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Sample records for affect pain perception

  1. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Rada, D; Seco, J; Echevarría, E; Tijero, B; Abecia, L C; Gómez-Esteban, J C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire for quality of life) was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index). However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12) in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale). Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain.

  2. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rada, D.; Seco, J.; Tijero, B.; Abecia, L. C.; Gómez-Esteban, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire for quality of life) was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index). However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12) in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale). Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain. PMID:27239367

  3. Subjective pain perception mediated by alpha rhythms.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weiwei; Babiloni, Claudio; Mao, Yanhui; Hu, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Suppression of spontaneous alpha oscillatory activities, interpreted as cortical excitability, was observed in response to both transient and tonic painful stimuli. The changes of alpha rhythms induced by pain could be modulated by painful sensory inputs, experimental tasks, and top-down cognitive regulations such as attention. The temporal and spatial characteristics, as well as neural functions of pain induced alpha responses, depend much on how these factors contribute to the observed alpha event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS). How sensory-, task-, and cognitive-related changes of alpha oscillatory activities interact in pain perception process is reviewed in the current study, and the following conclusions are made: (1) the functional inhibition hypothesis that has been proposed in auditory and visual modalities could be applied also in pain modality; (2) the neural functions of pain induced alpha ERD/ERS were highly dependent on the cortical regions where it is observed, e.g., somatosensory cortex alpha ERD/ERS in pain perception for painful stimulus processing; (3) the attention modulation of pain perception, i.e., influences on the sensory and affective dimensions of pain experience, could be mediated by changes of alpha rhythms. Finally, we propose a model regarding the determinants of pain related alpha oscillatory activity, i.e., sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational, and cognitive-modulative aspects of pain experience, would affect and determine pain related alpha oscillatory activities in an integrated way within the distributed alpha system. PMID:26026894

  4. How Does Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Pain Neuromatrix Affect Brain Excitability and Pain Perception? A Randomised, Double-Blind, Sham-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaseghi, Bita; Zoghi, Maryam; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Background Integration of information between multiple cortical regions of the pain neuromatrix is thought to underpin pain modulation. Although altered processing in the primary motor (M1) and sensory (S1) cortices is implicated in separate studies, the simultaneous changes in and the relationship between these regions are unknown yet. The primary aim was to assess the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) over superficial regions of the pain neuromatrix on M1 and S1 excitability. The secondary aim was to investigate how M1 and S1 excitability changes affect sensory (STh) and pain thresholds (PTh). Methods Twelve healthy participants received 20 min a-tDCS under five different conditions including a-tDCS of M1, a-tDCS of S1, a-tDCS of DLPFC, sham a-tDCS, and no-tDCS. Excitability of dominant M1 and S1 were measured before, immediately, and 30 minutes after intervention respectively. Moreover, STh and PTh to peripheral electrical and mechanical stimulation were evaluated. All outcome measures were assessed at three time-points of measurement by a blind rater. Results A-tDCS of M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) significantly increased brain excitability in M1 (p < 0.05) for at least 30 min. Following application of a-tDCS over the S1, the amplitude of the N20-P25 component of SEPs increased immediately after the stimulation (p < 0.05), whilst M1 stimulation decreased it. Compared to baseline values, significant STh and PTh increase was observed after a-tDCS of all three stimulated areas. Except in M1 stimulation, there was significant PTh difference between a-tDCS and sham tDCS. Conclusion a-tDCS of M1 is the best spots to enhance brain excitability than a-tDCS of S1 and DLPFC. Surprisingly, a-tDCS of M1 and S1 has diverse effects on S1 and M1 excitability. A-tDCS of M1, S1, and DLPFC increased STh and PTh levels. Given the placebo effects of a-tDCS of M1 in pain perception, our results should be interpreted with caution

  5. Pain Perception in Buddhism Perspective.

    PubMed

    Waikakul, Waraporn; Waikakul, Saranatra

    2016-08-01

    Dhamma, which Lord Buddha has presented to people after his enlightenment, analyzes every phenomenon and objects into their ultimate elements. The explanation of sensory system is also found in a part of Dhamma named Abhidhammapitaka, the Book of the Higher Doctrine in Buddhism. To find out the relationship between explanation of pain in the present neuroscience and the explanation of pain in Abhidhamma, the study was carried out by the use of a comprehensive review. The comparisons were in terms of peripheral stimulation, signal transmission, modulation, perception, suffering, determination and decision making for the responding to pain. We found that details of the explanation on pain mechanism and perception in Abhidhamma could associate well with our present scientific knowledge. Furthermore, more refinement information about the process and its function in particular aspects of pain perception were provided in Abhidhammapitaka. PMID:26112611

  6. Expanding hypnotic pain management to the affective dimension of pain.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jeffrey B

    2009-01-01

    Experimental (Price & Barber, 1987) and neuroimaging studies (Rainville, Carrier, Hofbauer, Bushnell, & Duncan, 1999), suggest that it is the affective dimension of pain as processed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) that is most associated with suffering and autonomic arousal. Conversely, pain related emotions (Rainville, Bao, & Chretien, 2005) and expectations (Koyama, McHaffie, Laurenti, & Coghill, 2005) modulate pain perception and associated pain affect. This paper presents both the scientific background and the general clinical steps involved in a practical hypnotic approach that uses emotion specific wording and the elicitation of prior positive experience to intervene at both the affective and sensory dimensions of pain. Such an approach enables patients to therapeutically use hypnosis to reduce their subjective distress even if they are not able to greatly reduce the sensation of pain. The utilization of positive state dependent learning (Rossi, 1986), following the advice of Milton Erickson to "discover their patterns of happiness" (Parsons-Fein, 2005) is emphasized.

  7. The neurobiology of pain perception in normal and persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Bradford W; Shih, Elim; Zolton, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a significant national burden in terms of patient suffering, expenditure and lost productivity. Understanding pain is fundamental to improving evaluation, treatment and innovation in the management of acute and persistent pain syndromes. Pain perception begins in the periphery, and then ascends in several tracts, relaying at different levels. Pain signals arrive in the thalamus and midbrain structures which form the pain neuromatrix, a constantly shifting set of networks and connections that determine conscious perception. Several cortical regions become active simultaneously during pain perception; activity in the cortical pain matrix evolves over time to produce a complex pain perception network. Dysfunction at any level has the potential to produce unregulated, persistent pain. PMID:26088531

  8. [Hypnosis and pain perception].

    PubMed

    Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Boveroux, P; Boly, M; Schnakers, C; Bruno, M A; Kirsch, M; Demertzi, A; Lamy, M; Maquet, P; Laureys, S; Faymonville, M E

    2008-01-01

    Improvement in functional neuroimaging allows researchers to disentangle the brain mechanisms involved in the pain modulation encountered during hypnosis. It has been shown that the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices are important in the modulation of incoming sensory and noxious input. Moreover, clinical studies in certain types of surgery (eg thyroidectomy, mastectomy and plastic surgery) have demonstrated that hypnosis may avoid general anesthesia. PMID:18669215

  9. The influence of experimental pain intensity in the local and referred pain area on somatosensory perception in the area of referred pain.

    PubMed

    Kosek, Eva; Hansson, Per

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of experimental pain intensity in the local and referred pain area on somatosensory perception thresholds in the area of referred pain. Pain was induced by intramuscular electrical stimulation of the left infraspinatus muscle in 12 healthy individuals. The stimulation corresponded to the local pain threshold ("mild local pain"), the referred pain threshold ("mild referred pain"), and a pain intensity corresponding to 2 on a 10-point category scale in the referred pain area ("moderate referred pain"). Quantitative sensory testing was performed to assess perception thresholds in the referred pain area and the homologous contralateral area before and during stimulation. Perception thresholds to light touch (LTTs), pressure pain (PPTs), and to innocuous as well as noxious warmth and cold were assessed. During stimulation the LTTs increased in the referred pain area compared to baseline, uninfluenced by pain intensity. Perception thresholds to innocuous cold and warmth increased bilaterally during the stimulation, without relation to pain intensity. Heat pain thresholds were not affected. Compared to baseline, PPTs increased bilaterally during stimulation corresponding to "mild local pain" and "mild referred pain", respectively, and a further increase was seen during "moderate referred pain". The decreased sensitivity to innocuous cold, warmth, and pressure pain was bilateral, indicating activation of endogenous net inhibitory mechanisms interacting bilaterally. We found no influence of pain intensity on somatosensory thresholds restricted to the referred pain area and light touch was the only affected modality in the referred pain area only.

  10. Decreased Pain Perception by Unconscious Emotional Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Peláez, Irene; Martínez-Iñigo, David; Barjola, Paloma; Cardoso, Susana; Mercado, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Pain perception arises from a complex interaction between a nociceptive stimulus and different emotional and cognitive factors, which appear to be mediated by both automatic and controlled systems. Previous evidence has shown that whereas conscious processing of unpleasant stimuli enhances pain perception, emotional influences on pain under unaware conditions are much less known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures through an emotional masking paradigm. Two kinds of both somatosensory (painful and non-painful) and emotional stimulation (negative and neutral pictures) were employed. Fifty pain-free participants were asked to rate the perception of pain they were feeling in response to laser-induced somatosensory stimuli as faster as they can. Data from pain intensity and reaction times were measured. Statistical analyses revealed a significant effect for the interaction between pain and emotional stimulation, but surprisingly this relationship was opposite to expected. In particular, lower pain intensity scores and longer reaction times were found in response to negative images being strengthened this effect for painful stimulation. Present findings suggest a clear pain perception modulation by unconscious emotional contexts. Attentional capture mechanisms triggered by unaware negative stimulation could explain this phenomenon leading to a withdrawal of processing resources from pain.

  11. Fetal pain perception and pain management.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Marc; Jani, Jacques; De Buck, Frederik; Deprest, J

    2006-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of current science related to the concept of fetal pain. We have answered three important questions: (1) does fetal pain exist? (2) does management of fetal pain benefit the unborn child? and (3) which techniques are available to provide good fetal analgesia?

  12. Pain perception and hypnosis: findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Caltagirone, Saverio Simone; Savoja, Valeria; Piacentino, Daria; Callovini, Gemma; Manfredi, Giovanni; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Hypnosis modulates pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, the authors aimed to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring in hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Different changes in brain functionality occurred throughout all components of the pain network and other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex appears to be central in modulating pain circuitry activity under hypnosis. Most studies also showed that the neural functions of the prefrontal, insular, and somatosensory cortices are consistently modified during hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies support the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions. PMID:25719519

  13. Personality Correlates of Pain Perception and Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Penny R.; Ray, A. Bartow

    1982-01-01

    Explored personality correlates of pain perception and tolerance in a nonmedical sample and setting. Results showed no significant correlations with personality measures and cold-pressor scores, but a significant relationship between pain tolerance and cognitive focus; those who focused on the experimental situation had much shorter tolerance…

  14. Are physicians' ratings of pain affected by patients' physical attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Hadjistavropoulos, H D; Ross, M A; von Baeyer, C L

    1990-01-01

    The degree to which physical attractiveness and nonverbal expressions of pain influence physicians' perceptions of pain was investigated. Photographs of eight female university students were represented in four experimental conditions created by the manipulation of cosmetics, hairstyles, and facial expressions: (a) attractive-no pain, (b) attractive-pain, (c) unattractive-no pain, and (d) unattractive-pain. Each photograph was accompanied by a brief description of the patient's pain problem that was standard across conditions. Medical residents (N = 60) viewed the photographs and rated each patient's pain, distress, negative affective experience, health, personality, blame for the situation, and the physician's own solicitude for the patient. The results showed that physicians' ratings of pain were influenced both by attractiveness of patients and by nonverbal expressions of pain. Unattractive patients, and patients who were expressing pain, were perceived as experiencing more pain, distress, and negative affective experiences than attractive patients and patients who were not expressing pain. Unattractive patients also received higher ratings of solicitude on the doctor's part and lower ratings of health than attractive patients. Physician's assessments of pain appear to be influenced by the physical attractiveness of the patient. PMID:2367884

  15. Are physicians' ratings of pain affected by patients' physical attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Hadjistavropoulos, H D; Ross, M A; von Baeyer, C L

    1990-01-01

    The degree to which physical attractiveness and nonverbal expressions of pain influence physicians' perceptions of pain was investigated. Photographs of eight female university students were represented in four experimental conditions created by the manipulation of cosmetics, hairstyles, and facial expressions: (a) attractive-no pain, (b) attractive-pain, (c) unattractive-no pain, and (d) unattractive-pain. Each photograph was accompanied by a brief description of the patient's pain problem that was standard across conditions. Medical residents (N = 60) viewed the photographs and rated each patient's pain, distress, negative affective experience, health, personality, blame for the situation, and the physician's own solicitude for the patient. The results showed that physicians' ratings of pain were influenced both by attractiveness of patients and by nonverbal expressions of pain. Unattractive patients, and patients who were expressing pain, were perceived as experiencing more pain, distress, and negative affective experiences than attractive patients and patients who were not expressing pain. Unattractive patients also received higher ratings of solicitude on the doctor's part and lower ratings of health than attractive patients. Physician's assessments of pain appear to be influenced by the physical attractiveness of the patient.

  16. Pain Catastrophising Affects Cortical Responses to Viewing Pain in Others

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Pain catastrophising is an exaggerated cognitive attitude implemented during pain or when thinking about pain. Catastrophising was previously associated with increased pain severity, emotional distress and disability in chronic pain patients, and is also a contributing factor in the development of neuropathic pain. To investigate the neural basis of how pain catastrophising affects pain observed in others, we acquired EEG data in groups of participants with high (High-Cat) or low (Low-Cat) pain catastrophising scores during viewing of pain scenes and graphically matched pictures not depicting imminent pain. The High-Cat group attributed greater pain to both pain and non-pain pictures. Source dipole analysis of event-related potentials during picture viewing revealed activations in the left (PHGL) and right (PHGR) paraphippocampal gyri, rostral anterior (rACC) and posterior cingulate (PCC) cortices. The late source activity (600–1100 ms) in PHGL and PCC was augmented in High-Cat, relative to Low-Cat, participants. Conversely, greater source activity was observed in the Low-Cat group during the mid-latency window (280–450 ms) in the rACC and PCC. Low-Cat subjects demonstrated a significantly stronger correlation between source activity in PCC and pain and arousal ratings in the long latency window, relative to high pain catastrophisers. Results suggest augmented activation of limbic cortex and higher order pain processing cortical regions during the late processing period in high pain catastrophisers viewing both types of pictures. This pattern of cortical activations is consistent with the distorted and magnified cognitive appraisal of pain threats in high pain catastrophisers. In contrast, high pain catastrophising individuals exhibit a diminished response during the mid-latency period when attentional and top-down resources are ascribed to observed pain. PMID:26186545

  17. Perception of experimental pain is reduced after provoked waking from rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Daya, Vivek G; Bentley, Alison J

    2010-06-01

    Patients with chronic pain often complain of pain when they wake at night, but the accuracy of their perception of the pain after waking at night is unknown. While cognitive functions are reduced for a short time after waking from sleep, a situation known as sleep inertia, it is unclear how sleep inertia may affect the perception of pain. We investigated the effects of sleep inertia on the perception of experimentally induced pain. Fourteen male volunteers were exposed to a randomized thermal heat stimulus of 43.1 degrees C 'hot' and 46.5 degrees C 'hurting' during provoked waking from Stage 2 sleep, slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Subjects rated their pain on awakening on a Visual Analogue Scale at 30 s after awakening and each minute thereafter for 5 min. We found no change in pain perception over the 5-min period irrespective of temperature used or sleep stage. However, perceived pain when awoken abruptly from REM sleep was significantly lower than the awake score for both the hot (P = 0.0069) and hurting (P = 0.0025) temperatures. Pain perception when woken from Stage 2 sleep or slow wave sleep was not significantly different from perception when awake. Our findings indicate that sleep inertia reduces pain perception when awoken abruptly from REM. This suggests that patients who wake up in pain either perceive accurately the pain they are experiencing, or at worst underestimate the level of pain if woken from REM sleep.

  18. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  19. Racial Bias in Perceptions of Others’ Pain

    PubMed Central

    Trawalter, Sophie; Hoffman, Kelly M.; Waytz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The present work provides evidence that people assume a priori that Blacks feel less pain than do Whites. It also demonstrates that this bias is rooted in perceptions of status and the privilege (or hardship) status confers, not race per se. Archival data from the National Football League injury reports reveal that, relative to injured White players, injured Black players are deemed more likely to play in a subsequent game, possibly because people assume they feel less pain. Experiments 1–4 show that White and Black Americans–including registered nurses and nursing students–assume that Black people feel less pain than do White people. Finally, Experiments 5 and 6 provide evidence that this bias is rooted in perceptions of status, not race per se. Taken together, these data have important implications for understanding race-related biases and healthcare disparities. PMID:23155390

  20. Racial bias in perceptions of others' pain.

    PubMed

    Trawalter, Sophie; Hoffman, Kelly M; Waytz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The present work provides evidence that people assume a priori that Blacks feel less pain than do Whites. It also demonstrates that this bias is rooted in perceptions of status and the privilege (or hardship) status confers, not race per se. Archival data from the National Football League injury reports reveal that, relative to injured White players, injured Black players are deemed more likely to play in a subsequent game, possibly because people assume they feel less pain. Experiments 1-4 show that White and Black Americans-including registered nurses and nursing students-assume that Black people feel less pain than do White people. Finally, Experiments 5 and 6 provide evidence that this bias is rooted in perceptions of status, not race per se. Taken together, these data have important implications for understanding race-related biases and healthcare disparities.

  1. Racial bias in perceptions of others' pain.

    PubMed

    Trawalter, Sophie; Hoffman, Kelly M; Waytz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The present work provides evidence that people assume a priori that Blacks feel less pain than do Whites. It also demonstrates that this bias is rooted in perceptions of status and the privilege (or hardship) status confers, not race per se. Archival data from the National Football League injury reports reveal that, relative to injured White players, injured Black players are deemed more likely to play in a subsequent game, possibly because people assume they feel less pain. Experiments 1-4 show that White and Black Americans-including registered nurses and nursing students-assume that Black people feel less pain than do White people. Finally, Experiments 5 and 6 provide evidence that this bias is rooted in perceptions of status, not race per se. Taken together, these data have important implications for understanding race-related biases and healthcare disparities. PMID:23155390

  2. Perception of pain during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Erdinç, Aslihan M Ertan; Dinçer, Banu

    2004-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the initial time at which pain occurs after insertion of two initial wires of different sizes, the duration of the pain, the areas affected within the mouth, the level of self-medication, the effect of this pain on daily life, and whether gender is important in the perception of pain. The study group consisted of 109 patients (52 boys, 57 girls) with a mean chronological age of 13.6 years for boys and 14.7 years for girls. Insertion of either a 0.014 or 0.016 inch wire was by random selection. Following insertion of the archwires, a questionnaire comprising a total of 49 questions was given to the patients. They described the time of initial pain in the first question, answered the next 24 questions as 'yes' or 'no', and used a visual analogue scale for the final 24 questions. No significant differences were found in terms of gender, in the perception period of initial pain as regards the areas affected within the mouth or the effect of pain on daily living when the 0.014 and 0.016 inch wire groups were compared at 6 hours, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. At 24 hours, which was found to be statistically significant, more pain relief was used in the 0.014 inch archwire group. The results show that in both groups, initial pain was perceived at 2 hours, peaked at 24 hours and had decreased by day 3.

  3. Vagus nerve stimulation modulates visceral pain-related affective memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Cao, Bing; Yan, Ni; Liu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Tung, Vivian Oi Vian; Li, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Within a biopsychosocial model of pain, pain is seen as a conscious experience modulated by mental, emotional and sensory mechanisms. Recently, using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD) model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) activation is critical for memory processing involved in long-term visceral affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli by contextual cue. Electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has become an established therapy for treatment-resistant epilepsy. VNS has also been shown to enhance memory performance in rats and humans. High-intensity VNS (400 μA) immediately following conditional training significantly increases the CRD-induced CPA scores, and enhanced the pain affective memory retention. In contrast, VNS (400 μA) had no effect on CPA induced by non-nociceptive aversive stimulus (U69,593). Low-intensity VNS (40 μA) had no effect on CRD-induced CPA. Electrophysiological recording showed that VNS (400 μA) had no effect on basal and CRD-induced ACC neuronal firing. Further, VNS did not alter CRD-induced visceral pain responses suggesting high intensity VNS facilitates visceral pain aversive memory independent of sensory discriminative aspects of visceral pain processing. The findings that vagus nerve stimulation facilities visceral pain-related affective memory underscore the importance of memory in visceral pain perception, and support the theory that postprandial factors may act on vagal afferents to modulate ongoing nature of visceral pain-induced affective disorder observed in the clinic, such as irritable bowel syndrome.

  4. Phase and Sex Effects in Pain Perception: A Critical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goolkasian, Paula

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the literature in pain perception to clarify the influence of sex and menstrual phase on the phenomenon of pain. The appropriateness of the measures of pain threshold, pain tolerance, discrimination accuracy, and of response bias to the study of pain are discussed. (Author)

  5. Effects of daily pain intensity, positive affect, and individual differences in pain acceptance on work goal interference and progress.

    PubMed

    Mun, Chung Jung; Karoly, Paul; Okun, Morris A

    2015-11-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of morning pain intensity and morning positive and negative affect on pain's interference with afternoon work goal pursuit and with evening work goal progress in a community sample of 132 adults who completed a 21-day diary. The moderating effects of pain acceptance and pain catastrophizing on the associations between morning pain intensity and afternoon work goal interference were also tested. Results revealed that the positive relationship between morning pain intensity and pain's interference with work goal pursuit was significantly moderated by pain acceptance, but not by pain catastrophizing. Both morning pain intensity and positive affect exerted significant indirect effects on evening work goal progress through the perception of pain's interference with work goal pursuit in the afternoon. Furthermore, the mediated effect of morning pain on evening work goal progress was significant when pain acceptance was at the grand mean and 1 SD below the grand mean, but not when pain acceptance was 1 SD above the grand mean. Thus, it appears that high pain acceptance significantly attenuates pain's capacity to disrupt work goal pursuit. Moreover, morning positive affect appears to operate as a protective factor. Additional interpretations and potential explanations for some inconsistent outcomes are discussed along with limitations, clinical implications, and suggestions for future studies.

  6. The Role of Positive Traits and Pain Catastrophizing in Pain Perception

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Anna

    2013-01-01

    A variety of biological, psychological, and social factors interact to influence pain. This article focuses on two distinct, but connected, psychological factors—positive personality traits and pain catastrophizing—and their link with pain perception in healthy and clinical populations. First, we review the protective link between positive personality traits, such as optimism, hope, and self-efficacy, and pain perception. Second, we provide evidence of the well-established relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain perception and other related outcomes. Third, we outline the inverse relationship between positive traits and pain catastrophizing, and offer a model that explains the inverse link between positive traits and pain perception through lower pain catastrophizing. Finally, we discuss clinical practice recommendations based on the aforementioned relationships. PMID:23512722

  7. The neurobiology of pain, affect and hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jeffrey B

    2004-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have used hypnotic suggestion to distinguish the brain structures most associated with the sensory and affective dimensions of pain. This paper reviews studies that delineate the overlapping brain circuits involved in the processing of pain and emotions, and their relationship to autonomic arousal. Also examined are the replicated findings of reliable changes in the activation of specific brain structures and the deactivation of others associated with the induction of hypnosis. These differ from those parts of the brain involved in response to hypnotic suggestions. It is proposed that the activation of a portion of the prefrontal cortex in response to both hypnotic suggestions for decreased pain and to positive emotional experience might indicate a more general underlying mechanism. Great potential exists for further research to clarify the relationships among individual differences in reactivity to pain, emotion, and stress, and the possible role of such differences in the development of chronic pain. PMID:15190725

  8. A Bayesian Perspective on Sensory and Cognitive Integration in Pain Perception and Placebo Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Anchisi, Davide; Zanon, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a component of any response to a treatment (effective or inert), but we still ignore why it exists. We propose that placebo analgesia is a facet of pain perception, others being the modulating effects of emotions, cognition and past experience, and we suggest that a computational understanding of pain may provide a unifying explanation of these phenomena. Here we show how Bayesian decision theory can account for such features and we describe a model of pain that we tested against experimental data. Our model not only agrees with placebo analgesia, but also predicts that learning can affect pain perception in other unexpected ways, which experimental evidence supports. Finally, the model can also reflect the strategies used by pain perception, showing that modulation by disparate factors is intrinsic to the pain process. PMID:25664586

  9. The cerebral signature for pain perception and its modulation.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Irene; Mantyh, Patrick W

    2007-08-01

    Our understanding of the neural correlates of pain perception in humans has increased significantly since the advent of neuroimaging. Relating neural activity changes to the varied pain experiences has led to an increased awareness of how factors (e.g., cognition, emotion, context, injury) can separately influence pain perception. Tying this body of knowledge in humans to work in animal models of pain provides an opportunity to determine common features that reliably contribute to pain perception and its modulation. One key system that underpins the ability to change pain intensity is the brainstem's descending modulatory network with its pro- and antinociceptive components. We discuss not only the latest data describing the cerebral signature of pain and its modulation in humans, but also suggest that the brainstem plays a pivotal role in gating the degree of nociceptive transmission so that the resultant pain experienced is appropriate for the particular situation of the individual. PMID:17678852

  10. The Relationship between Strategies of Coping and Perception of Pain in Three Chronic Pain Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Louis P.; Rehm, Lynn P.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perception of pain, personality, coping, and the reaction of family members in three chronic pain groups (sickle cell anemia, arthritis, and low back pain) (N=60). Analyses suggested that the three groups were not distinguishable in coping, personality, or in their experience of pain. (LLL)

  11. On the mutual effects of pain and emotion: facial pain expressions enhance pain perception and vice versa are perceived as more arousing when feeling pain.

    PubMed

    Reicherts, Philipp; Gerdes, Antje B M; Pauli, Paul; Wieser, Matthias J

    2013-06-01

    Perception of emotional stimuli alters the perception of pain. Although facial expressions are powerful emotional cues - the expression of pain especially plays a crucial role for the experience and communication of pain - research on their influence on pain perception is scarce. In addition, the opposite effect of pain on the processing of emotion has been elucidated even less. To further scrutinize mutual influences of emotion and pain, 22 participants were administered painful and nonpainful thermal stimuli while watching dynamic facial expressions depicting joy, fear, pain, and a neutral expression. As a control condition of low visual complexity, a central fixation cross was presented. Participants rated the intensity of the thermal stimuli and evaluated valence and arousal of the facial expressions. In addition, facial electromyography was recorded as an index of emotion and pain perception. Results show that faces per se, compared to the low-level control condition, decreased pain, suggesting a general attention modulation of pain by complex (social) stimuli. The facial response to painful stimulation revealed a significant correlation with pain intensity ratings. Most important, painful thermal stimuli increased the arousal of simultaneously presented pain expressions, and in turn, pain expressions resulted in higher pain ratings compared to all other facial expressions. These findings demonstrate that the modulation of pain and emotion is bidirectional with pain faces being mostly prone to having mutual influences, and support the view of interconnections between pain and emotion. Furthermore, the special relevance of pain faces for the processing of pain was demonstrated.

  12. Touch Perception Altered by Chronic Pain and by Opioid Blockade.

    PubMed

    Case, Laura K; Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L; Richards, Emily A; Olausson, Håkan; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Touch plays a significant role in human social behavior and social communication, and its rewarding nature has been suggested to involve opioids. Opioid blockade in monkeys leads to increased solicitation and receipt of grooming, suggesting heightened enjoyment of touch. We sought to study the role of endogenous opioids in perception of affective touch in healthy adults and in patients with fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition shown to involve reduced opioid receptor availability. The pleasantness of touch has been linked to the activation of C-tactile fibers, which respond maximally to slow gentle touch and correlate with ratings of pleasantness. We administered naloxone to patients and healthy controls to directly observe the consequences of µ-opioid blockade on the perceived pleasantness and intensity of touch. We found that at baseline chronic pain patients showed a blunted distinction between slow and fast brushing for both intensity and pleasantness, suggesting reduced C-tactile touch processing. In addition, we found a differential effect of opioid blockade on touch perception in healthy subjects and pain patients. In healthy individuals, opioid blockade showed a trend toward increased ratings of touch pleasantness, while in chronic pain patients it significantly decreased ratings of touch intensity. Further, in healthy individuals, naloxone-induced increase in touch pleasantness was associated with naloxone-induced decreased preference for slow touch, suggesting a possible effect of opioid levels on processing of C-tactile fiber input. These findings suggest a role for endogenous opioids in touch processing, and provide further evidence for altered opioid functioning in chronic pain patients. PMID:27022625

  13. Subliminal perception of others' physical pain and pleasure.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Patrizia Andrea; Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Acciarino, Adriano; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-08-01

    Studies indicate that explicit and implicit processing of affectively charged stimuli may be reflected in specific behavioral markers and physiological signatures. This study investigated whether the pleasantness ratings of a neutral target were affected by subliminal perception of pleasant and painful facial expressions. Participants were presented images depicting face of non-famous models being slapped (painful condition), caressed (pleasant condition) or touched (neutral condition) by the right hand of another individual. In particular, we combined the continuous flash suppression technique with the affective misattribution procedure (AMP) to explore subliminal empathic processing. Measures of pupil reactivity along with empathy traits were also collected. Results showed that participants rated the neutral target as less or more likeable congruently with the painful or pleasant facial expression presented, respectively. Pupil dilation was associated both with the implicit attitudes (AMP score) and with empathic concern. Thus, the results provide behavioral and physiological evidence that state-related empathic reactivity can occur at an entirely subliminal level and that it is linked to autonomic responses and empathic traits. PMID:25976517

  14. Illness perceptions, negative emotions, and pain in patients with noncardiac chest pain.

    PubMed

    Israel, Jared I; White, Kamila S; Gervino, Ernest V

    2015-03-01

    Illness-specific cognitions are associated with outcomes in numerous health conditions, however, little is known about their role in noncardiac chest pain (NCCP). NCCP is prevalent, impairing, and associated with elevated health care utilization. Our objective was to investigate the relations between illness perceptions, emotion, and pain in a sample of 196 adult patients diagnosed with NCCP. We found that negative illness perceptions were associated with greater anxiety, depression, chest pain, and pain-related life interference while controlling for the effects of demographic and pain-related variables. These results expand current NCCP theory and may inform future treatment development.

  15. The pain of childbirth: perceptions of culturally diverse women.

    PubMed

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Khalaf, Inaam; Semenic, Sonia; Kartchner, Robin; Vehvilainen-Julkunen, Katri

    2003-12-01

    The pain experiences of culturally diverse childbearing women are described based on a secondary analysis of narrative data from phenomenologic studies of the meaning of childbirth. Study participants were interviewed in the hospital after giving birth or in their homes within the first weeks after having a baby. Transcripts of interviews with childbearing women who lived in North and Central America, Scandinavia, the Middle East, the People's Republic of China, and Tonga were analyzed. Participants described their attitudes toward, perceptions of, and the meaning of childbirth pain. Culturally bound behavior in response to childbirth pain was also articulated. A variety of coping mechanisms were used by women to deal with the pain. Understanding the meaning of pain, women's perceptions of pain, and culturally bound pain behaviors is fundamental in order for nurses to facilitate satisfying birth experiences for culturally diverse women.

  16. Pain in Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... for increased overall health care costs. A person’s perception of pain can be affected by emotional factors. ... medications such as levodopa can affect a person’s perception of pain. People with Parkinson’s who are in ...

  17. Blood pressure and the perception of illusive pain.

    PubMed

    Scheuren, Raymonde; Duschek, Stefan; Schulz, André; Sütterlin, Stefan; Anton, Fernand

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies have documented an inverse relationship between blood pressure and sensitivity to experimental nociceptive stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate possible associations between blood pressure and the occurrence and intensity of paradoxical pain induced by the thermal grill paradigm. Thirty-one healthy subjects were stimulated three times for 1 min with the nonnoxious temperatures of 15°C and 41°C set at the interlaced cold and warm bars of a water bath-driven thermal grill. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded concomitantly. On account of previous observations of an association between the sensitivity of the cardiac baroreflex and pain perception, this parameter was additionally obtained. Numerical rating scales were used to quantify subjective pain intensity and pain unpleasantness; subjects were classified as responders and nonresponders to thermal grill stimulation based on pain intensity ratings. Responders exhibited lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure than nonresponders, and inverse linear associations arose between blood pressure and pain intensity and unpleasantness. Baroreflex sensitivity was unrelated to pain ratings. The findings confirmed the hypothesis of a blood pressure dependence of paradoxical pain and support the notion that the cardiovascular and pain regulatory systems interact not only in the processing of pain elicited by noxious input, but also in nonnoxiously generated illusive pain. While this finding is not consistent with the assumption of an involvement of the baroreflex system in mediating the observed interaction, psychological traits and neurochemical factors are alternatively considered. PMID:27079150

  18. [The importance of the cortex and subcortical structures of the brain in the perception of acute and chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Reschetniak, V K; Kukushkin, M L; Gurko, N S

    2014-01-01

    This review presents the current data in the literature about the importance of the cortex and subcortical structures of the brain in the perception of acute and chronic pain. Discussed the importance of various areas of the brain in perception discriminative and affective components of pain. Discusses also gender differences in pain perception depending on the functional activity of brain cortex and antinociceptive subcortical structures. Analyzed the morphological changes of cortical and subcortical structures of the brain in chronic pain syndromes. It is proved that the decrease in the volume of gray and white matter of cerebral cortex and subcortical structures is a consequence and not the cause of chronic pain syndrome. Discusses the features activate and deactivate certain areas of the cortex of the brain in acute and chronic pain. Analyzed same features the activation of several brain structures in migraine and cluster headache.

  19. Electrical low-frequency stimulation induces long-term depression of sensory and affective components of pain in healthy man.

    PubMed

    Rottmann, Silke; Jung, Kerstin; Ellrich, Jens

    2010-04-01

    Electrical low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of nociceptive skin afferents reliably induces long-term depression (LTD) of pain. Recent experiments have assessed the effects of LTD on pain perception by using a simple one-dimensional rating scale. The psychophysical study investigated the impact of noxious LFS on the sensory and affective aspects of pain perception by multidimensional rating scales. In 20 healthy volunteers, nociceptive fibers of the left hand dorsum were electrically stimulated by a concentric electrode. Test stimulation series (15 stimuli each, 0.125Hz) were performed before (Pre) and after (Post) a conditioning LFS (1Hz, 20min) or no stimulation period (Control). Pain ratings concerning test stimulation and LFS were obtained by multidimensional assessment including Verbal rating scale of perceived stimulus intensity (VRS-I) and unpleasantness (VRS-U) and pain perception scale with sensory (SES-S) and affective items (SES-A). After the conditioning LFS, VRS-I, VRS-U, SES-S, and SES-A decreased as compared to Pre series and Control. During conditioning LFS, ratings decreased. Factor analysis of SES-S revealed sole reduction of superficial sharp pain perception after conditioning LFS in contrast to Control experiment. Perception of deep rhythmic pain decreased over time. Deep constant pain and superficial heat pain were not affected. Electrical test stimulation via concentric electrode evokes sensory as well as affective pain perception. Both components decrease during noxious, conditioning LFS and remain depressed for at least one hour. Reduction of sharp pain points to Adelta fiber mediated LTD. These results stress the analgesic potency of LTD and its possible impact on future therapy in chronic pain.

  20. Phantom percepts: Tinnitus and pain as persisting aversive memory networks

    PubMed Central

    De Ridder, Dirk; Elgoyhen, Ana Belen; Romo, Ranulfo; Langguth, Berthold

    2011-01-01

    Phantom perception refers to the conscious awareness of a percept in the absence of an external stimulus. On the basis of basic neuroscience on perception and clinical research in phantom pain and phantom sound, we propose a working model for their origin. Sensory deafferentation results in high-frequency, gamma band, synchronized neuronal activity in the sensory cortex. This activity becomes a conscious percept only if it is connected to larger coactivated “(self-)awareness” and “salience” brain networks. Through the involvement of learning mechanisms, the phantom percept becomes associated to distress, which in turn is reflected by a simultaneously coactivated nonspecific distress network consisting of the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and amygdala. Memory mechanisms play a role in the persistence of the awareness of the phantom percept, as well as in the reinforcement of the associated distress. Thus, different dynamic overlapping brain networks should be considered as targets for the treatment of this disorder. PMID:21502503

  1. Rubber Hand Illusion Affects Joint Angle Perception

    PubMed Central

    Butz, Martin V.; Kutter, Esther F.; Lorenz, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model. PMID:24671172

  2. The effect of pain on memory for affective words.

    PubMed

    Kuhajda, M C; Thorn, B E; Klinger, M R

    1998-01-01

    Memory is a key cognitive variable in pain management, but lacks extensive research. This study is a replication and extension of Seltzer and Yarczower's investigation of pain's influence on memory for affective words, which found fewer positive words and more negative words recalled if subjects were in acute pain (versus no pain). In the present study, two experiments were conducted: one with a recall memory test and one with a recognition memory test. One hundred sixty undergraduate subjects were randomly placed in one of four groups: two groups had the same condition (pain or no pain) for both the encoding task and memory test, and two groups had mixed conditions (pain at encoding-no pain at memory test or no pain at encoding-pain at memory test). Pain was induced by 0 degrees-2 degrees C water immersion. At encoding, subjects categorized words by judging them as either positive or negative. Results of both experiments show that pain impairs memory. In neither experiment were differences found on memory for positive and negative words. These results do not support Seltzer and Yarczower's discriminative effects of pain on word category, but they are consistent with other research using acute pain manipulations and chronic pain populations, suggesting that pain interferes with memory. It is hypothesized that pain depletes scarce attentional resources, thereby interfering with concurrent cognitive tasks such as thinking, reasoning, and remembering.

  3. PAIN--perception and assessment of painful procedures in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Britto, Carl Denis; Rao Pn, Suman; Nesargi, Saudamini; Nair, Sitara; Rao, Shashidhar; Thilagavathy, Theradian; Ramesh, Armugam; Bhat, Swarnarekha

    2014-12-01

    This prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the frequency of procedural pain among 101 neonates in the first 14 days of admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in South India and to study the perception of health-care professionals (HCP) about newborn procedural pain. The total number of painful procedures was 8.09 ± 5.53 per baby per day and 68.32 ± 64.78 per baby during hospital stay. The most common procedure was heel prick (30%). The HCP were administered a questionnaire to assess their perception of pain for various procedures. Procedures were perceived as more painful by nurses than by doctors. Chest tube placements and lumbar puncture were considered most painful. This study shows that the neonates in the NICU in developing countries experience many painful procedures. The awareness about this intensity of pain should provide a valuable tool in formulating pain-reduction protocols for management in low resource settings.

  4. The Level of Anxiety and Pain Perception of Endodontic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Perković, Ivana; Romić, Martina Knežević; Perić, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to compare the level of anxiety reported by patients and assessed by dentists. Also, the expected and actual pain during the treatment perceived by the patient and dentist were assessed. Methods sixty six endodontic patients filled in two questionnaires, prior to and after the treatment, so did their therapists. The first set of questions for patients was regarding demographics, the frequency of dental visits, the level of anxiety and expectations about the level of pain. Before the treatment, dentists estimated the level of patients' anxiety and the expected intensity of pain. After the treatment, the patients evaluated the level of experienced pain and dentists' empathy during the treatment, while dentists reassessed the intensity of patients' pain.The data were statistically analysed by t-test for paired samples and by Spearmans's Rho correlation coefficient at level of significance set at 0.05. Results Patients' expectation of pain intensity was higher than the actual pain during the treatment (t-test=3.540, p=0.001). There was no difference in the level of pain which dentists expected and their perception of pain during the procedure. There was a statistically significant correlation between the patients' level of anxiety and recognition of it by dentists (Spearman Rho=0.460, p<0.001). A higher level of anxiety increased the expected intensity of pain (Spearman Rho=0.401, p=0.001). Actual intensity of pain was not significantly associated with dental anxiety (Spearman Rho=0.080, p=0.524). Conclusion Since the level of dental anxiety was associated with the increased intensity of expected pain, a vicious cycle of pain and anxiety may be terminated by giving positive information to the patient before and during endodontic procedures.

  5. Contrast affects flicker and speed perception differently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that contrast affects speed perception, with lower-contrast, drifting gratings perceived as moving slower. In a recent study, we examined the implications of this result on models of speed perception that use the amplitude of the response of linear spatio-temporal filters to determine speed. In this study, we investigate whether the contrast dependence of speed can be understood within the context of models in which speed estimation is made using the temporal frequency of the response of linear spatio-temporal filters. We measured the effect of contrast on flicker perception and found that contrast manipulations produce opposite effects on perceived drift rate and perceived flicker rate, i.e., reducing contrast increases the apparent temporal frequency of counterphase modulated gratings. This finding argues that, if a temporal frequency-based algorithm underlies speed perception, either flicker and speed perception must not be based on the output of the same mechanism or contrast effects on perceived spatial frequency reconcile the disparate effects observed for perceived temporal frequency and speed.

  6. Changes of Pain Perception, Autonomic Function, and Endocrine Parameters during Treatment of Anorectic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Karl-Jurgen; Boettger, Silke; Wagner, Gerd; Wilsdorf, Christine; Gerhard, Uwe Jens; Boettger, Michael K.; Blanz, Bernhard; Sauer, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The underlying mechanisms of reduced pain perception in anorexia nervosa (AN) are unknown. To gain more insight into the pathology, the authors investigated pain perception, autonomic function, and endocrine parameters before and during successful treatment of adolescent AN patients. Method: Heat pain perception was assessed in 15…

  7. Pain Sensitivity and Observer Perception of Pain in Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Allely, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    The peer-reviewed literature investigating the relationship between pain expression and perception of pain in individuals with ASD is sparse. The aim of the present systematic PRIMSA review was twofold: first, to see what evidence there is for the widely held belief that individuals with ASD are insensitive to pain or have a high pain threshold in the peer-reviewed literature and, second, to examine whether individuals with ASD react or express pain differently. Fifteen studies investigating pain in individuals with ASD were identified. The case studies all reported pain insensitivity in individuals with ASD. However, the majority of the ten experimental studies reviewed indicate that the idea that individuals with ASD are pain insensitive needs to be challenged. The findings also highlight the strong possibility that not all children with ASD express their physical discomfort in the same way as a neurotypical child would (i.e., cry, moan, seek comfort, etc.) which may lead caregivers and the medical profession to interpret this as pain insensitivity or incorrectly lead them to believe that the child is in no pain. These results have important implications for the assessment and management of pain in children with ASD. PMID:23843740

  8. Functional connectivity of pain-mediated affect regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Niedtfeld, Inga; Kirsch, Peter; Schulze, Lars; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Affective instability and self-injurious behavior are important features of Borderline Personality Disorder. Whereas affective instability may be caused by a pattern of limbic hyperreactivity paired with dysfunctional prefrontal regulation mechanisms, painful stimulation was found to reduce affective arousal at the neural level, possibly underlying the soothing effect of pain in BPD.We used psychophysiological interactions to analyze functional connectivity of (para-) limbic brain structures (i.e. amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex) in Borderline Personality Disorder in response to painful stimulation. Therefore, we re-analyzed a dataset from 20 patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and 23 healthy controls who took part in an fMRI-task inducing negative (versus neutral) affect and subsequently applying heat pain (versus warmth perception).Results suggest an enhanced negative coupling between limbic as well as paralimbic regions and prefrontal regions, specifically with the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, when patients experienced pain in addition to emotional arousing pictures. When neutral pictures were combined with painful heat sensation, we found positive connectivity in Borderline Personality Disorder between (para-)limbic brain areas and parts of the basal ganglia (lentiform nucleus, putamen), as well areas involved in self-referential processing (precuneus and posterior cingulate).We found further evidence for alterations in the emotion regulation process in Borderline Personality Disorder, in the way that pain improves the inhibition of limbic activity by prefrontal areas. This study provides new insights in pain processing in BPD, including enhanced coupling of limbic structures and basal ganglia. PMID:22428013

  9. Satisfaction with and Perception of Pain Management among Palliative Patients with Breakthrough Pain: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Pathmawathi, Subramanian; Beng, Tan Seng; Li, Lee Mei; Rosli, Roshaslina; Sharwend, Supermanian; Kavitha, Rasaiah R; Christopher, Boey Chiong Meng

    2015-08-01

    Breakthrough pain is a significant contributor to much suffering by patients. The experience of intense pain may interfere with, and affect, daily life functioning and has major consequences on patients' well-being if it is not well managed. The area of breakthrough pain has not been fully understood. This study thus aimed to explore the experiences of breakthrough pain among palliative patients. A qualitative study based on a series of open-ended interviews among 21 palliative patients suffering from pain at an urban tertiary hospital in Malaysia was conducted. Five themes were generated: (i) pain viewed as an unbearable experience causing misery in the lives of patients, (ii) deterioration of body function and no hope of recovery, (iii) receiving of inadequate pain management for pain, (iv) insensitivity of healthcare providers toward patients' pain experience, and (v) pain coping experiences of patients. The findings revealed that nonpharmacologic approaches such as psychosocial support should be introduced to the patients. Proper guidance and information should be given to healthcare providers to improve the quality of patient care. Healthcare providers should adopt a sensitive approach in caring for patients' needs. The aim is to meet the needs of the patients who want to be pain free or to attain adequate relief of their pain for breakthrough pain. PMID:26256219

  10. The Role of Positive Affect in Pain and its Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Patrick H.; Garland, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes and integrates the available literature on PA and pain to: 1) Provide a brief overview of PA and summarize the key findings that have emerged in the study of PA and chronic pain; 2) Provide a theoretical foundation from which to understand how PA operates in the context of chronic pain; and 3) Highlight how the prevailing psychosocial treatments for chronic pain address PA in the therapeutic context, and offer suggestions for how future treatment development research can maximize the benefit of PA for patients with chronic pain. To that end, we review experimental studies that have assessed the association of evoked PA and pain sensitivity, as well as clinical studies that have assessed the association of naturally occurring PA and clinical pain in the context of chronic pain. The evidence suggests PA influences pain, over and above the influence of NA. We offer an “upward spiral” model of positive affect, resilience and pain self-management, which makes specific predictions that PA will buffer maladaptive cognitive and affective responses to pain, and promote active engagement in valued goals that enhance chronic pain self-management. PMID:24751543

  11. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Brianna; Snell, Sam; Bye-Nagel, Kyri; Tonidandel, Scott; Heyer, Laurie J; Campbell, A Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008). Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create". PMID:21777466

  12. The Perception and Estimation of Others' Pain according to Children

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, Mathieu; Bruneau-Bhérer, Rosée; Morasse, Karine; Eugène, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Accurate interpretation of pain expressed by others is important for socialization; however, the development of this skill in children is still poorly understood. Empathy for pain models propose two main components (affective and cognitive), which develop at different stages of life. The study's objective was to investigate the children's ability between 3 and 12 years of age to detect and assess the pain intensity in others using visual stimuli depicting either facial expressions of pain or hands in painful contexts. 40 preschool children and 62 school-aged children were recruited. Children observed series of stimuli and evaluated the pain intensity depicted. Results demonstrated that children as young as three years old were able to detect and assess pain in both types of stimuli and this ability continued to improve until the age of 12. Participants demonstrated better detection performance with hands than with faces. Results were coherent with the idea that the two types of stimuli presented recruit different processes. Pain detection in hands appears to rely mostly on affective sharing processes that are effective early in life, while older children's higher ability to perceive pain in facial expressions suggests that this ability is associated with the gradual development of cognitive processes. PMID:27493478

  13. The Perception and Estimation of Others' Pain according to Children.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Mathieu; Bruneau-Bhérer, Rosée; Morasse, Karine; Eugène, Fanny; Jackson, Philip L

    2016-01-01

    Accurate interpretation of pain expressed by others is important for socialization; however, the development of this skill in children is still poorly understood. Empathy for pain models propose two main components (affective and cognitive), which develop at different stages of life. The study's objective was to investigate the children's ability between 3 and 12 years of age to detect and assess the pain intensity in others using visual stimuli depicting either facial expressions of pain or hands in painful contexts. 40 preschool children and 62 school-aged children were recruited. Children observed series of stimuli and evaluated the pain intensity depicted. Results demonstrated that children as young as three years old were able to detect and assess pain in both types of stimuli and this ability continued to improve until the age of 12. Participants demonstrated better detection performance with hands than with faces. Results were coherent with the idea that the two types of stimuli presented recruit different processes. Pain detection in hands appears to rely mostly on affective sharing processes that are effective early in life, while older children's higher ability to perceive pain in facial expressions suggests that this ability is associated with the gradual development of cognitive processes. PMID:27493478

  14. Does intrauterine tobacco exposure increase the pain perception of newborns?

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Mustafa; Yıldırım, Şule; Aylanç, Hakan; Kaymaz, Nazan; Battal, Fatih; Topaloğlu, Naci; Başer, Esra; Binnetoğlu, Fatih Köksal

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess whether there was a difference in the pain-perception levels of newborns born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy and newborns born to mothers who were not exposed to active or passive smoking during pregnancy. Materials and methods A total of 60 newborns born by normal spontaneous vaginal birth between June 2013 and June 2014 were included in the study: 30 born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and 30 born to mothers not exposed to smoking. Mothers or newborns who had taken analgesics or sedative medications in the previous 24 hours, newborns not born at term, and sick newborns were not included in the study. During the routine hepatitis B-vaccination injection given at postnatal 48 hours, the newborns’ behavior was monitored and recorded by video camera. The data obtained from the recordings were evaluated according to the Neonatal Pain, Agitation, and Sedation Scale and analyzed with SPSS 20. Results The median pain score of the group exposed to tobacco smoke in utero was 8.5, while the median pain score of the unexposed group was 6 (P<0.001). Conclusion Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero may increase the pain-perception levels of newborns. PMID:27330324

  15. Imagined Pain Tolerance Test: An Instrument to Measure American Indians' Perception of Their Tolerance of Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Gary A.

    1981-01-01

    The Imagined Pain Tolerance Test, a paper and pencil test designed to test differences in perceptions between American Indians and non-Indians, appears to have utility as a research instrument. Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines Road, Portland, OR 97201. (Author/CM)

  16. Changes in pain perception and hormones pre- and post-kumdo competition.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Chan; Min, Sunho; Kim, Young Ki; Choi, Jun-Ho; Seo, Sang Min; Chang, Sei-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The psychological stress of competition is a powerful stimulus affecting numerous hormones, which in turn change how pain is perceived. This study investigated whether a kumdo (kendo) team competition may be related to changes in hormones and pain. Seventeen healthy male kumdo practitioners participated in this experiment. Pain experiments were conducted by applying noxious stimuli with a thermal stimulator 10 min before a kumdo competition and 30 min post-competition. Serum testosterone, cortisol, beta-endorphin levels, pain thresholds, pain ratings at 48 °C and during blood sampling (sampling pain), anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured pre- and post-competition. Anxiety, pain threshold, testosterone/cortisol ratio, and blood pressure were significantly higher pre-competition compared to post-competition, while cortisol and pain ratings were significantly lower pre-competition than post-competition. There were significant correlations between the number of previous competitions and testosterone levels both pre-competition and post-competition. In pre-competition measurements, sampling pain increased with an increase in systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and beta-endorphins, and a decrease in age. In post-competition measurements, sampling pain increased with an increase in diastolic blood pressure and a decrease in testosterone levels. These results indicate that severe psychological pre-competition stress was associated with reduced pain ratings, perhaps in order to improve athletic performance. This also suggests that competitors may be at risk of potential injury due to changes in pain perception, and careful consideration should be taken to avoid potential injury before and during competition. PMID:24005187

  17. Do Hearing Aids Improve Affect Perception?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Juliane; Herzog, Diana; Scharenborg, Odette; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Normal-hearing listeners use acoustic cues in speech to interpret a speaker's emotional state. This study investigates the effect of hearing aids on the perception of the emotion dimensions arousal (aroused/calm) and valence (positive/negative attitude) in older adults with hearing loss. More specifically, we investigate whether wearing a hearing aid improves the correlation between affect ratings and affect-related acoustic parameters. To that end, affect ratings by 23 hearing-aid users were compared for aided and unaided listening. Moreover, these ratings were compared to the ratings by an age-matched group of 22 participants with age-normal hearing.For arousal, hearing-aid users rated utterances as generally more aroused in the aided than in the unaided condition. Intensity differences were the strongest indictor of degree of arousal. Among the hearing-aid users, those with poorer hearing used additional prosodic cues (i.e., tempo and pitch) for their arousal ratings, compared to those with relatively good hearing. For valence, pitch was the only acoustic cue that was associated with valence. Neither listening condition nor hearing loss severity (differences among the hearing-aid users) influenced affect ratings or the use of affect-related acoustic parameters. Compared to the normal-hearing reference group, ratings of hearing-aid users in the aided condition did not generally differ in both emotion dimensions. However, hearing-aid users were more sensitive to intensity differences in their arousal ratings than the normal-hearing participants.We conclude that the use of hearing aids is important for the rehabilitation of affect perception and particularly influences the interpretation of arousal. PMID:27080645

  18. Affective and motivational influences in person perception

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Jefferson, Anneli; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal impression formation is highly consequential for social interactions in private and public domains. These perceptions of others rely on different sources of information and processing mechanisms, all of which have been investigated in independent research fields. In social psychology, inferences about states and traits of others as well as activations of semantic categories and corresponding stereotypes have attracted great interest. On the other hand, research on emotion and reward demonstrated affective and motivational influences of social cues on the observer, which in turn modulate attention, categorization, evaluation, and decision processes. While inferential and categorical social processes have been shown to recruit a network of cortical brain regions associated with mentalizing and evaluation, the affective influence of social cues has been linked to subcortical areas that play a central role in detection of salient sensory input and reward processing. In order to extend existing integrative approaches to person perception, both the inferential-categorical processing of information about others, and affective and motivational influences of this information on the beholder should be taken into account. PMID:23781188

  19. Affective and motivational influences in person perception.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Jefferson, Anneli; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal impression formation is highly consequential for social interactions in private and public domains. These perceptions of others rely on different sources of information and processing mechanisms, all of which have been investigated in independent research fields. In social psychology, inferences about states and traits of others as well as activations of semantic categories and corresponding stereotypes have attracted great interest. On the other hand, research on emotion and reward demonstrated affective and motivational influences of social cues on the observer, which in turn modulate attention, categorization, evaluation, and decision processes. While inferential and categorical social processes have been shown to recruit a network of cortical brain regions associated with mentalizing and evaluation, the affective influence of social cues has been linked to subcortical areas that play a central role in detection of salient sensory input and reward processing. In order to extend existing integrative approaches to person perception, both the inferential-categorical processing of information about others, and affective and motivational influences of this information on the beholder should be taken into account. PMID:23781188

  20. Pain and psycho-affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Broggi, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    The subject of human pain can be subdivided into two broad categories: physical pain and psychological pain. Since the dawn of human consciousness, each of these two forms of pain-one clearly physical, the other having more to deal with the mind-have played a central role in human existence. Psychological pain and suffering add dimensions that go far beyond the boundaries of its physical counterpart. In the past 50 years, one of the more remarkable accomplishments of medical science has been to increasingly enable the clinician to impact, as never before, each of these critical realms of human existence. Our intention is, therefore, to initially describe a few of the many exciting neuroscientific and neurosurgical advances that have been made in the treatment of various types of pain and to speculate on some of the emergent questions that we believe need to be addressed. After this is accomplished, we will then use this information as a kind of two-pronged philosophical entrance into questions of the mind, brain, and soul that we feel are necessary to bring back into the sphere of the modern physician's practice. The goal of this article is two-fold: 1) to share some of our exciting research and 2) to renew the interest in timeless questions, such as that of the mind-brain and the brain-mind, in the conversation of the modern neurosurgeon. The International Association for the Study of Pain divides pain into two broad functions and anatomical categories. In this framework, "nociceptive" pain is defined as the kind of physical pain that results when the tissue is damaged. Given this perspective, such pain is usually considered a consequence of one's defense against one's environment. The other pain is the "neuropathic" one resulting from a lesion or a dysfunction of the human nervous system. As such, we will take the risk of crossing beyond the boundaries of neurosurgery and venture into boundaries that, at another time, might seem more natural to the discipline of

  1. Parsing pain perception between nociceptive representation and magnitude estimation.

    PubMed

    Baliki, M N; Geha, P Y; Apkarian, A V

    2009-02-01

    Assessing the size of objects rapidly and accurately clearly has survival value. A central multisensory module for subjective magnitude assessment is therefore highly likely, suggested by psychophysical studies, and proposed on theoretical grounds. Given that pain perception is fundamentally an assessment of stimulus intensity, it must necessarily engage such a central module. Accordingly, we compared functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity of pain magnitude ratings to matched visual magnitude ratings in 14 subjects. We show that brain activations segregate into two groups, one preferentially activated for pain and another equally activated for both visual and pain magnitude ratings. The properties of regions in the first group were consistent with encoding nociception, whereas those in the second group with attention and task control. Insular cortex responses similarly segregated to a pain-specific area and an area (extending to the lateral prefrontal cortex) conjointly representing perceived magnitudes for pain and vision. These two insular areas were differentiated by their relationship to task variance, ability to encode perceived magnitudes for each stimulus epoch, temporal delay differences, and brain intrinsic functional connectivity. In a second group of subjects (n=11) we contrasted diffusion tensor imaging-based white matter connectivity for these two insular areas and observed anatomical connectivity closely corresponding to the functional connectivity identified with fMRI. These results demonstrate that pain perception is due to the transformation of nociceptive representation into subjective magnitude assessment within the insula. Moreover, we argue that we have identified a multisensory cortical area for "how much" complementary and analogous to the "where" and "what" as described for central visual processing.

  2. Chronic Low Back Pain: Perception and Coping With Pain in the Presence of Psychiatric Comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Ciaramella, Antonella; Poli, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    This retrospective study investigated the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on pain perception and coping with pain in tertiary pain clinic patients, 427 treated for chronic low back pain (CLBP) and 629 for other forms of chronic pain (CG). No differences in psychosomatic dimensions were found between the two groups, but Italian Pain Questionnaire dimensions and intensity scores (t = 7.35; p < 0.0001) were higher in CLBP than in CG subjects. According to the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, CLBP patients also had a higher prevalence of lifetime major depressive episodes (χ2 = 4.96; p < 0.05), dysthymic disorder (χ2 = 4.64; p < 0.05), suicide risk (χ2 = 10.43; p < 0.01), and agoraphobia (χ2 = 6.31; p < 0.05) than CG patients did. The Multidimensional Pain Inventory showed a close association between CLBP and both agoraphobia (χ2 = 3.74; p < 0.05) and dysfunctional coping style (χ2 = 8.25; p < 0.01), which increased disability. Both agoraphobia and lifetime depression were associated with an overall increase in dimensions and pain intensity in CLBP, but not in CG. PMID:26153889

  3. Pain and Hand Function.

    PubMed

    Howland, Nicholas; Lopez, Mariela; Zhang, Andrew Y

    2016-02-01

    Pain is a unique somatosensory perception that can dramatically affect our ability to function. It is also a necessary perception, without which we would do irreparable damage to ourselves. In this article, the authors assess the impact of pain on function of the hand. Pain can be categorized into acute pain, chronic pain, and neuropathic pain. Hand function and objective measurements of hand function are analyzed as well as the impact of different types of pain on each of these areas.

