 54 to 42%) in 2008 by 75% defoliation, accompanied with a decline in species richness and diversity. On the other hand, sporocarp abundance, richness and diversity were not affected by foliage loss. Some ECM fungal symbionts, which are assumed to have a higher carbon cost according to the morphotypes structure, were reduced due to severe (75%) defoliation. Furthermore, 75% foliage loss consistently depressed tree growth, which in turn affected the ectomycorrhizal growth pattern. Defoliation impact on ECM symbionts largely depends on the percentage of foliage removal and on the number of defoliation bouts. Severe defoliation (75%) in the short term (2 years) changed the composition of the ECM community likely because root biomass would be adjusted to lower levels in parallel with the depletion of the aboveground plant biomass, which probably promoted the competition among mycorrhizal types for host resources. The persistence of fungal biomass in mycorrhizal roots would be crucial for nutrient up-take and recovery from defoliation stress of the host plants.
Stockwell, Melissa S.; Irigoyen, Matilde; Martinez, Raquel Andres; Findley, Sally
Objective Little is known about how families' experiences with immunization visits within the medical home may affect children's immunization status. We assessed the association between families' negative immunization experiences within the medical home and underimmunization. Methods We surveyed parents (n=392) of children aged 2–36 months about immunization experiences at community health centers, hospital-based clinics, private practices, and community-based organizations in New York City. We used Chi-square tests and odds ratios (ORs) to assess the relationship between medical home elements and parental immunization experience ratings. We used multivariable analysis to determine the association between negative experiences during immunization visits and underimmunization, controlling for insurance, maternal education, and receipt of benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Results The majority of children were of Latino race/ethnicity and had Medicaid and a medical home. One-sixth (16.9%) of families reported a previous negative immunization experience, primarily related to the child's reaction, waiting time, and attitudes of medical and office staff. Parents' negative immunization experiences were associated with the absence of four components of the medical home: continuity of care, family-centered care, compassionate care, and comprehensive care. In addition, children in families who reported a negative experience were more likely to have been underimmunized (adjusted OR=2.00; 95% confidence interval 1.12, 3.58). Conclusions In a community in New York City, underimmunization of young children was associated with negative immunization experiences. Strategies to improve family experiences with immunization visits within the medical home (particularly around support for the family), medical and ancillary staff attitudes, and reduced waiting time may lead to improved immunization delivery. PMID:21812166
Eskelund, Kasper; MacDonald, Ewen N; Andersen, Tobias S
We perceive identity, expression and speech from faces. While perception of identity and expression depends crucially on the configuration of facial features it is less clear whether this holds for visual speech perception. Facial configuration is poorly perceived for upside-down faces as demonstrated by the Thatcher illusion in which the orientation of the eyes and mouth with respect to the face is inverted (Thatcherization). This gives the face a grotesque appearance but this is only seen when the face is upright. Thatcherization can likewise disrupt visual speech perception but only when the face is upright indicating that facial configuration can be important for visual speech perception. This effect can propagate to auditory speech perception through audiovisual integration so that Thatcherization disrupts the McGurk illusion in which visual speech perception alters perception of an incongruent acoustic phoneme. This is known as the McThatcher effect. Here we show that the McThatcher effect is reflected in the McGurk mismatch negativity (MMN). The MMN is an event-related potential elicited by a change in auditory perception. The McGurk-MMN can be elicited by a change in auditory perception due to the McGurk illusion without any change in the acoustic stimulus. We found that Thatcherization disrupted a strong McGurk illusion and a correspondingly strong McGurk-MMN only for upright faces. This confirms that facial configuration can be important for audiovisual speech perception. For inverted faces we found a weaker McGurk illusion but, surprisingly, no MMN. We also found no correlation between the strength of the McGurk illusion and the amplitude of the McGurk-MMN. We suggest that this may be due to a threshold effect so that a strong McGurk illusion is required to elicit the McGurk-MMN.
Honarmand, Mariam; Thompson, Christopher K; Schatton, Adriana; Kipper, Silke; Scharff, Constance
Adverse environmental conditions can impact the life history trajectory of animals. Adaptive responses enable individuals to cope with unfavorable conditions, but altered metabolism and resource allocation can bear long-term costs. In songbirds, early developmental stress can cause lifelong changes in learned song, a culturally transmitted trait, and nestlings experiencing developmental stress develop smaller song control nucleus HVCs. We investigated whether nutrition-related developmental stress impacts neurogenesis in HVC, which may explain how poor nutrition leads to smaller HVC volume. We provided different quality diets (LOW and HIGH) by varying the husks-to-seeds ratio to zebra finch families for the first 35 days after the young hatched (PHD). At PHD14-18 and again at nutritional independence (PHD35), juveniles were injected with different cell division markers. To monitor growth, we took body measures at PHD10, 17, and 35. At PHD35 the number of newly recruited neurons in HVC and the rate of proliferation in the adjacent ventricular zone (VZ) were counted. Males raised on the LOW diet for their first weeks of life had significantly fewer new neurons in HVC than males raised on the HIGH diet. At the time when these new HVC neurons were born and labeled in the VZ (PHD17) the birds exposed to the LOW diet had significantly lower body mass. At PHD35 body mass or neuronal proliferation no longer differed. Our study shows that even transitory developmental stress can have negative consequences on the cellular processes underlying the development of neural circuits.
Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Sturme, Mark; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Ludovico, Paula; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Rodrigues, Fernando
Conidia/mycelium-to-yeast transition of Paracoccidioidesbrasiliensis is a critical step for the establishment of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Thus, knowledge of the factors that mediate this transition is of major importance for the design of intervention strategies. So far, the only known pre-requisites for the accomplishment of the morphological transition are the temperature shift to 37°C and the availability of organic sulfur compounds. In this study, we investigated the auxotrophic nature to organic sulfur of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides, with special attention to P. brasiliensis species. For this, we addressed the role of SconCp, the negative regulator of the inorganic sulfur assimilation pathway, in the dimorphism and virulence of this pathogen. We show that down-regulation of SCONC allows initial steps of mycelium-to-yeast transition in the absence of organic sulfur compounds, contrarily to the wild-type fungus that cannot undergo mycelium-to-yeast transition under such conditions. However, SCONC down-regulated transformants were unable to sustain yeast growth using inorganic sulfur compounds only. Moreover, pulses with inorganic sulfur in SCONC down-regulated transformants triggered an increase of the inorganic sulfur metabolism, which culminated in a drastic reduction of the ATP and NADPH cellular levels and in higher oxidative stress. Importantly, the down-regulation of SCONC resulted in a decreased virulence of P. brasiliensis, as validated in an in vivo model of infection. Overall, our findings shed light on the inability of P. brasiliensis yeast to rely on inorganic sulfur compounds, correlating its metabolism with cellular energy and redox imbalances. Furthermore, the data herein presented reveal SconCp as a novel virulence determinant of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24066151
Brucks, Désirée; Essler, Jennifer L.; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Range, Friederike
Inequity aversion has been proposed to act as a limiting factor for cooperation, thus preventing subjects from disadvantageous cooperative interactions. While a recent study revealed that also dogs show some sensitivity to inequity, the underlying mechanisms of this behaviour are still unclear. The aim of the current study was threefold: 1) to replicate the study by Range et al. (2009, PNAS, 106, 340–345); 2) to investigate the emotional mechanisms involved in the inequity response by measuring the heart rate and 3) to explore the link between inequity aversion and cooperation in terms of behaviours shown towards the partner dog and towards the experimenter who caused the inequity. Dog tested in dyads were alternately asked to give their paw and were either equally or unequally rewarded by the experimenter. After each social test condition, we conducted food tolerance tests and free interaction tests in which the subjects’ social behaviour towards the partner and the experimenter were observed. As in the previous study, subjects refused to continue giving their paw when only the partner was rewarded, but not when both dogs were rewarded with rewards of different quality. Although subjects did not react to this quality inequity during the test, we did find reduced durations of food sharing in the subsequent tolerance test, indicating that dogs perceived the inequity but were not able to react to it in the test context. Moreover, subjects avoided their partner and the experimenter more during the free interaction time following unequal compared to equal treatment. Despite the clear behavioural reactions to inequity, we could not detect any changes in heart rate. Results suggest that inequity aversion might in fact be mediated by simple emotional mechanisms: sharing a negative experience, like inequity, might reduce future cooperation by decreasing the likelihood of proximity being maintained between partners. PMID:27081852
Brucks, Désirée; Essler, Jennifer L; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Range, Friederike
Inequity aversion has been proposed to act as a limiting factor for cooperation, thus preventing subjects from disadvantageous cooperative interactions. While a recent study revealed that also dogs show some sensitivity to inequity, the underlying mechanisms of this behaviour are still unclear. The aim of the current study was threefold: 1) to replicate the study by Range et al. (2009, PNAS, 106, 340-345); 2) to investigate the emotional mechanisms involved in the inequity response by measuring the heart rate and 3) to explore the link between inequity aversion and cooperation in terms of behaviours shown towards the partner dog and towards the experimenter who caused the inequity. Dog tested in dyads were alternately asked to give their paw and were either equally or unequally rewarded by the experimenter. After each social test condition, we conducted food tolerance tests and free interaction tests in which the subjects' social behaviour towards the partner and the experimenter were observed. As in the previous study, subjects refused to continue giving their paw when only the partner was rewarded, but not when both dogs were rewarded with rewards of different quality. Although subjects did not react to this quality inequity during the test, we did find reduced durations of food sharing in the subsequent tolerance test, indicating that dogs perceived the inequity but were not able to react to it in the test context. Moreover, subjects avoided their partner and the experimenter more during the free interaction time following unequal compared to equal treatment. Despite the clear behavioural reactions to inequity, we could not detect any changes in heart rate. Results suggest that inequity aversion might in fact be mediated by simple emotional mechanisms: sharing a negative experience, like inequity, might reduce future cooperation by decreasing the likelihood of proximity being maintained between partners.
Moran, Meena S
The more aggressive biologic characteristics and the current lack of targeted therapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) make local-regional management decisions challenging for physicians. TNBC is associated with patients of younger age, black race and BRCA1 mutation carriers. Distinctions between BRCA1-associated and sporadic TNBC include increased lifetime risk of ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancer after breast cancer therapy (BCT) for BRCA carriers, which is not shared by sporadic TNBC. However, the presence of a BRCA mutation should not preclude a breast-conservation approach in patients who are otherwise appropriate candidates for BCT. Data suggest that local-regional relapse (LRR) at baseline after BCT appears to be comparable for TNBC and the HER2-positive subgroups, but is about 50% greater than luminal tumors. LRR appears to be similarly increased after mastectomy; thus, TNBC should not be a contra-indication for BCT. Recent hypothesis-generating data suggest less LRR after BCT (where radiation is routinely delivered) than with mastectomy for early-stage TNBC. To date, no specific local-regional guideline recommendations for TNBC exist. Level I outcome data for TNBC using accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation (hWBRT) are lacking. TNBC should be treated with APBI only on clinical trials. Although hWBRT may be considered in TNBC, its association with younger age, advanced disease and use of systemic chemotherapy often precludes its use for this subtype. Until definitive treatment strategies are validated in large datasets and confirmed in randomized trials, TNBC subtype, in and of itself, should not direct local-regional management treatment decisions.
Lamm, C; Pine, D S; Fox, N A
The canonical AX-CPT task measures two forms of cognitive control: sustained goal-oriented control ("proactive" control) and transient changes in cognitive control following unexpected events ("reactive" control). We modified this task by adding negative and neutral International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures to assess the effects of negative emotion on these two forms of cognitive control. Proactive and reactive control styles were assessed based on measures of behavior and electrophysiology, including the N2 event-related potential component and source space activation (Low Resolution Tomography [LORETA]). We found slower reaction-times and greater DLPFC activation for negative relative to neutral stimuli. Additionally, we found that a proactive style of responding was related to less prefrontal activation (interpreted to reflect increased efficiency of processing) during actively maintained previously cued information and that a reactive style of responding was related to less prefrontal activation (interpreted to reflect increased efficiency of processing) during just-in-time environmentally triggered information. This pattern of results was evident in relatively neutral contexts, but in the face of negative emotion, these associations were not found, suggesting potential response style-by-emotion interaction effects on prefrontal neural activation.
Girardi, Damiano; Falco, Alessandra; De Carlo, Alessandro; Benevene, Paula; Comar, Manola; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista
This study examined the association between interpersonal conflict at work (ICW) and serum levels of three possible biomarkers of stress, namely the pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin 12 (IL-12), and Interleukin 17 (IL-17). Additionally, this study investigated the role of negative affectivity (NA) in the relationship between ICW and the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Data from 121 employees in an Italian healthcare organization were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that ICW was positively associated with IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-17, after controlling for the effect of gender. Moreover, ICW completely mediated the relationship between NA and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-17. This mediating effect was significant after controlling for the effect of gender. Overall, this study suggests that work-related stress may be associated with biomarkers of inflammation, and that negative affectivity may influence the stress process affecting the exposure to psychosocial stressors.
Merz, Erin L.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Ko, Celine M.; Emerson, Marc; Roma, Vincenzo G.; Sadler, Georgia Robins
Background The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) has been widely used as a self-report measure of affect in community and clinical contexts. However, evaluations of the psychometric properties of PANAS scores have been limited in diverse ethnic groups. Several short forms of the PANAS have also been proposed, but very little is known about the psychometric properties of these versions. Methods The present study investigated the psychometric properties, including the factor structure of the original PANAS and two short forms in an African American community sample (N = 239). Descriptive, internal consistency reliability, factorial validity, and measurement invariance analyses were conducted. Results All PANAS subscales from the original and short forms had adequate internal consistency. For the original PANAS, the model specifying three correlated factors (Positive Affect, Afraid, Upset) with correlated uniquenesses from redundant items provided the best fit to the data. However, the two-factor model (Positive Affect, Negative Affect) with correlated uniquenesses was also supported. For both short forms, the two-factor model with correlated uniquenesses fit the data best. Factors from all forms were generally invariant across age and gender, although there was some minor invariance at the item level. Limitations Participants were from a limited geographic area and one ethnic group. Indicators of anxiety, depression, and cultural characteristics were not measured. Conclusion The factor structure was replicated, suggesting no immediate concerns regarding the valid interpretation of PANAS scores. The results support the reliability and validity of the PANAS and its short forms for use among African Americans. PMID:24051099
Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J; Lu, Qingjun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian
TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.
Merlo, Julieta L; Cutrera, Ana P; Zenuto, Roxana R
Magnitude and effectiveness of immune responses vary greatly between and within species. Among factors reported to determine this variation, parasitism is a critical one, although controversial effects of parasites over immunological indices have been reported. Information regarding immune strategies in species with different life histories is crucial to better understand the role of immune defenses in an ecological and evolutionary context. Here, we examine the influence of the parasite community on immune responsiveness of a solitary subterranean rodent, Ctenomys talarum. To do this, we assessed the impact of the natural parasite community and the experimental infection with Eimeria sp. on the phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-response, as well as other immune, condition, nutrition, and stress parameters. PHA-triggered inflammation was similarly impaired by Eimeria sp. infection alone or co-occurring with a number of gastrointestinal nematodes. None of the other physiological parameters studied were affected by parasitism. This indicates that parasitism is a general key factor modulating immune responsiveness of the host, and in particular for C. talarum, it could explain the great inter-individual variation previously observed in the PHA-response. Thus, our results highlight the importance of taking the parasite community into account in ecoimmunological studies, particularly when using immunological indices.
Harper, Gary W; Davidson, Jonathan; Hosek, Sybil G
The current study examined differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved homeless African American male youth with regard to negative affect, substance use, and antisocial/violent behavior. A total of 69 homeless African American young men were recruited from community agencies and completed structured face-to-face interviews. Overall, gang members reported higher rates of negative mental and physical health outcomes than did non-gang members, with current gang members reporting higher levels of depression and anxiety, greater levels of antisocial and violent behavior, and higher levels of lifetime alcohol and marijuana use. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that greater levels of gang involvement were associated with more frequent lifetime use of alcohol and marijuana and higher levels of participation in violent behaviors. Implications of these findings for interventions with homeless African American male youth and future research directions are discussed.
McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Karantzas, Gery
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a healthy body image program. In total, 421 adolescent boys completed a five-session intervention program or a wait list control group. There were no differences between the intervention and the control group at post-intervention or any of the follow-up times. Boys in the intervention group who were one standard deviation above the mean on body dissatisfaction at baseline, demonstrated a reduction in negative affect in the intervention group at post-test and 6 months follow-up. Prevention programs need to target boys who are at risk of adopting health risk behaviors, rather than being universally applied.
Qi, A; Lin, C; Zhou, A; Du, J; Jia, X; Sun, L; Zhang, G; Zhang, L; Liu, M
This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL) and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S), Knee Society Score (KSS), and HRQL (SF-36). At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05). SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001). Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS) scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score) (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI), and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05). The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05), but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05). The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05). In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions.
Qi, A.; Lin, C.; Zhou, A.; Du, J.; Jia, X.; Sun, L.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, L.; Liu, M.
This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL) and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S), Knee Society Score (KSS), and HRQL (SF-36). At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05). SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001). Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS) scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score) (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI), and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05). The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05), but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05). The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05). In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions. PMID:26577843
Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne; Steane, Peter
Limited research exists on the impact of bullying across psychological and/or organizationally orientated outcomes for nurses working within different nursing contexts. Research that has explored these outcomes has not considered the potential confounding effects of negative affectivity (NA). This study's aim was to examine the extent hospital and aged care nurses are impacted by bullying on these outcomes, while considering NA. A total of 267 hospital nurses/midwives and 168 aged care nurses from an Australian healthcare organization responded to a survey. The results revealed hospital nurses/midwives who experienced bullying reported higher levels of psychological distress, as well as lower commitment and job satisfaction levels. Aged care nurses who experienced bullying reported lower levels of well-being and commitment. NA was a significant covariate for most analyses. Thus, nurses across these contexts are affected by bullying in relation to psychological and organizational-orientated outcomes over and above the effects of NA, particularly for commitment.
Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C; Burns, Lawrence R; Schwerdtfeger, Andreas
In these studies, the correlates of spontaneously using expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal during stressful speeches were examined. Spontaneous emotion regulation means that there were no instructions of how to regulate emotions during the speech. Instead, participants indicated after the speech to what extent they used self-motivated expressive suppression or reappraisal during the task. The results show that suppression is associated with less anxiety expression, greater physiological responding, and less memory for the speech while having no impact on negative affect. In contrast, reappraisal has no impact on physiology and memory while leading to less expression and affect. Taken together, spontaneous emotion regulation in active coping tasks has similar consequences as experimentally induced emotion regulation in passive tasks.
Ivanova, Iryna V; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hammond, Nicole; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Koszycki, Diana; Bissada, Hany
This study evaluated the validity of the interpersonal model of binge-eating disorder (BED) psychopathology in a clinical sample of women with BED. Data from a cross-sectional sample of 255 women with BED were examined for the direct effects of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology, and indirect effects mediated by negative affect. Structural equation modelling analyses demonstrated that higher levels of interpersonal problems were associated with greater negative affect, and greater negative affect was associated with higher frequency of BED symptoms and psychopathology. There was a significant indirect effect of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology mediated through negative affect. Interpersonal problems may lead to greater BED symptoms and psychopathology, and this relationship may be partially explained by elevated negative affect. The results of the study are the first to provide support for the interpersonal model of BED symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample of women.
Livneh, Hanoch; Martz, Erin
A wide range of demographic, medical, and personality and coping variables have been implicated as predictors of psychosocial outcomes following the onset of spinal cord injuries (SCI). The primary purpose of this study was to examine the role that perceptions of health control (internality, chance-determined, and other persons-determined) and coping strategies play in predicting respondents' negative affect, namely, reactions of depression and anxiety [i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)], as outcomes of psychosocial adaptation to disability. A second purpose was to investigate the potential role that time since injury (TSI) plays in moderating the influence of coping on psychosocial outcomes related to SCI. Ninety five survivors of SCI participated in the study by completing a battery of self-report measures. Two sets of multiple regression analyses were employed to address the study's goals. Findings indicated that after controlling the influence of gender, age, time since injury, and number of prior life traumas: (a) the use of disengagement coping successfully predicted both respondents' levels of depression and PTSD; (b) none of the perceptions of control of one's health significantly influenced psychosocial reactions to SCI, as indicated by depression and PTSD, although perceptions of chance control showed a moderate positive trend; and (c) time since injury did not moderate the relationships between coping and negative affect related to the onset of SCI. The implications of these findings to rehabilitation professionals are discussed.
Choi, Bom-Ie; Harvey, Alexandra J.; Green, Mark P.
Increasing evidence supports an association between exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA), a commonly used plasticiser, and the developmental programming of offspring health. To date however animal studies to investigate a direct causal have mainly focussed on supra-environmental BPA concentrations, without investigating the effect on the early embryo. In this study we investigated the effect of acute BPA exposure (days 3.5 to 7.5 post-fertilisation) at environmentally relevant concentrations (1 and 10 ng/mL) on in vitro bovine embryo development, quality and metabolism. We then examined whether culturing embryos in the presence of the oestrogen receptor inhibitor fulvestrant could negate effects of BPA and 17β-oestradiol (E2). Exposure to BPA or E2 (10 ng/mL) decreased blastocyst rate and the percentage of transferrable quality embryos, without affecting cell number, lineage allocation or metabolic gene expression compared to untreated embryos. Notably, blastocysts exposed to BPA and E2 (10 ng/mL) displayed an increase in glucose consumption. The presence of fulvestrant however negated the adverse developmental and metabolic effects, suggesting BPA elicits its effects via oestrogen-mediated pathways. This study demonstrates that even acute exposure to an environmentally relevant BPA concentration can affect early embryo development and metabolism. These may have long-term health consequences on an individual. PMID:27384909
Berg, Kelly C.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B.
Objective The objective was to examine the trajectory of five types of negative affect (global negative affect, fear, guilt, hostility, sadness) prior to and following three types of eating episodes (overeating in the absence of loss of control [OE-only], loss of control eating in the absence of overeating [LOC-only], and binge eating) among obese adults using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Method Fifty obese adults (84% female) completed a two-week EMA protocol during which they were asked to record all eating episodes and rate each episode on continua of overeating and loss of control. Momentary measures of global negative affect, fear, guilt, hostility, and sadness were assessed using an abbreviated version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Trajectories for each of the five types of negative affect were modeled prior to and following episodes of OE-only, LOC-only, and binge eating. Results Consistent with previous findings, global negative affect and Guilt increased prior to and decreased following binge eating episodes (all ps<.05). Guilt also decreased following OE-only episodes (p<.05). Discussion These results are consistent with the affect regulation model of binge eating and suggest that binge eating may function to regulate global negative affect, and more specifically, guilt among obese adults. These data suggest that the relationship between negative affect and binge eating may not be unique to individuals with clinical eating disorders and indicate that targeting negative affect may be an effective strategy for the treatment of binge eating in the context of obesity. PMID:25808854
Kramer, Ingrid; Simons, Claudia J P; Wigman, Johanna T W; Collip, Dina; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke
Evidence suggests that affect plays a role in the development of psychosis but the underlying mechanism requires further investigation. This study examines the moment-to-moment dynamics between negative affect (NA) and paranoia prospectively in daily life. A female general population sample (n = 515) participated in an experience sampling study. Time-lagged analyses between increases in momentary NA and subsequent momentary paranoia were examined. The impact of childhood adversity, stress sensitivity (impact of momentary stress on momentary NA), and depressive symptoms on these time-lagged associations, as well as associations with follow-up self-reported psychotic symptoms (Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised) were investigated. Moments of NA increase resulted in a significant increase in paranoia over 180 subsequent minutes. Both stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms impacted on the transfer of NA to paranoia. Stress sensitivity moderated the level of increase in paranoia during the initial NA increase, while depressive symptoms increased persistence of paranoid feelings from moment to moment. Momentary paranoia responses to NA increases were associated with follow-up psychotic symptoms. Examination of microlevel momentary experience may thus yield new insights into the mechanism underlying co-occurrence of altered mood states and psychosis. Knowledge of the underlying mechanism is required in order to determine source and place where remediation should occur.
Russell, Shayla E.; Puttick, Daniel J.; Sawyer, Allison M.; Potter, David N.; Mague, Stephen; Carlezon, William A.
Dependence is a hallmark feature of opiate addiction and is defined by the emergence of somatic and affective withdrawal signs. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) integrates dopaminergic and glutamatergic inputs to mediate rewarding and aversive properties of opiates. Evidence suggests that AMPA glutamate-receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity within the NAc underlies aspects of addiction. However, the degree to which NAc AMPA receptors (AMPARs) contribute to somatic and affective signs of opiate withdrawal is not fully understood. Here, we show that microinjection of the AMPAR antagonist NBQX into the NAc shell of morphine-dependent rats prevented naloxone-induced conditioned place aversions and decreases in sensitivity to brain stimulation reward, but had no effect on somatic withdrawal signs. Using a protein cross-linking approach, we found that the surface/intracellular ratio of NAc GluA1, but not GluA2, increased with morphine treatment, suggesting postsynaptic insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPARs. Consistent with this, 1-naphthylacetyl spermine trihydrochloride (NASPM), an antagonist of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, attenuated naloxone-induced decreases in sensitivity to brain stimulation reward. Naloxone decreased the surface/intracellular ratio and synaptosomal membrane levels of NAc GluA1 in morphine-dependent rats, suggesting a compensatory removal of AMPARs from synaptic zones. Together, these findings indicate that chronic morphine increases synaptic availability of GluA1-containing AMPARs in the NAc, which is necessary for triggering negative-affective states in response to naloxone. This is broadly consistent with the hypothesis that activation of NAc neurons produces acute aversive states and raises the possibility that inhibiting AMPA transmission selectively in the NAc may have therapeutic value in the treatment of addiction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Morphine dependence and withdrawal result in profound negative-affective states that play a major role in the
Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yanmin; Yin, Xinming; Romeis, Jörg; Song, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiuping; Geng, Lili; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe
Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are prevalent predators and pollen feeders in East Asian maize fields. They are therefore indirectly (via prey) and directly (via pollen) exposed to Cry proteins within Bt-transgenic maize fields. The effects of Cry1Ie-producing transgenic maize pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, survival, larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity did not differ between ladybirds consuming Bt or non-Bt maize pollen. In the second experiment, none of the tested lethal and sublethal parameters of P. japonica were negatively affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing Cry1Ie protein at 200 μg/g dry weight of diet. In contrast, the larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity of P. japonica were significantly adversely affected when fed diet containing the positive control compound E-64. In both experiments, the bioactivity of the Cry1Ie protein in the food sources was confirmed by bioassays with a Cry1Ie-sensitive lepidopteran species. These results indicated that P. japonica are not affected by the consumption of Cry1Ie-expressing maize pollen and are not sensitive to the Cry1Ie protein, suggesting that the growing of Bt maize expressing Cry1Ie protein will pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:28300767
Kelly, Nichole R.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Thompson, Katherine A.; Brady, Sheila M.; Demidowich, Andrew; Galescu, Ovidiu; Altschul, Anne M.; Shank, Lisa M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.
Background Adults with binge-eating disorder may have an exaggerated or blunted cortisol response to stress. Yet, limited data exist among youth who report loss of control (LOC) eating, a developmental precursor to binge-eating disorder. Methods We studied cortisol reactivity among 178 healthy adolescents with and without LOC eating. Following a buffet lunch meal adolescents were randomly assigned to watch a neutral or sad film clip. After, they were offered snacks from a multi-item array to assess eating in the absence of hunger. Salivary cortisol was collected at −80, 0, 30, and 50 minutes relative to film administration, and state mood ratings were reported before and after the film. Results Adolescents with LOC had greater increases in negative affect during the experimental paradigm in both conditions (ps>.05). Depressive symptoms, but not LOC, related to a greater cortisol response in the sad film condition (ps>.05). Depressive symptoms and state LOC were related to different aspects of eating behavior, independent of film condition or cortisol response (ps>.05). Conclusions A film clip that induced depressed state affect increased salivary cortisol only in adolescents with more elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents with and without LOC were differentiated by greater increases in state depressed affect during laboratory test meals, but had no difference in cortisol reactivity. Future studies are required to determine if adolescents with LOC manifest alterations in stress reactivity to alternative stress-inducing situations. PMID:26667312
Light, Kathleen C; Grewen, Karen M; Amico, Janet A; Boccia, Maria; Brownley, Kimberly A; Johns, Josephine M
In animals, oxytocin enhances maternal behavior and lowers blood pressure (BP) and negative affect, while parturitional cocaine disrupts oxytocin activity and increases maternal neglect and aggression. Thus, we compared oxytocin, BP, maternal behavior, and affect in mothers of infants who used cocaine (cocaine, n = 10) or did not (no drug, n = 25) during pregnancy. Laboratory BP and circulating oxytocin, catecholamines, and cortisol were examined before and during a speech stressor on 2 days, with vs. without prestress baby holding. Ambulatory monitoring assessed BP, urinary norepinephrine, and cortisol for 24 h at home. The cocaine group had lower oxytocin levels, greater hostility and depressed mood, less support from others and mastery over life events, higher BP during all events of testing without the baby, and higher ambulatory BP and urinary norepinephrine at home, while cortisol and epinephrine responses were blunted. Although they tended to hold their babies less often at home, baby holding in the laboratory led to decreased BP in cocaine mothers who then did not differ from no-drug mothers in BP or observed affect.
Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.
This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…
Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M
Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.
Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D
In the temperament literature, agreeableness has been theoretically linked to effortful control. Further, research in this area has suggested that effortful control may play a broad role in moderating temperament-based tendencies toward negative affect. The present three studies, involving a total of 300 undergraduate participants, sought to extend this perspective to the adult literature by examining potential interactions between agreeableness and neuroticism in predicting reported somatic symptoms. Although such symptoms have been linked to neuroticism, they are not characteristic of the interpersonal concerns linked to agreeableness. Nevertheless, all studies found that agreeableness and neuroticism interacted to predict somatic symptoms such that high levels of agreeableness decoupled the relationship between neuroticism and somatic distress. These findings indicate a broad role for agreeableness in the self-regulation of neuroticism-linked distress.
Hein, Sascha; Röder, Mandy; Fingerle, Michael
Empathy and prosocial behaviour are crucial factors for children's positive social adjustment. Contemporary models of empathy highlight the capacity to regulate vicariously experienced emotions as a precursor to empathy-related responses (e.g., prosocial behaviour). The goal of this study was to examine the role of emotion regulation (ER) in situational empathy-related responding and prosocial behaviour. A sample of 157 children (76 boys and 81 girls; Mage = 9.94 years) participated in a two-tiered interview procedure that utilised vignettes to assess empathy and prosocial behaviour. Between both phases of the interview, a negative affect was induced to investigate the influence of ER on the change between the two phases. Results from a latent change model showed that ER strategies positively predicted change scores, that is, children with higher abilities to regulate emotions showed a higher increase in empathy and prosocial behaviour. Implications for the promotion of social-emotional learning in school are discussed.
Li, Wencheng; Ying, Xin; Guo, Yuzheng; Yu, Zhen; Zhou, Xiufen; Deng, Zixin; Kieser, Helen; Chater, Keith F.; Tao, Meifeng
SC7A1 is a cosmid with an insert of chromosomal DNA from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Its insertion into the chromosome of S. coelicolor strains caused a duplication of a segment of ca. 40 kb and delayed actinorhodin antibiotic production and sporulation, implying that SC7A1 carried a gene negatively affecting these processes. The subcloning of SC7A1 insert DNA resulted in the identification of the open reading frame SCO5582 as nsdA, a gene negatively affecting Streptomyces differentiation. The disruption of chromosomal nsdA caused the overproduction of spores and of three of four known S. coelicolor antibiotics of quite different chemical types. In at least one case (that of actinorhodin), this was correlated with premature expression of a pathway-specific regulatory gene (actII-orf4), implying that nsdA in the wild-type strain indirectly repressed the expression of the actinorhodin biosynthesis cluster. nsdA expression was up-regulated upon aerial mycelium initiation and was strongest in the aerial mycelium. NsdA has DUF921, a Streptomyces protein domain of unknown function and a conserved SXR site. A site-directed mutation (S458A) in this site in NsdA abolished its function. Blast searching showed that NsdA homologues are present in some Streptomyces genomes. Outside of streptomycetes, NsdA-like proteins have been found in several actinomycetes. The disruption of the nsdA-like gene SCO4114 had no obvious phenotypic effects on S. coelicolor. The nsdA orthologue SAV2652 in S. avermitilis could complement the S. coelicolor nsdA-null mutant phenotype. PMID:17041057
Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; de Oliveira, Letícia; Erthal, Fátima Smith; Joffily, Mateus; Mocaiber, Izabela F; Volchan, Eliane; Pessoa, Luiz
Affective pictures drive the activity of brain networks and impact behavior. We showed previously that viewing unpleasant pictures interfered in the performance of a basic nonemotional visual detection task. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that behavioral interference may result from the interaction between negatively valenced and motor-related signals in the brain. As in our previous study (Pereira et al., 2006), participants performed a simple target detection task that followed the presentation of unpleasant or neutral pictures. Our results revealed that an unpleasant emotional context modulated evoked responses in several regions engaged by the simple target detection task. In particular, the midcingulate cortex was recruited when participants performed target detection trials during the unpleasant context, and signal responses in this region closely mirrored the pattern of behavioral interference (as revealed via reaction time). Our findings suggest that the midcingulate cortex may be an important site for the interaction between negatively valenced signals and motor signals in the brain and that it may be involved in the implementation of defensive responses, such as freezing.