  4. Avoidance of affective pain stimuli predicts chronicity in patients with acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Louise; Haggman, Sonia; Nicholas, Michael; Dear, Blake F; Refshauge, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study of acute and sub-acute low back pain (LBP) patients was conducted to assess whether attentional biases predicted chronic pain status 3 and 6 months later. The attentional biases of 100 LBP patients were assessed within 3 months of developing pain and 6 months later. Participants also completed measures associated with outcome at 3 assessment points: baseline, 3 and 6 months later. Current pain status was assessed at follow-ups. Patients were classified as those that met standard criteria for chronic pain or those who did not (i.e., the comparison group). At baseline, participants demonstrated a bias toward sensory pain words. However, biases toward sensory pain words did not differentiate those who subsequently developed chronic pain and those who did not at either follow-up. The same bias was observed 6 months later, but again it failed to distinguish between the chronic pain and comparison groups. However, subjects who developed chronic pain at both 3 (n=22) and 6 (n=21) months demonstrated biases away from affective pain words at baseline but not 6 months later, in comparison to other participants. These results remained significant in multivariate analyses. These findings are consistent with patterns observed in the previous research, and suggest that avoidance of emotionally laden pain-related stimuli (i.e., affective pain words) is associated with negative outcomes for LBP patients in the acute and sub-acute phase. This research suggests that attentional biases in relation to pain-related stimuli are important for the development of chronic pain, but are more complex than initially thought. PMID:24028848

  5. Patients' Perception of Chronic-Pain-Related Patient-Provider Communication in Relation to Sociodemographic and Pain-Related Variables: A Cross-Sectional Nationwide Study.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Thorbjorg; Gunnarsdottir, Sigridur; Oskarsson, Gudmundur K; Jonsdottir, Helga

    2016-10-01

    Pain is a personal experience and patient-provider communication therefore an essential part of diagnosis and treatment where the patient's perspective needs to be central. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to investigate chronic-pain-related patient-provider communication in the context of sociodemographic variables, pain variables, perceived outcome of care, and satisfaction with health care providers. A postal questionnaire measuring socio-demographic variables, pain characteristics, pain-related health care utilization and patient-provider communication was sent to a sample of 4,500 individuals randomly drawn from the national population of Iceland. A subsample reporting chronic pain and having visited a health care provider for pain the previous six months (n = 401) was analyzed. Relationships between patient-provider communication and other measured variables were tested using bivariate and multivariate statistics. The more chronic pain impaired health-related quality of life, the more provider control the patients perceived in the patient-provider communication. There was also a strong negative relationship between patients' perception of providers' support and openness to discussing symptoms, and satisfaction with health care provider. Patients' perception of their own control in patient-provider communication and involvement in decisions regarding care was related to sociodemographic variables (specifically, education and residence) but not to pain related variables. This study highlights the importance of assessing chronic pain in a broad spectrum, listening, and giving patients time and support to communicate chronic pain and how it affects their life situation. The more interfering the pain is, the more important this is. PMID:27553131

  6. Patients' Perception of Chronic-Pain-Related Patient-Provider Communication in Relation to Sociodemographic and Pain-Related Variables: A Cross-Sectional Nationwide Study.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Thorbjorg; Gunnarsdottir, Sigridur; Oskarsson, Gudmundur K; Jonsdottir, Helga

    2016-10-01

    Pain is a personal experience and patient-provider communication therefore an essential part of diagnosis and treatment where the patient's perspective needs to be central. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to investigate chronic-pain-related patient-provider communication in the context of sociodemographic variables, pain variables, perceived outcome of care, and satisfaction with health care providers. A postal questionnaire measuring socio-demographic variables, pain characteristics, pain-related health care utilization and patient-provider communication was sent to a sample of 4,500 individuals randomly drawn from the national population of Iceland. A subsample reporting chronic pain and having visited a health care provider for pain the previous six months (n = 401) was analyzed. Relationships between patient-provider communication and other measured variables were tested using bivariate and multivariate statistics. The more chronic pain impaired health-related quality of life, the more provider control the patients perceived in the patient-provider communication. There was also a strong negative relationship between patients' perception of providers' support and openness to discussing symptoms, and satisfaction with health care provider. Patients' perception of their own control in patient-provider communication and involvement in decisions regarding care was related to sociodemographic variables (specifically, education and residence) but not to pain related variables. This study highlights the importance of assessing chronic pain in a broad spectrum, listening, and giving patients time and support to communicate chronic pain and how it affects their life situation. The more interfering the pain is, the more important this is.

  7. Negative affect, pain and sex: the role of endogenous opioids.

    PubMed

    Frew, Ashley K; Drummond, Peter D

    2007-11-01

    Opioid neurotransmission modulates pain and negative affect during psychological stress. To determine whether these effects differ between men and women, the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone or placebo was administered double-blind to 21 men and 22 women before they completed 30 min of difficult mental arithmetic. To heighten negative affect, participants received seven moderately noxious electric shocks during the math task, which were believed to be contingent upon performance. Before and after the math task, participants rated pain intensity and unpleasantness while their left hand was immersed in 2 degrees C water for up to 4 min. Anxiety, discouragement and anger were also rated before, during and after the math task. Tolerance of cold-induced pain was greater in men, whereas discouragement during the math task was greater in women. Opioid blockade did not influence ratings of negative affect, which increased in line with the intensity and unpleasantness of shock-induced pain. The intensity and unpleasantness of cold-induced pain increased after the math task only in women administered naltrexone. Within the naltrexone condition, pain ratings increased most in the most discouraged subjects. However, this relationship was absent in placebo recipients, implying that the hyperalgesic effect of psychological distress was tempered by opioid release. Greater stress-evoked discouragement in women than men may explain why cold-induced pain increased after the math task only in women administered naltrexone.

  8. Transcriptional regulator PRDM12 is essential for human pain perception.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Chun; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Matsukawa, Shinya; Zitzelsberger, Manuela; Themistocleous, Andreas C; Strom, Tim M; Samara, Chrysanthi; Moore, Adrian W; Cho, Lily Ting-Yin; Young, Gareth T; Weiss, Caecilia; Schabhüttl, Maria; Stucka, Rolf; Schmid, Annina B; Parman, Yesim; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard; Heinritz, Wolfram; Passarge, Eberhard; Watson, Rosemarie M; Hertz, Jens Michael; Moog, Ute; Baumgartner, Manuela; Valente, Enza Maria; Pereira, Diego; Restrepo, Carlos M; Katona, Istvan; Dusl, Marina; Stendel, Claudia; Wieland, Thomas; Stafford, Fay; Reimann, Frank; von Au, Katja; Finke, Christian; Willems, Patrick J; Nahorski, Michael S; Shaikh, Samiha S; Carvalho, Ofélia P; Nicholas, Adeline K; Karbani, Gulshan; McAleer, Maeve A; Cilio, Maria Roberta; McHugh, John C; Murphy, Sinead M; Irvine, Alan D; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Windhager, Reinhard; Weis, Joachim; Bergmann, Carsten; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Baets, Jonathan; De Jonghe, Peter; Reilly, Mary M; Kropatsch, Regina; Kurth, Ingo; Chrast, Roman; Michiue, Tatsuo; Bennett, David L H; Woods, C Geoffrey; Senderek, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Pain perception has evolved as a warning mechanism to alert organisms to tissue damage and dangerous environments. In humans, however, undesirable, excessive or chronic pain is a common and major societal burden for which available medical treatments are currently suboptimal. New therapeutic options have recently been derived from studies of individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP). Here we identified 10 different homozygous mutations in PRDM12 (encoding PRDI-BF1 and RIZ homology domain-containing protein 12) in subjects with CIP from 11 families. Prdm proteins are a family of epigenetic regulators that control neural specification and neurogenesis. We determined that Prdm12 is expressed in nociceptors and their progenitors and participates in the development of sensory neurons in Xenopus embryos. Moreover, CIP-associated mutants abrogate the histone-modifying potential associated with wild-type Prdm12. Prdm12 emerges as a key factor in the orchestration of sensory neurogenesis and may hold promise as a target for new pain therapeutics.

  9. Transcriptional regulator PRDM12 is essential for human pain perception.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Chun; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Matsukawa, Shinya; Zitzelsberger, Manuela; Themistocleous, Andreas C; Strom, Tim M; Samara, Chrysanthi; Moore, Adrian W; Cho, Lily Ting-Yin; Young, Gareth T; Weiss, Caecilia; Schabhüttl, Maria; Stucka, Rolf; Schmid, Annina B; Parman, Yesim; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard; Heinritz, Wolfram; Passarge, Eberhard; Watson, Rosemarie M; Hertz, Jens Michael; Moog, Ute; Baumgartner, Manuela; Valente, Enza Maria; Pereira, Diego; Restrepo, Carlos M; Katona, Istvan; Dusl, Marina; Stendel, Claudia; Wieland, Thomas; Stafford, Fay; Reimann, Frank; von Au, Katja; Finke, Christian; Willems, Patrick J; Nahorski, Michael S; Shaikh, Samiha S; Carvalho, Ofélia P; Nicholas, Adeline K; Karbani, Gulshan; McAleer, Maeve A; Cilio, Maria Roberta; McHugh, John C; Murphy, Sinead M; Irvine, Alan D; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Windhager, Reinhard; Weis, Joachim; Bergmann, Carsten; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Baets, Jonathan; De Jonghe, Peter; Reilly, Mary M; Kropatsch, Regina; Kurth, Ingo; Chrast, Roman; Michiue, Tatsuo; Bennett, David L H; Woods, C Geoffrey; Senderek, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Pain perception has evolved as a warning mechanism to alert organisms to tissue damage and dangerous environments. In humans, however, undesirable, excessive or chronic pain is a common and major societal burden for which available medical treatments are currently suboptimal. New therapeutic options have recently been derived from studies of individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP). Here we identified 10 different homozygous mutations in PRDM12 (encoding PRDI-BF1 and RIZ homology domain-containing protein 12) in subjects with CIP from 11 families. Prdm proteins are a family of epigenetic regulators that control neural specification and neurogenesis. We determined that Prdm12 is expressed in nociceptors and their progenitors and participates in the development of sensory neurons in Xenopus embryos. Moreover, CIP-associated mutants abrogate the histone-modifying potential associated with wild-type Prdm12. Prdm12 emerges as a key factor in the orchestration of sensory neurogenesis and may hold promise as a target for new pain therapeutics. PMID:26005867

  10. Changes in pain perception and pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials in humans produced by exposure to oscillating magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Sartucci, F; Bonfiglio, L; Del Seppia, C; Luschi, P; Ghione, S; Murri, L; Papi, F

    1997-09-26

    Nociception has been reported to be influenced by exposure to magnetic fields (MFs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 h exposure to weak, oscillating MFs on pain perception thresholds and on pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). In 11 healthy volunteers, pain perception thresholds and pain-related SEPs were assessed by intracutaneous electrical stimulation. After sham treatment, pain thresholds significantly increased, whereas after MFs a slight non-significant decrease in thresholds was found. After both treatments pain-related SEP amplitude was reduced, but this decrease was more evident and statistically significant only after MF exposure. The increase found in thresholds after sham exposure may be due to stress-induced analgesia (SIA) and the contrasting behaviour recorded after MF exposure might indicate a suppression of SIA. The significant reduction in pain-related SEP amplitude observed after MF exposure provides the first evidence that human SEPs are influenced by MFs.

  11. Pain perception: predictive value of sex, depression, anxiety, somatosensory amplification, obesity, and age

    PubMed Central

    Kivrak, Yuksel; Kose-Ozlece, Hatice; Ustundag, Mehmet Fatih; Asoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective Factors affecting pain sensation are still being investigated. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), somatosensory amplification, anxiety, and depression on the perception of pain. Methods Venipuncture was performed on 140 healthy individuals. All the cases completed a sociodemographic data form, visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale. Height and weight were also measured. Results When both the sexes were compared, there was no difference in terms of VAS, BMI, age, and Beck Depression Inventory, but Somatosensory Amplification Scale and BAI were found to be higher in females. A correlation was found among VAS points, BAI, and BMI. The results of a regression analysis show that the BAI score is a predictor for the VAS score. Conclusion These results indicate that anxiety may be a predictor of pain, whereas sex, depression, somatosensory amplification, age, and weight do not appear to influence the perception of pain. PMID:27536113

  12. Work-related goal perceptions and affective well-being.

    PubMed

    Ingledew, David K; Wray, Josephine L; Markland, David; Hardy, Lew

    2005-01-01

    The aim was to clarify how perceptions of work-related goals influence affective well-being and goal commitment. Participants (N = 201) completed a Goal Perceptions Questionnaire and affect scales. A model was refined using structural equation modelling. Value and success expectation substantially mediated the effects of other goal perceptions on affects and commitment. Both value and success expectation increased commitment, but whereas value increased positive affects, success expectation reduced negative affects. The determinants of value (e.g. personal origin) were different from those of success expectation (e.g. personal control). Through astute goal setting, it is possible to promote well-being without compromising commitment. PMID:15576503

  13. Your pain or mine? Common and distinct neural systems supporting the perception of pain in self and other

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Jamil; Hanelin, Josh; Ludlow, David H.; Knierim, Kyle; Ramachandran, Tara; Glover, Gary H.; Mackey, Sean C.

    2008-01-01

    Humans possess a remarkable capacity to understand the suffering of others. Cognitive neuroscience theories of empathy suggest that this capacity is supported by ‘shared representations’ of self and other. Consistent with this notion, a number of studies have found that perceiving others in pain and experiencing pain oneself recruit overlapping neural systems. Perception of pain in each of these conditions, however, may also cause unique patterns of activation, that may reveal more about the processing steps involved in each type of pain. To address this issue, we examined neural activity while participants experienced heat pain and watched videos of other individuals experiencing injuries. Results demonstrated (i) that both tasks activated anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula, consistent with prior work; (ii) whereas self-pain activated anterior and mid insula regions implicated in interoception and nociception, other pain activated frontal, premotor, parietal and amygdala regions implicated in emotional learning and processing social cues; and (iii) that levels of trait anxiety correlated with activity in rostral lateral prefrontal cortex during perception of other pain but not during self-pain. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that perception of pain in self and other, while sharing some neural commonalities, differ in their recruitment of systems specifically associated with decoding and learning about internal or external cues. PMID:19015105

  14. Task usefulness affects perception of rivalrous images.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Adrien; Mamassian, Pascal

    2010-12-01

    In bistable perception, several interpretations of the same physical stimulus are perceived in alternation. If one interpretation appears to help the observer to be successful in an auxiliary task, will that interpretation be seen more often than the other? We addressed this question using rivalrous stimuli. One of the elicited percepts presented an advantage for a separate visual search task that was run in close temporal proximity to the rivalry task. We found that the percept that was useful for the search task became dominant over the alternate percept. Observers were not aware of the manipulation that made one percept more useful, which suggests that usefulness was learned implicitly. The learning influenced only the first percept of each rivalrous presentation, but the bias persisted even when the useful percept was no longer useful. The long-lasting aspect of the effect distinguishes it from other documented attentional effects on bistable perception. Therefore, using implicit learning, we demonstrated that task usefulness can durably change the appearance of a stimulus.

  15. Glutamatergic activation of anterior cingulate cortex mediates the affective component of visceral pain memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ni; Cao, Bing; Xu, Jiahe; Hao, Chun; Zhang, Xu; Li, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Studies of both humans and animals suggest that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is important for processing pain perception. We identified that perigenul ACC (pACC) sensitization and enhanced visceral pain in a visceral hypersensitive rat in previous studies. Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Teasing apart the mechanisms that control the neural pathways mediating pain affect and sensation in nociceptive behavioral response is a challenge. In this study, using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceromotor response (VMR) with the conditioning place avoidance (CPA), we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain. When CRD was paired with a distinct environment context, the rats spent significantly less time in this compartment on the post-conditioning test days as compared with the pre-conditioning day. Effects were lasted for 14 days. Bilateral pACC lesion significantly reduced CPA scores without reducing acute visceral pain behaviors (CRD-induced VMR). Bilateral administration of non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX or NMDA receptor antagonist AP5 into the pACC decreased the CPA scores. AP5 or CNQX at dose of 400 mM produced about 70% inhibition of CRD-CPA in the day 1, 4 and 7, and completely abolished the CPA in the day 14 after conditioning. We concluded that neurons in the pACC are necessary for the "aversiveness" of visceral nociceptor stimulation. pACC activation is critical for the memory processing involved in long-term negative affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli by contextual cue.

  16. CB1 receptors modulate affective behaviour induced by neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Ildikó; Nent, Elisa; Erxlebe, Edda; Zimmer, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Patients suffering from chronic pain are often diagnosed with a psychiatric condition, in particular generalized anxiety and major depression. The underlying pathomechanisms contributing to this comorbidity, however, are not entirely clear. In this manuscript we have focussed on the potential role of the cannabinoid receptor CB1, because it is known to modulate neuronal circuits contributing to chronic pain states and affective behaviours. For this purpose we analysed the consequences of a partial sciatic nerve ligation on anxiety- and depression-related behaviours in mice lacking CB1 receptors. Our results show that the development of mechanical hypersensitivity was similar in CB1 deficient mice and wild type controls. However, CB1 knockouts showed much more pronounced behavioural manifestations of anxiety-related behaviours in the light-dark and zero-maze tests, sucrose anhedonia, and disturbed home-cage activity. These results indicate that the endocannabinoid system affects chronic pain-induced mood changes through CB1 receptors.

  17. Effects of Competing Narratives on Public Perceptions of Opioid Pain Reliever Addiction during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; McGinty, Emma E; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-10-01

    Opioid pain reliever addiction has increased among women of reproductive age over the last fifteen years. News media and public attention have focused on the implications of this trend for infants exposed to opioids prenatally, with state policy responses varying in the extent to which they are punitive or public health oriented. We fielded a six-group randomized experiment among a nationally representative sample of US adults to test the effects of narratives portraying a woman with opioid pain reliever addiction during pregnancy on beliefs about people addicted to opioid pain relievers, perceptions of treatment effectiveness, policy attitudes, and emotional responses. Portraying a high socioeconomic status (SES) woman in the narrative lowered perceptions of individual blame for addiction and reduced public support for punitive policies. Depicting the barriers to treatment faced by a low SES woman lowered support for punitive policies and increased support for expanded insurance coverage for treatment. The extent to which narratives portraying successfully treated addiction affected public attitudes depended on the SES of the woman portrayed. These findings can inform the development of communication strategies to reduce stigma toward this population, reduce support for punitive policies, and increase support for more public health-oriented approaches to addressing this problem. PMID:27256811

  18. Effects of Competing Narratives on Public Perceptions of Opioid Pain Reliever Addiction during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; McGinty, Emma E; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-10-01

    Opioid pain reliever addiction has increased among women of reproductive age over the last fifteen years. News media and public attention have focused on the implications of this trend for infants exposed to opioids prenatally, with state policy responses varying in the extent to which they are punitive or public health oriented. We fielded a six-group randomized experiment among a nationally representative sample of US adults to test the effects of narratives portraying a woman with opioid pain reliever addiction during pregnancy on beliefs about people addicted to opioid pain relievers, perceptions of treatment effectiveness, policy attitudes, and emotional responses. Portraying a high socioeconomic status (SES) woman in the narrative lowered perceptions of individual blame for addiction and reduced public support for punitive policies. Depicting the barriers to treatment faced by a low SES woman lowered support for punitive policies and increased support for expanded insurance coverage for treatment. The extent to which narratives portraying successfully treated addiction affected public attitudes depended on the SES of the woman portrayed. These findings can inform the development of communication strategies to reduce stigma toward this population, reduce support for punitive policies, and increase support for more public health-oriented approaches to addressing this problem.

  19. Touch Perception Altered by Chronic Pain and by Opioid Blockade1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Gracely, John L.; Richards, Emily A.; Olausson, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Touch plays a significant role in human social behavior and social communication, and its rewarding nature has been suggested to involve opioids. Opioid blockade in monkeys leads to increased solicitation and receipt of grooming, suggesting heightened enjoyment of touch. We sought to study the role of endogenous opioids in perception of affective touch in healthy adults and in patients with fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition shown to involve reduced opioid receptor availability. The pleasantness of touch has been linked to the activation of C-tactile fibers, which respond maximally to slow gentle touch and correlate with ratings of pleasantness. We administered naloxone to patients and healthy controls to directly observe the consequences of µ-opioid blockade on the perceived pleasantness and intensity of touch. We found that at baseline chronic pain patients showed a blunted distinction between slow and fast brushing for both intensity and pleasantness, suggesting reduced C-tactile touch processing. In addition, we found a differential effect of opioid blockade on touch perception in healthy subjects and pain patients. In healthy individuals, opioid blockade showed a trend toward increased ratings of touch pleasantness, while in chronic pain patients it significantly decreased ratings of touch intensity. Further, in healthy individuals, naloxone-induced increase in touch pleasantness was associated with naloxone-induced decreased preference for slow touch, suggesting a possible effect of opioid levels on processing of C-tactile fiber input. These findings suggest a role for endogenous opioids in touch processing, and provide further evidence for altered opioid functioning in chronic pain patients. PMID:27022625

  20. Effect of DSP4 and desipramine in the sensorial and affective component of neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Lidia; Mico, Juan A; Rey-Brea, Raquel; Camarena-Delgado, Carmen; Berrocoso, Esther

    2016-10-01

    Previous findings suggest that neuropathic pain induces characteristic changes in the noradrenergic system that may modify the sensorial and affective dimensions of pain. We raise the hypothesis that different drugs that manipulate the noradrenergic system can modify specific domains of pain. In the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain, the sensorial (von Frey and acetone tests) and the affective (place escape/avoidance paradigm) domains of pain were evaluated in rats 1 and 2weeks after administering the noradrenergic neurotoxin [N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] (DSP4, 50mg/kg). In other animals, we evaluated the effect of enhancing noradrenergic tone in the 2weeks after injury by administering the antidepressant desipramine (10mg/kg/day, delivered by osmotic minipumps) during this period, a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. Moreover, the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal regulated kinases (p-ERK) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was also assessed. The ACC receives direct inputs from the main noradrenergic nucleus, the locus coeruleus, and ERK activation has been related with the expression of pain-related negative affect. These studies revealed that DSP4 almost depleted noradrenergic axons in the ACC and halved noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus along with a decrease in the affective dimension and an increased of p-ERK in the ACC. However, it did not modify sensorial pain perception. By contrast, desipramine reduced pain hypersensitivity, while completely impeding the reduction of the affective pain dimension and without modifying the amount of p-ERK. Together results suggest that the noradrenergic system may regulate the sensorial and affective sphere of neuropathic pain independently. PMID:27181607

  1. [Pleasure, pain and affectivity in the nervous system].

    PubMed

    Houdart, R

    1999-01-01

    Affectivity plays an essential role in human life. It gives life its quality, and is responsible for what human beings have always considered to be main endeavor happiness. Still, looking for its description or organisation, in physiology or neurology, treatises is fruitless; there only one of its components is described pain, with no mention of pleasure. We wish to show, here, first, that pain and pleasure, depend of a same function, of which they are, of sorts, both extremities, and which in nothing but the most primitive function of the nervous system, and secondly, that this function in one of the components of an "affectivity center", which has its organisation in the limbic system. This center, integrating all the informations that arrives to the nervous system, triggers to each of them neuro-vegetative and neuro-hormonal informations that are "felt" by the organism, and thus transforms the information in a subjective feeling.

  2. Are both the sensory and the affective dimensions of pain encoded in the face?

    PubMed

    Kunz, Miriam; Lautenbacher, Stefan; LeBlanc, Nadine; Rainville, Pierre

    2012-02-01

    The facial expression of pain plays a crucial role in pain communication and pain diagnostics. Despite its importance, it has remained unknown which dimensions of pain (sensory and/or affective) are encoded in the face. To answer this question, we used a well-established cognitive strategy (suggestions) to differentially modulate the sensory and affective dimensions of pain and investigate the effect of this manipulation on facial responses to experimental pain. Twenty-two subjects participated in the study. Their facial expressions, pain intensity, and unpleasantness ratings as well as skin conductance responses to tonic and phasic heat pain were assessed before and after suggestions directed toward increase in affective and sensory qualities of pain, respectively, were provided. Facial expressions were analyzed with the Facial Action Coding system. As expected, suggestions designed to increase the sensory dimension produced a selective increase in pain intensity ratings, whereas suggestions designed to increase pain affect produced increased unpleasantness ratings and elevated skin conductance responses. Furthermore, suggestions for either increased pain affect or pain sensation produced selective modulations in facial response patterns, with facial movements around the eyes mostly encoding sensory aspects, whereas movements of the eyebrows and of the upper lip were closely associated with the affective pain dimension. The facial expression of pain is a multidimensional response system that differentially encodes affective and sensory pain qualities. This differential encoding might have evolved to guarantee that the specific characteristics of one's pain experience are facially communicated, thereby ensuring adequate help and support from others.

  3. Racial bias in pain perception and response: experimental examination of automatic and deliberate processes

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vani A.; Richeson, Jennifer A.; Paice, Judith A.; Muzyka, Michael; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities in pain treatment pose a significant public health and scientific problem. Prior studies demonstrate clinicians and non-clinicians are less perceptive, and suggest less treatment for, the pain of African Americans, relative to European Americans. Here we investigate the effects of explicit/implicit patient race presentation, patient race, and perceiver race on pain perception and response. African American and European American participants rated pain perception, empathy, helping motivation, and treatment suggestion in response to vignettes about patients’ pain. Vignettes were accompanied by a rapid (implicit), or static (explicit) presentation of an African or European American patient’s face. Participants perceived and responded more to European American patients in the implicit prime condition, when the effect of patient race was below the level of conscious regulation. This effect was reversed when patient race was presented explicitly. Additionally, female participants perceived and responded more to the pain of all patients, relative to male participants, and in the implicit prime condition, African American participants were more perceptive and responsive than European Americans to the pain of all patients. Taken together, these results suggest that known disparities in pain treatment may be largely due to automatic (below the level of conscious regulation), rather than deliberate (subject to conscious regulation) biases. These biases were not associated with traditional implicit measures of racial attitudes, suggesting that biases in pain perception and response may be independent of general prejudice. Perspective Results suggest racial biases in pain perception and treatment are at least partially due to automatic processes. When the relevance of patient race is made explicit, however, biases are attenuated and even reversed. We also find preliminary evidence that African Americans may be more sensitive to the pain of others than

  4. Pain perception in people with Down syndrome: a synthesis of clinical and experimental research

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Brian E.; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    People with an intellectual disability experience both acute and chronic pain with at least the same frequency as the general population. However, considerably less is known about the pain perception of people with Down syndrome. In this review paper, we evaluated the available clinical and experimental evidence. Some experimental studies of acute pain have indicated that pain threshold was higher than normal but only when using a reaction time method to measure pain sensitivity. However, when reaction time is not part of the calculation of the pain threshold, pain sensitivity in people with Down syndrome is in fact lower than normal (more sensitive to pain). Clinical studies of chronic pain have shown that people with an intellectual disability experience chronic pain and within that population, people with Down syndrome also experience chronic pain, but the precise prevalence of chronic pain in Down syndrome has yet to be established. Taken together, the literature suggests that people with Down syndrome experience pain, both acute and chronic, with at least the same frequency as the rest of the population. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that although acute pain expression appears to be delayed, once pain is registered, there appears to be a magnified pain response. We conclude by proposing an agenda for future research in this area. PMID:26283936

  5. Lip movements affect infants' audiovisual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Yeung, H Henny; Werker, Janet F

    2013-05-01

    Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces (visual [i] and [u]) were presented with a synchronous vowel sound (audio /i/ or /u/). Infants' looking patterns were selectively biased away from the audiovisual matching face when the infants were producing lip movements similar to those needed to produce the heard vowel. Infants' looking patterns returned to those of a baseline condition (no lip movements, looking longer at the audiovisual matching face) when they were producing lip movements that did not match the heard vowel. Experiment 2 confirmed that these sensorimotor effects interacted with the heard vowel, as looking patterns differed when infants produced these same lip movements while seeing and hearing a talking face producing an unrelated vowel (audio /a/). These findings suggest that the development of speech perception and speech production may be mutually informative.

  6. The tridimensional personality theory and pain: harm avoidance and reward dependence traits correlate with pain perception in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pud, Dorit; Eisenberg, Elon; Sprecher, Elliot; Rogowski, Zeev; Yarnitsky, David

    2004-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of personality traits in determining the variability of pain perception among individuals. More specifically, it was intended to test whether or not the three personality dimensions suggested by Cloninger in 1987 - mainly harm avoidance (HA), but also reward dependence (RD), and novelty seeking (NS), can predict interpersonal differences in responsiveness to experimental pain. Seventy healthy volunteers participated in the study. Their personality traits were evaluated through Cloninger's tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ). Pain threshold (latency to pain onset), pain magnitude (VAS), and pain tolerance (time to withdrawal) were measured by using the cold pressor test. Bonferroni-adjusted correlations were found between HA and the pain parameters as follows: a negative correlation between HA and threshold (rho=-0.297, P(adj)=0.039); no significant correlation between HA and tolerance (rho=-0.219, P(adj)=0.207); and a trend for a positive correlation between HA and VAS (rho=0.266, P(adj)=0.081). Possible correlations between pain perception and the various possible combinations of high and low scoring for each of the three traits were also investigated. Correlations were found only for the combinations of high/low HA and high/low RD. The low HA/low RD combination demonstrated the lowest responsiveness to pain (VAS 65.2+/-21.4; tolerance 107.6+/-71.8 s), whereas the high HA/low RD combination was correlated with the highest responsiveness (VAS 83.3+/-10.8; tolerance 30.8+/-28.4 s). The results indicate that HA personality trait correlates best with pain responsiveness. As such, a high HA are likely to predict a heightened pain response. RD may modify this pattern. The possible relevant behavioral and neuro-chemical mechanisms are discussed.

  7. When race matters: disagreement in pain perception between patients and their physicians in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Staton, Lisa J.; Panda, Mukta; Chen, Ian; Genao, Inginia; Kurz, James; Pasanen, Mark; Mechaber, Alex J.; Menon, Madhusudan; O'Rorke, Jane; Wood, JoAnn; Rosenberg, Eric; Faeslis, Charles; Carey, Tim; Calleson, Diane; Cykert, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Patients and physicians often disagree in their assessment of pain intensity. This study explores the impact of patient factors on underestimation of pain intensity in chronic noncancer pain. We surveyed patients and their physicians in 12 primary care centers. To measure pain intensity, patients completed an 11-point numeric rating scale for which pain scores range from 0 (no pain) to 10 (unbearable pain). Physicians rated patients' pain on the same scale. We defined disagreement of pain intensity as underestimation or overestimation by 22 points. Of 601 patients approached, 463 (77%) completed the survey. The majority of participants were black (39%) or white (47%), 67% were female, and the mean age was 53 years. Physicians underestimated pain intensity relative to their patients 39% of the time. Forty-six percent agreed with their patients' pain perception, and 15% of physicians overestimated their patients' pain levels by > or =2 points. In both the bivariate and multivariable models, black race was a significant variable associated with underestimation of pain by physicians (p < 0.05; OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.31-2.81). This study finds that physicians are twice as likely to underestimate pain in blacks patients compared to all other ethnicities combined. A qualitative study exploring why physicians rate blacks patients' pain low is warranted. PMID:17534011

  8. Higher cortical modulation of pain perception in the human brain: Psychological determinant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew Cn

    2009-10-01

    Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain have been reviewed recently. In the current article, the reports on pain modulation in the human brain were reviewed from higher cortical regulation, i.e. top-down effect, particularly studied in psychological determinants. Pain modulation can be examined by gene therapy, physical modulation, pharmacological modulation, psychological modulation, and pathophysiological modulation. In psychological modulation, this article examined (a) willed determination, (b) distraction, (c) placebo, (d) hypnosis, (e) meditation, (f) qi-gong, (g) belief, and (h) emotions, respectively, in the brain function for pain modulation. In each, the operational definition, cortical processing, neuroimaging, and pain modulation were systematically deliberated. However, not all studies had featured the brain modulation processing but rather demonstrated potential effects on human pain. In our own studies on the emotional modulation on human pain, we observed that emotions could be induced from music melodies or pictures perception for reduction of tonic human pain, mainly in potentiation of the posterior alpha EEG fields, likely resulted from underneath activities of precuneous in regulation of consciousness, including pain perception. To sum, higher brain functions become the leading edge research in all sciences. How to solve the information bit of thinking and feeling in the brain can be the greatest challenge of human intelligence. Application of higher cortical modulation of human pain and suffering can lead to the progress of social humanity and civilization.

  9. The Efficacy of a Perceptive Rehabilitation on Postural Control in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolucci, Teresa; Fusco, Augusto; Iosa, Marco; Grasso, Maria R.; Spadini, Ennio; Paolucci, Stefano; Saraceni, Vincenzo M.; Morone, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain have a worse posture, probably related to poor control of the back muscles and altered perception of the trunk midline. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a perceptive rehabilitation in terms of stability and pain relief in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Thirty patients were…

  10. Bi-directional changes in affective state elicited by manipulation of medullary pain-modulatory circuitry.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, N; Tershner, S A; Fields, H L; Manning, B H

    2000-01-01

    The rostral ventromedial medulla contains three physiologically defined classes of pain-modulating neuron that project to the spinal and trigeminal dorsal horns. OFF cells contribute to anti-nociceptive processes, ON cells contribute to pro-nociceptive processes (i.e. hyperalgesia) and neutral cells tonically modulate spinal nociceptive responsiveness. In the setting of noxious peripheral input, the different cell classes in this region permit bi-directional modulation of pain perception (analgesia vs hyperalgesia). It is unclear, however, whether changes in the activity of these neurons are relevant to the behaving animal in the absence of a painful stimulus. Here, we pharmacologically manipulated neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla and used the place-conditioning paradigm to assess changes in the affective state of the animal. Local microinjection of the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist methoxamine (50.0 microg in 0.5 microl; to activate ON cells, primarily), combined with local microinjection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69,593 (0.178 microg in 0.5 microl; to inhibit OFF cells), produced an increase in spinal nociceptive reactivity (i.e. hyperalgesia on the tail flick assay) and a negative affective state (as inferred from the production of conditioned place avoidance) in the conscious, freely moving rat. Additional microinjection experiments using various concentrations of methoxamine alone or U69, 593 alone revealed that the rostral ventromedial medulla is capable of eliciting a range of affective changes resulting in conditioned place avoidance, no place-conditioning effect or conditioned place preference (reflecting production of a positive affective state). Overall, however, there was no consistent relationship between place-conditioning effects and changes in spinal nociceptive reactivity. This is the first report of bi-directional changes in affective state (i.e. reward or aversion production) associated with pharmacological manipulation of

  11. Bi-directional changes in affective state elicited by manipulation of medullary pain-modulatory circuitry.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, N; Tershner, S A; Fields, H L; Manning, B H

    2000-01-01

    The rostral ventromedial medulla contains three physiologically defined classes of pain-modulating neuron that project to the spinal and trigeminal dorsal horns. OFF cells contribute to anti-nociceptive processes, ON cells contribute to pro-nociceptive processes (i.e. hyperalgesia) and neutral cells tonically modulate spinal nociceptive responsiveness. In the setting of noxious peripheral input, the different cell classes in this region permit bi-directional modulation of pain perception (analgesia vs hyperalgesia). It is unclear, however, whether changes in the activity of these neurons are relevant to the behaving animal in the absence of a painful stimulus. Here, we pharmacologically manipulated neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla and used the place-conditioning paradigm to assess changes in the affective state of the animal. Local microinjection of the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist methoxamine (50.0 microg in 0.5 microl; to activate ON cells, primarily), combined with local microinjection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69,593 (0.178 microg in 0.5 microl; to inhibit OFF cells), produced an increase in spinal nociceptive reactivity (i.e. hyperalgesia on the tail flick assay) and a negative affective state (as inferred from the production of conditioned place avoidance) in the conscious, freely moving rat. Additional microinjection experiments using various concentrations of methoxamine alone or U69, 593 alone revealed that the rostral ventromedial medulla is capable of eliciting a range of affective changes resulting in conditioned place avoidance, no place-conditioning effect or conditioned place preference (reflecting production of a positive affective state). Overall, however, there was no consistent relationship between place-conditioning effects and changes in spinal nociceptive reactivity. This is the first report of bi-directional changes in affective state (i.e. reward or aversion production) associated with pharmacological manipulation of

  12. The relationship between fear of social and physical threat and its effect on social distress and physical pain perception.

    PubMed

    Riva, Paolo; Williams, Kipling D; Gallucci, Marcello

    2014-03-01

    Past research has found that measuring individuals' fear of pain predicts their physical pain perceptions: those reporting higher levels of fear of pain report higher levels of pain. We investigated links between fear of social threat and fear of physical pain, testing whether these fears predict responses to social distress and physical pain. In 3 studies, we found that fear of social and physical threat were related yet distinct psychological constructs (study 1), that fear of social (but not physical) threat predicted the perception of social distress (study 2), and that fear of physical (but not social) pain predicted the perception of physical pain (study 3). Thus, we found that, similar to the influence of fear of physical pain on physical pain perception, fear of social threat moderated the perception of social distress. However, we also found that these effects were specific, such that each type of fear uniquely predicted the experience of the same type of distress. We argue that timely identification of high levels of social threat-related fear is critical for identifying individuals who will benefit most from preventative interventions aimed to limit negative cycles of high avoidance and increased social threat perception. Furthermore, our work sets a boundary condition to pain overlap theory by showing that high levels of fear of one type of pain (e.g., social) are specifically linked to increased perception of that particular type of pain (e.g., social) but not the other (e.g., physical).

  13. Perception, assessment, treatment, and management of pain in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Robert L; Barkin, Stacy J; Barkin, Diana S

    2005-08-01

    Twenty to 50% of community elderly suffer from pain. Up to 80% of the institutionalized elderly report at least one pain problem. Multiple pain etiologies that occur in elderly patients may be the occurrence of multiple chronic diseases: osteoarthritis, RA, cancer, DJD, bone/joint disorders, osteoporosis, surgical pain, trauma, neuropathic pain, and nociceptive pain. The incidence of unrelieved pain inhibits respiration, decreases mobility, and decreases their functional status, which may lead to iatrogenic events, which include pneumonia, constipation and deep vein thrombosis. Prolonged inpatient stays and extended care facilities or nursing homes may decrease the elderly patient's expectations of quality of life and initiate social isolation. There exists some roadblocks or barriers to the detection of pain in the elderly client. These include social, emotional, cognitive, and subjective issues with the patient. PMID:15911202

  14. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  15. Caregivers' attentional bias to pain: does it affect caregiver accuracy in detecting patient pain behaviors?

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Khatibi, Ali; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias to pain among family caregivers of patients with pain may enhance the detection of pain behaviors in patients. However, both relatively high and low levels of attentional bias may increase disagreement between patients and caregivers in reporting pain behaviors. This study aims to provide further evidence for the presence of attentional bias to pain among family caregivers, to examine the association between caregivers' attentional bias to pain and detecting pain behaviors, and test whether caregivers' attentional bias to pain is curvilinearly related to patient and caregiver disagreement in reporting pain behaviors. The sample consisted of 96 caregivers, 94 patients with chronic pain, and 42 control participants. Caregivers and controls completed a dot-probe task assessing attention to painful and happy stimuli. Both patients and caregivers completed a checklist assessing patients' pain behavior. Although caregivers did not respond faster to pain congruent than pain incongruent trials, caregiver responses were slower in pain incongruent trials compared with happy incongruent trials. Caregivers showed more bias toward pain faces than happy faces, whereas control participants showed more bias toward happy faces than pain faces. Importantly, caregivers' attentional bias to pain was significantly positively associated with reporting pain behaviors in patients above and beyond pain severity. It is reassuring that attentional bias to pain was not related to disagreement between patients and caregivers in reporting pain behaviors. In other words, attentional bias does not seem to cause overestimation of pain signals.

  16. Affective state influences perception by affecting decision parameters underlying bias and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Spencer K; Zhang, Xuan; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-08-01

    Studies of the effect of affect on perception often show consistent directional effects of a person's affective state on perception. Unpleasant emotions have been associated with a "locally focused" style of stimulus evaluation, and positive emotions with a "globally focused" style. Typically, however, studies of affect and perception have not been conducted under the conditions of perceptual uncertainty and behavioral risk inherent to perceptual judgments outside the laboratory. We investigated the influence of perceivers' experienced affect (valence and arousal) on the utility of social threat perception by combining signal detection theory and behavioral economics. We compared 3 perceptual decision environments that systematically differed with respect to factors that underlie uncertainty and risk: the base rate of threat, the costs of incorrect identification threat, and the perceptual similarity of threats and nonthreats. We found that no single affective state yielded the best performance on the threat perception task across the 3 environments. Unpleasant valence promoted calibration of response bias to base rate and costs, high arousal promoted calibration of perceptual sensitivity to perceptual similarity, and low arousal was associated with an optimal adjustment of bias to sensitivity. However, the strength of these associations was conditional upon the difficulty of attaining optimal bias and high sensitivity, such that the effect of the perceiver's affective state on perception differed with the cause and/or level of uncertainty and risk.

  17. The effects of slow breathing on affective responses to pain stimuli: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Zautra, Alex J; Fasman, Robert; Davis, Mary C; Craig, Arthur D Bud

    2010-04-01

    This study examined whether breathing rate affected self-reported pain and emotion following thermal pain stimuli in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM: n=27) or age-matched healthy control women (HC: n=25). FM and HC were exposed to low and moderate thermal pain pulses during paced breathing at their normal rate and one-half their normal rate. Thermal pain pulses were presented in four blocks of four trials. Each block included exposure to both mild and moderate pain trials, and periods of both normal and slow paced breathing. Pain intensity and unpleasantness were recorded immediately following each pain trial, and positive and negative affect were assessed at the end of each block of trials. Compared to normal breathing, slow breathing reduced ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness, particularly for moderately versus mildly painful thermal stimuli. The effects of slow breathing on pain ratings were less reliable for FM patients than for HCs. Slow versus normal breathing decreased negative affect ratings following thermal pain pulses for both groups, and increased positive affect reports, but only for healthy controls with high trait negative affect. Participants who reported higher levels of trait positive affect prior to the experiment showed greater decreases in negative affect as a result of slow versus normal breathing. These experimental findings provide support for prior reports on the benefits of yogic breathing and mindful Zen meditation for pain and depressed affect. However, chronic pain patients may require more guidance to obtain therapeutic benefit from reduced breathing rates.

  18. Feeling worse to feel better: pain-offset relief simultaneously stimulates positive affect and reduces negative affect.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Joseph C; Lee, Kent M; Hanna, Eleanor K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2013-04-01

    Although pain itself induces negative affect, the removal (or offset) of pain induces a powerful state of relief. Despite being implicated in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenomena, relief remains a poorly understood emotion. In particular, some theorists associate relief with increased positive affect, whereas others associate relief with diminished negative affect. In the present study, we examined the affective nature of relief in a pain-offset paradigm with psychophysiological measures that were specific to negative valence (startle eyeblink reactivity) and positive valence (startle postauricular reactivity). Results revealed that pain offset simultaneously stimulates positive affect and diminishes negative affect for at least several seconds. Results also indicated that pain intensity differentially affects the positive and negative valence aspects of relief. These findings clarify the affective nature of relief and provide insight into why people engage in both normal and abnormal behaviors associated with relief.

  19. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  20. Categorical Perception of Affective and Linguistic Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…

  1. Evaluation of a prototype tool for communicating body perception disturbances in complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turton, Ailie J; Palmer, Mark; Grieve, Sharon; Moss, Timothy P; Lewis, Jenny; McCabe, Candida S

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) experience distressing changes in body perception. However representing body perception is a challenge. A digital media tool for communicating body perception disturbances was developed. A proof of concept study evaluating the acceptability of the application for patients to communicate their body perception is reported in this methods paper. Thirteen CRPS participants admitted to a 2-week inpatient rehabilitation program used the application in a consultation with a research nurse. Audio recordings were made of the process and a structured questionnaire was administered to capture experiences of using the tool. Participants produced powerful images of disturbances in their body perception. All reported the tool acceptable for communicating their body perception. Participants described the positive impact of now seeing an image they had previously only imagined and could now convey to others. The application has provided a novel way for communicating perceptions that are otherwise difficult to convey.

  2. Evaluation of a prototype tool for communicating body perception disturbances in complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turton, Ailie J; Palmer, Mark; Grieve, Sharon; Moss, Timothy P; Lewis, Jenny; McCabe, Candida S

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) experience distressing changes in body perception. However representing body perception is a challenge. A digital media tool for communicating body perception disturbances was developed. A proof of concept study evaluating the acceptability of the application for patients to communicate their body perception is reported in this methods paper. Thirteen CRPS participants admitted to a 2-week inpatient rehabilitation program used the application in a consultation with a research nurse. Audio recordings were made of the process and a structured questionnaire was administered to capture experiences of using the tool. Participants produced powerful images of disturbances in their body perception. All reported the tool acceptable for communicating their body perception. Participants described the positive impact of now seeing an image they had previously only imagined and could now convey to others. The application has provided a novel way for communicating perceptions that are otherwise difficult to convey. PMID:24009577

  3. Deficits in pain perception in borderline personality disorder: results from the thermal grill illusion

    PubMed Central

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Chung, Boo Young; Richter, Ingmarie; Wicking, Manon; Foell, Jens; Mancke, Falk; Schmahl, Christian; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract It is well documented that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by reduced pain sensitivity, which might be related to nonsuicidal self-injury and dissociative experiences in patients with BPD. However, it remains an open question whether this insensitivity relies at least partly on altered sensory integration or on an altered evaluation of pain or a combination of both. In this study, we used the thermal grill illusion (TGI), describing a painful sensation induced by the application of alternating cold and warm nonnoxious stimuli, in patients with either current or remitted BPD as well as matched healthy controls. Two additional conditions, applying warm or cold temperatures only, served as control. We further assessed thermal perception, discrimination, and pain thresholds. We found significantly reduced heat and cold pain thresholds for the current BPD group, as well as reduced cold pain thresholds for the remitted BPD group, as compared with the HC group. Current BPD patients perceived a less-intense TGI in terms of induced pain and unpleasantness, while their general ability to perceive this kind of illusion seemed to be unaffected. Thermal grill illusion magnitude was negatively correlated with dissociation and traumatization only in the current BPD patients. These results indicate that higher-order pain perception is altered in current BPD, which seems to normalize after remission. We discuss these findings against the background of neurophysiological evidence for the TGI in general and reduced pain sensitivity in BPD and suggest a relationship to alterations in N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission. PMID:26098439

  4. Deficits in pain perception in borderline personality disorder: results from the thermal grill illusion.

    PubMed

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Chung, Boo Young; Richter, Ingmarie; Wicking, Manon; Foell, Jens; Mancke, Falk; Schmahl, Christian; Flor, Herta

    2015-10-01

    It is well documented that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by reduced pain sensitivity, which might be related to nonsuicidal self-injury and dissociative experiences in patients with BPD. However, it remains an open question whether this insensitivity relies at least partly on altered sensory integration or on an altered evaluation of pain or a combination of both. In this study, we used the thermal grill illusion (TGI), describing a painful sensation induced by the application of alternating cold and warm nonnoxious stimuli, in patients with either current or remitted BPD as well as matched healthy controls. Two additional conditions, applying warm or cold temperatures only, served as control. We further assessed thermal perception, discrimination, and pain thresholds. We found significantly reduced heat and cold pain thresholds for the current BPD group, as well as reduced cold pain thresholds for the remitted BPD group, as compared with the HC group. Current BPD patients perceived a less-intense TGI in terms of induced pain and unpleasantness, while their general ability to perceive this kind of illusion seemed to be unaffected. Thermal grill illusion magnitude was negatively correlated with dissociation and traumatization only in the current BPD patients. These results indicate that higher-order pain perception is altered in current BPD, which seems to normalize after remission. We discuss these findings against the background of neurophysiological evidence for the TGI in general and reduced pain sensitivity in BPD and suggest a relationship to alterations in N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission. PMID:26098439

  5. Deficits in pain perception in borderline personality disorder: results from the thermal grill illusion.

    PubMed

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Chung, Boo Young; Richter, Ingmarie; Wicking, Manon; Foell, Jens; Mancke, Falk; Schmahl, Christian; Flor, Herta

    2015-10-01

    It is well documented that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by reduced pain sensitivity, which might be related to nonsuicidal self-injury and dissociative experiences in patients with BPD. However, it remains an open question whether this insensitivity relies at least partly on altered sensory integration or on an altered evaluation of pain or a combination of both. In this study, we used the thermal grill illusion (TGI), describing a painful sensation induced by the application of alternating cold and warm nonnoxious stimuli, in patients with either current or remitted BPD as well as matched healthy controls. Two additional conditions, applying warm or cold temperatures only, served as control. We further assessed thermal perception, discrimination, and pain thresholds. We found significantly reduced heat and cold pain thresholds for the current BPD group, as well as reduced cold pain thresholds for the remitted BPD group, as compared with the HC group. Current BPD patients perceived a less-intense TGI in terms of induced pain and unpleasantness, while their general ability to perceive this kind of illusion seemed to be unaffected. Thermal grill illusion magnitude was negatively correlated with dissociation and traumatization only in the current BPD patients. These results indicate that higher-order pain perception is altered in current BPD, which seems to normalize after remission. We discuss these findings against the background of neurophysiological evidence for the TGI in general and reduced pain sensitivity in BPD and suggest a relationship to alterations in N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission.

  6. Markedly Reduced Thermal Pain Perception in a Schizoaffective Patient with Tardive Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several case reports have described stories of schizophrenia patients reporting no discomfort in response to several medical conditions which normally elicit pain. Comparatively, experimental studies performed on pain perception in schizophrenia have not documented hypoalgesic responses that are as frank as those reported in these clinical cases. Here, we report the case of a female patient with schizoaffective disorder, who displayed markedly reduced pain perception during an experimental heat pain paradigm. Compared to a large group of healthy volunteers that we tested in 3 previous studies using the same psychophysical procedure, the experimental temperature required to induce moderate pain was radically increased in this patient (z-score = 3.6). The patient had mild psychiatric symptoms and had insight into her symptoms. She had drug-induced dyskinetic symptoms. This case report illustrates that it is possible to observe marked reductions in pain perception in schizophrenia patients tested in experimental settings but that the phenomenon is relatively rare. Regardless of the exact nature of pain indifference in schizophrenia, it can delay diagnosis and treatment of medical problems in these patients. Future studies in the field will need to pay attention to drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. PMID:27144045

  7. The effects of total and REM sleep deprivation on laser-evoked potential threshold and pain perception.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Eduardo; Manzano, Gilberto M; Silva, Andressa; Martins, Raquel; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the effects of total and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation on the thermal nociceptive threshold and pain perception using the objective laser-evoked potential (LEP) and the subjective visual analogue scale (VAS). Twenty-eight male adult volunteers were assigned into Control (CTRL), Total (T-SD), and REM (REM-SD) Sleep Deprivation groups. The T-SD and REM-SD volunteers were totally or selectively deprived of sleep for 2 and 4 consecutive nights, respectively. Pain parameters were measured daily during the experimental period. Volunteers were stimulated on the back of the hand by blocks of 50 diode laser pulses. Intensities increased between successive blocks, ranging from nonnoxious to noxious levels, and the LEP threshold was identified based on the evoked-response onset. Both the LEP threshold and VAS ratings were significantly increased after the second night of T-SD. No significant variations were observed in the REM-SD group, suggesting a predominant role for slow wave sleep rather than selective REM-SD in pain perception. Also, for both sleep-deprived groups, the mean values of the LEP threshold and VAS ratings showed a gradual increase that was proportional to the SD deprivation time, followed by a decrease after 1 night of sleep restoration. These findings demonstrate a hyperalgesic modification to pain perception (as reflected by the augmented VAS) and a concomitant increase in the LEP threshold following T-SD, an apparently contradictory effect that can be explained by differences in the ways that attention affects these pain measurements.

  8. Laughter, Humor and Pain Perception in Children: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hilber, Sherry Dunay; Mintzer, Lisa Libman; Castaneda, Marleen; Glover, Dorie; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter™, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7–16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity) and pain tolerance (submersion time) were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was). Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit. PMID:18955244

  9. Pain Perception and Stabilometric Parameters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain After a Pilates Exercise Program

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Various exercise interventions, such as Pilates exercises and traditional physical therapy methods, are employed to decrease low back pain (LBP). Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is distinct from LBP, however, as the distribution of pain is restricted to the region between the costal margin and the inferior gluteal. The aim of our randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a program of Pilates exercises on pain perception and stabilometric parameters in patients with NSLBP. Thirty-eight participants were randomly allocated, using a 1:1 scheme, to either the experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). The EG completed a 14-week program of Pilates exercises, performed thrice per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist, while the CG was managed with a social program only. Measures of posturography and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for pain perception were obtained at baseline (T0) and after the 14 weeks of intervention (T1). Posturography measures improved for patients in the EG, with both eyes open and eyes closed (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in posturography in the CG. ODI decreased significantly in both groups over the 14 weeks of the study protocol: EG, T0, 13.7 ± 5.0 compared with T1, 6.5 ± 4.0 (P < 0.001); and CG, T0, 10.7 ± 7.8 compared with T1, 8.4 ± 7.8 (P < 0.01). A greater extent of reduction in pain was achieved in the EG. The Pilates exercise program yielded improvements in pain and posturography outcomes. Our study also confirms the applicability of posturography in evaluating postural instability in patients with NSLBP. Due to our relatively small study group, future studies would be necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:26765419

  10. The close proximity of threat: altered distance perception in the anticipation of pain.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Abby; Catley, Mark J; Gandevia, Simon C; Thacker, Michael A; Spence, Charles; Moseley, G L

    2015-01-01

    Pain is an experience that powerfully influences the way we interact with our environment. What is less clear is the influence that pain has on the way we perceive our environment. We investigated the effect that the anticipation of experimental pain (THREAT) and its relief (RELIEF) has on the visual perception of space. Eighteen (11F) healthy volunteers estimated the distance to alternating THREAT and RELIEF stimuli that were placed within reachable space. The results determined that the estimated distance to the THREAT stimulus was significantly underestimated in comparison to the RELIEF stimulus. We conclude that pain-evoking stimuli are perceived as closer to the body than otherwise identical pain-relieving stimuli, an important consideration when applied to our decisions and behaviors in relation to the experience of pain. PMID:26029151

  11. The close proximity of threat: altered distance perception in the anticipation of pain

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, Abby; Catley, Mark J.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Thacker, Michael A.; Spence, Charles; Moseley, G. L.

    2015-01-01

    Pain is an experience that powerfully influences the way we interact with our environment. What is less clear is the influence that pain has on the way we perceive our environment. We investigated the effect that the anticipation of experimental pain (THREAT) and its relief (RELIEF) has on the visual perception of space. Eighteen (11F) healthy volunteers estimated the distance to alternating THREAT and RELIEF stimuli that were placed within reachable space. The results determined that the estimated distance to the THREAT stimulus was significantly underestimated in comparison to the RELIEF stimulus. We conclude that pain-evoking stimuli are perceived as closer to the body than otherwise identical pain-relieving stimuli, an important consideration when applied to our decisions and behaviors in relation to the experience of pain. PMID:26029151

  12. Emotion perception, but not affect perception, is impaired with semantic memory loss.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Kristen A; Gendron, Maria; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2014-04-01

    For decades, psychologists and neuroscientists have hypothesized that the ability to perceive emotions on others' faces is inborn, prelinguistic, and universal. Concept knowledge about emotion has been assumed to be epiphenomenal to emotion perception. In this article, we report findings from 3 patients with semantic dementia that cannot be explained by this "basic emotion" view. These patients, who have substantial deficits in semantic processing abilities, spontaneously perceived pleasant and unpleasant expressions on faces, but not discrete emotions such as anger, disgust, fear, or sadness, even in a task that did not require the use of emotion words. Our findings support the hypothesis that discrete emotion concept knowledge helps transform perceptions of affect (positively or negatively valenced facial expressions) into perceptions of discrete emotions such as anger, disgust, fear, and sadness. These findings have important consequences for understanding the processes supporting emotion perception.