Pereira, M.G.; Oliveira, L; Erthal, FS; Joffily, M; Mocaiber, I.F.; Volchan, E.; Pessoa, L.
Affective pictures drive the activity of brain networks and impact behavior. We showed previously that viewing unpleasant pictures interfered in the performance of a basic non-emotional visual detection task. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that behavioral interference may result from the interaction between negatively valenced and motor-related signals in the brain. As in our previous study, subjects performed a simple target-detection task that followed the presentation of unpleasant or neutral pictures. Our results revealed that an unpleasant emotional context modulated evoked responses in several regions engaged by the simple target-detection task. In particular, the midcingulate cortex was recruited when participants performed target-detection trials during the unpleasant context and signal responses in this region closely mirrored the pattern of behavioral interference (as revealed via reaction time). Our findings suggest that the midcingulate cortex may be an important site for the interaction between negatively valenced and motor signals in the brain, and that it may be involved in the implementation of defensive responses, such as freezing. PMID:20233958
Yu, Yanwen; Yang, Dexin; Zhou, Shirong; Gu, Juntao; Wang, Fengru; Dong, Jingao; Huang, Rongfeng
Drought is an important factor limiting plant development and crop production. Dissecting the factors involved in this process is the key for enhancement of plant tolerance to drought stress by genetic approach. Here, we evaluated the regulatory function of a novel rice ethylene response factor (ERF) OsERF109 in drought stress. Expression of OsERF109 was rapidly induced by stress and phytohormones. Subcellular localization and transactivation assay demonstrated that OsERF109 was localized in nucleus and possessed transactivation activity. Transgenic plants overexpressing (OE) and knockdown with RNA interfering (RI) OsERF109 exhibited significantly reduced and improved drought resistance, respectively, indicating that OsERF109 negatively regulates drought resistance in rice. Furthermore, measurement by gas chromatography showed that ethylene contents were less in OE while more in RI lines than these in wild types, supporting the data of drought tolerance and water loss in transgenic lines. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis also proved the regulation of OsERF109 in the expression of OSACS6, OSACO2, and OsERF3, which have been identified to play important roles in ethylene biosynthesis. Based on these results, our data evidence that OsERF109 regulates drought resistance by affecting the ethylene biosynthesis in rice. Overall, our study reveals the negative role of OsERF109 in ethylene biosynthesis and drought tolerance in rice.
Lysaker, Paul H; Kukla, Marina; Dubreucq, Julien; Gumley, Andrew; McLeod, Hamish; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Minor, Kyle S; Luther, Lauren; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Belanger, Elizabeth A; Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo
The recalcitrance of negative symptoms in the face of pharmacologic treatment has spurred interest in understanding the psychological factors that contribute to their formation and persistence. Accordingly, this study investigated whether deficits in metacognition, or the ability to form integrated ideas about oneself, others, and the world, prospectively predicted levels of negative symptoms independent of deficits in neurocognition, affect recognition and defeatist beliefs. Participants were 53 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Prior to entry into a rehabilitation program, all participants completed concurrent assessments of metacognition with the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, negative symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, neurocognition with the MATRICS battery, affect recognition with the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and one form of defeatist beliefs with the Recovery Assessment Scale. Negative symptoms were then reassessed one week, 9weeks, and 17weeks after entry into the program. A mixed effects regression model revealed that after controlling for baseline negative symptoms, a general index of neurocognition, defeatist beliefs and capacity for affect recognition, lower levels of metacognition predicted higher levels of negative symptoms across all subsequent time points. Poorer metacognition was able to predict later levels of elevated negative symptoms even after controlling for initial levels of negative symptoms. Results may suggest that metacognitive deficits are a risk factor for elevated levels of negative symptoms in the future. Clinical implications are also discussed.
Induction of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient and wild-type mice: cellular blue nevi invade but do not progress to malignant melanoma in uPA-deficient animals.
Shapiro, R L; Duquette, J G; Roses, D F; Nunes, I; Harris, M N; Kamino, H; Wilson, E L; Rifkin, D B
Evidence suggests that the plasminogen activators (PAs), in particular urokinase-type PA (uPA), play a pivotal role in tumor invasion and metastasis. We studied the contribution of the PAs to the malignant phenotype through the chemical induction of melanocytic neoplasms in uPA-deficient mice. Primary tumors were induced and promoted concurrently in 35 uPA-/- deficient and 35 uPA+/+ wild-type mice using a single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene followed by repetitive applications of croton oil. Animals were sacrificed at 60-day intervals for 1 year. At necropsy, the four largest pigmented lesions in each animal were excised, characterized histologically, and evaluated microscopically for evidence of invasion. The regional lymph nodes, lungs, and solid abdominal visceral organs were sectioned and examined microscopically for evidence of metastatic disease. Cellular blue nevi were induced in 100% of uPA-/- and uPA+/+ promoted animals. Although a reduction in the radial and vertical progression of these lesions was noted in the uPA-deficient mice compared with the wild-type group, more than 95% of cellular blue nevi induced in both groups of animals invaded the underlying tissues. These lesions did not metastasize to the regional lymph nodes. Malignant melanoma arose in 5 of 35 (14.3%) of promoted wild-type mice. These tumors were locally aggressive, produced tissue-type PA, but were not metastatic to the regional nodes, lungs, or abdominal viscera. These results indicate that the invasive capability of melanocytic lesions may depend more on tissue-type PA than uPA activity. No melanomas were induced in the uPA-/- mice. The resistance of the uPA -/- strain to melanoma induction suggests that uPA contributes to malignant progression. We propose that the absence of uPA negatively affects tumorigenesis by decreasing the liberation and availability of growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor.
Dong, Tieying; Kang, Xinmei; Liu, Zhaoliang; Zhao, Shu; Ma, Wenjie; Xuan, Qijia; Liu, Hang; Wang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Qingyuan
Glycometabolism is a distinctive aspect of energy metabolism in breast cancer, and key glycometabolism enzymes/pathways (glycolysis, hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, and pentose phosphate pathway) may directly or indirectly affect the clinical features. In this study, we analyzed the particular correlation between the altered glycometabolism and clinical features of breast cancer to instruct research and clinical treatment. Tissue microarrays containing 189 hollow needle aspiration samples and 295 triple-negative breast cancer tissues were used to test the expression of M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and p53 by immunohistochemistry and the intensity of these glycometabolism-related protein was evaluated. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Cox proportional hazards model were used to analyze the relationship between the expression of these factors and major clinical features. PKM2, GFPT1, and G6PD affect the pathologic complete response rate of neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients in different ways; pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 (PKM2) and G6PD are closely associated with the molecular subtypes, whereas GFPT1 is correlated with cancer size. All these three factors as well as p53 have impacts on the progression-free survival and overall survival of triple-negative breast cancer patients. Cancer size shows significant association with PKM2 and GFPT1 expression, while the pN stage and grade are associated with PKM2 and G6PD expression. Our study support that clinical characteristics are reflections of specific glycometabolism pathways, so their relationships may shed light on the orientation of research or clinical treatment. The expression of PKM2, GFPT1, and G6PD are hazardous factors for prognosis: high expression of these proteins predict worse progression-free survival and overall survival in triple-negative breast cancer, as well as worse pathologic
Ross, Kirsty M.; Pye, Rachel E.; Randell, Jordan
Touch screen storybooks turn reading into an interactive multimedia experience, with hotspot-activated animations, sound effects, and games. Positive and negative effects of reading multimedia stories have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms which explain how children’s learning is affected remain uncertain. The present study examined the effect of storybook format (touch screen and print) on story comprehension, and considered how level of touch screen interactivity (high and low) and shared reading behaviors (cognitive and emotional scaffolding, emotional engagement) might contribute to comprehension. Seven-year-olds (n = 22) were observed reading one touch screen storybook and one print storybook with their mothers. Story comprehension was inferior for the touch screen storybooks compared to the print formats. Touch screen interactivity level had no significant effect on comprehension but did affect shared reading behaviors. The mother–child dyads spent less time talking about the story in the highly interactive touch screen condition, despite longer shared reading sessions because of touch screen interactions. Positive emotional engagement was greater for children and mothers in the highly interactive touch screen condition, due to additional positive emotions expressed during touch screen interactions. Negative emotional engagement was greater for children when reading and talking about the story in the highly interactive condition, and some mothers demonstrated negative emotional engagement with the touch screen activities. The less interactive touch screen storybook had little effect on shared reading behaviors, but mothers controlling behaviors were more frequent. Storybook format had no effect on the frequency of mothers’ cognitive scaffolding behaviors (comprehension questions, word help). Relationships between comprehension and shared reading behaviors were examined for each storybook, and although length of the shared reading session and
Ross, Kirsty M; Pye, Rachel E; Randell, Jordan
Touch screen storybooks turn reading into an interactive multimedia experience, with hotspot-activated animations, sound effects, and games. Positive and negative effects of reading multimedia stories have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms which explain how children's learning is affected remain uncertain. The present study examined the effect of storybook format (touch screen and print) on story comprehension, and considered how level of touch screen interactivity (high and low) and shared reading behaviors (cognitive and emotional scaffolding, emotional engagement) might contribute to comprehension. Seven-year-olds (n = 22) were observed reading one touch screen storybook and one print storybook with their mothers. Story comprehension was inferior for the touch screen storybooks compared to the print formats. Touch screen interactivity level had no significant effect on comprehension but did affect shared reading behaviors. The mother-child dyads spent less time talking about the story in the highly interactive touch screen condition, despite longer shared reading sessions because of touch screen interactions. Positive emotional engagement was greater for children and mothers in the highly interactive touch screen condition, due to additional positive emotions expressed during touch screen interactions. Negative emotional engagement was greater for children when reading and talking about the story in the highly interactive condition, and some mothers demonstrated negative emotional engagement with the touch screen activities. The less interactive touch screen storybook had little effect on shared reading behaviors, but mothers controlling behaviors were more frequent. Storybook format had no effect on the frequency of mothers' cognitive scaffolding behaviors (comprehension questions, word help). Relationships between comprehension and shared reading behaviors were examined for each storybook, and although length of the shared reading session and
Rueda-Romero, Paloma; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Carbonero, Pilar; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis
Seed dormancy prevents seeds from germinating under environmental conditions unfavourable for plant growth and development and constitutes an evolutionary advantage. Dry storage, also known as after-ripening, gradually decreases seed dormancy by mechanisms not well understood. An Arabidopsis thaliana DOF transcription factor gene (DOF6) affecting seed germination has been characterized. The transcript levels of this gene accumulate in dry seeds and decay gradually during after-ripening and also upon seed imbibition. While constitutive over-expression of DOF6 produced aberrant growth and sterility in the plant, its over-expression induced upon seed imbibition triggered delayed germination, abscisic acid (ABA)-hypersensitive phenotypes and increased expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene ABA1 and ABA-related stress genes. Wild-type germination and gene expression were gradually restored during seed after-ripening, despite of DOF6-induced over-expression. DOF6 was found to interact in a yeast two-hybrid system and in planta with TCP14, a previously described positive regulator of seed germination. The expression of ABA1 and ABA-related stress genes was also enhanced in tcp14 knock-out mutants. Taken together, these results indicate that DOF6 negatively affects seed germination and opposes TCP14 function in the regulation of a specific set of ABA-related genes. PMID:22155632
Rueda-Romero, Paloma; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Carbonero, Pilar; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis
Seed dormancy prevents seeds from germinating under environmental conditions unfavourable for plant growth and development and constitutes an evolutionary advantage. Dry storage, also known as after-ripening, gradually decreases seed dormancy by mechanisms not well understood. An Arabidopsis thaliana DOF transcription factor gene (DOF6) affecting seed germination has been characterized. The transcript levels of this gene accumulate in dry seeds and decay gradually during after-ripening and also upon seed imbibition. While constitutive over-expression of DOF6 produced aberrant growth and sterility in the plant, its over-expression induced upon seed imbibition triggered delayed germination, abscisic acid (ABA)-hypersensitive phenotypes and increased expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene ABA1 and ABA-related stress genes. Wild-type germination and gene expression were gradually restored during seed after-ripening, despite of DOF6-induced over-expression. DOF6 was found to interact in a yeast two-hybrid system and in planta with TCP14, a previously described positive regulator of seed germination. The expression of ABA1 and ABA-related stress genes was also enhanced in tcp14 knock-out mutants. Taken together, these results indicate that DOF6 negatively affects seed germination and opposes TCP14 function in the regulation of a specific set of ABA-related genes.
Miron, Lynsey R; Orcutt, Holly K
Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women's (N=541) risk of experiencing prospective adult sexual assault (ASA). Sequential multiple mediator models in Mplus were used to assess the effect of three different forms of childhood abuse on prospective ASA, both independently and while controlling for other forms of childhood abuse. The indirect effect of adolescent sexual assault (AdolSA), depressive symptoms, SRNA, and participants' response to a sex-related vignette was tested using bias-corrected bootstrapping. In the full path model, childhood emotional abuse and AdolSA predicted ASA, while childhood physical and sexual abuse were directly associated with AdolSA, but not ASA. Additionally, depressive symptoms and participants' estimate of their likely behavior in a sex-related vignette directly predicted prospective ASA. Results using bootstrapping revealed that a history of childhood abuse predicted prospective ASA via diverse direct and indirect paths, as well as through a similar multiple mediator path. Overall, findings suggest that a combination of affective, coping, and sexual expectancy factors contribute to risk for revictimization in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Future research directions and targets for risk-reduction programming are discussed.
Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Gallagher, Matthew W; Bentley, Kate H; Ametaj, Amantia; Barlow, David H
The present study aimed to understand the contributions of both the trait tendency to experience negative emotions and how one relates to such experience in predicting symptom change during participation in the Unified Protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic treatment for emotional disorders. Data were derived from a randomized controlled trial comparing the UP to a waitlist control/delayed-treatment condition. First, effect sizes of pre- to post-treatment change for frequency of negative emotions and several variables measuring reactivity to emotional experience (emotional awareness and acceptance, fear of emotions, and anxiety sensitivity) were examined. Second, the relative contributions of change in negative emotions and emotional reactivity in predicting symptom (clinician-rated anxiety, depression, and severity of principal diagnosis) reductions were investigated. Results suggested that decreases in the frequency of negative emotions and reactivity to emotions following participation in the UP were both large in magnitude. Further, two emotional reactivity variables (fear of emotions and anxiety sensitivity) remained significantly related to symptom outcomes when controlling for negative emotions, and accounted for significant incremental variance in their prediction. These findings lend support to the notion that psychological health depends less on the frequency of negative emotions and more on how one relates to these emotions when they occur.
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McLeish, Alison C; Zvolensky, Michael J; Marshall, Erin C; Leyro, Teresa M
The present investigation evaluated the moderational role of negative affectivity in the relation between smoking status and panic-relevant symptoms in a young adult sample (n = 222; 123 females; mean age = 22.45 years, SD = 8.08). Consistent with the prediction, negative affectivity moderated the association of smoking status with anxious arousal symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived health. Specifically, greater negative affectivity was associated with higher levels of anxious arousal and anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of perceived health among smokers compared to nonsmokers. The effects were evident after controlling for the variance accounted for by alcohol use problems and gender. Findings are discussed with regard to the role of negative affectivity in the relation between smoking and panic-related processes.
Proverbio, Alice Mado; Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Adorni, Roberta
The capacity to deceive others is a complex mental skill that requires the ability to suppress truthful information. The polygraph is widely used in countries such as the USA to detect deception. However, little is known about the effects of emotional processes (such as the fear of being found guilty despite being innocent) on the physiological responses that are used to detect lies. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course and neural correlates of untruthful behavior by analyzing electrocortical indexes in response to visually presented neutral and affective questions. Affective questions included sexual, shameful or disgusting topics. A total of 296 questions that were inherently true or false were presented to 25 subjects while ERPs were recorded from 128 scalp sites. Subjects were asked to lie on half of the questions and to answer truthfully on the remaining half. Behavioral and ERP responses indicated an increased need for executive control functions, namely working memory, inhibition and task switching processes, during deceptive responses. Deceptive responses also elicited a more negative N400 over the prefrontal areas and a smaller late positivity (LP 550–750 ms) over the prefrontal and frontal areas. However, a reduction in LP amplitude was also elicited by truthful affective responses. The failure to observe a difference in LP responses across conditions likely results from emotional interference. A swLORETA inverse solution was computed on the N400 amplitude (300–400 ms) for the dishonest – honest contrast. These results showed the activation of the superior, medial, middle and inferior frontal gyri (BA9, 11, 47) and the anterior cingulate cortex during deceptive responses. Our results conclude that the N400 amplitude is a reliable neural marker of deception. PMID:23536874
A sample of 168 African American undergraduates was surveyed to clarify past findings demonstrating a consistent relationship between endorsing negative attitudes about being African American and experiencing negative affect. Specifically, shame was tested as a mediator between participants' endorsement of preencounter attitudes (i.e., anti-Black…
Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut
Purpose: To examine the effect of health comparisons on affective (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) in older adults longitudinally. Methods: Data were derived from the third and fourth wave of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS) which is a population-based prospective cohort study of community-dwelling subjects in Germany aged 40 and above (with 8,277 observations in fixed effects regressions). Health comparisons were assessed by the question “How would you rate your health compared with other people your age” (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse). While AWB was quantified by using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), CWB was assessed by using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Fixed effects regressions were used to analyze the effect of health comparisons on AWB and CWB. Results: While positive health comparisons only slightly increased CWB (total sample), negative health comparisons markedly decreased CWB (total sample and women), and negative affects (women). Neither positive nor negative health comparisons affected positive affects. Conclusions: Our findings stress the importance of negative health comparisons for CWB and negative affects in women. Comparison effects are asymmetric and in most cases upwards. Consequently, designing interventions to avoid upwards health comparisons might be a fruitful approach in order to maintain AWB and CWB. PMID:27445953
Factors associated with co-occurring borderline personality disorder among inner-city substance users: the roles of childhood maltreatment, negative affect intensity/reactivity, and emotion dysregulation.
Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T; Baruch, David E; Bornovalova, Marina A; Lejuez, C W
The co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) among individuals with substance use disorders is a common and clinically relevant phenomenon in need of further empirical investigation. The present study adds to the extant literature on the factors associated with co-occurring BPD among substance users, examining the relationships between childhood maltreatment (in the form of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect), negative affect intensity/reactivity, emotion dysregulation, and BPD pathology (both diagnostic status and symptom count) among a sample of 76 inner-city treatment-seeking substance users. Emotion dysregulation was expected to mediate the relationships between childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity (and their interaction) and BPD pathology. Results indicate that the presence of a BPD diagnosis was associated with higher levels of both childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity. However, only childhood maltreatment emerged as a unique predictor of BPD diagnostic status. Conversely, both childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity accounted for unique variance in the number of endorsed BPD symptoms. Moreover, emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relationships between maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity and BPD symptom count, as well as the relationship between emotional abuse in particular and BPD diagnostic status. Contrary to hypotheses, results provided no support for the interaction between maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity in the prediction of BPD pathology (diagnosis or symptom count), above and beyond the main effects of these factors.
Chang, Anne-Marie; Aeschbach, Daniel; Duffy, Jeanne F.; Czeisler, Charles A.
In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength–enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety. PMID:25535358
Chang, Anne-Marie; Aeschbach, Daniel; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A
In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength-enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety.
Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz
This study evaluated the intervening role of meaning-making processes in emotional responses to negative life events based on Blatt's (1974, 2004) formulations concerning the role of personality predispositions in depression. In a pre/post within-subject study design, a community sample of 233 participants reacted to imaginary scenarios of interpersonal rejection and achievement failure. Meaning-making processes relating to threats to self-definition and interpersonal relatedness were examined following the exposure to the scenarios. The results indicated that the personality predisposition of Dependency, but not Self-Criticism predicted higher levels of negative affect following the interpersonal rejection event, independent of baseline levels of negative affect. This effect was mediated by higher levels of negative meaning-making processes related to the effect of the interpersonal rejection scenario on Dependent individuals' senses of interpersonal relatedness and self-worth. In addition, both Self-Criticism and Dependency predicted higher levels of negative affect following the achievement failure event, independent of baseline levels of negative affect. Finally, the effect of Self-Criticism was mediated by higher levels of negative meaning-making processes related to the effect of the achievement failure scenario on self-critical individuals' senses of self-definition.
Periss, Virginia; Blasi, Carlos Hernández; Bjorklund, David F
Perceptions of maturational status may play an important role in facilitating caretaking and resources toward children expressing them. Previous work has revealed evidence that cues of cognitive immaturity foster positive perceptions in adults toward young children at a time during their lives when they are most dependent on adult care. In the current series of studies, the authors investigated when during development these biases emerge. They tested American and Spanish adolescents ranging from 10 to 17 years of age. Each participant rated a series of vignettes presenting different expressions of immature and mature thinking attributed to young children. Results revealed that older adolescents performed similarly to adults tested in previous studies (D. F. Bjorklund, C. Hernández Blasi, & V. A. Periss, 2010), rating positively expressions of supernatural thinking (e.g., animism) compared with other forms of immature cognition labeled as natural (e.g., overestimation). Both male and female participants 14 years and older favored children expressing the immature supernatural cognition on traits reflecting positive affect (e.g., endearing, likeable), while associating greater negative affect (e.g., sneaky, impatient with) with children expressing immature natural cognition. However, younger adolescents consistently rated all forms of immature thinking less positively than mature thinking, suggesting that a positive bias for some forms of immature thinking develops during adolescence. Based on an evolutionary developmental framework, the authors suggest that supernatural thinking may have a unique role in humans, fostering positive perceptions of young children in older adolescents (and adults) as they prepare themselves for the possible role of parenthood.
Cole, Claire E; Zapp, Daniel J; Fettig, Nicole B; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly
Early temperamental sensitivity may form the basis for the later development of socioemotional maladjustment. In particular, temperamental negative affect places children at risk for the development of anxiety. However, not all children who show negative affect go on to develop anxiety or extreme social withdrawal. Recent research indicates that reactive control, in the form of attention to threat, may serve as a bridge between early temperament and the development of later social difficulties. In addition, variation in effortful control may also modulate this trajectory. Children (mean age=5.57 years) were assessed for attention bias to threatening and pleasant faces using a dot-probe paradigm. Attention bias to threatening (but not happy) faces moderated the direct positive relation between negative affect and social withdrawal. Children with threat biases showed a significant link between negative affect and social withdrawal, whereas children who avoided threat did not. In contrast, effortful control did not moderate the relation between negative affect and social withdrawal. Rather, there was a direct negative relation between effortful control and social withdrawal. The findings from this short report indicate that the relations among temperament, attention bias, and social withdrawal appears early in life and point to early emerging specificity in reactive and regulatory functioning.
Nowak, Jakub Stanislaw; Hobor, Fruzsina; Downie Ruiz Velasco, Angela; Choudhury, Nila Roy; Heikel, Gregory; Kerr, Alastair; Ramos, Andres; Michlewski, Gracjan
Lin28a inhibits the biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs by triggering the polyuridylation and degradation of their precursors by terminal uridylyltransferases TUT4/7 and 3'-5' exoribonuclease Dis3l2, respectively. Previously, we showed that Lin28a also controls the production of neuro-specific miRNA-9 via a polyuridylation-independent mechanism. Here we reveal that the sequences and structural characteristics of pre-let-7 and pre-miRNA-9 are eliciting two distinct modes of binding to Lin28a. We present evidence that Dis3l2 controls miRNA-9 production. Finally, we show that the constitutive expression of untagged Lin28a during neuronal differentiation in vitro positively and negatively affects numerous other miRNAs. Our findings shed light on the role of Lin28a in differentiating cells and on the ways in which one RNA-binding protein can perform multiple roles in the regulation of RNA processing.
Grassmann, Mariel; Vlemincx, Elke; von Leupoldt, Andreas; Van den Bergh, Omer
Cardiorespiratory measures provide useful information in addition to well-established self-report measures when monitoring operator capacity. The purpose of our study was to refine the assessment of operator load by considering individual differences in personality and their associations with cardiorespiratory activation. Physiological and self-report measures were analyzed in 115 pilot candidates at rest and while performing a multiple task covering perceptual speed, spatial orientation, and working memory. In the total sample and particularly in individuals with a general tendency to worry a lot, a cognitive avoidant coping style was associated with a smaller task-related increase in heart rate. Negative affectivity was found to moderate the association between cardiac and self-reported arousal. Given that physiological and self-report measures of mental workload are usually combined when evaluating operator load (e.g., in pilot selection and training), our findings suggest that integrating individual differences may reduce unexplained variance and increase the validity of workload assessments.
Lemonakis, Nikolaos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Gikas, Evagelos
A multistage optimization of all the parameters affecting detection/response in an LTQ-orbitrap analyzer was performed, using a design of experiments methodology. The signal intensity, a critical issue for mass analysis, was investigated and the optimization process was completed in three successive steps, taking into account the three main regions of an orbitrap, the ion generation, the ion transmission and the ion detection regions. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were selected as the model compounds. Overall, applying this methodology the sensitivity was increased more than 24%, the resolution more than 6.5%, whereas the elapsed scan time was reduced nearly to its half. A high-resolution LTQ Orbitrap Discovery mass spectrometer was used for the determination of the analytes of interest. Thus, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were infused via the instruments syringe pump and they were analyzed employing electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative high-resolution full-scan ion mode. The parameters of the three main regions of the LTQ-orbitrap were independently optimized in terms of maximum sensitivity. In this context, factorial design, response surface model and Plackett-Burman experiments were performed and analysis of variance was carried out to evaluate the validity of the statistical model and to determine the most significant parameters for signal intensity. The optimum MS conditions for each analyte were summarized and the method optimum condition was achieved by maximizing the desirability function. Our observation showed good agreement between the predicted optimum response and the responses collected at the predicted optimum conditions.
Caggiano, Serena; Ullmann, Nicola; De Vitis, Elisa; Trivelli, Marzia; Mariani, Chiara; Podagrosi, Maria; Ursitti, Fabiana; Bertolaso, Chiara; Putotto, Carolina; Unolt, Marta; Pietravalle, Andrea; Pansa, Paola; Mphayokulela, Kajoro; Lemmo, Maria Incoronata; Mkwambe, Michael; Kazaura, Joseph; Duse, Marzia; Nieddu, Francesco; Azzari, Chiara; Cutrera, Renato
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still the most important cause of death in countries with scarce resources. All children (33 months ± 35 DS) discharged from the Pediatric Unit of Itigi Hospital, Tanzania, with a diagnosis of CAP from August 2014 to April 2015 were enrolled. Clinical data were gathered. Dried blood spot (DBS) samples for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial detection were collected in all 100 children included. Twenty-four percent of patients were identified with severe CAP and 11% died. Surprisingly, 54% of patients were admitted with a wrong diagnosis, which increased complications, the need for antibiotics and chest X-rays, and the length of hospitalization. Comorbidity, found in 32% of children, significantly increased severity, complications, deaths, need for chest X-rays, and oxygen therapy. Malnourished children (29%) required more antibiotics. Microbiologically, Streptococcus pneumonia (S. p.), Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. a.) were the bacteria more frequently isolated. Seventy-five percent of patients had mono-infection. Etiology was not correlated with severity, complications, deaths, oxygen demand, or duration of hospitalization. Our study highlights that difficult diagnoses and comorbidities negatively affect clinical evolution. S. p. and Hib still play a large role; thus, implementation of current vaccine strategies is needed. DBS is a simple and efficient diagnostic method for bacterial identification in countries with scarce resources. PMID:28335406
Selvaggi, Francesco; Pellino, Gianluca; Sciaudone, Guido; Corte, Angela Della; Candilio, Giuseppe; Campitiello, Ferdinando; Canonico, Silvestro
Surgical site complications (SSC) negatively affect costs of care and prolong length of stay. Crohn's disease (CD) is a risk factor for SSC. CD patients often need surgery, sometimes requiring stoma. Our primary aim was to compare the effects on SSC of a portable device for NPWT (PICO, Smith & Nephew, London, UK) with gauze dressings after elective surgery for CD. Secondary aims were manageability and safety of PICO and its feasibility as home therapy. Between 2010 and 2012, 50 patients were assigned to treatment with either PICO (n = 25) or conventional dressings (n = 25). Each patient completed 12-month follow-up. Parameters of interests for primary aim were SSC, surgical complications, and readmission rates. Data on difficulties in managing PICO and device-related complications were also collected. Patients receiving PICO had less SSC, resulting in shorter hospital stay. At last follow-up, readmission rates were lower with PICO. No differences were observed in surgical complications between groups. No patients reported difficulties in managing the device. Among patients discharged with PICO, none needed to come back to the hospital for device malfunctioning or inability to manage it. PICO reduces SSC and length of stay in selected CD patients compared with conventional dressings. The device is safe and user friendly.
Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D
Although negative affect (NA) has been identified as a common trigger for bulimic behaviors, findings regarding NA following such behaviors have been mixed. This study examined reciprocal associations between NA and bulimic behaviors using real-time, naturalistic data. Participants were 133 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol in which they recorded bulimic behaviors and provided multiple daily ratings of NA. A multilevel autoregressive cross-lagged analysis was conducted to examine concurrent, first-order autoregressive, and prospective associations between NA, binge eating, and purging across the day. Results revealed positive concurrent associations between all variables across all time points, as well as numerous autoregressive associations. For prospective associations, higher NA predicted subsequent bulimic symptoms at multiple time points; conversely, binge eating predicted lower NA at multiple time points, and purging predicted higher NA at 1 time point. Several autoregressive and prospective associations were also found between binge eating and purging. This study used a novel approach to examine NA in relation to bulimic symptoms, contributing to the existing literature by directly examining the magnitude of the associations, examining differences in the associations across the day, and controlling for other associations in testing each effect in the model. These findings may have relevance for understanding the etiology and/or maintenance of bulimic symptoms, as well as potentially informing psychological interventions for BN.
Nowak, Jakub Stanislaw; Hobor, Fruzsina; Downie Ruiz Velasco, Angela; Choudhury, Nila Roy; Heikel, Gregory; Kerr, Alastair; Ramos, Andres; Michlewski, Gracjan
Lin28a inhibits the biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs by triggering the polyuridylation and degradation of their precursors by terminal uridylyltransferases TUT4/7 and 3′-5′ exoribonuclease Dis3l2, respectively. Previously, we showed that Lin28a also controls the production of neuro-specific miRNA-9 via a polyuridylation-independent mechanism. Here we reveal that the sequences and structural characteristics of pre-let-7 and pre-miRNA-9 are eliciting two distinct modes of binding to Lin28a. We present evidence that Dis3l2 controls miRNA-9 production. Finally, we show that the constitutive expression of untagged Lin28a during neuronal differentiation in vitro positively and negatively affects numerous other miRNAs. Our findings shed light on the role of Lin28a in differentiating cells and on the ways in which one RNA-binding protein can perform multiple roles in the regulation of RNA processing. PMID:27881476
Abercrombie, Heather C; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M
Acute emotional arousal moderates the effects of cortisol on memory. However, it is currently unknown how stable inter-individual differences (i.e., traits) moderate cortisol's effects on memory. In two studies using within-subjects designs - 31 healthy males in Study 1 and 42 healthy subjects (22 female) in Study 2 - we measured trait negative affect (NA) and presented emotional and neutral pictures. In Study 1, we manipulated endogenous cortisol levels using a speech stressor following encoding. In Study 2, using a randomized placebo-controlled design, we pharmacologically manipulated cortisol levels prior to encoding (0.1mg/kg hydrocortisone vs. saline infused over 30min). Free recall for pictures was subsequently assessed. Trait NA repeatedly moderated the relationship between cortisol and memory formation. Findings suggested the speculative conclusion that the direction of effects may vary by sex. In males, cortisol was related to memory facilitation in subjects with lower Trait NA. Conversely, females with higher Trait NA showed greater cortisol-related increases in memory. Trait NA may be a stable inter-individual difference predicting neurocognitive effects of cortisol during stressors.