  13. Emotion perception, but not affect perception, is impaired with semantic memory loss

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Kristen A.; Gendron, Maria; Feldman Barrett, Lisa; Dickerson, Bradford C.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, psychologists and neuroscientists have hypothesized that the ability to perceive emotions on others’ faces is inborn, pre-linguistic, and universal. Concept knowledge about emotion has been assumed to be epiphenomenal to emotion perception. In this paper, we report findings from three patients with semantic dementia that cannot be explained by this “basic emotion” view. These patients, who have substantial deficits in semantic processing abilities, spontaneously perceived pleasant and unpleasant expressions on faces, but not discrete emotions such as anger, disgust, fear, or sadness, even in a task that did not require the use of emotion words. Our findings support the hypothesis that discrete emotion concept knowledge helps transform perceptions of affect (positively or negatively valenced facial expressions) into perceptions of discrete emotions such as anger, disgust, fear and sadness. These findings have important consequences for understanding the processes supporting emotion perception. PMID:24512242

  14. Adolescent peer-rejection persistently alters pain perception and CB1 receptor expression in female rats.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Peggy; Hannusch, Christin; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Spanagel, Rainer; Schneider, Miriam

    2014-02-01

    Peer-interactions are particularly important during adolescence and teenagers display enhanced sensitivity toward rejection by peers. Social rejection has been shown to induce alterations in pain perception in humans. However, the neurobiological consequences of adolescent social rejection have yet to be extensively characterized, and no appropriate animal model is available. Here, we propose inadequate playful interactions in adolescent rats as a novel animal model for social peer-rejection and examine potential long-term consequences into adulthood. Acute social pairing of female adolescent Wistar rats with an age-matched rat from the less playful Fischer344 strain was found to alter social play and decrease pain reactivity, indicating Fischer rats as inadequate social partners for Wistar animals. Therefore, in a second experiment, adolescent female Wistar rats were either reared with another Wistar rat (adequate social rearing; control) or with a Fischer rat (inadequate social rearing; play-deprived). Beginning on day 50, all Wistar rats were group housed with same-strain partners and tested for behavioral, neurobiological and endocrine differences in adulthood. Playful peer-interactions were decreased during adolescence in play-deprived animals, without affecting social contact behavior. Consequently, adult play-deprived rats showed decreased pain sensitivity and increased startle reactivity compared to controls, but did not differ in activity, anxiety-related behavior or social interaction. Both groups also differed in their endocrine stress-response, and expression levels of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor were increased in the thalamus, whereas FAAH levels were decreased in the amygdala. The present animal model therefore represents a novel approach to assess the long-term consequences of peer-rejection during adolescence. PMID:23669059

  15. Circulating leptin and pain perception among tobacco-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    al'Absi, Mustafa; Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Allen, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    Recent preclinical evidence suggests that leptin may modulate the stress response and may increase nociception. In this study, we examined for the first time the extent to which cigarette smoking is associated with leptin levels during an extended rest period and in response to noxious stimuli. Repeated blood samples were collected during a laboratory session from smokers and nonsmokers and assayed for leptin. Pain experiences, as well as neuroendocrine and cardiovascular measures, were collected across cold pressor and thermal heat pain tests. Both analysis of variance and correlations confirmed that smokers demonstrated dysregulations in leptin responsivity and association with pain relative to nonsmokers. The flat pattern of leptin release and the weak associations of this hormone with pain in smokers suggest a long-term effect of tobacco dependence on this regulatory hormone. In light of leptin's influence on reward pathways, further investigation of leptin's involvement in nicotine dependence is warranted. PMID:25720946

  16. Circulating Leptin and Pain Perception among Tobacco Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    al’Absi, Mustafa; Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Allen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Recent preclinical evidence suggests that leptin may modulate the stress response and may increase nociception. In this study, we examined for the first time the extent to which cigarette smoking is associated with leptin levels during an extended rest period and in response to noxious stimuli. Repeated blood samples were collected during a laboratory session from smokers and nonsmokers and assayed for leptin. Pain experiences, as well as neuroendocrine and cardiovascular measures, were collected across cold pressor and thermal heat pain tests. Both analysis of variance and correlations confirmed that smokers demonstrated dysregulations in leptin responsivity and association with pain relative to nonsmokers. The flat pattern of leptin release and the weak associations of this hormone with pain in smokers suggest a long-term effect of tobacco dependence on this regulatory hormone. In light of leptin’s influence on reward pathways, further investigation of leptin’s involvement in nicotine dependence is warranted. PMID:25720946

  17. The effect of nonrecurring alcohol administration on pain perception in humans: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Horn-Hofmann, Claudia; Büscher, Patricia; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Wolstein, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Alcohol is believed to have pain-dampening effects and is often used as self-medication by persons with pain problems; however, experimental evidence confirming this effect is scarce. We conducted a systematic review of experimental studies on the effects of nonrecurring alcohol administration on pain perception in healthy human subjects and the underlying mechanisms. Method Three databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) were searched for relevant studies using a predefined algorithm. In a next step, irrelevant articles were excluded by screening titles and abstracts. Finally, articles were checked regarding a set of methodological criteria; only publications meeting these criteria were selected for this review. A total of 14 experimental studies were identified. Results Overall, most of the studies were able to show a pain-dampening effect of alcohol. However, many of them had methodological shortcomings (eg, lack of placebo control, insufficient blinding, or very small sample sizes). In addition, comparability is limited due to considerable variations in alcohol administration and pain measurement. More importantly, potential mechanisms of action and moderating variables have scarcely been investigated. Conclusion Despite the frequent use of alcohol as self-medication by persons with pain problems, there are to date only a few experimental investigations of alcohol effects on pain perceptions. The results of these studies suggest that alcohol does in fact have pain-dampening effects. However, the mechanisms implicated in these effects are still unknown, and experimental research has been limited to pain-free subjects. Future research should provide more knowledge about alcohol effects on pain, especially in chronic pain patients. PMID:25960674

  18. Perception of pain as a result of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, P A; Firestone, A R; Bürgin, W B

    1996-08-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the intensity, location and duration of patients' discomfort following insertion of orthodontic appliances, and to examine for interactions between patient age, gender, appliance type and the perception of pain. After insertion of orthodontic appliances, 170 patients received eight questionnaires, one they completed and returned after 4 h, then one daily for 7 days. The respondents' ages ranged from 8-53 years (median age 13 years 7 months); 45 per cent were male and 55 per cent female. Of the patients, 65 per cent reported pain after 4 h and 95 per cent after 24 h. After 7 days, 25 per cent of the patients still reported discomfort. Patients' pain intensity scores were significantly higher for the anterior than for the posterior teeth. On day 1, 16 per cent took analgesics and 18 per cent reported being awakened the first night. Comparing a 2 x 4 appliance, a full appliance in one arch and in both arches, no statistical differences were found for reported pain frequency, general intensity of pain, pain at the teeth, discomfort when biting and chewing and analgesic consumption. The perception of general pain intensity, analgesic consumption, pain when eating and the influence of discomfort on daily life were all significantly greater in girls than in boys. Patients younger than 13 years reported pain significantly less frequently than the older patients. The highest frequency of pain was found in the group of 13-16 year olds. The pain intensity did not differ among the age groups.

  19. Unseen Affective Faces Influence Person Perception Judgments in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kring, Ann M.; Siegel, Erika H.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the influence of unconscious affective processing on consciously processed information among people with and without schizophrenia, we used a continuous flash suppression (CFS) paradigm to examine whether early and rapid processing of affective information influences first impressions of structurally neutral faces. People with and without schizophrenia rated visible neutral faces as more or less trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen smiling or scowling faces compared to when paired with unseen neutral faces. Yet, people with schizophrenia also exhibited a deficit in explicit affect perception. These findings indicate that early processing of affective information is intact in schizophrenia but the integration of this information with semantic contexts is problematic. Furthermore, people with schizophrenia who were more influenced by smiling faces presented outside awareness reported experiencing more anticipatory pleasure, suggesting that the ability to rapidly process affective information is important for anticipation of future pleasurable events. PMID:25664225

  20. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    PubMed

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society. PMID:17340854

  1. Patients' perceptions of a chronic pain rehabilitation program: changing the conversation.

    PubMed

    Craner, Julia R; Skipper, Rosei R; Gilliam, Wesley P; Morrison, Eleshia J; Sperry, Jeannie A

    2016-05-01

    Objective Research supports the effectiveness of comprehensive approaches to chronic pain treatment, including behavioral management and physical reconditioning. However, less is known about patients' perceptions of this treatment approach. The current study evaluated patient perceptions and treatment outcomes utilizing both qualitative and quantitative data collection. Methods A total of 498 adult patients (≥18 years of age; Mage = 49.1) completed an intensive outpatient interdisciplinary chronic pain rehabilitation program, completed survey measures at admission and discharge, and were asked open-ended questions about their treatment experience at discharge. Results Patients reported significant decreases in pain severity, t(488) = 23.08, p < .001, and pain-related interference, t(488) = 24.28, p < .001, at discharge. Patients endorsed self-management strategies, particularly relaxation skills (85%), moderation and/or modification (47%), and exercise, stretching and/or physical therapy (39%) as the most important aspects of treatment. Conclusions Patients perceive behavioral skills to manage pain and physical reconditioning to be important components of a successful pain rehabilitation program. These findings can inform conversations with both physicians and patients about the importance of biopsychosocial approaches to pain management. Key limitations include a lack of racial/ethnic diversity, use of anonymous data that cannot be linked directly to patient outcomes, and reliance on self-report data.

  2. Professors' Facebook content affects students' perceptions and expectations.

    PubMed

    Sleigh, Merry J; Smith, Aimee W; Laboe, Jason

    2013-07-01

    Abstract Facebook users must make choices about level of self-disclosure, and this self-disclosure can influence perceptions of the profile's author. We examined whether the specific type of self-disclosure on a professor's profile would affect students' perceptions of the professor and expectations of his classroom. We created six Facebook profiles for a fictitious male professor, each with a specific emphasis: politically conservative, politically liberal, religious, family oriented, socially oriented, or professional. Undergraduate students randomly viewed one profile and responded to questions that assessed their perceptions and expectations. The social professor was perceived as less skilled but more popular, while his profile was perceived as inappropriate and entertaining. Students reacted more strongly and negatively to the politically focused profiles in comparison to the religious, family, and professional profiles. Students reported being most interested in professional information on a professor's Facebook profile, yet they reported being least influenced by the professional profile. In general, students expressed neutrality about their interest in finding and friending professors on Facebook. These findings suggest that students have the potential to form perceptions about the classroom environment and about their professors based on the specific details disclosed in professors' Facebook profiles. PMID:23614794

  3. [Pain syndromes following amputation. Analysis of 100 affected patients with chronic stump and phantom pain].

    PubMed

    Wörz, R; Wörz, E

    1990-02-10

    One hundred amputees (m = 95, f = 5) with a pain syndrome were analysed. In 80 patients post-amputation pain of the lower, in 20 of the upper, extremities presented. Thirty-two patients suffered bouts of pain, 68 constant pain of various types. The most commonly cited type of pain in the patients with intermittent pain was lancinating, in the case of constant pain a burning sensation. In some patients pain occurred immediately after the loss of the limb, in others not until several years, or even decades, later. Forty per cent of our patients indicated that the incidence and intensity of the pain increased with time. Neurological, orthopedic and internistic causes of stump or phantom pain have been described. In 72% of the patients with constant pain and in 34% of those suffering from bouts of pain, an algogenic psychosyndrome had developed. Complications and late sequelae of amputations are of considerable significance for the development and intensity of stump and phantom pain.

  4. Do anxiety, stress, or depression have any impact on pain perception during shock wave lithotripsy?

    PubMed Central

    Altok, Muammer; Akpinar, Abdullah; Güneş, Mustafa; Umul, Mehmet; Demirci, Kadir; Baş, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The most important adverse effect during shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is pain perception. In this study, we evaluated the effect of anxiety, stress, and depression on pain perception during SWL. Methods: From November 2013 to December 2014, 189 consecutive patients undergoing SWL for kidney stones were evaluated prospectively. Patient characteristics (age, sex, body mass index [BMI], urologic intervention history, the presence of a double-j catheter, and stone-related parameters) were also recorded. Anxiety, stress, and depression states were assessed before the first procedure using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-42), which is a self-report scale. The degree of pain perception was evaluated with a 10-point Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at the end of the first SWL session. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in terms of VAS scores during SWL between patients with and without anxiety, stress, or depression (p >0.05). Furthermore, no statistically significant relationships were found between VAS scores and patient age, sex, side of the stone, presence of a double-j stent, number of stones, and SWL experience (p >0.05). Conclusions: According to our findings, anxiety, stress, or depression seemed to have no impact on pain perception during SWL.

  5. The perception of affective touch in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Crucianelli, Laura; Cardi, Valentina; Treasure, Janet; Jenkinson, Paul M; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-05-30

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by restricted eating, fears of gaining weight, and body image distortions. The etiology remains unknown; however impairments in social cognition and reward circuits contribute to the onset and maintenance of the disorder. One possibility is that AN is associated with reduced perceived pleasantness during social interactions. We therefore examined the perception of interpersonal, 'affective touch' and its social modulation in AN. We measured the perceived pleasantness of light, dynamic stroking touches applied to the forearm of 25 AN patients and 30 healthy controls using C Tactile (CT) afferents-optimal (3cm/s) and non-optimal (18cm/s) velocities, while simultaneously displaying images of faces showing rejecting, neutral and accepting expressions. CT-optimal touch, but not CT non-optimal touch, elicited significantly lower pleasantness ratings in AN patients compared with healthy controls. Pleasantness ratings were modulated by facial expressions in both groups in a similar fashion; namely, presenting socially accepting faces increased the perception of touch pleasantness more than neutral and rejecting faces. Our findings suggest that individuals with AN have a disordered, CT-based affective touch system. This impairment may be linked to their weakened interoceptive perception and distorted body representation. PMID:27137964

  6. Performance of music elevates pain threshold and positive affect: implications for the evolutionary function of music.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, R I M; Kaskatis, Kostas; MacDonald, Ian; Barra, Vinnie

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that music arouses emotional responses. In addition, it has long been thought to play an important role in creating a sense of community, especially in small scale societies. One mechanism by which it might do this is through the endorphin system, and there is evidence to support this claim. Using pain threshold as an assay for CNS endorphin release, we ask whether it is the auditory perception of music that triggers this effect or the active performance of music. We show that singing, dancing and drumming all trigger endorphin release (indexed by an increase in post-activity pain tolerance) in contexts where merely listening to music and low energy musical activities do not. We also confirm that music performance results in elevated positive (but not negative) affect. We conclude that it is the active performance of music that generates the endorphin high, not the music itself. We discuss the implications of this in the context of community bonding mechanisms that commonly involve dance and music-making. PMID:23089077

  7. Additivity in perception of affect from limb motion.

    PubMed

    Etemad, S Ali; Arya, Ali; Parush, Avi

    2014-01-13

    In this study, the notion of additivity in perception of affect from limb motion is investigated. Specifically, we examine whether the impact of multiple limbs in perception of affect is equal to the sum of the impacts of each individual limb. Several neutral, happy, and sad walking sequences are first aligned and averaged. Four distinct body regions or limbs are defined for this study: arms and hands, legs and feet, head and neck, and torso. The three average walks are used to create the stimuli. The motion of each limb and combination of limbs from the neutral sequence are replaced with those of the happy and sad sequences. Through collecting perceptual ratings for when individual limbs contain affective features, and comparing the sums of these ratings to instances where multiple limbs of the body simultaneously contain affective features, additivity is investigated. We find that while the results are highly correlated, additivity does not hold in the classical sense. Based on the results, a mathematical model is proposed for describing the observed relationship.

  8. Additivity in perception of affect from limb motion.

    PubMed

    Etemad, S Ali; Arya, Ali; Parush, Avi

    2014-01-13

    In this study, the notion of additivity in perception of affect from limb motion is investigated. Specifically, we examine whether the impact of multiple limbs in perception of affect is equal to the sum of the impacts of each individual limb. Several neutral, happy, and sad walking sequences are first aligned and averaged. Four distinct body regions or limbs are defined for this study: arms and hands, legs and feet, head and neck, and torso. The three average walks are used to create the stimuli. The motion of each limb and combination of limbs from the neutral sequence are replaced with those of the happy and sad sequences. Through collecting perceptual ratings for when individual limbs contain affective features, and comparing the sums of these ratings to instances where multiple limbs of the body simultaneously contain affective features, additivity is investigated. We find that while the results are highly correlated, additivity does not hold in the classical sense. Based on the results, a mathematical model is proposed for describing the observed relationship. PMID:24269980

  9. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    PubMed

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  10. Perceptions of Pharmacy Students Concerning Cancer Pain and Its Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Mark T.; Raisch, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 62 third- and 105 fourth-year pharmacy students found a number of misperceptions concerning cancer pain and its management that may translate into inadequate provision of care to future patients. Research on educational strategies to address these misperceptions is recommended. (Author/MSE)

  11. Dancers' perceptions of pain and injury: positive and negative effects.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Helen; Tarr, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and four dance students, professionals, and former dancers in the UK completed questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and a body scanning and mapping process aimed at gaining an increased understanding of how dancers interpret pain and its relationship to injury in the context of their careers. The research was targeted at modern and contemporary dancers, as they are an underrepresented group in the dance-injury literature. Results from the questionnaires were compared with other studies of dance injury, drawing on qualitative data where relevant. Findings indicated that 90% of the sample had experienced an injury (now or in the past), and that the lower back and knee were among the most common sites of current pain and injury. Qualitative descriptions of pain and injury indicated that dancers tend to define injury as something that stops them from dancing or from moving normally. Dance injury rates do not appear to be decreasing significantly, despite greater awareness and the promotion of the "healthier dancer" in dance training schools, universities and among professionals in the UK. There is evidence to show that as dancers age they are likely to be more aware of the warning signs of injury and to take steps to prevent it. Data indicated that dancers may under report injuries on surveys, suggesting that such self-reported survey data should be treated with caution. Further qualitative research on dance injuries may provide more useful understanding of dancers' interpretations and treatment of pain and injury.

  12. Dancers' perceptions of pain and injury: positive and negative effects.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Helen; Tarr, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and four dance students, professionals, and former dancers in the UK completed questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and a body scanning and mapping process aimed at gaining an increased understanding of how dancers interpret pain and its relationship to injury in the context of their careers. The research was targeted at modern and contemporary dancers, as they are an underrepresented group in the dance-injury literature. Results from the questionnaires were compared with other studies of dance injury, drawing on qualitative data where relevant. Findings indicated that 90% of the sample had experienced an injury (now or in the past), and that the lower back and knee were among the most common sites of current pain and injury. Qualitative descriptions of pain and injury indicated that dancers tend to define injury as something that stops them from dancing or from moving normally. Dance injury rates do not appear to be decreasing significantly, despite greater awareness and the promotion of the "healthier dancer" in dance training schools, universities and among professionals in the UK. There is evidence to show that as dancers age they are likely to be more aware of the warning signs of injury and to take steps to prevent it. Data indicated that dancers may under report injuries on surveys, suggesting that such self-reported survey data should be treated with caution. Further qualitative research on dance injuries may provide more useful understanding of dancers' interpretations and treatment of pain and injury. PMID:19508809

  13. Pain Perceptions of the Oldest Old: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarit, Steven H.; Griffiths, Patricia C.; Berg, Stig

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed self-reported pain in the oldest old and examined its changes over time and in relation to other measures of health and functioning. Design and Methods: A population-based sample of the oldest old (86-92 years of age) residing in Sweden who were participating in a multiwave longitudinal investigation were interviewed…

  14. The relationship between different facets of empathy, pain perception and compassion fatigue among physicians

    PubMed Central

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Decety, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medical practitioners such as physicians are continuously exposed to the suffering and the distress of patients. Understanding the way pain perception relates to empathetic dispositions and professional quality of life can contribute to the development of strategies aimed at protecting health professionals from burnout and compassion fatigue. In the present study we investigate the way individual dispositions relate to behavioral measures of pain sensitivity, empathy, and professional quality of life. Methods: A secure Web-based series of self-report measures and a behavioral task were administered to 1,199 board-certified physicians. Additionally, surveys were used to obtain measures of demographic and professional background; dispositional empathy (empathic concern, personal distress, and perspective taking); positive (compassion satisfaction) and negative (burnout and secondary traumatic stress) aspects of their professional life. In the behavioral task, participants were asked to watch a series of video clips of patients experiencing different levels of pain and provide ratings of pain intensity and induced personal distress. Results: Perceived pain intensity was significantly lower among more experienced physicians but similar across specialty fields with varying demands of emotional stress. Watching videos of patients in pain, however, elicited more personal distress among physicians in highly demanding medical fields, despite comparable empathy dispositions with other fields. The pain of male patients was perceived as less intense than the pain of female patients, and this effect was more marked for female physicians. The effect of dispositional empathy on pain perception and induced personal distress was different for each sub-component, with perspective taking and empathic concern (EC) being predictive of the behavioral outcomes. Physicians who experience both compassion satisfaction and fatigue perceive more pain and suffer more personal

  15. Blood pressure but not parental history for hypertension predicts pain perception in women.

    PubMed

    al'Absi, M; Petersen, K L; Wittmers, L E

    2000-10-01

    Previous work has suggested an attenuated sensitivity to painful stimulation in hypertensive men. We recently reported that, compared with persons with negative parental history, men, but not women, with a positive history for hypertension showed attenuated pain perception. This study specifically addressed factors that predict pain perception in women, including blood pressure, parental history and mood states. Fifty-four normotensive women with positive (PH+; n = 20) or negative parental history (PH-; n = 34) for hypertension and high or low casual systolic blood pressure (BP) performed the cold pressor (CP) test. Participants rated their pain every 15 s during a 90-s hand CP (0-4 degrees C) and a 90-s post-CP rest period. Detailed mood ratings were obtained immediately before the CP test. Data were evaluated using multivariate repeated measure analyses of variance and regression analyses. PH+ and PH- women did not differ in age, height, weight, education, resting BP, or heart rate. PH+ and PH- women did not differ in pain ratings during or after the CP, or pain ratings using the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), and they did not differ in their cardiovascular responses to the CP, confirming our earlier study in a separate sample. Women with high casual systolic BP reported significantly less pain, especially after the CP (P < 0.01). MPQ total scores confirmed this finding with high BP women reporting less pain than low BP women (P < 0.05). Regression analyses confirmed these effects. Controlling for potential confounding variables did not alter these relationships. These findings suggest that in women, phenotype systolic BP may be a better predictor of hypoalgesia than parental history of hypertension.

  16. Emotion and Perception: The Role of Affective Information

    PubMed Central

    Zadra, Jonathan R.; Clore, Gerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Visual perception and emotion are traditionally considered separate domains of study. In this article, however, we review research showing them to be less separable that usually assumed. In fact, emotions routinely affect how and what we see. Fear, for example, can affect low-level visual processes, sad moods can alter susceptibility to visual illusions, and goal-directed desires can change the apparent size of goal-relevant objects. In addition, the layout of the physical environment, including the apparent steepness of a hill and the distance to the ground from a balcony can both be affected by emotional states. We propose that emotions provide embodied information about the costs and benefits of anticipated action, information that can be used automatically and immediately, circumventing the need for cogitating on the possible consequences of potential actions. Emotions thus provide a strong motivating influence on how the environment is perceived. PMID:22039565

  17. Pressure pain perception in the diabetic Charcot foot: facts and hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Chantelau, Ernst A.; Wienemann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Background Reduced traumatic and posttraumatic (nociceptive) pain is a key feature of diabetic neuropathy. Underlying condition is a gradual degeneration of endings of pain nerves (A-delta fibers and C-fibers), which operate as receivers of noxious stimuli (nociceptors). Hence, the absence of A-delta fiber mediated sharp pain (“first” pain), and of C-fiber mediated dull pain (“second” pain). However, patients with diabetic neuropathy and acute Charcot foot often experience deep dull aching in the Charcot foot while walking on it. Aim To create a unifying hypothesis on the kind of pain in an acute Charcot foot. Result Absence of punctuate (pinprick) pain perception at the sole of a Charcot foot, as was shown recently, likely corresponds to vanished intraepidermal A-delta fiber endings. C-fiber nociceptors are reduced, according to histopathology studies. Both types of fibers contribute to posttraumatic hyperalgesia at the skin level, as studies show. Their deficiencies likely impact on posttraumatic hyperalgesia at the skin level and, probably, also at the skeletal level. Conclusion It is hypothesised that deep dull aching in an acute diabetic Charcot foot may represent faulty posttraumatic hyperalgesia involving cutaneous and skeletal tissues. PMID:23705057

  18. Categorical perception of affective and linguistic facial expressions.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-02-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX discrimination and identification tasks on morphed affective and linguistic facial expression continua. The continua were created by morphing end-point photo exemplars into 11 images, changing linearly from one expression to another in equal steps. For both affective and linguistic expressions, hearing non-signers exhibited better discrimination across category boundaries than within categories for both experiments, thus replicating previous results with affective expressions and demonstrating CP effects for non-canonical facial expressions. Deaf signers, however, showed significant CP effects only for linguistic facial expressions. Subsequent analyses indicated that order of presentation influenced signers' response time performance for affective facial expressions: viewing linguistic facial expressions first slowed response time for affective facial expressions. We conclude that CP effects for affective facial expressions can be influenced by language experience. PMID:19111287

  19. Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zautra, Alex J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia, or both, completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10-12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases…

  20. Children's racial bias in perceptions of others' pain.

    PubMed

    Dore, Rebecca A; Hoffman, Kelly M; Lillard, Angeline S; Trawalter, Sophie

    2014-06-01

    Previous research indicates that American adults, both Black and White, assume a priori that Black people feel less pain than do White people (Trawalter, Hoffman, & Waytz, 2012, PLoS One, 7[11], 1-8). The present work investigates when in development this bias emerges. Five-, 7-, and 10-year-olds first rated the amount of pain they themselves would feel in 10 situations such as biting their tongue or hitting their head. They then rated the amount of pain they believed two other children - a Black child and a White child, matched to the child's gender - would feel in response to the same events. We found that by age 7, children show a weak racial bias and that by age 10, they show a strong and reliable racial bias. Consistent with research on adults, this bias was not moderated by race-related attitudes or interracial contact. This finding is important because knowing the age of emergence can inform the timing of interventions to prevent this bias.

  1. Extenuating Circumstances in Perceptions of Suicide: Disease Diagnosis (AIDS, Cancer), Pain Level, and Life Expectancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen K.; Range, Lillian M.

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether illness type, pain level, and life expectancy affected reactions of undergraduates (n=160) toward a terminal illness suicide with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or cancer. AIDS patients were more stigmatized than cancer patients; suicide was more tolerated if victim was suffering greater pain. (Author/ABL)

  2. Sound frequency affects speech emotion perception: results from congenital amusia

    PubMed Central

    Lolli, Sydney L.; Lewenstein, Ari D.; Basurto, Julian; Winnik, Sean; Loui, Psyche

    2015-01-01

    Congenital amusics, or “tone-deaf” individuals, show difficulty in perceiving and producing small pitch differences. While amusia has marked effects on music perception, its impact on speech perception is less clear. Here we test the hypothesis that individual differences in pitch perception affect judgment of emotion in speech, by applying low-pass filters to spoken statements of emotional speech. A norming study was first conducted on Mechanical Turk to ensure that the intended emotions from the Macquarie Battery for Evaluation of Prosody were reliably identifiable by US English speakers. The most reliably identified emotional speech samples were used in Experiment 1, in which subjects performed a psychophysical pitch discrimination task, and an emotion identification task under low-pass and unfiltered speech conditions. Results showed a significant correlation between pitch-discrimination threshold and emotion identification accuracy for low-pass filtered speech, with amusics (defined here as those with a pitch discrimination threshold >16 Hz) performing worse than controls. This relationship with pitch discrimination was not seen in unfiltered speech conditions. Given the dissociation between low-pass filtered and unfiltered speech conditions, we inferred that amusics may be compensating for poorer pitch perception by using speech cues that are filtered out in this manipulation. To assess this potential compensation, Experiment 2 was conducted using high-pass filtered speech samples intended to isolate non-pitch cues. No significant correlation was found between pitch discrimination and emotion identification accuracy for high-pass filtered speech. Results from these experiments suggest an influence of low frequency information in identifying emotional content of speech. PMID:26441718

  3. Sound frequency affects speech emotion perception: results from congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Lolli, Sydney L; Lewenstein, Ari D; Basurto, Julian; Winnik, Sean; Loui, Psyche

    2015-01-01

    Congenital amusics, or "tone-deaf" individuals, show difficulty in perceiving and producing small pitch differences. While amusia has marked effects on music perception, its impact on speech perception is less clear. Here we test the hypothesis that individual differences in pitch perception affect judgment of emotion in speech, by applying low-pass filters to spoken statements of emotional speech. A norming study was first conducted on Mechanical Turk to ensure that the intended emotions from the Macquarie Battery for Evaluation of Prosody were reliably identifiable by US English speakers. The most reliably identified emotional speech samples were used in Experiment 1, in which subjects performed a psychophysical pitch discrimination task, and an emotion identification task under low-pass and unfiltered speech conditions. Results showed a significant correlation between pitch-discrimination threshold and emotion identification accuracy for low-pass filtered speech, with amusics (defined here as those with a pitch discrimination threshold >16 Hz) performing worse than controls. This relationship with pitch discrimination was not seen in unfiltered speech conditions. Given the dissociation between low-pass filtered and unfiltered speech conditions, we inferred that amusics may be compensating for poorer pitch perception by using speech cues that are filtered out in this manipulation. To assess this potential compensation, Experiment 2 was conducted using high-pass filtered speech samples intended to isolate non-pitch cues. No significant correlation was found between pitch discrimination and emotion identification accuracy for high-pass filtered speech. Results from these experiments suggest an influence of low frequency information in identifying emotional content of speech. PMID:26441718

  4. Neuropathic pain in neuromyelitis optica affects activities of daily living and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sizheng; Mutch, Kerry; Elsone, Liene; Nurmikko, Turo; Jacob, Anu

    2014-10-01

    Though pain in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has been described in two recent reports, the proportion with true neuropathic pain (NP), its features, impact on activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life has not been well characterised. A cross-sectional study of 50 NMO patients with transverse myelitis was performed using Douleur Neuropathique 4, Brief Pain Inventory, Extended Disability Status Scale and Short Form 36. NP was identified in 62% of patients. Pain was constant in 68% affecting most ADL. Pain was associated with significant reduction of the SF36 Mental Composite Score. The high prevalence of NP and associated disability necessitates an in-depth enquiry in patients with NMO.

  5. Differentiation of Competence and Affect Self-Perceptions in Elementary School Students: Extending Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to address two underexplored research questions regarding support for the separation between competence and affect self-perceptions due to differential relations to outcome criteria. First, it is tested whether higher relations between affect self-perceptions and effort than between competence self-perceptions and effort can also…

  6. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    PubMed

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits. PMID:26894832

  7. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images

    PubMed Central

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject’s facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits. PMID:26894832

  8. Caffeine does not alter RPE or pain perception during intense exercise in active women.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Roupoli, Lindsay R; Valdivieso, Britten R

    2012-10-01

    Attenuated perceptions of exertion and leg pain are typically reported during exercise with caffeine ingestion, yet these responses are relatively unexplored in women. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and pain perception during a simulated time trial. Ten active women (age=22.1±1.9yr) completed an 8.2km "all out" time trial on each of 3days separated by at least 48h. Initially, a practice trial was completed, and participants refrained from products containing caffeine and lower-body exercise for 24h prior to subsequent trials. During exercise, heart rate (HR), RPE, and leg pain were recorded. Using a double-blind, randomized crossover design, participants ingested anhydrous caffeine and glucose (each 6mg/kg bw+each 6mg/kg bw glucose) or placebo (each 6mg/kg bw of glucose) 1h pre-exercise. Despite not altering (P>0.05) RPE, HR, or leg pain, caffeine improved (P<0.05) cycling performance (17.7±1.0min versus 18.2±1.1min) and power output (121.6±17.5W versus 114.9±17.9W) versus placebo. Caffeine's ergogenic effects may be independent of changes in RPE or leg pain in active women performing a simulated time trial.

  9. Memory of pain and affect associated with migraine and non-migraine headaches.

    PubMed

    Bąbel, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The main aims of this study were to assess memory of pain and pain-related affect in headache sufferers and to compare the pain memories of individuals who suffer from migraines and those who experience non-migraine headaches. A total of 313 women participated in the study, 86 of whom had a diagnosis of migraine headache. The women rated their state anxiety about having a headache, the intensity and unpleasantness of headache pain, and their emotions while actually experiencing a headache. Either three or six months later, the participants were asked to recall their state anxiety, the intensity and unpleasantness of pain, and the emotions they had felt. Regardless of the length of recall delay or migraine diagnosis, participants accurately remembered both pain intensity and unpleasantness. Together, recalled anxiety, experienced pain and recalled positive affect were the most important predictors of memories for headache, accounting for 41% and 37% of the total variance in recalled pain intensity and unpleasantness, respectively. However, participants overestimated recalled positive and negative affect. The effect of recalled affect on memory of headache, together with the overestimation of recalled affect, suggests that although memory of headache is accurate, it is influenced by distorted memories of affect.

  10. Pain and affective memory biases interact to predict depressive symptoms in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bruce, J M; Polen, D; Arnett, P A

    2007-01-01

    A large literature supports a direct relationship between pain and depressive symptoms among various patient populations. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently experience both pain and depression. Despite this, no relationship between pain and depression has been found in MS. The present investigation explored the relationship between pain and depression in a sample of patients with MS. Consistent with cognitive theories of depression, results supported the hypothesis that pain would only contribute to depression when MS patients exhibited a concomitant cognitive vulnerability. Cognitive vulnerability to depression was measured using a performance based affective memory bias (AMB) task. Patients with high levels of pain and negative AMB reported more depressive symptoms compared to patients with pain and positive AMB. Implications for the identification and treatment of depression in MS are discussed. PMID:17294612

  11. Eina! Ouch! Eish! Professionals' Perceptions of How Children with Cerebral Palsy Communicate About Pain in South African School Settings: Implications for the use of AAC.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ensa; Nilsson, Stefan; Adolfsson, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Most children with severe cerebral palsy experience daily pain that affects their school performance. School professionals need to assess pain in these children, who may also have communication difficulties, in order to pay attention to the pain and support the children's continued participation in school. In this study, South African school professionals' perceptions of how they observed pain in children with cerebral palsy, how they questioned them about it and how the children communicated their pain back to them were investigated. Thirty-eight school professionals participated in five focus groups. Their statements were categorized using qualitative content analysis. From the results it became clear that professionals observed children's pain communication through their bodily expressions, behavioral changes, and verbal and non-verbal messages. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) methods were rarely used. The necessity of considering pain-related vocabulary in a multilingual South African context, and of advocating for the use of AAC strategies to enable children with cerebral palsy to communicate their pain was highlighted in this study. PMID:26372118

  12. Eina! Ouch! Eish! Professionals' Perceptions of How Children with Cerebral Palsy Communicate About Pain in South African School Settings: Implications for the use of AAC.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ensa; Nilsson, Stefan; Adolfsson, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Most children with severe cerebral palsy experience daily pain that affects their school performance. School professionals need to assess pain in these children, who may also have communication difficulties, in order to pay attention to the pain and support the children's continued participation in school. In this study, South African school professionals' perceptions of how they observed pain in children with cerebral palsy, how they questioned them about it and how the children communicated their pain back to them were investigated. Thirty-eight school professionals participated in five focus groups. Their statements were categorized using qualitative content analysis. From the results it became clear that professionals observed children's pain communication through their bodily expressions, behavioral changes, and verbal and non-verbal messages. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) methods were rarely used. The necessity of considering pain-related vocabulary in a multilingual South African context, and of advocating for the use of AAC strategies to enable children with cerebral palsy to communicate their pain was highlighted in this study.

  13. Eina! Ouch! Eish! Professionals’ Perceptions of How Children with Cerebral Palsy Communicate About Pain in South African School Settings: Implications for the use of AAC

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ensa; Nilsson, Stefan; Adolfsson, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Most children with severe cerebral palsy experience daily pain that affects their school performance. School professionals need to assess pain in these children, who may also have communication difficulties, in order to pay attention to the pain and support the children’s continued participation in school. In this study, South African school professionals’ perceptions of how they observed pain in children with cerebral palsy, how they questioned them about it and how the children communicated their pain back to them were investigated. Thirty-eight school professionals participated in five focus groups. Their statements were categorized using qualitative content analysis. From the results it became clear that professionals observed children’s pain communication through their bodily expressions, behavioral changes, and verbal and non-verbal messages. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) methods were rarely used. The necessity of considering pain-related vocabulary in a multilingual South African context, and of advocating for the use of AAC strategies to enable children with cerebral palsy to communicate their pain was highlighted in this study. PMID:26372118

  14. Pain perception with pH buffered peribulbar anaesthesia: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Minasian, M.; Ionides, A.; Fernando, R.; Davey, C.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the relation between pH of anaesthetic solutions and patient perception of pain with peribulbar injection of local anaesthesia.
METHODS—This prospective randomised controlled double blind pilot study involved 60 consecutive patients who received a peribulbar block with either a standard acidic local anaesthetic of 5 ml 2% lignocaine and 5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine (solution A), or an alkalinised solution composed of the same anaesthetic agents but with a pH of 7.44 (solution B). Before surgery patients were asked to grade the pain of both the preoperative dilating drops and the peribulbar injection using a visual analogue scale.
RESULTS—The mean pain scores were similar in the two treatment groups—slightly higher (4.97) in group B who received the buffered solution, compared with group A (4.84) who received the plain solution. The small difference (−0.13, 95% confidence limits −1.6 and +1.3) was not significant. There was, however, a highly significant association between pain threshold ("drop pain") and injection pain levels (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSION—This study showed no difference in the reduction in the pain experienced by patients undergoing peribulbar anaesthesia with pH buffered local anaesthetic. The study suggests the importance of "pain threshold" as a confounder and also showed the considerable pain felt by some patients on instillation of the preoperative dilating drops.

 PMID:10966962

  15. Amygdala activity contributes to the dissociative effect of cannabis on pain perception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael C; Ploner, Markus; Wiech, Katja; Bingel, Ulrike; Wanigasekera, Vishvarani; Brooks, Jonathan; Menon, David K; Tracey, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is reported to be remarkably effective for the relief of otherwise intractable pain. However, the bases for pain relief afforded by this psychotropic agent are debatable. Nonetheless, the frontal-limbic distribution of cannabinoid receptors in the brain suggests that cannabis may target preferentially the affective qualities of pain. This central mechanism of action may be relevant to cannabinoid analgesia in humans, but has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a naturally occurring cannabinoid, on brain activity related to cutaneous ongoing pain and hyperalgesia that were temporarily induced by capsaicin in healthy volunteers. On average, THC reduced the reported unpleasantness, but not the intensity of ongoing pain and hyperalgesia: the specific analgesic effect on hyperalgesia was substantiated by diminished activity in the anterior mid cingulate cortex. In individuals, the drug-induced reduction in the unpleasantness of hyperalgesia was positively correlated with right amygdala activity. THC also reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and primary sensorimotor areas during the ongoing-pain state. Critically, the reduction in sensory-limbic functional connectivity was positively correlated with the difference in drug effects on the unpleasantness and the intensity of ongoing pain. Peripheral mechanisms alone cannot account for the dissociative effects of THC on the pain that was observed. Instead, the data reveal that amygdala activity contributes to interindividual response to cannabinoid analgesia, and suggest that dissociative effects of THC in the brain are relevant to pain relief in humans. PMID:23273106

  16. Effect of semiconductor GaAs laser irradiation on pain perception in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkovic, N.; Manev, H.; Pericic, D.; Skala, K.; Jurin, M.; Persin, A.; Kubovic, M.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of subacute exposure (11 exposures within 16 days) of mice to the low power (GaAs) semiconductive laser-stimulated irradiation on pain perception was investigated. The pain perception was determined by the latency of foot-licking or jumping from the surface of a 53 degrees C hot plate. Repeated hot-plate testing resulted in shortening of latencies in both sham- and laser-irradiated mice. Laser treatment (wavelength, 905 nm; frequency, 256 Hz; irradiation time, 50 sec; pulse duration, 100 nsec; distance, 3 cm; peak irradiance, 50 W/cm2 in irradiated area; and total exposure, 0.41 mJ/cm2) induced further shortening of latencies, suggesting its stimulatory influence on pain perception. Administration of morphine (20 mg/kg) prolonged the latency of response to the hot plate in both sham- and laser-irradiated mice. This prolongation tended to be lesser in laser-irradiated animals. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism of the observed effect of laser.

  17. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  18. Emotional reactivity during anticipation and perception of affective pictures.

    PubMed

    Pastor, M Carmen; Poy, Rosario; Segarra, Pilar; Moltó, Javier

    2015-01-13

    The focus of the present study was on further exploring anticipatory responses to emotional stimuli by measuring the eyeblink startle reflex in a variation of the picture-picture affective learning procedure. Participants (113 undergraduate women) were not explicitly instructed before the experiment began. Instead, they had to learn the specific relations between cues (geometrical shapes) and emotional pictures based on pairings during the first part of the task. Plausible contingency learning effects were tested afterwards, in a parallel sequence of trials including auditory probes during cues and pictures processing during the second part of the task. Results did show the typical affective startle modulation pattern during perception, linear F(1, 200) = 52.67, p < .0001, but unexpected inhibition for both pleasant and unpleasant, compared to neutral cues, during anticipation, quadratic F(1, 200) = 7.07, p < .009. All patterns of startle modulation were independent of cue-picture contingency awareness (all interactions Fs < 1). Skin conductance changes showed the predictable quadratic trend either during picture perception or anticipatory periods (greater activity for emotional vs. neutral; overall quadratic F(1, 224) = 7.04, p < .01), only for participants fully aware of the cue-picture contingency, quadratic F(1, 158) = 5.86, p < .02. Overall, our results during anticipation (cues processing) seem to suggest that more resources were allocated to highly arousing pictures that engage attention. Differences between the present results and prior research may be attributed to procedural variations in the sample, cues, or instructions. Future studies should also explore in more detail the role of the contingency awareness during anticipation.

  19. Perception, expression, and social function of pain: a human ethological view.

    PubMed

    Schiefenhövel, W

    1995-01-01

    Pain has important biomedical, socioanthropological, semiotic, and other facets. In this contribution pain and the expression of pain are looked at from the perspective of evolutionary biology, utilizing, among others, cross-cultural data from field work in Melanesia. No other being cares for sick and suffering conspecifics in the way humans do. Notwithstanding aggression and neglect, common in all cultures, human societies can be characterized as empathic, comforting, and promoting the health and sell-being of their members. One important stimulus triggering this caring response in others is the expression of pain. The nonverbal channel of communication, particularly certain universal--i.e., culture-independent facial expressions, gestures, and body postures, convey much of the message from the pain-stricken person to the group. These behaviors signal the person's physical and psychical pain, sadness, grief, and despair in ways very similar to the signs given by infants and small children: the body loses tonus and sinks or drops to the ground, the gestures are those of helplessness. Pain and grief may be so strong that control is lost not only over the body's posture but also over the mind's awareness. In such cases the afflicted person may carry out actions endangering himself or others. In general, these behavior patterns resemble those of infants in situations of distress and danger, and it is not surprising that the response of the members of the group is basically parental: taking care, assisting and consoling. Perceptive and behavioral patterns which developed in the course of avian and mammalian phylogeny to serve the well-being of the young have proven, as was shown by Eibl-Eibesfeldt (1989), to be powerful building blocks for actions in other spheres of human interaction. Love is one such field, the reactions to a conspecific suffering pain is another. PMID:11639659

  20. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  1. Moral judgment modulates neural responses to the perception of other’s pain: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Fang; Ma, Ning; Luo, Yue-jia

    2016-01-01

    Morality and empathy are both crucial in building human society. Yet the relationship between them has been merely explored. The present study revealed how the morality influenced empathy for pain by comparing the ERPs elicited by pictures showing the targets’ in pain primed by different moral information about the targets. We found that when the target was a moral one or a neutral one, the painful pictures elicited significantly larger amplitude in N2 than the non-painful pictures, but when the target was an immoral one, the difference between the amplitudes of N2 component elicited by painful and non-painful pictures became insignificant. We proposed that this effect was induced by the decreased affective arousal when observing an immoral person in pain. The reduced neural response towards the immoral one’s pain can keep us alert when we face the potentially dangerous people thereby increasing our chance of survival. SLORTEA results showed the source of this difference in N2 localized in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) areas. PMID:26865250

  2. Measurement of Affective and Activity Pain Interference Using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI): Cancer and Leukemia Group B 70903*

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Thomas M.; Halabi, Susan; Bennett, Antonia V.; Rogak, Lauren; Sit, Laura; Li, Yuelin; Kaplan, Ellen; Basch, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was designed to yield separate scores for pain intensity and interference. It has been proposed that the pain interference factor can be further broken down into unique factors of affective (e.g., mood) and activity (e.g., work) interference. The purpose of this analysis was to confirm this affective/activity interference dichotomy. Patients and Methods A retrospective confirmatory factor analysis was completed for a sample of 184 individuals diagnosed with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (Age 40–86, M = 65.46, 77% White Non-Hispanic) who had been administered the BPI as part of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) trial 9480. A one-factor model was compared against two-factor and three-factor models that were developed based on the design of the instrument. Results Root mean squared error of approximation (0.075), comparative fit index (0.971), and change in chi-square, given the corresponding change in degrees of freedom (13.33, p < .05) values for the three-factor model (i.e., pain intensity, activity interference, and affective interference) were statistically superior in comparison to the one- and two-factor models. This three-factor structure was found to be invariant across age, mean PSA and hemoglobin levels. Conclusions These results confirm that the BPI can be used to quantify the degree to which pain separately interferes with affective and activity aspects of a patient's everyday life. These findings will provide clinical trialists, pharmaceutical sponsors, and regulators with confidence in the flexibility of the BPI as they consider the use of this instrument to assist with understanding the patient experience as it relates to treatment. PMID:23110676

  3. Changing psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, G Eric

    2012-12-01

    This article explored the origins and implications of the underdiagnosis of affective disorders in African-Americans. MEDLINE and old collections were searched using relevant key words. Reference lists from the articles that were gathered from this procedure were reviewed. The historical record indicated that the psychiatric perception of African-Americans with affective disorders changed significantly during the last 200 years. In the antebellum period, the mental disorders of slaves mostly went unnoticed. By the early 20th century, African-Americans were reported to have high rates of manic-depressive disorder compared with whites. By the mid-century, rates of manic-depressive disorder in African-Americans plummeted, whereas depression remained virtually nonexistent. In recent decades, diagnosed depression and bipolar disorder, whether in clinical or research settings, were inexplicably low in African-Americans compared with whites. Given these findings, American psychiatry needs to appraise the deep-seated effects of historical stereotypes on the diagnosis and treatment of African-Americans.

  4. Comparison of pain perception between open and minimally invasive surgery in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Biagio; Vitale, Elsa; Esposito, Antonio; Colella, Antonio; Cassano, Maria; Notarnicola, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was a well-established procedure that had shown excellent long-term results in terms of reduced pain and increased mobility. Pain was one of the most important outcome measures that contributed to patient dissatisfaction after TKA. After a computerized search of the Medline and Embase databases, we considered articles from January 1st, 1997 to October 31st, 2009 that underlined the impact on patient pain perception of either standard open total knee arthroplasty or minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty. We included articles that used the visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Knee Score, Hospital for Special Surgery Score (HSS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS) as postoperative pain indicators, and we included studies with a minimum follow-up period of two months. We excluded studies that monitored only functional postoperative knee activities. It was shown that TKA with the open technique was a better treatment for knees with a positive effect on pain and function than the minimally invasive technique. PMID:21042568

  5. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Conditioned Pain Modulation Influence the Perception of Pain in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Liebano, Richard E.; Vance, Carol G.T.; Rakel, Barbara; Lee, Jennifer E.; Cooper, Nicholas A.; Marchand, Serge; Walsh, Deirdre M.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Research in animal models suggest that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) produce analgesia via two different supraspinal pathways. No known studies have examined whether TENS and CPM applied simultaneously in human subjects will enhance the analgesic effect of either treatment alone. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the simultaneous application of TENS and CPM will enhance the analgesic effect of that produced by either treatment alone. Methods Sixty healthy adults were randomly allocated into 2 groups: 1) CPM plus Active TENS; 2) CPM plus Placebo TENS. Pain threshold for heat (HPT) and pressure (PPT) was recorded from subject’s left forearm at baseline, during CPM, during Active or Placebo TENS, and during CPM plus Active or Placebo TENS. CPM was induced by placing the subjects’ contralateral arm in a hot water bath (46.5°C) for two minutes. TENS (100µs, 100Hz) was applied to the forearm for 20 minutes at a strong but comfortable intensity. Results Active TENS alone increased PPT (but not HPT) more than Placebo TENS alone (p=0.011). Combining CPM and Active TENS did not significantly increase PPT (p=0.232) or HPT (p=0.423) beyond CPM plus Placebo TENS. There was a significant positive association between PPT during CPM and during Active TENS (r2=0.46, p=0.003). Conclusions TENS application increases PPT, however combining CPM and TENS does not increase the CPM’s hypoalgesic response. CPM effect on PPT is associated with effects of TENS on PPT. PMID:23650092

  6. Susceptibility to chronic pain following nerve injury is genetically affected by CACNG2.

    PubMed

    Nissenbaum, Jonathan; Devor, Marshall; Seltzer, Ze'ev; Gebauer, Mathias; Michaelis, Martin; Tal, Michael; Dorfman, Ruslan; Abitbul-Yarkoni, Merav; Lu, Yan; Elahipanah, Tina; delCanho, Sonia; Minert, Anne; Fried, Kaj; Persson, Anna-Karin; Shpigler, Hagai; Shabo, Erez; Yakir, Benjamin; Pisanté, Anne; Darvasi, Ariel

    2010-09-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is affected by specifics of the precipitating neural pathology, psychosocial factors, and by genetic predisposition. Little is known about the identity of predisposing genes. Using an integrative approach, we discovered that CACNG2 significantly affects susceptibility to chronic pain following nerve injury. CACNG2 encodes for stargazin, a protein intimately involved in the trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors. The protein might also be a Ca(2+) channel subunit. CACNG2 has previously been implicated in epilepsy. Initially, using two fine-mapping strategies in a mouse model (recombinant progeny testing [RPT] and recombinant inbred segregation test [RIST]), we mapped a pain-related quantitative trait locus (QTL) (Pain1) into a 4.2-Mb interval on chromosome 15. This interval includes 155 genes. Subsequently, bioinformatics and whole-genome microarray expression analysis were used to narrow the list of candidates and ultimately to pinpoint Cacng2 as a likely candidate. Analysis of stargazer mice, a Cacng2 hypomorphic mutant, provided electrophysiological and behavioral evidence for the gene's functional role in pain processing. Finally, we showed that human CACNG2 polymorphisms are associated with chronic pain in a cohort of cancer patients who underwent breast surgery. Our findings provide novel information on the genetic basis of neuropathic pain and new insights into pain physiology that may ultimately enable better treatments.

  7. Susceptibility to chronic pain following nerve injury is genetically affected by CACNG2

    PubMed Central

    Nissenbaum, Jonathan; Devor, Marshall; Seltzer, Ze'ev; Gebauer, Mathias; Michaelis, Martin; Tal, Michael; Dorfman, Ruslan; Abitbul-Yarkoni, Merav; Lu, Yan; Elahipanah, Tina; delCanho, Sonia; Minert, Anne; Fried, Kaj; Persson, Anna-Karin; Shpigler, Hagai; Shabo, Erez; Yakir, Benjamin; Pisanté, Anne; Darvasi, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is affected by specifics of the precipitating neural pathology, psychosocial factors, and by genetic predisposition. Little is known about the identity of predisposing genes. Using an integrative approach, we discovered that CACNG2 significantly affects susceptibility to chronic pain following nerve injury. CACNG2 encodes for stargazin, a protein intimately involved in the trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors. The protein might also be a Ca2+ channel subunit. CACNG2 has previously been implicated in epilepsy. Initially, using two fine-mapping strategies in a mouse model (recombinant progeny testing [RPT] and recombinant inbred segregation test [RIST]), we mapped a pain-related quantitative trait locus (QTL) (Pain1) into a 4.2-Mb interval on chromosome 15. This interval includes 155 genes. Subsequently, bioinformatics and whole-genome microarray expression analysis were used to narrow the list of candidates and ultimately to pinpoint Cacng2 as a likely candidate. Analysis of stargazer mice, a Cacng2 hypomorphic mutant, provided electrophysiological and behavioral evidence for the gene's functional role in pain processing. Finally, we showed that human CACNG2 polymorphisms are associated with chronic pain in a cohort of cancer patients who underwent breast surgery. Our findings provide novel information on the genetic basis of neuropathic pain and new insights into pain physiology that may ultimately enable better treatments. PMID:20688780

  8. Flexible Magnets Are Not Effective in Decreasing Pain Perception and Recovery Time After Muscle Microinjury

    PubMed Central

    Borsa, Paul A.; Liggett, Charles L.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To assess the therapeutic effects of flexible magnets on pain perception, intramuscular swelling, range of motion, and muscular strength in individuals with a muscle microinjury. Design and Setting: This experiment was a single-blind, placebo study using a repeated-measures design. Subjects performed an intense exercise protocol to induce a muscle microinjury. After pretreatment measurements were recorded, subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental (magnet), placebo (imitation magnet), or control (no magnet) group. Posttreatment measurements were repeated at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Subjects: Forty-five healthy subjects participated in the study. Measurements: Subjects were measured repeatedly for pain perception, upper arm girth, range of motion, and static force production. Four separate univariate analyses of variances were used to reveal statistically significant mean (±SD) differences between variables over time. Interaction effects were analyzed using Scheffe post hoc analysis. Results: Analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant (P > .05) mean differences between conditions for any dependent pretreatment and posttreatment measurements. No significant interaction effects were demonstrated between conditions and times. Conclusions: No significant therapeutic effects on pain control and muscular dysfunction were observed in subjects wearing flexible magnets. ImagesFig 2.Fig 3. PMID:16558503

  9. Integrating cognitive and affective dimensions of pain experience into health professions education

    PubMed Central

    Murinson, Beth B; Mezei, Lina; Nenortas, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Pain is prevalent in clinical settings, and yet it is relatively under-represented in the education of most students in the health professions. Because pain includes both sensory-discriminative and affective features, teaching students about pain presents unique challenges and opportunities. The present article describes the evolution of a new blueprint for clinical excellence that, among other competencies, incorporates a need for the emotional development of clinical trainees. The framework has been applied to the development and implementation of two new courses in pain. The first course is designed to provide a comprehensive foundation of medical knowledge regarding pain, while integratively introducing students to the affective dimensions of pain. The second course is designed to enhance students’ appreciation for the protean effects of pain through use of the humanities to represent medical experience. It is concluded that, to be most effective, fostering the emotional development of trainees in the health professions necessitates the incorporation of affect-focused learning objectives, educational tasks and assessment methods. PMID:22184551

  10. Role of the TREK2 potassium channel in cold and warm thermosensation and in pain perception.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vanessa; Busserolles, Jérôme; Christin, Marine; Devilliers, Maïly; Poupon, Laura; Legha, Wassim; Alloui, Abdelkrim; Aissouni, Youssef; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Lesage, Florian; Eschalier, Alain; Lazdunski, Michel; Noël, Jacques

    2014-12-01

    Two-pore domain background K(+) channels (K2p or KCNK) produce hyperpolarizing currents that control cell membrane polarity and neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. The TREK2 channel as well as the related TREK1 and TRAAK channels are mechanical-, thermal- and lipid-gated channels that share many regulatory properties. TREK2 is one of the major background channels expressed in rodent nociceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia that innervate the skin and deep body tissues, but its role in somatosensory perception and nociception has remained poorly understood. We now report that TREK2 is a regulatory channel that controls the perception of non aversive warm, between 40°C and 46°C, and moderate ambient cool temperatures, between 20°C and 25°C, in mice. TREK2 controls the firing activity of peripheral sensory C-fibers in response to changes in temperature. The role of TREK2 in thermosensation is different from that of TREK1 and TRAAK channels; rather, TREK2, TREK1, and TRAAK channels appear to have complementary roles in thermosensation. TREK2 is also involved in mechanical pain perception and in osmotic pain after sensitization by prostaglandin E2. TREK2 is involved in the cold allodynia that characterizes the neuropathy commonly associated with treatments with the anticancer drug oxaliplatin. These results suggest that positive modulation of the TREK2 channel may have beneficial analgesic effects in these neuropathic conditions. PMID:25239074

  11. Factors affecting the psychological functioning of Australian adults with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Viggers, Lorna C; Caltabiano, Marie L

    2012-12-01

    The role of resilience, for adults facing ongoing adversity in the form of chronic medical conditions, has received little attention in the past. This research investigated the impact of resilience and coping strategies on the psychological functioning of 87 Australian adults with chronic pain, using a self-report questionnaire. It included the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Using hierarchical regression, after the effects of pain severity, catastrophizing, and ignoring the pain were controlled for, resilience was significantly associated with mental health-related quality of life (β = 0.18, P < 0.05), depression (β = -0.31, P < 0.01), and anxiety (β = -0.20, P < 0.05). In the final model for depression, resilience had a stronger association than pain severity. Resilience did not, however, influence individual's perceptions of their physical health-related quality of life. The link between resilience and mental health-related quality of life outcomes provides initial evidence for the potential application of resilience related interventions to pain management programs. PMID:22994657

  12. Pain Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... the brain played a role in producing the perception of pain. In the 19th century, physician-scientists ... they are experiencing. Discoveries of differences in pain perceptions and responses to treatment by gender has have ...

  13. Neighborhood Perceptions Affect Dietary Behaviors and Diet Quality

    PubMed Central

    Keita, Akilah Dulin; Casazza, Krista; Thomas, Olivia; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The primary purpose of this study was to determine if perceived neighborhood disorder affected dietary quality within a multiethnic sample of children. Design Children were recruited through the use of fliers, wide-distribution mailers, parent magazines, and school presentations from June 2005 to December 2008. Setting Birmingham-Hoover, Alabama metropolitan area. Participants Sample of 100 children aged 7 to 12. Main Outcome Measure Dietary quality was assessed using the average of two 24 hour recalls and analyzed using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Analysis Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between neighborhood disorder and dietary quality. Results Perceived neighborhood disorder was associated with increased iron intake (P = .031) and lower potassium levels (P = .041). Perceived neighborhood disorder was marginally associated with increased energy intake (P = .074) and increased sodium intake (P = .078). Conclusions and Implications Perceived neighborhood disorder was significantly related to differences in dietary quality. This indicates that subjective neighborhood characteristics may pose barriers to healthful eating behaviors for children. Future research efforts and policy should address sociostructural factors and ways to manipulate and improve food environments and individual’s perceptions of their neighborhoods. PMID:20880752

  14. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  15. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1, OPRM1 and COMT with pain perception in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-shi; Song, Hai-bin; Chen, Si; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jia-qi; Huang, Chao; Wang, Hao-ran; Chen, Yuan; Chu, Qian

    2015-10-01

    Pain perception is influenced by multiple factors. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of some genes were found associated with pain perception. This study aimed to examine the association of the genotypes of ABCB1 C3435T, OPRM1 A118G and COMT V108/158M (valine 108/158 methionine) with pain perception in cancer patients. We genotyped 146 cancer pain patients and 139 cancer patients without pain for ABCB1 C3435T (rs1045642), OPRM1 A118G (rs1799971) and COMT V108/158M (rs4680) by the fluorescent dye-terminator cycle sequencing method, and compared the genotype distribution between groups with different pain intensities by chi-square test and pain scores between groups with different genotypes by non-parametric test. The results showed that in these cancer patients, the frequency of variant T allele of ABCB1 C3435T was 40.5%; that of G allele of OPRM1 A118G was 38.5% and that of A allele of COMT V108/158M was 23.3%. No significant difference in the genotype distribution of ABCB1 C3435T (rs1045642) and OPRM1 A118G (rs1799971) was observed between cancer pain group and control group (P=0.364 and 0.578); however, significant difference occurred in the genotype distribution of COMT V108/158M (rs4680) between the two groups (P=0.001). And the difference could not be explained by any other confounding factors. Moreover, we found that the genotypes of COMT V108/158M and ABCB1 C3435T were associated with the intensities of pain in cancer patients. In conclusion, our results indicate that the SNPs of COMT V108/158M and ABCB1 C3435T significantly influence the pain perception in Chinese cancer patients.

  16. Striatal opioid receptor availability is related to acute and chronic pain perception in arthritis: does opioid adaptation increase resilience to chronic pain?

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher A; Matthews, Julian; Fairclough, Michael; McMahon, Adam; Barnett, Elizabeth; Al-Kaysi, Ali; El-Deredy, Wael; Jones, Anthony K P

    2015-11-01

    The experience of pain in humans is modulated by endogenous opioids, but it is largely unknown how the opioid system adapts to chronic pain states. Animal models of chronic pain point to upregulation of opioid receptors (OpR) in the brain, with unknown functional significance. We sought evidence for a similar relationship between chronic pain and OpR availability in humans. Using positron emission tomography and the radiotracer (11)C-diprenorphine, patients with arthritis pain (n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 9) underwent whole-brain positron emission tomography scanning to calculate parametric maps of OpR availability. Consistent with the upregulation hypothesis, within the arthritis group, greater OpR availability was found in the striatum (including the caudate) of patients reporting higher levels of recent chronic pain, as well as regions of interest in the descending opioidergic pathway including the anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, and periaqueductal gray. The functional significance of striatal changes were clarified with respect to acute pain thresholds: data across patients and controls revealed that striatal OpR availability was related to reduced pain perception. These findings are consistent with the view that chronic pain may upregulate OpR availability to dampen pain. Finally, patients with arthritis pain, compared with healthy controls, had overall less OpR availability within the striatum specifically, consistent with the greater endogenous opioid binding that would be expected in chronic pain states. Our observational evidence points to the need for further studies to establish the causal relationship between chronic pain states and OpR adaptation.

  17. Loneliness, Daily Pain, and Perceptions of Interpersonal Events in Adults with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Laurie Dempsey; Davis, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether individual differences in loneliness and/or daily exacerbations in loneliness relate to daily pain and frequency and perception of interpersonal events among individuals with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods 118 participants with FM completed electronic diaries each evening for 21 days to assess the occurrence of positive and negative interpersonal events, event appraisals, and pain. Multilevel modeling was used to examine relations of chronic and transitory loneliness to daily life outcomes, controlling for daily depressive symptoms. Results Chronic and transitory loneliness were associated with more frequent reports of negative and less frequent reports of positive interpersonal daily events, higher daily stress ratings and lower daily enjoyment ratings, and higher daily pain levels. Neither chronic nor transitory loneliness moderated the relations between daily negative events and either stress appraisals or pain. However, both chronic and transitory loneliness moderated the relation between daily positive events and enjoyment appraisals. Specifically, on days of greater numbers of positive events than usual, lonely people had larger boosts in enjoyment than did nonlonely people. Similarly, days with greater than usual numbers of positive events were related to larger boosts in enjoyment if an individual was also experiencing higher than usual loneliness levels. Conclusions Chronic and transient episodes of loneliness are associated with more negative daily social relations and pain. However, boosts in positive events yield greater boosts in day-to-day enjoyment of social relations for lonely versus nonlonely individuals, and during loneliness episodes, a finding that can inform future interventions for individuals with chronic pain. PMID:25180546

  18. Inorganic arsenic exposure affects pain behavior and inflammatory response in rat

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre-Banuelos, Patricia; Escudero-Lourdes, Claudia; Sanchez-Pena, Luz Carmen; Del Razo, Luz Maria; Perez-Urizar, Jose

    2008-06-15

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) contamination of drinking water is a worldwide problem associated with an increased risk for the development of various types of cancer and noncancerous damage. In vitro studies have suggested that iAs can modulate the activity of macrophages producing an over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and resulting in an increase in prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) concentrations in endothelial cells. These effects may lead to an in vivo enhancement of inflammatory and pain responses. Our aim was to determine the effect of a single dose of arsenic or subchronic exposure to arsenic on pain behavior and tissue inflammation in rats. Rats were given a single dose of sodium arsenite (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg i.p.) or submitted to subchronic exposure to arsenic added to the drinking water for 4 weeks (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppm). Inflammatory pain was assessed by using the formalin and tail-flick tests, while inflammation was evaluated with the carrageenan model. Arsenite did not induce pain or significant inflammation by itself. In contrast, arsenite in both single dose administration and subchronic exposure increased not only the inflammatory process and the underlying hyperalgesic pain, but also induced a decrease in the pain threshold. Alterations in pain processing were dependent on the arsenic dose and the length of exposure, and the underlying mechanism involved an increased release of local PGE{sub 2}. These results suggest that inorganic arsenic exposure enhances pain perception and exacerbates the pathological state of inflammatory diseases.

  19. How Perceptions of an Intervention Program Affect Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forneris, Tanya; Danish, Steven J.; Fries, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Goals for Health was a National Cancer Institute funded program designed to impact health behaviors of adolescents living in rural Virginia and New York. This study examined three specific objectives: (a) to examine participants' perceptions of the program components and the relationship between program components and overall program perception,…

  20. The perception of pain following interdental microimplant treatment for skeletal anchorage: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Ming; Chang, Chao-San; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Hsu, Kun-Rong; Lee, Kun-Tsung; Lee, Huey-Er

    2011-01-01

    During orthodontic therapy, patients frequently complain about pain and discomfort, especially during insertion of fixed appliances. Skeletal anchorage using an interdental microimplant is a new concept in orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences and changes in the level of pain among patients in relation to orthodontic microimplant treatments. Forty microimplants were applied to the maxilla as skeletal anchors in the orthodontic treatment. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the patients' perception of pain during this new modality treatment. The premolar extraction VAS core was used as a baseline for the complete orthodontic procedure. The mean VAS score was 35.8 mm at 24 h after premolar extraction. The mean VAS score for insertion and removal of the microimplant 24 h after the operation was 12.3 and 7.8 mm, respectively. Three months after removal of the skeletal anchors, the VAS score had decreased to 3.2 mm and was the same as with the traditional orthodontic treatment. By using the repeated-measure general linear model (GLM), we found that the score 1 day after microimplant placement was significantly less than that 1 day after first premolar extraction or that 1 day after fixed appliance insertion. This result indicates that interdental microimplant did not generate any greater pain than other orthodontic procedures. Therefore, patients were willing to adopt the new orthodontic treatment.

  1. Alone but feeling no pain: Effects of social exclusion on physical pain tolerance and pain threshold, affective forecasting, and interpersonal empathy.

    PubMed

    DeWall, C Nathan; Baumeister, Roy F

    2006-07-01

    Prior findings of emotional numbness (rather than distress) among socially excluded persons led the authors to investigate whether exclusion causes a far-reaching insensitivity to both physical and emotional pain. Experiments 1-4 showed that receiving an ostensibly diagnostic forecast of a lonesome future life reduced sensitivity to physical pain, as indicated by both (higher) thresholds and tolerance. Exclusion also caused emotional insensitivity, as indicated by reductions in affective forecasting of joy or woe over a future football outcome (Experiment 3), as well as lesser empathizing with another person's suffering from either romantic breakup (Experiment 4) or a broken leg (Experiment 5). The insensitivities to pain and emotion were highly intercorrelated. PMID:16834476

  2. A multilevel structural equation modeling analysis of vulnerabilities and resilience resources influencing affective adaptation to chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, John A; Zautra, Alex J; Arewasikporn, Anne

    2014-02-01

    The processes of individual adaptation to chronic pain are complex and occur across multiple domains. We examined the social, cognitive, and affective context of daily pain adaptation in individuals with fibromyalgia and osteoarthritis. By using a sample of 260 women with fibromyalgia or osteoarthritis, we examined the contributions of pain catastrophizing, negative interpersonal events, and positive interpersonal events to daily negative and positive affect across 30days of daily diary data. Individual differences and daily fluctuations in predictor variables were estimated simultaneously by utilizing multilevel structural equation modeling techniques. The relationships between pain and negative and positive affect were mediated by stable and day-to-day levels of pain catastrophizing as well as day-to-day positive interpersonal events, but not negative interpersonal events. There were significant and independent contributions of pain catastrophizing and positive interpersonal events to adaptation to pain and pain-related affective dysregulation. These effects occur both between persons and within a person's everyday life.

  3. Comparison of mechanical allodynia and the affective component of inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Boyce-Rustay, Janel M; Zhong, Chengmin; Kohnken, Rebecca; Baker, Scott J; Simler, Gricelda H; Wensink, Erica J; Decker, Michael W; Honore, Prisca

    2010-02-01

    Most animal models of pain cannot separate the sensory and affective components of pain. One model that has been used to assess affective pain is the place escape avoidance paradigm (PEAP). The aim of the current study is two-fold. First, validate PEAP with Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation for the assessment of the affective component of pain using the reference analgesics celecoxib, diclofenac and duloxetine; fluoxetine and scopolamine were tested as negative controls. Secondly, determine if there is a difference in efficacy in PEAP in comparison to the effects of the same compounds on von Frey-evoked mechanical allodynia in CFA animals. All compounds were tested in mechanical allodynia, place escape/avoidance, and for potentially confounding side effects in locomotor activity. Results show that celecoxib, diclofenac, and duloxetine significantly increased the time spent on the side associated with stimulation of the injured paw, whereas fluoxetine and scopolamine had no effect. Higher doses of celecoxib, diclofenac, duloxetine, and fluoxetine were required to attenuate von Frey-evoked mechanical allodynia. In the side effect assays, only fluoxetine decreased locomotor activity at doses used in PEAP. These results show that in inflammatory pain induced by CFA injection, PEAP is more sensitive to the effects of pain relieving compounds than mechanical allodynia. Fluoxetine showed efficacy in the mechanical allodynia test, but not PEAP, whereas duloxetine showed efficacy in mechanical allodynia and PEAP. These studies show that methods other than reflex based measures of pain such as affective pain models could be more predictive of efficacy/potency in the clinic.

  4. The analgesic effect of electroacupuncture on acute thermal pain perception-a central neural correlate study with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Electrical acupuncture (EA) has been utilized in acute pain management. However, the neuronal mechanisms that lead to the analgesic effect are still not well defined. The current study assessed the intensity [optimal EA (OI-EA) vs. minimal EA (MI-EA)] effect of non-noxious EA on supraspinal regions related to noxious heat pain (HP) stimulation utilizing an EA treatment protocol for acute pain and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with correlation in behavioral changes. Subjects underwent five fMRI scanning paradigms: one with heat pain (HP), two with OI-EA and MI-EA, and two with OI-EA and HP, and MI-EA and HP. Results While HP resulted in activations (excitatory effect) in supraspinal areas known for pain processing and perception, EA paradigms primarily resulted in deactivations (suppressive effect) in most of these corresponding areas. In addition, OI-EA resulted in a more robust supraspinal sedative effect in comparison to MI-EA. As a result, OI-EA is more effective than MI-EA in suppressing the excitatory effect of HP in supraspinal areas related to both pain processing and perception. Conclusion Intensities of EA plays an important role in modulating central pain perception. PMID:21645415

  5. Perspectives, perceptions and experiences in postoperative pain management in developing countries: A focus group study conducted in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ana P; Mahaffey, Ryan; Egan, Rylan; Twagirumugabe, Theogene; Parlow, Joel L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Access to postoperative acute pain treatment is an important component of perioperative care and is frequently managed by a multidisciplinary team of anesthesiologists, surgeons, pharmacists, technicians and nurses. In some developing countries, treatment modalities are often not performed due to scarce health care resources, knowledge deficiencies and cultural attitudes. OBJECTIVES: In advance of a comprehensive knowledge translation initiative, the present study aimed to determine the perspectives, perceptions and experiences of anesthesia residents regarding postoperative pain management strategies. METHODS: The present study was conducted using a qualitative assessment strategy in a large teaching hospital in Rwanda. During two sessions separated by seven days, a 10-participant semistructured focus group needs analysis was conducted with anesthesia residents at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali (Kigali, Rwanda). Field notes were analyzed using interpretative and descriptive phenomenological approaches. Participants were questioned regarding their perspectives, perceptions and experiences in pain management. RESULTS: The responses from the focus groups were related to five general areas: general patient and medical practice management; knowledge base regarding postoperative pain management; pain evaluation; institutional/system issues related to protocol implementation; and perceptions about resource allocation. Within these areas, challenges (eg, communication among stakeholders and with patients) and opportunities (eg, on-the-job training, use of protocols, routine pain assessment, participation in resource allocation decisions) were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed the prevalent challenges residents perceive in implementing postoperative pain management strategies, and offers practical suggestions to overcoming them, primarily through training and the implementation of practice recommendations. PMID:26448971

  6. Losing One's Hand: Visual-Proprioceptive Conflict Affects Touch Perception

    PubMed Central

    Folegatti, Alessia; de Vignemont, Frédérique; Pavani, Francesco; Rossetti, Yves; Farnè, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Background While the sense of bodily ownership has now been widely investigated through the rubber hand illusion (RHI), very little is known about the sense of disownership. It has been hypothesized that the RHI also affects the ownership feelings towards the participant's own hand, as if the rubber hand replaced the participant's actual hand. Somatosensory changes observed in the participants' hand while experiencing the RHI have been taken as evidence for disownership of their real hand. Here we propose a theoretical framework to disambiguate whether such somatosensory changes are to be ascribed to the disownership of the real hand or rather to the anomalous visuo-proprioceptive conflict experienced by the participant during the RHI. Methodology/Principal Findings In experiment 1, reaction times (RTs) to tactile stimuli delivered to the participants' hand slowed down following the establishment of the RHI. In experiment 2, the misalignment of visual and proprioceptive inputs was obtained via prismatic displacement, a situation in which ownership of the seen hand was doubtless. This condition slowed down the participants' tactile RTs. Thus, similar effects on touch perception emerged following RHI and prismatic displacement. Both manipulations also induced a proprioceptive drift, toward the fake hand in the first experiment and toward the visual position of the participants' hand in the second experiment. Conclusions/Significance These findings reveal that somatosensory alterations in the experimental hand resulting from the RHI result from cross-modal mismatch between the seen and felt position of the hand. As such, they are not necessarily a signature of disownership. PMID:19738900

  7. The Integration of Negative Affect, Pain, and Cognitive Control in the Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Shackman, Alexander J.; Salomons, Tim V.; Slagter, Heleen A.; Fox, Andrew S.; Winter, Jameel J.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Preface It has been argued that emotion, pain, and cognitive control are functionally segregated in distinct subdivisions of the cingulate cortex. But recent observations encourage a fundamentally different view. Imaging studies indicate that negative affect, pain, and cognitive control activate an overlapping region of dorsal cingulate, the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). Anatomical studies reveal that aMCC constitutes a hub where information about reinforcers can be linked to motor centers responsible for expressing affect and executing goal-directed behavior. Computational modeling and other kinds of evidence suggest that this intimacy reflects control processes that are common to all three domains. These observations compel a reconsideration of dorsal cingulate’s contribution to negative affect and pain. PMID:21331082

  8. Motion coherence affects human perception and pursuit similarly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S.

    2000-01-01

    Pursuit and perception both require accurate information about the motion of objects. Recovering the motion of objects by integrating the motion of their components is a difficult visual task. Successful integration produces coherent global object motion, while a failure to integrate leaves the incoherent local motions of the components unlinked. We compared the ability of perception and pursuit to perform motion integration by measuring direction judgments and the concomitant eye-movement responses to line-figure parallelograms moving behind stationary rectangular apertures. The apertures were constructed such that only the line segments corresponding to the parallelogram's sides were visible; thus, recovering global motion required the integration of the local segment motion. We investigated several potential motion-integration rules by using stimuli with different object, vector-average, and line-segment terminator-motion directions. We used an oculometric decision rule to directly compare direction discrimination for pursuit and perception. For visible apertures, the percept was a coherent object, and both the pursuit and perceptual performance were close to the object-motion prediction. For invisible apertures, the percept was incoherently moving segments, and both the pursuit and perceptual performance were close to the terminator-motion prediction. Furthermore, both psychometric and oculometric direction thresholds were much higher for invisible apertures than for visible apertures. We constructed a model in which both perception and pursuit are driven by a shared motion-processing stage, with perception having an additional input from an independent static-processing stage. Model simulations were consistent with our perceptual and oculomotor data. Based on these results, we propose the use of pursuit as an objective and continuous measure of perceptual coherence. Our results support the view that pursuit and perception share a common motion

  9. Reduction mammoplasty improves body posture and decreases the perception of pain.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Remi; Detanico, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Roberta Pires; Schütz, Gustavo Ricardo; Dos Santos, Saray Giovana

    2013-01-01

    Women with hypertrophic breasts often experience body pain and posture problems, which tend to be reduced or even eliminated after reduction mammoplasty. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of reduction mammoplasty on anthropometric variables, body posture and pain in women with breast hypertrophy. Eleven women (mean [± SD] age 31.3±10.4 years) participated in the present study. Anthropometric variables, body posture and pain perception were evaluated pretest, and 60 (post60) and 90 (post90) days after reduction mammoplasty. Commercially available posture analysis software was used to analyze the following variables: acromial horizontal alignment (AHA), angle between acromial and anterior superior iliac spines (A-AAIS), vertical alignment of right (R) and left (L) trunk (VAT), vertical alignment of R and L body (VAB) and horizontal alignment of R and L pelvis (HAP). Descriptive statistics and ANOVA for repeated measures were used, and effect sizes (ES) were measured; the level of significance was set at P<0.05. There were no significant differences in anthropometric variables among the assessments. Only HAP-R showed a significant decrease; however, when analyzed, ES, VAT- L and HAP- L in post60, and VAT-R, VAT-L, HAP-R, HAP-L and VAB-L in post90 showed large ES after mammoplasty (ES>0.70). There were significant reductions in pain at post60 and post90 in the neck, cervical spine, back, shoulder and arm (P<0.05). Following mammoplasty, an improvement in body posture, primarily in the alignment of shoulders, trunk and pelvis, and a decrease in pain in the upper limbs and spine, were observed.

  10. The efficacy of a perceptive rehabilitation on postural control in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Teresa; Fusco, Augusto; Iosa, Marco; Grasso, Maria R; Spadini, Ennio; Paolucci, Stefano; Saraceni, Vincenzo M; Morone, Giovanni

    2012-12-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain have a worse posture, probably related to poor control of the back muscles and altered perception of the trunk midline. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a perceptive rehabilitation in terms of stability and pain relief in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Thirty patients were enrolled and randomized into two groups: 15 patients received rehabilitation, on the basis of a specific tool to perform perceptive exercises [perceptive group (PG)], and 15 patients received a back school programme [back school group (BG)]. Both groups were assessed using stabilometry and the McGill Pain Questionnaire before and at the end of treatment. For the reference values of stabilometric parameters, 15 healthy individuals were enrolled. Significant reductions in sway length (P=0.019) and laterolateral sway velocity (P=0.038) were observed in the PG. The anteroposterior sway velocity was reduced in both the groups, but significantly only for BG (P=0.048). The percentage of sway length reduction was inversely and significantly correlated with the initial sway length value for PG (R=-0.708, P=0.003), but not for BG (R=-0.321, P=0.243). In the PG, the sagittal arrows and bi-acromial and bi-spinoiliac lines' angles were all significantly reduced. General pain relief was reported after treatment, without a significant difference (P=0.436). Our results suggest that a perceptive rehabilitation can improve the postural stability for the realignment of the trunk, controlling the back pain. The use of cognitive exercises may strengthen the usual rehabilitation of low back pain, avoiding the recurrence of symptoms.

  11. The Downward Spiral of Chronic Pain, Prescription Opioid Misuse, and Addiction: Cognitive, Affective, and Neuropsychopharmacologic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Froeliger, Brett; Zeidan, Fadel; Partin, Kaitlyn; Howard, Matthew O.

    2013-01-01

    Prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients are emerging public health concerns of considerable significance. Estimates suggest that more than 10% of chronic pain patients misuse opioid analgesics, and the number of fatalities related to nonmedical or inappropriate use of prescription opioids is climbing. Because the prevalence and adverse consequences of this threat are increasing, there is a pressing need for research that identifies the biobehavioral risk chain linking chronic pain, opioid analgesia, and addictive behaviors. To that end, the current manuscript draws upon current neuropsychopharmacologic research to provide a conceptual framework of the downward spiral leading to prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients receiving opioid analgesic pharmacotherapy. Addictive use of opioids is described as the outcome of a cycle initiated by chronic pain and negative affect and reinforced by opioidergic-dopamingeric interactions, leading to attentional hypervigilance for pain and drug cues, dysfunctional connectivity between self-referential and cognitive control networks in the brain, and allostatic dysregulation of stress and reward circuitry. Implications for clinical practice are discussed; multimodal, mindfulness-oriented treatment is introduced as a potentially effective approach to disrupting the downward spiral and facilitating recovery from chronic pain and opioid addiction. PMID:23988582

  12. The perception of primiparous mothers of comfortable resources in labor pain (a qualitative study)

    PubMed Central

    Boryri, Tahereh; Noori, Noor Mohammad; Teimouri, Alireza; Yaghobinia, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Natural delivery is the most painful event that women experience in their lifetime. That is why labor pain relief has long been as one of the most important issues in the field of midwifery. Thus, the present study aims to explore the perception of primiparous mothers on comfortable resources for labor pain. Materials and Methods: In the present study, qualitative content analysis technique was used. The participants had singleton pregnancy with normal vaginal delivery. These women referred to the Imam Javad Health Center within 3–5 days after delivery for screening thyroid of their babies. Results: During the content analysis process, five themes emerged that indicated the nature and dimensions of the primiparous mothers' perception of comfortable resources. These themes were: “religious and spiritual beliefs,” “use of analgesic methods” (medicinal and non-medicinal), “support and the continuous attendance of midwife and delivery room personnel,” “family's and husband's support during pregnancy and in vaginal delivery encouragement,” and finally “lack of familiarity with the delivery room and lack of awareness about structured delivery process.” Conclusions: The results showed that mothers received more comfort from human resources than from the environment and modern equipment. Despite the need for specialized midwife with modern technical facilities, this issue shows the importance of highlighting the role of midwife and humanistic midwife care. Therefore, considering midwives and the standardization of human resources in health centers are more important than physical standardization. This will result in midwife interventions being performed with real understanding of the patients' needs. PMID:27186200

  13. Polymorphisms in gene encoding TRPV1-receptor involved in pain perception are unrelated to chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The major clinical feature in chronic pancreatitis is pain, but the genetic basis of pancreatic pain in chronic pancreatitis is poorly understood. The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) gene has been associated with pain perception, and genetic variations in TRPV1 may modify the presence and phenotype of chronic pancreatitis. The aim of our study was to investigate the genetic variation of TRPV1 in Dutch patients with chronic pancreatitis and healthy controls. Methods We genotyped 4 SNPs (rs222749, rs222747, rs224534 and rs8065080) in 228 chronic pancreatitis-patients and 207 healthy controls by PCR, followed by restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. We generated 27 diplotypes and compared prevalence between patients and controls. Results There was no significant difference in allele frequency of the 4 TRPV1 gene SNPs in patients with chronic pancreatitis and healthy controls. Distribution of diplotypes was not statistically significantly different between patients and controls. Conclusion TRPV1 diplotypes are not associated with chronic pancreatitis. PMID:20034385

  14. Perceptions of other integrative health therapies by Veterans with pain who are receiving massage

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Carol Elizabeth; Mitchinson, Allison R.; Trumble, Erika L.; Hinshaw, Daniel B.; Dusek, Jeffery A.

    2016-01-01

    Veterans are increasingly using complementary and integrative health (CIH) therapies to manage chronic pain and other troubling symptoms that significantly impair health and quality of life. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is exploring ways to meet the demand for access to CIH, but little is known about Veterans’ perceptions of the VA’s efforts. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted interviews of 15 inpatients, 8 receiving palliative care, and 15 outpatients receiving CIH in the VA. Pain was the precipitating factor in all participants’ experience. Participants were asked about their experience in the VA and their opinions about which therapies would most benefit other Veterans. Participants reported that massage was well-received and resulted in decreased pain, increased mobility, and decreased opioid use. Major challenges were the high ratio of patients to CIH providers, the difficulty in receiving CIH from fee-based CIH providers outside of the VA, cost issues, and the role of administrative decisions in the uneven deployment of CIH across the VA. If the VA is to meet its goal of offering personalized, proactive, patient-centered care nationwide then it must receive support from Congress while considering Veterans’ goals and concerns to ensure that the expanded provision of CIH improves outcomes. PMID:27004453

  15. [Pain perception, mechanisms of action of local anesthetics and possible causes of failure].

    PubMed

    Vandermeulen, E

    2000-01-01

    First, the fundamentals of impulse transmission and pain perception are revised. The role of the primary afferent nociceptors is explained. Dental pain is described as a form of acute pain and the mechanism of nociception is fundamental. Peripheral and central sensitization can evolve. The second part covers the pharmacological aspects. Local anesthetics reduce impulse transmission by interfering with the mechanism of normal depolarisation. Binding to specific receptors located at the nerve membrane, more specifically on the sodium channel, results in decreased or eliminated permeability to sodium ions and leads to interruption of nerve conduction. The different types of local anesthetics used in dentistry are discussed in more detail with respect to their physico-chemical characteristics and analgetic properties. The importance of factors such as lipophilicity, degree of protein binding and dissociation constant pKa are explained together with the clinical implications of pH and possible toxic effects. Failure of local anesthesia can be the result of problems with the administration of the product or can have a pharmacological basis. Injection of the anesthetic should take place in amounts large enough, with suitable volume and as close as possible to the nerve. When infection and inflammation are present, the intravascular resorption of the anesthetic will accelerate and the lowered pH influences diffusion negatively. Repetitive administration can induce the phenomenon of tachyfylaxis (decreased anesthetic effect).

  16. The affective dimension of pain as a risk factor for drug and alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Dana M; McGinn, M Adrienne; Itoga, Christy A; Edwards, Scott

    2015-12-01

    Addiction, or substance use disorder (SUD), is a devastating psychiatric disease composed of multiple elemental features. As a biobehavioral disorder, escalation of drug and/or alcohol intake is both a cause and consequence of molecular neuroadaptations in central brain reinforcement circuitry. Multiple mesolimbic areas mediate a host of negative affective and motivational symptoms that appear to be central to the addiction process. Brain stress- and reinforcement-related regions such as the central amygdala (CeA), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and nucleus accumbens (NAc) also serve as central processors of ascending nociceptive input. We hypothesize that a sensitization of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of persistent and maladaptive pain contributes to a composite negative affective state to drive the enduring, relapsing nature of addiction, particularly in the case of alcohol and opioid use disorder. At the neurochemical level, pain activates central stress-related neuropeptide signaling, including the dynorphin and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems, and by this process may facilitate negative affect and escalated drug and alcohol use over time. Importantly, the widespread prevalence of unresolved pain and associated affective dysregulation in clinical populations highlights the need for more effective analgesic medications with reduced potential for tolerance and dependence. The burgeoning epidemic of prescription opioid abuse also demands a closer investigation into the neurobiological mechanisms of how pain treatment could potentially represent a significant risk factor for addiction in vulnerable populations. Finally, the continuing convergence of sensory and affective neuroscience fields is expected to generate insight into the critical balance between pain relief and addiction liability, as well as provide more effective therapeutic strategies for chronic pain and addiction.

  17. Comparative evaluation of passive, active, and passive-active distraction techniques on pain perception during local anesthesia administration in children.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoniem, Soad A; Mahmoud, Sara A

    2016-05-01

    Local anesthesia forms the backbone of pain control techniques and is necessary for a painless dental procedure. Nevertheless, administering a local anesthetic injection is among the most anxiety-provoking procedures to children. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of different distraction techniques (passive, active, and passive-active) on children's pain perception during local anesthesia administration. A total of 90 children aged four to nine years, requiring inferior alveolar nerve block for primary molar extraction, were included in this study and randomly divided into three groups according to the distraction technique employed during local anesthesia administration. Passive distraction group: the children were instructed to listen to a song on headphones; Active distraction group: the children were instructed to move their legs up and down alternatively; and Passive-active distraction group: this was a combination between both techniques. Pain perception during local anesthesia administration was evaluated by the Sounds, Eyes, and Motor (SEM) scale and Wong Baker FACES® Pain Rating Scale. There was an insignificant difference between the three groups for SEM scale and Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale at P = 0.743 and P = 0.112 respectively. The examined distraction techniques showed comparable results in reducing pain perception during local anesthesia administration.

  18. Comparative evaluation of passive, active, and passive-active distraction techniques on pain perception during local anesthesia administration in children

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmoniem, Soad A.; Mahmoud, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Local anesthesia forms the backbone of pain control techniques and is necessary for a painless dental procedure. Nevertheless, administering a local anesthetic injection is among the most anxiety-provoking procedures to children. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of different distraction techniques (passive, active, and passive-active) on children’s pain perception during local anesthesia administration. A total of 90 children aged four to nine years, requiring inferior alveolar nerve block for primary molar extraction, were included in this study and randomly divided into three groups according to the distraction technique employed during local anesthesia administration. Passive distraction group: the children were instructed to listen to a song on headphones; Active distraction group: the children were instructed to move their legs up and down alternatively; and Passive-active distraction group: this was a combination between both techniques. Pain perception during local anesthesia administration was evaluated by the Sounds, Eyes, and Motor (SEM) scale and Wong Baker FACES® Pain Rating Scale. There was an insignificant difference between the three groups for SEM scale and Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale at P = 0.743 and P = 0.112 respectively. The examined distraction techniques showed comparable results in reducing pain perception during local anesthesia administration. PMID:27222759

  19. [Perception of pain in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to inflammation, psychic disorders, functional status, and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Lisitsyna, T A; Vel'tishchev, D Iu; Gerasimov, A N; Seravina, O F; Kovalevskaia, O B; Zel'tyn', A E; Novikov, A A; Aleksandrova, E N; Tallerova, A V; Kovalenko, L P

    2013-01-01

    Pain perception was analyzed depending on the inflammatory activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), variants and manifestations of psychic disorders (including depressive, anxious and moderate cognitive ones), chronic fatigue, changes in the functional status and quality of life. The study included 125 patients (mean age 47.4 +/- 1.01 yr) with definitive diagnosis of RA 138.4 +/- 10.1 months in duration. RA activity was estimated from the DAS28 index, pain intensity and degree of fatigue by BPI and FSS scales respectively, the functional status and life quality by HAQ and EQ-5D. Psychic disorders were diagnosed by a psychiatrist in accordance with ICD-10 with the use of relevant psychiatric and psychological scales and methods. Pain perception was unrelated to the patients' age and RA duration. The multifactor analysis provided a basis for the prognostic model suggesting that the most severe pain in RA is related to the functional status and quality of life (VAS of general health status), hsCRP level, inflammatory activity index RA DAS28, peripheral platelet count, degree of fatigue (FSS) and depression (YADS), female sex. Depression and its severity is one more factor influencing pain perception in RA and accounting for functional insufficiency and low quality of life. Early diagnostics of psychic disorders (in the first place anxious and depressive ones) is mandatory to ensure effective combined therapy of pain in RA patients.

  20. The Affective Bases of Risk Perception: Negative Feelings and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Mental Imagery and Risk Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sobkow, Agata; Traczyk, Jakub; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has documented that affect plays a crucial role in risk perception. When no information about numerical risk estimates is available (e.g., probability of loss or magnitude of consequences), people may rely on positive and negative affect toward perceived risk. However, determinants of affective reactions to risks are poorly understood. In a series of three experiments, we addressed the question of whether and to what degree mental imagery eliciting negative affect and stress influences risk perception. In each experiment, participants were instructed to visualize consequences of risk taking and to rate riskiness. In Experiment 1, participants who imagined negative risk consequences reported more negative affect and perceived risk as higher compared to the control condition. In Experiment 2, we found that this effect was driven by affect elicited by mental imagery rather than its vividness and intensity. In this study, imagining positive risk consequences led to lower perceived risk than visualizing negative risk consequences. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that negative affect related to higher perceived risk was caused by negative feelings of stress. In Experiment 3, we introduced risk-irrelevant stress to show that participants in the stress condition rated perceived risk as higher in comparison to the control condition. This experiment showed that higher ratings of perceived risk were influenced by psychological stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that affect-laden mental imagery dramatically changes risk perception through negative affect (i.e., psychological stress). PMID:27445901

  1. The Affective Bases of Risk Perception: Negative Feelings and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Mental Imagery and Risk Perception.

    PubMed

    Sobkow, Agata; Traczyk, Jakub; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has documented that affect plays a crucial role in risk perception. When no information about numerical risk estimates is available (e.g., probability of loss or magnitude of consequences), people may rely on positive and negative affect toward perceived risk. However, determinants of affective reactions to risks are poorly understood. In a series of three experiments, we addressed the question of whether and to what degree mental imagery eliciting negative affect and stress influences risk perception. In each experiment, participants were instructed to visualize consequences of risk taking and to rate riskiness. In Experiment 1, participants who imagined negative risk consequences reported more negative affect and perceived risk as higher compared to the control condition. In Experiment 2, we found that this effect was driven by affect elicited by mental imagery rather than its vividness and intensity. In this study, imagining positive risk consequences led to lower perceived risk than visualizing negative risk consequences. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that negative affect related to higher perceived risk was caused by negative feelings of stress. In Experiment 3, we introduced risk-irrelevant stress to show that participants in the stress condition rated perceived risk as higher in comparison to the control condition. This experiment showed that higher ratings of perceived risk were influenced by psychological stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that affect-laden mental imagery dramatically changes risk perception through negative affect (i.e., psychological stress). PMID:27445901

  2. Perception of affective prosody in major depression: a link to executive functions?

    PubMed

    Uekermann, Jennifer; Abdel-Hamid, Mona; Lehmkämper, Caroline; Vollmoeller, Wolfgang; Daum, Irene

    2008-07-01

    Major depression is associated with impairments of executive functions and affect perception deficits, both being linked to dysfunction of fronto-subcortical networks. So far, little is known about the relationship between cognitive and affective deficits in major depression. In the present investigation, affect perception and executive functions were assessed in 29 patients with a diagnosis of major depression (Dep) and 29 healthy controls (HC). Both groups were comparable on IQ, age, and gender distribution. Depressed patients showed deficits of perception of affective prosody, which were significantly related to inhibition, set shifting, and working memory. Our findings suggest a significant association between cognitive deficits and affect perception impairments in major depression, which may be of considerable clinical relevance and might be addressed in treatment approaches. Future studies are desirable to investigate the nature of the association in more detail.

  3. Close to me? The influence of affective closeness on space perception.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Nicolas; Muller, Dominique; Gentaz, Edouard; Palluel-Germain, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Recent data show that psychosocial factors affect visual perception. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the relationship between affective closeness and the perception of apertures between two people. People feel discomfort when they are near someone they are not affectively close to. Therefore, we predict that they will be less likely to perceive that they can pass between two people not affectively close to them. Participants had to imagine passing through the aperture between two life-size classmate pictures. We found that the closer participants felt to their classmates, the more they felt able to pass between them. This provides the first evidence of a relationship between affective closeness and the perception of aperture between two people, suggesting that psychosocial factors constrain space perception.

  4. Inaccurate perception of asthma symptoms: a cognitive-affective framework and implications for asthma treatment.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Thomas; Verleden, Geert; De Peuter, Steven; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2009-06-01

    Inaccurate perception of respiratory symptoms is often found in asthma patients. Typically, patients who inaccurately perceive asthma symptoms are divided into underperceivers and overperceivers. In this paper we point out that this division is problematic. We argue that little evidence exists for a trait-like stability of under- and overperception and that accuracy of respiratory symptom perception is highly variable within persons and strongly influenced by contextual information. Particularly, expectancy and affective cues appear to have a powerful influence on symptom accuracy. Based on these findings and incorporating recent work on associative learning, attention and mental representations in anxiety and symptom perception, we propose a cognitive-affective model of symptom perception in asthma. The model can act as a framework to understand both normal perception as well as under- and overperception of asthma symptoms and can guide the development of affect-related interventions to improve perceptual accuracy, asthma control and quality of life in asthma patients. PMID:19285771

  5. Biased perception about gene technology: How perceived naturalness and affect distort benefit perception.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Hartmann, Christina; Sütterlin, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, the participants showed biased responses when asked to evaluate the benefits of gene technology. They evaluated the importance of additional yields in corn fields due to a newly introduced variety, which would increase a farmer's revenues. In one condition, the newly introduced variety was described as a product of traditional breeding; in the other, it was identified as genetically modified (GM). The two experiments' findings showed that the same benefits were perceived as less important for a farmer when these were the result of GM crops compared with traditionally bred crops. Mediation analyses suggest that perceived naturalness and the affect associated with the technology per se influence the interpretation of the new information. The lack of perceived naturalness of gene technology seems to be the reason for the participants' perceived lower benefits of a new corn variety in the gene technology condition compared with the perceptions of the participants assigned to the traditional breeding condition. The strategy to increase the acceptance of gene technology by introducing plant varieties that better address consumer and producer needs may not work because people discount its associated benefits. PMID:26505287

  6. Biased perception about gene technology: How perceived naturalness and affect distort benefit perception.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Hartmann, Christina; Sütterlin, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, the participants showed biased responses when asked to evaluate the benefits of gene technology. They evaluated the importance of additional yields in corn fields due to a newly introduced variety, which would increase a farmer's revenues. In one condition, the newly introduced variety was described as a product of traditional breeding; in the other, it was identified as genetically modified (GM). The two experiments' findings showed that the same benefits were perceived as less important for a farmer when these were the result of GM crops compared with traditionally bred crops. Mediation analyses suggest that perceived naturalness and the affect associated with the technology per se influence the interpretation of the new information. The lack of perceived naturalness of gene technology seems to be the reason for the participants' perceived lower benefits of a new corn variety in the gene technology condition compared with the perceptions of the participants assigned to the traditional breeding condition. The strategy to increase the acceptance of gene technology by introducing plant varieties that better address consumer and producer needs may not work because people discount its associated benefits.

  7. Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Stanley, Michelle; Parkhouse, Natalie; Cook, Kathryn; Smith, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of caffeine ingestion in enhancing aerobic performance is well established. However, despite suggestions that caffeine may enhance resistance exercise performance, research is equivocal on the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. It has also been suggested that dampened perception of perceived exertion and pain perception might be an explanation for any possible enhancement of resistance exercise performance due to caffeine ingestion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of caffeine ingestion on repetitions to failure, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise to failure. Eleven resistance trained individuals (9 males, 2 females, mean age±SD=26.4±6.4 years), took part in this double-blind, randomised cross-over experimental study whereby they ingested a caffeinated (5 mg kg(-1)) or placebo solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise. Experimental conditions were separated by at least 48 hours. Resistance exercise sessions consisted of bench press, deadlift, prone row and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 60% 1 repetition maximum. Results indicated that participants completed significantly greater repetitions to failure, irrespective of exercise, in the presence of caffeine (p=0.0001). Mean±S.D of repetitions to failure was 19.6±3.7 and 18.5±4.1 in caffeine and placebo conditions, respectively. There were no differences in peak heart rate or peak blood lactate values across conditions (both p >0.05). RPE was significantly lower in the caffeine compared to the placebo condition (p=0.03) and was significantly higher during lower body exercises compared to upper body exercises irrespective of substance ingested (p=0.0001). For muscle pain perception, a significant condition by exercise interaction (p=0.027) revealed that muscle pain perception was lower in the caffeine condition, irrespective of exercise

  8. Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Stanley, Michelle; Parkhouse, Natalie; Cook, Kathryn; Smith, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of caffeine ingestion in enhancing aerobic performance is well established. However, despite suggestions that caffeine may enhance resistance exercise performance, research is equivocal on the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. It has also been suggested that dampened perception of perceived exertion and pain perception might be an explanation for any possible enhancement of resistance exercise performance due to caffeine ingestion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of caffeine ingestion on repetitions to failure, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise to failure. Eleven resistance trained individuals (9 males, 2 females, mean age±SD=26.4±6.4 years), took part in this double-blind, randomised cross-over experimental study whereby they ingested a caffeinated (5 mg kg(-1)) or placebo solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise. Experimental conditions were separated by at least 48 hours. Resistance exercise sessions consisted of bench press, deadlift, prone row and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 60% 1 repetition maximum. Results indicated that participants completed significantly greater repetitions to failure, irrespective of exercise, in the presence of caffeine (p=0.0001). Mean±S.D of repetitions to failure was 19.6±3.7 and 18.5±4.1 in caffeine and placebo conditions, respectively. There were no differences in peak heart rate or peak blood lactate values across conditions (both p >0.05). RPE was significantly lower in the caffeine compared to the placebo condition (p=0.03) and was significantly higher during lower body exercises compared to upper body exercises irrespective of substance ingested (p=0.0001). For muscle pain perception, a significant condition by exercise interaction (p=0.027) revealed that muscle pain perception was lower in the caffeine condition, irrespective of exercise

  9. Relationships among alexithymia and pain intensity, pain interference, and vitality in persons with neuromuscular disease: Considering the effect of negative affectivity.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Masako; Molton, Ivan R; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Amtmann, Silvia; O'Brien, Sarah; Arimura, Tatsuyuki; Kubo, Chiharu

    2010-05-01

    Alexithymia, the inability to identify or label emotions, has been shown to be associated with pain in patients with a number of chronic pain conditions. We sought to: (1) replicate this association in samples of persons with chronic pain secondary to neuromuscular disease, (2) extend this finding to other important pain-related measures, and (3) to determine whether relationships among alexithymia and study variables existed after controlling for negative affect. One hundred and twenty-nine individuals with muscular dystrophy and chronic pain were administered measures of alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20), pain intensity (0-10 NRS), pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory Interference scale), mental health (SF-36 Mental Health scale; as a proxy measure of negative affect) and vitality (SF-36 Vitality scale). Higher TAS scores were associated significantly with higher pain intensity and interference, and less vitality. Although the strengths of these associations were reduced when mental health was used as a control, the associations between the Difficulty Identifying Feelings scale and vitality, and the Externally Oriented Thinking and Total TAS scales and pain intensity remained statistically significant. The findings replicate and extend previous findings concerning the associations between alexithymia and important pain-related variables in a sample of persons with chronic pain and neuromuscular disease. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which the associations are due to (1) a possible causal effect of alexithymia on patient functioning that is mediated via its effects on negative affect or (2) the possibility that alexithymia/outcome relationships reflect response bias caused by general negative affectivity.

  10. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ALEXITHYMIA AND PAIN INTENSITY, PAIN INTERFERENCE, AND VITALITY IN PERSONS WITH NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASE: CONSIDERING THE EFFECT OF NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Hosoi, Masako; Molton, Ivan R.; Jensen, Mark P.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Amtmann, Silvia; O’Brien, Sarah; Arimura, Tatsuyuki; Kubo, Chiharu

    2010-01-01

    Alexithymia, the inability to identify or label emotions, has been shown to be associated with pain in patients with a number of chronic pain conditions. We sought to: (1) replicate this association in samples of persons with chronic pain secondary to neuromuscular disease; (2) extend this finding to other important pain-related measures, and (3) to determine whether relationships among alexithymia and study variables existed after controlling for negative affect. One hundred and twenty-nine individuals with muscular dystrophy and chronic pain were administered measures of alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20), pain intensity (0–10 NRS), pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory Interference scale), mental health (SF-36 Mental Health scale; as a proxy measure of negative affect) and vitality (SF-36 Vitality scale). Higher TAS scores were associated significantly with higher pain intensity and interference, and less vitality. Although the strengths of these associations were reduced when mental health was used as a control, the associations between the Difficulty Identifying Feelings scale and vitality, and the Externally Oriented Thinking and Total TAS scales and pain intensity remained statistically significant. The findings replicate and extend previous findings concerning the associations between alexithymia and important pain-related variables in a sample of persons with chronic pain and neuromuscular disease. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which the associations are due to (1) a possible causal effect of alexithymia on patient functioning that is mediated via its effects on negative affect or (2) the possibility that alexithymia/outcome relationships reflect response bias caused by general negative affectivity. PMID:20207082

  11. Does Viewing Documentary Films Affect Environmental Perceptions and Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janpol, Henry L.; Dilts, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This research explored whether viewing documentary films about the natural or built environment can exert a measurable influence on behaviors and perceptions. Different documentary films were viewed by subjects. One film emphasized the natural environment, while the other focused on the built environment. After viewing a film, a computer game…

  12. Negative Affect, Risk Perception, and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Laura A.; Youngblade, Lise M.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence, etiology, and consequences of adolescent risk behavior have stimulated much research. The current study examined relationships among anger and depressive symptomatology (DS), risk perception, self-restraint, and adolescent risk behavior. Telephone surveys were conducted with 290 14- to 20-year-olds (173 females; M = 15.98 years).…

  13. Teacher Perceptions Affect Boys' and Girls' Reading Motivation Differently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerma, Inouk E.; Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher perceptions and children's reading motivation, with specific attention to gender differences. The reading self-concept, task value, and attitude of 160 fifth and sixth graders were measured. Teachers rated each student's reading comprehension. Results showed that for boys,…

  14. Specific Previous Experience Affects Perception of Harmony and Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was…

  15. The Facial Affective Scale as a Predictor for Pain Unpleasantness When Children Undergo Immunizations

    PubMed Central

    Finnström, Berit; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2014-01-01

    Needle fear is a common problem in children undergoing immunization. To ensure that the individual child's needs are met during a painful procedure it would be beneficial to be able to predict whether there is a need for extra support. The self-reporting instrument facial affective scale (FAS) could have potential for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the FAS can predict pain unpleasantness in girls undergoing immunization. Girls, aged 11-12 years, reported their expected pain unpleasantness on the FAS at least two weeks before and then experienced pain unpleasantness immediately before each vaccination. The experienced pain unpleasantness during the vaccination was also reported immediately after each immunization. The level of anxiety was similarly assessed during each vaccination and supplemented with stress measures in relation to the procedure in order to assess and evaluate concurrent validity. The results show that the FAS is valid to predict pain unpleasantness in 11-12-year-old girls who undergo immunizations and that it has the potential to be a feasible instrument to identify children who are in need of extra support to cope with immunization. In conclusion, the FAS measurement can facilitate caring interventions. PMID:24734174

  16. A Trouble Shared Is a Trouble Halved: Social Context and Status Affect Pain in Mouse Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Gioiosa, Laura; Chiarotti, Flavia; Alleva, Enrico; Laviola, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    In mice behavioral response to pain is modulated by social status. Recently, social context also has been shown to affect pain sensitivity. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of interaction between status and social context in dyads of outbred CD-1 male mice in which the dominance/submission relationship was stable. Mice were assessed for pain response in a formalin (1% concentration) test either alone (individually tested-IT), or in pairs of dominant and subordinate mice. In the latter condition, they could be either both injected (BI) or only one injected (OI) with formalin. We observed a remarkable influence of social context on behavioral response to painful stimuli regardless of the social status of the mice. In the absence of differences between OI and IT conditions, BI mice exhibited half as much Paw-licking behavior than OI group. As expected, subordinates were hypoalgesic in response to the early phase of the formalin effects compared to dominants. Clear cut-differences in coping strategies of dominants and subordinates appeared. The former were more active, whereas the latter were more passive. Finally, analysis of behavior of the non-injected subjects (the observers) in the OI dyads revealed that dominant observers were more often involved in Self-grooming behavior upon observation of their subordinate partner in pain. This was not the case for subordinate mice observing the pain response of their dominant partner. In contrast, subordinate observers Stared at the dominant significantly more frequently compared to observer dominants in other dyads. The observation of a cagemate in pain significantly affected the observer's behavior. Additionally, the quality of observer's response was also modulated by the dominance/submission relationship. PMID:19129917

  17. Pain Perception and Stabilometric Parameters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain After a Pilates Exercise Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Various exercise interventions, such as Pilates exercises and traditional physical therapy methods, are employed to decrease low back pain (LBP). Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is distinct from LBP, however, as the distribution of pain is restricted to the region between the costal margin and the inferior gluteal. The aim of our randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a program of Pilates exercises on pain perception and stabilometric parameters in patients with NSLBP.Thirty-eight participants were randomly allocated, using a 1:1 scheme, to either the experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). The EG completed a 14-week program of Pilates exercises, performed thrice per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist, while the CG was managed with a social program only. Measures of posturography and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for pain perception were obtained at baseline (T0) and after the 14 weeks of intervention (T)1.Posturography measures improved for patients in the EG, with both eyes open and eyes closed (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in posturography in the CG. ODI decreased significantly in both groups over the 14 weeks of the study protocol: EG, T0, 13.7 ± 5.0 compared with T1, 6.5 ± 4.0 (P < 0.001); and CG, T0, 10.7 ± 7.8 compared with T1, 8.4 ± 7.8 (P < 0.01). A greater extent of reduction in pain was achieved in the EG.The Pilates exercise program yielded improvements in pain and posturography outcomes. Our study also confirms the applicability of posturography in evaluating postural instability in patients with NSLBP. Due to our relatively small study group, future studies would be necessary to confirm our findings.

  18. Pain Perception and Stabilometric Parameters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain After a Pilates Exercise Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Various exercise interventions, such as Pilates exercises and traditional physical therapy methods, are employed to decrease low back pain (LBP). Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is distinct from LBP, however, as the distribution of pain is restricted to the region between the costal margin and the inferior gluteal. The aim of our randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a program of Pilates exercises on pain perception and stabilometric parameters in patients with NSLBP.Thirty-eight participants were randomly allocated, using a 1:1 scheme, to either the experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). The EG completed a 14-week program of Pilates exercises, performed thrice per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist, while the CG was managed with a social program only. Measures of posturography and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for pain perception were obtained at baseline (T0) and after the 14 weeks of intervention (T)1.Posturography measures improved for patients in the EG, with both eyes open and eyes closed (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in posturography in the CG. ODI decreased significantly in both groups over the 14 weeks of the study protocol: EG, T0, 13.7 ± 5.0 compared with T1, 6.5 ± 4.0 (P < 0.001); and CG, T0, 10.7 ± 7.8 compared with T1, 8.4 ± 7.8 (P < 0.01). A greater extent of reduction in pain was achieved in the EG.The Pilates exercise program yielded improvements in pain and posturography outcomes. Our study also confirms the applicability of posturography in evaluating postural instability in patients with NSLBP. Due to our relatively small study group, future studies would be necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:26765419

  19. Functional brain interactions that serve cognitive-affective processing during pain and placebo analgesia.

    PubMed

    Craggs, Jason G; Price, Donald D; Verne, G Nicholas; Perlstein, William M; Robinson, Michael M

    2007-12-01

    Pain requires the integration of sensory, cognitive, and affective information. The use of placebo is a common methodological ploy in many fields, including pain. Neuroimaging studies of pain and placebo analgesia (PA) have yet to identify a mechanism of action. Because PA must result from higher order processes, it is likely influenced by cognitive and affective dimensions of the pain experience. A network of brain regions involved in these processes includes the anterior and posterior insula (A-Ins, P-Ins), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (DACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and the supplementary motor area (SMA). We used connectivity analyses to investigate the underlying mechanisms associated with Placebo analgesia in a group of chronic pain patients. Structural equation models (SEM) of fMRI data evaluated the inter-regional connectivity of these regions across three conditions: (1) initial Baseline (B1), (2) placebo (PA), and (3) Placebo Match (PM). SEM results of B1 data in the left hemisphere confirmed hypothesized regional relationships. However, inter-regional relationships were dynamic and the network models varied across hemispheres and conditions. Deviations from the B1 model in the PA and PM conditions correspond to our manipulation of expectation for pain. The dynamic changes in inter-regional influence across conditions are interpreted in the context of a self-reinforcing feedback loop involved in the induction and maintenance of PA. Although it is likely that placebo analgesia results partly from afferent inhibition of a nociceptive signal, the mechanisms likely involve the interaction of a cognitive-affective network with input from both hemispheres. PMID:17904390

  20. On the relationship between personal experience, affect and risk perception: The case of climate change

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Examining the conceptual relationship between personal experience, affect, and risk perception is crucial in improving our understanding of how emotional and cognitive process mechanisms shape public perceptions of climate change. This study is the first to investigate the interrelated nature of these variables by contrasting three prominent social-psychological theories. In the first model, affect is viewed as a fast and associative information processing heuristic that guides perceptions of risk. In the second model, affect is seen as flowing from cognitive appraisals (i.e., affect is thought of as a post-cognitive process). Lastly, a third, dual-process model is advanced that integrates aspects from both theoretical perspectives. Four structural equation models were tested on a national sample (N = 808) of British respondents. Results initially provide support for the “cognitive” model, where personal experience with extreme weather is best conceptualized as a predictor of climate change risk perception and, in turn, risk perception a predictor of affect. Yet, closer examination strongly indicates that at the same time, risk perception and affect reciprocally influence each other in a stable feedback system. It is therefore concluded that both theoretical claims are valid and that a dual-process perspective provides a superior fit to the data. Implications for theory and risk communication are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25678723

  1. Aquaporin-1 Tunes Pain Perception by Interaction with Nav1.8 Na+ Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Verkman, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels are expressed in the plasma membrane of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We found reduced osmotic water permeability in freshly isolated DRG neurons from AQP1−/− versus AQP1+/+ mice. Behavioral studies showed greatly reduced thermal inflammatory pain perception in AQP1−/− mice evoked by bradykinin, prostaglandin E2, and capsaicin as well as reduced cold pain perception. Patch clamp of freshly isolated DRG neurons showed reduced action potential firing in response to current injections. Single action potentials after pulse current injections showed reduced maximum inward current, suggesting impaired Nav1.8 Na+ function. Whole-cell Nav1.8 Na+ currents in Nav1.8-expressing ND7-23 cells showed slowed frequency-dependent inactivation after AQP1 transfection. Immunoprecipitation studies showed AQP1- Nav1.8 Na+ interaction, which was verified in live cells by single-particle tracking of quantum dot-labeled AQP1. Our results implicate the involvement of AQP1 in DRG neurons for the perception of inflammatory thermal pain and cold pain, whose molecular basis is accounted for, in part, by reduced Nav1.8-dependent membrane Na+ current. AQP1 is, thus, a novel target for pain management. PMID:20018876

  2. Physical therapists should integrate illness perceptions in their assessment in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain; a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    van Wilgen, Paul; Beetsma, Anneke; Neels, Hedwig; Roussel, Nathalie; Nijs, Jo

    2014-06-01

    In the past decade, scientific evidence has shown that the biomedical model falls short in the treatment of patients with musculoskeletal pain. To understand musculoskeletal pain and a patient's health behavior and beliefs, physical therapists should assess the illness perceptions of their patients. In this quantitative study, we audiotaped the assessments of 19 primary care physical therapists on 27 patients and analyzed if and how illness perceptions were assessed. The Common Sense Model was used as the theoretical framework. We conclude that some of the domains of the Common Sense Model were frequently asked for (identity, causes and consequences), while others (timeline, treatment control, coherence, emotional representation) were used less frequently or seldom mentioned. The overall impression was that the assessments of the physical therapists were still bio-medically oriented in these patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

  3. Affective Response to a Loved One's Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Latorre, Valeria; Petito, Annamaria; Gentili, Nicoletta; Fazio, Leonardo; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion. PMID:21179564

  4. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  5. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  6. Targeting the affective and cognitive aspects of chronic neuropathic pain using basal forebrain neuromodulation: rationale, review and proposal.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Salma, Asem; Rezai, Ali R

    2012-09-01

    Chronic pain is a major health problem in developed countries where it may affect as much as 20% of the adult population. There have been no significant clinical breakthroughs in therapeutic options for persons with chronic neuropathic pain. These limitations underscore the importance of developing new therapies for this disabling pain syndrome. We have reviewed the limitations of the present treatment strategies for chronic pain, neurophysiology of somatosensory transmission and nociception, mechanisms of neuropathic pain, the concept of a "pain matrix" and the "top-down" modulation of pain, and the cognitive affective role in processing of the pain experience. We found that affective and cognitive aspects of pain constitute important considerations in achieving improvements in the outcomes of pain neuromodulation in patients with chronic neuropathic pain. Based on our review, we propose that future novel neuromodulatory therapeutic strategies should be directed at areas in the brain that are involved in the neural mechanisms of reward valuation and appetitive motivation such as nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, and prefrontal cortex.

  7. Immersion factors affecting perception and behaviour in a virtual reality power wheelchair simulator.

    PubMed

    Alshaer, Abdulaziz; Regenbrecht, Holger; O'Hare, David

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality based driving simulators are increasingly used to train and assess users' abilities to operate vehicles in a controlled and safe way. For the development of those simulators it is important to identify and evaluate design factors affecting perception, behaviour, and driving performance. In an exemplary power wheelchair simulator setting we identified the three immersion factors display type (head-mounted display v monitor), ability to freely change the field of view (FOV), and the visualisation of the user's avatar as potentially affecting perception and behaviour. In a study with 72 participants we found all three factors affected the participants' sense of presence in the virtual environment. In particular the display type significantly affected both perceptual and behavioural measures whereas FOV only affected behavioural measures. Our findings could guide future Virtual Reality simulator designers to evoke targeted user behaviours and perceptions. PMID:27633192

  8. Immersion factors affecting perception and behaviour in a virtual reality power wheelchair simulator.

    PubMed

    Alshaer, Abdulaziz; Regenbrecht, Holger; O'Hare, David

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality based driving simulators are increasingly used to train and assess users' abilities to operate vehicles in a controlled and safe way. For the development of those simulators it is important to identify and evaluate design factors affecting perception, behaviour, and driving performance. In an exemplary power wheelchair simulator setting we identified the three immersion factors display type (head-mounted display v monitor), ability to freely change the field of view (FOV), and the visualisation of the user's avatar as potentially affecting perception and behaviour. In a study with 72 participants we found all three factors affected the participants' sense of presence in the virtual environment. In particular the display type significantly affected both perceptual and behavioural measures whereas FOV only affected behavioural measures. Our findings could guide future Virtual Reality simulator designers to evoke targeted user behaviours and perceptions.

  9. Low Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... focuses on their pain as well as their perception of its severity. Pain that becomes chronic also ... that stimulating the nervous system can modify the perception of pain. Early studies of TENS suggested that ...

  10. Pain: Hope through Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... illness, our very lives. Pain is a complex perception that differs enormously among individual patients, even those ... that the two peptides are involved in the perception of pain sensations, especially moderate-to-severe pain. ...

  11. If you feel bad, it's unfair: a quantitative synthesis of affect and organizational justice perceptions.

    PubMed

    Barsky, Adam; Kaplan, Seth A

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research interest in both individual affect/temperament and organizational justice has grown substantially in recent years, affect's role in the perception of organizational justice has received scant attention. Here, the authors integrate these literatures and test bivariate relationships between state affect (e.g., moods), trait affect (e.g., affectivity), and organizational justice variables using meta-analytically aggregated effect sizes. Results indicated that state and trait positive and negative affect exhibit statistically significant relationships with perceptions of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice in the predicted directions, with mean population-level correlations ranging in absolute magnitude from M(rho) = .09 to M(rho) = .43. Correlations involving state affect generally were larger but not significantly different from those involving trait affect. Finally, the authors propose ideas for investigations at the primary-study level.

  12. Specific previous experience affects perception of harmony and meter.

    PubMed

    Creel, Sarah C

    2011-10-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was presented simultaneously with a melody. After a listener was familiarized with melodies embedded in contexts, the listener heard melodies in isolation and judged the fit of a final harmonic or metrical probe event. The probe event matched either the familiar (but absent) context or an unfamiliar context. For both harmonic (Experiments 1 and 3) and metrical (Experiment 2) information, exposure to context shifted listeners' preferences toward a probe matching the context that they had been familiarized with. This suggests that listeners rapidly form specific musical memories without explicit instruction, which are then activated during music listening. These data pose an interesting challenge for models of music perception which implicitly assume that the listener's knowledge base is predominantly schematic or abstract. PMID:21553992

  13. Factors affecting the perception of Korean-accented American English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kwansun; Harris, John G.; Shrivastav, Rahul

    2005-09-01

    This experiment examines the relative contribution of two factors, intonation and articulation errors, on the perception of foreign accent in Korean-accented American English. Ten native speakers of Korean and ten native speakers of American English were asked to read ten English sentences. These sentences were then modified using high-quality speech resynthesis techniques [STRAIGHT Kawahara et al., Speech Commun. 27, 187-207 (1999)] to generate four sets of stimuli. In the first two sets of stimuli, the intonation patterns of the Korean speakers and American speakers were switched with one another. The articulatory errors for each speaker were not modified. In the final two sets, the sentences from the Korean and American speakers were resynthesized without any modifications. Fifteen listeners were asked to rate all the stimuli for the degree of foreign accent. Preliminary results show that, for native speakers of American English, articulation errors may play a greater role in the perception of foreign accent than errors in intonation patterns. [Work supported by KAIM.