Solomon, Beylul; O'Toole, Laura; Hong, Melanie; Dennis, Tracy A
Negative affectivity (NA) is a broad construct that has been associated with the development of psychopathologies, such as anxiety, and with exaggerated attention to threatening stimuli. EEG asymmetry reflects biological individual differences in emotional reactivity that may underlie the association between NA and attention to threat. The present study included a sample of 31 five-seven year olds (M age in months=74.39, SD=6.57) to test the hypothesis that greater NA, combined with greater right anterior and posterior asymmetries, predicts increased attention interference following threat stimuli. Children completed an executive attention task which presented task-irrelevant threat (angry) and non-threat (neutral) faces prior to each trial. EEG asymmetry was measured at baseline for anterior, anterior-temporal and posterior scalp regions and child NA was measured via maternal report. As predicted, children showing greater NA and greater right anterior-temporal asymmetry showed more attention interference following angry faces. Additionally, two trend-level effects emerged: children showing greater NA and greater left anterior-temporal asymmetry showed less attention interference following angry faces, and children showing greater NA and greater left posterior asymmetry showed less attention interference, but only following neutral faces. Discussion focuses on the utility of using EEG asymmetry in the study of temperament, attentional biases, and the biological processes by which temperament confers risk for psychopathology.
De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip
The tripartite model (in Clark and Watson, "J Abnorm Psychol" 100:316-336, 1991) comprises Negative Affect (NA), Positive Affect (PA), and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH), three temperamental-based dimensions. The current study examined the tripartite model's assumptions that (a) NA interacts with PA to predict subsequent depressive (but not…
Langdon, Kirsten J; Leventhal, Adam M
The relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and smoking is well documented but poorly understood. The present investigation sought to evaluate the impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms on subjective and behavioral tobacco abstinence effects both directly and indirectly through negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. Participants included 275 (68.7% male; Mage=43.9, 10+ cig/day) adult non-treatment seeking smokers, who attended two counterbalanced laboratory sessions (16 h of smoking deprivation vs ad libitum smoking), during which they completed self-report measures of withdrawal symptoms and mood followed by a smoking lapse task in which they could earn money for delaying smoking and purchase cigarettes to smoke. Results supported a mediational pathway whereby higher baseline symptoms of posttraumatic stress predicted greater endorsement of expectancies that smoking will effectively reduce negative affect, which in turn predicted greater abstinence-provoked exacerbations in nicotine withdrawal symptoms and negative affect. Posttraumatic stress symptoms also predicted number of cigarettes purchased independent of negative affect reduction expectancies, but did not predict delaying smoking for money. Findings highlight tobacco abstinence effects as a putative mechanism underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-smoking comorbidity, indicate an important mediating role of beliefs for smoking-induced negative affect reduction, and shed light on integrated treatment approaches for these two conditions. PMID:25142407
Langdon, Kirsten J; Leventhal, Adam M
The relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and smoking is well documented but poorly understood. The present investigation sought to evaluate the impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms on subjective and behavioral tobacco abstinence effects both directly and indirectly through negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. Participants included 275 (68.7% male; Mage =43.9, 10+ cig/day) adult non-treatment seeking smokers, who attended two counterbalanced laboratory sessions (16 h of smoking deprivation vs ad libitum smoking), during which they completed self-report measures of withdrawal symptoms and mood followed by a smoking lapse task in which they could earn money for delaying smoking and purchase cigarettes to smoke. Results supported a mediational pathway whereby higher baseline symptoms of posttraumatic stress predicted greater endorsement of expectancies that smoking will effectively reduce negative affect, which in turn predicted greater abstinence-provoked exacerbations in nicotine withdrawal symptoms and negative affect. Posttraumatic stress symptoms also predicted number of cigarettes purchased independent of negative affect reduction expectancies, but did not predict delaying smoking for money. Findings highlight tobacco abstinence effects as a putative mechanism underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-smoking comorbidity, indicate an important mediating role of beliefs for smoking-induced negative affect reduction, and shed light on integrated treatment approaches for these two conditions.
Ahumada-Manuel, Carlos Leonel; Guzmán, Josefina; Peña, Carlos; Quiroz-Rocha, Elva; Espín, Guadalupe; Núñez, Cinthia
Azotobacter vinelandii is a soil bacterium that produces the polysaccharide alginate. In this work, we identified a miniTn5 mutant, named GG9, which showed increased alginate production of higher molecular mass, and increased expression of the alginate biosynthetic genes algD and alg8 when compared to its parental strain. The miniTn5 was inserted within ORF Avin07920 encoding a hypothetical protein. Avin07910, located immediately downstream and predicted to form an operon with Avin07920, encodes an inner membrane multi-domain signaling protein here named mucG. Insertional inactivation of mucG resulted in a phenotype of increased alginate production of higher molecular mass similar to that of mutant GG9. The MucG protein contains a periplasmic and putative HAMP and PAS domains, which are linked to GGDEF and EAL domains. The last two domains are potentially involved in the synthesis and degradation, respectively, of bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), a secondary messenger that has been reported to be essential for alginate production. Therefore, we hypothesized that the negative effect of MucG on the production of this polymer could be explained by the putative phosphodiesterase activity of the EAL domain. Indeed, we found that alanine replacement mutagenesis of the MucG EAL motif or deletion of the entire EAL domain resulted in increased alginate production of higher molecular mass similar to the GG9 and mucG mutants. To our knowledge, this is the first reported protein that simultaneous affects the production of alginate and its molecular mass.
Larsson, Martin; Lietzau, Grazyna; Nathanson, David; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Mallard, Carina; Johansson, Maria E.; Nyström, Thomas; Patrone, Cesare; Darsalia, Vladimer
Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients often develop early cognitive and sensorimotor impairments. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind these problems are largely unknown. Recent studies demonstrate that dysfunctional γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons are involved in age-related cognitive decline. We hypothesized that similar, but earlier dysfunction is taking place under T2D in the neocortex and striatum (two brain areas important for cognition and sensorimotor functions). We also hypothesized that the T2D-induced effects are pharmacologically reversible by anti-diabetic drugs targeting the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). We determined the effect of T2D on cortical and striatal GABAergic neurons positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67), calbindin (CB), parvalbumin (PV) and calretinin (CR) by using immunohistochemistry and quantitative microscopy. Young and middle-aged T2D Goto-Kakizaki (GK) (a model of spontaneous T2D) and Wistar rats were used. Furthermore, we determined the therapeutic potential of the GLP1-R agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) by treating middle-aged GK rats for 6 weeks with 0.1 μg/kg Ex-4 twice daily. We show that T2D reduced the density of GAD67-positive neurons in the striatum and of CB-positive neurons in both striatum and neocortex. T2D also increased the average volume of PV-positive interneurons in the striatum. Ex-4 treatment increased the density of CB-positive neurons in the striatum of GK rats. Our data demonstrate that T2D negatively affects GAD67 and CB-positive GABAergic neurons in the brain during aging, potentially identifying some of the pathophysiological mechanisms to explain the increased prevalence of neurological complications in T2D. We also show a specific, positive effect of Ex-4 on striatal CB-positive neurons, which could be exploited in therapeutic perspective. PMID:27780892
Terszowski, Grzegorz; Klein, Christian; Stern, Martin
Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by NK cells is regulated by inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs), which interact with target cell HLA class I. We analyzed how KIR/HLA interactions influence ADCC induced by rituximab and by GA101, a novel type II CD20 Ab glycoengineered for increased FcgRIII binding and ADCC capacity. We found that KIR/HLA interactions strongly and selectively inhibit rituximab-induced in vitro ADCC toward target cells expressing cognate HLA KIR ligands. NK cells of donors carrying all three ligands to inhibitory KIR showed weak activation and target cell depletion capacity when incubated with rituximab and KIR-ligand matched target B cells. In contrast, NK cells from individuals missing one or more KIR ligands activated more strongly and depleted KIR ligand-matched target B cells more efficiently in the presence of rituximab. NK cells expressing a KIR for which the ligand was absent were the main effectors of ADCC in these donors. Notably, the influence of KIR/HLA interactions on NK cell activation was synergistic with the effect of the V158F FCGR3A single nucleotide polymorphism. In contrast, GA101 induced activation of NK cells irrespective of inhibitory KIR expression, and efficiency of target cell depletion was not negatively affected by KIR/HLA interactions. These data show that modification of the Fc fragment to enhance ADCC can be an effective strategy to augment the efficacy of therapeutic mAbs by recruiting NK cells irrespective of their inhibitory KIR expression.
Bhagat, Vidya; Haque, Mainul; Simbak, Nordin Bin; Jaalam, Kamarudin
Personality dimension negative emotionality is known to be associated with academic achievement. The present study focuses on the influence of negative emotionality (neuroticism) on the medical students' academic achievements. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the negative emotionality scores among the first year Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and India, further to find out the association between negative emotionality and their academic achievements. The current study sample includes 60 first year Malaysian medical students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, and USM-KLE IMP, Belgaum, India. They were selected by convenient sampling technique. The Medico-Psychological questionnaire was used to find out the negative emotionality scores among the students and these scores were compared with academic scores. The data were analyzed using SPSS- 20. Thus, the study result goes with the prediction that there is a significant correlation between academic achievement and negative emotionality. We concluded that negative emotionality has a negative impact on medical student's academic achievement regardless of the fact whether they study in their own country or overseas.
Frone, Michael R.; And Others
Tested model relating work-family conflict to heavy alcohol use and cigarette use among employed mothers via domain-specific (job- and family-related) and general negative effect. Data from 366 employed mothers of adolescents revealed that work-family conflict was indirectly related to both heavy alcohol use and cigarette use via negative effect.…
Bhagat, Vidya; Haque, Mainul; Simbak, Nordin Bin; Jaalam, Kamarudin
Personality dimension negative emotionality is known to be associated with academic achievement. The present study focuses on the influence of negative emotionality (neuroticism) on the medical students’ academic achievements. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the negative emotionality scores among the first year Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and India, further to find out the association between negative emotionality and their academic achievements. The current study sample includes 60 first year Malaysian medical students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, and USM-KLE IMP, Belgaum, India. They were selected by convenient sampling technique. The Medico-Psychological questionnaire was used to find out the negative emotionality scores among the students and these scores were compared with academic scores. The data were analyzed using SPSS- 20. Thus, the study result goes with the prediction that there is a significant correlation between academic achievement and negative emotionality. We concluded that negative emotionality has a negative impact on medical student’s academic achievement regardless of the fact whether they study in their own country or overseas. PMID:27354836
Rush, Jonathan; Hofer, Scott M
The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a widely used measure of emotional experience. The factor structure of the PANAS has been examined predominantly with cross-sectional designs, which fails to disaggregate within-person variation from between-person differences. There is still uncertainty as to the factor structure of positive and negative affect and whether they constitute 2 distinct independent factors. The present study examined the within-person and between-person factor structure of the PANAS in 2 independent samples that reported daily affect over 7 and 14 occasions, respectively. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a 2-factor structure at both the within-person and between-person levels, with correlated specific factors for overlapping items, provided good model fit. The best-fitting solution was one where within-person factors of positive and negative affect were inversely correlated, but between-person factors were independent. The structure was further validated through multilevel structural equation modeling examining the effects of cognitive interference, daily stress, physical symptoms, and physical activity on positive and negative affect factors.
Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja; Düsing, Rainer; Waldorf, Manuel
Previous body image research suggests that first, exposure to body stimuli can negatively affect men's body satisfaction and second, body concerns are associated with dysfunctional gaze behavior. To date, however, the effects of self- vs. other-referential body stimuli and of gaze behavior on body image in men under exposure conditions have not been investigated. Therefore, 49 weight-trained men were presented with pictures of their own and other bodies of different builds (i.e., normal, muscular, hyper-muscular) while being eye-tracked. Participants completed pre- and post-exposure measures of body image and affect. Results indicated that one's own and the muscular body negatively affected men's body image to a comparable degree. Exposure to one's own body also led to increased negative affect. Increased attention toward disliked own body parts was associated with a more negative post-exposure body image and affect. These results suggest a crucial role of critical self-examination in maintaining body dissatisfaction.
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Bang, Hyejin; Reio, Thomas G
This research explores the relationships among personal accomplish- ment, mentoring, affect, creative self-efficacy, and creative involvement. With a sample of working adults (N = 242), structural equation modeling results revealed that the data fit the theoretical model well in that creative self-efficacy fully mediated the relationships between personal accomplishment and creative work involvement and between mentoring and creative work involvement. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that positive affect moderated the relationship between personal accomplishment and creative self-efficacy but negative affect did not, signifying that positive affect may be a necessary situational factor to optimize the personal accomplishment-creative self-efficacy link. In contrast, negative but not positive affect moderated the link between mentoring experiences and creative self-efficacy, suggesting that mentoring experiences associated with negative affect situationally may have been likely to have a significant consequence in weakening creative self-efficacy. The findings expand upon self-efficacy and mentoring theories by highlighting the importance of employing theoretically relevant moderating and mediating variables in research investigating the etiology of possible variables associated with vital workplace outcomes.
Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006) shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS) and their relationship to positive and negative affect. Method. The present study used participants’ (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73) responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R2 = .41) and the variance of negative affect (R2 = .27). Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument. PMID:26157626
Pan, Jia-Yan; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung
Objective: There are few studies comparing cross-cultural adaptation of migrant groups in two different cultural settings. This study compares the level of negative affect and acculturative stressors between Chinese international students in Australia and Mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong. The predictive effects of acculturative stressors and…
Zheng, Yao; Wiebe, Richard P.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Harris, Kitty S.
Psychological constructs, such as negative affect and substance use cravings that closely predict relapse, show substantial intraindividual day-to-day variability. This intraindividual variability of relevant psychological states combined with the "one day at a time" nature of sustained abstinence warrant a day-to-day investigation of substance…
Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.
Examined the impact of sociocultural influences and the moderating role of self-esteem and negative affect on body dissatisfaction and body change strategies for adolescent boys and girls. Surveys indicated that sociocultural pressures significantly predicted body dissatisfaction and body change strategies among both sexes. Both boys and girls…
Cooper, Paul; Kakos, Michalis
In this paper the authors explore the phenomena of positive attitudes towards negative affect among young adolescent as reflected in the appearance and behaviours of "radical peer crowds", such as Punks, Goths and Emos. The authors consider the significance of this in relation to the history of melancholy and theories of identity…
Wang, Li; Shen, Minjie; Jiang, Changyou
Background: The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is a crucial component of the neuronal circuitry mediating aversive emotion. Its role in the negative affective states during drug withdrawal includes changes in opioidergic, GABAergic, and corticotropin-releasing factor neurotransmission. However, the modulation of the neurobiological interconnectivity in the CeA and its effects in the negative reinforcement of drug dependents are poorly understood. Method: We performed electrophysiological recordings to assess the membrane excitability of parvalbumin (PV)+ interneurons in the CeA during chronic morphine withdrawal. We tested the morphine withdrawal–induced negative affective states, such as the aversive (assessed by conditioned place aversion), anxiety (assessed by elevated plus maze), and anhedonic-like (assessed by saccharin preference test) behaviors, as well as the mRNA level of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) via optogenetic inhibition or activation of PV+ interneurons in the CeA. Result: Chronic morphine withdrawal increased the firing rate of CeA PV+ interneurons. Optogenetic inhibition of the activity of CeA PV+ interneurons attenuated the morphine withdrawal–induced negative affective states, such as the aversive, anxiety, and anhedonic-like behaviors, while direct activation of CeA PV+ interneurons could trigger those negative affective-like behaviors. Optogenetic inhibition of the CeA PV+ interneurons during the morphine withdrawal significantly attenuated the elevated CRH mRNA level in the CeA. Conclusion: The activity of PV+ interneurons in the CeA was up-regulated during chronic morphine withdrawal. The activation of PV+ interneurons during morphine withdrawal was crucial for the induction of the negative emotion and the up-regulation of CRH mRNA levels in the CeA. PMID:27385383
Hilgard, Joseph; Weinberg, Anna; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Bartholow, Bruce D.
It is widely believed that negative information is psychologically more meaningful than positive information, a phenomenon known generally as the negativity bias. However, findings concerning the possibility of a negativity bias in emotional picture processing have been mixed, with recent studies indicating the lack of such a bias in event-related brain potentials (ERPs) when pleasant and unpleasant images are equated for motivational relevance. Here, we investigated two factors that could influence the detection of a negativity bias: picture presentation paradigm and specific picture content. Across two studies, participants viewed pleasant-affiliative, pleasant-thrilling, unpleasant-threatening and neutral images presented in the context of oddball, blocked and random viewing paradigms. Across paradigms, emotional images elicited larger responses in the late positive potential (LPP) than did neutral images. A negativity bias was detected in the oddball paradigm and when thrilling, rather than affiliative, pleasant stimuli were used. Findings are discussed in terms of factors known to influence LPP amplitude and their relevance to differential effects across picture viewing paradigms. PMID:24866528
Stillman, Paul E; Van Bavel, Jay J; Cunningham, William A
Organisms must constantly balance appetitive needs with vigilance for potential threats. Recent research suggests that the amygdala may play an important role in both of these goals. Although the amygdala plays a role in processing motivationally relevant stimuli that are positive or negative, negative information often appears to carry greater weight. From a functional perspective, this may reflect the fact that threatening stimuli generally require action, whereas appetitive stimuli can often be safely ignored. In this study, we examine whether amygdala activation to positive stimuli may be more sensitive to task goals than negative stimuli, which are often related to self-preservation concerns. During fMRI, participants were presented with two images that varied on valence and extremity and were instructed to focus on one of the images. Results indicated that negative stimuli elicited greater amygdala activity regardless of task relevance. In contrast, positive stimuli only led to a relative increase in amygdala activity when they were task relevant. This suggests that the amygdala may be more responsive to negative stimuli regardless of their relevance to immediate goals, whereas positive stimuli may only elicit amygdala activity when they are relevant to the perceivers' goals. This pattern of valence asymmetry in the human amygdala may help balance approach-related goal pursuit with chronic self-preservation goals.
Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Fagermoen, May Solveig
Background Chronic illness is a risk factor for low self-esteem, and the research literature needs to include more studies of self-esteem and its development in chronic illness groups using longitudinal and comparative designs. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of self-esteem and of positive and negative affect in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Patient education course attendants in Norway having morbid obesity (n=139) or COPD (n=97) participated in the study. Data concerning self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and sociodemographic background were collected at the start and at the end of the patient education, with subsequent follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures. Results Taking all measurements into account, our data revealed a statistically significant increase in self-esteem for participants with morbid obesity but not for those with COPD. There were no significant differences in levels of negative and positive affect between the two groups, and the time-trajectories were also similar. However, participants in both groups achieved lower levels of negative affect for all the successive measurement points. Conclusion An increase in self-esteem during the first year after the patient education course was observed for persons with morbid obesity, but not for persons with COPD. Initial higher levels of self-esteem in the participants with COPD may indicate that they are less troubled with low self-esteem than people with morbid obesity are. The pattern of reduced negative affect for both groups during follow-up is promising. PMID:27574438
Randler, Christoph; Demirhan, Eda; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Desch, Inga H.
In science education, dissections of animals are an integral part of teaching, but they often evoke negative emotions. We aimed at reducing negative emotions (anxiety, negative affect [NA]) and increasing positive affect (PA) and self-efficacy by an experimental intervention using a predissection video to instruct students about fish dissection.…
Lerner, J; Safren, S A; Henin, A; Warman, M; Heimberg, R G; Kendall, P C
Conducted a factor analysis on the items from the Negative Affect Self-Statement Questionnaire (NASSQ; Ronan, Kendall, & Rowe, 1994). This analysis yielded 4 factors (Depressive Self-Statements, Anxiety/Somatic Self-Statements, Negative Affect Self-Statements, and Positive Affect Self-Statements) broadly consistent with both the content-specificity hypothesis (Beck & Clark, 1988) and L. A. Clark and Watson's (1991b) tripartite model of anxiety and depression. The association between children's self-talk and measures of trait anxiety and depression was also examined. Self-statements with content theoretically specific to depression were the best predictors of self-reported depressive symptoms, but the results were less clear for trait anxiety. Overall, these results provide evidence for the discriminability of anxious and depressive self-talk in youth and for the utility of the NASSQ as a cognitive assessment instrument.
Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria Elide
The present research explored the effect of cross-modal integration of emotional cues (auditory and visual (AV)) compared with only visual (V) emotional cues in observing interspecies interactions. The brain activity was monitored when subjects processed AV and V situations, which represented an emotional (positive or negative), interspecies (human-animal) interaction. Congruence (emotionally congruous or incongruous visual and auditory patterns) was also modulated. electroencephalography brain oscillations (from delta to beta) were analyzed and the cortical source localization (by standardized Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) was applied to the data. Frequency band (mainly low-frequency delta and theta) showed a significant brain activity increasing in response to negative compared to positive interactions within the right hemisphere. Moreover, differences were found based on stimulation type, with an increased effect for AV compared with V. Finally, delta band supported a lateralized right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in response to negative and incongruous interspecies interactions, mainly for AV. The contribution of cross-modality, congruence (incongruous patterns), and lateralization (right DLPFC) in response to interspecies emotional interactions was discussed at light of a "negative lateralized effect."
Sheeran, Paschal; Aubrey, Richard; Kellett, Stephen
The present study evaluated an implementation intention intervention that aimed to increase attendance at scheduled, initial appointments for psychotherapy by helping clients to manage negative feelings about attendance. Participants received a postal questionnaire that measured their views about attending psychotherapy. One half of the sample was…
Tobin, Erin T.; Kane, Heidi S.; Saleh, Daniel J.; Wildman, Derek E.; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Secord, Elizabeth; Slatcher, Richard B.
Objective Stressful family environments early in life have negative effects on physical health. However, less is known about the health effects of positive aspects of families. We examined the associations between maternal responsiveness and immune markers among youth with asthma and identified youth expressions of positive affect as a potential mechanism of these associations. Methods Forty-three youths with asthma (26 males; aged 10-17) wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) for four days to assess maternal responsiveness and youth expressions of affect from audio-recordings of daily life. Trained coders rated EAR sound files for expressions of maternal responsiveness and affect displayed by the youth. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated, cultured, and assayed to determine stimulated levels of interleukin(IL)-5, IL-13, and interferon(IFN)- γ. Results Greater maternal responsiveness was associated with decreased stimulated production of IL-5 (r = −.38, p = .012) and IL-13 (r = −.33, p = .031). Greater total positive affect in youth was linked with decreased stimulated production of IL-5 (r = −.46, p = .002) and IL-13 (r = −.37, p = .014). Total negative affect among youth was unrelated to immune responses. There was a significant indirect effect of maternal responsiveness via positive affect in youth on lower levels of IL-5 (95% CI = −3.41, −.03) and IL-13 (95% CI = −2.34, −.01) when adjusting for caregiver-youth conflict and negative affect among youth. Conclusions These results indicate the importance of positive family interactions for youth and provide preliminary evidence for a mechanism through which parenting can influence immune responses in youths with asthma. PMID:26407226
Süssenbach, Philipp; Gollwitzer, Mario; Mieth, Laura; Buchner, Axel; Bell, Raoul
People who are high in victim-sensitivity—a personality trait characterized by a strong fear of being exploited by others—are more likely to attend to social cues associated with untrustworthiness rather than to cues associated with trustworthiness compared with people who are low in victim-sensitivity. But how do these people react when an initial expectation regarding a target’s trustworthiness turns out to be false? Results from two studies show that victim-sensitive compared with victim-insensitive individuals show enhanced source memory and greater change in person perception for negatively labeled targets that violated rather than confirmed negative expectations (the “trustworthy trickster”). These findings are in line with recent theorizing on schema inconsistency and expectancy violation effects in social cognition and with research on the different facets of justice sensitivity in personality psychology. PMID:28082945
Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Griffin, Jamie
Background Daily affect and substance use covary among college students, but little is known about these associations among young adults not in college. Objectives The current pilot study examines associations between positive and negative affect and alcohol and marijuana use, with a focus on differences between college student and non-student young adults. Methods High school seniors completed a baseline survey during the spring of 2012 and were then randomly selected to participate in an intensive measurement follow-up. Participants in the follow-up (N=72, 40.3% men, 77.8% White, 66.7% full-time college students) completed up to 14 consecutive web-based daily surveys during the fall after high school completion. Multilevel models in which days (Level 1) were nested in persons (Level 2) were estimated. Results Weekend days were associated with increased alcohol use among all young adults, increased marijuana use among college students, and decreased marijuana use among non-students. For young adults not in college, greater daily positive affect was associated with increased likelihood of binge drinking, consuming a greater number of drinks, and lower odds of marijuana use; greater daily negative affect was associated with lower odds of alcohol use and lower odds of binge drinking for non-students. For college students, greater daily negative affect was associated with lower odds of marijuana use. Conclusions/Importance Daily affect and alcohol and marijuana use covary among young adults, though these associations differ between students and non-students. Results highlight the need to examine predictors of alcohol and marijuana use among young adults who do not attend college. PMID:26683453
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Juarascio, Adrienne S; Felton, Julia W; Borges, Allison M; Manasse, Stephanie M; Murray, Helen B; Lejuez, Carl W
The current study examined internalizing symptoms, affect reactivity, and distress intolerance as prospective predictors of increases in eating disorder (ED)-attitudes during adolescence. Adolescents (n = 206) took part in a six-year longitudinal study examining the development of psychopathology. Latent growth curve analysis was used to examine associations between predictors and later ED-attitudes. Distress intolerance and internalizing symptoms were associated with ED-attitudes at baseline, but did not predict increases over time. Affect reactivity, however, was significantly associated with increases in ED-attitudes over time. Baseline affect reactivity did not interact with baseline distress intolerance to predict increases in ED-attitudes; however higher baseline internalizing symptoms interacted with distress intolerance to predict increases in ED-attitudes across adolescence. These results are among the first to document that affect reactivity alone and the combined effect of high internalizing symptoms and high distress intolerance early in adolescence are risk factors for the later development of ED-attitudes.
Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.
Older adults often report less affective reactivity to interpersonal tensions than younger individuals, but few studies have directly investigated mechanisms explaining this effect. The current study examined whether older adults' differential endorsement of goals, appraisals, and emotion regulation strategies (i.e., conflict…
Panaccio, Alexandra; Vandenberghe, Christian
Using a one-year longitudinal study of four components of organizational commitment (affective, normative, continuance-sacrifices, and continuance-alternatives) on a sample of employees from multiple organizations (N=220), we examined the relationships of employee Big-Five personality traits to employee commitment components, and the mediating…
Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L
Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving.
Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Leyro, Teresa M; Marshall, Erin C
The present investigation evaluated the relations between anxiety sensitivity and motivational bases of cigarette smoking, as well as barriers to quitting smoking, above and beyond concurrent substance use, negative affectivity, and emotional dysregulation among a community sample of 189 daily cigarette smokers (46% women; M(age)=24.97 years, SD=9.78). Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to coping, addictive, and habitual smoking motives, as well as greater perceived barriers to quitting. These effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by concurrent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and discernable from shared variance with negative affectivity and emotional dysregulation. Emotional dysregulation was significantly related to stimulation, habitual, and sensorimotor smoking motives and greater perceived barriers to quitting, whereas negative affectivity was only significantly related to smoking for relaxation. These findings uniquely add to a growing literature suggesting anxiety sensitivity is an important and unique cognitive factor for better understanding clinically-relevant psychological processes related to cigarette smoking.
Mulgrew, K E; Volcevski-Kostas, D
Viewing idealized images has been shown to reduce men's body satisfaction; however no research has examined the impact of music video clips. This was the first study to examine the effects of exposure to muscular images in music clips on men's body image, mood and cognitions. Ninety men viewed 5 min of clips containing scenery, muscular or average-looking singers, and completed pre- and posttest measures of mood and body image. Appearance schema activation was also measured. Men exposed to the muscular clips showed poorer posttest levels of anger, body and muscle tone satisfaction compared to men exposed to the scenery or average clips. No evidence of schema activation was found, although potential problems with the measure are noted. These preliminary findings suggest that even short term exposure to music clips can produce negative effects on men's body image and mood.
Garcia, Danilo; Kerekes, Nóra; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor
Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA). The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy) between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (N = 304) were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA), “high affective” (high PA, high NA), “low affective” (low PA, low NA), and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA). Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness). “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development. PMID:22844588
Highsmith, Jonathan M; Wuensch, Karl L; Tran, Tuan; Stephenson, Alexandra J; Everhart, D Erik
ERP studies commonly utilize gambling-based reinforcement tasks to elicit feedback negativity (FN) responses. This study used a pattern learning task in order to limit gambling-related fallacious reasoning and possible affective responses to gambling, while investigating relationships between the FN components between high and low reward expectation conditions. Eighteen undergraduates completed measures of reinforcement sensitivity, trait and state affect, and psychophysiological recording. The pattern learning task elicited a FN component for both high and low win expectancy conditions, which was found to be independent of reward expectation and showed little relationship with task and personality variables. We also observed a P3 component, which showed sensitivity to outcome expectancy variation and relationships to measures of anxiety, appetitive motivation, and cortical asymmetry, although these varied by electrode location and expectancy condition. Findings suggest that the FN reflected a binary reward-related signal, with little relationship to reward expectation found in previous studies, in the absence of positive affective responses.
Hengartner, Michael P; Graf, Markus; Schreiber, Marc
There is increasing interest in the construct validity of higher-order domains of the Big Five personality traits. A total of 831 persons from the Swiss population completed the International Personality Item Pool and an adaptation of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales. Using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, we found evidence for the general factor of personality (GFP) and the two meta-traits of positive emotionality (blend of low neuroticism and high extraversion) and constraint (blend of high agreeableness and conscientiousness). In association with positive affect, the explanatory power of the GFP (r = 0.43) and positive emotionality (r = 0.37) was largely superior to extraversion (r = 0.24), conscientiousness (r = 0.18), agreeableness (r = 0.09) and openness (r = 0.04), although not neuroticism (r = -0.34). In association with negative affect, neuroticism (r = 0.41), the GFP (r = -0.36) and positive emotionality (r = -0.35) were the most powerful single predictors. We conclude that the higher-order structure of personality is best explained by the meta-traits of positive emotionality and constraint, which correspond closely to the well-established superfactors of internalizing and externalizing. We further demonstrate that these have substantial criterion validity when broad positive and negative affect is the outcome of interest. These findings help to relate Big Five meta-traits to pathological personality. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Oeffner, F; Klenk, H D; Herrler, G
The surface glycoprotein, HEF, of influenza C virus (C/Johannesburg/1/66) has been shown to undergo a post-translation conformational change that is evident in a dramatic change of electrophoretic mobility. If the corresponding gene is expressed in the absence of other viral proteins, this folding process does not occur at all or only very inefficiently. A chimaeric protein, HEF-HA(Tail), in which the short cytoplasmic tail (Arg-Thr-Lys) of HEF was replaced by the cytoplasmic tail of the haemagglutinin of an influenza A virus (fowl plague virus) was constructed. In contrast to the wild-type protein, the chimaeric protein was detected on the cell surface. No further improvement of the surface expression was observed when both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail were replaced by the corresponding domains of either the influenza A haemagglutinin or gp40, an endogenous protein of MDCK cells. For the HEF-HA(Tail) construct this study shows that a substantial amount of the protein is converted to the 100 kDa mature form that is observed in virus-infected cells. The HEF-HA expressed on the cell surface reacted positively in esterase and haemadsorption assays, indicating that it was present in a biologically active form. The results show that the short cytoplasmic tail of HEF has a negative effect on the folding and surface transport of this protein. How this effect may be prevented during a virus infection is discussed.
Chu, Ya-Yun; Nega, Mulugeta; Wölfle, Martina; Plener, Laure; Grond, Stephanie; Jung, Kirsten; Götz, Friedrich
The knowledge that many pathogens rely on cell-to-cell communication mechanisms known as quorum sensing, opens a new disease control strategy: quorum quenching. Here we report on one of the rare examples where Gram-positive bacteria, the ‘Staphylococcus intermedius group’ of zoonotic pathogens, excrete two compounds in millimolar concentrations that suppress the quorum sensing signaling and inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of Gram-negative beta- and gamma-proteobacteria. These compounds were isolated from Staphylococcus delphini. They represent a new class of quorum quenchers with the chemical formula N-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-urea and N-(2-phenethyl)-urea, which we named yayurea A and B, respectively. In vitro studies with the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) responding receptor LuxN of V. harveyi indicated that both compounds caused opposite effects on phosphorylation to those caused by AHL. This explains the quorum quenching activity. Staphylococcal strains producing yayurea A and B clearly benefit from an increased competitiveness in a mixed community. PMID:24098134
Müller, Corsin A.; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig
Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals’ understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and thus reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so due to their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply due to the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object’s location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species’ performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past. PMID:24611641
Larmonier, C. B.; McFadden, R.-M. T.; Hill, F. M.; Schreiner, R.; Ramalingam, R.; Besselsen, D. G.; Ghishan, F. K.
Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) represents an extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Vitamin D3 has been considered a viable adjunctive therapy in IBD. However, vitamin D3 plays a pleiotropic role in bone modeling and regulates the bone formation-resorption balance, depending on the physiological environment, and supplementation during active IBD may have unintended consequences. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation during the active phase of disease on colonic inflammation, BMD, and bone metabolism in an adoptive IL-10−/− CD4+ T cell transfer model of chronic colitis. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation for 12 days during established disease had negligible effects on mucosal inflammation. Plasma vitamin D3 metabolites correlated with diet, but not disease, status. Colitis significantly reduced BMD. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation did not affect cortical bone but led to a further deterioration of trabecular bone morphology. In mice fed a high vitamin D3 diet, colitis more severely impacted bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) and increased bone resorption markers, ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand to osteoprotegrin transcript, plasma osteoprotegrin level, and the osteoclast activation marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACp5). Bone vitamin D receptor expression was increased in mice with chronic colitis, especially in the high vitamin D3 group. Our data suggest that vitamin D3, at a dose that does not improve inflammation, has no beneficial effects on bone metabolism and density during active colitis or may adversely affect BMD and bone turnover. These observations should be taken into consideration in the planning of further clinical studies with high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with active IBD. PMID:23639807
Pandey, Subhash C
The gene transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-responsive element binding (CREB) protein is a nuclear protein that regulates synaptic plasticity via modulating the expression of several (cAMP)-inducible genes. Alcohol addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder and is characterized by a compulsive and uncontrolled pattern of alcohol drinking by an individual in spite of the adverse consequences of its abuse. Ethanol produces both euphoric (reward and reinforcing) and dysphoric (negative withdrawal reactions) effects and these are most likely involved in the initiation and maintenance of alcohol use and abuse. Several neurotransmitter systems in the brain might be involved in the effects of alcohol but the exact molecular mechanisms of both the positive and negative affective states of alcohol abuse are still unclear. Recent research in molecular neurosciences using animal models have identified the role of extended amygdaloid (shell structures of nucleus accumbens [NAc] and central and medial amygdaloid nuclei) CREB signaling in positive and negative affective states of alcohol drinking behaviors. This review article highlights the current findings on the role of nucleus accumbal and amygdaloid CREB signaling in behavioral consequences of alcohol use and abuse.
Albarracin, Dolores; Hart, William
General action and inaction concepts have been shown to produce broad, goal-mediated effects on cognitive and motor activity irrespective of the type of activity. The current research tested a model in which action and inaction goals interact with the valence of incidental moods to guide behavior. Over four experiments, participants' moods were manipulated to be positive (happy), neutral, or negative (angry or sad), and then general action, inaction, and neutral concepts were primed. In Experiment 1, action primes increased intellectual performance when participants experienced a positive (happy) or neutral mood, whereas inaction primes increased performance when participants experienced a negative (angry) mood. Including a control-prime condition, Experiments 2 and 3 replicated these results measuring the number of general interest articles participants were willing to read and participants' memory for pictures of celebrities. Experiment 4 replicated the results comparing happiness with sadness and suggested that the effect of the prime's adoption was automatic. Overall, the findings supported an interactive model by which action concepts and positive affect produce the same increases in active behavior as inaction concepts and negative affect.
Albarracin, Dolores; Hart, William
General action and inaction concepts have been shown to produce broad, goal-mediated effects on cognitive and motor activity irrespective of the type of activity. The current research tested a model in which action and inaction goals interact with the valence of incidental moods to guide behavior. Over four experiments, participants’ moods were manipulated to be positive (happy), neutral, or negative (angry or sad), and then general action, inaction, and neutral concepts were primed. In Experiment 1, action primes increased intellectual performance when participants experienced a positive (happy) or neutral mood, whereas inaction primes increased performance when participants experienced a negative (angry) mood. Including a control-prime condition, Experiments 2 and 3 replicated these results measuring the number of general interest articles participants were willing to read and participants’ memory for pictures of celebrities. Experiment 4 replicated the results comparing happiness with sadness and suggested that the effect of the prime’s adoption was automatic. Overall, the findings supported an interactive model by which action concepts and positive affect produce the same increases in active behavior as inaction concepts and negative affect. PMID:21859209
In Drosophila, dominant-negative mutations in the beta2 and beta6 proteasome catalytic subunit genes have been identified as dominant temperature-sensitive (DTS) mutations. At restrictive temperature, beta2 and beta6 DTS mutations confer lethality at the pupal stage. I investigate here the role of proteasome activity in regulating cell fate decisions in the sense organ lineage at the early pupal stage. Temperature-shift experiments in beta2 and beta6 DTS mutant pupae occasionally resulted in external sense organs with two sockets and no shaft. This double-socket phenotype was strongly enhanced in conditions in which Notch signaling was up-regulated. Furthermore, conditional overexpression of the beta6 dominant-negative mutant subunit led to shaft-to-socket and to neuron-to-sheath cell fate transformations, which are both usually associated with increased Notch signaling activity. Finally, expression of the beta6 dominant-negative mutant subunit led to the stabilization of an ectopically expressed nuclear form of Notch in imaginal wing discs. This study demonstrates that mutations affecting two distinct proteasome catalytic subunits affect two alternative cell fate decisions and enhance Notch signaling activity in the sense organ lineage. These findings raise the possibility that the proteasome targets an active form of the Notch receptor for degradation in Drosophila.
Pereira, Cecília M S; Novais, Sara C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Amorim, Mónica J B
The main mode of action of organophosphate insecticides is to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which causes neuromuscular paralysis leading ultimately to death. The collembolan Folsomia candida is an important and standard test species in ecotoxicology, where effects on avoidance behaviour are assessed. Being related to insects they represent potential targets of insecticides such as the organophosphate dimethoate. In the present study we exposed F. candida to dimethoate having 2 main aims: 1) to assess the ability of F. candida to avoid it, and 2) to assess its effect on the cholinergic synapses to explore the link. For the latter, several sub-steps were needed: a) to characterise the existing ChE types and b) assess ChE activity (via exposure in vitro and in vivo). No avoidance was observed within the tested concentration range (0-0.32-1-3.2-10-32 mg/kg), in fact an apparent "attraction" (more animals on the spiked side) was observed. As expected, there was a significant decrease of AChE activities (AChE being the main ChE type) with an increase of dimethoate dose (IC(50)=1.4 mg/kg). Further, post-exposure video records showed that organisms were still alive in the spiked soil but lacked the locomotion ability (immobilised). The AChE inhibition correlated positively with immobilisation. Hence, this observation also showed that the apparent "attraction" behaviour observed in the avoidance test is rather a direct effect of not being able to escape due to paralysis hence a false-negative avoidance. This can constitute a confounding factor in an avoidance behaviour test and consequent interpretation, which is not accounted for at present.
Steenhard, Nina R; Jungersen, Gregers; Kokotovic, Branko; Beshah, Ethiopia; Dawson, Harry D; Urban, Joseph F; Roepstorff, Allan; Thamsborg, Stig M
Since their first introduction more than a century ago, vaccines have become one of the most cost-effective tools to prevent and manage infectious diseases in human and animal populations. It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent challenge infection. Four groups of pigs were either (1) untreated (group C), (2) vaccinated against Mh 3 weeks after the start of the study (group V), (3) given a trickle infection with A. suum throughout the study (group A), or (4) given a trickle infection with A. suum and vaccinated against Mh (group AV). All pigs were subsequently inoculated with live Mh bacteria 4 weeks after the Mh vaccination and necropsied after another 4 weeks. All pigs in group V sero-converted 3 weeks after vaccination (100%), as opposed to only 33% of group AV pigs that were Mh-vaccinated and given A. suum. At the end of the study, only 78% of pigs in group AV had sero-converted. Pigs in group AV had a higher mean percentage of lung pathology and the variation was significantly higher in these pigs compared to pigs in group V. The pattern of gene expression in the lungs and draining lymph nodes indicated a local Th2-skewed response induced by A. suum. Our study indicated that A. suum significantly compromised the effect of Mh vaccination. The impact of reduced vaccine efficacy caused by a common gastrointestinal helminth emphasises the importance of parasite control. More focus should be put into this area of research to outline the practical consequences of this interaction, and to be able to predict, prevent and correct negative interactions.
Zanin, Laura; Tomasi, Nicola; Zamboni, Anita; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto
Despite the widespread use of urease inhibitors in agriculture, little information is available on their effect on nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation. Aim of this work was to study, at physiological and transcriptional level, the effects of N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) on urea nutrition in hydroponically grown maize plants. Presence of NBPT in the nutrient solution limited the capacity of plants to utilize urea as a N-source; this was shown by a decrease in urea uptake rate and (15)N accumulation. Noteworthy, these negative effects were evident only when plants were fed with urea, as NBPT did not alter (15)N accumulation in nitrate-fed plants. NBPT also impaired the growth of Arabidopsis plants when urea was used as N-source, while having no effect on plants grown with nitrate or ammonium. This response was related, at least in part, to a direct effect of NBPT on the high affinity urea transport system. Impact of NBPT on urea uptake was further evaluated using lines of Arabidopsis overexpressing ZmDUR3 and dur3-knockout; results suggest that not only transport but also urea assimilation could be compromised by the inhibitor. This hypothesis was reinforced by an over-accumulation of urea and a decrease in ammonium concentration in NBPT-treated plants. Furthermore, transcriptional analyses showed that in maize roots NBPT treatment severely impaired the expression of genes involved in the cytosolic pathway of ureic-N assimilation and ammonium transport. NBPT also limited the expression of a gene coding for a transcription factor highly induced by urea and possibly playing a crucial role in the regulation of its acquisition. This work provides evidence that NBPT can heavily interfere with urea nutrition in maize plants, limiting influx as well as the following assimilation pathway.
Zanin, Laura; Tomasi, Nicola; Zamboni, Anita; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto
Despite the widespread use of urease inhibitors in agriculture, little information is available on their effect on nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation. Aim of this work was to study, at physiological and transcriptional level, the effects of N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) on urea nutrition in hydroponically grown maize plants. Presence of NBPT in the nutrient solution limited the capacity of plants to utilize urea as a N-source; this was shown by a decrease in urea uptake rate and 15N accumulation. Noteworthy, these negative effects were evident only when plants were fed with urea, as NBPT did not alter 15N accumulation in nitrate-fed plants. NBPT also impaired the growth of Arabidopsis plants when urea was used as N-source, while having no effect on plants grown with nitrate or ammonium. This response was related, at least in part, to a direct effect of NBPT on the high affinity urea transport system. Impact of NBPT on urea uptake was further evaluated using lines of Arabidopsis overexpressing ZmDUR3 and dur3-knockout; results suggest that not only transport but also urea assimilation could be compromised by the inhibitor. This hypothesis was reinforced by an over-accumulation of urea and a decrease in ammonium concentration in NBPT-treated plants. Furthermore, transcriptional analyses showed that in maize roots NBPT treatment severely impaired the expression of genes involved in the cytosolic pathway of ureic-N assimilation and ammonium transport. NBPT also limited the expression of a gene coding for a transcription factor highly induced by urea and possibly playing a crucial role in the regulation of its acquisition. This work provides evidence that NBPT can heavily interfere with urea nutrition in maize plants, limiting influx as well as the following assimilation pathway. PMID:26635834
Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C
Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress.
Guillade, Andrea C; Folgarait, Patricia J
In southern South America, Ada vollenweideri Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a significant pest of several crops and forestry, also considered to reduce the carrying capacity of pastures. The most usual control method used in Latin America is the application of synthetic pesticides, mainly chlorpyrifos and fipronil. However, no studies have assessed the effects of these agrochemicals on natural enemies of ants. We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of these pesticides on leaf-cutter ants' control and to test their effect on phorid fly parasitoids. Chlorpyrifos failed to exert complete control over ant colonies in the field and was gravely detrimental to specific parasitoids, reducing their percentage of parasitism, pupal survivorship, and adult longevity. Fipronil, however, exerted complete control over the treated colonies. Laboratory tests using both pesticides, either on ants from foraging trails or on pupariae, showed that chlorpyrifos and fipronil decreased larval and pupal survivorship, as well as adult longevity of parasitoids, in comparison to controls. In conclusion, these pesticides will likely affect parasitoids with regard to their reproductive capacity, leading to the decreased levels of natural parasitism observed in the field after treatments. We discuss why neither pesticide should be taken into account for integrated pest management programs.
Besada, Cristina; Gil, Rebeca; Bonet, Luis; Quiñones, Ana; Intrigliolo, Diego; Salvador, Alejandra
In recent years many hectares planted with persimmon trees in E Spain have been diagnosed with chloride toxicity. An effect of this abiotic stress on fruit quality has been reported in different crops. However, the impact of chloride stress on persimmon fruit quality is unknown. The harvest and postharvest quality of persimmons harvested from trees that manifest different intensities of chloride toxicity foliar symptoms was evaluated herein. Our results revealed that fruits from trees under chloride stress conditions underwent chloride accumulation in the calyx, which was more marked the greater the salt stress intensity trees were exposed to. Increased chloride concentrations in the calyx stimulated ethylene production in this tissue. In the fruits affected by slight and moderate chloride stress, calyx ethylene production accelerated the maturity process, as reflected by increased fruit colour and diminished fruit firmness. In the fruits under severe chloride stress, the high ethylene levels in the calyx triggered autocatalytic ethylene production in other fruit tissues, which led fruit maturity to drastically advance. In these fruits effectiveness of CO2 deastringency treatment was not complete and fruit softening enhanced during the postharvest period. Moreover, chloride stress conditions had a marked effect on reducing fruit weight, even in slightly stressed trees.
Poulios, Stylianos; Vlachonasios, Konstantinos E
GENERAL CONTROL NON-REPRESSIBLE 5 (GCN5) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and the catalytic subunit of several multicomponent HAT complexes that acetylate lysine residues of histone H3. Mutants in AtGCN5 display pleiotropic developmental defects including aberrant meristem function. Shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintenance is regulated by CLAVATA1 (CLV1), a receptor kinase that controls the size of the shoot and floral meristems. Upon activation through CLV3 binding, CLV1 signals to the transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS), restricting WUS expression and thus the meristem size. We hypothesized that GCN5 and CLV1 act together to affect SAM function. Using genetic and molecular approaches, we generated and characterized clv gcn5 mutants. Surprisingly, the clv1-1 gcn5-1 double mutant exhibited constitutive ethylene responses, suggesting that GCN5 and CLV signaling act synergistically to inhibit ethylene responses in Arabidopsis. This genetic and molecular interaction was mediated by ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/ EIN3-LIKE1 (EIN3/EIL1) transcription factors. Our data suggest that signals from the CLV transduction pathway reach the GCN5-containing complexes in the nucleus and alter the histone acetylation status of ethylene-responsive genes, thus translating the CLV information to transcriptional activity and uncovering a link between histone acetylation and SAM maintenance in the complex mode of ethylene signaling.
Scheggi, S; Pelliccia, T; Ferrari, A; De Montis, M G; Gambarana, C
Anhedonia is a relevant symptom in depression and schizophrenia. Chronic stress exposure induces in rats escape deficit, disrupts the dopaminergic response to palatable food and the competence to acquire sucrose self-administration (SA), thus configuring a possible model of motivational anhedonia. Repeated lithium administration reverts stress effects and brings back to control values the breaking point (BP) score, a measure of reward motivation. In this study, we tested on this model two antidepressants, imipramine and fluoxetine, and two antipsychotics, haloperidol and clozapine. The dopaminergic response to sucrose consumption was studied in non food-deprived rats in terms of dopamine D1 receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS). More specifically, we studied the modifications in dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32,000 (DARPP-32) phosphorylation pattern following sucrose consumption. Fluoxetine reverted the escape deficit and showed no effects on dopaminergic response and sucrose SA. Imipramine reverted sucrose SA and dopamine response deficit in half of the rats and the escape deficit in all animals. Haloperidol did not affect stress-induced deficits. Clozapine-treated rats recovered the dopaminergic response to sucrose consumption and the competence to acquire sucrose SA, although they still showed the escape deficit, thus confirming that motivation toward reward may be dissociated from that to punishment escape. These results indicate that imipramine or fluoxetine are not endowed with a rapid onset antianhedonic effect. On the other hand, clozapine treatment showed a motivational antianhedonic activity similar to that observed after lithium treatment.
Farrow, John M.; Hudson, L. Lynn; Wells, Greg; Coleman, James P.
ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that is ubiquitous in the environment, and it is an opportunistic pathogen that can infect a variety of hosts, including humans. During the process of infection, P. aeruginosa coordinates the expression of numerous virulence factors through the production of multiple cell-to-cell signaling molecules. The production of these signaling molecules is linked through a regulatory network, with the signal N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone and its receptor LasR controlling the induction of a second acyl-homoserine lactone signal and the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). LasR-mediated control of PQS occurs partly by activating the transcription of pqsR, a gene that encodes the PQS receptor and is necessary for PQS production. We show that LasR interacts with a single binding site in the pqsR promoter region and that it does not influence the transcription of the divergently transcribed gene, nadA. Using DNA affinity chromatography, we identified additional proteins that interact with the pqsR-nadA intergenic region. These include the H-NS family members MvaT and MvaU, and CysB, a transcriptional regulator that controls sulfur uptake and cysteine biosynthesis. We show that CysB interacts with the pqsR promoter and that CysB represses pqsR transcription and PQS production. Additionally, we provide evidence that CysB can interfere with the activation of pqsR transcription by LasR. However, as seen with other CysB-regulated genes, pqsR expression was not differentially regulated in response to cysteine levels. These findings demonstrate a novel role for CysB in influencing cell-to-cell signal production by P. aeruginosa. IMPORTANCE The production of PQS and other 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolone (HAQs) compounds is a key component of the P. aeruginosa cell-to-cell signaling network, impacts multiple physiological functions, and is required for virulence. PqsR directly regulates the genes necessary for HAQ production
Novensà, Laura; Novella, Susana; Medina, Pascual; Segarra, Gloria; Castillo, Nadia; Heras, Magda; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Dantas, Ana Paula
Aims Aging is among the major causes for the lack of cardiovascular protection by estrogen (E2) during postmenopause. Our study aims to determine the mechanisms whereby aging changes E2 effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAM). Methods and Results Although we found no differences on NO production in females SAM prone (SAMP, aged) compared to SAM resistant (SAMR, young), by either DAF-2 fluorescence or plasmatic nitrite/nitrate (NO2/NO3), in both cases, E2 treatment increased NO production in SAMR but had no effect in SAMP. Those results are in agreement with changes of eNOS protein and gene expression. E2 up-regulated eNOS expression in SAMR but not in SAMP. E2 is also known to increase NO by decreasing its catabolism by superoxide anion (O2-). Interestingly, E2 treatment decreased O2− production in young females, while increased O2− in aged ones. Furthermore, we observed that aging changed expression ratio of estrogen receptors (ERβ/ERα) and levels of DNA methylation. Increased ratio ERβ/ERα in aged females is associated to a lack of estrogen modulation of NO production and with a reversal in its antioxidant effect to a pro-oxidant profile. Conclusions Together, our data suggest that aging has detrimental effects on E2-mediated benefits on NO bioavailability, partially by affecting the ability of E2 to induce up regulation of eNOS and decrease of O2−. These modifications may be associated to aging-mediated modifications on global DNA methylation status, but not to a specific methylation at 5′flanking region of ERα gene. PMID:21966501
Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Akutagawa, Maiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Ono, Yutaka
Background Several studies have shown that total depressive symptom scores in the general population approximate an exponential pattern, except for the lower end of the distribution. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) consists of 20 items, each of which may take on four scores: “rarely,” “some,” “occasionally,” and “most of the time.” Recently, we reported that the item responses for 16 negative affect items commonly exhibit exponential patterns, except for the level of “rarely,” leading us to hypothesize that the item responses at the level of “rarely” may be related to the non-exponential pattern typical of the lower end of the distribution. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated how the item responses contribute to the distribution of the sum of the item scores. Methods Data collected from 21,040 subjects who had completed the CES-D questionnaire as part of a Japanese national survey were analyzed. To assess the item responses of negative affect items, we used a parameter r, which denotes the ratio of “rarely” to “some” in each item response. The distributions of the sum of negative affect items in various combinations were analyzed using log-normal scales and curve fitting. Results The sum of the item scores approximated an exponential pattern regardless of the combination of items, whereas, at the lower end of the distributions, there was a clear divergence between the actual data and the predicted exponential pattern. At the lower end of the distributions, the sum of the item scores with high values of r exhibited higher scores compared to those predicted from the exponential pattern, whereas the sum of the item scores with low values of r exhibited lower scores compared to those predicted. Conclusions The distributional pattern of the sum of the item scores could be predicted from the item responses of such items. PMID:27806132
Moser, Jason S; Hajcak, Greg; Simons, Robert F; Foa, Edna B
Considerable evidence indicates a prominent role for trauma-related cognitions in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The present study utilized regression analysis to examine the unique relationships between various trauma-related cognitions and PTSD symptoms after controlling for gender and measures of general affective distress in a large sample of trauma-exposed college students. In terms of trauma-related cognitions, only negative cognitions about the self were related to PTSD symptom severity. Gender and anxiety symptoms were also related to PTSD symptom severity. Theoretical implications of the results are discussed.
Stawski, Robert S; Mogle, Jacqueline A; Sliwinski, Martin J
This study examined individual differences in exposure to daily stressors and self-reported changes in memory among older adults. A sample of 87 older adults completed measures of daily stressful experiences, negative affect (NA), cognitive interference (CI), and rated their memory compared to six months ago. Results indicated that more frequent exposure to daily stressors was associated with rating one's memory to be worse compared to six months prior. Furthermore, CI, but not NA partially mediated this association. The findings highlight CI as a psychological pathway for understanding the links between daily stress and perceptions of memory and cognition in old age.
Carmack, Chakema C; Lewis, Rhonda K
Alcohol use and abuse are a problem on college campuses. Religious behaviors (religious attendance, prayer, and importance) have been shown to be a protective factor against alcohol use among college students. This study examined the role religious behaviors and positive and negative affect had on drinking (alcohol use and alcohol to intoxication). College students (765) completed an online survey. The results showed that college students who attended religious services were less likely to use alcohol than those who did not attend religious services. The results have important implications for college administrators and policy makers. Limitations and future research will be discussed.
... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Privacy Act (PA) appeals. 701.109 Section 701.109 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.109 Privacy Act (PA) appeals....
... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Privacy Act (PA) appeals. 701.109 Section 701.109 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.109 Privacy Act (PA) appeals....
Day, Ryan D; McCauley, Robert D; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Semmens, Jayson M
Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8-12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa(2) · s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages.
Day, Ryan D.; McCauley, Robert D.; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P.; Semmens, Jayson M.
Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8–12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa2·s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages. PMID:26947006
Walker, David D; van Jaarsveld, Danielle D; Skarlicki, Daniel P
Incivility between customers and employees is common in many service organizations. These encounters can have negative outcomes for employees, customers, and the organization. To date, researchers have tended to study incivility as an aggregated and accumulated phenomenon (entity perspective). In the present study, we examined incivility as it occurs during a specific service encounter (event perspective) alongside the entity perspective. Using a mixed-method multilevel field study of customer service interactions, we show that individual customer incivility encounters (i.e., events) trigger employee incivility as a function of the employee's overall accumulated impression of the (in)civility in his or her customer interactions, such that the effects are more pronounced among employees who generally perceive their customer interactions to be more versus less civil. We also find that these interactive effects occur only among employees who are lower (vs. higher) in negative affectivity. Our results show that, in order to expand the understanding of customer incivility, it is important to study the incivility encounter, the social context in which negative customer interactions occur, and individual differences.
Mercante, Virginia; Duarte, Cecilia M.; Sánchez, Cintia M.; Zalguizuri, Andrés; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo; Lepek, Viviana C.
Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 has a functional type III secretion system (T3SS) that is involved in the determination of nodulation competitiveness on Lotus. The M. loti T3SS cluster contains gene y4yS (mlr8765) that codes for a protein of unknown function (Y4yS). A mutation in the y4yS gene favors the M. loti symbiotic competitive ability on Lotus tenuis cv. Esmeralda and affects negatively the secretion of proteins through T3SS. Here we localize Y4yS in the bacterial membrane using a translational reporter peptide fusion. In silico analysis indicated that this protein presents a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, a signal peptide and a canonical lipobox LGCC in the N-terminal sequence. These features that are shared with proteins required for the formation of the secretin complex in type IV secretion systems and in the Tad system, together with its localization, suggest that the y4yS-encoded protein is required for the formation of the M. loti T3SS secretin (RhcC2) complex. Remarkably, analysis of RhcC2 in the wild-type and M. loti y4yS mutant strains indicated that the absence of Y4yS affects negatively the accumulation of normal levels of RhcC2 in the membrane. PMID:25688250
Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S
Adolescent solitary drinking may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior, with important implications for understanding risk for alcohol-use disorders later in life. Within a self-medication framework, we hypothesized that solitary alcohol use would be associated with drinking in response to negative affect and that such a pattern of drinking would predict alcohol problems in young adulthood. We tested these predictions in a longitudinal study in which we examined whether solitary drinking in adolescence (ages 12-18) predicted alcohol-use disorders in young adulthood (age 25) in 466 alcohol-using teens recruited from clinical programs and 243 alcohol-using teens recruited from the community. Findings showed that solitary drinking was associated with drinking in response to negative affect during adolescence and predicted alcohol problems in young adulthood. Results indicate that drinking alone is an important type of alcohol-use behavior that increases risk for the escalation of alcohol use and the development of alcohol problems.
Mercante, Virginia; Duarte, Cecilia M; Sánchez, Cintia M; Zalguizuri, Andrés; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo; Lepek, Viviana C
Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 has a functional type III secretion system (T3SS) that is involved in the determination of nodulation competitiveness on Lotus. The M. loti T3SS cluster contains gene y4yS (mlr8765) that codes for a protein of unknown function (Y4yS). A mutation in the y4yS gene favors the M. loti symbiotic competitive ability on Lotus tenuis cv. Esmeralda and affects negatively the secretion of proteins through T3SS. Here we localize Y4yS in the bacterial membrane using a translational reporter peptide fusion. In silico analysis indicated that this protein presents a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, a signal peptide and a canonical lipobox LGCC in the N-terminal sequence. These features that are shared with proteins required for the formation of the secretin complex in type IV secretion systems and in the Tad system, together with its localization, suggest that the y4yS-encoded protein is required for the formation of the M. loti T3SS secretin (RhcC2) complex. Remarkably, analysis of RhcC2 in the wild-type and M. loti y4yS mutant strains indicated that the absence of Y4yS affects negatively the accumulation of normal levels of RhcC2 in the membrane.
Capa, Rémi L; Audiffren, Michel
We tested whether the effect of achievement motivation on effort is modulated by two possible factors of the motivational intensity theory (Wright and Kirby, 2001): perceived difficulty and maximally justified effort. Approach-driven (N=16) and avoidance-driven (N=16) participants were first instructed to perform a reaction time task to the best of their abilities. Next, the participants were instructed to consistently beat their performance standard established in the first condition. Approach-driven participants showed a stronger decrease of midfrequency band of heart rate variability, which was used as an index of mental effort, than avoidance-driven participants in the second instruction condition. Moreover, avoidance-driven participants showed a higher corrugator supercilii reactivity, which was used as an index of negative affects, than approach-driven participants in the second instruction condition. No difference of perceived difficulty between groups was observed. Results suggested that avoidance-driven participants developed negative affects in the second instruction condition decreasing the maximally justified effort and their level of engagement.
Mellery, Julie; Geay, Florian; Tocher, Douglas R.; Kestemont, Patrick; Debier, Cathy; Rollin, Xavier; Larondelle, Yvan
Aquaculture is meant to provide fish rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). This objective must be reached despite (1) the necessity to replace the finite and limited fish oil in feed production and (2) the increased temperature of the supply water induced by the global warming. The objective of the present paper was to determine to what extent increased water temperature influences the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-derived diet. Fish were fed two diets formulated with fish oil (FO) or linseed oil (LO) as only added lipid source at the optimal water temperature of 15°C or at the increased water temperature of 19°C for 60 days. We observed that a temperature increase close to the upper limit of the species temperature tolerance range negatively affected the feed efficiency of rainbow trout fed LO despite a higher feed intake. The negative impact of increased water temperature on fatty acid bioconversion capacity appeared also to be quite clear considering the reduced expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 in liver and intestine and the reduced Δ6 desaturase enzymatic activity in intestinal microsomes. The present results also highlighted a negative impact of increased temperature on the apparent in vivo enzymatic activity of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases of fish fed LO. Interestingly, this last parameter appeared less affected than those mentioned above. This study highlights that the increased temperature that rainbow trout may face due to global warming could reduce their fatty acid bioconversion capacity. The unavoidable replacement of finite fish oil by more sustainable, readily available and economically viable alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds should take this undeniable environmental issue on aquaculture productivity into account. PMID:27736913
Grippo, Angela J.; Wu, Kevin D.; Hassan, Iman; Carter, C. Sue
Recent evidence suggests substantial overlap between mood and anxiety disorders, both in clinical presentation and associated features. A theoretical framework to account for this overlap focuses on negative affectivity, defined as the disposition to experience negative emotional states, including fear, sadness and guilt. This model has been successful in explaining the co-occurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders in humans. As a next step, development of an animal model focused on both depression- and anxiety-relevant behaviors may advance understanding of depression-anxiety symptom overlap, relations of these disorders with associated medical conditions and responses to treatment. The current study was designed to investigate inducible and quantifiable depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Adult, female prairie voles were exposed to 4 weeks of social pairing (control) or isolation, an established stressor for socially monogamous mammals (including humans). Operational measures of depression (sucrose intake and behaviors in the forced swim test), anxiety (behaviors in the elevated plus maze) and aggression (responses to an unrelated prairie vole pup) were investigated. Social isolation induced a progressive decline in sucrose intake and increased immobility time during the forced swim test. Social isolation also decreased the amount of time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and increased pup-directed attack behavior. The current findings suggest that isolation induces behaviors reflecting elevated negative affect. These results may provide a foundation for creating a rodent model to examine the mechanisms underlying comorbid mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:17935206
Linshiz, Gregory; Stawski, Nina; Poust, Sean; Bi, Changhao; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J
Labor-intensive multistep biological tasks, such as the construction and cloning of DNA molecules, are prime candidates for laboratory automation. Flexible and biology-friendly operation of robotic equipment is key to its successful integration in biological laboratories, and the efforts required to operate a robot must be much smaller than the alternative manual lab work. To achieve these goals, a simple high-level biology-friendly robot programming language is needed. We have developed and experimentally validated such a language: Programming a Robot (PaR-PaR). The syntax and compiler for the language are based on computer science principles and a deep understanding of biological workflows. PaR-PaR allows researchers to use liquid-handling robots effectively, enabling experiments that would not have been considered previously. After minimal training, a biologist can independently write complicated protocols for a robot within an hour. Adoption of PaR-PaR as a standard cross-platform language would enable hand-written or software-generated robotic protocols to be shared across laboratories.
Linshiz, G; Stawski, N; Poust, S; Bi, CH; Keasling, JD; Hilson, NJ
Labor-intensive multistep biological tasks, such as the construction and cloning of DNA molecules, are prime candidates for laboratory automation. Flexible and biology-friendly operation of robotic equipment is key to its successful integration in biological laboratories, and the efforts required to operate a robot must be much smaller than the alternative manual lab work. To achieve these goals, a simple high-level biology-friendly robot programming language is needed. We have developed and experimentally validated such a language: Programming a Robot (PaR-PaR). The syntax and compiler for the language are based on computer science principles and a deep understanding of biological workflows. PaR-PaR allows researchers to use liquid-handling robots effectively, enabling experiments that would not have been considered previously. After minimal training, a biologist can independently write complicated protocols for a robot within an hour. Adoption of PaR-PaR as a standard cross-platform language would enable hand-written or software-generated robotic protocols to be shared across laboratories.
González, R; Kumaresan, A; Bergqvist, A S; Sjunnesson, Y C B
Successful fertilization is essential for reproduction and might be negatively affected by stressful events, which could alter the environment where fertilization occurs. The aim of the study was to determine whether an altered hormonal profile in blood plasma caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration could affect in vitro fertilization in the pig model. In experiment 1, gametes were exposed for 24 hours to plasma from ACTH-treated, non-ACTH-treated sows, or medium with BSA. Fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst rates were lower in the ACTH group compared with the no ACTH or BSA control groups (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, the exposure of matured oocytes for 1 hour before fertilization to the same treatments did not have an impact on their ability to undergo fertilization or on embryo development. In experiment 3, spermatozoa were incubated for 0, 1, 4, and 24 hours under the same conditions. There was no effect of treatment on sperm viability. The percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa remained higher in the ACTH group compared with the non-ACTH-treated group through the incubation period (P < 0.001). Protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP) patterns were also affected by treatment (P < 0.001). The presence of an atypical PTP pattern was higher in the ACTH group at all the analyzed time points compared with the BSA and no ACTH groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this altered environment may not affect oocyte competence but might affect the sperm fertilizing ability through alterations in the acrosome reaction and correct sequence of PTP patterns.
Intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide negatively affects feed intake, chewing, and clinical variables, but some effects are stronger in cows experiencing subacute rumen acidosis.