  14. Illness perceptions in the context of differing work participation outcomes: exploring the influence of significant others in persistent back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated that the significant others of individuals with persistent back pain may have important influences on work participation outcomes. The aim of this study was to extend previous research by including individuals who have remained in work despite persistent back pain in addition to those who had become incapacitated for work, along with their significant others. The purpose of this research was to explore whether the illness beliefs of significant others differed depending on their relative’s working status, and to make some preliminary identification of how significant others may facilitate or hinder work participation for those with persistent back pain. Methods Interviews structured around the Illness Perception Questionnaire (chronic pain version) were conducted with back pain patients recruited from a hospital pain management clinic along with their significant others. Some patients had remained in work despite their back pain; others had ceased employment. Data were analysed using template analysis. Results There were clear differences between beliefs about, and reported responses to, back pain symptoms amongst the significant others of individuals who had remained in employment compared with the significant others of those who had ceased work. Three overarching themes emerged: perceived consequences of back pain, specific nature of employment and the impact of back pain on patient identity. Conclusions Significant others of employed individuals with back pain focused on the extent to which activity could still be undertaken despite back pain symptoms. Individuals out of work due to persistent back pain apparently self-limited their activity and were supported in their beliefs and behaviours by their significant others. To justify incapacity due to back pain, this group had seemingly become entrenched in a position whereby it was crucial that the individual with back pain was perceived as completely disabled. We

  15. Investigation of neural correlates between perception of pain and hemodynamic response measured in the pre-frontal cortex using functional near infra-red spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri

    Perception of pain is multi-dimensional, comprising three major psychological dimensions: sensory-discriminative, motivational-affective and cognitive-evaluative. This dissertation study investigates the cognitive evaluation of pain, by acquiring functional Near Infra-Red Spectroscopic (fNIRS) measurements from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas, during mechanical and thermal pain stimulation induced on the subject's volar forearm. Clustered-wise analysis on the oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) response from specific PFC areas was followed by categorizing the resulting HbO response into early (0.1--12sec) and late (12.1--25sec) phases. For each respective phase, regression analysis was carried between the HbO-derived parameters and behaviorally measured pain rating. The major findings of this study include: (1) across both 41°C and 48°C thermal stimulation, significant DeltaHbO deactivation was observed during the late phase, in the left hemispheric (LH) anterior PFC (aPFC) or Brodmann area 10 (BA 10). (2) Significant correlates of pain rating were observed in the LH prefrontal areas: (a) under mechanical stimulation, early phase HbO-derived peak intensity (PI) from LH aPFC correlated with the pain rating. (b) Under both 41°C and 48°C thermal stimulation, late phase HbO-derived PI from the LH dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC or BA 46) showed correlation with the pain rating. (3) The significant correlates observed from the right hemispheric (RH) PFC were: (a) under mechanical stimulation, early phase HbO-derived FWHM from the RH aPFC correlated with the pain rating. (b) Under 41°C thermal stimulation, late phase HbO-derived PI from the RH DLPFC area correlated with the pain rating. (4) The late phase HbO-derived time to peak from LH aPFC reflected cognitive discrimination of two different pain levels (41°C and 48°C). The observed trend for DeltaHbO activation and deactivation could possibly be due to synaptic-induced vasodilation and vasoconstriction leading to increased or

  16. The Association Between Obesity and Low Back Pain and Disability Is Affected by Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Louisa; Brady, Sharmayne R.E.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Teichtahl, Andrew J.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.; Pasco, Julie A.; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L.; Wluka, Anita E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low back pain (LBP) and obesity are major public health problems; however, the relationship between body composition and low back pain in men is unknown. This study aims to examine the association between body composition and LBP and disability in a population-based sample of men, as well as the factors that may affect this relationship. Nine hundred seventy-eight male participants from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study were invited to participate in a follow-up study in 2006. Participants completed questionnaires on sociodemographics and health status. Low back pain was determined using the validated Chronic Back Pain Grade Questionnaire and the presence of an emotional disorder was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. Body composition was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Of the 820 respondents (84% response rate), 124 (15%) had high-intensity low back pain and/or disability (back pain). Low back pain was associated with higher body mass index (28.7 ± 0.4 vs 27.3 ± 0.2 kg/m2, P = 0.02) and waist–hip ratio (0.97 ± 0.006 vs 0.96 ± 0.006, P = 0.04), with increased tendency toward having a higher fat mass index (8.0 vs 7.6 kg/m2, P = 0.08), but not fat-free mass index (P = 0.68). The associations between back pain and measures of obesity were stronger in those with an emotional disorder, particularly for waist–hip ratio (P = 0.05 for interaction) and fat mass index (P = 0.06 for interaction). In a population-based sample of men, high-intensity LBP and/or disability were associated with increased levels of obesity, particularly in those with an emotional disorder. This provides evidence to support a biopsychosocial interaction between emotional disorders and obesity with low back pain. PMID:27082599

  17. Definitions and Types of Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Pain Defining Pain Pain is a perception that signals the individual that tissue damage has ... in the body that are involved in the perception of pain are called "nociception." Basic and clinical ...

  18. A Study on Factors Affecting Low Back Pain and Safety and Efficacy of NSAIDs in Acute Low Back Pain in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Srijana; Chhetri, Himal Paudel; Alam, Kadir; Thapa, Pabin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Low back pain is characterized by a range of symptoms which include pain, muscle tension or stiffness, and is localized between the shoulder blades and the folds of the buttocks, with or without spreading to the legs. Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are the drugs of choice which provide an analgesic effect for acute low back pain. Aim: To study the factors affecting low back pain, efficacy and safety of different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aceclofenac, diclofenac, naproxen and nimesulide) in low back pain. Methodology: Data collection form and numeric pain rating scale were used as study tools for studying patients’ demographies and severities of pain respectively. Patients prescribed with aceclofenac 100 mg , diclofenac 100 mg, naproxen 500 mg and nimesulide 100 mg for acute low back pain at Orthopaedics Outpatients Department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Nepal, were enrolled in this study. The decrease in pain scores was recorded on 5th and 10th days of follow-up and pain scores were calculated. Descriptive statistics and Kruskal Wallis non parametric test were used for analysis. Results: Among 150 patients, 67.3% were females (n=101). Low back pain was more prevalent (24.7%) in age-group of 59-68 years and a positive correlation was seen. Similarly, low back pain was found to be high among people involved in agriculture, heavy weight lifters and non smokers. The decrease in average pain scores was more in the patients treated with aceclofenac (4.83 ± 0.537), followed by that in those who were treated with naproxen (4.13 ± 0.067) and diclofenac (3.84 ± 0.086). The decrease in pain scores was found to be lowest among patients who were treated with nimesulide (2.11 ± 0.148). Nimesulide presented more number of side-effects than the comparative drugs. Conclusion: Different factors affect low back pain, such as age, gender, personal habit, posture, occupation, weight lifting. Aceclofenac showed greater decrease in pain

  19. Effect of pre-cooling injection site on pain perception in pediatric dentistry: “A randomized clinical trial”

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderi, Faezeh; Banakar, Shahin; Rostami, Shima

    2013-01-01

    Background: Injection of local anesthesia is one of the most important reasons for development of avoidance behavior in children. Efforts have been performed to decrease pain perception of injection. The present research evaluated the effect of cooling the injection site on pain perception before infiltration of local anesthetics. Materials and Methods: A prospective single-blind crossover clinical trial was used to investigate pain perception in 50 healthy pediatric patients who needed bilateral buccal infiltration of local anesthetics for dental treatment. They received a topical anesthetic agent (Benzocaine) on one side (control) for 1 min and topical anesthetic agent plus one minute of ice pack on the other side (trial) prior to the injection. A dentist blind to the study assessed the patients’ reaction during injection. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The means of sound, eye, and motor scales (SEM) were 4.06 ± 1.32 and 5.44 ± 1.79 for the study and control groups, respectively. The means of visual analogue scales (VAS) for the study and control groups were 42.20 ± 12.70 and 58.40 ± 16.83, respectively; with statistically significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Cooling the injection site before infiltration of local anesthetics in the buccal mucosa for 1 min, reduced pain perceived by pediatric patients. PMID:24379869

  20. Does the medial thalamus play a role in the negative affective component of visceral pain in rats?

    PubMed

    Wang, Han-Cheng; Chai, Sin-Chee; Wu, Yen-Sheng; Wang, Chia-Chuan

    2007-06-01

    Pain consists of sensory and negative affective components. Using a conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm, we investigated whether the medial thalamus (MT) played a role in the affective component of visceral pain induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid into male Long-Evan rats. Acetic acid produced writhing response as well as CPA. The bilateral MT-lesions resulted in slight reduction of writhing response, but CPA was not affected. The results suggest that while MT may play a role in visceral nociception, it does not participate in the negative affective component of visceral pain.

  1. Whose reality counts? Factors affecting the perception of volcanic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Katharine; Barclay, Jenni; Pidgeon, Nick

    2008-05-01

    Understanding how people perceive risk has become increasingly important for improving risk communication and reducing risk associated conflicts. This paper builds upon findings, methodologies and lessons learned from other fields to help understand differences between scientists, authorities and the public. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse underlying attitudes and judgements during an ongoing volcanic crisis on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat. Specific differences between the public, authorities and scientists were found to have been responsible for misunderstandings and misinterpretations of information and roles, resulting in differing perceptions of acceptable risk. Difficulties in the articulation and understanding of uncertainties pertaining to the volcanic risk led to a situation in which the roles of hazard monitoring, risk communication and public protection became confused. In addition, social, economic and political forces were found to have distorted risk messages, leading to a public reliance upon informal information networks. The implications of these findings for volcanic risk management and communication are discussed.

  2. Students' Achievement Goals, Emotion Perception Ability and Affect and Performance in the Classroom: A Multilevel Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassiou, Aikaterini; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Andreou, Eleni; Kafetsios, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Performance at school is affected not only by students' achievement goals but also by emotional exchanges among classmates and their teacher. In this study, we investigated relationships between students' achievement goals and emotion perception ability and class affect and performance. Participants were 949 Greek adolescent students in 49 classes…

  3. The role of illness perceptions in the attachment-related process of affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Vilchinsky, Noa; Dekel, Rachel; Asher, Zvia; Leibowitz, Morton; Mosseri, Morris

    2013-01-01

    Based on the predictions of the attachment theory and the Common Sense Model of illness perceptions, the current study focused on the role played by illness perceptions in explaining the path linking attachment orientations to negative affect during recovery from cardiac illness. We predicted two putative mechanisms: (1) illness perceptions would mediate the direct association between attachment-related insecurity (especially attachment anxiety) and levels of distress at follow-up and (2) illness perceptions would interact with attachment orientations (attachment avoidance in particular) in explaining patients' distress. The sample consisted of 111 male patients admitted to the Cardiac Care Unit of the Meir Medical Center, located in the central region of Israel. Patients completed a measure of attachment orientations during hospitalization (baseline). One month later, patients' illness perceptions were measured. Patients' depression and anxiety symptoms were measured at baseline and at the six-month follow-up. The associations between attachment-related anxiety and anxiety symptoms at follow-up were fully mediated by illness perceptions. Attachment-related avoidance was found to interact with illness perceptions in the prediction of depressive symptoms at follow-up. The findings shed light on the possible dynamics among personality, cognitive appraisals, and affect regulation efforts when coping with illness.

  4. Atypical perception of affective prosody in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Line; Skewes, Joshua; Hørlyck, Lone; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in language and social-emotional cognition. Yet, findings of emotion recognition from affective prosody in individuals with ASD are inconsistent. This study investigated emotion recognition and neural processing of affective prosody in high-functioning adults with ASD relative to neurotypical (NT) adults. Individuals with ASD showed mostly typical brain activation of the fronto-temporal and subcortical brain regions in response to affective prosody. Yet, the ASD group showed a trend towards increased activation of the right caudate during processing of affective prosody and rated the emotional intensity lower than NT individuals. This is likely associated with increased attentional task demands in this group, which might contribute to social-emotional impairments.

  5. Application of ice cube prior to subcutaneous injection of heparin in pain perception and ecchymosis of patients with cardiovascular problems.

    PubMed

    Batra, Gaytri

    2014-01-01

    In this experimental study of patients with cardiovascular problems, conducted at Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, purposive sampling technique was done from cardiology ward and CCU to obtain adequate samples. The sample comprised of 30 experimental group patients and 30 control group patients. The conceptual framework was based on the system model proposed by Ludwig Van Bertalanffy in 1957. Quasi experimental research approach was adopted for the study with post-test only control group design. The independent variable for the study was the ice cube application for 3 min and the dependent variables were pain perception and ecchymosis. The tools used for data collection were, structured interview schedule for sample characteristics, numerical rating scale for pain for subjective assessment, transparent ruler scale to measure the total surface area of ecchymosis, and for treatment ice-cubes in latex glove for giving cold compress. Subjects were asked to rate pain by showing the flash chart of standard pain rating scale immediately after the needle was withdrawn and ecchymosis was observed 48 hrs after the day of injection. The obtained difference between experimental and control group ecchymosis score, and pain perception score was statistically significant as evident from t-value at 0.05 level of significance. PMID:25799797

  6. Application of ice cube prior to subcutaneous injection of heparin in pain perception and ecchymosis of patients with cardiovascular problems.

    PubMed

    Batra, Gaytri

    2014-01-01

    In this experimental study of patients with cardiovascular problems, conducted at Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, purposive sampling technique was done from cardiology ward and CCU to obtain adequate samples. The sample comprised of 30 experimental group patients and 30 control group patients. The conceptual framework was based on the system model proposed by Ludwig Van Bertalanffy in 1957. Quasi experimental research approach was adopted for the study with post-test only control group design. The independent variable for the study was the ice cube application for 3 min and the dependent variables were pain perception and ecchymosis. The tools used for data collection were, structured interview schedule for sample characteristics, numerical rating scale for pain for subjective assessment, transparent ruler scale to measure the total surface area of ecchymosis, and for treatment ice-cubes in latex glove for giving cold compress. Subjects were asked to rate pain by showing the flash chart of standard pain rating scale immediately after the needle was withdrawn and ecchymosis was observed 48 hrs after the day of injection. The obtained difference between experimental and control group ecchymosis score, and pain perception score was statistically significant as evident from t-value at 0.05 level of significance.

  7. Acute low back pain: patients' perceptions of pain four weeks after initial diagnosis and treatment in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Chavannes, A.W.; Gubbels, J.; Post, D.; Rutten, G.; Thomas, S.

    1986-01-01

    In a nationwide study of the treatment of acute low back pain with and without radiation in general practice in the Netherlands the subjective well-being of patients was evaluated by means of a short questionnaire sent to patients four weeks after the initial contact with their general practitioner. After this period pain had disappeared in 28% of the patients, was diminished in 47%, was unchanged in 2% and was aggravated in 4%. There was no difference in the pain score of patients with and without follow-up encounters with their general practitioner. In all instances patients with low back pain without radiation fared significantly better than those with radiation. Radiation of pain was not constant — during the four-week follow-up period it developed in 19% of the patients originally without radiation and it disappeared in 44% of the patients originally suffering radiation. PMID:2945009

  8. The Effect of Patellar Taping on Squat Depth and the Perception of Pain in People with Anterior Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Amanda M.; Harrington, Elaine

    Patellar taping is a treatment adjunct commonly used in the management of anterior knee pain. The aim of this cross sectional study was to investigate the effects of medial glide patellar taping on sagittal plane lower-limb joint kinematics and knee pain during a unilateral squat in a symptomatic population complaining of anterior knee pain. Ten participants with a history of unilateral or bilateral anterior knee pain were included in the study. Subjects were required to squat on the symptomatic leg under three conditions: placebo tape, patellar tape and no tape. Kinematic data was recorded using the CODA mpx64 motion analysis system and subjects’ pain was assessed using the Numerical Rating Scale. Patellar taping resulted in a significantly greater single-legged squat depth compared to placebo tape (p=0.008) and no tape (p=0.001) and a statistically significant reduction in pain during a squat compared to placebo tape (p=0.001) or no tape (p=0.001). Significant differences were not identified for maximum knee flexion in the patella taping compared to the no tape condition. This study may have significant clinical implications as participants reported less pain and alterations in sagittal plane movement following the application of patellar tape. PMID:24146711

  9. The Role of Affective and Cognitive Individual Differences in Social Perception.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Antonio; Haddock, Geoffrey; Maio, Gregory R; Wolf, Lukas J; Alparone, Francesca R

    2016-06-01

    Three studies explored the connection between social perception processes and individual differences in the use of affective and cognitive information in relation to attitudes. Study 1 revealed that individuals high in need for affect (NFA) accentuated differences in evaluations of warm and cold traits, whereas individuals high in need for cognition (NFC) accentuated differences in evaluations of competent and incompetent traits. Study 2 revealed that individual differences in NFA predicted liking of warm or cold targets, whereas individual differences in NFC predicted perceptions of competent or incompetent targets. Furthermore, the effects of NFA and NFC were independent of structural bases and meta-bases of attitudes. Study 3 revealed that differences in the evaluation of warm and cold traits mediated the effects of NFA and NFC on liking of targets. The implications for social perception processes and for individual differences in affect-cognition are discussed. PMID:27460272

  10. Neighborhood Perceptions Affect Dietary Behaviors and Diet Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keita, Akilah Dulin; Casazza, Krista; Thomas, Olivia; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to determine if perceived neighborhood disorder affected dietary quality within a multiethnic sample of children. Design: Children were recruited through the use of fliers, wide-distribution mailers, parent magazines, and school presentations from June 2005 to December 2008. Setting:…

  11. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Children's Perception of Nonlinguistic Human Affective Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Seth D.; Holt, Lori L.; Fries, Alison B. Wismer

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, we developed a database of nonlinguistic sounds that mirror prosodic characteristics typical of language and thus carry affective information, but do not convey linguistic information. In a dichotic-listening task, we used these novel stimuli as a means of disambiguating the relative contributions of linguistic and affective…

  12. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  13. The Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) val158met Polymorphism Affects Brain Responses to Repeated Painful Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Gollub, Randy L.; Wasan, Ajay D.; Edwards, Robert R.; Kong, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Despite the explosion of interest in the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in pain sensitivity, conflicting findings have emerged for most of the identified “pain genes”. Perhaps the prime example of this inconsistency is represented by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), as its substantial association to pain sensitivity has been reported in various studies, but rejected in several others. In line with findings from behavioral studies, we hypothesized that the effect of COMT on pain processing would become apparent only when the pain system was adequately challenged (i.e., after repeated pain stimulation). In the present study, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate the brain response to heat pain stimuli in 54 subjects genotyped for the common COMT val158met polymorphism (val/val = n 22, val/met = n 20, met/met = n 12). Met/met subjects exhibited stronger pain-related fMRI signals than val/val in several brain structures, including the periaqueductal gray matter, lingual gyrus, cerebellum, hippocampal formation and precuneus. These effects were observed only for high intensity pain stimuli after repeated administration. In spite of our relatively small sample size, our results suggest that COMT appears to affect pain processing. Our data demonstrate that the effect of COMT on pain processing can be detected in presence of 1) a sufficiently robust challenge to the pain system to detect a genotype effect, and/or 2) the recruitment of pain-dampening compensatory mechanisms by the putatively more pain sensitive met homozygotes. These findings may help explain the inconsistencies in reported findings of the impact of COMT in pain regulation. PMID:22132136

  14. Professionals' Perceptions about the Need for Pain Management Interventions for Children with Cerebral Palsy in South African School Settings.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Stefan; Johnson, Ensa; Adolfsson, Margareta

    2016-08-01

    Pain is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and may have negative consequences for children's success in their studies. Research has shown that pain in childhood negatively influences individuals' participation and quality of life in later years. This study investigated how professionals in South African school settings respond to children's need for pain management in an attempt to enable the children to be active participants in school activities, despite their pain. The study was descriptive and followed a qualitative design (i.e., focus group interviews with semistructured questions and a conventional content analysis). Five government schools for children with special education needs in South Africa's Gauteng province participated. Participants/Subjects: Thirty-eight professionals who represented eight professions. Professional statements on the topic were collected from five focus group sessions conducted during one week. Qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Similar statements were combined, coded, and sorted into main categories and subcategories. The analysis identified three main categories for pain management: environmental, treatment, and support strategies. In addition, four groups of statements emerged on how contextual factors might affect pain in children with CP and their participation in school settings. It is important to train professionals in pain management and to implement structured models for pain prevention and management to ensure that best practices are adhered to for children with CP who suffer from acute or chronic pain. PMID:27349380

  15. Undetectable Changes in Image Resolution of Luminance-Contrast Gradients Affect Depth Perception

    PubMed Central

    Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Morita, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    A great number of studies have suggested a variety of ways to get depth information from two dimensional images such as binocular disparity, shape-from-shading, size gradient/foreshortening, aerial perspective, and so on. Are there any other new factors affecting depth perception? A recent psychophysical study has investigated the correlation between image resolution and depth sensation of Cylinder images (A rectangle contains gradual luminance-contrast changes.). It was reported that higher resolution images facilitate depth perception. However, it is still not clear whether or not the finding generalizes to other kinds of visual stimuli, because there are more appropriate visual stimuli for exploration of depth perception of luminance-contrast changes, such as Gabor patch. Here, we further examined the relationship between image resolution and depth perception by conducting a series of psychophysical experiments with not only Cylinders but also Gabor patches having smoother luminance-contrast gradients. As a result, higher resolution images produced stronger depth sensation with both images. This finding suggests that image resolution affects depth perception of simple luminance-contrast differences (Gabor patch) as well as shape-from-shading (Cylinder). In addition, this phenomenon was found even when the resolution difference was undetectable. This indicates the existence of consciously available and unavailable information in our visual system. These findings further support the view that image resolution is a cue for depth perception that was previously ignored. It partially explains the unparalleled viewing experience of novel high resolution displays. PMID:26941693

  16. Undetectable Changes in Image Resolution of Luminance-Contrast Gradients Affect Depth Perception.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Morita, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    A great number of studies have suggested a variety of ways to get depth information from two dimensional images such as binocular disparity, shape-from-shading, size gradient/foreshortening, aerial perspective, and so on. Are there any other new factors affecting depth perception? A recent psychophysical study has investigated the correlation between image resolution and depth sensation of Cylinder images (A rectangle contains gradual luminance-contrast changes.). It was reported that higher resolution images facilitate depth perception. However, it is still not clear whether or not the finding generalizes to other kinds of visual stimuli, because there are more appropriate visual stimuli for exploration of depth perception of luminance-contrast changes, such as Gabor patch. Here, we further examined the relationship between image resolution and depth perception by conducting a series of psychophysical experiments with not only Cylinders but also Gabor patches having smoother luminance-contrast gradients. As a result, higher resolution images produced stronger depth sensation with both images. This finding suggests that image resolution affects depth perception of simple luminance-contrast differences (Gabor patch) as well as shape-from-shading (Cylinder). In addition, this phenomenon was found even when the resolution difference was undetectable. This indicates the existence of consciously available and unavailable information in our visual system. These findings further support the view that image resolution is a cue for depth perception that was previously ignored. It partially explains the unparalleled viewing experience of novel high resolution displays.

  17. Does direct-to-consumer advertising affect patients' choice of pain medications?

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifei; Doucette, William R

    2008-04-01

    In the United States, direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has grown rapidly to promote prescription medications, including analgesics. Few studies in the literature directly examine the association between DTCA and patients' choice of pain medications. This article discusses how DTCA affects such choice from a behavioral perspective, because DTCA-prompted behaviors are important indicators of DTCA's influence. After DTCA exposure, patients may request prescriptions, seek further medication information, and ask about advertised conditions. Patients who suffer from pain may seek more communication with their health care providers because they are cautious about the information quality of DTCA, mainly because of the recall of rofecoxib (Vioxx; Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ). However, the availability and DTCA of over-the-counter analgesics complicate their treatment choice. Patients could use DTCA as a tool to launch health communication and make an informed treatment choice with the guidance of their health care providers. PMID:18474186

  18. The influence of 'significant others' on persistent back pain and work participation: A qualitative exploration of illness perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Individual illness perceptions have been highlighted as important influences on clinical outcomes for back pain. However, the illness perceptions of 'significant others' (spouse/partner/close family member) are rarely explored, particularly in relation to persistent back pain and work participation. The aim of this study was to initiate qualitative research in this area in order to further understand these wider influences on outcome. Methods Semi-structured interviews based on the chronic pain version of the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised were conducted with a convenience sample of UK disability benefit claimants, along with their significant others (n = 5 dyads). Data were analysed using template analysis. Results Significant others shared, and perhaps further reinforced, claimants' unhelpful illness beliefs including fear of pain/re-injury associated with certain types of work and activity, and pessimism about the likelihood of return to work. In some cases, significant others appeared more resigned to the permanence and negative inevitable consequences of the claimant's back pain condition on work participation, and were more sceptical about the availability of suitable work and sympathy from employers. In their pursuit of authenticity, claimants were keen to stress their desire to work whilst emphasising how the severity and physical limitations of their condition prevented them from doing so. In this vein, and seemingly based on their perceptions of what makes a 'good' significant other, significant others acted as a 'witness to pain', supporting claimants' self-limiting behaviour and statements of incapacity, often responding with empathy and assistance. The beliefs and responses of significant others may also have been influenced by their own experience of chronic illness, thus participants lives were often intertwined and defined by illness. Conclusions The findings from this exploratory study reveal how others and wider social

  19. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Ghaleni, Majid Asadi; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1) 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent) negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg) and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2) 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment), and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg) and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment) group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency. PMID:25400889

  20. Individual and gender differences in subjective and objective indices of pain: gender, fear of pain, pain catastrophizing and cardiovascular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Etherton, Joseph; Lawson, Marci; Graham, Reiko

    2014-06-01

    According to fear-avoidance models of pain perception, heightened fear of pain may increase disruptive effects of pain; however, the extent to which this affects self-reported pain severity versus physiological indices of pain is not well delineated. The current study examined self-report measures and physiological indices of pain during a cold pressor (CP) task. Individual differences in fear of pain and pain catastrophizing were also assessed via questionnaire. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the extent to which individual differences associated with fear and catastrophizing in response to pain influences subjective and physiological measures of pain. A secondary aim was to examine gender differences associated with response to pain. Average subjective pain ratings were higher for females than males. In contrast, males exhibited higher systolic and diastolic reactivity in response to the CP task relative to females, as well as failure to fully recover to baseline levels. Follow-up correlational analyses revealed that subjective pain ratings were positively associated with fear of pain in both sexes, but were not associated with cardiovascular indices. These results suggest that fear of pain and pain catastrophizing do not influence cardiovascular responses to induced pain. Further research is necessary in order to determine whether these gender differences in blood pressure and heart rate response profiles are due to biological or psychosocial influences. Results support the notion that fear of pain increases subjective pain ratings, but does not influence cardiovascular responses during CP pain-induction. PMID:24696322

  1. Evaluation of factors affecting stakeholder risk perception of contaminated sediment disposal in Oslo harbor.

    PubMed

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Ellen, Gerald Jan; Duijn, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The management of environmental pollution has changed considerably since the growth of environmental awareness in the late 1960s. The general increased environmental concern and involvement of stakeholders in today's environmental issues may enhance the need to consider risk in a much broader social context rather than just as an estimate of ecological hazard. Risk perception and the constructs and images of risks held by stakeholders and society are important items to address in the management of environmental projects, including the management of contaminated sediments. Here we present a retrospective case study that evaluates factors affecting stakeholder risk perception of contaminated sediment disposal that occurred during a remediation project in Oslo harbor, Norway. The choice to dispose dredged contaminated sediments in a confined aquatic disposal (CAD) site rather than at a land disposal site has received a lot of societal attention, attracted large media coverage, and caused many public discussions. A mixed method approach is used to investigate how risk perceptive affective factors (PAF), socio-demographic aspects, and participatory aspects have influenced the various stakeholders' preferences for the two different disposal options. Risk perceptive factors such as transparency in the decision making process and controllability of the disposal options have been identified as important for risk perception. The results of the study also support the view that there is no sharp distinction in risk perception between experts and other parties and emphasizes the importance of addressing risk perceptive affective factors in similar environmental decision-making processes. Indeed, PAFs such as transparency, openness, and information are fundamental to address in sensitive environmental decisions, such as sediment disposal alternatives, in order to progress to more technical questions such as the controllability and safety.

  2. Teachers’ perceptions of aspects affecting seminar learning: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many medical schools have embraced small group learning methods in their undergraduate curricula. Given increasing financial constraints on universities, active learning groups like seminars (with 25 students a group) are gaining popularity. To enhance the understanding of seminar learning and to determine how seminar learning can be optimised it is important to investigate stakeholders’ views. In this study, we qualitatively explored the views of teachers on aspects affecting seminar learning. Methods Twenty-four teachers with experience in facilitating seminars in a three-year bachelor curriculum participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. Three focus groups met twice with an interval of two weeks led by one moderator. Sessions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and independently coded by two researchers using thematic analysis. An iterative process of data reduction resulted in emerging aspects that influence seminar learning. Results Teachers identified seven key aspects affecting seminar learning: the seminar teacher, students, preparation, group functioning, seminar goals and content, course coherence and schedule and facilities. Important components of these aspects were: the teachers’ role in developing seminars (‘ownership’), the amount and quality of preparation materials, a non-threatening learning climate, continuity of group composition, suitability of subjects for seminar teaching, the number and quality of seminar questions, and alignment of different course activities. Conclusions The results of this study contribute to the unravelling of the ‘the black box’ of seminar learning. Suggestions for ways to optimise active learning in seminars are made regarding curriculum development, seminar content, quality assurance and faculty development. PMID:23399475

  3. Does weather affect daily pain intensity levels in patients with acute low back pain? A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Duong, Vicky; Maher, Chris G; Steffens, Daniel; Li, Qiang; Hancock, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various weather parameters on pain intensity levels in patients with acute low back pain (LBP). We performed a secondary analysis using data from the PACE trial that evaluated paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the treatment of acute LBP. Data on 1604 patients with LBP were included in the analysis. Weather parameters (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure) were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Pain intensity was assessed daily on a 0-10 numerical pain rating scale over a 2-week period. A generalised estimating equation analysis was used to examine the relationship between daily pain intensity levels and weather in three different time epochs (current day, previous day, and change between previous and current days). A second model was adjusted for important back pain prognostic factors. The analysis did not show any association between weather and pain intensity levels in patients with acute LBP in each of the time epochs. There was no change in strength of association after the model was adjusted for prognostic factors. Contrary to common belief, the results demonstrated that the weather parameters of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure did not influence the intensity of pain reported by patients during an episode of acute LBP.

  4. Does weather affect daily pain intensity levels in patients with acute low back pain? A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Duong, Vicky; Maher, Chris G; Steffens, Daniel; Li, Qiang; Hancock, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various weather parameters on pain intensity levels in patients with acute low back pain (LBP). We performed a secondary analysis using data from the PACE trial that evaluated paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the treatment of acute LBP. Data on 1604 patients with LBP were included in the analysis. Weather parameters (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure) were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Pain intensity was assessed daily on a 0-10 numerical pain rating scale over a 2-week period. A generalised estimating equation analysis was used to examine the relationship between daily pain intensity levels and weather in three different time epochs (current day, previous day, and change between previous and current days). A second model was adjusted for important back pain prognostic factors. The analysis did not show any association between weather and pain intensity levels in patients with acute LBP in each of the time epochs. There was no change in strength of association after the model was adjusted for prognostic factors. Contrary to common belief, the results demonstrated that the weather parameters of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure did not influence the intensity of pain reported by patients during an episode of acute LBP. PMID:26759130

  5. Hypovitaminosis D in widespread pain: its effect on pain perception, quality of life and nerve conduction studies.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Pinar; Akyuz, Gulseren; Yagci, Ilker; Giray, Esra

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of hypovitaminosis D on pain, quality of life (QoL) and nerve conduction studies (NCSs) in patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP). We randomly selected 83 female patients with CWP according to their vitamin D levels in this cross-sectional study. Patients were divided into two groups as sufficient vitamin D level (above 20 ng/ml) and deficient vitamin D level (below 20 ng/ml, hypovitaminosis D). Various pain scales and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were used. NCSs were also done. In patients with hypovitaminosis D, there were significantly higher pain scores for all scales (p value range 0.002-0.027). The subscale and total NHP scores were significantly higher in hypovitaminosis D group (p = 0.048-0.001) except social isolation subscale (p = 0.553). Vitamin D levels were in negative correlation with right and left median and/or ulnar motor nerve amplitudes, left tibial motor amplitude. This study confirm that hypovitaminosis D is related with higher pain intensity and lower QoL scores in patients with CWP when compared with control group. Additionally, we identified for the first time that there were negative correlations between vitamin D levels and some findings of NCSs.

  6. Hypovitaminosis D in widespread pain: its effect on pain perception, quality of life and nerve conduction studies.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Pinar; Akyuz, Gulseren; Yagci, Ilker; Giray, Esra

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of hypovitaminosis D on pain, quality of life (QoL) and nerve conduction studies (NCSs) in patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP). We randomly selected 83 female patients with CWP according to their vitamin D levels in this cross-sectional study. Patients were divided into two groups as sufficient vitamin D level (above 20 ng/ml) and deficient vitamin D level (below 20 ng/ml, hypovitaminosis D). Various pain scales and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were used. NCSs were also done. In patients with hypovitaminosis D, there were significantly higher pain scores for all scales (p value range 0.002-0.027). The subscale and total NHP scores were significantly higher in hypovitaminosis D group (p = 0.048-0.001) except social isolation subscale (p = 0.553). Vitamin D levels were in negative correlation with right and left median and/or ulnar motor nerve amplitudes, left tibial motor amplitude. This study confirm that hypovitaminosis D is related with higher pain intensity and lower QoL scores in patients with CWP when compared with control group. Additionally, we identified for the first time that there were negative correlations between vitamin D levels and some findings of NCSs. PMID:25085713

  7. Acupuncture as therapy of traumatic affective disorders and of phantom limb pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Freed, S

    1989-01-01

    Functional isomorphism holds between four essential properties of acupuncture and of meditation, namely, 1) alpha rhythm prominent in electro-encephalograms (EEG); 2) deep general relaxation; 3) high degree of unresponsiveness to ordinarily painful stimuli; 4) participation of virtually the entire body. It is postulated, subject to experimental test, that a "stillness" prevails during acupuncture similar to the quiet of meditation. The quiet of meditation and by postulate, the "stillness" of acupuncture, provide high degree of unresponsiveness to aversive components of conditioned stimuli which had habitually reactivated affective trauma. This marked unresponsiveness accounts for the "stillness" and its EEG alpha rhythm. With its low noise level the "stillness" also provides the cerebral cortex better resolved, more intense signals relative to background and more comprehensive, clear information. The cortex can then call upon newly mobilizable, more precise regulation for removing imbalances throughout the body. The same factors apply to the therapy by acupuncture of phantom limb pain syndrome if the pain impulses from the limb, while attached, is the unconditioned stimulus of a reflex in which impulses from inner organs function as conditioned stimuli. Successful therapy of the syndrome using laser-stimulated acupuncture points is discussed accordingly. Emphasized is the desirability to maximize the "stillness," possibly by monitoring the course of therapy by displayed EEG.

  8. Do Students' Approaches to Learning Affect Their Perceptions of Using Computing and Information Technology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelfs, Anne; Colbourn, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of communication and information technology (C&IT) in higher education in the United Kingdom and describes research that examined student perceptions of using C&IT for a virtual seminar series in psychology. Identified student learning approaches within the group and how it affected their adoption or rejection of the electronic…

  9. Perceptions of Educational Barriers Affecting the Academic Achievement of Latino K-12 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined different factors affecting the perceptions of barriers in academic achievement of Latino K-12 students. The study used data from 1,508 participants who identified themselves as being of Hispanic or Latino heritage in the 2004 National Survey of Latinos: Education, compiled by the Pew Hispanic Center between August 7 and…

  10. A School Principal's Perceptions Regarding Personal Qualities and Pedagogical Qualifications Affecting Teacher Candidate Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Pamela Thayer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the procedures used and the perceptions of a principal as to the personal qualities and pedagogical qualifications affecting the selection of teacher candidates. The approach examined one principal's procedures used to choose which candidates to interview, the process she used to conduct the interviews, the professional…

  11. Ethical Ideologies: Do They Affect Shopping Behaviors and Perceptions of Morality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyeon; Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Johnson, Kim K. P.

    2005-01-01

    Counterfeiting is a serious problem facing several industries, including the medical, agricultural, and apparel industries (Bloch, Bush, & Campbell, 1993). The authors investigated whether ethical viewpoints affect perceptions of the morality of particular shopping behaviors, attitudes toward counterfeit products, and intentions to purchase such…

  12. Public School Principals' Perceptions of Selected External Factors Affecting Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisert, John E.

    Based on principals' own perceptions, this paper examines how the principal's role has changed, what constitutes principals' major problems or concerns, and how state and federal regulations and community pressures have affected the principal's role. The project identified and interviewed 56 public school principals for an 11-county area served by…

  13. Preschool Children's Perceptions of the Value of Affection as Seen in Their Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günindi, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of children in preschool education with regard to the value of affection in the pictures they draw. The study involved 199 children aged 60 months old or above. The descriptive research method was used and data were collected with the draw-and-explain technique. During the collection of the…

  14. Students Perceptions on Factors That Affect Their Academic Performance: The Case of Great Zimbabwe University (GZU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapuranga, Barbra; Musingafi, Maxwell C. C.; Zebron, Shupikai

    2015-01-01

    Some educators argue that entry standards are the most important determinants of successful completion of a university programme; others maintain that non-academic factors must also be considered. In this study we sought to investigate open and distance learning students' perceptions of the factors affecting academic performance and successful…

  15. A study of patient experience and perception regarding postoperative pain management in Chinese hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Weiran, Liu; Lei, Zhang; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Anliu, Tang; Shumin, Xie; Jing, Zhang; Kai, Zhang; Zhen, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to analyze the current status of postoperative pain management in the People’s Republic of China’s provincial-level hospitals, and the existing knowledge and opinions held by patients regarding these methods. Methods The 128 participants in this study were urology and hepatobiliary patients from three provincial-level hospitals in Hunan. The questionnaire assessing postoperative pain was designed using the typical pain assessment scales and pain management guidelines as references. Results 82.8% of study participants claimed that their postoperative pain was relieved within 3 days of their operations. However, while 91.4% of surveyed patients experienced moderate to severe pain, 51.6% received no treatment for their postoperative pain, and 14.9% complained that medical personnel failed to manage their pain. 20.2% were unsatisfied with their pain management, indicating that treatment did not meet their expectations. Furthermore, participants demonstrated a great misunderstanding of pain and analgesics, as 72.6% of patients were unfamiliar with morphine, 51.6% of patients believed only certain types of pain required management, and 18.5% refused to use morphine. Conclusion In most Chinese provincial-level hospitals, current postoperative pain management methods are able to alleviate the pain experienced by the majority of patients, though pain assessment and therapy procedures are still not standardized. Furthermore, most patients lack a proper understanding of postoperative pain and analgesics. Therefore, pain management education for doctors and patients and their relatives should be implemented in order to improve the quality of postoperative pain management. PMID:24235819

  16. Improving undergraduate medical education about pain assessment and management: A qualitative descriptive study of stakeholders’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Rodríguez, Charo; Ware, Mark A; Posel, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pain is one of the most common reasons for individuals to seek medical advice, yet it remains poorly managed. One of the main reasons that poor pain management persists is the lack of adequate knowledge and skills of practicing clinicians, which stems from a perceived lack of pain education during the training of undergraduate medical students. OBJECTIVE: To identify gaps in knowledge with respect to pain management as perceived by students, patients and educators. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Data were generated through six focus groups with second- and fourth-year medical students, four focus groups with patients and individual semistructured interviews with nine educators. All interviews were audiotaped and an inductive thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 70 individuals participated in the present study. Five main themes were identified: assessment of physical and psychosocial aspects of pain; clinical management of pain with pharmacology and alternative therapies; communication and the development of a good therapeutic relationship; ethical considerations surrounding pain; and institutional context of medical education about pain. CONCLUSION: Participating patients, students and pain experts recognized a need for additional medical education about pain assessment and management. Educational approaches need to teach students to gather appropriate information about pain, to acquire knowledge of a broad spectrum of therapeutic options, to develop a mutual, trusting relationship with patients and to become aware of their own biases and prejudice toward patients with pain. The results of the present study should be used to develop and enhance existing pain curricula content. PMID:23985579

  17. Positive affect and pain: mediators of the within-day relation linking sleep quality to activity interference in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Dhwani J; Davis, Mary C; Yeung, Ellen W; Tennen, Howard A

    2015-03-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition often resulting in functional impairments. Nonrestorative sleep is a prominent symptom of FM that is related to disability, but the day-to-day mechanisms relating the prior night's sleep quality to next-day reports of disability have not been examined. This study examined the within-day relations among early-morning reports of sleep quality last night, late-morning reports of pain and positive and negative affect, and end-of-day reports of activity interference. Specifically, we tested whether pain, positive affect, and negative affect mediated the association between sleep quality and subsequent activity interference. Data were drawn from electronic diary reports collected from 220 patients with FM for 21 consecutive days. The direct and mediated effects at the within-person level were estimated with multilevel structural equation modeling. Results showed that pain and positive affect mediated the relation between sleep quality and activity interference. Early-morning reports of poor sleep quality last night predicted elevated levels of pain and lower levels of positive affect at late-morning, which, in turn, predicted elevated end-of-day activity interference. Of note, positive affect was a stronger mediator than pain and negative affect was not a significant mediator. In summary, the findings identify 2 parallel mechanisms, pain and positive affect, through which the prior night's sleep quality predicts disability the next day in patients with FM. Furthermore, results highlight the potential utility of boosting positive affect after a poor night's sleep as one means of preserving daily function in FM. PMID:25679472

  18. Internal and external factors affecting the development of neuropathic pain in rodents. Is it all about pain?

    PubMed

    Vissers, K; De Jongh, R; Hoffmann, V; Heylen, R; Crul, B; Meert, T

    2003-12-01

    It is important to know the factors that will influence animal models of neuropathic pain. A good reproducibility and predictability in different strains of animals for a given test increases the clinical relevance and possible targeting. An obligatory requirement for enabling comparisons of results of different origin is a meticulous definition of the specific sensitivities of a model for neuropathic pain and a description of the test conditions. Factors influencing neuropathic pain behavior can be subdivided in external and internal factors. The most important external factors are; timing of the measurement of pain after induction of neuropathy, circadian rhythms, seasonal influences, air humidity, influence of order of testing, diet, social variables, housing and manipulation, cage density, sexual activity, external stress factors, and influences of the experimenter. The internal factors are related to the type of animal, its genetic background, gender, age, and the presence of homeostatic adaptation mechanisms to specific situations or stress. In practice, the behavioral presentations to pain depend on the combination of genetic and environmental factors such as accepted social behavior. It also depends on the use of genetic manipulation of the animals such as in transgenic animals. These make the interpretation of data even more difficult. Differences of pain behavior between in- and outbred animals will be better understood by using modern analysis techniques. Substrains of animals with a high likelihood for developing neuropathic pain make the unraveling of specific pathophysiological mechanisms possible. Concerning the effect of stress on pain, it is important to differentiate between external and internal stress such as social coping behavior. The individual dealing with this stress is species sensitive, and depends on the genotype and the social learning. In the future, histo-immunological and genetic analysis will highlight similarities of the different

  19. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  20. Access to rehabilitation: patient perceptions of inequalities in access to specialty pain rehabilitation from a gender and intersectional perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wiklund, Maria; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Stålnacke, Britt-Marie; Hammarström, Anne; Lehti, Arja

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term musculoskeletal pain is common, particularly among women. Pain conditions are a concern in primary health care, and people with severe and complex pain are referred to specialty health care. There is gender bias in access, counselling, assessment, and treatment of long-term pain. Objective This study explores patient accounts and perceptions about important (social) factors for accessing specialised pain rehabilitation from gender and intersectional equality perspectives. We aimed to identify potential biases and inequalities in accessing rehabilitation resources at a specialised rehabilitation clinic. Design Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 adults after an assessment or completion of a specialised rehabilitation programme in northern Sweden. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore patients’ perceptions of important factors for accessing rehabilitation. Results One main theme was formulated as Access to rehab – not a given. Three categories of perceived inequality were demonstrated: power of gender, power of social status, and power of diagnosis. Participants perceived rehabilitation as a resource that is not equally available, but dependent on factors such as gender, socio-economic status, ability to work, ethnicity, or age, and more subtle aspects of social status and habitus (e.g. appearance, fitness, and weight). The character of diagnosis received (medical versus psychiatric or social) was also noted. Conclusions It is crucial that professionals are aware of how potential inequalities related to gender, social status, and diagnosis, and their intersections, can be created, perceived, and have influence on the processes of assessment and treatment. Reduction of social determinants of health and biases remain important within global, national, and local contexts. PMID:27569592

  1. The influence of a working memory task on affective perception of facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S; Aupperle, Robin L

    2014-01-01

    In a dual-task paradigm, participants performed a spatial location working memory task and a forced two-choice perceptual decision task (neutral vs. fearful) with gradually morphed emotional faces (neutral ∼ fearful). Task-irrelevant word distractors (negative, neutral, and control) were experimentally manipulated during spatial working memory encoding. We hypothesized that, if affective perception is influenced by concurrent cognitive load using a working memory task, task-irrelevant emotional distractors would bias subsequent perceptual decision-making on ambiguous facial expression. We found that when either neutral or negative emotional words were presented as task-irrelevant working-memory distractors, participants more frequently reported fearful face perception - but only at the higher emotional intensity levels of morphed faces. Also, the affective perception bias due to negative emotional distractors correlated with a decrease in working memory performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that concurrent working memory load by task-irrelevant distractors has an impact on affective perception of facial expressions. PMID:25347772

  2. The influence of a working memory task on affective perception of facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S; Aupperle, Robin L

    2014-01-01

    In a dual-task paradigm, participants performed a spatial location working memory task and a forced two-choice perceptual decision task (neutral vs. fearful) with gradually morphed emotional faces (neutral ∼ fearful). Task-irrelevant word distractors (negative, neutral, and control) were experimentally manipulated during spatial working memory encoding. We hypothesized that, if affective perception is influenced by concurrent cognitive load using a working memory task, task-irrelevant emotional distractors would bias subsequent perceptual decision-making on ambiguous facial expression. We found that when either neutral or negative emotional words were presented as task-irrelevant working-memory distractors, participants more frequently reported fearful face perception - but only at the higher emotional intensity levels of morphed faces. Also, the affective perception bias due to negative emotional distractors correlated with a decrease in working memory performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that concurrent working memory load by task-irrelevant distractors has an impact on affective perception of facial expressions.

  3. Individual Differences in Beat Perception Affect Gait Responses to Low- and High-Groove Music

    PubMed Central

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the “beat,” which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation. PMID:25374521

  4. Pain, health perception and sleep: impact on the quality of life of firefighters/rescue professionals1

    PubMed Central

    Marconato, Rafael Silva; Monteiro, Maria Ines

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the quality of life of firefighters and rescue professionals, and characterize their socio-demographic, health, work and lifestyle profile. Methods: cross-sectional study that used a socio-demographic, lifestyle, health, work data questionnaire and the WHOQOL-BREF quality of life aspects, in Fire Department bases, Civil Air Patrol Group of the Military Police and Rescue Group of Emergency Services. Results: ninety professionals participated in this study - 71 firefighters, 9 nurses, 7 doctors and 3 flight crew members. The average age of the group was 36.4 ± 7.8 years; they worked about 63.7 hours per week; 20.2% reported pain in the last week and 72.7% had body mass index above 25 kg/m2. The average of the WHOQOL-BREF domains was: physical (74.6), psychological (75.2), social (76.5) and environmental (58.7). Significant association was found (Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation) between the WHOQOL-BREF domains and pain in the past six months, in the last week, health perception, job satisfaction, hours of sleep, domestic tasks and study. Conclusion: the main factors related to quality of life were presence of pain, health perception, sleep and domestic activity. PMID:26625988

  5. Learning and Exposure Affect Environmental Perception Less than Evolutionary Navigation Costs

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Russell E.; Willey, Chéla R.; Cormack, Lawrence K.

    2013-01-01

    Most behaviors are conditional upon successful navigation of the environment, which depends upon distance perception learned over repeated trials. Unfortunately, we understand little about how learning affects distance perception–especially in the most common human navigational scenario, that of adult navigation in familiar environments. Further, dominant theories predict mutually exclusive effects of learning on distance perception, especially when the risks or costs of navigation differ. We tested these competing predictions in four experiments in which we also presented evolutionarily relevant navigation costs. Methods included within- and between-subjects comparisons and longitudinal designs in laboratory and real-world settings. Data suggested that adult distance estimation rapidly reflects evolutionarily relevant navigation costs and repeated exposure does little to change this. Human distance perception may have evolved to reflect navigation costs quickly and reliably in order to provide a stable signal to other behaviors and with little regard for objective accuracy. PMID:23577070

  6. Does restriction of pitch variation affect the perception of vocal emotions in Mandarin Chinese?

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Lee, Yong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a finding about vocal expressions of emotion in Mandarin Chinese. Production and perception experiments used the same tone and mixed tone sequences to test whether pitch variation is restricted due to the presence of lexical tones. Results showed that the restriction of pitch variation occurred in all high level tone sequences (tone 1 group) with the expression of happiness but did not happen for other dynamic tone groups. However, perception analysis revealed that all the emotions in every tone group received high identification rates; this indicates that listeners used other cues for encoding happiness in the tone 1 group. This study demonstrates that the restriction of pitch variation does not affect the perception of vocal emotions.

  7. Observational fear learning involves affective pain system and Cav1.2 Ca2+ channels in ACC

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Daejong; Kim, Sangwoo; Chetana, Mattu; Jo, Daewoong; Ruley, H Earl; Lin, Shih-Yao; Rabah, Dania; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2010-01-01

    Fear can be acquired vicariously through social observation of others suffering from aversive stimuli. We found that mice (observers) developed freezing behavior by observing other mice (demonstrators) receive repetitive foot shocks. Observers had higher fear responses when demonstrators were socially related to themselves, such as siblings or mating partners. Inactivation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and parafascicular or mediodorsal thalamic nuclei, which comprise the medial pain system representing pain affection, substantially impaired this observational fear learning, whereas inactivation of sensory thalamic nuclei had no effect. The ACC neuronal activities were increased and synchronized with those of the lateral amygdala at theta rhythm frequency during this learning. Furthermore, an ACC-limited deletion of Cav1.2 Ca2+ channels in mice impaired observational fear learning and reduced behavioral pain responses. These results demonstrate the functional involvement of the affective pain system and Cav1.2 channels of the ACC in observational social fear. PMID:20190743

  8. Observational fear learning involves affective pain system and Cav1.2 Ca2+ channels in ACC.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Daejong; Kim, Sangwoo; Chetana, Mattu; Jo, Daewoong; Ruley, H Earl; Lin, Shih-Yao; Rabah, Dania; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2010-04-01

    Fear can be acquired vicariously through social observation of others suffering from aversive stimuli. We found that mice (observers) developed freezing behavior by observing other mice (demonstrators) receive repetitive foot shocks. Observers had higher fear responses when demonstrators were socially related to themselves, such as siblings or mating partners. Inactivation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and parafascicular or mediodorsal thalamic nuclei, which comprise the medial pain system representing pain affection, substantially impaired this observational fear learning, whereas inactivation of sensory thalamic nuclei had no effect. The ACC neuronal activities were increased and synchronized with those of the lateral amygdala at theta rhythm frequency during this learning. Furthermore, an ACC-limited deletion of Ca(v)1.2 Ca(2+) channels in mice impaired observational fear learning and reduced behavioral pain responses. These results demonstrate the functional involvement of the affective pain system and Ca(v)1.2 channels of the ACC in observational social fear.

  9. Examining the relationship between affect and implicit associations: implications for risk perception.

    PubMed

    Dohle, Simone; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-07-01

    It has been suggested that affect may play an important role in risk perception. Slovic et al. argued that people make use of the "affect heuristic" when assessing risks because it is easier and more efficient to rely on spontaneous affective reactions than to analyze all available information. In the present studies, a single category implicit association test (SC-IAT) to measure associations evoked by different hazards was employed. In the first study, we tested the extent to which the SC-IAT corresponds to the theoretical construct of affect in a risk framework. Specifically, we found that the SC-IAT correlates with other explicit measures that claim to measure affect, as well as with a measure of trust, but not with a measure that captures a different construct (subjective knowledge). In the second study, we addressed the question of whether hazards that vary along the dread dimension of the psychometric paradigm also differ in the affect they evoke. The results of the SC-IAT indicated that a high-dread hazard (nuclear power) elicits negative associations. Moreover, the high-dread hazard evoked more negative associations than a medium-dread hazard (hydroelectric power). In contrast, a nondread hazard (home appliances) led to positive associations. The results of our study highlight the importance of affect in shaping attitudes and opinions toward risks. The results further suggest that implicit measures may provide valuable insight into people's risk perception above and beyond explicit measures. PMID:20409044

  10. Intrapersonal Variability in Negative Affect as a Moderator of Accuracy and Bias in Interpersonal Perception.

    PubMed

    Sadikaj, Gentiana; Moskowitz, D S; Zuroff, David C

    2015-08-01

    High intrapersonal variability has frequently been found to be related to poor personal and interpersonal outcomes. Little research has examined processes by which intrapersonal variability influences outcomes. This study explored the relation of intrapersonal variability in negative affect (negative affect flux) to accuracy and bias in the perception of a romantic partner's quarrelsome behavior. A sample of 93 cohabiting couples participated in a study using an event-contingent recording (ECR) methodology in which they reported their negative affect, quarrelsome behavior, and perception of their partner's quarrelsome behavior in interactions with each other during a 20-day period. Negative affect flux was operationalized as the within-person standard deviation of negative affect scores across couple interactions. Findings suggested that participants were both accurate in tracking changes in their partner's quarrelsome behavior and biased in assuming their partner's quarrelsome behavior mirrored their own quarrelsome behavior. Negative affect flux moderated both accuracy and bias of assumed similarity such that participants with higher flux manifested both greater tracking accuracy and larger bias of assumed similarity. Negative affect flux may be related to enhanced vigilance to close others' negative behavior, which may explain higher tracking accuracy and propensity to rely on a person's own negative behavior as a means of judging others' negative behavior. These processes may augment these individuals' negative interpersonal behavior, enhance cycles of negative social interactions, and lead to poor intrapersonal and interpersonal outcomes.

  11. Perception and modulation of pain in waking and hypnosis: functional significance of phase-ordered gamma oscillations.

    PubMed

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Cacace, Immacolata; Massicolle, Francesca

    2004-11-01

    Somatosensory event-related phase-ordered gamma oscillations (40-Hz) to electric painful standard stimuli under an odd-ball paradigm were analyzed in 13 high, 13 medium, and 12 low hypnotizable subjects during waking, hypnosis, and post-hypnosis conditions. During these conditions, subjects received a suggestion of Focused Analgesia to produce an obstructive hallucination of stimulus perception; a No-Analgesia treatment served as a control. After hypnosis, a post-hypnotic suggestion was given to draw waking subjects into a deep hypnosis with opened eyes. High hypnotizables, compared to medium and low ones, experienced significant pain and distress reductions for Focused Analgesia during hypnosis and, to a greater extent, during post-hypnosis condition. Correlational analysis of EEG sweeps of each individual revealed brief intervals of phase ordering of gamma patterns, preceding and following stimulus onset, lasting approximately six periods. High and medium hypnotizable subjects showed significant reductions in phase-ordered gamma patterns for Focused Analgesia during hypnosis and post-hypnosis conditions; this effect was found, however, more pronounced in high hypnotizable subjects. Phase-ordered gamma scores over central scalp site predicted subject pain ratings across Waking-Pain and Waking-Analgesia conditions, while phase-ordered gamma scores over frontal scalp site predicted pain ratings during post-hypnosis analgesia condition. During waking conditions, this relationship was present in high, low and medium hypnotizable subjects and was independent of stimulus intensity measures. This relationship was unchanged by hypnosis induction in the low hypnotizable subjects, but not present in the high and medium ones during hypnosis, suggesting that hypnosis interferes with phase-ordered gamma and pain relationship. PMID:15494182

  12. Validation of a Spanish language version of the pain self-perception scale in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Pain Self-Perception Scale (PSPS) is a 24-item questionnaire used to assess mental defeat in chronic pain patients. The aim of this study was to develop a Spanish language version of the PSPS (PSPS-Spanish), to assess the instrument's psychometric properties in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia and to confirm a possible overlapping between mental defeat and pain catastrophizing. Methods The PSPS was translated into Spanish by three bilingual content and linguistic experts, and then back-translated into English to assess for equivalence. The final Spanish version was administered, along with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), to 250 Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Results PSPS-Spanish was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90 and the item-total r correlation coefficients ranged between 0.68 and 0.86). Principal components analysis revealed a one-factor structure which explained 61.4% of the variance. The test-retest correlation assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient, over a 1-2 weeks interval, was 0.78. The total PSPS score was significantly correlated with all the questionnaires assessed (HADS, PVAS, PCS, and FIQ). Conclusions The Spanish version of the PSPS appears to be a valid tool in assessing mental defeat in patients with fibromyalgia. In patients with fibromyalgia and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), PSPS-Spanish correlates more intensely with FIQ than in patients without PTSD. Mental defeat seems to be a psychological construct different to pain catastrophizing. PMID:21050485

  13. Rehabilitation of women from the Middle East living with chronic pain--perceptions from health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Zander, Viktoria; Eriksson, Henrik; Christensson, Kyllike; Müllersdorf, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Meeting patients from other countries constitutes a challenge for health care. The purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about tacit understandings of treatment in practice by determining the perceptions of chronic pain and rehabilitation directed to resettled women from the Middle East, from a variety of health care professionals within primary care. Based on the results, we find a need to support and increase knowledge among health care professionals to involve the patient and consider her beliefs, expectations, background, current life situation, and spirituality, and to involve family in rehabilitation. PMID:25513750

  14. Errors in Moral Forecasting: Perceptions of Affect Shape the Gap Between Moral Behaviors and Moral Forecasts.

    PubMed

    Teper, Rimma; Tullett, Alexa M; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Research in moral decision making has shown that there may not be a one-to-one relationship between peoples' moral forecasts and behaviors. Although past work suggests that physiological arousal may account for part of the behavior-forecasting discrepancy, whether or not perceptions of affect play an important determinant remains unclear. Here, we investigate whether this discrepancy may arise because people fail to anticipate how they will feel in morally significant situations. In Study 1, forecasters predicted cheating significantly more on a test than participants in a behavior condition actually cheated. Importantly, forecasters who received false somatic feedback, indicative of high arousal, produced forecasts that aligned more closely with behaviors. In Study 2, forecasters who misattributed their arousal to an extraneous source forecasted cheating significantly more. In Study 3, higher dispositional emotional awareness was related to less forecasted cheating. These findings suggest that perceptions of affect play a key role in the behavior-forecasting dissociation.

  15. The affect heuristic, mortality salience, and risk: domain-specific effects of a natural disaster on risk-benefit perception.

    PubMed

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2014-12-01

    We examine how affect and accessible thoughts following a major natural disaster influence everyday risk perception. A survey was conducted in the months following the 2004 south Asian Tsunami in a representative sample of the Swedish population (N = 733). Respondents rated their experienced affect as well as the perceived risk and benefits of various everyday decision domains. Affect influenced risk and benefit perception in a way that could be predicted from both the affect-congruency and affect heuristic literatures (increased risk perception and stronger risk-benefit correlations). However, in some decision domains, self-regulation goals primed by the natural disaster predicted risk and benefit ratings. Together, these results show that affect, accessible thoughts and motivational states influence perceptions of risks and benefits.

  16. Neural Correlates of Cognitive Modulation of Pain Perception in the Human Brainstem and Cervical Spinal Cord using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review.

    PubMed

    Leung, Roxanne H; Stroman, Patrick W

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a multifaceted and malleable sensory experience that is processed at all levels of the central nervous system (CNS). The experience of pain can vary widely across a healthy population and even within an individual and can be influenced by cognitive factors such as attention, expectation, suggestion, and attitudes. The neurophysiological role of attention in cognitive modulation of pain is the focus for the work presented in this review. Behavioral studies show that pain perception was reduced under cognitive loads that placed a continuous demand on executive functions such as working memory. Neuroimaging, pharmacological studies, and electrophysiological studies provide evidence that the underpinnings of cognitive modulation of pain involve a network of descending modulation of pain among cortical and brainstem structures. However, the role and relationship of subcortical regions in the brainstem and spinal cord during cognitive modulation of pain are not well understood. This review examines the neurophysiology of pain, processing in the CNS, and how cognitive factors such as attention can modulate nociceptive signaling and alter the perception of pain, especially at the subcortical level. PMID:27652450

  17. Multiple faces of pain: effects of chronic pain on the brain regulation of facial expression.

    PubMed

    Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Roy, Mathieu; Woo, Choong-Wan; Kunz, Miriam; Martel, Marc-Olivier; Sullivan, Michael J; Jackson, Philip L; Wager, Tor D; Rainville, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Pain behaviors are shaped by social demands and learning processes, and chronic pain has been previously suggested to affect their meaning. In this study, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with in-scanner video recording during thermal pain stimulations and use multilevel mediation analyses to study the brain mediators of pain facial expressions and the perception of pain intensity (self-reports) in healthy individuals and patients with chronic back pain (CBP). Behavioral data showed that the relation between pain expression and pain report was disrupted in CBP. In both patients with CBP and healthy controls, brain activity varying on a trial-by-trial basis with pain facial expressions was mainly located in the primary motor cortex and completely dissociated from the pattern of brain activity varying with pain intensity ratings. Stronger activity was observed in CBP specifically during pain facial expressions in several nonmotor brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex, the precuneus, and the medial temporal lobe. In sharp contrast, no moderating effect of chronic pain was observed on brain activity associated with pain intensity ratings. Our results demonstrate that pain facial expressions and pain intensity ratings reflect different aspects of pain processing and support psychosocial models of pain suggesting that distinctive mechanisms are involved in the regulation of pain behaviors in chronic pain. PMID:27411160

  18. Development of a brief survey to measure nursing home residents' perceptions of pain management.

    PubMed

    Teno, Joan M; Dosa, David; Rochon, Therese; Casey, Virginia; Mor, Vincent

    2008-12-01

    Persistent severe pain in nursing home residents remains an important public health problem. One major key to quality improvement efforts is the development of tools to assist in auditing and monitoring the quality of health care delivery to these patients. A qualitative synthesis of existing pain guidelines, and input from focus groups and an expert panel, were used to develop a 10-item instrument, the Resident Assessment of Pain Management (RAPM). The psychometric properties of the RAPM were examined in a sample of 107 (82% female, average age 85) cognitively intact nursing home residents living in six Rhode Island nursing homes. Reliability and internal consistency were evaluated with test-retest and Cronbach's alpha, respectively, and validity was examined against independent assessment of pain management by research nurses. After comparing the results of RAPM with the independent pain assessment and examining a frequency distribution and factor analysis, five of the 10 items were retained. Internal reliability of the final instrument was 0.55. The rate of reported concerns ranged from 8% stating that they were not receiving enough pain medication to 43% stating that pain interfered with their sleep. The median pain problem score (i.e., the count of the number of opportunities to improve) was 1, with 23% of residents reporting three or more concerns. Overall, RAPM was moderately correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient r=0.43) with an independent expert nurse assessment of the quality of pain management. Evidence of construct validity for RAPM is based on the correlation of the pain problem score with nursing home resident satisfaction with pain management (r=0.26), reported average pain intensity (r=0.41), research nurse completion of the Minimum Data Set pain items (r=0.52), and the quality of pain documentation in the medical record (r=0.28). In conclusion, RAPM is a brief survey tool easily administered to nursing home residents that identifies

  19. Pain-related and negative semantic priming enhances perceived pain intensity

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Maria; Schroeter, Christoph; Puensch, Theresa; Straube, Thomas; Hecht, Holger; Ritter, Alexander; Miltner, Wolfgang HR; Weiss, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Negative affective and pain-related cues, such as pictures or words, have been shown to act as primes and enhance the perceived intensity of subsequent painful events. For pain-related semantic primes, it remains unclear whether this effect depends on negative valence itself or, specifically, on the pain-relatedness of the words. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of pain-related, negative affective (pain-unrelated) and neutral semantic primes on the perception of subsequent noxious target stimuli. METHODS: Pain ratings in response to noxious electrical stimulation of light and moderate intensity were examined in 39 healthy subjects after subjects were exposed to semantic primes of different meaning and valence (pain-related, negative, positive and neutral adjectives) presented with different interstimulus intervals (0 ms, 500 ms and 1500 ms). RESULTS: Increased pain ratings of noxious stimuli were observed following pain-related and negative compared with neutral primes. DISCUSSION: The results support the motivational priming theory for semantic stimuli, indicating that affectively negative semantic primes increase subjective pain intensity. However, a specific pain-related priming effect was not reliably demonstrated. Additionally, it is shown that experimental parameters (ie, stimulus intensity and interstimulus interval) modify the extent of negative and pain-related semantic priming. CONCLUSIONS: Verbal priming plays a role for the perception of noxious stimuli in a time-dependent manner. PMID:24716197

  20. Cultural Differences in Affect Intensity Perception in the Context of Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Pogosyan, Marianna; Engelmann, Jan B.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese, and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity, or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived high arousal (HA) images as significantly less calm than participants from the other two cultures, while the Japanese participants perceived low arousal (LA) images as significantly more excited than participants from the other cultures. The underlying mechanisms of these cultural differences were further investigated through difference scores that probed for cultural differences in perception and categorization of positive emotions. Findings indicate that rating differences are due to (1) perceptual differences in the extent to which HA images were discriminated from LA images, and (2) categorization differences in the extent to which facial expressions were grouped into affect intensity categories. Specifically, American participants revealed significantly higher perceptual differentiation between arousal levels of facial expressions in high and intermediate intensity categories. Japanese participants, on the other hand, did not discriminate between high and low arousal affect categories to the same extent as did the American and Russian participants. These findings indicate the presence of cultural differences in underlying decoding mechanisms of facial expressions of positive affect intensity. Implications of these results for global advertising are discussed. PMID:22084635

  1. Subcutaneous Marcaine Infiltration and Post-Operative Pain Perception after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haleblian, George E.; Leitao, Victor A.; Robinson, Marnie R.; Pierre, Sean A.; Sur, Roger L.; Preminger, Glenn M.

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies have shown a significant decrease in patient reported pain scores when operative incisions are infiltrated with subcutaneous local anesthetic. We hypothesize that patient reported pain and narcotic use could be further decreased for patients with post-percutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostomy tubes if the nephrostomy tract and incision are infiltrated with local anesthetic.

  2. Perception and suppression of thermally induced pain: a fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Freund, W; Klug, R; Weber, F; Stuber, G; Schmitz, B; Wunderlich, A P

    2009-03-01

    Two neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and thermally induced pain are presented. Fifteen healthy right-handed subjects were imaged while they had to discern different levels of thermal stimuli in the first study and while they disengaged from the feeling of pain during constant stimulation in the second study. In the first experiment, during painful phasic stimuli, right-sided anterior insular activation as well as bilateral posterior insular activation could be shown regardless of stimulation side, as well as right-sided activation of sensory association areas in the superior parietal lobule. Also, activation of the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex could be shown. In the second experiment, all subjects succeeded in suppressing the feeling of pain during previously painful levels of stimulation. During the early part of the tonic painful stimulation, bilateral activation of caudate head and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as well as insular cortex and dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) was observed. During the late part of the tonic painful stimulation, anterior insular activation as well as dACC and bilateral prefrontal cortical activation could be shown. Taken together, the activation of PFC and caudate nucleus hints at an important role in the initiation (caudate) and maintenance (PFC) of suppression of the feeling of pain. No ipsilateral sensorimotor activation could be shown in the second experiment. The possible import of unwanted sensorimotor activation due to the simultaneous rating process in the first experiment is discussed.

  3. Speaker-independent factors affecting the perception of foreign accent in a second language.

    PubMed

    Levi, Susannah V; Winters, Stephen J; Pisoni, David B

    2007-04-01

    Previous research on foreign accent perception has largely focused on speaker-dependent factors such as age of learning and length of residence. Factors that are independent of a speaker's language learning history have also been shown to affect perception of second language speech. The present study examined the effects of two such factors--listening context and lexical frequency--on the perception of foreign-accented speech. Listeners rated foreign accent in two listening contexts: auditory-only, where listeners only heard the target stimuli, and auditory + orthography, where listeners were presented with both an auditory signal and an orthographic display of the target word. Results revealed that higher frequency words were consistently rated as less accented than lower frequency words. The effect of the listening context emerged in two interactions: the auditory + orthography context reduced the effects of lexical frequency, but increased the perceived differences between native and non-native speakers. Acoustic measurements revealed some production differences for words of different levels of lexical frequency, though these differences could not account for all of the observed interactions from the perceptual experiment. These results suggest that factors independent of the speakers' actual speech articulations can influence the perception of degree of foreign accent.

  4. The regulatory benefits of high levels of affect perception accuracy: a process analysis of reactions to stressors in daily life.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Buchholz, Maria M; Boyd, Ryan L; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2012-08-01

    Individuals attuned to affective signals from the environment may possess an advantage in the emotion-regulation realm. In two studies (total n = 151), individual differences in affective perception accuracy were assessed in an objective, performance-based manner. Subsequently, the same individuals completed daily diary protocols in which daily stressor levels were reported as well as problematic states shown to be stress-reactive in previous studies. In both studies, individual differences in affect perception accuracy interacted with daily stressor levels to predict the problematic outcomes. Daily stressors precipitated problematic reactions--whether depressive feelings (study 1) or somatic symptoms (study 2)--at low levels of affect perception accuracy, but did not do so at high levels of affect perception accuracy. The findings support a regulatory view of such perceptual abilities. Implications for understanding emotion regulation processes, emotional intelligence, and individual differences in reactivity are discussed. PMID:22775136

  5. Disentangling interoception: insights from focal strokes affecting the perception of external and internal milieus.

    PubMed

    Couto, Blas; Adolfi, Federico; Sedeño, Lucas; Salles, Alejo; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Alvarez-Abut, Pablo; Garcia-Cordero, Indira; Pietto, Marcos; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Interoception is the moment-to-moment sensing of the physiological condition of the body. The multimodal sources of interoception can be classified into two different streams of afferents: an internal pathway of signals arising from core structures (i.e., heart, blood vessels, and bronchi) and an external pathway of body-mapped sensations (i.e., chemosensation and pain) arising from peripersonal space. This study examines differential processing along these streams within the insular cortex (IC) and their subcortical tracts connecting frontotemporal networks. Two rare patients presenting focal lesions of the IC (insular lesion, IL) or its subcortical tracts (subcortical lesion, SL) were tested. Internally generated interoceptive streams were assessed through a heartbeat detection (HBD) task, while those externally triggered were tapped via taste, smell, and pain recognition tasks. A differential pattern was observed. The IC patient showed impaired internal signal processing while the SL patient exhibited external perception deficits. Such selective deficits remained even when comparing each patient with a group of healthy controls and a group of brain-damaged patients. These outcomes suggest the existence of distinguishable interoceptive streams. Results are discussed in relation with neuroanatomical substrates, involving a fronto-insulo-temporal network for interoceptive and cognitive contextual integration. PMID:25983697

  6. Disentangling interoception: insights from focal strokes affecting the perception of external and internal milieus.

    PubMed

    Couto, Blas; Adolfi, Federico; Sedeño, Lucas; Salles, Alejo; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Alvarez-Abut, Pablo; Garcia-Cordero, Indira; Pietto, Marcos; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Interoception is the moment-to-moment sensing of the physiological condition of the body. The multimodal sources of interoception can be classified into two different streams of afferents: an internal pathway of signals arising from core structures (i.e., heart, blood vessels, and bronchi) and an external pathway of body-mapped sensations (i.e., chemosensation and pain) arising from peripersonal space. This study examines differential processing along these streams within the insular cortex (IC) and their subcortical tracts connecting frontotemporal networks. Two rare patients presenting focal lesions of the IC (insular lesion, IL) or its subcortical tracts (subcortical lesion, SL) were tested. Internally generated interoceptive streams were assessed through a heartbeat detection (HBD) task, while those externally triggered were tapped via taste, smell, and pain recognition tasks. A differential pattern was observed. The IC patient showed impaired internal signal processing while the SL patient exhibited external perception deficits. Such selective deficits remained even when comparing each patient with a group of healthy controls and a group of brain-damaged patients. These outcomes suggest the existence of distinguishable interoceptive streams. Results are discussed in relation with neuroanatomical substrates, involving a fronto-insulo-temporal network for interoceptive and cognitive contextual integration.

  7. Disentangling interoception: insights from focal strokes affecting the perception of external and internal milieus

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Blas; Adolfi, Federico; Sedeño, Lucas; Salles, Alejo; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Alvarez-Abut, Pablo; Garcia-Cordero, Indira; Pietto, Marcos; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Interoception is the moment-to-moment sensing of the physiological condition of the body. The multimodal sources of interoception can be classified into two different streams of afferents: an internal pathway of signals arising from core structures (i.e., heart, blood vessels, and bronchi) and an external pathway of body-mapped sensations (i.e., chemosensation and pain) arising from peripersonal space. This study examines differential processing along these streams within the insular cortex (IC) and their subcortical tracts connecting frontotemporal networks. Two rare patients presenting focal lesions of the IC (insular lesion, IL) or its subcortical tracts (subcortical lesion, SL) were tested. Internally generated interoceptive streams were assessed through a heartbeat detection (HBD) task, while those externally triggered were tapped via taste, smell, and pain recognition tasks. A differential pattern was observed. The IC patient showed impaired internal signal processing while the SL patient exhibited external perception deficits. Such selective deficits remained even when comparing each patient with a group of healthy controls and a group of brain-damaged patients. These outcomes suggest the existence of distinguishable interoceptive streams. Results are discussed in relation with neuroanatomical substrates, involving a fronto-insulo-temporal network for interoceptive and cognitive contextual integration. PMID:25983697

  8. Musculoskeletal pain in Europe: its impact and a comparison of population and medical perceptions of treatment in eight European countries

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, A; Zeidler, H; Haglund, U; Carr, A; Chaussade, S; Cucinotta, D; Veale, D; Martin-Mola, E

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the impact of musculoskeletal pain (MP); to compare management of MP by the population and by primary care physicians; and to identify misconceptions about treatment. Methods: 5803 people with MP and 1483 primary care physicians, randomly selected, in eight European countries were interviewed by telephone. A structured questionnaire was used to ask about usual management of MP and perceived benefits and risks of treatment. Current health status (SF-12) was also assessed. Results: From primary care physicians' perceptions, MP appears to be well managed. All presenting patients are offered some form of treatment, 90% or more doctors are trying to improve patients' quality of life, and most are aware and concerned about the risks of treatment with NSAIDs. From a population perspective, up to 27% of people with pain do not seek medical help and of those who do, several wait months/years before seeing a doctor. 55% or fewer patients who have seen a doctor are currently receiving prescription treatment for their pain. Communication between doctors and patients is poor; few patients are given information about their condition; and many have misconceptions about treatment. Conclusions: Management of MP is similar across eight European countries, but there is discordance between physician and patient perspectives of care. Some people with pain have never sought medical help despite being in constant/daily pain. Those who do seek help receive little written information or explanation and many have misperceptions about the benefits and risks of treatment that limit their ability to actively participate in decisions about their care. PMID:15020325

  9. Responsiveness to the Negative Affect System as a Function of Emotion Perception: Relations between Affect and Sociability in Three Daily Diary Studies

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Sara K.; Nicpon, Catherine G.; Robinson, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Perceiving emotions clearly and accurately is an important component of emotional intelligence. This skill is thought to predict emotional and social outcomes, but evidence for this point appears somewhat underwhelming in cross-sectional designs. The present work adopted a more contextual approach to understanding the correlates of emotion perception instead. Because emotion perception involves awareness of affect as it occurs, people higher in this skill might reasonably be expected to be more attuned to variations in their affective states and be responsive to them for this reason. This novel hypothesis was pursued in three daily diary studies (total N = 247), which found systematic evidence for the idea that higher levels of daily negative affect predicted lesser sociability particularly, and somewhat exclusively, among people whose emotion perception skills were high rather than low. The results support a contextual understanding of individual differences in emotion perception and how they operate. PMID:24789808

  10. A Qualitative Case Study of EFL Students' Affective Reactions to and Perceptions of Their Teachers' Written Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan A.; Pandian, Ambigapathy

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports a qualitative case study of investigating EFL students' affective reactions to and perceptions of their teachers' written feedback. In addition, the study reported here also focuses on contextual factors that may influence students' reactions to and perceptions of their teachers' written feedback. Data were collected…

  11. A descriptive study of Korean nurses' perception of pain and skin tearing at dressing change.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Yoon; Kim, Na Kyung; Lee, Yun Jin

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate Korean nurses' level of awareness of pain and skin tearing in wound bed and/or peri-wound skin at dressing change. A descriptive study was performed. Convenience sampling was employed and registered nurses were recruited from attendees of continuing education program. A total of 399 participants (RN) completed questionnaire. Data was collected from September to November 2014. Many of them perceived skin tearing and wound related pain associated with dressing changing, but most of them did not assess and record pain and skin tearing at dressing change. More than half of respondents reported that they did not provide nursing intervention to prevent pain and skin tearing. Many of them reported that a systematic educational program for preventing pain and skin tearing at dressing change was needed. In conclusion, many of respondents were aware of pain and skin tearing at dressing change, but did not take any further necessary measures, including nursing intervention, for the most appropriate, systematic pain and skin tearing management. Therefore, this study suggested that a systematic and comprehensive educational program for Korean healthcare professions needs to be developed and implemented in Korea's hospital settings. PMID:26847938

  12. tDCS modulates cortical nociceptive processing but has little to no impact on pain perception.

    PubMed

    Ihle, Kristin; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Luedtke, Kerstin; May, Arne

    2014-10-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effectively modulates cortical excitability. Several studies suggest clinical efficacy in chronic pain syndromes. However, little is known regarding its effects on cortical pain processing. In this double-blind, randomized, cross-over, sham controlled study, we examined the effects of anodal, cathodal, and sham stimulation of the left motor cortex in 16 healthy volunteers using functional imaging during an acute heat pain paradigm as well as pain thresholds, pain intensity ratings, and quantitative sensory testing. tDCS was applied at 1 mA for 15 minutes. Neither cathodal nor anodal tDCS significantly changed brain activation in response to nociceptive stimulation when compared with sham stimulation. However, contrasting the interaction of stimulation modes (anodal/cathodal) resulted in a significant decrease of activation in the hypothalamus, inferior parietal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, anterior insula, and precentral gyrus, contralateral to the stimulation site after anodal stimulation, which showed the opposite behavior after cathodal stimulation. Pain ratings and heat hyperalgesia showed only a subclinical pain reduction after anodal tDCS. Larger-scale clinical trials using higher tDCS intensities or longer durations are necessary to assess the neurophysiological effect and subsequently the therapeutic potential of tDCS.

  13. The meaning and process of pain acceptance. Perceptions of women living with arthritis and fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    LaChapelle, Diane L; Lavoie, Susan; Boudreau, Ainsley

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within the past 10 years, cognitive-behavioural pain management models have moved beyond the traditional focus on coping strategies and perceived control over pain, to incorporate mindfulness-and acceptance-based approaches. Pain acceptance is the process of giving up the struggle with pain and learning to live life despite pain. Acceptance is associated with lower levels of pain, disability and psychological distress. Relatively little is known, however, about how patients arrive at a state of acceptance without the aid of therapy. OBJECTIVES: To explore personal definitions of acceptance and the factors that facilitate or hinder acceptance. METHODS: Eleven focus groups, involving a total of 45 women with arthritis and fibromyalgia, were conducted. RESULTS: The qualitative analysis revealed that, while the women rejected the word ‘acceptance’, they did agree with the main components of existing research definitions. The women’s responses revealed that acceptance was a process of realizations and acknowledgements, including realizing that the pain was not normal and help was needed, receiving a diagnosis, acknowledging that there was no cure and realizing that they needed to redefine ‘normal’. Diagnosis, social support, educating self and others, and self-care were factors that promoted acceptance. Struggling to retain a prepain identity, negative impacts on relationships, others not accepting their pain and the unspoken message that the pain was ‘all in their head’ were barriers to acceptance. CONCLUSION: The implications of these findings, distinctions between the diagnostic groups and recommendations regarding how health professionals can facilitate the process of acceptance are discussed. PMID:18592056

  14. Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs affects global motion perception in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S; Jacobs, Robert J; LaGasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M; Wouldes, Trecia A; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs impairs motor and cognitive development; however it is currently unknown whether visual brain areas are affected. To address this question, we investigated the effect of prenatal drug exposure on global motion perception, a behavioural measure of processing within the dorsal extrastriate visual cortex that is thought to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal neurodevelopment. Global motion perception was measured in one hundred and forty-five 4.5-year-old children who had been exposed to different combinations of methamphetamine, alcohol, nicotine and marijuana prior to birth and 25 unexposed children. Self-reported drug use by the mothers was verified by meconium analysis. We found that global motion perception was impaired by prenatal exposure to alcohol and improved significantly by exposure to marijuana. Exposure to both drugs prenatally had no effect. Other visual functions such as habitual visual acuity and stereoacuity were not affected by drug exposure. Prenatal exposure to methamphetamine did not influence visual function. Our results demonstrate that prenatal drug exposure can influence a behavioural measure of visual development, but that the effects are dependent on the specific drugs used during pregnancy. PMID:26581958

  15. Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs affects global motion perception in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S.; Jacobs, Robert J.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Wouldes, Trecia A.; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs impairs motor and cognitive development; however it is currently unknown whether visual brain areas are affected. To address this question, we investigated the effect of prenatal drug exposure on global motion perception, a behavioural measure of processing within the dorsal extrastriate visual cortex that is thought to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal neurodevelopment. Global motion perception was measured in one hundred and forty-five 4.5-year-old children who had been exposed to different combinations of methamphetamine, alcohol, nicotine and marijuana prior to birth and 25 unexposed children. Self-reported drug use by the mothers was verified by meconium analysis. We found that global motion perception was impaired by prenatal exposure to alcohol and improved significantly by exposure to marijuana. Exposure to both drugs prenatally had no effect. Other visual functions such as habitual visual acuity and stereoacuity were not affected by drug exposure. Prenatal exposure to methamphetamine did not influence visual function. Our results demonstrate that prenatal drug exposure can influence a behavioural measure of visual development, but that the effects are dependent on the specific drugs used during pregnancy. PMID:26581958

  16. Acute psychosocial stress reduces pain modulation capabilities in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Anecdotes on the ability of individuals to continue to function under stressful conditions despite injuries causing excruciating pain suggest that acute stress may induce analgesia. However, studies exploring the effect of acute experimental stress on pain perception show inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological differences. Our aim was to systematically study the effect of acute stress on pain perception using static and dynamic, state-of-the-art pain measurements. Participants were 29 healthy men who underwent the measurement of heat-pain threshold, heat-pain intolerance, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Testing was conducted before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), inducing acute psychosocial stress. Stress levels were evaluated using perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction. Although pain threshold and pain intolerance were unaffected by stress, an increase in temporal summation of pain and a decrease in CPM were observed. These changes were significantly more robust among individuals with stronger reaction to stress ("high responders"), with a significant correlation between the perception of stress and the performance in the pain measurements. We conclude that acute psychosocial stress seems not to affect the sensitivity to pain, however, it significantly reduces the ability to modulate pain in a dose-response manner. Considering the diverse effects of stress in this and other studies, it appears that the type of stress and the magnitude of its appraisal determine its interactions with the pain system.

  17. Psychological differentiation and the phenomenon of pain.

    PubMed

    Feldman, H R

    1984-01-01

    This article deals with a theory of psychological differentiation, research supporting this theory and identified indicators of differentiation, and studies that connect several of these indicators with the phenomenon of pain. Problems for investigation are posed concerning the relationships between differentiation indicators and pain threshold, pain tolerance, relief measures, attention to pain, control, and counterirritation An understanding of the kinds of variables affecting the pain experience can lead to a clearer perception and more astute evaluation of that experience and a more organized approach to the implementation of nursing care.

  18. Dance and Music in "Gangnam Style": How Dance Observation Affects Meter Perception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Myun; Barrett, Karen Chan; Kim, Yeonhwa; Lim, Yeoeun; Lee, Kyogu

    2015-01-01

    Dance and music often co-occur as evidenced when viewing choreographed dances or singers moving while performing. This study investigated how the viewing of dance motions shapes sound perception. Previous research has shown that dance reflects the temporal structure of its accompanying music, communicating musical meter (i.e. a hierarchical organization of beats) via coordinated movement patterns that indicate where strong and weak beats occur. Experiments here investigated the effects of dance cues on meter perception, hypothesizing that dance could embody the musical meter, thereby shaping participant reaction times (RTs) to sound targets occurring at different metrical positions.In experiment 1, participants viewed a video with dance choreography indicating 4/4 meter (dance condition) or a series of color changes repeated in sequences of four to indicate 4/4 meter (picture condition). A sound track accompanied these videos and participants reacted to timbre targets at different metrical positions. Participants had the slowest RT's at the strongest beats in the dance condition only. In experiment 2, participants viewed the choreography of the horse-riding dance from Psy's "Gangnam Style" in order to examine how a familiar dance might affect meter perception. Moreover, participants in this experiment were divided into a group with experience dancing this choreography and a group without experience. Results again showed slower RTs to stronger metrical positions and the group with experience demonstrated a more refined perception of metrical hierarchy. Results likely stem from the temporally selective division of attention between auditory and visual domains. This study has implications for understanding: 1) the impact of splitting attention among different sensory modalities, and 2) the impact of embodiment, on perception of musical meter. Viewing dance may interfere with sound processing, particularly at critical metrical positions, but embodied familiarity with

  19. Dance and Music in “Gangnam Style”: How Dance Observation Affects Meter Perception

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Myun; Barrett, Karen Chan; Kim, Yeonhwa; Lim, Yeoeun; Lee, Kyogu

    2015-01-01

    Dance and music often co-occur as evidenced when viewing choreographed dances or singers moving while performing. This study investigated how the viewing of dance motions shapes sound perception. Previous research has shown that dance reflects the temporal structure of its accompanying music, communicating musical meter (i.e. a hierarchical organization of beats) via coordinated movement patterns that indicate where strong and weak beats occur. Experiments here investigated the effects of dance cues on meter perception, hypothesizing that dance could embody the musical meter, thereby shaping participant reaction times (RTs) to sound targets occurring at different metrical positions.In experiment 1, participants viewed a video with dance choreography indicating 4/4 meter (dance condition) or a series of color changes repeated in sequences of four to indicate 4/4 meter (picture condition). A sound track accompanied these videos and participants reacted to timbre targets at different metrical positions. Participants had the slowest RT’s at the strongest beats in the dance condition only. In experiment 2, participants viewed the choreography of the horse-riding dance from Psy’s “Gangnam Style” in order to examine how a familiar dance might affect meter perception. Moreover, participants in this experiment were divided into a group with experience dancing this choreography and a group without experience. Results again showed slower RTs to stronger metrical positions and the group with experience demonstrated a more refined perception of metrical hierarchy. Results likely stem from the temporally selective division of attention between auditory and visual domains. This study has implications for understanding: 1) the impact of splitting attention among different sensory modalities, and 2) the impact of embodiment, on perception of musical meter. Viewing dance may interfere with sound processing, particularly at critical metrical positions, but embodied

  20. Subjective disturbance of perception is related to facial affect recognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Comparelli, Anna; De Carolis, Antonella; Corigliano, Valentina; Romano, Silvia; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Campana, Chiara; Ferracuti, Stefano; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2011-10-01

    To examine the relationship between facial affect recognition (FAR) and subjective perceptual disturbances (SPDs), we assessed SPDs in 82 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (44 with first-episode psychosis [FEP] and 38 with multiple episodes [ME]) using two subscales of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), WAS (simple perception) and WAK (complex perception). Emotional judgment ability was assessed using Ekman and Friesen's FAR task. Impaired recognition of emotion correlated with scores on the WAS but not on the WAK. The association was significant in the entire group and in the ME group. FAR was more impaired in the ME than in the FEP group. Our findings suggest that there is a relationship between SPDs and FAR impairment in schizophrenia, particularly in multiple-episode patients.

  1. “Let’s Talk about OA Pain”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Perceptions of People Suffering from OA. Towards the Development of a Specific Pain OA-Related Questionnaire, the Osteoarthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS)

    PubMed Central

    Cedraschi, Christine; Delézay, Sylvie; Marty, Marc; Berenbaum, Francis; Bouhassira, Didier; Henrotin, Yves; Laroche, Françoise; Perrot, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pain is the primary outcome measurement in osteoarthritis, and its assessment is mostly based on its intensity. The management of this difficult chronic condition could be improved by using pain descriptors to improve analyses of painful sensations. This should help to define subgroups of patients based on pain phenotype, for more adapted treatment. This study draws upon patients’ descriptions of their pain, to identify and understand their perception of osteoarthritis pain and to categorize pain dimensions. Methods This qualitative study was conducted with representative types of patients suffering from osteoarthritis. Two focus groups were conducted with a sample of 14 participants, with either recent or chronic OA, at one or multiple sites. Focus groups were semi-structured and used open-ended questions addressing personal experiences to explore the experiences of patients with OA pain and the meanings they attributed to these pains. Results Two main points emerged from content analyses: -A major difficulty in getting patients to describe their osteoarthritis pain: perception that nobody wants to hear about it; necessity to preserve one’s self and social image; notion of self-imposed stoicism; and perception of osteoarthritis as a complex, changing, illogical disease associated with aging. -Osteoarthritis pains were numerous and differed in intensity, duration, depth, type of occurrence, impact and rhythm, but also in painful sensations and associated symptoms. Based on analyses of the verbatim interviews, seven dimensions of OA pain emerged: pain sensory description, OA-related symptoms, pain variability profile, pain-triggering factors, pain and physical activity, mood and image, general physical symptoms. Summary In osteoarthritis, pain analysis should not be restricted to intensity. Our qualitative study identified pain descriptors and defined seven dimensions of osteoarthritis pain. Based on these dimensions, we aim to develop a specific

  2. Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... equipment tells you about your muscle tension, skin temperature, and other body functions, so you can learn ... affected area might also have: • changes in skin temperature and color • changes in nail and hair growth ...

  3. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    PubMed

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001). The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001). We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  4. Negative Body Image Associated with Changes in the Visual Body Appearance Increases Pain Perception

    PubMed Central

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an “injured rubber hand” to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a “hairy rubber hand” to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a “twisted rubber hand” to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a “normal rubber hand” as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001). The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001). We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity. PMID:25210738

  5. Pain Perception Is Increased in Congenital but Not Late Onset Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Slimani, Hocine; Danti, Sabrina; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2014-01-01

    There is now ample evidence that blind individuals outperform sighted individuals in various tasks involving the non-visual senses. In line with these results, we recently showed that visual deprivation from birth leads to an increased sensitivity to pain. As many studies have shown that congenitally and late blind individuals show differences in their degree of compensatory plasticity, we here address the question whether late blind individuals also show hypersensitivity to nociceptive stimulation. We therefore compared pain thresholds and responses to supra-threshold nociceptive stimuli in congenitally blind, late blind and normally sighted volunteers. Participants also filled in questionnaires measuring attention and anxiety towards pain in everyday life. Results show that late blind participants have pain thresholds and ratings of supra-threshold heat nociceptive stimuli similar to the normally sighted, whereas congenitally blind participants are hypersensitive to nociceptive thermal stimuli. Furthermore, results of the pain questionnaires did not allow to discriminate late blind from normal sighted participants, whereas congenitally blind individuals had a different pattern of responses. Taken together, these results suggest that enhanced sensitivity to pain following visual deprivation is likely due to neuroplastic changes related to the early loss of vision. PMID:25244529

  6. Pain perception and EEG dynamics: does hypnotizability account for the efficacy of the suggestions of analgesia?

    PubMed

    Madeo, Dario; Castellani, Eleonora; Mocenni, Chiara; Santarcangelo, Enrica Laura

    2015-06-01

    We report novel findings concerning the role of hypnotizability, suggestions of analgesia and the activity of the Behavioral Inhibition/Activation System (BIS/BAS) in the modulation of the subjective experience of pain and of the associated EEG dynamics. The EEG of high (highs) and low hypnotizable participants (lows) who completed the BIS/BAS questionnaire was recorded during basal conditions, tonic nociceptive stimulation without (PAIN) and with suggestions for analgesia (AN). Participants scored the perceived pain intensity at the end of PAIN and AN. The EEG midline dynamics was characterized by indices indicating the signal predictability (Determinism) and complexity (Entropy) obtained through the Recurrence Quantification Analysis. The reduced pain intensity reported by highs during AN was partially accounted for by the activity of the Behavioral Activation System. The decreased midline cortical Determinism observed during nociceptive stimulation in both groups independently of suggestions remained significantly reduced only in lows after controlling for the activity of the Behavioral Activation System. Finally, controlling for the activity of the Behavioral Inhibition System abolished stimulation, suggestions and hypnotizability-related differences. Results indicate that the BIS/BAS activity may be more important than hypnotizability itself in pain modulation and in the associated EEG dynamics. PMID:25837836

  7. The effect of music therapy on relaxation, anxiety, pain perception, and nausea in adult solid organ transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Madson, Amy T; Silverman, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Organ transplant recipients characteristically experience low levels of relaxation and high levels of anxiety, pain, and nausea. Although music therapy has demonstrated effectiveness in ameliorating these types of conditions with patients in other areas of medical hospitals, no studies have evaluated the effects of music therapy on solid organ transplant patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of music therapy on anxiety, relaxation, pain, and nausea levels in recovering patients on the adult transplant unit of the hospital utilizing a pre-posttest design. Participants (N = 58) received an individual 15-35 minute music therapy session consisting of live patient-preferred music and therapeutic social interaction. To remain consistent with the hospital's evaluative instruments during this pilot study, participants' self-reported levels of anxiety, relaxation, pain, and nausea, were based on separate 10-point Likert-type scales. The principal investigator observed affect and verbalizations at pre and posttest. Results indicated there were significant improvements in self-reported levels of relaxation, anxiety (both p < .001), pain (p < .01), and nausea (p < .05). Although there was no reliability measure, there were significant increases in positive verbalizations and positive affect (p < .001). All participants reported that they would desire music therapy again during a future long-term hospital stay. From the results of this exploratory study, it seems that music therapy can be a viable psychosocial intervention for hospitalized postoperative solid transplant patients. Implications for clinical practice and suggestions for future research are provided.

  8. Perception of affective and linguistic prosody: an ALE meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Prosody refers to the melodic and rhythmic aspects of speech. Two forms of prosody are typically distinguished: 'affective prosody' refers to the expression of emotion in speech, whereas 'linguistic prosody' relates to the intonation of sentences, including the specification of focus within sentences and stress within polysyllabic words. While these two processes are united by their use of vocal pitch modulation, they are functionally distinct. In order to examine the localization and lateralization of speech prosody in the brain, we performed two voxel-based meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies of the perception of affective and linguistic prosody. There was substantial sharing of brain activations between analyses, particularly in right-hemisphere auditory areas. However, a major point of divergence was observed in the inferior frontal gyrus: affective prosody was more likely to activate Brodmann area 47, while linguistic prosody was more likely to activate the ventral part of area 44.

  9. Perception of affective and linguistic prosody: an ALE meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Prosody refers to the melodic and rhythmic aspects of speech. Two forms of prosody are typically distinguished: ‘affective prosody’ refers to the expression of emotion in speech, whereas ‘linguistic prosody’ relates to the intonation of sentences, including the specification of focus within sentences and stress within polysyllabic words. While these two processes are united by their use of vocal pitch modulation, they are functionally distinct. In order to examine the localization and lateralization of speech prosody in the brain, we performed two voxel-based meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies of the perception of affective and linguistic prosody. There was substantial sharing of brain activations between analyses, particularly in right-hemisphere auditory areas. However, a major point of divergence was observed in the inferior frontal gyrus: affective prosody was more likely to activate Brodmann area 47, while linguistic prosody was more likely to activate the ventral part of area 44. PMID:23934416

  10. Laboratory personnel gender and cold pressor apparatus affect subjective pain reports

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Jacob M; Rowell, Lauren N; Alcock, Joe; Maestes, Randy

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no standardized method for cold pressor pain tasks across experiments. Temperature, apparatus and aspects of experimenters vary widely among studies. It is well known that experimental pain tolerance is influenced by setting as well as the sex of the experimenter. It is not known whether other contextual factors influence experimental pain reporting. OBJECTIVES: The present two-part experiment examines whether minimizing and standardizing interactions with laboratory personnel (eg, limiting interaction with participants to consenting and questions and not during the actual pain task) eliminates the influence of examiner characteristics on subjective pain reports and whether using different cold pain apparatus (cooler versus machine) influences reports. METHODS: The present experiment manipulated the gender of the experimenter (male, female and transgender) and the type of cold pressor task (CPT) apparatus (ice cooler versus refrigerated bath circulator). Participants conducted the CPT at one of two pain levels (5°C or 16°C) without an experimenter present. RESULTS: Men and women showed lower pain sensitivity when they were processed by biological male personnel than by biological female personnel before the CPT. Women who interacted with a transgendered researcher likewise reported higher pain sensitivity than women processed by biological male or female researchers. The type of CPT apparatus, despite operating at equivalent temperatures, also influenced subjective pain reports. DISCUSSION: The findings show that even minimal interactions with laboratory personnel who differ in gender, and differences in laboratory materials impact the reliable measurement of pain. CONCLUSION: More standardized protocols for measuring pain across varying research and clinical settings should be developed. PMID:24367796

  11. Ecological Evidence that Affect and Perceptions of Drink Effects Depend on Alcohol Expectancies

    PubMed Central

    Treloar, Hayley; Piasecki, Thomas M.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims (1) To compare affective changes over drinking and non-drinking days among frequent drinkers. (2) To evaluate whether drinkers’ expectations influence affective changes and perceived pleasure and relief from drinking. Design Observational study involving ecological momentary assessments collected via electronic diaries over the course of three weeks. Setting Drinkers’ usual settings in Columbia, MO, USA. Participants 400 adult, frequent drinkers, ages 18–70. Measurements Ecological assessments included morning reports, pre-drinking random prompts, user-initiated first-drink reports, and device-prompted follow-ups over drinking episodes. Participants rated positive (enthusiastic, excited, happy) and negative (distressed, sad) affect and perceived pleasure and relief from drinking in real time. A self-report questionnaire completed at baseline evaluated expectancies for enhanced sociability and tension reduction from drinking. Findings Relative to affective changes over non-drinking days, positive affect increased prior to drinking, 95%CI[.073,.102], and at first drink, 95%CI[.169,.254], whereas negative affect decreased prior to drinking, 95%CI[−.008,−.0005], and at first drink, 95%CI[−.148,−.079]. Sociability expectancies augmented increases in positive affect prior to drinking, 95%CI[.006,.024], and at first drink, 95%CI[.004,.159]). Sociability expectancies also enhanced perceived pleasure from first drinks, 95%CI[.046,.318]. Tension-reduction expectancies attenuated decreases in negative affect at first drink, 95%CI[−.137, −.027], but augmented perceived relief from first drinks, 95%CI[.001,.304]. Conclusions Although theoretical models tend to focus on negative affective outcomes of drinking, changes in positive affect prior to drinking and early in drinking episodes are important for maintaining drinking behavior. Frequent drinkers’ expectations for enhanced sociability or tension reduction from drinking influence their affective

  12. Asymmetric bias in perception of facial affect among Roman and Arabic script readers.

    PubMed

    Heath, Robin L; Rouhana, Aida; Ghanem, Dana Abi

    2005-01-01

    The asymmetric chimeric faces test is used frequently as an indicator of right hemisphere involvement in the perception of facial affect, as the test is considered free of linguistic elements. Much of the original research with the asymmetric chimeric faces test was conducted with subjects reading left-to-right Roman script, i.e., English. As readers of right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic, demonstrated a mixed or weak rightward bias in judgements of facial affect, the influence of habitual scanning direction was thought to intersect with laterality. We administered the asymmetric chimeric faces test to 1239 adults who represented a range of script experience, i.e., Roman script readers (English and French), Arabic readers, bidirectional readers of Roman and Arabic scripts, and illiterates. Our findings supported the hypothesis that the bias in facial affect judgement is rooted in laterality, but can be influenced by script direction. Specifically, right-handed readers of Roman script demonstrated the greatest mean leftward score, and mixed-handed Arabic script readers demonstrated the greatest mean rightward score. Biliterates showed a gradual shift in asymmetric perception, as their scores fell between those of Roman and Arabic script readers, basically distributed in the order expected by their handedness and most often used script. Illiterates, whose only directional influence was laterality, showed a slight leftward bias. PMID:15841823

  13. Integrative Processing of Touch and Affect in Social Perception: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Salone, Anatolia; Martinotti, Giovanni; Carlucci, Leonardo; Mantini, Dante; Perrucci, Mauro G.; Saggino, Aristide; Romani, Gian Luca; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Northoff, Georg; Gallese, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Social perception commonly employs multiple sources of information. The present study aimed at investigating the integrative processing of affective social signals. Task-related and task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 26 healthy adult participants during a social perception task concerning dynamic visual stimuli simultaneously depicting facial expressions of emotion and tactile sensations that could be either congruent or incongruent. Confounding effects due to affective valence, inhibitory top–down influences, cross-modal integration, and conflict processing were minimized. The results showed that the perception of congruent, compared to incongruent stimuli, elicited enhanced neural activity in a set of brain regions including left amygdala, bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and left superior parietal cortex. These congruency effects did not differ as a function of emotion or sensation. A complementary task-related functional interaction analysis preliminarily suggested that amygdala activity depended on previous processing stages in fusiform gyrus and PCC. The findings provide support for the integrative processing of social information about others’ feelings from manifold bodily sources (sensory-affective information) in amygdala and PCC. Given that the congruent stimuli were also judged as being more self-related and more familiar in terms of personal experience in an independent sample of participants, we speculate that such integrative processing might be mediated by the linking of external stimuli with self-experience. Finally, the prediction of task-related responses in amygdala by intrinsic functional connectivity between amygdala and PCC during a task-free state implies a neuro-functional basis for an individual predisposition for the integrative processing of social stimulus content. PMID:27242474

  14. Integrative Processing of Touch and Affect in Social Perception: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Salone, Anatolia; Martinotti, Giovanni; Carlucci, Leonardo; Mantini, Dante; Perrucci, Mauro G; Saggino, Aristide; Romani, Gian Luca; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Northoff, Georg; Gallese, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Social perception commonly employs multiple sources of information. The present study aimed at investigating the integrative processing of affective social signals. Task-related and task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 26 healthy adult participants during a social perception task concerning dynamic visual stimuli simultaneously depicting facial expressions of emotion and tactile sensations that could be either congruent or incongruent. Confounding effects due to affective valence, inhibitory top-down influences, cross-modal integration, and conflict processing were minimized. The results showed that the perception of congruent, compared to incongruent stimuli, elicited enhanced neural activity in a set of brain regions including left amygdala, bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and left superior parietal cortex. These congruency effects did not differ as a function of emotion or sensation. A complementary task-related functional interaction analysis preliminarily suggested that amygdala activity depended on previous processing stages in fusiform gyrus and PCC. The findings provide support for the integrative processing of social information about others' feelings from manifold bodily sources (sensory-affective information) in amygdala and PCC. Given that the congruent stimuli were also judged as being more self-related and more familiar in terms of personal experience in an independent sample of participants, we speculate that such integrative processing might be mediated by the linking of external stimuli with self-experience. Finally, the prediction of task-related responses in amygdala by intrinsic functional connectivity between amygdala and PCC during a task-free state implies a neuro-functional basis for an individual predisposition for the integrative processing of social stimulus content. PMID:27242474

  15. Depth-of-Focus Affects 3D Perception in Stereoscopic Displays.

    PubMed

    Vienne, Cyril; Blondé, Laurent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Stereoscopic systems present binocular images on planar surface at a fixed distance. They induce cues to flatness, indicating that images are presented on a unique surface and specifying the relative depth of that surface. The center of interest of this study is on a second problem, arising when a 3D object distance differs from the display distance. As binocular disparity must be scaled using an estimate of viewing distance, object depth can thus be affected through disparity scaling. Two previous experiments revealed that stereoscopic displays can affect depth perception due to conflicting accommodation and vergence cues at near distances. In this study, depth perception is evaluated for farther accommodation and vergence distances using a commercially available 3D TV. In Experiment I, we evaluated depth perception of 3D stimuli at different vergence distances for a large pool of participants. We observed a strong effect of vergence distance that was bigger for younger than for older participants, suggesting that the effect of accommodation was reduced in participants with emerging presbyopia. In Experiment 2, we extended 3D estimations by varying both the accommodation and vergence distances. We also tested the hypothesis that setting accommodation open loop by constricting pupil size could decrease the contribution of focus cues to perceived distance. We found that the depth constancy was affected by accommodation and vergence distances and that the accommodation distance effect was reduced with a larger depth-of-focus. We discuss these results with regard to the effectiveness of focus cues as a distance signal. Overall, these results highlight the importance of appropriate focus cues in stereoscopic displays at intermediate viewing distances.

  16. The long road of pain: chronic pain increases perceived distance.

    PubMed

    Witt, Jessica K; Linkenauger, Sally A; Bakdash, Jonathan Z; Augustyn, Jason S; Cook, Andrew; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2009-01-01

    Spatial perception is sensitive to the energetic costs required to perform intended actions. For example, hills look steeper to people who are fatigued or burdened by a heavy load. Similarly, perceived distance is also influenced by the energy required to walk or throw to a target. Such experiments demonstrate that perception is a function, not just of optical information, but also of the perceiver's potential to act and the energetic costs associated with the intended action. In the current paper, we expand on the notion of "cost" by examining perceived distance in patients diagnosed with chronic pain, a multifactorial disease, which is experienced while walking. We found that chronic pain patients perceive target distances to be farther away compared with a control group. These results indicate the physical, and perhaps emotional, costs of chronic pain affect spatial perceptions.

  17. Low back pain affects trunk as well as lower limb movements during walking and running.

    PubMed

    Müller, Roy; Ertelt, Thomas; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2015-04-13

    Up to now, most gait analyses on low back pain concentrate on changes in trunk coordination during walking on a treadmill. Locomotion on uneven ground as well as lower limb changes receives little attention in association with low back pain. The present study focuses on how chronic non-specific low back pain causes modifications in lower limb and trunk movements, in level and uneven walking and running. We found that trunk as well as lower limb movement was influenced by chronic non-specific low back pain. A consistent finding across all gaits and ground level changes is that patients with chronic non-specific low back pain show less pelvis and unchanged thorax rotation as compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, in chronic non-specific low back pain patients the trunk rotation decreased only during level and uneven running whereas the sagittal trunk inclination at touchdown increased only during uneven walking as compared to healthy controls. Besides significant changes in the upper body, in chronic non-specific low back pain patients the knee joint angle at touchdown was more extended during level walking but also during uneven walking and running as compared to healthy controls. We assume that trunk movements interact with lower limb movements or vice versa. Therefore, we recommend that further investigations on low back pain should consider both trunk (primarily pelvis) and lower limb (primarily knee) movements.

  18. Muscle pain perception and sympathetic nerve activity to exercise during opioid modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, D. B.; O'Connor, P. J.; Ray, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of the endogenous opioid system on forearm muscle pain and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during dynamic fatiguing exercise. Twelve college-age men (24 +/- 4 yr) performed graded (1-min stages; 30 contractions/min) handgrip to fatigue 1 h after the ingestion of either 60 mg codeine, 50 mg naltrexone, or placebo. Pain (0-10 scale) and exertion (0-10 and 6-20 scales) intensities were measured during the last 15 s of each minute of exercise and every 15 s during recovery. MSNA was measured continuously from the peroneal nerve in the left leg. Pain threshold occurred earlier [1.8 +/- 1, 2. 2 +/- 1, 2.2 +/- 1 J: codeine, naltrexone, and placebo, respectively] and was associated with a lower rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (2.7 +/- 2, 3.6 +/- 2, 3.8 +/- 2: codeine, naltrexone, and placebo, respectively) in the codeine condition compared with either the naltrexone or placebo conditions. There were no main effects (i.e., drugs) or interaction (i.e., drugs x time) for either forearm muscle pain or RPE during exercise [pain: F (2, 22) = 0.69, P = 0.51]. There was no effect of drug on MSNA, heart rate, or blood pressure during baseline, exercise, or recovery. Peak exercise MSNA responses were 21 +/- 1, 21 +/- 2.0, and 21 +/- 2.0 bursts/30 s for codeine, naltrexone, and placebo conditions, respectively. Peak mean arterial pressure responses were 135 +/- 4, 131 +/- 3, and 132 +/- 4 mmHg for codeine, naltrexone, and placebo conditions, respectively. It is concluded that neither 60 mg codeine nor 50 mg naltrexone has an effect on forearm muscle pain, exertion, or MSNA during high- intensity handgrip to fatigue.

  19. Factors Affecting Parent’s Perception on Air Quality—From the Individual to the Community Level

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government’s environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents’ perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan’s environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170–9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244–25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212–21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents’ perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public’s perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  20. The pains of permanent imprisonment: examining perceptions of confinement among older life without parole inmates.

    PubMed

    Leigey, Margaret E; Ryder, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has found commonality in the pains of imprisonment reported by English and American long-term inmates. Using a triangulated research methodology, this study examined the hardships associated with permanent incarceration as reported by 18 older male inmates serving a sentence of life without the possibility of parole. Strong agreement existed between the present sample and previous samples as to the most and least difficult aspects of imprisonment. Consistent with the previous studies, outside problems were perceived as being more severe than inside problems. Overall, this study found agreement in the pains of long-term imprisonment, regardless of the exact length or type of sentence.

  1. Breaking the cycle: extending the persistent pain cycle diagram using an affective pictorial metaphor.

    PubMed

    Stones, Catherine; Cole, Frances

    2014-01-01

    The persistent pain cycle diagram is a common feature of pain management literature. but how is it designed and is it fulfilling its potential in terms of providing information to motivate behavioral change? This article examines on-line persistent pain diagrams and critically discusses their purpose and design approach. By using broad information design theories by Karabeg and particular approaches to dialogic visual communications in business, this article argues the need for motivational as well as cognitive diagrams. It also outlines the design of a new persistent pain cycle that is currently being used with chronic pain patients in NHS Bradford, UK. This new cycle adopts and then visually extends an established verbal metaphor within acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in an attempt to increase the motivational aspects of the vicious circle diagram format.

  2. Aquaporin-1 tunes pain perception by interaction with Na(v)1.8 Na+ channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Verkman, A S

    2010-02-19

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels are expressed in the plasma membrane of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We found reduced osmotic water permeability in freshly isolated DRG neurons from AQP1(-/-) versus AQP1(+/+) mice. Behavioral studies showed greatly reduced thermal inflammatory pain perception in AQP1(-/-) mice evoked by bradykinin, prostaglandin E(2), and capsaicin as well as reduced cold pain perception. Patch clamp of freshly isolated DRG neurons showed reduced action potential firing in response to current injections. Single action potentials after pulse current injections showed reduced maximum inward current, suggesting impaired Na(v)1.8 Na(+) function. Whole-cell Na(v)1.8 Na(+) currents in Na(v)1.8-expressing ND7-23 cells showed slowed frequency-dependent inactivation after AQP1 transfection. Immunoprecipitation studies showed AQP1- Na(v)1.8 Na(+) interaction, which was verified in live cells by single-particle tracking of quantum dot-labeled AQP1. Our results implicate the involvement of AQP1 in DRG neurons for the perception of inflammatory thermal pain and cold pain, whose molecular basis is accounted for, in part, by reduced Na(v)1.8-dependent membrane Na(+) current. AQP1 is, thus, a novel target for pain management. PMID:20018876

  3. Patellofemoral pain.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Kay M; Callaghan, Michael J; van Linschoten, Robbart

    2016-02-01

    Patellofemoral pain refers to pain behind or around the patella (also known as patellofemoral pain syndrome, anterior knee pain, runner's knee, and, formerly, chondromalacia patellae). Patellofemoral pain is common, accounting for 11-17% of all knee pain presentations to general practice.(1 2) While it typically occurs in physically active people aged <40 years, it also affects people of all activity levels and ages.(1 2) Patellofemoral pain can be diagnosed in the clinic, and evidence based treatments can reduce pain and improve function, allowing patients to maintain a physically active lifestyle. PMID:26834209

  4. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    PubMed

    de Borst, Aline W; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations. PMID:26029133

  5. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    PubMed

    de Borst, Aline W; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.

  6. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective

    PubMed Central

    de Borst, Aline W.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations. PMID:26029133

  7. Factors affecting neurological deficits and intractable back pain in patients with insufficient bone union following osteoporotic vertebral fracture

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Masatoshi; Terai, Hidetomi; Tsujio, Tadao; Nabeta, Masaharu; Namikawa, Takashi; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Akinobu; Takayama, Kazushi; Takaoka, Kunio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting the severity of neurological deficits and intractable back pain in patients with insufficient bone union following osteoporotic vertebral fracture (OVF). Reports of insufficient union following OVF have recently increased. Patients with this lesion have various degrees of neurological deficits and back pain. However, the factors contributing to the severity of these are still unknown. A total of 45 patients with insufficient union following OVF were included in this study. Insufficient union was diagnosed based on the findings of vertebral cleft on plain radiography or CT, as well as fluid collection indicating high-intensity change on T2-weighted MRI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors contributing to the severity of neurological deficits and back pain in the patients. Age, sex, level of fracture, duration after onset of symptoms, degree of local kyphosis, degree of angular instability, ratio of occupation by bony fragments, presence or absence of protrusion of flavum, and presence or absence of ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament (OALL) in the adjacent level were used as explanatory variables, while severity of neurological deficits and back pain were response variables. On multivariate analysis, factors significantly affecting the severity of neurological deficits were angular instability of more than 15° [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 9.24 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.49–57.2); P < 0.05] and ratio of occupation by bony fragments in the spinal canal of more than 42% [adjusted OR 9.23 (95%CI 1.15–74.1); P < 0.05]. The factor significantly affecting the severity of back pain was angular instability of more than 15° [adjusted OR 14.9 (95%CI 2.11–105); P < 0.01]. On the other hand, presence of OALL in the adjacent level reduced degree of back pain [adjusted OR 0.14 (95%CI 0.03–0.76); P < 0.05]. In this study, pronounced angular

  8. Attenuation of negative pain affect produced by unilateral spinal nerve injury in the rat following anterior cingulate cortex activation.

    PubMed

    LaBuda, C J; Fuchs, P N

    2005-01-01

    The affective and the sensory dimensions of pain processing can be differentiated in humans through the use of questionnaires and verbal communication. It is difficult to dissociate these two components of pain processing in rodents, and an understanding of the underlying mechanisms for each component is unclear. The quantification of a novel behavioral response to a repeated noxious cutaneous stimulus together with a measurement of tactile allodynia in nerve-injured rats might be used to differentially explore the sensory and affective components of pain processing in the rat. The present study utilized electrical stimulation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a structure implicated in affective pain processing but not sensory processing, in nerve-injured rats (L5 spinal nerve ligation) and found that the aversive quality of noxious cutaneous hindpaw stimulation was attenuated. There were no effects on sensory processing, because anterior cingulate cortex stimulation did not produce an anti-allodynic effect in L5 spinal nerve ligation animals. Furthermore, anterior cingulate cortex stimulation in animals with bilateral ventrolateral periaqueductal gray area lesions did not affect tactile sensitivity in L5 spinal nerve ligation rats, indicating that an endogenous pain suppression system was not likely activated by anterior cingulate cortex stimulation. However, bilateral ventrolateral periaqueductal gray area lesions in L5 spinal nerve ligation rats blocked the effect produced by anterior cingulate cortex stimulation in the place escape/avoidance paradigm. Specifically, these animals avoided noxious stimulation of the allodynic paw significantly more than anterior cingulate cortex-stimulated, sham or incomplete ventrolateral periaqueductal gray area-lesioned, L5 spinal nerve ligation animals. These findings provide the first quantified report that the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex reduced the aversive quality of repeated noxious tactile stimulation in

  9. Inhomogeneous Point-Processes to Instantaneously Assess Affective Haptic Perception through Heartbeat Dynamics Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, G.; Greco, A.; Citi, L.; Bianchi, M.; Barbieri, R.; Scilingo, E. P.

    2016-06-01

    This study proposes the application of a comprehensive signal processing framework, based on inhomogeneous point-process models of heartbeat dynamics, to instantaneously assess affective haptic perception using electrocardiogram-derived information exclusively. The framework relies on inverse-Gaussian point-processes with Laguerre expansion of the nonlinear Wiener-Volterra kernels, accounting for the long-term information given by the past heartbeat events. Up to cubic-order nonlinearities allow for an instantaneous estimation of the dynamic spectrum and bispectrum of the considered cardiovascular dynamics, as well as for instantaneous measures of complexity, through Lyapunov exponents and entropy. Short-term caress-like stimuli were administered for 4.3–25 seconds on the forearms of 32 healthy volunteers (16 females) through a wearable haptic device, by selectively superimposing two levels of force, 2 N and 6 N, and two levels of velocity, 9.4 mm/s and 65 mm/s. Results demonstrated that our instantaneous linear and nonlinear features were able to finely characterize the affective haptic perception, with a recognition accuracy of 69.79% along the force dimension, and 81.25% along the velocity dimension.

  10. Inhomogeneous Point-Processes to Instantaneously Assess Affective Haptic Perception through Heartbeat Dynamics Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, G.; Greco, A.; Citi, L.; Bianchi, M.; Barbieri, R.; Scilingo, E. P.

    2016-06-01

    This study proposes the application of a comprehensive signal processing framework, based on inhomogeneous point-process models of heartbeat dynamics, to instantaneously assess affective haptic perception using electrocardiogram-derived information exclusively. The framework relies on inverse-Gaussian point-processes with Laguerre expansion of the nonlinear Wiener-Volterra kernels, accounting for the long-term information given by the past heartbeat events. Up to cubic-order nonlinearities allow for an instantaneous estimation of the dynamic spectrum and bispectrum of the considered cardiovascular dynamics, as well as for instantaneous measures of complexity, through Lyapunov exponents and entropy. Short-term caress-like stimuli were administered for 4.3-25 seconds on the forearms of 32 healthy volunteers (16 females) through a wearable haptic device, by selectively superimposing two levels of force, 2 N and 6 N, and two levels of velocity, 9.4 mm/s and 65 mm/s. Results demonstrated that our instantaneous linear and nonlinear features were able to finely characterize the affective haptic perception, with a recognition accuracy of 69.79% along the force dimension, and 81.25% along the velocity dimension.

  11. Pregnant Mothers’ Perceptions of how Intimate Partner Violence affects Their Unborn Children

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Rahman, Damali

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the perceptions of pregnant women on the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) as it affects maternal and fetal health. Design Secondary qualitative content analysis. Setting Individual interviews conducted within three urban obstetric and gynecologic clinics Participants Our sample included a subset of eight pregnant women experiencing IPV during the current pregnancy. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included qualitative data from 13 women. Methods We analyzed in-depth individual interview transcripts in which participants discussed how they perceived IPV to affect their health as well as the health of their unborn children. Constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology were used in analysis. Results Three themes emerged to illustrate mothers’ perceptions of how IPV influenced maternal and fetal outcomes: protection, fetal awareness, and fetal well-being. Conclusions This analysis provides important insights into concerns that pregnant women experiencing IPV shared about maternal attachment and fetal well-being. Health care providers can use these findings to better assess the physical and psychological concerns of pregnant women experiencing IPV. Further research is needed to better understand how IPV contributes to adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly from a biological perspective. PMID:25651808

  12. Inhomogeneous Point-Processes to Instantaneously Assess Affective Haptic Perception through Heartbeat Dynamics Information.

    PubMed

    Valenza, G; Greco, A; Citi, L; Bianchi, M; Barbieri, R; Scilingo, E P

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes the application of a comprehensive signal processing framework, based on inhomogeneous point-process models of heartbeat dynamics, to instantaneously assess affective haptic perception using electrocardiogram-derived information exclusively. The framework relies on inverse-Gaussian point-processes with Laguerre expansion of the nonlinear Wiener-Volterra kernels, accounting for the long-term information given by the past heartbeat events. Up to cubic-order nonlinearities allow for an instantaneous estimation of the dynamic spectrum and bispectrum of the considered cardiovascular dynamics, as well as for instantaneous measures of complexity, through Lyapunov exponents and entropy. Short-term caress-like stimuli were administered for 4.3-25 seconds on the forearms of 32 healthy volunteers (16 females) through a wearable haptic device, by selectively superimposing two levels of force, 2 N and 6 N, and two levels of velocity, 9.4 mm/s and 65 mm/s. Results demonstrated that our instantaneous linear and nonlinear features were able to finely characterize the affective haptic perception, with a recognition accuracy of 69.79% along the force dimension, and 81.25% along the velocity dimension. PMID:27357966

  13. Inhomogeneous Point-Processes to Instantaneously Assess Affective Haptic Perception through Heartbeat Dynamics Information

    PubMed Central

    Valenza, G.; Greco, A.; Citi, L.; Bianchi, M.; Barbieri, R.; Scilingo, E. P.

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes the application of a comprehensive signal processing framework, based on inhomogeneous point-process models of heartbeat dynamics, to instantaneously assess affective haptic perception using electrocardiogram-derived information exclusively. The framework relies on inverse-Gaussian point-processes with Laguerre expansion of the nonlinear Wiener-Volterra kernels, accounting for the long-term information given by the past heartbeat events. Up to cubic-order nonlinearities allow for an instantaneous estimation of the dynamic spectrum and bispectrum of the considered cardiovascular dynamics, as well as for instantaneous measures of complexity, through Lyapunov exponents and entropy. Short-term caress-like stimuli were administered for 4.3–25 seconds on the forearms of 32 healthy volunteers (16 females) through a wearable haptic device, by selectively superimposing two levels of force, 2 N and 6 N, and two levels of velocity, 9.4 mm/s and 65 mm/s. Results demonstrated that our instantaneous linear and nonlinear features were able to finely characterize the affective haptic perception, with a recognition accuracy of 69.79% along the force dimension, and 81.25% along the velocity dimension. PMID:27357966

  14. Adult Perceptions of Pain and Hunger Cries: A Synchrony of Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeskind, Philip Sanford; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Male and female nonparent adults rated tape-recordings of initial, middle, and final 10-second segments of pain and hunger cries on four 7-point Likert-type scale items describing how urgent, arousing, aversive, and sick cry segments sounded. Results suggest that different segments of cries resulting from the same stimulus provide different…

  15. Immediate effects of spinal manipulation on nitric oxide, substance P and pain perception.

    PubMed

    Molina-Ortega, Francisco; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Plaza Manzano, Gustavo; Achalandabaso, Alexander; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio J; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have analyzed the effects of spinal manipulation on pain sensitivity by using several sensory modalities, but to our knowledge, no studies have focused on serum biomarkers involved in the nociceptive pathway after spinal manipulation. Our objectives were to determine the immediate effect of cervical and dorsal manipulation over the production of nitric oxide and substance P, and establishing their relationship with changes in pressure pain thresholds in asymptomatic subjects. In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 30 asymptomatic subjects (16 men) were randomly distributed into 3 groups (n = 10 per group): control, cervical and dorsal manipulation groups. Blood samples were extracted to obtain serum. ELISA assay for substance P and chemiluminescence analysis for nitric oxide determination were performed. Pressure pain thresholds were measured with a pressure algometer at the C5-C6 joint, the lateral epicondyle and the tibialis anterior muscle. Outcome measures were obtained before intervention, just after intervention and 2 h after intervention. Our results indicated an increase in substance P plasma level in the cervical manipulation group (70.55%) when compared with other groups (p < 0.05). This group also showed an elevation in the pressure pain threshold at C5-C6 (26.75%) and lateral epicondyle level (21.63%) immediately after the intervention (p < 0.05). No changes in nitric oxide production were observed. In conclusion, mechanical stimulus provided by cervical manipulation increases substance P levels and pressure pain threshold but does not change nitric oxide concentrations. Part of the hypoalgesic effect of spinal manipulation may be due to the action of substance P.

  16. Feeling bad and looking worse: negative affect is associated with reduced perceptions of face-healthiness.

    PubMed

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20) or negative affectivity (N = 20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger's faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger's face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

  17. Does pain in individuals with multiple sclerosis affect employment? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shahrbanian, Shahnaz; Auais, Mohammad; Duquette, Pierre; Anderson, Katie; Mayo, Nancy E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience some of the highest unemployment rates among all groups of chronic illnesses. Pain has been found to be a common reason for sick leave or early retirement in healthy populations or other groups with chronic illness; however, there is little awareness regarding the effect of pain on the work status of individuals with MS. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the extent to which individuals with pain differ in employment status compared with those without pain among MS patients. METHODS: An extensive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration to identify studies focusing on the effect of pain on employment in individuals with MS. The following databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Web of Science, MD Consult and Elsevier, and Science Direct. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the McMaster Critical Review Form. RESULTS: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Of these studies, five that exhibited clinical, methodological and statistical homogeneity were included in the meta-analysis. The between-groups (pain + versus pain −) pooled random OR of being employed was 0.7 (strong), and was significantly different from unity (95% CI 0.5 to 0.9; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicated that individuals with MS who experience pain were significantly more likely to report a decreased employment rate than individuals with MS who were pain free. PMID:24093124

  18. Orexin-A and Endocannabinoid Activation of the Descending Antinociceptive Pathway Underlies Altered Pain Perception in Leptin Signaling Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cristino, Luigia; Luongo, Livio; Imperatore, Roberta; Boccella, Serena; Becker, Thorsten; Morello, Giovanna; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Busetto, Giuseppe; Maione, Sabatino; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Pain perception can become altered in individuals with eating disorders and obesity for reasons that have not been fully elucidated. We show that leptin deficiency in ob/ob mice, or leptin insensitivity in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, are accompanied by elevated orexin-A (OX-A) levels and orexin receptor-1 (OX1-R)-dependent elevation of the levels of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). In ob/ob mice, these alterations result in the following: (i) increased excitability of OX1-R-expressing vlPAG output neurons and subsequent increased OFF and decreased ON cell activity in the rostral ventromedial medulla, as assessed by patch clamp and in vivo electrophysiology; and (ii) analgesia, in both healthy and neuropathic mice. In HFD mice, instead, analgesia is only unmasked following leptin receptor antagonism. We propose that OX-A/endocannabinoid cross talk in the descending antinociceptive pathway might partly underlie increased pain thresholds in conditions associated with impaired leptin signaling.

  19. Knowledge, Perceptions and Attitudes toward Chronic Pain and Its Management: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Frontline Pharmacists in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tejal; Chang, Feng; Mohammed, Heba Tallah; Raman-Wilms, Lalitha; Jurcic, Jane; Khan, Ayesha; Sproule, Beth

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of chronic pain consumes a significant share of primary care. Community and family health team pharmacists frequently see patients with chronic pain, thus have the opportunity to improve their care. To assess the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of Ontario pharmacists, we invited 5,324 Ontario pharmacists, to participate in an online survey we developed using Qualtrics. The 31-question survey gathered demographic information, assessed pharmacists' knowledge of three chronic pain conditions; chronic lower back pain (CLBP, eight true/false statements); chronic headache disorder (CHD, eight true/false statements) and painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN, seven true/false statements), and their attitudes toward and perceptions of patients with these conditions, and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of opioids in pain management. We received 688 responses (12.9%) and 392 pharmacists completed the survey. The mean age of respondents was 48.5 years and 48.5% were male. More than 50% of respondents were in practice for more than 20 years and 58.7% worked 25-40 hours per week. The mean knowledge scores were 4.5/8, 5.5/8, and 5.3/8 for CBLP, CHD, and PDN respectively. While 95% of respondents were aware of the increasing death rates due to opioid use, only half were familiar with the Canadian guideline for safe opioid prescribing for non-cancer use. Responses were compared based on gender, time in practice and location of practice. Pharmacists with more than ten years of experience scored significantly higher than those with less experience. Fewer differences were found in comparisons of gender and location of practice. Safe and effective care of chronic pain patients, particularly with opioids, will require additional pharmacist education. PMID:27270723

  20. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Affect: An Investigation of Only Children vs. Firstborns and the Effect of Spacing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Jeannie S.

    1978-01-01

    Research results revealed only-born adolescents to perceive higher positive perceptions in three measures of parental affect than do first-born adolescents. Perceived parental affect was found to vary by spacing in a consistent pattern for males towards both parents. (Author/MA)

  1. Application of a Rasch Analysis to the Examination of the Perception of Facial Affect among Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumpel, Tom; Wilson, Mark

    1996-01-01

    An instrument assessing perception of nonverbal facial affect was developed and administered to 101 adults with and without mental retardation. Rasch analysis uncovered an intergroup difference in the structure of the latent trait of understanding facial affect. This qualitative difference may account for the limited generalization and maintenance…

  2. Clinical Instructors' Perceptions of the Importance of Affective Behaviors in Undergraduate Athletic Training Clinical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokris, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The affective domain represents a set of learning objectives that are difficult to assess and instruct. Affective behaviors consist of different attributes such as interpersonal relationships, professionalism, trust, empathy, and integrity to name a few. This study surveyed athletic training clinical instructors' perception of the importance…

  3. Gender role expectations of pain is associated with pain tolerance limit but not with pain threshold.

    PubMed

    Defrin, Ruth; Shramm, Libby; Eli, Ilana

    2009-09-01

    Gender role expectations of pain (GREP) was suggested to predict sex differences in pain perception. Our aim was to explore sex differences in GREP and investigate its relationship with heat-pain threshold (HPT) and heat-pain tolerance limit (HPTL). University students (115 males, 134 females) filled the GREP questionnaire. HPT and HPTL were measured in a sample of 72 students. Additionally, GREP values of the present sample were compared with those of the original, American sample to explore possible cultural effects. Both males and females perceive themselves (and their own sex in general) to be less sensitive to pain and less willing to report of pain than the opposite sex. Males perceived themselves and other men, to endure pain relatively similar to women whereas females perceived themselves and other women as less endurable to pain than men. HPT was similar for the two sexes but males had higher HPTL than females. Within each sex, HPTL correlated mainly with self's perception of pain sensitivity. The American and Israeli samples differed in that Israeli males and females presented stronger stereotypical views towards same and opposite sexes. Both males and females held stereotypical "macho" attitude towards themselves with regard to pain sensitivity and willingness to report of pain however only females held stereotypical, "macho" attitude towards themselves with regard to pain endurance. The sex differences in GREP and in HPTL and the correlations between GREP items and experimental thresholds suggest that the relationship between GREP and experimental pain is complex and sex-specific. It also appears that GREP is affected by culture.

  4. On the molecular mechanisms driving pain perception and emergent collective behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Patti, F.; Fanelli, D.

    2010-05-01

    A stochastic model to investigate the microscopic processes which trigger the sensation of pain is considered. The model, presented in Di Patti and Fanelli [Di Patti F, Fanelli D. Can a microscopic stochastic model explain the emergence of pain cycles in patients? J Stat Mech 2009. doi:10.1088/1742-5468/2009/01/P01004], accounts for the action of analgesic drug and introduces an effect of competition with the inactive species populating the bloodstream. Regular oscillations in the amount of bound receptors are detected, following a resonant amplification of the stochastic component intrinsic to the system. The condition for such oscillations to occur are here studied, resorting to combined numerical and analytical techniques. Extended and connected patches of the admissible parameters space are detected which do correspond to the oscillatory behaviors. These findings are discussed with reference to the existing literature on patients' response to the analgesic treatment.

  5. Affect-Laden Imagery and Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Stress and Risk Perception

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  6. Affect-laden imagery and risk taking: the mediating role of stress and risk perception.

    PubMed

    Traczyk, Jakub; Sobkow, Agata; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  7. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain perception threshold of human teeth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, E; Finkensiep, H; Kaup, M

    2000-06-01

    In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we studied the effect of three different transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) devices with extra- and intraoral electrodes on the pain perception thresholds of 234 unrestored, caries-free human teeth of 66 healthy individuals subjected to stimulation with an electric pulp tester. A placebo control collective of 64 healthy subjects received no electrical stimulation, since an inactive TENS device was used. In all tooth types tested (maxillary and mandibular incisors and premolars), the use of the active TENS devices resulted in an increase of 16.3-32.5% versus baseline in the pain perception threshold. The differences between active TENS and baseline were statistically significant for both TENS devices using extraoral electrodes (P < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found between the different devices tested (P > 0.05). In the placebo collective, the increase in the pain perception threshold ranged between 6.4% and 10.3% versus baseline. There were no significant differences between placebo TENS and baseline on the one hand and between placebo TENS and the active TENS devices on the other hand (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that, as an alternative to local anesthetics, TENS seems not to be useful in the case of painful dental interventions, since it offered only minor advantages over a placebo.

  8. How Does the Driver’s Perception Reaction Time Affect the Performances of Crash Surrogate Measures?

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Yan; Qu, Xiaobo; Weng, Jinxian; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    With the merit on representing traffic conflict through examining the crash mechanism and causality proactively, crash surrogate measures have long been proposed and applied to evaluate the traffic safety. However, the driver’s Perception-Reaction Time (PRT), an important variable in crash mechanism, has not been considered widely into surrogate measures. In this regard, it is important to know how the PRT affects the performances of surrogate indicators. To this end, three widely used surrogate measures are firstly modified by involving the PRT into their crash mechanisms. Then, in order to examine the difference caused by the PRT, a comparative study is carried out on a freeway section of the Pacific Motorway, Australia. This result suggests that the surrogate indicators’ performances in representing rear-end crash risks are improved with the incorporating of the PRT for the investigated section. PMID:26398416

  9. Ozone Differentially Affects Perception of Plant Volatiles in Western Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Dötterl, Stefan; Vater, Marina; Rupp, Thomas; Held, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Floral scents play a key role in mediating plant-pollinator interactions. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by flowers are used by flower visitors as olfactory cues to locate flowers, both from a distance and at close range. More recently it has been demonstrated that reactive molecules such as ozone can modify or degrade VOCs, and this may impair the communication between plants and their pollinators. However, it is not known whether such reactive molecules also may affect the olfactory system of pollinators, and thus not only influence signal transmission but perception of the signal. In this study, we used electroantennographic measurements to determine the effect of increased levels of ozone on antennal responses in western honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Linalool and 2-phenylethanol, both known to be involved in location of flowers by the bees, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, a widespread green leaf volatile also detected by bees, were used. The results showed that ozone affected antennal responses to the different substances differently. Ozone decreased antennal responses to (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, whereas responses to linalool and 2-phenylethanol were not influenced by ozone. Overall, the study does not provide evidence that pollination by honey bees is impaired by damage in the olfactory system of the bees caused by increased levels of ozone, at least when linalool and 2-phenylethanol are the attractive signals. However, the results also suggest that ozone can change the overall perception of an odor blend. This might have negative effects in pollination systems and other organismic interactions mediated by specific ratios of compounds. PMID:27344162

  10. Event related beta and gamma oscillatory responses during perception of affective pictures.

    PubMed

    Güntekin, Bahar; Tülay, Elif

    2014-08-19

    Several studies reveal that unpleasant pictures elicit higher beta and gamma responses than pleasant and/or neutral pictures; however, the effect of stimulation design (block or random) has not been studied before. The aim of the study is to analyze the common and distinct parameters of affective picture perception in block and random designs by means of analysis of high frequency oscillatory dynamics (beta and gamma). EEG of 22 healthy subjects was recorded at 32 locations. The participants passively viewed 120 emotional pictures (10 × 4 unpleasant, 10 × 4 pleasant, 10 × 4 neutral) in block and random designs. The phase-locking and power of event related beta (14-28 Hz) and gamma (29-48 Hz) oscillations were analyzed for two different time windows (0-200 ms/200-400 ms). Statistical analysis showed that in the 0-200 ms time window, during the block design, unpleasant stimulation elicited higher beta phase-locking and beta power than the pleasant and neutral stimulation (p<0.05). In the 200-400 ms time window, during the block design, over occipital electrodes unpleasant stimulation elicited higher gamma response power than the pleasant stimulation and neutral stimulation (p<0.05). Unpleasant stimulation did not elicit higher beta or gamma responses in the random design. The present study showed that experimental design highly influences the perception of IAPS pictures. Unpleasant stimulation elicited higher event related beta and gamma phase-locking and power only in block design but not in random design. It seems that longer blocks of aversive pictures affect the brain more than the rapid observation of these pictures.

  11. The User, not the Tool: Perceptions of Credibility and Relevance Affect the Uptake of Prioritisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkoski Kim, Milena; Evans, Louisa; Scherl, Lea M.; Marsh, Helene

    2016-04-01

    Prioritisation methods have been used in conservation planning for over 20 years. The scientific literature focuses on the technical aspects of prioritisation, providing limited information on factors affecting the uptake of priorities. We focused on the Back on Track species prioritisation program in Queensland, Australia, used to prioritise species conservation efforts across Queensland from 2005. The program had low uptake by intended users. Our study aimed to identify the perceived limitations in the technical-scientific quality of this species-based prioritisation process and its outcomes in terms of credibility (scientific adequacy of the technical evidence) and relevance (of information to the needs of decision-makers). These criteria have been used to understand the uptake of scientific information in policy. We interviewed 73 key informants. Perceptions of credibility were affected by concerns related to the use of expert judgement (rather than empirical evidence) to assess species, impressions that key experts were not included in the planning process, and the lack of confidence in the information supporting prioritisation. We identified several trade-offs and synergies between the credibility and relevance of priorities to potential users. The relevance of the output plans was negatively affected by the lack of clarity about who were potential users and implementers of the priorities identified. We conclude with recommendations to enhance the credibility and relevance of such initiatives.

  12. Comparison of pain, kinesiophobia and quality of life in patients with low back and neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Uluğ, Naime; Yakut, Yavuz; Alemdaroğlu, İpek; Yılmaz, Öznur

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare patients with low back and neck pain with respect to kinesiophobia, pain, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Three-hundred patients with low back (mean age 43.2±11 years) and 300 with neck pain (mean age 42.8±10.2 years) were included in this study. Pain severity was evaluated by using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, which includes a Visual Analogue Scale, quality of life by the Nottingham Health Profile, and kinesiophobia by the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. [Results] Pain severity was similar in both groups, with a Visual Analogue Scale score of 6.7±2 in the low back pain and 6.8±2 in the neck pain group. Nottingham Health Profile pain [z=−4.132] and physical activity scores [z=−5.640] in the low back pain group were significantly higher. Kinesiophobia was also more severe in the low back pain group, with a mean 42.05±5.91 versus 39.7±6.0 Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia score [z=−4.732]. [Conclusion] Patients with low back pain developed more severe kinesiophobia, regardless of the pain severity, and had greater pain perception and lower physical activity levels. Kinesiophobia adversely affects the quality of life and requires effective management of low back pain. PMID:27064399

  13. Comparison of pain, kinesiophobia and quality of life in patients with low back and neck pain.

    PubMed

    Uluğ, Naime; Yakut, Yavuz; Alemdaroğlu, İpek; Yılmaz, Öznur

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare patients with low back and neck pain with respect to kinesiophobia, pain, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Three-hundred patients with low back (mean age 43.2±11 years) and 300 with neck pain (mean age 42.8±10.2 years) were included in this study. Pain severity was evaluated by using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, which includes a Visual Analogue Scale, quality of life by the Nottingham Health Profile, and kinesiophobia by the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. [Results] Pain severity was similar in both groups, with a Visual Analogue Scale score of 6.7±2 in the low back pain and 6.8±2 in the neck pain group. Nottingham Health Profile pain [z=-4.132] and physical activity scores [z=-5.640] in the low back pain group were significantly higher. Kinesiophobia was also more severe in the low back pain group, with a mean 42.05±5.91 versus 39.7±6.0 Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia score [z=-4.732]. [Conclusion] Patients with low back pain developed more severe kinesiophobia, regardless of the pain severity, and had greater pain perception and lower physical activity levels. Kinesiophobia adversely affects the quality of life and requires effective management of low back pain.

  14. Feeling Bad and Looking Worse: Negative Affect Is Associated with Reduced Perceptions of Face-Healthiness

    PubMed Central

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H.; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20) or negative affectivity (N = 20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger’s faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger’s face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

  15. Lower-Order Pain-Related Constructs are More Predictive of Cold Pressor Pain Ratings than Higher-Order Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer E; Watson, David; Frey Law, Laura A

    2010-01-01

    Pain is a debilitating condition affecting millions each year, yet what predisposes certain individuals to be more sensitive to pain remains relatively unknown. Several psychological factors have been associated with pain perception, but the structural relations between multiple higher- and lower-order constructs and pain are not well understood. Thus, we aimed to examine the associations between pain perception using the cold pressor task (CPT), higher-order personality traits (neuroticism, negative affectivity, trait anxiety, extraversion, positive affectivity, psychoticism), and lower-order pain-related psychological constructs (pain catastrophizing [pre- and post], fear of pain, anxiety sensitivity, somatosensory amplification, hypochondriasis) in 66 pain-free adults. Factor analysis revealed three latent psychological variables: pain- or body-sensitivity, negative affect/neuroticism, and positive affect/extraversion. Similarly, pain responses factored into three domains: intensity, quality, and tolerance. Regression and correlation analyses demonstrated 1) all the lower-order pain constructs (fear, catastrophizing, and hypochondriasis) are related through a single underlying latent factor, that is partially related to the higher-order negative-valence personality traits; 2) pain- or body-sensitivity was more strongly predictive of pain quality than higher-order traits; and 3) the form of pain assessment is important – only qualitative pain ratings were significantly predicted by the psychological factors. Perspective: Consistent with the biopsychosocial model, these results suggest multiple pain-related psychological measures likely assess a common underlying factor, which is more predictive of qualitative than intensity pain ratings. This information may be useful for the development and advancement of pain assessments and treatments while considering the multidimensional nature of pain. PMID:20356801

  16. Jellyfish and other cnidarian envenomations cause pain by affecting TRPV1 channels

    PubMed Central

    Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Karlsson, Evert; Tytgat, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarian envenomations cause a burning-pain sensation of which the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Activation of TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel expressed in nociceptive neurons, leads to cell depolarisation and pain. Here, we show in vitro and in vivo evidence for desensitization-dependent TRPV1 activation in cnidarian envenomations. Cnidarian venom induced a nociceptive reactivity, comparable to capsaicin, in laboratory rats, which could be reduced by the selective TRPV1 antagonist, BCTC. These findings are the first to explain at least part of the symptomology of cnidarian envenomations and provide insights into the design of more effective treatments for this global public health problem. PMID:17010344

  17. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  18. One day at a time: The impact of daily satisfaction with spouse responses on pain, negative affect and catastrophizing among individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Susan; Delongis, Anita

    2007-09-01

    The majority of research on pain catastrophizing has focused on its negative consequences for adjustment to chronic pain, with few investigations of factors that influence catastrophizing or its detrimental effects. Using a daily process methodology, the current study examined, first, the extent to which a supportive social environment plays a role in reduced catastrophizing, and second, the extent to which support might protect against the detrimental effects of catastrophizing on well-being. Sixty-nine married individuals with rheumatoid arthritis took part in an initial background interview, followed by twice daily telephone interviews (regarding pain intensity, negative affect, catastrophizing and satisfaction with spouse responses) for 1 week. Multi-level modeling indicated several pathways through which satisfaction with spouse responses disrupts the vicious cycle of pain, negative affect and catastrophizing. Consistent with past research, catastrophizing was associated with increases in pain and negative affect. However, when individuals reported increases in satisfaction with spouse responses they were less likely to experience increases in negative affect due to catastrophizing. Satisfaction with spouse responses also reduced the likelihood of feeling overwhelmed and helpless in dealing with daily pain. The relationship between pain and catastrophizing was attenuated in the context of increases in satisfaction with spouse responses. Negative affect was associated with increases in catastrophizing, but only when individuals reported decreases in satisfaction with spouse responses. Overall, findings were consistent with a model in which satisfaction with spouse responses serves as a coping resource, and suggests the importance of involving close others in treatments to reduce pain and catastrophizing.

  19. Effect of manipulated state aggression on pain tolerance.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Richard; Allsop, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Swearing produces a pain lessening (hypoalgesic) effect for many people; an emotional response may be the underlying mechanism. In this paper, the role of manipulated state aggression on pain tolerance and pain perception is assessed. In a repeated-measures design, pain outcomes were assessed in participants asked to play for 10 minutes a first-person shooter video game vs a golf video game. Sex differences were explored. After playing the first-person shooter video game, aggressive cognitions, aggressive affect, heart rate, and cold pressor latency were increased, and pain perception was decreased. These data indicate that people become more pain tolerant with raised state aggression and support our theory that raised pain tolerance from swearing occurs via an emotional response. PMID:23045874

  20. When Does Native Language Input Affect Phonetic Perception? The Precocious Case of Lexical Tone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, H. Henny; Chen, Ke Heng; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the perception of vowels and consonants changes from language-universal to language-specific between 6 and 12 months of age. This report suggests that language-specific perception emerges even earlier for lexical tones. Experiment 1 tested English-learners' perception of Cantonese tones, replicating declines in…

  1. Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain: Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D.; Craig, Kenneth D.

    1994-01-01

    Divided 90 chronic low back pain patients into those who demonstrated signs that were congruent or incongruent with underlying anatomical and physiological principles. Low socioeconomic status, compensation claims, use of opiate analgesics, greater disability, catastrophizing cognitions, stronger emotionality, and passive coping were more…

  2. Exposure of fluid milk to LED light negatively affects consumer perception and alters underlying sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicole; Carey, Nancy; Murphy, Steven; Kent, David; Bang, Jae; Stubbs, Tim; Wiedmann, Martin; Dando, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid milk consumption per capita in the United States has been steadily declining since the 1940s. Many factors have contributed to this decline, including the increasing consumption of carbonated beverages and bottled water. To meet the challenge of stemming the decline in consumption of fluid milk, the dairy industry must take a systematic approach to identifying and correcting for factors that negatively affect consumers' perception of fluid milk quality. To that end, samples of fluid milk were evaluated to identify factors, with a particular focus on light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure, which negatively affect the perceived sensory quality of milk, and to quantify their relative effect on the consumer's experience. Fluid milk samples were sourced from 3 processing facilities with varying microbial postprocessing contamination patterns based on historical testing. The effect of fat content, light exposure, age, and microbiological content were assayed across 23 samples of fluid milk, via consumer, descriptive sensory, and instrumental analyses. Most notably, light exposure resulted in a broad negative reaction from consumers, more so than samples with microbiological contamination exceeding 20,000 cfu/mL on days approaching code. The predominant implication of the study is that a component of paramount importance in ensuring the success of the dairy industry would be to protect fluid milk from all sources of light exposure, from processing plant to consumer.

  3. Exposure of fluid milk to LED light negatively affects consumer perception and alters underlying sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicole; Carey, Nancy; Murphy, Steven; Kent, David; Bang, Jae; Stubbs, Tim; Wiedmann, Martin; Dando, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid milk consumption per capita in the United States has been steadily declining since the 1940s. Many factors have contributed to this decline, including the increasing consumption of carbonated beverages and bottled water. To meet the challenge of stemming the decline in consumption of fluid milk, the dairy industry must take a systematic approach to identifying and correcting for factors that negatively affect consumers' perception of fluid milk quality. To that end, samples of fluid milk were evaluated to identify factors, with a particular focus on light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure, which negatively affect the perceived sensory quality of milk, and to quantify their relative effect on the consumer's experience. Fluid milk samples were sourced from 3 processing facilities with varying microbial postprocessing contamination patterns based on historical testing. The effect of fat content, light exposure, age, and microbiological content were assayed across 23 samples of fluid milk, via consumer, descriptive sensory, and instrumental analyses. Most notably, light exposure resulted in a broad negative reaction from consumers, more so than samples with microbiological contamination exceeding 20,000 cfu/mL on days approaching code. The predominant implication of the study is that a component of paramount importance in ensuring the success of the dairy industry would be to protect fluid milk from all sources of light exposure, from processing plant to consumer. PMID:27060830

  4. Noncardiac chest pain: epidemiology, natural course and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fass, Ronnie; Achem, Sami R

    2011-04-01

    Noncardiac chest pain is defined as recurrent chest pain that is indistinguishable from ischemic heart pain after a reasonable workup has excluded a cardiac cause. Noncardiac chest pain is a prevalent disorder resulting in high healthcare utilization and significant work absenteeism. However, despite its chronic nature, noncardiac chest pain has no impact on patients' mortality. The main underlying mechanisms include gastroesophageal reflux, esophageal dysmotility and esophageal hypersensitivity. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is likely the most common cause of noncardiac chest pain. Esophageal dysmotility affects only the minority of noncardiac chest pain patients. Esophageal hypersensitivity may be present in non-GERD-related noncardiac chest pain patients regardless if esophageal dysmotility is present or absent. Psychological co-morbidities such as panic disorder, anxiety, and depression are also common in noncardiac chest pain patients and often modulate patients' perception of disease severity. PMID:21602987

  5. Pain control.

    PubMed

    Boey, W K

    1991-01-01

    There are two components to the perception of pain; the 'sensory' and the 'reactive'. Psychological factors control the latter. Pain research is rapidly advancing: the discovery of endorphins and opioid receptors, the appreciation of the psychological component of pain and the multidisciplinary approach to chronic pain are major advances. Pain can be classified as acute or chronic. Acute pain is easy to diagnose, the cause of pain obvious and the treatment logical, chronic pain has a greater psychological component, is difficult to diagnose and treatment is often empirical. Methods of pain control include drugs, injection techniques, electro stimulation, non invasive therapies, denervation procedures and palliative procedures. A multidisciplinary approach and a combination of methods is necessary to treat chronic pain. Spinal opioids, radiofrequency thermocoagulation, intrapleural bupivacaine, cryoanalgesia and patient controlled analgesia are recent advances in pain control. However, most pain can be controlled adequately with simple methods; what is essential is the interest and commitment of the physician towards achieving optimum therapeutics. PMID:1674199

  6. Factors and Perceptions that Affect Enrollment in Career and Technical Education Programs in Rural East Central Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Aimee Chandler

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the factors and perceptions that affect enrollment in career and technical education (CTE) programs in rural East Central Mississippi. Specifically, the study had four key purposes. First, the academic grades of CTE students and non-CTE students were examined to determine whether academic grades…

  7. Student Achievement, Behavior, Perceptions, and Other Factors Affecting ACT Scores. ACT Research Report Series, 2006-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Julie P.; Roberts, William L.; Sawyer, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated factors related to students' performance on the ACT. We examined how students' background characteristics, academic achievement in high school, education-related accomplishments and activities, and perceptions of self and others affect their ACT scores. Of particular interest were the direct and indirect effects of…

  8. Cognitive and Socio-Affective Outcomes of Project-Based Learning: Perceptions of Greek Second Chance School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet

    2013-01-01

    The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…

  9. Voices of At-Risk Youth: Perceptions of Continuation High School Students regarding Factors Affecting Their Engagement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Stephanie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework of critical pedagogy and the lens of social justice to focus on engagement and student voice, this research includes both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, in respect to the perceptions of continuation high school students regarding factors affecting their engagement in high school. The purpose of this study…

  10. Increased pain sensitivity in alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jochum, Thomas; Boettger, Michael K; Burkhardt, Christin; Juckel, Georg; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2010-08-01

    Withdrawal from analgesic and addictive substances such as opioids or ethanol is associated with increased sensitivity to sensory stimulation in animal models. Here, we investigated perception of innocuous and noxious thermal or electric stimuli applied to the left hand or sternum in 30 male patients undergoing withdrawal from alcohol, 30 male abstained alcoholics and matched controls. The alcohol withdrawal scale and the Banger score were obtained to estimate the severity of withdrawal. In addition, the Beck depression inventory was used to estimate the influence of depressive symptoms on pain perception. The data presented provide substantial evidence that subjects undergoing alcohol withdrawal show increased heat pain sensitivity. Interestingly, this effect was observed both on the left hand and sternum. Pain thresholds and tolerances of electric stimuli did not differ between groups. However, in a subgroup analysis, a higher sensitivity for electrical pain thresholds and tolerances was observed in those patients that were identified to require pharmacological treatment for withdrawal according to disease severity. Furthermore, the perceived painful thermal and electrical sensation was substantially influenced by the affective state of patients. No differences were found between patients of the abstained group and control subjects for any pain parameter. In conclusion, we demonstrate withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia upon thermal stimulation in patients. Since the influence of affective symptoms on pain perception during withdrawal is remarkable, we assume that peripheral and central mechanisms might account for this finding, which should be assessed in detail in future studies.

  11. The Lysophosphatidylinositol Receptor GPR55 Modulates Pain Perception in the Periaqueductal Gray

    PubMed Central

    Deliu, Elena; Sperow, Margaret; Console-Bram, Linda; Carter, Rhonda L.; Tilley, Douglas G.; Kalamarides, Daniel J.; Kirby, Lynn G.; Brailoiu, G. Cristina; Brailoiu, Eugen; Benamar, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the involvement of GPR55 and its proposed endogenous ligand, lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), in nociception, yet their role in central pain processing has not been explored. Using Ca2+ imaging, we show here that LPI elicits concentration-dependent and GPR55-mediated increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels in dissociated rat periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons, which express GPR55 mRNA. This effect is mediated by Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors and by Ca2+ entry via P/Q-type of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Moreover, LPI depolarizes PAG neurons and upon intra-PAG microinjection, reduces nociceptive threshold in the hot-plate test. Both these effects are dependent on GPR55 activation, because they are abolished by pretreatment with ML-193 [N-(4-(N-(3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-yl)sulfamoyl)-phenyl)-6,8-dimethyl-2-(pyridin-2-yl)quinoline-4-carboxamide], a selective GPR55 antagonist. Thus, we provide the first pharmacological evidence that GPR55 activation at central levels is pronociceptive, suggesting that interfering with GPR55 signaling in the PAG may promote analgesia. PMID:25972448

  12. A multidimensional model of the antecedents of stress and coping appraisals: an approach to studying patients' perceptions of post cardiac surgery pain and their coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Shih, F J; Huang, L H

    1996-04-01

    Lazarus' stress and coping theory has been recognized as a valued conceptual framework for nursing scholars who are interested in studying their client's experiences of stress and coping. However, little data provide in-depth critiques in concepts, availability and limitations of employing Lazarus' theory in nursing phenomena in Taiwan, nor did data provide culturally sensitive propositions for Taiwanese nursing scholars to better understand their clients' stress experience such as post cardiac surgery pain. In order to help Taiwanese critical care nurses better understand the process of theoretical development while assessing their clients' perceptions of post cardiac surgery pain, the historical perspective of the concept of stress and the core components of Lazarus' theory are examined. Following is a critical critique of Lazarus' theory as a conceptual framework with which to study how patients perceive post cardiac surgery pain as a stressor. A multidimensional model of the antecedents of stress and coping appraisals for nurses to assess their clients' perceptions of pain and the resulting coping behaviors is further developed based on the aforementioned critiques. Finally, suggestions for testing theoretical propositions related to this phenomenon, as well as implications for nursing practice, research, as theory are delineated and discussed.

  13. How Fear-Arousing News Messages Affect Risk Perceptions and Intention to Talk About Risk.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Sang-Hwa; Hove, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Building on the theoretical arguments of the impersonal-impact and differential-impact hypotheses, this study has a twofold purpose: first, to demonstrate how fear-arousing media messages about risk are associated with personal-level risk perception, as well as, and perhaps more so than, societal-level risk perception; and second, to examine how the resulting risk perceptions can mediate intention to talk about the risk with family and friends. A news message evaluation study was conducted among the general public in South Korea concerning two major risks, carcinogens and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two sets of structural equation models reveal three main findings: (a) Fear-arousing news messages are positively related to personal-level risk perception, as well as to societal-level risk perception; (b) fear-arousing news messages result in intention to talk about the risk directly and indirectly through risk perception; and PMID:26789555

  14. Emotional modulation of muscle pain is associated with polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene.

    PubMed

    Horjales-Araujo, Emilia; Demontis, Ditte; Lund, Ellen Kielland; Vase, Lene; Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Børglum, Anders D; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Svensson, Peter

    2013-08-01

    The perception of pain is determined by a combination of genetic, neurobiological, cultural, and emotional factors. Recent studies have demonstrated an association between specific genotypes and pain perception. Particular focus has been given to the triallelic polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene in relation to pain perception. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the modulatory effect of emotions mediated by visual stimuli on muscular pain perception is genotype dependent. A total of 150 healthy subjects were selected on the basis of their polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene. First, visual conditioning was performed with positive, negative, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System, and the unpleasantness/pleasantness of the pictures was rated. Second, visual conditioning stimuli were presented while experimental jaw muscle pain was evoked by injection of hypertonic saline into the masseter muscle, and participants continuously rated pain intensity on an electronic visual analogue scale. The pictures induced similar changes in emotions across the 3 genotype groups, and hypertonic saline evoked moderate pain levels in all participants. However, in participants with a high expression of the serotonin transporter protein, conditioning with negative pictures increased pain intensity and positive pictures decreased pain intensity when compared with neutral pictures. In contrast, there were no significant effects of the pictures on pain perception in participants with either intermediate or low expression of the protein. These results suggest that polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene play an important role in emotions modulation of muscle pain.

  15. Opposing roles of corticotropin-releasing factor and neuropeptide Y within the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the negative affective component of pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Ide, Soichiro; Hara, Taiki; Ohno, Atsushi; Tamano, Ryuta; Koseki, Kana; Naka, Tomonori; Maruyama, Chikashi; Kaneda, Katsuyuki; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro; Minami, Masabumi

    2013-04-01

    Pain is a complex experience composed of sensory and affective components. Although the neural systems of the sensory component of pain have been studied extensively, those of its affective component remain to be determined. In the present study, we examined the effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) injected into the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dlBNST) on pain-induced aversion and nociceptive behaviors in rats to examine the roles of these peptides in affective and sensory components of pain, respectively. In vivo microdialysis showed that formalin-evoked pain enhanced the release of CRF in this brain region. Using a conditioned place aversion (CPA) test, we found that intra-dlBNST injection of a CRF1 or CRF2 receptor antagonist suppressed pain-induced aversion. Intra-dlBNST CRF injection induced CPA even in the absence of pain stimulation. On the other hand, intra-dlBNST NPY injection suppressed pain-induced aversion. Coadministration of NPY inhibited CRF-induced CPA. This inhibitory effect of NPY was blocked by coadministration of a Y1 or Y5 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in dlBNST slices revealed that CRF increased neuronal excitability specifically in type II dlBNST neurons, whereas NPY decreased it in these neurons. Excitatory effects of CRF on type II dlBNST neurons were suppressed by NPY. These results have uncovered some of the neuronal mechanisms underlying the affective component of pain by showing opposing roles of intra-dlBNST CRF and NPY in pain-induced aversion and opposing actions of these peptides on neuronal excitability converging on the same target, type II neurons, within the dlBNST.

  16. Opposing roles of corticotropin-releasing factor and neuropeptide Y within the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the negative affective component of pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Ide, Soichiro; Hara, Taiki; Ohno, Atsushi; Tamano, Ryuta; Koseki, Kana; Naka, Tomonori; Maruyama, Chikashi; Kaneda, Katsuyuki; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro; Minami, Masabumi

    2013-04-01

    Pain is a complex experience composed of sensory and affective components. Although the neural systems of the sensory component of pain have been studied extensively, those of its affective component remain to be determined. In the present study, we examined the effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) injected into the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dlBNST) on pain-induced aversion and nociceptive behaviors in rats to examine the roles of these peptides in affective and sensory components of pain, respectively. In vivo microdialysis showed that formalin-evoked pain enhanced the release of CRF in this brain region. Using a conditioned place aversion (CPA) test, we found that intra-dlBNST injection of a CRF1 or CRF2 receptor antagonist suppressed pain-induced aversion. Intra-dlBNST CRF injection induced CPA even in the absence of pain stimulation. On the other hand, intra-dlBNST NPY injection suppressed pain-induced aversion. Coadministration of NPY inhibited CRF-induced CPA. This inhibitory effect of NPY was blocked by coadministration of a Y1 or Y5 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in dlBNST slices revealed that CRF increased neuronal excitability specifically in type II dlBNST neurons, whereas NPY decreased it in these neurons. Excitatory effects of CRF on type II dlBNST neurons were suppressed by NPY. These results have uncovered some of the neuronal mechanisms underlying the affective component of pain by showing opposing roles of intra-dlBNST CRF and NPY in pain-induced aversion and opposing actions of these peptides on neuronal excitability converging on the same target, type II neurons, within the dlBNST. PMID:23554470

  17. Pain in Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis: its relation to the medial and lateral pain systems.

    PubMed

    Scherder, Erik; Wolters, Erik; Polman, Chris; Sergeant, Joseph; Swaab, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Although pain is one of the major clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), it is often neglected and therefore undertreated. The question why the perception of pain in stages without cognitive impairment is not affected by the neuropathology has not been addressed so far. Furthermore, changes in the experience of pain as a result of cognitive impairment have not been clinically studied in PD and MS. These issues which are very relevant for pain assessment and treatment, will be addressed by discussing the neuropathology in the medial and lateral pain systems in cognitively intact versus cognitively impaired patients with PD and MS. Since there are no clinical studies that specifically address pain in cognitively impaired PD and MS patients, hypotheses will be generated about the impact of cognitive impairment on pain experience in these patients. These hypotheses should be a challenge for new research in this important but neglected area.

  18. Social stress exacerbates the aversion to painful experiences in rats exposed to chronic pain: the role of the locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Lidia; Alba-Delgado, Cristina; Torres-Sanchez, Sonia; Mico, Juan Antonio; Neto, Fani L; Berrocoso, Esther

    2013-10-01

    Stressful experiences seem to negatively influence pain perception through as yet unknown mechanisms. As the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus coordinates many components of the stress response, as well as nociceptive transmission, we evaluated whether the sensory and affective dimension of chronic neuropathic pain worsens in situations of stress due to adaptive changes of LC neurons. Accordingly, male rats were socially isolated for 5 weeks, and in the last 2 weeks, neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury. In this situation of stress, chronic pain selectively heightened the animal's aversion to painful experiences (affective pain), as measured in the place escape/avoidance test, although no changes were observed in the sensory dimension of pain. In addition, electrophysiological recordings of LC neurons showed a low tonic but exacerbated nociceptive-evoked activity when the injured paw was stimulated. These changes were accompanied by an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase and gephyrin expression in the LC. Furthermore, intra-LC administration of bicuculline, a γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor antagonist, attenuated the negative affective effects of pain. These data show that changes in the LC are greater than those expected from the simple summation of each independent factor (pain and stress), revealing mechanisms through which stressors may exacerbate pain perception without affecting the sensorial dimension. PMID:23792242

  19. Social stress exacerbates the aversion to painful experiences in rats exposed to chronic pain: the role of the locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Lidia; Alba-Delgado, Cristina; Torres-Sanchez, Sonia; Mico, Juan Antonio; Neto, Fani L; Berrocoso, Esther

    2013-10-01

    Stressful experiences seem to negatively influence pain perception through as yet unknown mechanisms. As the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus coordinates many components of the stress response, as well as nociceptive transmission, we evaluated whether the sensory and affective dimension of chronic neuropathic pain worsens in situations of stress due to adaptive changes of LC neurons. Accordingly, male rats were socially isolated for 5 weeks, and in the last 2 weeks, neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury. In this situation of stress, chronic pain selectively heightened the animal's aversion to painful experiences (affective pain), as measured in the place escape/avoidance test, although no changes were observed in the sensory dimension of pain. In addition, electrophysiological recordings of LC neurons showed a low tonic but exacerbated nociceptive-evoked activity when the injured paw was stimulated. These changes were accompanied by an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase and gephyrin expression in the LC. Furthermore, intra-LC administration of bicuculline, a γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor antagonist, attenuated the negative affective effects of pain. These data show that changes in the LC are greater than those expected from the simple summation of each independent factor (pain and stress), revealing mechanisms through which stressors may exacerbate pain perception without affecting the sensorial dimension.

  20. Is endogenous D-serine in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex necessary for pain-related negative affect?

    PubMed

    Ren, Wen-Hua; Guo, Ji-Dong; Cao, Hong; Wang, Hua; Wang, Pei-Fen; Sha, Hong; Ji, Ru-Rong; Zhao, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Yu-Qiu

    2006-03-01

    Functional activation of NMDA receptors requires co-activation of glutamate- and glycine-binding sites. D-serine is considered to be an endogenous ligand for the glycine site of NMDA receptors. Using a combination of a rat formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA) behavioral model and whole-cell patch-clamp recording in rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) slices, we examined the effects of d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), an endogenous D-serine-degrading enzyme, and 7-chlorokynurenate (7Cl-KYNA), an antagonist of the glycine site of NMDA receptors, on pain-related aversion. Degradation of endogenous D-serine with DAAO, or selective blockade of the glycine site of NMDA receptors by 7Cl-KYNA, effectively inhibited NMDA-evoked currents in rACC slices. Intra-rACC injection of DAAO (0.1 U) and 7Cl-KYNA (2 and 0.2 mM, 0.6 microL per side) 20 min before F-CPA conditioning greatly attenuated F-CPA scores, but did not affect formalin-induced acute nociceptive behaviors and electric foot shock-induced conditioned place avoidance. This study reveals for the first time that endogenous D-serine plays a critical role in pain-related aversion by activating the glycine site of NMDA receptors in the rACC. Furthermore, these results extend our hypothesis that activation of NMDA receptors in the rACC is necessary for the acquisition of specific pain-related negative emotion. Thus a new and promising strategy for the prevention of chronic pain-induced emotional disturbance might be raised.

  1. Perceptions of Intragroup Rejection and Coping Strategies: Malleable Factors Affecting Hispanic Adolescents’ Emotional and Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Michael T.; Crano, William D.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding psychosocial factors that affect the academic achievement of Hispanic adolescents remains a nationwide priority in the United States. Extending previous studies of the stressful effects of perceived discrimination, this year-long longitudinal study examined the correlates of perceived ethnic in-group rejection, coping strategies and fatalistic beliefs, on depressive symptoms, grades, and college aspirations of 2,214 Hispanic adolescents (54 % female) in Southern California. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping and on self-perception theory, structural equation models revealed that high perceived intragroup rejection (10th grade) and low levels of active coping (11th grade) were associated with depressive symptoms in 11th grade. Also, depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between intragroup rejection and both academic outcomes. Avoidant coping strategies (e.g., watching TV) also predicted depressive symptoms and were positively related to fatalism. In addition, fatalism was negatively related to grades and aspiration to attend college. The findings suggest the need to help adolescents find adequate outlets for communication and to create awareness about the potential effects of intragroup rejection. PMID:24234042

  2. Investigating affective color association of media content in language and perception based on online RGB experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2005-03-01

    As an investigation of color categorization in language and perception, this research intends to study the affective associations between certain colors and different media content (i.e., movie genres). Compared to non-entertainment graphics (medical imaging and engineering graphics), entertainment graphics (video games and movies) are designed to deliver emotionally stimulating content to audiences. Based on an online color survey of 19 subjects, this study investigated whether or not subjects had different color preferences on diverse movie genres. Instead of providing predefined limited number of color chips (or pictures) as stimuli, this study was conducted by asking the subjects to visualize their own images of movie genres and to select their preferred colors through an online RGB color palette. By providing a combined application interface of three color slides (red, green, blue) and 216 digital color cells, the subjects were interactively able to select their preferred colors of different movie genres. To compare the distribution of movie genres, the user selected colors were mapped on CIE chromaticity diagram. This study also investigated preferred color naming of different movie genres as well as three primary color names of the subjects" most favorite genre. The results showed that the subjects had different color associations with specific movie genres as well as certain genres showed higher individual differences. Regardless of genre differences, the subjects selected blue, red or green as their three primary color names that represent their favorite movie genres. Also, the results supports Berlin & Kay"s eleven color terms.

  3. Adult attachment and reports of pain in experimentally-induced pain.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Nicole Emma; Meredith, Pamela Joy; Strong, Jenny

    2011-05-01

    Attachment theory has been proposed as a framework for understanding the development of chronic pain, with evidence supporting the overrepresentation of insecure attachment styles in chronic pain populations and links between insecure attachment and factors known to impact one's ability to cope with pain. The present study sought to extend two earlier studies exploring the relationships between adult attachment and communication of an acute pain experience, in anticipation of providing insight into individual differences in vulnerability in development of chronic pain. It was hypothesised that: (a) fearful attachment would be associated with perceptions of the pain as less intense, and (b) anxious attachment would be associated with lower pain thresholds. A convenience sample of 82 healthy adults completed self-report measures of attachment, neuroticism, and negative affect prior to taking part in a coldpressor pain inducement task. Results demonstrated that fearful attachment was associated with lower levels of pain intensity throughout the coldpressor task. In addition, dismissing attachment was also associated with less intense pain, as well as increased coldpressor endurance (tolerance) in the presence of a known assessor. These associations were retained after controlling for measures of neuroticism, negative affect, age, and social desirability. The results of this study are consistent with the proposition that fearful and dismissing individuals tend to mask their underlying distress caused by the pain experience, potentially leading to difficulties coping with pain over time.

  4. Galmic, a nonpeptide galanin receptor agonist, affects behaviors in seizure, pain, and forced-swim tests

    PubMed Central

    Bartfai, Tamas; Lu, Xiaoying; Badie-Mahdavi, Hedieh; Barr, Alasdair M.; Mazarati, Andrey; Hua, Xiao-Ying; Yaksh, Tony; Haberhauer, Gebhard; Ceide, Susana Conde; Trembleau, Laurent; Somogyi, Laszlo; Kröck, Lenz; Rebek, Julius

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacological exploitation of the galanin receptors as drug targets for treatment of epilepsy, depression, and pain has been hampered by the lack of workable compounds for medicinal chemists from random screening of large chemical libraries. The present work uses the tripeptidomimetic galnon and displays its presumed pharmacophores on a rigid molecular scaffold. The scaffold is related to marine natural products and presents three functional groups near one another in space, in a manner reminiscent of a protein surface. An active compound, Galmic, was identified from a small synthetic library and tested in vitro and in vivo for its affinity and efficacy at galanin receptors. Galmic has micromolar affinity for GalR1 receptors (Ki = 34.2 μM) and virtually no affinity for GalR2 receptors. In vitro, Galmic, like galanin, suppresses long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus; it blocks status epilepticus when injected intrahippocampally or administered i.p. Galmic applied i.p. shows antidepressant-like effects in the forced-swim test, and it is a potent inhibitor of flinching behavior in the inflammatory pain model induced by formalin injection. These data further implicate brain and spinal cord galanin receptors as drug targets and provide an example of a systemically active compound based on a scaffold that mimics protein surfaces. PMID:15240875

  5. Perceptions of phantom limb pain in lower limb amputees and its effect on quality of life: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Trevelyan, Esmé G; Turner, Warren A; Robinson, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a prevalent complication post-amputation. Currently, qualitative literature exploring the experience of PLP in amputees is sparse, and little is known about whether the educational needs of amputees are being met. Objectives: To explore lower limb amputees’ descriptive lived experiences of PLP, to understand how PLP affects quality of life and to determine whether amputees feel they are provided with adequate information about PLP. Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach, situated under the constructivist paradigm was taken, consisting of cross-sectional semi-structured interviews. A purposive sample of 15 lower limb amputees, 1–3 months post-surgery with past or current experience of PLP were interviewed once about their experience of PLP. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework Analysis. Interviews were conducted while participants were inpatients at an amputee rehabilitation unit in London. Results: Six key themes were identified during analysis, of which three were related to PLP and are reported on in this article (real and physical phantoms, living with a phantom and being informed). PLP had numerous painful qualities. The phantom felt real, with kinetic and kinaesthetic properties. PLP had multiple meanings to amputees, was considered a reminder of circumstances and could affect quality of life. Information provided about PLP was inadequate. Conclusion: PLP can be a severe and annoying experience acting as a reminder of amputees’ circumstances. Information provided about PLP is inadequate, with some amputees still perceiving PLP as mental and imaginary. Education about PLP and awareness and accessibility to non-pharmacological interventions needs to be improved. PMID:27551416

  6. Color Term Knowledge Does Not Affect Categorical Perception of Color in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, A.; Clifford, A.; Williamson, E.; Davies, I.

    2005-01-01

    Categorical perception of color is shown when colors from the same category are discriminated less easily than equivalently spaced colors that cross a category boundary. The current experiments tested various models of categorical perception. Experiment 1 tested for categorical responding in 2- to 4-year-olds, the age range for the onset…

  7. The Interactive Effects of Facial Expressions of Emotion and Verbal Messages on Perceptions of Affective Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Howard S.

    1979-01-01

    Students' perceptions of sincerity, dominance, and positivity were measured by pairing happy, angry, surprised and sad faces of teachers with teachers' comments characterized as positive or negative and dominant or submissive. Clear effects of facial-verbal combinations emerged; there were no sex differences other than in perceptions of sincerity.…

  8. Evaluation of pain intensity measurement during the removal of wound dressing material using 'the PainVision™ system' for quantitative analysis of perception and pain sensation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hajime; Imai, Ryutaro; Gondo, Masahide; Watanabe, Katsueki

    2012-08-01

    Reducing pain caused by the removal of adhesive wound dressing materials is very important in clinical practice and is also one of the factors to consider when choosing dressing materials. A visual analogue scale is the most popular method for assessing pain, but it is subjective and is difficult to evaluate quantitatively or statistically. Recently, a new method for the quantitative measurement of pain intensity using a painless electrical stimulation system, PainVision™, has been developed. In this study, we evaluated pain intensity during the removal of wound dressing materials in healthy volunteers by comparing pain during the removal of wound dressing materials, which use acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive and pain during the removal of materials, which use soft silicone adhesive, as evaluated using the PainVision™ system. Pain intensity was significantly lower with the dressing materials, which use soft silicone adhesive when measured with the PainVision™ system. The PainVision™ system promises to be useful for the quantitative assessment of pain caused by the removal of adhesive wound dressing materials. Further studies are needed to determine whether the PainVision™ system is also effective in measuring pain caused by the removal of wound dressing materials in actual wounds.

  9. DAMGO in the central amygdala alleviates the affective dimension of pain in a rat model of inflammatory hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R-X; Zhang, M; Li, A; Pan, L; Berman, B M; Ren, K; Lao, L

    2013-11-12

    Pain has sensory-discriminative and emotional-affective dimensions. Recent studies show that the affective component can be assessed with a conditioned place avoidance (CPA) test. We hypothesized that systemic morphine before a post-conditioning test would more potently attenuate the affective aspect compared to the sensory component and that [d-Ala2-N-Me-Phe4, Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO), a μ-selective opioid receptor agonist, injected into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) would reduce established CPA. A rat model of inflammatory pain, produced by a complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) injection into the hind paw, was combined with a CPA test. Three experiments were performed on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Systemic morphine (0.5 or 1.0mg/kg) in Experiment 1, intrathecal (i.t.) morphine (2.5 μg/rat) in Experiment 2, and intra-CeA DAMGO (7.7-15.4 ng/0.4 μl) in Experiment 3 were given to CFA-injected rats (n=6-8/group) prior to a post-conditioning test. Saline-injected rats were used as control. Time spent in a pain-paired compartment was recorded twice, before conditioning and after a post-conditioning test. Paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to a noxious thermal stimulus was measured before experiment at day-1 and after the post-conditioning test; hyperalgesia was defined as a decrease in PWL. The data showed that CFA-injected rats had significantly negative CPA compared to those of saline-injected rats (P<0.05). Low-dosage systemic morphine significantly (P<0.05) reduced CFA-induced CPA but had no effect on PWL. I.t. morphine did not inhibit the display of CPA but significantly increased PWL, suppressing hyperalgesia (P<0.05). Intra-CeA DAMGO significantly inhibited the display of CPA compared to saline (P<0.05) but had no effect on PWL. The data demonstrate that morphine attenuates the affective component more powerfully than it does the sensory and suggests that the sensory and the emotional-affective dimensions are underpinned by different mechanisms.

  10. The role of pain anxiety, coping, and pain self-efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis patient functioning.

    PubMed

    Strahl, C; Kleinknecht, R A; Dinnel, D L

    2000-09-01

    Anxiety about pain is increasingly recognized as one factor contributing to increased pain perception and pain behavior [McCracken, L. M., Faber S. D., & Janeck A. S. (1998) Pain-related anxiety predicts nonspecific physical complaints in persons with chronic pain. Behavior Research and Therapy, 36, 621-630; McCracken L., & Gross R. (1995). The pain anxiety symptoms scale (PASS) and the assessment of emotional responses to pain. Innovations in clinical practice: a source book, 14, 309-321]. To assess this emotional reaction to pain in chronic pain patients, McCracken, Zayfert and Gross [McCracken, L., Zayfert, C., & Gross, R. (1992). The Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale: development and validation of a scale to measure fear of pain. Pain, 50, 67-73] developed the Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale (PASS) composed of four subscales: Cognitive Anxiety, Fearful Appraisal, Escape Avoidance and Physiological Anxiety. The present study extended previous work by examining the relationship among pain anxiety dimensions, use of active and passive coping strategies and arthritis self-efficacy as predictors of functional status in 154 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Functional status was assessed using the Five-Factor Model of the Arthritis Impact Scale, 2nd ed., (AIMS2): Physical Functioning, Affective Experience, Symptoms, Social Interaction and Role Function. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis on each of the AIMS2 criterion variables showed that pain anxiety, pain and symptom self-efficacy, health status and coping strategies were able to explain between 9 and 38% of the variance in the five AIMS2 variables. The present results support the hypothesized role of pain anxiety along with previously established contributions of self-efficacy and coping strategies, in affecting physical, social, emotional and role functioning in chronic RA patients.

  11. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part. PMID:27622584

  12. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part.

  13. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part. PMID:27622584

  14. Oral opioid use alters DNIC but not cold pain perception in patients with chronic pain - new perspective of opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Ram, Kerstin Carlin; Eisenberg, Elon; Haddad, May; Pud, Dorit

    2008-10-15

    Opioids can elicit unexpected changes in pain sensitivity, known as opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). The aim of this study was to explore whether OIH exists in patients with chronic pain treated with oral opioids (OP) versus non-opioid (NOP) analgesics. The sensitivity to cold pain and the magnitude of diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) were evaluated in 73 OP and 37 NOP treated patients. Pain threshold, intensity and tolerance in response to the cold pressor (1 degrees C) were measured. DNIC was tested by co-administrating conditioned heat stimulation (47 degrees C) to the left forearm and a conditioning stimulation of 12 degrees C for 30s to the right hand. The results showed no differences between the two groups in any of the cold pain measures. In contrast, the magnitude of DNIC was significantly larger in the NOP than in the OP treated patients (p=0.003). A gender based analysis showed a significant difference in DNIC between OP and NOP treated men only. However, a mixed model ANOVA demonstrated a significant effect of treatment (OP versus NOP) (F=5.928, p=0.017) rather than gender on DNIC. A regression analysis showed that opioid dosage and treatment duration had a significant negative effect on the magnitude of DNIC in OP treated men (beta=-2.175, p=0.036 and beta=-2.061, p=0.047, respectively). In conclusion, oral opioids usage for the treatment of chronic pain does not result in abnormal sensitivity to cold pain, but seems to alter pain modulation. The use of 'advanced' psychophysics tests such as evaluation of DNIC can help understanding the phenomenon of OIH. PMID:18583047

  15. Two-dimensional grouping affects perisaccadic perception of depth and synchrony.

    PubMed

    Aruga, Reiko; Saito, Hideo; Ando, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Junji

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that, when visual stimuli are presented around the time of a saccade, spatial and temporal perceptions of them are distorted. However, only a small number of previous studies have addressed the perception of a visual image induced by a saccade eye movement (visual image that is dynamically drawn on the retina during a saccade at the speed of the eye movement). Here we investigated three-dimensional and temporal perceptions of the saccade-induced images and found that perceptual grouping of objects has a significant effect on the perceived depth and timing of the images.

  16. Painful Issues in Pain Prediction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li; Iannetti, Gian Domenico

    2016-04-01

    How perception of pain emerges from neural activity is largely unknown. Identifying a neural 'pain signature' and deriving a way to predict perceived pain from brain activity would have enormous basic and clinical implications. Researchers are increasingly turning to functional brain imaging, often applying machine-learning algorithms to infer that pain perception occurred. Yet, such sophisticated analyses are fraught with interpretive difficulties. Here, we highlight some common and troublesome problems in the literature, and suggest methods to ensure researchers draw accurate conclusions from their results. Since functional brain imaging is increasingly finding practical applications with real-world consequences, it is critical to interpret brain scans accurately, because decisions based on neural data will only be as good as the science behind them. PMID:26898163

  17. Oral perceptions of fat and taste stimuli are modulated by affect and mood induction.

    PubMed

    Platte, Petra; Herbert, Cornelia; Pauli, Paul; Breslin, Paul A S

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of three clinical psychological variables (non-pathological levels of depression and anxiety, as well as experimentally manipulated mood) on fat and taste perception in healthy subjects. After a baseline orosensory evaluation, 'sad', 'happy' and 'neutral' video clips were presented to induce corresponding moods in eighty participants. Following mood manipulation, subjects rated five different oral stimuli, appearing sweet, umami, sour, bitter, fatty, which were delivered at five different concentrations each. Depression levels were assessed with Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety levels were assessed via the Spielberger's STAI-trait and state questionnaire. Overall, subjects were able to track the concentrations of the stimuli correctly, yet depression level affected taste ratings. First, depression scores were positively correlated with sucrose ratings. Second, subjects with depression scores above the sample median rated sucrose and quinine as more intense after mood induction (positive, negative and neutral). Third and most important, the group with enhanced depression scores did not rate low and high fat stimuli differently after positive or negative mood induction, whereas, during baseline or during the non-emotional neutral condition they rated the fat intensity as increasing with concentration. Consistent with others' prior observations we also found that sweet and bitter stimuli at baseline were rated as more intense by participants with higher anxiety scores and that after positive and negative mood induction, citric acid was rated as stronger tasting compared to baseline. The observation that subjects with mild subclinical depression rated low and high fat stimuli similarly when in positive or negative mood is novel and likely has potential implications for unhealthy eating patterns. This deficit may foster unconscious eating of fatty foods in sub-clinical mildly depressed populations.

  18. Nurses' perceptions of how physical environment affects medication errors in acute care settings.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Atiya; Chaudhury, Habib; Valente, Maria

    2011-11-01

    The work that nurses perform in hospital environments is physically and psychologically intense, with the potential for burnout and stress. This issue is compounded by crowded and poorly designed work spaces in nursing units that can contribute to medical mistakes, including medication errors. This article is based on a study that examined the nurses' perception of how the physical environment in hospitals affects medication errors. Literature suggests that reduction of staff stress can be achieved through physical environmental considerations, such as improved air quality, acoustics, and lighting. However, there is no empirical study specifically exploring the relationship between aspects of the physical environment and medication errors. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with nursing staff (N = 84) in four hospitals in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The survey included questions on nursing unit design, medication room configurations, perceived incidence of errors, and adverse events. Respondents noted several physical environmental factors that are potentially problematic in the nursing station area and can lead to medication, documentation, and other types of nursing errors. These factors include inadequate space in charting and documentation area, lengthy walking distances to patient rooms, insufficient patient surveillance opportunity/lack of visibility to all parts of the nursing unit, small size of the medication room, inappropriate organization of medical supplies, high noise levels in nursing unit, poor lighting, and lack of privacy in the nursing stations. As administrators in acute care facilities consider strategies for organizational and staff interventions to reduce medication errors, it is important to consider physical environmental factors to have a comprehensive understanding of the issue.

  19. Oral perceptions of fat and taste stimuli are modulated by affect and mood induction.

    PubMed

    Platte, Petra; Herbert, Cornelia; Pauli, Paul; Breslin, Paul A S

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of three clinical psychological variables (non-pathological levels of depression and anxiety, as well as experimentally manipulated mood) on fat and taste perception in healthy subjects. After a baseline orosensory evaluation, 'sad', 'happy' and 'neutral' video clips were presented to induce corresponding moods in eighty participants. Following mood manipulation, subjects rated five different oral stimuli, appearing sweet, umami, sour, bitter, fatty, which were delivered at five different concentrations each. Depression levels were assessed with Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety levels were assessed via the Spielberger's STAI-trait and state questionnaire. Overall, subjects were able to track the concentrations of the stimuli correctly, yet depression level affected taste ratings. First, depression scores were positively correlated with sucrose ratings. Second, subjects with depression scores above the sample median rated sucrose and quinine as more intense after mood induction (positive, negative and neutral). Third and most important, the group with enhanced depression scores did not rate low and high fat stimuli differently after positive or negative mood induction, whereas, during baseline or during the non-emotional neutral condition they rated the fat intensity as increasing with concentration. Consistent with others' prior observations we also found that sweet and bitter stimuli at baseline were rated as more intense by participants with higher anxiety scores and that after positive and negative mood induction, citric acid was rated as stronger tasting compared to baseline. The observation that subjects with mild subclinical depression rated low and high fat stimuli similarly when in positive or negative mood is novel and likely has potential implications for unhealthy eating patterns. This deficit may foster unconscious eating of fatty foods in sub-clinical mildly depressed populations. PMID:23755167

  20. No pain, no gain: the affective valence of congruency conditions changes following a successful response.

    PubMed

    Schouppe, Nathalie; Braem, Senne; De Houwer, Jan; Silvetti, Massimo; Verguts, Tom; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Notebaert, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The cognitive control theory of Botvinick, Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 356-366 (2007) integrates cognitive and affective control processes by emphasizing the aversive nature of cognitive conflict. Using an affective priming paradigm, we replicate earlier results showing that incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials, are indeed perceived as more aversive (Dreisbach & Fischer, Brain and Cognition, 78(2), 94-98 (2012)). Importantly, however, in two experiments we demonstrate that this effect is reversed following successful responses; correctly responding to incongruent trials engendered relatively more positive affect than correctly responding to congruent trials. The results are discussed in light of a recent computational model by Silvetti, Seurinck, and Verguts, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5:75 (2011) where it is assumed that outcome expectancies are more negative for incongruent trials than congruent trials. Consequently, the intrinsic reward (prediction error) following successful completion is larger for incongruent than congruent trials. These findings divulge a novel perspective on 'cognitive' adaptations to conflict.

  1. Factors that affect college students' perceptions of rape: what is the role of gender and other situational factors?

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Donna M; Dupalo, Jessica Rager

    2013-05-01

    Prior research has shown that various situational factors and behaviors can affect one's perception of whether a rape has occurred. Moreover, some hold false beliefs about rape. This can also affect one's perception of ambiguous situations. This study included the administration of a survey to 584 college students; the survey examined the prevalence of rape myths and responses to vignettes of potential rape scenarios. It was found that although the majority of this sample did not support rape myths, male students were significantly more likely than female students to support rape myths. Furthermore, approximately 20% of students did support one subscale of the rape myth scale: He didn't mean to [commit rape]. The results also revealed an interaction effect between the observer's sex and the victim's sex, suggesting a complex gender relationship.

  2. Investigating the effect of anxiety sensitivity, gender and negative interpretative bias on the perception of chest pain.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Edmund; Hamid, Rayhana; Hamid, Shahid; Ellery, Deborah

    2004-09-01

    Research suggests that anxiety sensitivity may be an important component in the negative response to pain sensations, especially those with cardiopulmonary origin. Furthermore, there is experimental evidence to suggest that such effects may be stronger in women than men. The primary aim of the current investigation was to determine the relative roles that anxiety sensitivity and gender have on the pain reports of patients referred to a hospital clinic with chest pain. A total of 78 female and 76 male adults were recruited on entry to a Rapid Access Medical Clinic. All patients had been referred with chest pain, and were administered a range of pain and anxiety measures prior to diagnosis. Results indicate that males were more likely to receive a diagnosis of cardiac chest pain, whereas females were more likely to receive a diagnosis of non-cardiac chest pain. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity was related to pain in women but not men. Finally, evidence was found for the mediating effect of negative interpretative bias on the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and pain. However, this mediating effect was only found in women. These results not only confirm that anxiety sensitivity is related to greater negative pain responses in women, but that this may be due to an increased tendency to negatively interpret sensations.

  3. Neural Activation during Anticipation of Near Pain-Threshold Stimulation among the Pain-Fearful.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhou; Jackson, Todd; Huang, Chengzhi

    2016-01-01

    Fear of pain (FOP) can increase risk for chronic pain and disability but little is known about corresponding neural responses in anticipation of potential pain. In this study, more (10 women, 6 men) and less (7 women, 6 men) pain-fearful groups underwent whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during anticipation of near pain-threshold stimulation. Groups did not differ in the proportion of stimuli judged to be painful but pain-fearful participants reported significantly more state fear prior to stimulus exposure. Within the entire sample, stronger activation was found in several pain perception regions (e.g., bilateral insula, midcingulate cortex (MCC), thalamus, superior frontal gyrus) and visual areas linked to decoding stimulus valences (inferior orbital cortex) during anticipation of "painful" stimuli. Between groups and correlation analyses indicated pain-fearful participants experienced comparatively more activity in regions implicated in evaluating potential threats and processing negative emotions during anticipation (i.e., MCC, mid occipital cortex, superior temporal pole), though group differences were not apparent in most so-called "pain matrix" regions. In sum, trait- and task-based FOP is associated with enhanced responsiveness in regions involved in threat processing and negative affect during anticipation of potentially painful stimulation. PMID:27489536

  4. No pain, no gain: the affective valence of congruency conditions changes following a successful response.

    PubMed

    Schouppe, Nathalie; Braem, Senne; De Houwer, Jan; Silvetti, Massimo; Verguts, Tom; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Notebaert, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The cognitive control theory of Botvinick, Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 356-366 (2007) integrates cognitive and affective control processes by emphasizing the aversive nature of cognitive conflict. Using an affective priming paradigm, we replicate earlier results showing that incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials, are indeed perceived as more aversive (Dreisbach & Fischer, Brain and Cognition, 78(2), 94-98 (2012)). Importantly, however, in two experiments we demonstrate that this effect is reversed following successful responses; correctly responding to incongruent trials engendered relatively more positive affect than correctly responding to congruent trials. The results are discussed in light of a recent computational model by Silvetti, Seurinck, and Verguts, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5:75 (2011) where it is assumed that outcome expectancies are more negative for incongruent trials than congruent trials. Consequently, the intrinsic reward (prediction error) following successful completion is larger for incongruent than congruent trials. These findings divulge a novel perspective on 'cognitive' adaptations to conflict. PMID:25183556

  5. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Petschow, Christine; Scheef, Lukas; Paus, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Nadine; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson’s disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels. Methods 13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI) during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ) and higher (E = 640 mJ) target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale. Results No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson’s disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson’s disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson’s disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in man during perception of radiant warmth and heat pain.

    PubMed

    Ryding, E; Eriksson, M B; Rosén, I; Ingvar, D H

    1985-08-01

    The present study concerns the effects of experimental pain (radiant warmth and heat pain) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in pretrained subjects. The radiant warmth caused a general rCBF increase. However, if anxiety was avoided, heat pain caused the general rCBF level to return towards the level at rest. Thus, pain sensation per se may not cause a larger rCBF (and metabolic) response than that of the localized tactile stimulation, provided that the element of psychic apprehension and anxiety is eliminated or controlled.

  7. Central Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... intolerable bursts of sharp pain similar to the pain caused by a dental probe on an exposed nerve. Individuals may have numbness in the areas affected by the pain. The burning and loss of touch sensations are ...

  8. Modality and sex differences in pain sensitivity during human endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Karshikoff, B; Lekander, M; Soop, A; Lindstedt, F; Ingvar, M; Kosek, E; Olgart Höglund, C; Axelsson, J

    2015-05-01

    Systemic inflammation can induce pain hypersensitivity in animal and human experimental models, and has been proposed to be central in clinical pain conditions. Women are overrepresented in many chronic pain conditions, but experimental studies on sex differences in pain regulation during systemic inflammation are still scarce. In two randomized and double blind placebo controlled experiments, we used low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an experimental model of systemic inflammation. The first study employed 0.8ng/kg LPS in a within-subject design of 8 individuals (1 woman), and the second study 0.6ng/kg LPS in a between-subject design of 52 participants (29 women). We investigated the effect on (a) pressure, heat, and cold pain thresholds, (b) suprathreshold noxious heat and cold sensitivity, and (c) conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and differences between men and women. LPS induced significantly lower pressure pain thresholds as compared to placebo (mean change with the 0.8ng/kg dose being -64±30kPa P=.04; with the 0.6ng/kg dose -58±55kPa, P<.01, compared to before injection), whereas heat and cold pain thresholds remained unaffected (P's>.70). Suprathreshold noxious pain was not affected by LPS in men (P's⩾.15). However, LPS made women rated suprathreshold noxious heat stimuli as more painful (P=.01), and showed a tendency to rate noxious cold pain as more painful (P=.06) as compared to placebo. Furthermore, LPS impaired conditioned pain modulation, a measure of endogenous pain inhibition, but this effect was also restricted to women (P<.01, for men P=.27). Pain sensitivity correlated positively with plasma IL-6 and IL-8 levels. The results show that inflammation more strongly affects deep pain, rather than cutaneous pain, and suggest that women's pain perception and modulation is more sensitive to immune activation than men's. PMID:25486090

  9. Stimulation of PPC Affects the Mapping between Motion and Force Signals for Stiffness Perception But Not Motion Control

    PubMed Central

    Mawase, Firas; Karniel, Amir; Donchin, Opher; Rothwell, John; Nisky, Ilana; Davare, Marco

    2016-01-01

    How motion and sensory inputs are combined to assess an object's stiffness is still unknown. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of a stiffness estimator in the human posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We showed previously that delaying force feedback with respect to motion when interacting with an object caused participants to underestimate its stiffness. We found that applying theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the PPC, but not the dorsal premotor cortex, enhances this effect without affecting movement control. We explain this enhancement as an additional lag in force signals. This is the first causal evidence that the PPC is not only involved in motion control, but also has an important role in perception that is disassociated from action. We provide a computational model suggesting that the PPC integrates position and force signals for perception of stiffness and that TMS alters the synchronization between the two signals causing lasting consequences on perceptual behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT When selecting an object such as a ripe fruit or sofa, we need to assess the object's stiffness. Because we lack dedicated stiffness sensors, we rely on an as yet unknown mechanism that generates stiffness percepts by combining position and force signals. Here, we found that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) contributes to combining position and force signals for stiffness estimation. This finding challenges the classical view about the role of the PPC in regulating position signals only for motion control because we highlight a key role of the PPC in perception that is disassociated from action. Altogether this sheds light on brain mechanisms underlying the interaction between action and perception and may help in the development of better teleoperation systems and rehabilitation of patients with sensory impairments. PMID:27733607

  10. Peers and Teachers as Sources of Relatedness Perceptions, Motivation, and Affective Responses in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality)…

  11. Factors Affecting University Music Students' Perceptions of Lesson Quality and Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Donald L.; Baker, Dawn S.; McAllister, Peter A.; Bauer, William I.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of music teacher delivery skills, lesson content, and student academic standing on 511 university music students' perceptions of lesson quality or teacher appeal. Indicates that student interest and preference varied by academic standing, teacher delivery, and lesson quality. Includes references. (CMK)

  12. Children's Perceptions of Parental Attitude Affecting Breakfast Skipping in Primary Sixth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tereza Sy; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Griffiths, Sian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Breakfast skipping is an international public health concern. This study investigated the prevalence of breakfast skipping among primary sixth-grade students in Hong Kong and the impact of students' perceptions of parental attitudes on breakfast skipping. Methods: A total of 426 students aged 10-14 years in 4 local schools participated…

  13. Does language affect personality perception? A functional approach to testing the Whorfian hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Ng, Jacky C K

    2014-04-01

    Whether language shapes cognition has long been a controversial issue. The present research adopts a functional approach to examining the effects of language use on personality perception and dialectical thinking. We propose that language use activates corresponding cultural mindsets, which in turn influence social perception, thinking, and behavior. Four studies recruited Chinese-English bilinguals (N = 129 in Study 1, 229 in Study 2, 68 in Study 3, 106 in Study 4) and used within-subjects and between-subjects design, written and behavioral reports, and self- and other perceptions. The four studies converged to show that Chinese-English bilinguals exhibit higher dialectical thinking and more variations in self- and observer ratings of personality when using the Chinese language than when using English. Furthermore, dialectical thinking predicted more self- and other-perceived variations in personality and behavior across bilingual contexts. These results highlight the important role of culture in understanding the relations between language and cognition, and attest to the malleability of personality perception and dialectical thinking within and across individuals in response to culture-related linguistic cues.

  14. Speaking Rate Affects the Perception of Duration as a Suprasegmental Lexical-Stress Cue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Three categorization experiments investigated whether the speaking rate of a preceding sentence influences durational cues to the perception of suprasegmental lexical-stress patterns. Dutch two-syllable word fragments had to be judged as coming from one of two longer words that matched the fragment segmentally but differed in lexical stress…

  15. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  16. Is the Receptivity of Substance Abuse Prevention Programming Affected by Students' Perceptions of the Instructor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Peggy C.; Sloboda, Zili; Grey, Scott; Stephens, Richard; Hammond, Augustine; Hawthorne, Richard; Teasdale, Brent; Williams, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasive communication, the authors examine the impact of the perceptions of the instructor or source on students' receptivity to a new substance abuse prevention curriculum. Using survey data from a cohort of students participating in the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, the authors use…

  17. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Student Perceptions in a Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peruso, Florence Mary

    2012-01-01

    The current quantitative study measured the perceptions of students towards online-only learning and towards blended-hybrid learning. Descriptive statistics were implemented to analyze the data from a Likert-type survey, administered to students in degree-seeking programs at an institution of higher learning. A "t"-test and…

  18. First Year Teachers Technology Use: Perceptions of Factors Affecting Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elodie J.

    2013-01-01

    For decades, technology integration into the classroom and curriculum has been at the forefront of education. Although public perception and technology funding assumes that teachers are integrating technology into the curriculum, research shows that actual integration is still far from being fully implemented. This study detailed how first-year…

  19. When Time Flies: How Abstract and Concrete Mental Construal Affect the Perception of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jochim; Trope, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    Time is experienced as passing more quickly the more changes happen in a situation. The present research tested the idea that time perception depends on the level of construal of the situation. Building on previous research showing that concrete rather than abstract mental construal causes people to perceive more variations in a given situation,…

  20. Parents' Perceptions of Curricular Issues Affecting Children's Weight in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnan, Judy; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.; Boardley, Debra

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Ohio parents' perceptions of the role of elementary schools in preventing childhood overweight. In the United States, overweight is the most widespread health threat facing children and adolescents. Schools may be a useful point of intervention in addressing the escalating prevalence of childhood overweight…

  1. Teachers' Perceptions of Strategies and Skills Affecting Learning of Gifted 7th Graders in English Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, James Paul

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in 11 schools across 5 school districts and solicited responses from 20 teachers. This study found a relationship between instructional strategies appropriate for gifted students and teachers' perceptions of contributions the strategies made to learning. The literature review section examined the modern focus on gifted…

  2. Avoiding Ad Avoidance: Factors Affecting the Perception of Online Banner Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the effect of search type, ad saliency, and ad repetition on the perception of online banner advertisements. In the first study, 48 student participants conducted simulated search tasks using mixed factorial design where search type (known-item vs. exploratory) was manipulated within-subject and the banner saliency level…

  3. Prevalence of pain and association with psychiatric symptom severity in perinatally HIV-infected children as compared to controls living in HIV-affected households.

    PubMed

    Serchuck, Leslie K; Williams, Paige L; Nachman, Sharon; Gadow, Kenneth D; Chernoff, Miriam; Schwartz, Lynnae

    2010-05-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of pain and psychiatric symptoms in perinatally HIV-infected children at entry into P1055, a multicenter investigation of the prevalence and severity of psychiatric symptoms in HIV-infected children. Subjects 6-17 years of age and their primary caregivers were recruited from 29 International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials sites in the USA and Puerto Rico. A total of 576 children (320 HIV and 256 HIV- children) were enrolled from June 2005 to September 2006. Subject self-reports of pain were measured by the Wong-Baker visual analog scale and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Symptomatology for anxiety, depression, and dysthymia was assessed through Symptom Inventory instruments. Caregiver's assessment of their child's pain and psychiatric symptomatology was similarly measured. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of pain. We found that a higher proportion of HIV-infected than uninfected subjects reported pain in the last two months (41% vs 32%, p=0.04), last two weeks (28% vs 19%, p=0.02), and lasting more than one week (20% vs 11%, p=0.03). Among HIV-infected youth, females (OR=1.53, p=0.09), White race (OR=2.15, p=0.04), and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Class C (OR=1.83, p=0.04) were significantly more likely to report pain. For all subjects, only 52% of caregivers recognized their child's pain and just 22% were aware that pain affected their child's daily activities. The odds of reported pain in HIV increased with higher symptom severity for generalized anxiety (OR=1.14, p=0.03), major depression (OR=1.15, p=0.03), and dysthymia (OR=1.18, p=0.01). This study underscores the importance of queries concerning pain and emotional stressors in the care of HIV and uninfected children exposed to HIV individuals. The discordance between patient and caregiver reports of pain and its impact on activities of daily living highlights that pain in children is under

  4. Neural Activation during Anticipation of Near Pain-Threshold Stimulation among the Pain-Fearful

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhou; Jackson, Todd; Huang, Chengzhi

    2016-01-01

    Fear of pain (FOP) can increase risk for chronic pain and disability but little is known about corresponding neural responses in anticipation of potential pain. In this study, more (10 women, 6 men) and less (7 women, 6 men) pain-fearful groups underwent whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during anticipation of near pain-threshold stimulation. Groups did not differ in the proportion of stimuli judged to be painful but pain-fearful participants reported significantly more state fear prior to stimulus exposure. Within the entire sample, stronger activation was found in several pain perception regions (e.g., bilateral insula, midcingulate cortex (MCC), thalamus, superior frontal gyrus) and visual areas linked to decoding stimulus valences (inferior orbital cortex) during anticipation of “painful” stimuli. Between groups and correlation analyses indicated pain-fearful participants experienced comparatively more activity in regions implicated in evaluating potential threats and processing negative emotions during anticipation (i.e., MCC, mid occipital cortex, superior temporal pole), though group differences were not apparent in most so-called “pain matrix” regions. In sum, trait- and task-based FOP is associated with enhanced responsiveness in regions involved in threat processing and negative affect during anticipation of potentially painful stimulation. PMID:27489536

  5. Cross-species affective functions of the medial forebrain bundle-implications for the treatment of affective pain and depression in humans.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Volker A; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Maedler, Burkhard; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Major depression (MD) might be conceptualized as pathological under-arousal of positive affective systems as parts of a network of brain regions assessing, reconciling and storing emotional stimuli versus an over-arousal of parts of the same network promoting separation-distress/GRIEF. In this context depression can be explained as an emotional pain state that is the result of a disregulation of several sub-systems that under physiological conditions are concerned with bodily or emotional homeostasis of the human organism in a social context. Physiologically, homeostasis is maintained by influences of the SEEKING system represented - amongst others - by the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Neuroimaging studies show that the MFB has a proven access to the GRIEF/Sadness system. A functional decoupling of these systems with a dysfunctional GRIEF pathway might result in MD. Therewith GRIEF and SEEKING/PLEASURE systems play important roles as opponents in maintenance of emotional homeostasis. Chronic electrical modulation of the reward SEEKING pathways with deep brain stimulation might show anti-depressive effects in humans suffering from MD by re-initiating an emotional equilibrium (of higher or lower activity) between these opposing systems. PMID:21184778

  6. Hearts and Minds: The Priority of Affective versus Cognitive Factors in Person Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kari; Hippel, William von

    1995-01-01

    In two experiments, affect-based and cognition-based attitudes toward a person were induced by varying sequence of affective and cognitive information presented to subjects while holding content constant. Results indicated affect-based attitudes were most effectively changed by affective persuasive appeals, whether these appeals were produced by…

  7. Higher pain perception and lack of recovery from neuropathic pain in females: a behavioural, immunohistochemical, and proteomic investigation on sex-related differences in mice.

    PubMed

    Vacca, Valentina; Marinelli, Sara; Pieroni, Luisa; Urbani, Andrea; Luvisetto, Siro; Pavone, Flaminia

    2014-02-01

    In experimental and clinical pain studies, the sex of subjects was rarely taken into account, even if nociceptive inputs appear to be processed and modulated by partially distinct neural mechanisms in each sex. In this study we analysed, in male and female mice, behavioural and neuronal responses in developing, maintaining, and recovering from neuropathic pain. Experiments were carried out in adult CD1 mice by using Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI) as neuropathic pain model. We investigated the temporal trend of mechanical nociceptive threshold together with functional recovery of the injured paw, and the immunofluorescence staining of proteins associated with nerve injury and repair and with spinal gliosis, 7 and 121days after CCI. A proteomic analysis on proteins extracted from sciatic nerves was also performed. Male mice showed a gradual decrease of CCI-induced allodynia, the complete recovery occurring 81days after the sciatic nerve ligation. On the contrary, in female mice, allodynia was still present 121days after CCI. Sex-dependent differences also resulted from immunofluorescence experiments: in sciatic nerve, the expression of P0 and Neu200 is greater in neuropathic males than in neuropathic females, suggesting faster nerve regeneration. Proteomic analysis confirmed sex-related differences of proteins associated with nerve regenerative processes. In addition, the reactive gliosis induced by CCI at day 7, as revealed by colocalization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocytes) and CD11b (microglia) with phosphorylated p38, disappeared 121 days after CCI in male but not in female mice. These results may have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  8. Neck Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... get better. No 7. Did you have a whiplash-type injury in the past, or do you have pain and/or stiffness every day in your neck, hands, knees, hips or other joints? Yes Your pain may be from DEGENERATIVE CERVICAL ARTHRITIS, a disorder that affects the bones and ...

  9. Young children's racial awareness and affect and their perceptions about mothers' racial affect in a multiracial context.

    PubMed

    Lam, Virginia; Guerrero, Silvia; Damree, Natasha; Enesco, Ileana

    2011-11-01

    There is a substantial literature documenting pre-schoolers' racial awareness and affect from multiracial societies in North America and a fast-growing body of work from societies that are or were once more racially homogeneous. However, studies in Britain, a racially diverse society, on this developmental period have been curiously rare. This study examined racial awareness and affect of 125 White, Black, and Asian 3--to 5-year-olds in London. Children were tested on cognitive level, person description and classification, race labelling and matching, self-categorization and asked about their racial preference and rejection and inferences about their mothers' preference and rejection. Children were least likely to use race versus other categorical cues to spontaneously describe or classify others, even though the majority correctly sorted others by race labels, matched them to drawings, and categorized themselves by race. With age and increasing cognitive level, children described and categorized others by race more and improved in race matching. White children from age 4 preferred White peers and inferred that their mothers would prefer White children at age 5. Children's own preference and inference about mothers are related. Children did not show race-based rejection, but boys inferred that their mothers would prefer White children and reject Black children. The findings are discussed in relation to racial salience between contexts, previous research, and theories. PMID:21199507

  10. Affecting Perceptions of Harm and Addiction among College Waterpipe Tobacco Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Levy, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The spread of waterpipe tobacco use among youth may be due in part to perceptions that waterpipe tobacco use is safer than other tobacco products, such as cigarettes. In two pilot studies, we sought to modify college waterpipe smokers’ perceived risks and worry about waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods: We conducted two web-based studies that varied whether college waterpipe users received information on (a) spread of and use of flavored tobacco in waterpipe and (b) harms of waterpipe smoking. Study 1 (N = 91) tested the “incremental” effects on perceptions of risk and worry of adding information about harms of waterpipe smoking to information on the spread of waterpipe and use of flavorings in the tobacco. Study 2 (N = 112) tested the effects on perceptions of risk and worry of reviewing information about harms of waterpipe smoking compared to a no information control group. In Study 1 only, we assessed as part of a 6-month follow-up (n = 70) the percentage of participants who reported no longer using waterpipe. Results: Pooling data from both studies, participants who received information about the harms of waterpipe smoking reported greater perceived risk and worry about harm and addiction and expressed a stronger desire to quit. In Study 1, 62% of participants in the experimental group versus 33% in the control group reported having stopped waterpipe use. Conclusions: These are the first studies to show that perceptions of addiction and harm from waterpipe use can be modified using minimally intensive interventions; such interventions show promise at decreasing waterpipe use. PMID:21471304

  11. Nurses' and Parents' Perceptions of Parental Guidance on Using Nonpharmacological Pain-Relieving Methods Among Neonates in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Pölkki, Tarja; Laukkala, Helena; Korhonen, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Despite growing knowledge of parents' important role in their infants' pain management, the extent to which nurses in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) provide guidance to parents on nonpharmacological methods is unclear. This study aimed to describe and compare the perceptions of parental guidance in using nonpharmacological pain-relieving methods among neonates in NICUs from the viewpoints of nurses and parents, and to examine the participants' demographics related to the guidance. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study using questionnaire surveys was conducted. Eight NICUs of 5 university hospitals in Finland. A total of 427 participants, including 294 nurses and 178 parents. The participants indicated that the methods of touching and holding were the most commonly introduced strategies in infants' pain alleviation, as they were given as an alternative "nearly always/always" (nurses 91%, 87% and parents 61%, 58%, respectively). In contrast, music and breast-feeding were the less commonly introduced nonpharmacological methods (nurses 11%, 6% and parents 1%, 6%, respectively). A significant difference (p < .001) was found between the parents' and nurses' perceptions of parental guidance; nurses reported providing more guidance about all nonpharmacological methods compared with parents. In addition, many demographic factors of the nurses, the parents, and their infants were related to the parental guidance. Our findings indicate that parental guidance should not be based on nurses' evaluations of their activities without taking into account parents' perspectives. When counseling parents to use nonpharmacological methods, neonatal nurses should actively interact with families and discuss parents' individual needs. PMID:27287760

  12. Mediating Influences of Negative Affect and Risk Perception on the Relationship Between Sensation Seeking and Adolescent Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Patricia E.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Worley, Matthew J.; Monreal, Teresa K.; McGee, Elizabeth; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A substantial number of adolescents are current and regular cigarette smokers, and there is a need to better understand factors that contribute to smoking behavior during these years. Sensation seeking (SS) is one factor that has consistently been associated with smoking, but less is known about mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Methods: The present study tested the hypothesis that high school students high in SS would report heavier cigarette smoking and that this relationship would be mediated by negative affect and by perceptions about the risks of smoking. Students (n = 1,688) participated in an annual survey of substance use and related attitudes and characteristics. Results: As expected, higher SS was associated with greater levels of past 30-day (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, p = .004) and lifetime (OR = 1.37, p = .004) smoking, particularly for males. Multiple mediation models indicated that effect of SS on both 30-day (combined indirect effect z = 5.38, p < .001) and lifetime (z = 6.14, p < .001) smoking was mediated by both negative affect and risk perception. Conclusions: These findings suggest a need for increasing the sensation value of anti-tobacco messages to increase their efficacy for high SS youth. High SS youth may also benefit from prevention efforts designed to teach healthy ways of coping with negative affect. PMID:21436297

  13. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    PubMed Central

    Blanchfield, Anthony; Hardy, James; Marcora, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise. PMID:25566014

  14. Chronic hand eczema: perception and knowledge in non-affected individuals from general and dermatological practice.

    PubMed

    Letulé, Valerie; Herzinger, Thomas; Schirner, Astrid; Hertrich, Frank; Lange, Dirk; Ruzicka, Thomas; Molin, Sonja

    2014-11-01

    Misunderstanding and stigmatisation are common problems encountered by patients with hand eczema. Various misconceptions about the disease circulate in the general population. Although hand eczema has gained more attention in dermatology during the past years, information on public perception of the disease is still lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate perception of and level of knowledge on the subject hand eczema. There were 624 patients included from 2 general medicine practices and 2 dermatological practices. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by the participants, covering issues on history of hand eczema, level of knowledge and attitude towards a clinical photograph of hand eczema. We found that a larger proportion of individuals from dermatological practice were more familiar with hand eczema as a disease than those from general medical practice. Women knew significantly more about and had a more positive perception of the disease than men. Our results imply that the level of knowledge on hand eczema in the general public is rather low and influenced by prejudice.

  15. Students’ Factors Affecting Undergraduates’ Perceptions of their Teaching and Learning Process within ECTS Experience

    PubMed Central

    la Fuente, Jesús De; Cardelle-Elawar, María; Peralta, F. Javier; Sánchez, M. Dolores; Martínez-Vicente, José Manuel; Zapata, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study, we investigated the potential factors that influenced the level of students satisfaction with the teaching–learning process (TLP), from the perspective of students participating in the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) experience. Method: A total of 1490 students from the Universities of Almería and Granada (Spain) participated in an evaluation of their class discipline area. They completed the new revised protocol for evaluating the ECTS experience. Analyses of variance were carried out, taking the following factors as independent variables: student's grade average, year in school, study discipline, credit load in terms of ECTS credits assigned to a subject, the e-learning approach. Perception of the TLP was used as the dependent variable. Results: The data analyses showed variability of the degree of statistically significance among the factors that influenced students’ perceptions of the TLP. These factors included: Student's grade average (in favor of high performers), year in school (in favor of earlier years), ECTS load (in favor of subjects with a medium load of credits), and e-learning (in favor of its use). These research findings provided evidence to explore the delineation of a potential profile of factors that trigger a favorable perception of the TLP. Discussion and Conclusion: The present findings certainly have implications to deepen our understanding of the core beliefs, commitment, and the experience in shaping the implementation of the European Higher Education Area through the ECTS. PMID:21713171

  16. Normal Adult Aging and the Contextual Influences Affecting Speech and Meaningful Sound Perception

    PubMed Central

    Aydelott, Jennifer; Leech, Robert; Crinion, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that hearing loss increases markedly with age, beginning in the fourth decade ISO 7029 (2000). Age-related hearing loss is typified by high-frequency threshold elevation and associated reductions in speech perception because speech sounds, especially consonants, become inaudible. Nevertheless, older adults often report additional and progressive difficulties in the perception and comprehension of speech, often highlighted in adverse listening conditions that exceed those reported by younger adults with a similar degree of high-frequency hearing loss (Dubno, Dirks, & Morgan) leading to communication difficulties and social isolation (Weinstein & Ventry). Some of the age-related decline in speech perception can be accounted for by peripheral sensory problems but cognitive aging can also be a contributing factor. In this article, we review findings from the psycholinguistic literature predominantly over the last four years and present a pilot study illustrating how normal age-related changes in cognition and the linguistic context can influence speech-processing difficulties in older adults. For significant progress in understanding and improving the auditory performance of aging listeners to be made, we discuss how future research will have to be much more specific not only about which interactions between auditory and cognitive abilities are critical but also how they are modulated in the brain. PMID:21307006

  17. Normal adult aging and the contextual influences affecting speech and meaningful sound perception.

    PubMed

    Aydelott, Jennifer; Leech, Robert; Crinion, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    It is widely accepted that hearing loss increases markedly with age, beginning in the fourth decade ISO 7029 (2000). Age-related hearing loss is typified by high-frequency threshold elevation and associated reductions in speech perception because speech sounds, especially consonants, become inaudible. Nevertheless, older adults often report additional and progressive difficulties in the perception and comprehension of speech, often highlighted in adverse listening conditions that exceed those reported by younger adults with a similar degree of high-frequency hearing loss (Dubno, Dirks, & Morgan) leading to communication difficulties and social isolation (Weinstein & Ventry). Some of the age-related decline in speech perception can be accounted for by peripheral sensory problems but cognitive aging can also be a contributing factor. In this article, we review findings from the psycholinguistic literature predominantly over the last four years and present a pilot study illustrating how normal age-related changes in cognition and the linguistic context can influence speech-processing difficulties in older adults. For significant progress in understanding and improving the auditory performance of aging listeners to be made, we discuss how future research will have to be much more specific not only about which interactions between auditory and cognitive abilities are critical but also how they are modulated in the brain. PMID:21307006

  18. Perception of Lay People Regarding Determinants of Health and Factors Affecting It: An Aggregated Analysis from 29 Countries

    PubMed Central

    ZAHRA, Aqeela; LEE, Eun-Whan; SUN, Li-Yuan; PARK, Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the perception of lay people regarding determinants of health at global level and factors affecting it. Methods: Data was collected from International Social Survey Program (ISSP) and World Bank website. Multilevel regression analysis was done and lay people’s perception regarding health behavior, environment, poverty and genes as health determinants was assessed. Various socio demographic factors were used as independent variables. Results: The highest percentage of people agreed environment as determinant of health. An inverse relationship was observed between GNI quartiles and an individual’s agreement with poverty, health behavior, and environment as health determinant. There was a significant negative association of females with health damaging behavior (P<0.05) and positive association with environment and genes (P<0.05) as health determinants. Elderly people agreed with poverty as determinant of health (P<0.05). GNI was negatively related to environment (P<0.05) and poverty (P<0.05) as health determinant. Conclusion: The common public is now becoming aware of a broadened concept of health and people belonging to different backgrounds have different perceptions regarding determinants of health. Our results show that highest percentage of people agreed with environment as determinant of health, which is consistent with scientific view of increased burden of disease, caused by environmental factors. Thus, tailored health programs and policies that address an individual’s specific problems are likely to induce a change in behavior and attitude, hence decreasing the disease burden. PMID:26811813

  19. Properties of oil/water emulsions affecting the deposition, clearance, and after-feel sensory perception of oral coatings.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Sara; den Hollander, Elyn; van de Velde, Fred; Stieger, Markus

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of (i) protein type, (ii) protein content, and (iii) viscosity of o/w emulsions on the deposition and clearance of oral oil coatings and after-feel perception. Oil fraction (m(oil)/cm(2)(tongue)) and after-feel perception differed considerably between emulsions which do not flocculate under in mouth conditions (Na-caseinate) and emulsions which flocculate under in mouth conditions (lysozyme). The irreversible flocculation of lysozyme stabilized emulsions caused slower oil clearance from the tongue surface compared to emulsions stabilized with Na-caseinate. Protein content had a negative relation with oil fraction for lysozyme stabilized emulsions and no relation for Na-caseinate stabilized emulsions immediately after expectoration. Viscosity differences did not affect oil fraction, although the presence of thickener decreased deposition of oil on tongue. We conclude that after-feel perception of o/w emulsions is complex and depends on the deposited oil fraction, the behavior of proteins in mouth, and thickeners.

  20. The Influence of a Model's Reinforcement Contingency and Affective Response on Children's Perceptions of the Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelen, Mark H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Assesses the influence of model consequences on perceived model affect and, conversely, assesses the influence of model affect on perceived model consequences. Also appraises the influence of model consequences and model affect on perceived model attractiveness, perceived model competence, and perceived task attractiveness. (Author/RK)

  1. Does comorbid chronic pain affect posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis and treatment? Outcomes of posttraumatic stress disorder screening in Department of Veterans Affairs primary care.

    PubMed

    Outcalt, Samantha D; Hoen, Helena Maria; Yu, Zhangsheng; Franks, Tenesha Marie; Krebs, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Because posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is both prevalent and underrecognized, routine primary care-based screening for PTSD has been implemented across the Veterans Health Administration. PTSD is frequently complicated by the presence of comorbid chronic pain, and patients with both conditions have increased symptom severity and poorer prognosis. Our objective was to determine whether the presence of pain affects diagnosis and treatment of PTSD among Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patients who have a positive PTSD screening test. This retrospective cohort study used clinical and administrative data from six Midwestern VA medical centers. We identified 4,244 VA primary care patients with a positive PTSD screen and compared outcomes for those with and without a coexisting pain diagnosis. Outcomes were three clinically appropriate responses to positive PTSD screening: (1) mental health visit, (2) PTSD diagnosis, and (3) new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) prescription. We found that patients with coexisting pain had a lower rate of mental health visits than those without pain (hazard ratio: 0.889, 95% confidence interval: 0.821-0.962). There were no significant differences in the rate of PTSD diagnosis or new SSRI prescription between patients with and without coexisting pain.

  2. Caring for Special Populations: Total Pain Theory in Advanced Heart Failure: Applications to Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, Joy R.; Doering, Lynn V.; Lorenz, Karl A.; Maliski, Sally L.; Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Describe total pain theory and apply it to research and practice in advanced heart failure (HF). SOURCE OF INFORMATION Total pain theory provides a holistic perspective for improving care, especially at the end of life. In advanced HF, multiple domains of well-being known to influence pain perception are adversely affected by declining health and increasing frailty. A conceptual framework is suggested which addresses domains of well-being identified by total pain theory. CONCLUSION By applying total pain theory, providers may be more effective in mitigating the suffering of individuals with progressive, life-limiting diseases. PMID:19691653

  3. [The influence of culture in the oral expression of pain: comparative study between French and Syrian cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Lebreuilly, Romain; Sakkour, Sam; Lebreuilly, Joëlle

    2013-03-01

    This study examines the role of culture in the perception and the verbal expression of pain among syrian and french blood-related cancer patients. The level of intensity (AVS scale) and the different aspects (Saint-Antoine Pain Questionnaire [SAPQ]) of their pain were studied. The sensory and emotional descriptors chosen by the Syrian possessed a stronger semantic content in comparison to those used by the French. The patient's cultural background, which affect the perception and verbal expression of pain should be a new indicator in the optimization of global medical management. PMID:23548892

  4. Paclitaxel-induced hyperalgesia modulates negative affective component of pain and NR1 receptor expression in the frontal cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Noda, Kazuko; Akita, Hisanao; Ogata, Masanori; Saji, Makoto

    2014-03-01

    Paclitaxel, one of the chemotherapeutic agents clinically used to treat several types of cancer, produces side effects such as peripheral neuropathy, sensory abnormalities, and hyperalgesia. Since hyperalgesia remains after cessation of paclitaxel therapy and becomes chronic, we hypothesize that alteration in memory and the cognitive process of pain underlies hyperalgesia. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether drug-induced hyperalgesia alters the affective component of pain and the NMDA-NR1 and mGluR1 receptors as a mediator for signal transmission and memory of pain. Mechanical sensitivity was measured by von Frey filament test after intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel in rats. Paclitaxel-induced hyperalgesia was confirmed over almost the entire 14-day period of observation after the treatment. The effect of paclitaxel-induced hyperalgesia on the affective component of pain was assessed using pain-induced place aversion. The formalin-induced conditioned place aversion was completely abolished in the paclitaxel-treated rats. Immunoblot analysis of NR1 and mGluR1 protein levels in various brain regions was performed after paclitaxel treatment. Treatment reduced only the NR1 expression within the frontal cortex. These results suggest that the hypofunction of memory processes with the reduced NMDA receptors in the frontal cortex might be involved in the expression of abnormal emotional behaviors accompanied by hyperalgesia.

  5. Non-Cardiac Chest Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... been termed “Esophageal or visceral hypersensitivity” (enhanced esophageal perception or sensitivity to balloon distension). Although the cause ... can be used to improve this exaggerated pain perception. Non-esophageal Causes of NCCP NCCP is a ...

  6. Mice move smoothly: irrelevant object variation affects perception, but not computer mouse actions.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Markus; Pfister, Roland; Kunde, Wilfried

    2013-11-01

    Human-Computer Interactions pose special demands on the motor system, especially regarding the virtual tool transformations underlying typical mouse movements. We investigated whether such virtual tool-transformed movements are similarly resistant to irrelevant variation of a target object as skilled natural movements are. Results show that such irrelevant information deteriorates performance in perceptual tasks, whereas movement parameters remain unaffected, suggesting that the control of virtual tools draws on the same mechanisms as natural actions do. The results are discussed in terms of their practical utility and recent findings investigating unskilled and transformed movements in the framework of the action/perception model and the integration of tools into the body schema.

  7. Does being in the military affect nurses' perceptions of work life?

    PubMed

    Robinson, S E; Rodriguez, E R; Sammons, M T; Keim, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was a causal comparative investigation of military and civilian nurses' perceptions of selected aspects of work life. The Work Environment Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Michigan Job Satisfaction Scale were administered to civilian and military samples matched on selected demographic variables. MANOVA procedures failed to reveal significant differences on measures of burnout and morale. Although military nurses were significantly more satisfied with issues of pay and fringe benefits, civilian nurses reported significantly greater job satisfaction, peer cohesion, supervisory support, decision making, autonomy, task orientation and opportunity to be innovative. These findings and suggested changes are discussed with attention to differences between the military and civilian work setting. PMID:8370907

  8. It's not what you play, it's how you play it: timbre affects perception of emotion in music.

    PubMed

    Hailstone, Julia C; Omar, Rohani; Henley, Susie M D; Frost, Chris; Kenward, Michael G; Warren, Jason D

    2009-11-01

    Salient sensory experiences often have a strong emotional tone, but the neuropsychological relations between perceptual characteristics of sensory objects and the affective information they convey remain poorly defined. Here we addressed the relationship between sound identity and emotional information using music. In two experiments, we investigated whether perception of emotions is influenced by altering the musical instrument on which the music is played, independently of other musical features. In the first experiment, 40 novel melodies each representing one of four emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, or anger) were each recorded on four different instruments (an electronic synthesizer, a piano, a violin, and a trumpet), controlling for melody, tempo, and loudness between instruments. Healthy participants (23 young adults aged 18-30 years, 24 older adults aged 58-75 years) were asked to select which emotion they thought each musical stimulus represented in a four-alternative forced-choice task. Using a generalized linear mixed model we found a significant interaction between instrument and emotion judgement with a similar pattern in young and older adults (p < .0001 for each age group). The effect was not attributable to musical expertise. In the second experiment using the same melodies and experimental design, the interaction between timbre and perceived emotion was replicated (p < .05) in another group of young adults for novel synthetic timbres designed to incorporate timbral cues to particular emotions. Our findings show that timbre (instrument identity) independently affects the perception of emotions in music after controlling for other acoustic, cognitive, and performance factors.

  9. It's not what you play, it's how you play it: timbre affects perception of emotion in music.

    PubMed

    Hailstone, Julia C; Omar, Rohani; Henley, Susie M D; Frost, Chris; Kenward, Michael G; Warren, Jason D

    2009-11-01

    Salient sensory experiences often have a strong emotional tone, but the neuropsychological relations between perceptual characteristics of sensory objects and the affective information they convey remain poorly defined. Here we addressed the relationship between sound identity and emotional information using music. In two experiments, we investigated whether perception of emotions is influenced by altering the musical instrument on which the music is played, independently of other musical features. In the first experiment, 40 novel melodies each representing one of four emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, or anger) were each recorded on four different instruments (an electronic synthesizer, a piano, a violin, and a trumpet), controlling for melody, tempo, and loudness between instruments. Healthy participants (23 young adults aged 18-30 years, 24 older adults aged 58-75 years) were asked to select which emotion they thought each musical stimulus represented in a four-alternative forced-choice task. Using a generalized linear mixed model we found a significant interaction between instrument and emotion judgement with a similar pattern in young and older adults (p < .0001 for each age group). The effect was not attributable to musical expertise. In the second experiment using the same melodies and experimental design, the interaction between timbre and perceived emotion was replicated (p < .05) in another group of young adults for novel synthetic timbres designed to incorporate timbral cues to particular emotions. Our findings show that timbre (instrument identity) independently affects the perception of emotions in music after controlling for other acoustic, cognitive, and performance factors. PMID:19391047

  10. It's not what you play, it's how you play it: Timbre affects perception of emotion in music

    PubMed Central

    Hailstone, Julia C.; Omar, Rohani; Henley, Susie M. D.; Frost, Chris; Kenward, Michael G.; Warren, Jason D.

    2009-01-01

    Salient sensory experiences often have a strong emotional tone, but the neuropsychological relations between perceptual characteristics of sensory objects and the affective information they convey remain poorly defined. Here we addressed the relationship between sound identity and emotional information using music. In two experiments, we investigated whether perception of emotions is influenced by altering the musical instrument on which the music is played, independently of other musical features. In the first experiment, 40 novel melodies each representing one of four emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, or anger) were each recorded on four different instruments (an electronic synthesizer, a piano, a violin, and a trumpet), controlling for melody, tempo, and loudness between instruments. Healthy participants (23 young adults aged 18–30 years, 24 older adults aged 58–75 years) were asked to select which emotion they thought each musical stimulus represented in a four-alternative forced-choice task. Using a generalized linear mixed model we found a significant interaction between instrument and emotion judgement with a similar pattern in young and older adults (p < .0001 for each age group). The effect was not attributable to musical expertise. In the second experiment using the same melodies and experimental design, the interaction between timbre and perceived emotion was replicated (p < .05) in another group of young adults for novel synthetic timbres designed to incorporate timbral cues to particular emotions. Our findings show that timbre (instrument identity) independently affects the perception of emotions in music after controlling for other acoustic, cognitive, and performance factors. PMID:19391047

  11. Action feedback affects the perception of action-related objects beyond actual action success.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Wladimir; Königstein, Elisabeth; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Successful object-oriented action typically increases the perceived size of aimed target objects. This phenomenon has been assumed to reflect an impact of an actor's current action ability on visual perception. The actual action ability and the explicit knowledge of action outcome, however, were confounded in previous studies. The present experiments aimed at disentangling these two factors. Participants repeatedly tried to hit a circular target varying in size with a stylus movement under restricted feedback conditions. After each movement they were explicitly informed about the success in hitting the target and were then asked to judge target size. The explicit feedback regarding movement success was manipulated orthogonally to actual movement success. The results of three experiments indicated the participants' bias to judge relatively small targets as larger and relatively large targets as smaller after explicit feedback of failure than after explicit feedback of success. This pattern was independent of the actual motor performance, suggesting that the actors' evaluations of motor actions may bias perception of target objects in itself.

  12. "Healthy," "diet," or "hedonic". How nutrition claims affect food-related perceptions and intake?

    PubMed

    Gravel, Karine; Doucet, Éric; Herman, C Peter; Pomerleau, Sonia; Bourlaud, Anne-Sophie; Provencher, Véronique

    2012-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutrition claims on food perceptions and intake among adult men and women, during ad libitum snacks. In a three (healthy vs. diet vs. hedonic) by two (normal-weight vs. overweight/obese) by two (unrestrained vs. restrained eaters) factorial design, 164 men and 188 women were invited to taste and rate oatmeal-raisin cookies. Despite the fact that the cookies were the same in all conditions, they were perceived as being healthier in the "healthy" condition than in the "diet" and "hedonic" conditions. The caloric content was estimated as higher by participants in the "hedonic" than in the "healthy" condition, by women than by men, and by restrained than by unrestrained eaters. Although measured ad libitum cookie intake did not differ as a function of experimental condition, overweight restrained men ate more than did women from each BMI and restraint category. Conversely, overweight restrained women ate less than did men from each BMI and restraint category. In conclusion, our manipulations of healthiness and "fatteningness" of food were effective in changing perceptions, but were not in changing behavior. PMID:22963737

  13. Unseen positive and negative affective information influences social perception in bipolar I disorder and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gruber, June; Siegel, Erika H; Purcell, Amanda L; Earls, Holly A; Cooper, Gaia; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is fundamentally a disorder of emotion regulation, and associated with explicit processing biases for socially relevant emotional information in human faces. Less is known, however, about whether implicit processing of this type of emotional information directly influences social perception. We thus investigated group-related differences in the influence of unconscious emotional processing on conscious person perception judgments using a continuous flash suppression task among 22 individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (BD; AgeM=30.82, AgeSD=7.04; 68.2% female) compared with 22 healthy adults (CTL; AgeM=20.86, AgeSD=9.91; 72.2% female). Across both groups, participants rated neutral faces as more trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen happy faces as compared to unseen angry and neutral faces; participants rated neutral faces as less trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen angry as compared to neutral faces. These findings suggest that emotion-related disturbances are not explained by early automatic processing stages, and that activity in the dorsal visual stream underlying implicit emotion processing is intact in bipolar disorder. Implications for understanding the etiology of emotion disturbance in BD are discussed. PMID:26745436

  14. Action feedback affects the perception of action-related objects beyond actual action success

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Wladimir; Königstein, Elisabeth; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Successful object-oriented action typically increases the perceived size of aimed target objects. This phenomenon has been assumed to reflect an impact of an actor's current action ability on visual perception. The actual action ability and the explicit knowledge of action outcome, however, were confounded in previous studies. The present experiments aimed at disentangling these two factors. Participants repeatedly tried to hit a circular target varying in size with a stylus movement under restricted feedback conditions. After each movement they were explicitly informed about the success in hitting the target and were then asked to judge target size. The explicit feedback regarding movement success was manipulated orthogonally to actual movement success. The results of three experiments indicated the participants' bias to judge relatively small targets as larger and relatively large targets as smaller after explicit feedback of failure than after explicit feedback of success. This pattern was independent of the actual motor performance, suggesting that the actors' evaluations of motor actions may bias perception of target objects in itself. PMID:24478746

  15. Unseen positive and negative affective information influences social perception in bipolar I disorder and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Erika H.; Purcell, Amanda L.; Earls, Holly A.; Cooper, Gaia; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is fundamentally a disorder of emotion regulation, and associated with explicit processing biases for socially relevant emotional information in human faces. Less is known, however, about whether implicit processing of this type of emotional information directly influences social perception. We thus investigated group-related differences in the influence of unconscious emotional processing on conscious person perception judgments using a continuous flash suppression task among 22 individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (BD; AgeM=30.82, AgeSD=7.04; 68.2% female) compared with 22 healthy adults (CTL; AgeM=20.86, AgeSD=9.91; 72.2% female). Across both groups, participants rated neutral faces as more trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen happy faces as compared to unseen angry and neutral faces; participants rated neutral faces as less trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen angry as compared to neutral faces. These findings suggest that emotion-related disturbances are not explained by early automatic processing stages, and that activity in the dorsal visual stream underlying implicit emotion processing is intact in bipolar disorder. Implications for understanding the etiology of emotion disturbance in BD are discussed. PMID:26745436

  16. Contrast and strength of visual memory and imagery differentially affect visual perception.

    PubMed

    Saad, Elyana; Silvanto, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and visual imagery have been shown to modulate visual perception. However, how the subjective experience of VSTM/imagery and its contrast modulate this process has not been investigated. We addressed this issue by asking participants to detect brief masked targets while they were engaged either in VSTM or visual imagery. Subjective experience of memory/imagery (strength scale), and the visual contrast of the memory/mental image (contrast scale) were assessed on a trial-by-trial basis. For both VSTM and imagery, contrast of the memory/mental image was positively associated with reporting target presence. Consequently, at the sensory level, both VSTM and imagery facilitated visual perception. However, subjective strength of VSTM was positively associated with visual detection whereas the opposite pattern was found for imagery. Thus the relationship between subjective strength of memory/imagery and visual detection are qualitatively different for VSTM and visual imagery, although their impact at the sensory level appears similar. Our results furthermore demonstrate that imagery and VSTM are partly dissociable processes.

  17. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults. Common chronic pain complaints include headache, low back pain, cancer pain, arthritis pain, neurogenic pain (pain resulting ... Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Low Back Pain Fact Sheet Back Pain information sheet compiled by ...

  18. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergrad