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  1. Drug Issues Affecting Chinese, Indian and Pakistani People Living in Greater Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, A. J.; Heim, D.; Bakshi, N.; Davies, J. B.; Flatley, K. J.; Hunter, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes research on drug issues affecting Chinese, Indian and Pakistani people living in Greater Glasgow. There were two strands: (i) a questionnaire-based survey of young people and focus groups; (ii) interviews with young people and adults. The primary aims were to gather prevalence data and to investigate perceptions about current…

  2. Stigmatization and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS by the general public in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wong, L P; Syuhada, A R Nur

    2011-09-01

    Globally, HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes deter the effectiveness of HIV prevention and care programs. This study investigated the general public's perceptions about HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS in order to understand the root of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes. Study was carried out using qualitative focus group discussions (FGD). An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used. Participants were members of the public in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was adopted for recruitment of participants. A total 14 focus group discussions (n = 74) was carried out between March and July 2008. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) was profound. Key factors affecting discriminatory attitudes included high-risk taking behavior, individuals related to stigmatized identities, sources of HIV infection, stage of the disease, and relationship with an infected person. Other factors that influence attitudes toward PLWHA include ethnicity and urban-rural locality. Malay participants were less likely than other ethnic groups to perceive no stigmatization if their spouses were HIV positive. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination were stronger among participants in rural settings. The differences indicate attitudes toward PLWHA are influenced by cultural differences. PMID:22299438

  3. Impact of arsenic in foodstuffs on the people living in the arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Badal K; Suzuki, Kazuo T; Anzai, Kazunori

    2007-10-01

    Although the accumulation of arsenic (As) in human blood is linked with some diseases and with occupational exposure, there are few reports on speciation of As in blood. On the basis of our earlier article, elevated level of arsenicals in human urine and blood were found in the ex-exposed population via As-containing drinking water. The aim of the present study was to get an insight on impact of As in foodstuffs on the people living in the As-affected areas. Moreover, speciation of arsenicals in urine, and water-samples found in arsenobetaine (AsB). Since sampling population (n=25) was not taking any seafood, As in foodstuffs was thought to be the prime source for this discrepancy. So, speciation of methanol extract of freeze-dried red blood cells (RBCs) and foodstuffs, and trichloro acetic acid (TCA) treated plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-ICP MS) collected from the study population (n=33) was carried out to support our hypothesis. Results showed that urine contained AsB (1.7%), arsenite (iAs(III)) (14.3), arsenate (iAs(V)) (4.9), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) (0.64), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) (13.6), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) (7.7), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) (65.4). Blood contained 21.3 microg L(- 1) (mean) As and of which 27.3% was in plasma and 72.7% in RBCs. RBCs contained AsB (21.6%) and DMA(V) (78.4) and blood plasma contained AsB (12.4%), iAs(III) (25.9), MMA(V) (30.3), and DMA(V) (31.4). Furthermore, speciation of As in foodstuffs showed that most of them contained AsB (3.54-25.81 microg kg(- 1)) (25.81-312.44 microg kg(- 1)) along with iAs(III) (9.62-194.93), iAs(V) (17.63-78.33), MMA(V) (9.47-73.22) and DMA(V) (13.43-101.15) that supported the presence of AsB and elevated As in urine and blood samples of the present study group. Inorganic As (iAs) predominates in rice (67.17-86.62%) and in spices (40-90.35%), respectively over organic As. So, As in the

  4. Factors That Affect Quality of Life among People Living with HIV Attending an Urban Clinic in Uganda: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mutabazi-Mwesigire, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and primary general care for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource limited settings, PLHIV are living longer, and HIV has been transformed into a chronic illness. People are diagnosed and started on treatment when they are relatively well. Although ART results in clinical improvement, the ultimate goal of treatment is full physical functioning and general well-being, with a focus on quality of life rather than clinical outcomes. However, there has been little research on the relationship of specific factors to quality of life in PLHIV. The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with quality of life among PLHIV in Uganda receiving basic care and those on ART. Methods We enrolled 1274 patients attending an HIV outpatient clinic into a prospective cohort study. Of these, 640 received ART. All were followed up at 3 and 6 months. Health related quality of life was assessed with the MOS-HIV Health Survey and the Global Person Generated Index (GPGI). Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression with generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship of social behavioral and disease factors with Physical Health Summary (PHS) score, Mental Health Summary (MHS) score, and GPGI. Results Among PLHIV receiving basic care, PHS was associated with: sex (p=0.045) - females had lower PHS; age in years at enrollment (p=0.0001) - older patients had lower PHS; and depression (p<0.001) - depressed patients had lower PHS. MHS was only associated with opportunistic infection (p=0.01) - presence of an opportunistic infection was associated with lower MHS. For the GPG the associated variables were age (p=0.03) - older patients had lower GPGI; education (p=0.01) – higher education associated with higher GPGI; and depression - patients with depression had a lower GPGI (p<0.001). Among patients on ART, PHS was associated with: study visit (p=0.01), with increase in

  5. How do people live in the Anthropocene?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Libby

    2016-04-01

    While geologists have focused their efforts on which changes in the strata might constitute a functional shift out of the present epoch, environmental humanities scholars, museums and creative artists have taken up the Anthropocene as a concept raising new moral and practical dilemmas. A central concern is with how people adapt and live creatively in a world that is functioning beyond the physical planetary boundaries defined by the Holocene. This paper will provide an overview of the lively scholarly and popular debates on the question of what it means, ethically, to be human in an Age of Humans. Major questions include the question of who are 'we' in the Anthropocene, and how the conditions of the putative new epoch will affect 'more-than-human-others'. Creative and justice activist responses to the Anthropocene typically distinguish among humans, focusing not on the causes, but rather on concerns of the people on the receiving end of global change (for example, the Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) group of 39+8). Some are concerned about the collateral effects of technological 'fixes' for energy transformations and climate, and others about economic shifts and market-based incentives. As a historian of ideas, I explore the multiple paths by which people have come to the Anthropocene concept, and the uses to which it has already been put, even before a final decision is made on its formal status. The Anthropocene already arouses anxiety about 'the future'. One big idea that is shared across activists and scholars (and not just those in the humanities) is the question of enabling hopeful responses. A diversity of creative projects for living in the Anthropocene, which can contribute to coping with the stress of accelerating global change, is essential to this.

  6. Understanding the lives of older gay people.

    PubMed

    Kean, Reb

    2006-09-01

    Ten research articles were examined with the aim of increasing our understanding of the lives of older gay people. It is clear from the literature that nurses must not rely on stereotypes of older gay people to inform their professional practice. It is also important for nurses to appreciate that older homosexuals have different health and social care needs from their heterosexual contemporaries.

  7. Engagement with Health Care Providers Affects Self- Efficacy, Self-Esteem, Medication Adherence and Quality of Life in People Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Wantland, Dean; Reid, Paula; Corless, Inge B; Eller, Lucille S.; Iipinge, Scholastika; Holzemer, William L; Nokes, Kathleen; Sefcik, Elizbeth; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Voss, Joachim; Nicholas, Patrice; Phillips, J. Craig; Brion, John M.; Rose, Caro Dawson; Portillo, Carmen J; Kirksey, Kenn; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Johnson, Mallory O; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Webel, Allison R

    2014-01-01

    The engagement of patients with their health care providers (HCP) improves patients’ quality of life (QOL), adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and life satisfaction. Engagement with HCP includes access to HCP as needed, information sharing, involvement of client in decision making and self-care activities, respect and support of the HCP for the client’s choices, and management of client concerns. This study compares country-level differences in patients’ engagement with HCP and assesses statistical associations relative to adherence rates, self-efficacy, self-esteem, QOL, and symptom self-reporting by people living with HIV (PLHIV). A convenience sample of 2,182 PLHIV was enrolled in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, Namibia, and China. Cross-sectional data were collected between September 2009 and January 2011. Inclusion criteria were being at least 18 years of age, diagnosed with HIV, able to provide informed consent, and able to communicate in the local language with site researchers. In the HCP scale, a low score indicated greater provider engagement. Country comparisons showed that PLHIV in Namibia had the most HCP engagement (OR 2.80, p < 0.001) and that PLHIV in China had the least engagement (OR −7.03, p < 0.0001) compared to the PLHIV in the Western countries. Individuals having better HCP engagement showed better self-efficacy for adherence (t = −5.22, p < 0.0001), missed fewer medication doses (t = 1.92, p ≤ 0.05), had lower self-esteem ratings (t = 2.67, p < 0.01), fewer self-reported symptoms (t = 3.25, p < 0.0001), and better overall QOL physical condition (t = −3.39, p < 0.001). This study suggests that promoting engagement with the HCP is necessary to facilitate skills that help PLHIV manage their HIV. To improve ART adherence, HCPs should work on strategies to enhance self-efficacy and self-esteem, therefore, exhibiting fewer HIV-related symptoms and missing less medication doses to achieve better QOL. PMID:24575329

  8. People with Disabilities on Tribal Lands: Education, Health Care, Vocational Rehabilitation, and Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This report is the product of a project that examined services to people with disabilities living on American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribal lands. Research such as the American Indian Disability Legislative Project and other studies on health, rehabilitation, independent living, and education issues that affect people with disabilities…

  9. Living Arrangement Preferences among Elderly People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Francois

    1987-01-01

    Compared older adults living alone or with only a spouse to those living with children, relatives, or friends. Found that those living alone or with a spouse were more likely to prefer to move into alternate setting (senior housing or nursing home). Findings revealed limited evidence to support view that residency with others is substitute for…

  10. Resilience Factors in Families Living with People with Mental Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonker, Liezl; Greeff, Abraham P.

    2009-01-01

    In South Africa, a substantial burden is placed on families living with people with mental illnesses. The aim of this study was to identify resilience factors in families living in an underprivileged area, caring for people with mental illnesses. Data was obtained from family representatives (N=34) using semistructured interviews and a set of…

  11. Shoving Our Way into Young People's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses Sizer and Sizer's concept of "shoving" to examine the school experiences of a group of young people who left mainstream school early and some time later enrolled in an alternative educational setting designed to reengage early school leavers in formal learning. "Shoving" is a way to explain why so many young people feel alienated…

  12. Physical Activity among Older People Living Alone in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu; While, Alison E; Hicks, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate physical activity among older people living alone in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, and key factors contributing to their physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered in nine communities in Shanghai, using a stratified random cluster sample: 521 community-dwelling older…

  13. Living Accommodation for Young People. Report of An Exploratory Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Phyllis G.; Miller, A.

    The Building Research Station has embarked on a series of case-studies on the provision of living accommodations for single young people in the 15 to 24 age group in England who live away from home because of education, training or employment. An exploratory review of the existing literature on the subject was made. Discussed are some of the…

  14. Priorities for people living with dementia: education, counseling, research

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber

    2008-01-01

    Hearing the voices of people living with dementia assists in a better understanding of their experiences. This understanding can pave the way for improved community-based service delivery such as education and counseling, as well as including them more frequently as research participants. The voices of people living with dementia have not been well represented in research, resulting in very few data describing their experiences. This paper describes empirical qualitative data from a study that asked people with Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s disease about their experiences. Recommendations are provided on education, counseling, and research. PMID:18982928

  15. Recording ground motions where people live

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranswick, E.; Gardner, B.; Hammond, S.; Banfill, R.

    The 1989 Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake caused spectacular damage to structures up to 100 km away in the San Francisco Bay sedimentary basin, including the Cypress Street viaduct overpass, the Bay Bridge, and buildings in the San Francisco Marina district. Although the few mainshock ground motions recorded in the northern San Francisco Bay area were “significantly larger … than would be expected from the pre-existing data set,” none were recorded at the sites of these damaged structures [Hanks and Krawinkler, 1991].Loma Prieta aftershocks produced order-of-magnitude variations of ground motions related to sedimentary basin response over distances of 1-2 km and less [Cranswick et al., 1990]. In densely populated neighborhoods, these distances can encompass the residences of thousands of people, but it is very unlikely that these neighborhoods are monitored by even one seismograph. In the last decade, the complexity of computer models used to simulate high-frequency ground motions has increased by several orders of magnitude [e.g., Frankel and Vidale, 1992], but the number of seismograph stations—hence, the spatial density of the sampling of ground motion data—has remained relatively unchanged. Seismologists must therefore infer the nature of the ground motions in the great unknown regions between observation points.

  16. Sexual health for people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Kathy; Ray, Sunanda

    2007-05-01

    Sexual health is defined in terms of well-being, but is challenged by the social, cultural and economic realities faced by women and men with HIV. A sexual rights approach puts women and men with HIV in charge of their sexual health. Accurate, accessible information to make informed choices and safe, pleasurable sexual relationships possible is best delivered through peer education and health professionals trained in empathetic approaches to sensitive issues. Young people with HIV especially need appropriate sex education and support for dealing with sexuality and self-identity with HIV. Women and men with HIV need condoms, appropriate services for sexually transmitted infections, sexual dysfunction and management of cervical and anogenital cancers. Interventions based on positive prevention, that combine protection of personal health with avoiding HIV/STI transmission to partners, are recommended. HIV counselling following a positive test has increased condom use and decreased coercive sex and outside sexual contacts among discordant couples. HIV treatment and care have reduced stigma and increased uptake of HIV testing and disclosure of positive status to partners. High adherence to antiretroviral therapy and safer sexual behaviour must go hand-in-hand. Sexual health services have worked with peer educators and volunteer groups to reach those at higher risk, such as sex workers. Technological advances in diagnosis of STIs, microbicide development and screening and vaccination for human papillomavirus must be available in developing countries and for those with the highest need globally.

  17. Greater involvement of people living with HIV in health care

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS represents a mobilising and an organising principle for the involvement of people living with HIV in program and policy responses. People with HIV have been at the forefront of designing and implementing effective HIV treatment, care and prevention activities. However, governments and health systems have yet to act to fully harness the potential and resources of people living with HIV in addressing the epidemic. The lives and experiences of people living with HIV highlight the need for a shift in the existing paradigm of disease management. The high prevalence of HIV amongst health care providers in many countries, exacerbated by stigma towards those with HIV in the health care professions, is seriously undermining the capacity of health systems and signals the need to change the current nature of health care delivery. Moreover, the negative experiences of many people with HIV in relation to their health care as well as in their daily social interactions, coupled with the ever-limited current investment in treatment, care and support, demonstrate that the current system is drastically failing the majority of people with HIV. Current health management systems urgently need to be more effectively maximised, to increase the quality of standards of health care systems and services in resource poor countries. An integrated approach to health care based on a human rights framework, grounded in community realities and delivered in partnership and solidarity with people living with HIV, offers the most viable approach to overcoming the crisis of HIV in the health care system. PMID:19284672

  18. Traditional beliefs part of people's lives.

    PubMed

    Keller, S

    1996-01-01

    Many couples worldwide practice rituals, herbal approaches, and similar traditional approaches to regulate fertility, but many of them are ineffective at preventing pregnancy and some may even be harmful. Health providers who are familiar with cultural beliefs about fertility may use nonharmful practices (e.g., rituals or storytelling) to teach couples about the fertile period or modern contraception. In fact, providers gain credibility when they teach family planning in ways that include traditional beliefs. In Nigeria, fertility regulation methods were used before modern contraception was introduced. In both Nigeria and Niger, some customs prohibit premarital sexual intercourse. Others promote sexual abstinence for up to three years to promote proper birth spacing. Even though many beliefs do not prevent pregnancy and cause no harm, they can be used to assure women that they are in control of their own fertility. Such beliefs include avoiding the sun or moon at certain times or wearing charms (e.g., dead spiders, children's teeth, or leopard skin bracelets). Providers should discourage dangerous or counterproductive beliefs, however. For example, the Nigerian belief that intercourse during menstruation turns people into albinos (although it is not harmful) may encourage sex during the fertile period. Some harmful beliefs or practices include douching with hot water, salt, vinegar, lemon, or potassium after sex; eating arsenic or castor oil seeds; and drinking water used to wash dead bodies. A 28-bead necklace is being used to help women keep track of their menstrual cycle and know when the risk of pregnancy is greatest. 11 white beads designate the fertile period, with fluorescent beads indicating the peak days of ovulation. In Brazil, the third most popular family planning method is natural family planning (NFP), indicating a clear demand for NFP; yet many couples use NFP incorrectly. In the Philippines, lime juice is used to prevent bean pods from opening and

  19. Explanatory Models and Illness Experience of People Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Laws, M Barton

    2016-09-01

    Research into explanatory models of disease and illness typically explores people's conceptual understanding, and emphasizes differences between patient and provider models. However, the explanatory models framework of etiology, time and mode of onset of symptoms, pathophysiology, course of sickness, and treatment is built on categories characteristic of biomedical understanding. It is unclear how well these map onto people's lived experience of illness, and to the extent they do, how they translate. Scholars have previously studied the experience of people living with HIV through the lenses of stigma and identity theory. Here, through in-depth qualitative interviews with 32 people living with HIV in the northeast United States, we explored the experience and meanings of living with HIV more broadly using the explanatory models framework. We found that identity reformation is a major challenge for most people following the HIV diagnosis, and can be understood as a central component of the concept of course of illness. Salient etiological explanations are not biological, but rather social, such as betrayal, or living in a specific cultural milieu, and often self-evaluative. Given that symptoms can now largely be avoided through adherence to treatment, they are most frequently described in terms of observation of others who have not been adherent, or the resolution of symptoms following treatment. The category of pathophysiology is not ordinarily very relevant to the illness experience, as few respondents have any understanding of the mechanism of pathogenesis in HIV, nor much interest in it. Treatment has various personal meanings, both positive and negative, often profound. For people to engage successfully in treatment and live successfully with HIV, mechanistic explanation is of little significance. Rather, positive psychological integration of health promoting behaviors is of central importance.

  20. 'Older people have lived their lives': first year nursing students' attitudes towards older people.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Xiao, Lily; Siegloff, Lesley; Kelton, Moira; Paterson, Jan

    2008-08-01

    A survey was conducted with 262 commencing nursing students at a South Australian university, during a compulsory orientation week lecture prior to the first week of their nursing degree, to determine their attitudes towards older people and to working with older people. The survey provides baseline data to evaluate the efficacy of the Partnerships in Aged Care (PACE) Action Research project, the focus of which is developing aged care curriculum and placements with aged care industry partners. The survey will be replicated when this cohort completes their nursing degree. The results of this initial survey show that while commencing students generally have positive attitudes towards older people they do not aspire to work with them. The reasons cited for a lack of interest in working with older people include: poor experiences of providing care for older people; an inability to relate to or communicate with older people and a perception that the work is depressing and boring. Underpinning a negative perception of working with older people is the association of ageing with disability. Ageing for this cohort, is associated with loss of mental and physical function; loss of independence and increasing reliance on others to meet self care needs. This is viewed as evidence of a biomedical view of ageing. Contrary to previous research, many students studied in this project, who have had experience of working with older people, demonstrate more positive attitudes to older people and are less likely to express stereotypical attitudes towards ageing suggesting that positive exposure to older people can challenge ageist views. The PACE project seeks to demonstrate that strategies which may promote a positive attitude to ageing such as development of educational content which promotes a quality of life rather than a biomedical approach to ageing and supported clinical placements can impact positively on nursing students perception of ageing and of working with older people.

  1. Physical parameters affecting living cells in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, Dieter

    The question is posed: Why does a living cell react to the absence of gravity? What sensors may it have? Does it note pressure, sedimentation, convection, or other parameters? If somewhere in a liquid volume sodium ions are replaced by potassium ions, the density of the liquid changes locally: the heavier regions sink, the lighter regions rise. This may contribute to species transport, to the metabolism. Under microgravity this mechanism is strongly reduced. On the other hand, other reasons for convection like thermal and solutal interface convection are left. Do they affect species transport? Another important effect of gravity is the hydrostatic pressure. On the macroscopic side, the pressure between our head and feet changes by 0.35 atmospheres. On the microscopic level the hydrostatic pressure on the upper half of a cell membrane is lower than on the lower half. This, by affecting the ion transport through the membrane, may change the surrounding electric potential. It has been suggested to be one of the reasons for graviperception. Following the discussion of these and other effects possibly important in life sciences in space, an order of magnitude analysis of the residual accelerations tolerable during experiments in materials sciences is outlined. In the field of life sciences only rough estimates are available at present.

  2. The Meaning of Work in the Lives of People Living with HIV Disease and AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McReynolds, Connie J.

    2001-01-01

    Study focuses on the importance that work holds in the lives of people living with HIV disease and AIDS. Four categories were identified: providing access to affordable insurance and health care; providing a distraction from the disease; allowing one to be a contributing member of society; and serving as a measure of health. Implications for…

  3. Career Concerns for People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Brandon; Jaques, Jodi; Niles, Spencer G.; Wierzalis, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Study seeks to identify the career concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS. Used qualitative research methodology to ask participants to discuss the impact their diagnosis has had on their career development concerns and their career goals. Responses classified participants' concerns as relating to career or workplace issues, medical issues, or…

  4. Explanatory Models and Illness Experience of People Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Research into explanatory models of disease and illness typically explores people’s conceptual understanding, and emphasizes differences between patient and provider models. However, the explanatory models framework of etiology, time and mode of onset of symptoms, pathophysiology, course of sickness, and treatment is built on categories characteristic of biomedical understanding. It is unclear how well these map onto people’s lived experience of illness, and to the extent they do, how they translate. Scholars have previously studied the experience of people living with HIV through the lenses of stigma and identity theory. Here, through in-depth qualitative interviews with 32 people living with HIV in the northeast United States, we explored the experience and meanings of living with HIV more broadly using the explanatory models framework. We found that identity reformation is a major challenge for most people following the HIV diagnosis, and can be understood as a central component of the concept of course of illness. Salient etiological explanations are not biological, but rather social, such as betrayal, or living in a specific cultural milieu, and often self-evaluative. Given that symptoms can now largely be avoided through adherence to treatment, they are most frequently described in terms of observation of others who have not been adherent, or the resolution of symptoms following treatment. The category of pathophysiology is not ordinarily very relevant to the illness experience, as few respondents have any understanding of the mechanism of pathogenesis in HIV, nor much interest in it. Treatment has various personal meanings, both positive and negative, often profound. For people to engage successfully in treatment and live successfully with HIV, mechanistic explanation is of little significance. Rather, positive psychological integration of health promoting behaviors is of central importance. PMID:26971285

  5. Discourse as Medium of Knowledge: Transmission of Knowledge by Transmission of Discourse People Live

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassen, Rukya

    2015-01-01

    This is a study on discourse as medium of knowledge. Informal education is a system of transmission of knowledge by transmission of discourse people live by. In the humanities and social sciences, the term discourse describes a formal way of thinking that can be expressed through language. Discourses are seen to affect our views on all things; it…

  6. "Affective Encounters": Live Intermedial Spaces in Sites of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses live intermediality as a tool for creative learning in the context of workshops carried out with young people in the town of Terezin, in the Czech Republic, site of the Nazi concentration camp, Theresienstadt. Live intermediality, as a mode of live media practice, involves the real time mixing and merging of sound, image,…

  7. Tuberculosis control in people living with HIV/AIDS 1

    PubMed Central

    Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Lopes, Lívia Maria; Andrade, Rubia Laine de Paula; Brunello, Maria Eugênia Firmino; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the offering of health actions and services for the control of tuberculosis for people living with HIV/AIDS being followed up in the Specialized Care Services for HIV/AIDS in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Method: quantitative, exploratory survey study. Participated 253 people living with HIV/AIDS followed up by this service, considering as inclusion criteria: individuals older than 18 years living in the city and not inmates. Data collection was conducted from January 2012 to May 2013 through interviews with the support of a specific instrument. Data were analyzed using indicators and a composite index. Results: the offering of services for the control of tuberculosis in people living with HIV/AIDS by municipal services was considered as intermediate, reinforcing the need for better planning for comprehensive assistance, coordination of professionals in teams and among the services network, in addition to professional training and continuing education. Conclusion: it is necessary to implement strategies that promote shared actions between TB and HIV / AIDS programs and between different services in order to strengthen the local care network, aimed at producing an individualized care, comprehensive and responsive. PMID:27627120

  8. Personal health records for people living with HIV: a review.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kea; Klaman, Stacey L; Shea, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    Personal health records have the potential to improve patient outcomes, but the state of the literature on personal health record usage by people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is unclear. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of personal health records on HIV-related health beliefs and behaviors. We used the Health Belief Model to guide a review of studies examining the impact of electronic personal health records on the health beliefs and behaviors among people living with HIV. The search yielded 434 results. Following abstract review, 19 papers were selected for full-text review, and 12 were included in the review. A limited number of studies in this review found a positive impact of personal health records on HIV-related beliefs and behaviors. Additional research is needed to identify which personal health record features are most influential in changing health behaviors and why adoption rates remain low, particularly for groups at greatest risk for poor HIV outcomes. Theory-informed interventions are needed to identify which patients are likely to benefit from using personal health records and how to reduce barriers to personal health record adoption for people living with HIV. PMID:26917113

  9. Patient-centered care for people living with multimorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Cynthia M.; Lucas, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to consider a patient-centred approach to the care of people living with HIV (PLWH) who have multimorbidity, irrespective of the specific conditions. Recent findings Interdisciplinary care to achieve patient-centred care for people with multimorbidity is recognized as important, but the evaluation of models designed to achieve this goal are needed. Key elements of such approaches include patient preferences, interpretation of the evidence, prognosis as a tool to inform patient-centred care, clinical feasibility and optimization of treatment regimens. Summary Developing and evaluating the best models of patient-centred care for PLWH who also have multimorbidity is essential. This challenge represents an opportunity to leverage the lessons learned from the care of people with multimorbidity in general, and vice versa. PMID:24871089

  10. Tough decisions faced by people living with HIV: a literature review of psychosocial problems.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Paulina; Edwards, Adrian; Rollnick, Stephen; Elwyn, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    People living with HIV have faced a new situation since the arrival of the antiretroviral treatments. HIV has become a long-term condition, which not only affects physical health, but also causes psychological and social problems because of stigma and discrimination. These challenges present many decisions and dilemmas for people living with HIV, which involve complex emotional and psychological issues. The aim of this study was to examine the psychosocial decision needs of people living with HIV. To undertake the literature review, a search strategy was designed. Sources included databases (Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, and PubMed) as well as electronic journals (AIDS and Behavior, AIDS Care, and Social Science and Medicine). The following search terms were used: (HIV) AND (decision making; OR decision need; OR decision) AND (psychosocial; OR psychological; OR social). All languages were included, using articles from 1990 to 2009. The search was conducted from September 2008 to November 2009, and identified 123 articles. After analysis, 46 articles were included for detailed assessment. The results show that people living with HIV face three key decisions: (i) whether or not to disclose their diagnosis to others; (ii) decisions about adherence to treatments; and (iii) decisions about sexual activity and desires about parenthood. Problems associated with these decisions often result in isolation and mental illness such as depression and anxiety, lack of access to social support, and refusal to seek treatment. Despite the importance of HIV and its public health impact, few studies have considered the psychosocial needs of people living with HIV, but the results demonstrated the burden as a consequence of those needs and that greater support would be of benefit to face them in an effective way. Therefore, the results of this review highlight the requirement to develop interventions to support the psychosocial needs of people living with HIV, to accurately reflect

  11. Reducing hospitalisation among people living with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Shannon; Bruce, Jasmine; Muir, Kristy; Ramia, Ioana; Fisher, Karen R; Bullen, Jane

    2016-04-01

    Objective People with severe mental illness have high rates of hospitalisation. The present study examined the role that permanent housing and recovery-oriented support can play in reducing the number and length of psychiatric hospital admissions for people with severe mental illness. Methods The study examined de-identified, individual-level health records of 197 people involved in the New South Wales Mental Health Housing and Accommodation Support Initiative (HASI) to compare changes in hospitalisation over a continuous 4-year period. Results On average, HASI consumers experienced significant reductions in the number of psychiatric hospital admissions and length of stay after entering the HASI program, and these reductions were sustained over the first 2 years in HASI. Male consumers and consumers under 45 years of age experienced the largest reductions in the number and length of hospital admissions. Conclusions The findings of the present study add support to the hypothesis that supported housing and recovery-oriented support can be effective approaches to reducing hospital admissions for people with chronic mental illness, and that these changes can be sustained over time. What is known about this topic? People living with severe mental illness are heavy users of health and hospitalisation services. Research into the effects of partnership programs on preventing unnecessary admissions is limited because of short periods of comparison and small sample sizes. What does this paper add? The present study extends previous research by analysing de-identified individual-level health records over a continuous 4-year period and showing that reductions in hospitalisation among people with severe mental illness can be sustained over time. What are the implications for practitioners? These findings provide further evidence that community-based recovery-oriented supported housing programs can assist consumers to manage their mental health and avoid hospital admissions

  12. [The way people would like their lives to end].

    PubMed

    Tobler, K; Scholian, U

    2009-01-21

    By means of four dying trajectories we carried out a survey with people working in nursing institutions and participants of workshops preparing for retirement about the way they would like to spend the final phase of their lives (n = 159). The average lifetime women desired was 85,6 years, that of men 83,8 years. 43% wished for a sudden death to avoid suffering. 50% preferred to die within a couple of weeks or months to have time to say goodbye. In order to avoid dependence on others and the need for care 34% would forfeit at least six years, 61% at least two years of their lives. 14% would not trade off any time at all. PMID:19153954

  13. [Adaptive immune response of people living near chemically hazardous object].

    PubMed

    Petlenko, S V; Ivanov, M B; Goverdovskiĭ, Iu B; Bogdanova, E G; Golubkov, A V

    2011-10-01

    The article presents data dynamics of adaptive immune responses of people for a long time living in adverse environmental conditions caused by pollution of the environment by industrial toxic waste. It is shown that in the process of adaptation to adverse environmental factors, changes in the immune system are in the phase fluctuations of immunological parameters that are accompanied by changes in the structure of immunodependent pathology. Most sensitive to prolonged exposure to toxic compounds are the cellular mechanisms of immune protection. Violations of the structural and quantitative and functional parameters of the link of the immune system are leading to the formation of immunopathological processes.

  14. Ambient Assisted Nutritional Advisor for elderly people living at home.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, Juan P; Fides, Alvaro; Navarro, Ana; Guillen, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Nutrition is a critical aspect when getting older because bad nutrition habits can accelerate the process of degradation of the physical condition of the old person. In order to mitigate this problem, an Ambient Assisted Living service has been developed. Research with this service is focused on demonstrating that with an Ambient Intelligence systems it is possible to make the nutritional management much more effective by influencing the user, by automatically and seamlessly monitoring and by facilitating tools for nutritional management for people that want to be autonomous. In this paper both requirement acquisition and development processes are described as well. PMID:21097180

  15. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hyekyung; Kim, Yeonhee; Rhie, Sandy Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL) associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160) aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15). The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=−0.215, P=0.022), sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=−0.335, P=0.000), education level (β=−0.153, P=0.045), health-related problems (β=−0.239, P=0.004), and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018). Conclusion In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists should consider elderly patients’ individual characteristics such as educational background and specific patient-related health problems, provide sufficient information and explanation of medication, and ensure patient

  16. Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Limitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADL) Limitation Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Limitation This measure ... Age Group Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living Limitation by Age Group ...

  17. Identifying Symptom Patterns in People Living With HIV Disease.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Natalie L; Azuero, Andres; Vance, David E; Richman, Joshua S; Moneyham, Linda D; Raper, James L; Heath, Sonya L; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms guide disease management, and patients frequently report HIV-related symptoms, but HIV symptom patterns reported by patients have not been described in the era of improved antiretroviral treatment. The objectives of our study were to investigate the prevalence and burden of symptoms in people living with HIV and attending an outpatient clinic. The prevalence, burden, and bothersomeness of symptoms reported by patients in routine clinic visits during 2011 were assessed using the 20-item HIV Symptom Index. Principal component analysis was used to identify symptom clusters and relationships between groups using appropriate statistic techniques. Two main clusters were identified. The most prevalent and bothersome symptoms were muscle aches/joint pain, fatigue, and poor sleep. A third of patients had seven or more symptoms, including the most burdensome symptoms. Even with improved antiretroviral drug side-effect profiles, symptom prevalence and burden, independent of HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell count, are high.

  18. Identifying Symptom Patterns in People Living With HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Natalie L.; Azuero, Andres; Vance, David E.; Richman, Joshua S.; Moneyham, Linda D.; Raper, James L.; Heath, Sonya L.; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms guide disease management, and patients frequently report HIV-related symptoms, but HIV symptom patterns reported by patients have not been described in the era of improved antiretroviral treatment. The objectives of our study were to investigate the prevalence and burden of symptoms in people living with HIV and attending an outpatient clinic. The prevalence, burden, and bothersomeness of symptoms reported by patients in routine clinic visits during 2011 were assessed using the 20-item HIV Symptom Index. Principal component analysis was used to identify symptom clusters and relationships between groups using appropriate statistic techniques. Two main clusters were identified. The most prevalent and bothersome symptoms were muscle aches/joint pain, fatigue, and poor sleep. A third of patients had seven or more symptoms, including the most burdensome symptoms. Even with improved antiretroviral drug side-effect profiles, symptom prevalence and burden, independent of HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell count, are high. PMID:26790340

  19. Saving Lives and Protecting People from Injuries and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Houry, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Emergency physicians witness the impact of injury and violence every day. Traumatic brain injury, assault-related trauma, motor vehicle crashes, and drug overdoses make up only some of these injuries—many of which can be prevented and better understood. CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control—the Injury Center—is uniquely poised to measure the toll of injury and violence on the lives of Americans, to communicate such injury inequities, and to reduce the factors that increase their risk. Injury is the leading cause of death for people ages 1–44 in the United States. The Injury Center seeks to prevent violence and injuries and to reduce their consequences. For more than 20 years, Injury Center researchers have investigated those factors that put Americans at risk through surveillance and research and translated these findings into evidence-based strategies and interventions. Many of these efforts are directly relevant to emergency medicine through preventing injuries and violence to save lives. PMID:27033143

  20. Advance Care Planning among People Living with Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Barbara A.; Gessert, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recent nephrology literature focuses on the need for discussions regarding advance care planning (ACP) for people living with dialysis (PWD). PWD and their family members’ attitudes toward ACP and other aspects of late-life decision making were assessed in this qualitative study. Methodology: Thirty-one interviews were completed with 20 PWD over the age of 70 (mean dialysis 34 months) and 11 family members, related to life experiences, making medical decisions, and planning for the future. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed. Findings: Four themes regarding ACP emerged from this secondary analysis of the interviews: how completing ACP, advance directives (AD), and identifying an agent fit into PWD experiences; PWD understanding of their prognosis; what gives PWD lives meaning and worth; and PWD care preferences when their defined meaning and worth are not part of their experience. These PWD and family members revealed that ACP is ongoing and common among them. They did not seem to think their medical providers needed to be part of these discussions, since family members were well informed. Practical implications: These results suggest that if health care providers and institutions need AD forms completed, it will important to work with both PWD and their family members to assure personal wishes are documented and honored. PMID:27417605

  1. Suicide attempts among people living with HIV in France.

    PubMed

    Préau, M; Bouhnik, A-D; Peretti-Watel, P; Obadia, Y; Spire, B

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of attempted suicide among a representative sample of French Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. In 2003, a face-to-face survey was conducted among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) selected in a random, stratified sample of French hospital departments. Among solicited individuals, 2,932 agreed to participate and were asked if they had ever AS. Among the respondents, 23% had AS. Female gender, younger age, native French citizenship, reporting household financial difficulties, having been HIV-contaminated through homosexual contact or through injection drug use and suffering from lipodystrophy-related symptoms were all independently associated with AS. HIV-discrimination and the lack of social support from family remained independently associated with AS. Our findings indicate a high level of AS among PLWHA and emphasize the multiple roles of factors associated with living with HIV, together with sociodemographic factors. The results enable the possibility for vulnerable groups to be targeted for specific future interventions in order to prevent attempted suicide.

  2. Lives in Science: How Institutions Affect Academic Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanowicz, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    What can we learn when we follow people over the years and across the course of their professional lives? Joseph C. Hermanowicz asks this question specifically about scientists and answers it here by tracking fifty-five physicists through different stages of their careers at a variety of universities across the country. He explores these…

  3. Factors affecting satisfaction of Thai senior citizens living with their children.

    PubMed

    Kanchanakitsakul, M

    1999-07-01

    Globalization has greatly affected both socioeconomic and cultural changes. It has affected family structures, faiths, values, and living arrangements of the people in Thailand, especially senior citizens that are familiar with the old ways. In this article, a study analyzing living arrangements, living satisfaction, and factors affecting satisfaction for senior citizens living with their children is presented. Using descriptive and inferential statistics, data from the 1994 Survey of the Elderly in Thailand were analyzed. Findings of the analysis showed that a large majority of Thai senior citizens lived with their children (73%), indicating that co-residence between senior citizens and their children is a prominent phenomenon in Thai society. Indicators of high living satisfaction included obedience of the children and happiness, while neglect and child complaints were negative indicators. In addition, presence of a spouse could affect the satisfaction of senior citizens. Factors affecting living satisfaction included support from children, income sufficiency, marital status of senior citizen, health status, need to be cared for by children, and education. Sustained filial duty of children, social participation of senior citizens, and further studies on the factors affecting satisfaction are recommended.

  4. Self-Regulation and Experience of Loneliness of Elderly People Who Live in Social Care Residences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abitov, Ildar R.; Gorodetskaya, Inna M.

    2016-01-01

    The research addresses the peculiarities of self-regulation of loneliness experience of elderly people living in care homes. The population of the study consisted of 60 elderly people (65-80 years old). 30 of them live in families with spouses and children and 30 persons live in the State residential social service institution. It was found that…

  5. Osteopenia and osteoporosis in people living with HIV: multiprofessional approach

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz; de Oliveira, Priscila Rosalba D; Plapler, Perola Grimberg; Marcolino, Flora Maria D Andrea; de Souza Meirelles, Eduardo; Sugawara, André; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; dos Santos, Alexandre Leme Godoy; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2011-01-01

    Increasing bone mineralization abnormalities observed among people living with HIV (PLWHIV) result from various factors relating to the host, the virus, and the antiretrovirals used. Today, HIV infection is considered to be a risk factor for bone mineralization disorders. The test most recommended for diagnosing osteoporosis is measurement of bone mineral density by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at two sites. Osteoporosis treatment has the aims of bone mass improvement and fracture control. A combination of calcium and vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of fractures. Antiresorptive drugs act by blocking osteoclastic activity and reducing bone remodeling. On the other hand, bone-forming drugs stimulate osteoblastogenesis, thereby stimulating the formation of bone matrix. Mixed-action medications are those that are capable of both stimulating bone formation and inhibiting reabsorption. Antiresorptive drugs form the group of medications with the greatest quantity of scientific evidence confirming their efficacy in osteoporosis treatment. Physical activity is a health promotion strategy for the general population, but only preliminary data on its real value and benefit among PLWHIV are available, especially in relation to osteoporosis. PMID:22267944

  6. The effect of living alone on the costs and benefits of surgery amongst older people.

    PubMed

    Turner, Alex J; Nikolova, Silviya; Sutton, Matt

    2016-02-01

    Older people who live alone are a growing, high-cost group for health and social services. The literature on how living alone affects health and the costs and benefits of healthcare has focused on crude measures of health and utilisation and gives little consideration to other cost determinants and aspects of patient experience. We study the effect of living alone at each stage along an entire treatment pathway using a large dataset which provides information on pre-treatment experience, treatment benefits and costs of surgery for 105,843 patients receiving elective hip and knee replacements in England in 2009 and 2010. We find that patients who live alone are healthier prior to treatment and experience the same gains from treatment. However, living alone is associated with a 9.2% longer length of in-hospital stay and increased probabilities of readmission and discharge to expensive destinations. These increase the costs per patient by £179.88 (3.12%) and amount to an additional £4.9 million per annum. A lack of post-discharge support for those living alone is likely to be a key driver of these additional costs. PMID:26741271

  7. The effect of living alone on the costs and benefits of surgery amongst older people.

    PubMed

    Turner, Alex J; Nikolova, Silviya; Sutton, Matt

    2016-02-01

    Older people who live alone are a growing, high-cost group for health and social services. The literature on how living alone affects health and the costs and benefits of healthcare has focused on crude measures of health and utilisation and gives little consideration to other cost determinants and aspects of patient experience. We study the effect of living alone at each stage along an entire treatment pathway using a large dataset which provides information on pre-treatment experience, treatment benefits and costs of surgery for 105,843 patients receiving elective hip and knee replacements in England in 2009 and 2010. We find that patients who live alone are healthier prior to treatment and experience the same gains from treatment. However, living alone is associated with a 9.2% longer length of in-hospital stay and increased probabilities of readmission and discharge to expensive destinations. These increase the costs per patient by £179.88 (3.12%) and amount to an additional £4.9 million per annum. A lack of post-discharge support for those living alone is likely to be a key driver of these additional costs.

  8. Who Needs Enemies with Friends like These? The Importance of Place for Young People Living in Known Gang Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralphs, Robert; Medina, Juanjo; Aldridge, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Despite a growing concern about gangs in Britain, academic research that focuses on gangs remains scarce. Drawing on data from the ESRC-funded ethnographic research YOGEC (Youth Gangs in an English City) project, this paper explores the negotiation of space and place by young people living in inner-city areas affected by gangs. Using a combination…

  9. Behavioral Intention to Use a Virtual Instrumental Activities of Daily Living System Among People With Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral intention to use (BIU) regarding a virtual system for practicing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among people with stroke. METHOD. Fourteen people who had sustained a stroke used a virtual world–based system over four sessions to participate in virtual occupations of preparing meals and putting away groceries. To investigate intention to use the technology, participants responded to a questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model and were interviewed about the experience. RESULTS. Analysis of questionnaire responses revealed favorable attitudes toward the technology and statistically significant correlations between these attitudes and positive BIU. Analysis of qualitative data revealed four themes to support system use: Use of the affected arm increased, the virtual practice was enjoyable, the technology was user-friendly, and the system reflected real-life activities. CONCLUSION. This study shows that participants reported a positive BIU for the virtual system for practicing IADLs. PMID:25871604

  10. Living with companion animals after stroke: experiences of older people in community and primary care nursing.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maria; Ahlström, Gerd; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2014-12-01

    Older people often have companion animals, and the significance of animals in human lives should be considered by nurses-particularly in relation to older people's health, which can be affected by diseases. The incidence of stroke increases with age and disabilities as a result of stroke are common. This study aimed to explore older people's experiences of living with companion animals after stroke, and their life situation with the animals in relation to the physical, psychological and social aspects of recovery after stroke. The study was performed using individual interviews approximately 2 years after stroke with 17 participants (10 women and 7 men) aged 62-88 years. An overarching theme arising from the content analysis was contribution to a meaningful life. This theme was generated from four categories: motivation for physical and psychosocial recovery after stroke; someone to care for who cares for you; animals as family members; and providers of safety and protection. The main conclusion was that companion animals are experienced as physical and psychosocial contributors to recovery and a meaningful life after stroke.

  11. Self-reported affective traits and current affective experiences of biological relatives of people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Anna R; Sponheim, Scott R; Kerns, John G

    2015-02-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by self-reported trait anhedonia but intact hedonic responses during laboratory experiments. Affective traits of first-degree biological relatives may be similar to those of people with schizophrenia, and measures of hedonic response in relatives may be free of antipsychotic medication or cognitive confounds. Relatives also self-report increased anhedonia, yet it is unclear whether, like in patients, this anhedonia is paired with largely intact hedonic self-report. In this study, first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia (n=33) and nonpsychiatric controls (n=25) completed a wide range of questionnaires and tasks assessing social and physical anhedonia, positive and negative affective experience, and anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. Valence, intensity, frequency, and the arousal of current emotion were assessed. Extraversion and current positive and negative affective state were also examined in relation to self-reported social anhedonia. Relatives evidenced the same disjunction of increased self-reported anhedonia and intact affective response observed in people with schizophrenia. Group differences in anhedonia were not better accounted for by decreased current positive affect, increased current negative affect, or decreased extraversion in relatives. Results suggest that, like people with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives report intact hedonic response on both questionnaire and laboratory measures despite significant elevations in self-reported social anhedonia.

  12. Assessing Risk of Injury in People with Mental Retardation Living in an Intermediate Care Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konarski, Edward A.; Tasse, Marc

    2005-01-01

    A brief instrument to assess risk of injury was applied retrospectively for 2 years and prospectively for 1 year to all people living in a large ICF/MR. Results suggest that the percentage of people who experienced an injury significantly increased across the levels of increasing risk indicated by the assessment. Furthermore, people who…

  13. Ready, Steady, Action: What Enables Young People to Perceive Themselves as Active Agents in Their Lives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Government and educational priorities place importance on young people of secondary school age being active, having their voices heard, and participating in their community. This paper explores an understanding of the role of agency in young people's lives and how the concept is developing. Young people who perceive themselves as having…

  14. Positive affect and distressed affect over the day in older people.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Leigh, Elizabeth S; Kumari, Meena

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess patterns of affect over the day in a representative sample of older people, with particular emphasis on the impact of loneliness and depression. Momentary assessments of positive and distressed affect were obtained four times over a single day from 4,258 men and women aged 52-79 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Positive and distressed affect were only modestly correlated (r = -0.23). Positive affect was low on waking and peaked in the early evening, while distressed affect decreased progressively over the day. The diurnal variation in positive affect was greater in participants <65 years compared with older individuals. Positive affect was greater in men, married participants and in healthy individuals, while distressed affect was higher among women, unmarried and lower socioeconomic status respondents, and in those with limiting longstanding illnesses. Depressed individuals experienced lower positive affect throughout the day, while differences in distressed affect were more pronounced in the morning. Loneliness was associated with lower positive affect and greater distressed affect independently of age, sex, marital status, paid employment, socioeconomic status, health, and depression. This study demonstrates that ecological momentary assessment of affect is feasible on a large scale in older individuals, and generates information about positive affect and distress that is complementary to standard questionnaire measures. The associations with loneliness highlight the everyday distress and reduced happiness and excitement experienced by lonely older men and women, and these may contribute to enhanced risks to physical and mental health.

  15. Stories of Growth and Wisdom: A Mixed-Methods Study of People Living Well With Pain

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Martha; Plews-Ogan, Margaret; Calhoun, Lawrence G.; Ardelt, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain remains a daunting clinical challenge, affecting 30% of people in the United States and 20% of the global population. People meeting this challenge by achieving wellbeing while living with pain are a virtually untapped source of wisdom about this persistent problem. Employing a concurrent mixed-methods design, we studied 80 people living with chronic pain with “positive stories to tell” using semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires. In-depth interviews focused on what helped, what hindered, how they changed, and advice for others in similar circumstances. Major qualitative themes included acceptance, openness, self-efficacy, hope, perseverance, self-regulation, kinesthetic awareness, holistic approaches and integrative therapies, self-care, spirituality, social support, and therapeutic lifestyle behaviors such as music, writing, art, gardening, and spending time in nature. Themes of growth and wisdom included enhanced relationships, perspective, clarity, strength, gratitude, compassion, new directions, and spiritual change. Based on narrative analysis of the interviews and Ardelt's Three-Dimensional Wisdom Model, participants were divided into 2 groups: 59 wisdom exemplars and 21 nonexemplars. Non-exemplar themes were largely negative and in direct contrast to the exemplar themes. Quantitatively, wisdom exemplars scored significantly higher in Openness and Agreeableness and lower in Neuroticism compared to non-exemplars. Wisdom exemplars also scored higher in Wisdom, Gratitude, Forgiveness, and Posttraumatic Growth than nonexemplars, and more exemplars used integrative therapies compared to the non-exemplars. As a whole, the exemplar narratives illustrate a Positive Approach Model (PAM) for living well with pain, which allows for a more expansive pain narrative, provides positive role models for patients and clinicians, and contributes to a broader theoretical perspective on persistent pain. PMID:26937311

  16. Stories of Growth and Wisdom: A Mixed-Methods Study of People Living Well With Pain.

    PubMed

    Owens, Justine E; Menard, Martha; Plews-Ogan, Margaret; Calhoun, Lawrence G; Ardelt, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain remains a daunting clinical challenge, affecting 30% of people in the United States and 20% of the global population. People meeting this challenge by achieving wellbeing while living with pain are a virtually untapped source of wisdom about this persistent problem. Employing a concurrent mixed-methods design, we studied 80 people living with chronic pain with "positive stories to tell" using semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires. In-depth interviews focused on what helped, what hindered, how they changed, and advice for others in similar circumstances. Major qualitative themes included acceptance, openness, self-efficacy, hope, perseverance, self-regulation, kinesthetic awareness, holistic approaches and integrative therapies, self-care, spirituality, social support, and therapeutic lifestyle behaviors such as music, writing, art, gardening, and spending time in nature. Themes of growth and wisdom included enhanced relationships, perspective, clarity, strength, gratitude, compassion, new directions, and spiritual change. Based on narrative analysis of the interviews and Ardelt's Three-Dimensional Wisdom Model, participants were divided into 2 groups: 59 wisdom exemplars and 21 nonexemplars. Non-exemplar themes were largely negative and in direct contrast to the exemplar themes. Quantitatively, wisdom exemplars scored significantly higher in Openness and Agreeableness and lower in Neuroticism compared to non-exemplars. Wisdom exemplars also scored higher in Wisdom, Gratitude, Forgiveness, and Posttraumatic Growth than nonexemplars, and more exemplars used integrative therapies compared to the non-exemplars. As a whole, the exemplar narratives illustrate a Positive Approach Model (PAM) for living well with pain, which allows for a more expansive pain narrative, provides positive role models for patients and clinicians, and contributes to a broader theoretical perspective on persistent pain. PMID:26937311

  17. Stories of Growth and Wisdom: A Mixed-Methods Study of People Living Well With Pain.

    PubMed

    Owens, Justine E; Menard, Martha; Plews-Ogan, Margaret; Calhoun, Lawrence G; Ardelt, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain remains a daunting clinical challenge, affecting 30% of people in the United States and 20% of the global population. People meeting this challenge by achieving wellbeing while living with pain are a virtually untapped source of wisdom about this persistent problem. Employing a concurrent mixed-methods design, we studied 80 people living with chronic pain with "positive stories to tell" using semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires. In-depth interviews focused on what helped, what hindered, how they changed, and advice for others in similar circumstances. Major qualitative themes included acceptance, openness, self-efficacy, hope, perseverance, self-regulation, kinesthetic awareness, holistic approaches and integrative therapies, self-care, spirituality, social support, and therapeutic lifestyle behaviors such as music, writing, art, gardening, and spending time in nature. Themes of growth and wisdom included enhanced relationships, perspective, clarity, strength, gratitude, compassion, new directions, and spiritual change. Based on narrative analysis of the interviews and Ardelt's Three-Dimensional Wisdom Model, participants were divided into 2 groups: 59 wisdom exemplars and 21 nonexemplars. Non-exemplar themes were largely negative and in direct contrast to the exemplar themes. Quantitatively, wisdom exemplars scored significantly higher in Openness and Agreeableness and lower in Neuroticism compared to non-exemplars. Wisdom exemplars also scored higher in Wisdom, Gratitude, Forgiveness, and Posttraumatic Growth than nonexemplars, and more exemplars used integrative therapies compared to the non-exemplars. As a whole, the exemplar narratives illustrate a Positive Approach Model (PAM) for living well with pain, which allows for a more expansive pain narrative, provides positive role models for patients and clinicians, and contributes to a broader theoretical perspective on persistent pain.

  18. Writing Direction Affects How People Map Space Onto Time

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Benjamin K.; Chan Lau, Ting Ting

    2012-01-01

    What determines which spatial axis people use to represent time? We investigate effects of writing direction. English, like Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, is written left to right and then top to bottom. But in Taiwan, characters are written predominantly top to bottom and then right to left. Because being a fluent reader–writer entails thousands of hours of experience with eye and hand movement in the direction dictated by one’s writing system, it could be that writing system direction affects the axis used to represent time in terms of space. In a behavioral experiment, we had native speakers of English, Mandarin Chinese from mainland China, and Mandarin Chinese from Taiwan place sets of cards in temporal order. These cards depicted stages of development of plants and animals, for instance: tadpole, froglet, frog. Results showed that English speakers always represented time as moving from left to right (LR). Mainland Chinese participants trended in the same direction, but a small portion laid the cards out from top to bottom. Taiwanese participants were just as likely to depict time as moving from LR as from top to bottom, with a large minority depicting it as moving from right to left. Native writing system affects how people represent time spatially. PMID:22514546

  19. Sunlight and health: attitudes of older people living in intermediate care facilities in southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Durvasula, Seeta; Kok, Cindy; Sambrook, Philip N; Cumming, Robert G; Lord, Stephen R; March, Lynette M; Mason, Rebecca S; Seibel, Markus J; Simpson, Judy M; Cameron, Ian D

    2010-01-01

    Older people have a high prevalence of falls and fractures, partly due to vitamin D deficiency. Sunlight is a major source of vitamin D, but many older people living in intermediate care facilities have inadequate sunlight exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the sun exposure practices and attitudes to sunlight in this population. Fifty-seven older residents of intermediate care facilities in Sydney, Australia were interviewed to determine their sun exposure practices, their views on sunlight and health and whether these have changed over their lives, factors affecting sunlight exposure and their knowledge of vitamin D. Sixty percent of the participants preferred to be outdoors, despite more than 92% believing that sunlight was healthy. In their youth however, almost 90% had preferred to be outdoors. Poor health, physical constraints and a sense of lack of ownership of outdoor spaces were barriers to sunlight exposure. Improved physical access, more outdoor leisure activities and promotion of greater autonomy may improve safe and appropriate sunlight exposure in this population.

  20. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  1. Age Integration and the Lives of Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Matilda White; Riley, John W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that currently age-differentiated society will give way to age-integrated one; that age will lose its power to constrain people's entry, exist, and performance in such basic social institutions as education, work, and retirement. Sees revolutionary changes toward age integration as needed to reduce structural lag in which dynamism of human…

  2. Yesterday Still Lives...Our Native People Remember Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarco, Pat, Ed.; And Others

    In the summer of 1978, seven teenagers and several staff members from the Fairbanks Native Association-Johnson O'Malley program set out to record some of Alaska's past by interviewing a number of older Alaska Natives and writing their biographical sketches. Some of the students spent a week along the Yukon River taping and photographing people;…

  3. Native Americans: The People and How They Lived.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Eloise F.; Funderburg, John B.

    This large format book with many color illustrations describes native American history on the American continents from the Ice Age to the present, concentrating on Indian history in North Carolina. The book examines living arrangements, objects of daily use, animal husbandry and agriculture, tribal leagues, and architecture. It describes the 28…

  4. Social, Psychological and Health Concerns of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Mysore District, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Siddanna, Sunitha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the significant health and social problem the world facing today is Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AiDS). The patients affected with HIV and their family may face various psychosocial problems during diagnosis and treatment due to the stigma associated with this disease. Aim The objective of the study was to identify social, psychological and health concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its association with the demographic factors in Mysore District, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods A questionnaire based study was conducted among 194 participants in Mysore District, Karnataka state who were receiving care and support services. A 22-item questionnaire provided information regarding social, psychological and health concerns of PLWHA in Mysore district. A general linear regression model was used for assessing the predictors of social, psychological and health concerns. Results The main social concern was that of "Fear of Losing a loved one" whereas the main psychological concern was "Too much worry", "No cure for AIDS" was the highly rated health concern. Males had more social, psychological and health concerns when compared to females but was not statistically significant. Employed people were having fewer psychological concerns when compared to unemployed people. Unemployed people were having fewer health concerns than employed people. For every unit increase in age there were fewer social and health concerns and both these findings were statistically significant. Conclusion PLWHA in the present study reported that they were concerned about social, psychological and health issues in spite of the fact they were attending counseling. Health care workers, including those in public health sector should be educated about the importance of these factors that influence the health of the population they are caring for. PMID:27134901

  5. Differences between family caregivers and people with dementia in recognizing the difficulties encountered in the lives of people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Miyamura, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dementia brings new difficulties in the lives of people with this disorder. It is important that family caregivers accurately recognize these difficulties to help their family members live fulfilling lives. Based on information gathered from people with dementia, family caregivers, and nurses providing medical care to this population, this study compared the differences in perspectives related to the difficulties associated with dementia between the family member with dementia and the family caregiver.Methods The primary participants in this investigation were 106 people with dementia and their family caregivers. Participants with dementia were 65 years and older who were receiving home care in Tokyo. Participants were interviewed about their difficulties while family caregivers completed a questionnaire with basic information regarding people with dementia. Additionally, the nurse providing medical care to the person with dementia completed a questionnaire about the medical care. In this study, difficulties in the lives of people with dementia was defined as impediments in life due to dementia. Difficulties were classified according to 12 symptoms based on responses that appeared frequently in the interviews. The 12 symptoms were pain, hallucinations/delusions, aggressive behavior, memory loss, disorientation, communication impairment, anxiety/confusion, toileting problems, gait disturbance, dietary deficiency, sleep disorder, and social withdrawal. Additional information was gathered and analyzed that included diagnosis and severity of dementia, need for long-term care, core symptoms of dementia, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and delirium.Results The family caregiver's perspective about the difficulties encountered in the life of their family member with dementia was often different from the perspective of the associated family member. No family caregivers recognized that pain was a difficulty, and there were only a

  6. Factors affecting the selenium intake of people in Transbaikalian Russia.

    PubMed

    Aro, A; Kumpulainen, J; Alfthan, G; Voshchenko, A V; Ivanov, V N

    1994-03-01

    The selenium concentration in foods grown and consumed and in plasma, red blood cells, and toenails of people living in the district of Chita in the transbaikalian part of Russia were studied in August 1991. Preliminary results from the area have suggested low selenium intakes and the possible occurrence of cardiomyopathy (Keshan disease) in the population. A low selenium concentration in foods grown locally was found: mean selenium concentration in wheat grains was 1, 5, and 28 micrograms/kg, respectively, in three villages studied, that of oats was between 3-6 micrograms/kg, and of cow's milk 10-27 micrograms/kg dry matter. The selenium concentration of bread was considerably higher, between 87-337 micrograms/kg dry wt, presumably because wheat imported from the US had been used for baking. Occasional samples of pork, beef, and mutton contained between 32-218 micrograms selenium/kg dry wt. Low selenium concentrations were observed in samples of soil and river water. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 52 persons was 1.02 mumol/L, including 33 children and 19 adult subjects. The selenium concentrations in red blood cells and toenails were 1.95 mumol/L and 0.61 mg/kg, respectively. No symptoms of heart disease caused by selenium deficiency were observed. It is concluded that the selenium status of people was fairly good thanks to the contribution to dietary intake of imported wheat with a high selenium content. As the selenium concentration was very low in foods grown in the area, the selenium intake of the population will be reduced to a very low level if only locally produced foods are consumed.

  7. The Economic Lives of People with Disabilities in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Michael; Groce, Nora; Mont, Daniel; Nguyen, Oanh Hong; Mitra, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour) that helps to maintain living standards in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits.

  8. The Economic Lives of People with Disabilities in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Michael; Groce, Nora; Mont, Daniel; Nguyen, Oanh Hong; Mitra, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour) that helps to maintain living standards in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits. PMID:26197034

  9. Experiences of people living with HIV and people living close to them of a comprehensive HIV stigma reduction community intervention in an urban and a rural setting

    PubMed Central

    French, Heleen; Greeff, Minrie; Watson, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract HIV stigma remains high globally. Although there is a selection of HIV stigma reduction interventions discussed in the literature, there is a paucity of research about the effectiveness of these interventions. This study aimed at gaining a deeper understanding of the experiences of people living with HIV (PLWH) and people living close to them from six designated groups during and after having undergone a comprehensive HIV stigma reduction community intervention in both an urban and a rural setting. Attention was focused on their expressed experiences of the workshop and projects executed. A qualitative interpretive description approach was used. PLWH as participants were selected through purposive voluntary sampling and through snowball sampling for the people living close to them. Recruitment was from both urban and rural settings in the North West Province, South Africa. Data collection was via in-depth interviews with 23 PLWH and 60 people living close to them from specific designated groups. The data were thematically analysed through manual open coding. The results from the urban and rural settings were pooled, as there were no noteworthy differences in the themes between them. The results indicated that there was an increase in knowledge in all the groups, as well as experiences of enhanced relationships and of being equipped with leadership skills in order to go out into the community and being part of HIV stigma reduction actions. The intervention in its comprehensive nature was found to have been successful and promising for future use in reducing HIV stigma. PMID:25019454

  10. Health Needs of People Living with HIV/AIDS: From the Perspective of Policy Makers, Physicians and Consultants, and People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    MORADI, Ghobad; MOHRAZ, Minoo; GOUYA, Mohammad Mehdi; DEJMAN, Masoumeh; SEYEDALINAGHI, SeyedAhmad; KHOSHRAVESH, Sahar; MALEKAFZALI ARDAKANI, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV/AIDS has been concentrated among injecting drug users in the country. This study aimed to investigate and identify health and treatment needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2012 in Iran. The study groups consisted of experts, practitioners, and consultants working with People Living with HIV/AIDS and their families. Data was collected through Focus Group Discussions and deep interviews. Data were analyzed using content analysis method. Results The findings of this study included the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS, which were classified in three main categories. The first category was prevention and counseling services with several sub-groups such as education and public and available consultation, distribution of condoms to vulnerable groups, increasing counseling centers in urban areas, providing appropriate psychological and supportive counseling, and family planning services. The second category included diagnostic and treatment services and had several sub-groups such as full retroviral treatment, Tuberculosis treatment and continuing care, providing care and treatment for patients with hepatitis, and providing dental services. The third category included rehabilitation services and had some sub-categories such as home care, social and psychological support, nutritional support, and empowering positive clubs. Conclusions This study puts emphasis on making plans based on the priorities to meet the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. PMID:26060705

  11. The prevalence of comorbidities among people living with HIV in Brent: a diverse London Borough.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Ava; Ananthavarathan, Piriyankan; Lorigan, James; Jowata, Mohamade; Brook, Gary; Banarsee, Ricky

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV has changed from a rapidly deteriorating illness to a complex chronic disease, with increasing incidences of comorbidity, including cancer, and liver, lung and cardiovascular diseases. North West London has 6719 individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 873 of whom reside in the London Borough of Brent. Traditionally, commissioning services have focused on HIV therapy alone without considering how comorbidity affects treatment outcome and total service costs. Setting The setting for the study was NHS Brent Primary Care Trust, London UK. Question What associated comorbidities are present in people in Brent (London, UK) living with HIV, and how common are they? Methods A point-prevalence audit of retrospective data was conducted on all HIV-positive patients in Brent (financial year 2011/12). Data were collected from genito-urinary medicine (GUM) services, community services and general practitioners (GPs) on HIV diagnosis, patient demographics and past/current comorbidities: hepatitis B and C, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and mental health disorders. Results This study identified that 29% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Brent have at least one comorbidity. The most common was hepatitis, followed by mental health disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Comorbidity was more likely in older male patients (in particular CVD and diabetes) and White patients (except for diabetes which was more common in Asian groups). Discussion/Conclusion Many PLWHA in Brent suffer from a number of other conditions, which appear largely independent of HIV. Findings confirm the need to treat HIV as a long-term condition, including patient education, empowerment and encouraging self-management. The multi-morbidity of many PLWHA suggests a role for both primary care and collaborative, holistic, patient-centred and individualised healthcare. Service providers and commissioners need to consider comorbidities in their treatment of and

  12. People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Generic Residential Services for Older People in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, D. J.; Ryrie, I.; Wright, S.

    2004-01-01

    Background: As part of a UK programme of work focusing on older people with intellectual disabilities, the circumstance of those who reside in generic services for older people were investigated. Materials and methods: Questionnaires were sent to 2570 residential and nursing homes in 53 local authorities across the UK. Results: Five hundred and…

  13. Smoking in the lived world: how young people make sense of the social role cigarettes play in their lives.

    PubMed

    Fry, Gary; Grogan, Sarah; Gough, Brendan; Conner, Mark

    2008-12-01

    This qualitative study explored how young people (16- to 24-year olds), both smokers and non-smokers, talk about the social role of smoking in their everyday lives. In 22 focus group interviews, 47 high school children and 40 university undergraduates participated. On the basis of analyses, it is proposed that the perceived need to smoke cannot be reduced to addiction; cigarettes appear to play a complex social role in young people's lives. In order to resist smoking, participants highlighted the need to provide an excuse to peers, and some reasons (e.g. an interest in sport for boys) were considered more legitimate than others. Cigarettes (certain brands) were also claimed to be used as a way of controlling other people's perception of smokers, and also to serve as a social tool (for instance, to fill in awkward gaps in conversation). Additionally, smoking was argued to be subject to context (e.g. some schools possess a pro-smoking ethic, while others and universities are anti-smoking). Finally, it was claimed that stopping smoking is difficult since all of the foregoing social factors cannot easily be avoided. The findings of this study compliment and enrich existing social psychological approaches to smoking in young people, and lay the basis for anti-smoking campaigns which take into account the complex social role cigarettes play in the lives of young people.

  14. The Prevalence of Behavior Problems among People with Intellectual Disability Living in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrbakk, Even; Von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    With the desegregation processes of services for people with intellectual disability (ID) that is taking place in most Western countries there is a need for more knowledge related to the prevalence of behavior problems among people living in community settings. This study investigates the prevalence of behavior problems among 140 adolescents and…

  15. Theorising the Relationship between Older People and Their Immediate Social Living Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffel, Tine; Verte, Dominique; De Donder, Liesbeth; De Witte, Nico; Dury, Sarah; Vanwing, Tom; Bolsenbroek, Anouk

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework for exploring the dynamics between older people and their immediate social living environment. After introducing a gerontological perspective that goes beyond "microfication," a literature review presents findings from studies that have explored the role of place and locality for older people. Next,…

  16. Sustainable Living in Long-Term Care: For People with Dementia/Alzheimer's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Nonhome-based long-term care sustainable living arrangements for elderly people with Alzheimer's is presented. Characteristics contributing to sustainability are discussed. The ultimate goal in sustainable design for older adult communities is a people-centered model of care in environments that improve their quality of life. Without sustainable…

  17. New Learning Worlds: The Significance of Nature in the Lives of Marginalised Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Jocey

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a hitherto neglected issue: the significance of nature in the learning lives of marginalised young people. Drawing on both post-human and sociocultural perspectives, it develops a theoretical analysis of this important subject. It uses research with 114 young people in jobs without training in rural South-west England to…

  18. Quality of Life of Poor People Living in Remote Areas in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hung

    2011-01-01

    Based on three surveys carried out for studying living conditions of youth, women and elderly living in six remote areas (Tuen Mun, Yuen Long, Tin Shui Wai, Sheung Shui, Fan Ling and Tai Po) in the New Territories of Hong Kong, this paper reports the poverty and social exclusion of these three groups of people. The quality of life of youth, women…

  19. Meeting the Health Needs of People with Disability Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Sarah; Chau, Andrew; Chan, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of people with disabilities live in the community in Australia and internationally. Many of these individuals live in the family home, on their own, in hostels or in the traditional "group home" model, and receive varying levels of support and care. There is a growing concern that many of the care and support needs of these…

  20. Determinants affecting the well-being of people in the Greater Mekong Subregion countries.

    PubMed

    Ruchiwit, Manyat

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the determinants/factors affecting the well-being of the Thai and Lao people, and the factors that predict the well-being of those respective peoples. Eight hundred and sixty participants were recruited from three major regions of Thailand and Laos and were selected using multistage random sampling. A self-reported well-being questionnaire was developed using the theoretical framework of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and a questionnaire assessing their perceptions/attitudes concerning the factors affecting their well-being was administered. The major findings were the following: (i) the factors affecting the well-being and the self-reported well-being of Thais and Laotians were significantly different; and (ii) the factors predicting the well-being of Thais included the living and working environment and the availability of medical information and technology at their hospitals. On the other hand, one of the factors predicting the well-being of Laotians was their attitudes toward their society and its cultural values. A comprehensive and system-wide review of mental-health policy planning to improve the well-being of people in Thailand and Laos in accordance with those predicted factors is recommended.

  1. Culturally Competent Service Provision Issues Experienced By Aboriginal People Living With HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Kevin; Loppie, Charlotte; Jackson, Randy; Akan, Margaret; MacLean, Lynne; Reimer, Gwen

    2010-01-01

    Cultural identity is an important factor in how well Aboriginal people respond to HIV/AIDS prevention or, once diagnosed with HIV or AIDS, how it affects their health care. This study explores the cultural skills among service providers who see Aboriginal people living with HIV/AIDS (APHAs) and the perspectives of APHAs. The purpose is to better understand the wellness needs of APHAs and how culturally competent care affects health service access and use. Data collection included face-to-face semi-structured interviews with APHAs and focus groups/interviews with community-based and primary health professionals in five regions of Canada. Interviews and focus groups were voice-recorded, verbatim transcribed, and coded using Atlas.ti® software. Thirty-five APHAs and fifty-two service providers were reached. Two key themes were noticed: Active addictions are a major obstacle to adherence to HIV drug regimes. Half of APHA participants said addictions are a major factor. A similar portion noted intensified substance use was an initial coping strategy when diagnosed. A slightly smaller portion noted that addictions were dealt with soon after diagnosis in order to begin antiretroviral treatment. Service providers who inform, encourage, and support APHAs’ choices are viewed as “culturally competent.”Addictions and HIV must be “treated together,” reflecting a holistic worldview of Aboriginal people. Programs that integrate addiction treatment with HIV/AIDS and service providers who encourage and support APHA’s choices are viewed as “wise practice” models by both sets of study participants offering some convergence and a set of five wise practices are identified. PMID:20835301

  2. [Cognitive rehabilitation for people living with schizophrenia - the newest interventions].

    PubMed

    Linke, Magdalena; Jarema, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews the latest interventions in cognitive rehabilitation for patients with schizophrenia. Studies referring to cognitive rehabilitation for people with schizophrenia from the last three years, found in the PubMed database, are presented. The authors categorised cognitive rehabilitation trainings in terms of targeted cognitive spheres - neurocognitive training, social cognition training, emotion perception training and combined training - and present current trends within this approaches. Cognitive function improvements after cognitive remediation are specific to the rehabilitation target and there are no clear differences between training types in the way they influence other cognitive domains or symptoms. There is a need to heighten transfer of gained / enhanced cognitive skills to functional ones. Therefore new methods of cognitive remediation are explored . The future direction in cognitive rehabilitation is to enhance benefits by combining various forms of cognitive remediation and by emphasizing patient specificity in planning and conducting cognitive interventions.

  3. Measuring for change: a new research initiative by and for people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Stackpool-Moore, Lucy; Yuvaraj, Anandi

    2008-12-01

    Several organizations have banded together to create the People Living with HIV Stigma Index. In this article, which is based on a presentation at a concurrent session at the conference, Lucy Stackpool-Moore and Anandi Yuvaraj describe the purpose of the index and how it was developed. The authors believe that the index provides a real opportunity to measure, understand and advocate effectively to improve policies and programs and to make a real difference in the lives of people living with HIV. PMID:19297774

  4. "I have lost sexual interest …"-challenges of balancing personal and professional lives among nurses caring for people living with HIV and AIDS in Limpopo, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sofolahan, Yewande; Airhihenbuwa, Collins; Makofane, Daisy; Mashaba, Ephraim

    2010-01-01

    As part of a capacity-building research project, this study examined the extent to which caring for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) affects both professional and personal relationships of nurse caregivers. The data were collected using focus group interviews with 17 female nurses at two Limpopo hospitals. The PEN-3 cultural model was used as a theoretical framework for exploring how nurses balance job demands with family responsibilities. The results generated three themes: the multiple identities nurses experience within their family and professional lives; nurse attitudes related to patient gender; and stigma experienced by nurses who care for PLWHA. Caring for PLWHA influences nurses' personal and professional lives by interfering with their perceptions and emotions as they relate to spousal, parental, and gendered relationships. The findings offer insight into factors requiring consideration when designing interventions to help nurses cope with the stress associated with caring for PLWHA while simultaneously managing family responsibilities. PMID:21840813

  5. Resisting and challenging stigma in Uganda: the role of support groups of people living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Mburu, Gitau; Ram, Mala; Skovdal, Morten; Bitira, David; Hodgson, Ian; Mwai, Grace W; Stegling, Christine; Seeley, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Global scale up of antiretroviral therapy is changing the context of HIV-related stigma. However, stigma remains an ongoing concern in many countries. Groups of people living with HIV can contribute to the reduction of stigma. However, the pathways through which they do so are not well understood. Methods This paper utilizes data from a qualitative study exploring the impact of networked groups of people living with HIV in Jinja and Mbale districts of Uganda. Participants were people living with HIV (n=40), members of their households (n=10) and their health service providers (n=15). Data were collected via interviews and focus group discussions in 2010, and analyzed inductively to extract key themes related to the approaches and outcomes of the groups’ anti-stigma activities. Results Study participants reported that HIV stigma in their communities had declined as a result of the collective activities of groups of people living with HIV. However, they believed that stigma remained an ongoing challenge. Gender, family relationships, social and economic factors emerged as important drivers of stigma. Challenging stigma collectively transcended individual experiences and united people living with HIV in a process of social renegotiation to achieve change. Groups of people living with HIV provided peer support and improved the confidence of their members, which ultimately reduced self-stigma and improved their ability to deal with external stigma when it was encountered. Conclusions Antiretroviral therapy and group-based approaches in the delivery of HIV services are opening up new avenues for the collective participation of people living with HIV to challenge HIV stigma and act as agents of social change. Interventions for reducing HIV stigma should be expanded beyond those that aim to increase the resilience and coping mechanisms of individuals, to those that build the capacity of groups to collectively cope with and challenge HIV stigma. Such

  6. Emotional, physical and financial burdens of stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Shan; Zhang, Liying; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhengzhu

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researches have shown pernicious effects of stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, no available studies have reported these negative effects including emotional, physical to financial burdens to PLWHA. In the current study, we aim to explore different types of stigma (e.g., perceived, internalized and enacted) and the relevant consequences among PLWHA in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2012 to 2013 in the Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. The validated Berger HIV Stigma Scale was used to measure various types of stigma. We employed a series of linear, logistic and polytomous regression models to assess the association between stigma and different consequences while accounting for potential confounders for each specific model. Of the total sample, 2987 PLWHA provided valid responses with 63% being male and having an average age of 42.9 years. Perceived, internalized and enacted HIV stigma were prevalent among participants, and resulted in various burdens with different magnitudes in their life contexts. Specially, PLWHA who reported higher perceived and internalized stigma were more likely to be imposed on emotional and physical burdens (p < .05). People who reported higher enacted stigma had heavier financial burden compared to their peers (p < .05). Our findings revealed that devastating consequences of HIV-related stigma in China. The prevalent stigmatizing attitudes have pushed PLWHA to the fringes of society and affected them at multiple aspects in their life context. We call for tailored efforts to overcome stigma and discrimination against PLWHA.

  7. Music--Their Lives: The Experience of Music and View of Music of a Number of Swedish and English Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalhammar, Borje

    2004-01-01

    Music plays an important part in the lives of people of all ages. It can have symbolic significance for nation-states and regions, can be a source of deep emotional experience for the individual, or can be an expression of life-style, image and social belonging. Music affects, but is itself affected by forces influenced by different purposes and…

  8. The experience of caregivers of people living with serious mental disorders: a study from rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth Ayuurebobi; Doku, Victor Christian Korley; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Background Families and friends who give care to people with mental disorders (MDs) are affected in a variety of ways and degrees. The interplay of caregiving consequences: poverty, discrimination and stigma, lack of support from others, diminished social relationships, depression, emotional trauma, and poor or interrupted sleep are associated caregiver burden. Objective The burden of care on caregivers of people living with MDs was assessed in two districts located in the middle part of Ghana. Coping strategies and available support for caregivers of MDs were also assessed. Design A qualitative study was carried out involving 75 caregivers of participants with MDs registered within the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems. Data were gathered from caregivers about their experiences in providing care for their relations with MDs. Results Caregivers reported various degrees of burden, which included financial, social exclusion, emotional, depression, and inadequate time for other social responsibilities. Responsibilities around caregiving were mostly shared among close relatives but to a varying and limited extent. Religious prayers and the anticipation of cure were the main coping strategies adopted by caregivers, with expectation of new treatments being discovered. Conclusions Emotional distress, stigma, financial burden, lack of support networks, social exclusion, health impact, and absence of decentralised mental health services were experienced by family caregivers. These findings highlight the need for interventions to support people with MDs and their caregivers. This might include policy development and implementation that will decentralise mental health care provision including psychosocial support for caregivers. This will ameliorate families’ financial and emotional burden, facilitate early diagnosis and management, reduce travel time to seek care, and improve the quality of life of family caregivers of persons with MDs. PMID:25967587

  9. Sexual health screening in people living with HIV--are we getting the whole story?

    PubMed

    Perez, Katrina; Bassett, Deborah; Lee, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Patients' notes were audited to evaluate sexual health screening in 385 people living with HIV. A total of 76% were offered sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening; 85% of these accepted; 62% reported regular partners of whom 44% were also people living with HIV. In men who have sex with men (MSM), 64% reported consistent condom use for anal sex; of these, 15% had rectal STIs diagnosed. Of all patients, 62% reported monogamous relationships; in this MSM sub-group, 12% had STIs diagnosed. STIs are still being diagnosed despite continued safe sex messages and significantly in those reporting monogamous relationships and consistent condom use. Sexual history and safe sex education should be integral to routine care and STI screening offered annually regardless of sexual history as recommended by 2013 British HIV Association Standards of Care for People Living with HIV. More frequent STI screening may be required in high-risk patients.

  10. Sexual health screening in people living with HIV--are we getting the whole story?

    PubMed

    Perez, Katrina; Bassett, Deborah; Lee, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Patients' notes were audited to evaluate sexual health screening in 385 people living with HIV. A total of 76% were offered sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening; 85% of these accepted; 62% reported regular partners of whom 44% were also people living with HIV. In men who have sex with men (MSM), 64% reported consistent condom use for anal sex; of these, 15% had rectal STIs diagnosed. Of all patients, 62% reported monogamous relationships; in this MSM sub-group, 12% had STIs diagnosed. STIs are still being diagnosed despite continued safe sex messages and significantly in those reporting monogamous relationships and consistent condom use. Sexual history and safe sex education should be integral to routine care and STI screening offered annually regardless of sexual history as recommended by 2013 British HIV Association Standards of Care for People Living with HIV. More frequent STI screening may be required in high-risk patients. PMID:25769889

  11. Perceptions of people living with HIV/AIDS regarding access to health care.

    PubMed

    Vaswani, Vina; Vaswani, Ravi

    2014-04-01

    Although the health care is replete with technology in the present day, it is not freely accessible in a developing country. The situation could be even more compromised in the case of people living with HIV/AIDS, with the added dimension of stigma and discrimination. What are the factors that act as barriers to health care? This study was conducted to look into perceptions of people living with HIV/AIDS with regard to access to health care. The study looked into accessibility of general health vis-à-vis access to antiretroviral therapy. Demographic variables like age, gender, income were studied in relation to factors such as counseling, confidentiality, stigma and discrimination, which are known to influence access to health care. People living with HIV/AIDS perceive general health care as more accessible than care for HIV treatment. Discrimination by health care workers causes a barrier to accessibility.

  12. Loneliness and social support of older people living alone in a county of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Hicks, Allan; While, Alison E

    2014-07-01

    China has an ageing population with the number of older people living alone increasing. Living alone may increase the risk of loneliness of older people, especially for those in China where collectivism and filial piety are emphasised. Social support may fill the need for social contacts, thereby alleviating loneliness. However, little is known about loneliness and social support of older people living alone in China. This study investigated loneliness and social support of older people living alone, by conducting a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a stratified random cluster sample of 521 community-dwelling older people living alone in a county of Shanghai. Data were collected from November 2011 to March 2012. The instruments used included the UCLA Loneliness Scale version 3 and the Social Support Rate Scale. The participants reported a moderate level of loneliness. Their overall social support level was low compared with the Chinese norm. Children were the major source of objective and subjective support. Of the participants, 53.9% (n = 281) and 47.6% (n = 248) asked for help and confided when they were in trouble, but 84.1% (n = 438) never or rarely attended social activities. The level of loneliness and social support differed among the participants with different sociodemographic characteristics. There were negative correlations between loneliness and overall social support and its three dimensions. The findings suggest that there is a need to provide more social support to older people living alone to decrease their feelings of loneliness. Potential interventions include encouraging more frequent contacts from children, the development of one-to-one 'befriending' and group activity programmes together with identification of vulnerable subgroups.

  13. Understanding the impact of visual arts interventions for people living with dementia: a realist review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arts-based activities are being increasingly suggested as a valuable activity for people living with dementia in terms of countering the negative aspects of their condition. The potential for such programmes to improve a broad range of psychosocial outcomes is suggested in some studies. However, there is largely an absence of rigorous methodology to demonstrate the benefits, and research results are mixed. Practice variability in terms of the content, contexts and implementation of such interventions raises challenges in terms of identifying an optimal arts programme model that could be adopted by other service providers. Understanding how interventions may have the best chance at broad implementation success and uptake is limited. Methods/Design A realist review will be undertaken. This aims to understand how visual arts interventions influence outcomes in people living with dementia. The review will explore how the context, that is the circumstances which enable or constrain, affect outcomes through the activation of mechanisms. An early scoping search and a stakeholder survey formulated the preliminary programme theory. A systematic literature search across a broad range of disciplines (arts, humanities, social sciences, health) will be undertaken to identify journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted in relation to the programme theory, contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes and their configurations, background information about the study design and participant characteristics, detail about the quantity (‘dose’) of an intervention, theoretical perspectives proposed by the authors of the paper and further theorising by the reviewer. Thematic connections/patterns will be sought across the extracted data, identifying patterns amongst contextual factors, the mechanisms they trigger and the associated outcomes. Discussion Along with stakeholder engagement and validation, this review will help inform the development of an optimal

  14. The impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mayumi; Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Suong, Samedy; Sron, Samrithea; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological and social problems are major concerns in this era of successful antiretroviral therapy. Although livelihood programs have been implemented extensively to improve the daily living conditions of people living with HIV in Cambodia, no studies have yet investigated the impacts of these programs on the mental health of this vulnerable population. Therefore, we examined the impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms and associated factors among people living with HIV in Cambodia. Design A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent comparison group study was conducted in six provinces of Cambodia in 2014. Data were collected from an intervention group comprising 357 people living with HIV who had participated in the livelihood program and a comparison group comprising 328 people living with HIV who had not participated in this program. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to examine the association between livelihood-program participation and depressive symptoms as measured by the depressive symptoms subscale of the 25-item Cambodian version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A propensity score matching was used to examine the effect of the livelihood program on depressive symptoms while controlling for selection bias. Results Overall, 56.0% and 62.7% of the participants in the intervention and comparison groups, respectively, met the Hopkins Symptom Checklist threshold for depressive symptoms. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the participants in the intervention group had significantly lower odds of having depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.52–0.88). The analysis from propensity score matching indicated that the livelihood program helped mitigate depressive symptoms among the participants in the intervention group (T=−1.99). Conclusions The livelihood program appeared to help mitigate the burden of depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia. Thus

  15. Symptoms and Quality of Life for People Living with HIV Infection in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Portillo, Carmen; Solis-Baez, Solymar S.; Wantland, Dean; Holzemer, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Background People living with HIV infection are confronted with physical and psychological symptoms that impact their quality of life. This study explored the symptom experience of people living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico and its correlation with quality of life. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to survey 44 men, women, and transgender people living with HIV infection. Measures included a demographic questionnaire, sign and symptom checklist, and a quality of life instrument. Results The sample was 50% male with a mean age of 42.1 years; the participants had been living with HIV infection on average for 9.8 years. The top five symptoms reported by the sample included: muscle aches (81.8%), depression (77.2%), weakness (70.5%), fear/worries (70.5), and difficulty with concentration (65.9%). Symptom frequency was significantly related to four dimensions of quality of life: overall function (r=−0.58), life satisfaction (r=−0.59), health worries (r=0.32) and HIV medication worries (r=0.59). The symptom experience was not related to financial worries, disclosure worries, or sexual functioning. Individuals who reported taking HIV medications reported significantly fewer symptoms than those not taking HIV medications (t=3.061, df=42, p<0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that people living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico experience a wide array of physical and psychological symptoms and that these symptoms have a correlation with their perceived quality of life. Better management of symptoms may have an impact on perceived quality of life for people living with HIV infection. PMID:19266741

  16. PPACA and Low-Income People Living with HIV: 2014 Qualified Health Plan Enrollment in a Medicaid Nonexpansion State.

    PubMed

    McManus, Kathleen A; McGonigle, Keanan M; Engelhard, Carolyn L; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2016-06-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often are uninsured or underinsured, and they may benefit from the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PL 111-148) and its improved access to medical care. Safety net programs, such as AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) funded through the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, which serve low-income people living with HIV, are incorporating Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Marketplace-qualified health plans (QHPs) and helping to fund patients' participation. This changing landscape differs from state to state, and one main element contributing to the differing situations is whether a state elected to expand Medicaid. This review examines QHP enrollment of ADAP clients in Virginia, a Medicaid nonexpansion state, and explores some issues that affect people living with HIV in other Medicaid nonexpansion states. Virginia is a leader in the shift of ADAP healthcare delivery from direct medication provision to purchasing QHPs. Virginia ADAP clients accounted for approximately 2% of ADAP clients nationally, but they represent 17% of ADAP clients enrolled in QHPs nationwide. Ensuring good HIV care of the ADAP population is important to each patient's personal longevity, the public health, and the efficient use of healthcare dollars. As healthcare delivery models shift, the effects on patients and health outcomes achieved should be monitored, particularly for chronic diseases such as HIV. PMID:27255096

  17. Emotional, physical and financial burdens of stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Shan; Zhang, Liying; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhengzhu

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researches have shown pernicious effects of stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, no available studies have reported these negative effects including emotional, physical to financial burdens to PLWHA. In the current study, we aim to explore different types of stigma (e.g., perceived, internalized and enacted) and the relevant consequences among PLWHA in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2012 to 2013 in the Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. The validated Berger HIV Stigma Scale was used to measure various types of stigma. We employed a series of linear, logistic and polytomous regression models to assess the association between stigma and different consequences while accounting for potential confounders for each specific model. Of the total sample, 2987 PLWHA provided valid responses with 63% being male and having an average age of 42.9 years. Perceived, internalized and enacted HIV stigma were prevalent among participants, and resulted in various burdens with different magnitudes in their life contexts. Specially, PLWHA who reported higher perceived and internalized stigma were more likely to be imposed on emotional and physical burdens (p < .05). People who reported higher enacted stigma had heavier financial burden compared to their peers (p < .05). Our findings revealed that devastating consequences of HIV-related stigma in China. The prevalent stigmatizing attitudes have pushed PLWHA to the fringes of society and affected them at multiple aspects in their life context. We call for tailored efforts to overcome stigma and discrimination against PLWHA. PMID:26886415

  18. Emotional, physical and financial burdens of stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Shan; Zhang, Liying; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhengzhu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous researches have shown pernicious effects of stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, no available studies have reported these negative effects including emotional, physical to financial burdens to PLWHA. In the current study, we aim to explore different types of stigma (e.g., perceived, internalized and enacted) and the relevant consequences among PLWHA in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2012 to 2013 in the Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. The validated Berger HIV Stigma Scale was used to measure various types of stigma. We employed a series of linear, logistic and polytomous regression models to assess the association between stigma and different consequences while accounting for potential confounders for each specific model. Of the total sample, 2987 PLWHA provided valid responses with 63% being male and having an average age of 42.9 years. Perceived, internalized and enacted HIV stigma were prevalent among participants, and resulted in various burdens with different magnitudes in their life contexts. Specially, PLWHA who reported higher perceived and internalized stigma were more likely to be imposed on emotional and physical burdens (p < .05). People who reported higher enacted stigma had heavier financial burden compared to their peers (p < .05). Our findings revealed that devastating consequences of HIV-related stigma in China. The prevalent stigmatizing attitudes have pushed PLWHA to the fringes of society and affected them at multiple aspects in their life context. We call for tailored efforts to overcome stigma and discrimination against PLWHA. PMID:26886415

  19. Activating people to address their health care needs: learning from people with lived experience of chronic illnesses.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Victoria; Henwood, Benjamin F

    2014-08-01

    One of the primary goals of health care reform is improving the quality and reducing the costs of care for people with co-morbid mental health and physical health conditions. One strategy is to integrate primary and behavioral health care through care coordination and patient activation. This qualitative study using community based participatory research methods informs the development of integrated care by presenting the perspectives of those with lived experience of chronic illnesses and homelessness. Themes presented include the internal and external barriers to addressing health needs and the key role of peer support in overcoming these barriers.

  20. Community Living and People with Intellectual Disability: Introduction to Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancliffe, Roger J.; Emerson, Eric; Lakin, K. Charlie

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article discusses major Australian deinstitutionalization initiatives and presents data on trends in institutional living in Australia, the United States, and the United Kingdom. All three countries continue to witness a fall in the institutional population of people with intellectual disability and an increase in community…

  1. Havens of Hope: Vibrant Youth Groups in the Lives of Today's Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.

    Nonschool youth groups can serve many purposes for young people, especially promoting maturity and development and helping youth to build productive lives. Simply attending youth groups may not be enough, however. Studies have often failed to show beneficial effects of youth group membership versus youth who have not been members; but the studies…

  2. Internet-Based Health Information Consumer Skills Intervention for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Cherry, Charsey; Cain, Demetria; Pope, Howard; Kalichman, Moira; Eaton, Lisa; Weinhardt, Lance; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2006-01-01

    Medical information can improve health, and there is an enormous amount of health information available on the Internet. A randomized clinical trial tested the effectiveness of an intervention based on social-cognitive theory to improve information use among people living with HIV/AIDS. Men and women (N = 448) were placed in either (a) an…

  3. Apparent Quality-of-Life in Nations: How Long and Happy People Live

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2005-01-01

    Quality-of-life in nations can be measured by how long and happy people live. This is assessed by combining data on life expectancy drawn from civil registration with survey data on subjective enjoyment of life as a whole. This measure of "apparent" quality-of-life is a good alternative to current indexes of "assumed" quality-of-life such as the…

  4. Using Digital Stories to Understand the Lives of Alaska Native Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa; Eglinton, Kristen; Gubrium, Aline

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how young Alaska Native (Inupiaq) people are creatively responding to the tensions of growing up in a world markedly different from that of their parents and grandparents, the pilot study examined youth-produced digital stories as representations of their everyday lives, values, and identities. Two hundred and seventy-one…

  5. The Unintended Consequences of Targeting: Young People's Lived Experiences of Social and Emotional Learning Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Rhiannon; Scourfield, Jonathan; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In the past twenty years there has been a proliferation of targeted school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions. However, the lived experience of young peoples' participation is often elided, while the potential for interventions to confer unintended and even adverse effects remains under-theorised and empirically…

  6. Process and Outcome Evaluation of an Art Therapy Program for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Matthew B.; Betts, Donna J.; Blausey, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Program evaluation offers an opportunity for improving the implementation and impact of art therapy. This article describes a process and outcomes evaluation of an art therapy program within the mental health services unit of a community-based organization for people living with HIV/AIDS. The aims were to assess utilization patterns and program…

  7. The Meaning of Learning Piano Keyboard in the Lives of Older Chinese People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Sicong; Southcott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Across the globe populations are ageing and living longer. Older people seek meaningful ways of occupying and enjoying their later years. Frequently, this takes the form of learning a new skill, in this case playing the piano keyboard. From the initial act of commitment to learning comes a raft of related aspects that influence the learner, their…

  8. Homosexuality among People with a Mild Intellectual Disability: An Explorative Study on the Lived Experiences of Homosexual People in the Netherlands with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffelen, J.; Kok, G.; Hospers, H.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empirical research on homosexuality among people with an intellectual disability (ID) is limited and, to date, very little is known regarding the personal experiences of gay and lesbian people with an ID. This study set out to answer the question: "What are the lived experiences of a specific cohort of homosexual people with an…

  9. Pharmacy Student Attitudes and Willingness to Engage in Care with People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Furtek, Kari J.; Malladi, Ruthvik; Ng, Eric; Zhou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the extent to which pharmacy students hold negative attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and to determine whether background variables, student knowledge, and professional attitudes may affect willingness to care for PLWHA. Methods. An online survey tool was developed and administered to 150 pharmacy students in their third professional year. Descriptive and stepwise multivariate regressions were performed. Results. While descriptive results showed a majority of respondents had favorable professional attitudes towards caring for PLWHA, most pharmacy students expressed discomfort with specific attitudes about being in close physical contact and receiving selected services from PLWHA. Multivariate results revealed that: (1) being a minority predicted greater knowledge; (2) having received prior HIV instruction and greater HIV knowledge predicted more positive professional attitudes caring for PLWHA; (3) being more socially liberal, having more positive professional attitudes caring for PLWHA, and having greater empathy towards PLWHA predicted student willingness to provide services. Conclusion. Future educational interventions specifically targeted toward socially conservative whites may impact greater student willingness to care for PLWHA. Additional research should also explore the generalizability of the present findings and modeling to pharmacy students in other regions of the country. PMID:27170816

  10. Caring for older people living alone with dementia: Healthcare professionals' experiences.

    PubMed

    de Witt, Lorna; Ploeg, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    Older adults living alone with dementia are at greater risk of placement in long-term care homes compared with those living with others. Healthcare professionals have vital roles in supporting them to continue living in the community. Yet, little is known about how healthcare professionals fulfill these roles and what their experiences are like. The study purpose was to describe health care professionals' experiences of caring for older people with dementia living alone. Using a qualitative descriptive approach and qualitative content analysis method, 15 healthcare professionals were interviewed in Ontario, Canada. The overall theme of the findings, doing the best we can for them, involved discussing sensitive care issues with what professionals viewed as gentle realism. Walking the tightrope expressed tensions in meeting professional responsibilities. Constraints (my hands are tied) and boundaries (it's not my job, it's not my decision) described perceived limitations on professional roles. Effects of the emotional struggle involved in working with these older people were lessened by believing I did the right thing. The findings have implications for what we could do better for older people with dementia living alone, through integration of person-centered/relationship-centered principles in education programs, community agency policies, a national dementia care strategy, and culture change in community care.

  11. Exploring Sources of Emotional Distress among People Living with Scleroderma: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Gumuchian, Stephanie T.; Peláez, Sandra; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Jewett, Lisa R.; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Fortune, Catherine; Hudson, Marie; Impens, Ann; Körner, Annett; Persmann, Jennifer; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Bartlett, Susan J.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood. Objectives To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions. Methods Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French) with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis. Results Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a) facing a new reality; (b) the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c) handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d) changing family roles; (e) social interactions; and (f) navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants’ lives. Conclusion Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease. PMID:27008209

  12. What Kind of a Future? Supporting Young People with Down's Syndrome to Lead Full Lives after They Leave School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities was fortunate to receive a legacy to improve the lives of people with Down's syndrome. The foundation looked at recent research and talked to people with Down's syndrome, their family members and professionals. One of their greatest concerns was what happens to young people when they leave…

  13. Modifying the diary interview method to research the lives of people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Ruth

    2012-12-01

    Debates about involving people with dementia in qualitative research are extensive, yet the range of methods used is limited. Researchers tend to rely on interview and/or observation methods to collect data, even though these tools might preclude participation. I modified the conventional diary interview method to include photo and audio diaries in an effort to investigate the lives of people with dementia in a participatory way. Sixteen people with dementia kept a diary-written, photo, or audio, whichever suited them best-for 1 month. The purposes of this article are to share the methodological insights gained from this process in the context of emerging literature on sensory ethnography, and to argue for the broader application of the diary interview method in dementia-related research, on the grounds that it mediates an equal relationship and makes visible the "whole person," including the environment in which that person lives. PMID:23034779

  14. Television Images: Exploring How They Affect People's View of Self and Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrin, Julie R.

    2009-01-01

    Through television, many different images of ethnic, cultural, and ability groups are presented. Different people perceive these images in different ways. These perceptions affect how people value themselves and judge and interact with others. This article first summaries research on TV images and people's meaning and reaction to them. Second, it…

  15. Psychological, Social, and Familial Problems of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Dejman, Masoumeh; Ardakani, Hossein Malekafzali; Malekafzali, Bahareh; Moradi, Ghobad; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran; Alinaghi, Seyed Ahmad Seyed; Mohraz, Minoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the diseases which not only makes threats to physical health, but also, due to the negative attitudes of people and the social stigma, affects the emotional and social health of patients. The aim of this study was to identify the psychological, social, and family problems of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Iran. Methods: In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to enroll PLWHA, their families, and physicians and consultants in two cities of Kermanshah and Tehran. Each group of PLWHA, their families, physicians, and consultants participated in two focus group discussions (FGDs), and a total of eight FGDs were conducted. Six interviews were held with all key people, individually. Results: Based on the views and opinions of various groups involved in the study, the main problems of PLWHA were: Ostracism, depression, anxiety, a tendency to get revenge and lack of fear to infect others, frustration, social isolation, relationship problems, and fear due to the social stigma. Their psychological problems included: Marriage problems, family conflict, lack of family support, economic hardships inhibiting marriage, and social rejection of patient's families. Their family problems were: Unemployment, the need for housing, basic needs, homelessness, and lack of social support associations. Conclusions: It seems that the identification and focusing on psychological, social, and family problems of affected people not only is an important factor for disease prevention and control, but also enables patients to have a better response to complications caused by HIV/AIDS. PMID:26900440

  16. Requesting help to understand medical information among people living with HIV and poor health literacy.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth; Pellowski, Jennifer; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-06-01

    Health literacy is known to influence medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS. People who experience difficulty reading health information may benefit from asking others to assist them with reading, interpreting, and understanding medical information. We examined medical chart-abstracted HIV viral load, medication adherence assessed by unannounced pill counts, and adherence improvement strategies among 245 individuals with lower-health literacy who do not request assistance, and 229 who do request assistance with reading and understanding health information. Participants were people living with HIV who were taking antiretroviral therapy and scored below 90% correct on a standardized test of functional health literacy. After controlling for health literacy scores, requesting informational assistance was associated with strategies used to improve adherence; individuals who asked for assistance were significantly more likely to use multiple adherence strategies. However, despite requesting informational assistance and using more adherence strategies, participants who requested informational assistance evidenced poorer treatment adherence and poorer suppression of HIV replication. Requesting assistance was more common among those with the poorest health literacy and therefore greatest challenges to adherence. People living with HIV who have poor health literacy skills may benefit from medication adherence programs and requests for assistance afford opportunities for social interventions.

  17. The support needs of terminally ill people living alone at home: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Samar M.; Breen, Lauren J.; Howting, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Context: The number of terminally ill people who live alone at home and without a caregiver is growing and exerting pressure on the stretched resources of home-based palliative care services. Objectives: We aimed to highlight the unmet support needs of terminally ill people who live alone at home and have no primary caregiver and identify specific models of care that have been used to address these gaps. Methods: We conducted a narrative review of empirical research published in peer-reviewed journals in English using a systematic approach, searching databases 2002–2013. This review identified 547 abstracts as being potentially relevant. Of these, 95 were retrieved and assessed, with 37 studies finally reviewed. Results: Majority of the studies highlighted the reduced likelihood of this group to be cared for and die at home and the experiences of more psychosocial distress and more hospital admissions than people with a primary caregiver. Few studies reported on the development of models of care but showed that the challenges faced by this group may be mitigated by interventions tailored to meet their specific needs. Conclusion: This is the first review to highlight the growing challenges facing community palliative care services in supporting the increasing number of people living alone who require care. There is a need for more studies to examine the effectiveness of informal support networks and suitable models of care and to provide directions that will inform service planning for this growing and challenging group. PMID:25750828

  18. The Emotional Experience of People with Intellectual Disability: An Analysis Using the International Affective Pictures System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermejo, Belen G.; Mateos, Pedro M.; Sanchez-Mateos, Juan Degado

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides information on the emotional experience of people with intellectual disability. To evaluate this emotional experience, we have used the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS). The most important result from this study is that the emotional reaction of people with intellectual disability to affective stimuli is…

  19. True User Involvement by People Living With HIV is Possible: Description of a User-driven HIV Clinic in Norway.

    PubMed

    Berg, Rigmor C; Gamst, Are; Said, Maryan; Aas, Kristin Bårdsen; Songe, Solveig Helene; Fangen, Kim; Rysstad, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The Greater Involvement of People Living with or Affected by HIV principle highlights the various contributions HIV-infected people can make in HIV program development and implementation. We present a unique example of how service users' involvement led to a complete organizational redesign of an outpatient HIV clinic in Southern Norway. We applied a user-driven, case study method, which showed that establishing a user board laid the foundation for the redesign process, as the board provided a clear infrastructure of user involvement and developed a set of user-defined targets for services. The main targets-optimal health, holistic care and treatment, and empowerment-were operationalized as a set of action points, such as establishing HIV nurse coordinators. While there is no single method for user involvement, we offer useful ideas that can help others develop an involvement project that is effective and sustainable.

  20. Alterations in psychosocial health of people affected by asbestos poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Miguel; Reig-Botella, Adela; Prados, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the state of psychosocial and mental health of professionals affected by asbestos. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with 110 professionals working in the Ferrolterra region of Spain, who were affected by asbestos poisoning. This group was compared with a group of 70 shipyard workers with no manifestation of work-related diseases. All the participants were male with a mean age of 67 years. This study was conducted in 2013, between January and June, and used the SCL-90 questionnaire by Derogatis as its primary measure for research. This questionnaire consists of 9 variables that measure psychosomatic symptoms. In addition, an overall index of psychosomatic gravity was calculated. The participants were also asked two questions concerning their overall perception of feeling good. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS Participants affected by asbestos poisoning showed high occurrence rates of psychological health variables such as somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and global severity index. CONCLUSIONS Social interaction as a differentiating factor between workers affected by work-related chronic syndromes as compared to healthy participants will possibly aid in the development of intervention programs by improving the social network of affected individuals. PMID:25902564

  1. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Soo; Won, Hee-Kwan; Park, Choong-Hee; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Choi, Byung-Sun; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure. PMID:27051230

  2. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure. PMID:27051230

  3. Does regulating others' feelings influence people's own affective well-being?

    PubMed

    Niven, Karen; Totterdell, Peter; Holman, David; Headley, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Individuals in a variety of social contexts try to regulate other people's feelings, but how does this process affect the regulators themselves? This research aimed to establish a relationship between people's use of interpersonal affect regulation and their own affective well-being. In a field study, self- and other-reported data were collected from prisoners and staff members in a therapeutic prison using two surveys separated in time. In a laboratory study, a student sample reported their affect before and after attempting to influence the feelings of talent show contestants in a role-play task. The results of both studies indicated congruent associations between the use of affect-improving and affect-worsening interpersonal affect regulation and strategy agents' affective well-being. Our findings highlight that, when performing interpersonal affect regulation, people may not be immune from the effects of their own actions.

  4. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  5. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for people living with HIV/AIDS: preliminary review of intervention trial methodologies and findings.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kristen E; Kalichman, Seth

    2015-01-01

    In the context of successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the management of HIV infection, the harmful effects of stress remain a significant threat. Stress may increase viral replication, suppress immune response, and impede adherence to ART. Stressful living conditions of poverty, facing a chronic life-threatening illness and stigma all exacerbate chronic stress in HIV-affected populations. Stress-reduction interventions are urgently needed for the comprehensive care of people living with HIV. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is one approach that has shown promise as an intervention for patients facing other medical conditions for reducing disease progression, psychological distress and maladaptive behaviours. In this systematic review, we identified 11 studies that have examined MBSR as an intervention for HIV-positive populations. Of the studies, six were randomised designs, one was a quasi-experimental design, and the remaining four were pre- and post-test designs. The preliminary outcomes support MBSR to decrease emotional distress with mixed evidence for impact on disease progression. Effect sizes were generally small to moderate in magnitude. The early findings from this emerging literature must be considered preliminary and support moving forward with more rigorous controlled trials, evaluated with objective assessments in longer-term follow-ups to determine the efficacy of MBSR for people living with HIV.

  6. Significant Improvement in Sleep in People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Residential Settings by Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylkema, T.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although about 15 to 50 percent of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in residential settings suffer from sleep problems, scant attention is paid to these problems. Most available studies focus on pharmaceutical solutions. In this study we focus on improving sleep in people with intellectual disabilities living in…

  7. HIV/AIDS and family support systems: A situation analysis of people living with HIV/AIDS in Lagos State.

    PubMed

    Oluwagbemiga, Adeyemi Ezekiel

    2007-11-01

    Current statistics about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria do not reveal the broader social and economic impacts of the disease on the family.The study therefore primarily aimed to address the socio-economic effects of HIV infection on individuals and their families.The study was carried out in Lagos State. In-depth interviews were employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the state, while four focus group discussions were conducted to elicit information from people affected by AIDS about the socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on families in Nigeria. From the survey, among people living with HIV/AIDS, 66% of females and males were in the age group 21-40 years, while 10% were older people above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that as HIV/AIDS strikes at parents, grand parents are assuming responsibility for bringing up the children of the infected persons and the orphans of those killed by the virus. It was striking that some of the older caregivers could not meet the requirement of these children.They are often forced to work more than they would have, or borrow in order to cope with the needs of these extra mouths. Some of the infected people have sold their properties to enable them to cope with the economic effects of the virus, while their children have had to drop out of school, since they could not afford the school fees and other related expenses. It was suggested that PLWHA should be economically empowered with adequate medical treatment, in order to reduce the impact of the disease on the family. PMID:18185894

  8. The impact of flooding on people living with HIV: a case study from the Ohangwena Region, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Anthonj, Carmen; Nkongolo, Odon T.; Schmitz, Peter; Hango, Johannes N.; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Floods are a disaster situation for all affected populations and especially for vulnerable groups within communities such as children, orphans, women, and people with chronic diseases such as HIV and AIDS. They need functioning health care, sanitation and hygiene, safe water, and healthy food supply, and are critically dependent on their social care and support networks. A study carried out in the Ohangwena region, Namibia, where HIV prevalence is high and extensive flooding frequently occurs, aims to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that flooding has on people living with HIV (PLWHIV) as well as on HIV service providers in the region. Design The qualitative research applying grounded theory included semi-structured interviews with PLWHIV, focus group discussions with HIV service providers, and a national feedback meeting. The findings were interpreted using the sustainable livelihoods framework, the natural hazard research approach, and health behaviour theories. Results The study reveals that flooding poses major problems to PLWHIV in terms of their everyday lives, affecting livelihoods, work, income, and living conditions. The factors threatening them under normal conditions – poverty, malnutrition, unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene, limited access to health facilities, a weak health status, and stigma – are intensified by flood-related breakdown of infrastructure, insecurity, malnutrition, and diseases evolving over the course of a flood. A potential dual risk exists for their health: the increased risk both of infection and disease due to the inaccessibility of health services and antiretroviral treatment. A HIV and Flooding Framework was developed to display the results. Conclusions This study demonstrates that vulnerabilities and health risks of PLWHIV will increase in a disaster situation like flooding if access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support are not addressed and ensured. The findings and the HIV and Flooding

  9. Attitudes of Turkish midwives and nurses working at hospitals towards people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akgun Kostak, Melahat; Unsar, Serap; Kurt, Seda; Erol, Ozgul

    2012-10-01

    Health professionals caring for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) show poor or negative attitudes because of fear of contagion. Therefore, it is important to know the attitudes of midwives' and nurses' towards people living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this descriptive and cross-sectional study is to assess the attitudes of Turkish midwives and nurses working at hospitals to people living with HIV/AIDS and to identify factors that affect these attitudes. A group of 46 midwives and 192 nurses working in hospitals were included in the study. Data were collected through AIDS Attitude Scale. Age, professional experience, number of children and marital status influenced the attitudes of the participants towards people living with HIV/AIDS. We concluded that higher level of education appear to positively influence the attitudes of the participants. Education programmes including evidence-based nursing implications might be planned to improve positive attitudes and to prevent stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  10. The Mental Health of People Living with HIV in China, 1998–2014: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lu; Luo, Dan; Liu, Ying; Silenzio, Vincent M. B.; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the mental health burdens faced by people living with HIV in China is instrumental in the development of successful targeted programs for psychological support and care. Methods Using multiple Chinese and English literature databases, we conducted a systematic review of observational research (cross-sectional, case-control, or cohort) published between 1998 and 2014 on the mental health of people living with HIV in China. Results We identified a total of 94 eligible articles. A broad range of instruments were used across studies. Depression was the most widely studied problem; the majority of studies reported prevalence greater than 60% across research settings, with indications of a higher prevalence among women than men. Rates of anxiety tended to be greater than 40%. Findings regarding the rates of suicidality, HIV-related neurocognitive disorders, and substance use were less and varied. Only one study investigated posttraumatic stress disorder and reported a prevalence of 46.2%. Conflicting results about health and treatment related factors of mental health were found across studies. Conclusions Despite limitations, this review confirmed that people living with HIV are vulnerable to mental health problems, and there is substantial need for mental health services among this population. PMID:27082749

  11. Personality, Coping, and Well-Being for People Living with Chronic Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Cellar, Douglas F; Voster, Devon; Fetters, Rachel; Twitchell, Emily; Harper, Gary W; Scott, Cotler

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between personality, coping strategies, and health ratings to extend past research to people living with chronic hepatitis C (HCV). Participants were 35 people (11 men, 24 women; M age = 49.6 yr., SD = 10.6) living with chronic hepatitis C for an average of 9.0 yr. (SD = 6.0) since diagnosis. Participants provided descriptions of stressful situations and responded to a personality inventory, Ways of Coping Questionnaire scales (planful problem solving and escape-avoidance) and SF36 Health Survey scales measuring physical functioning and mental health. The stressful situations were judgmentally clustered into seven dimensions (diagnosis/mortality, disclosure, stigma, social and work role functioning, compounding problems, and no stress). Correlational analyses indicated strong negative relationships between escape-avoidance coping and health measures. Emotional Stability and Extraversion were positively related to both health variables, and Extraversion was negatively related to escape-avoidance coping. The results suggest that research from other contexts that has examined these relationships tended to generalize to people living with HCV.

  12. Living in hospital and hostel: the pattern of interactions of people with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Markova, I; Jahoda, A; Cattermole, M; Woodward, D

    1992-04-01

    This study compared interactions between the staff and residents living in hospital wards and in community-based hostels. Twenty-four people with moderate to severe learning difficulties participated in this study. Interactions were categorized according to who was the initiator and recipient, their purpose, attitude of the recipient, duration, and place. It was found that the hospital and hotel residents had virtually no interactions with people outwith the establishment in which they lived. The hostel appeared to offer the residents a sociable environment with more interpersonal interactions and more positive attitudes towards the interactants than the hospital. Interactions in both kinds of setting were very short, thus giving residents little chance to develop communicative skills. It is suggested that a more personal approach, such as joint activities between residents and staff, and living in small groups in ordinary housing, should be the first priorities in the effort to improve the pattern of social interactions of people with moderate to severe learning difficulties.

  13. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  14. Fertility Desires and Intentions among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Hyma; Chowta, Nithyananda; Ramapuram, John; Bhaskaran, Unnikrishnan; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Chandran, Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The desire of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to have children can have significant public health implications. Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) has increased the life expectancy of PLWHA as a result of which they may consider child bearing. There are hardly any studies from India addressing the fertility desires among PLWHA. Aim This study was done to assess the fertility desires of PLWHA in Southern India. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted among 230 HIV-positive men and women who presented to Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Mangalore, India. Study was conducted between October 2012 and October 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 11.5. Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test and student t-test was used to find out the association of various factors affecting fertility desire. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The mean age of our study population was 36.3±5.5 years. The mean age of males was 37.3±6 years and for female 34.9±5 years. In our study 132 (57.4%) were males. Majority were literate 229 (99%). Majority of patients were employed 166 (72%). In our study 195 (84.7%) were on cART. Out of 230 PLWHA 39 (16.95%) were unmarried and 151(65.5%) married PLHIV were living with partners at the time of study. In our study 77 (33.5%) patients had fertility desire. Age, gender, marital status, number of children, partner’s fertility desire and HIV status of partner had an association with fertility desire. Conclusion Providing universal access to cART is the main aim of national programs. It is high time that these programs focus on fertility issues of PLWHA. Reproductive rights of PLWHA need to be respected. Physicians and HIV counselors should proactively discuss and address reproductive issues of PLWHA. PMID:27504328

  15. Quality of life and people living with AIDS: relationship with sociodemographic and health aspects1

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Tadeu Lessa; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli; Formozo, Gláucia Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relationship of sociodemographic and health dimensions with the quality of life of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus. METHOD: descriptive and quantitative study. The subjects were 131 seropositive people treated in a specialized center of the Norte-Fluminense municipality, Brazil. A form with sociodemographic and health data was applied, as well as the World Health Organization instrument for the assessment of the quality of life of people with the human immunodeficiency virus. RESULTS: the statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in the assessment of the various dimensions of quality of life by the subjects for gender, education, employment, personal income, medical condition, self-perception of sickness, history of hospitalizations, and bodily alterations due to the antiretroviral drugs. CONCLUSION: professional nursing and health care, as well as public policies in the area, should valorize the quality of life approach, considering the conditions related to its configuration. PMID:25296141

  16. Like a prayer: the role of spirituality and religion for people living with HIV in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ridge, Damien; Williams, Ian; Anderson, Jane; Elford, Jonathan

    2008-04-01

    Over 40,000 people are now living with diagnosed HIV in the UK. There is, however, uncertainty about how people with HIV use religion or spirituality to cope with their infection. Adopting a modified grounded theory approach, we analysed individual and group interviews with the people most affected by HIV in the UK: black African heterosexual men and women and gay men (mostly white). For the majority of black African heterosexual men and women in our study, religion was extremely important. We found that gay men in the study were less religious than black Africans, although many were spiritual in some way. Black African individuals constructed their spiritual narratives as largely Christian or collective, while gay men described more individualistic or 'New Age' approaches. We developed a six-level heuristic device to examine the ways in which prayer and meditation were deployed in narratives to modulate subjective wellbeing. These were: (i) creating a dialogue with an absent counsellor; (ii) constructing a compassionate 'life scheme'; (iii) interrupting rumination; (iv) establishing mindfulness; (v) promoting positive thinking, and (vi) getting results. That people with HIV report specific subjective benefits from prayer or meditation presents a challenge to secular healthcare professionals and sociologists.

  17. Public perceptions about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward people living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Iran.

    PubMed

    Masoudnia, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Negative and discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are one of the biggest experienced challenges by people suffering from HIV, and these attitudes have been regarded as a serious threat to the fundamental rights of all infected people who are affected or associated with this disease in Iran. This study aimed to determine the relationship between public perception about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA . The present study was conducted using a descriptive and survey design. Data were collected from 450 patients (236 male and 214 female) in Tehran and Yazd cities. The research instruments were modified HIV-related knowledge/attitude and perception questions about PLWHA, and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. The results showed that prevalence of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA in the studied population was 60.0%. There was a significant negative correlation between citizens' awareness about HIV/AIDS, HIV-related attitudes, negative perception toward people with HIV/AIDS symptoms and their discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA (p < .01). The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that components of public perception about HIV/AIDS explained for 23.7% of the variance of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. Negative public perceptions about HIV/AIDS in Iran associated with discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA and cultural beliefs in Iran tend to stigmatize and discriminate against the LWHA.

  18. Narratives Reflecting the Lived Experiences of People with Brain Disorders: Common Psychosocial Difficulties and Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sally; McArthur, Maggie; Coenen, Michaela; Cabello, Maria; Covelli, Venusia; Roszczynska-Michta, Joanna; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Bickenbach, Jerome; Cieza, Alarcos

    2014-01-01

    Background People with brain disorders - defined as both, mental disorders and neurological disorders experience a wide range of psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) (e.g., concentrating, maintaining energy levels, and maintaining relationships). Research evidence is required to show that these PSDs are common across brain disorders. Objectives To explore and gain deeper understanding of the experiences of people with seven brain disorders (alcohol dependency, depression, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, stroke). It examines the common PSDs and their influencing factors. Methods Seventy seven qualitative studies identified in a systematic literature review and qualitative data derived from six focus groups are used to generate first-person narratives representing seven brain disorders. A theory-driven thematic analysis of these narratives identifies the PSDs and their influencing factors for comparison between the seven disorders. Results First-person narratives illustrate realities for people with brain disorders facilitating a deeper understanding of their every-day life experiences. Thematic analysis serves to highlight the commonalities, both of PSDs, such as loneliness, anger, uncertainty about the future and problems with work activities, and their determinants, such as work opportunities, trusting relationships and access to self-help groups. Conclusions The strength of the methodology and the narratives is that they provide the opportunity for the reader to empathise with people with brain disorders and facilitate deeper levels of understanding of the complexity of the relationship of PSDs, determinants and facilitators. The latter reflect positive aspects of the lives of people with brain disorders. The result that many PSDs and their influencing factors are common to people with different brain disorders opens up the door to the possibility of using cross-cutting interventions involving different sectors. This strengthens

  19. The emotional experience of people with intellectual disability: an analysis using the international affective pictures system.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Belén G; Mateos, Pedro M; Sánchez-Mateos, Juan Delgado

    2014-07-01

    The present study provides information on the emotional experience of people with intellectual disability. To evaluate this emotional experience, we have used the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS). The most important result from this study is that the emotional reaction of people with intellectual disability to affective stimuli is very similar to that of the control groups. The way in which people with intellectual disability express basic affect to emotional stimuli in terms of happy-sad and calm-nervous is very similar to that of the general population. However, there are also some differences in how basic affect is expressed in the affective dimensions that might be relevant to our understanding of the emotional life of people with intellectual disability.

  20. Community Strategies: Addressing the Challenges for Young People Living in Rural Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Helen; Wyn, Johanna

    Young people growing up in rural and isolated areas of Australia face particular challenges because structural change to the rural economy has dramatically affected their communities. Structural challenges include limited transportation, health and community services that are difficult to access and not confidential, scarcity of affordable…

  1. A Look at Recent Legal Developments Affecting Residential Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Thomas E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Reviews court decisions concerning search and seizure, intervisitation between sexes, canvassing and solicitation, and damage assessments. College administrators must rely on fairness, ethics and sound educational philosophies in the design of policies affecting residence halls. (JAC)

  2. My Imagination versus Your Feelings: Can Personal Affective Forecasts Be Improved by Knowing Other Peoples' Emotions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Emma; Ayton, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A proposed remedy for biased affective forecasts is to base judgments on the actual feelings of people (surrogates) currently experiencing the event, rather than using imagination which conjures an inaccurate vision of the future. Gilbert et al. (2009) forced people to use surrogate reports by withholding all event information, resulting in better…

  3. Undulation frequency affects burial performance in living and model flatfishes.

    PubMed

    McKee, Amberle; MacDonald, Ian; Farina, Stacy C; Summers, Adam P

    2016-04-01

    Flatfishes bury themselves under a thin layer of sand to hide from predators or to ambush prey. We investigated the role of undulation frequency of the body in burial in five species of flatfishes (Isopsetta isolepis, Lepidopsetta bilineata, Hippoglossoides elassodon, Parophrys vetulus, and Psettichthys melanostictus). High-speed videos show that undulations begin cranially and pass caudally while burying, as in forward swimming in many other fishes. The flatfishes also flick the posterior edge of their dorsal and anal fins during burial, which may increase the total surface area covered by substrate. We built a simple physical model - a flexible, oval silicone plate with a motorized, variable-speed actuator - to isolate the effect of undulation frequency on burial. In both the model and actuated dead flatfish, increased undulation frequency resulted in an increase in the area of sand coverage. Complete coverage required an undulation frequency of no more than 10Hz for our models, and that was also sufficient for live flatfishes. The model shows that undulation is sufficient to bury the animal, but live flatfishes showed a superior ability to bury, which we attribute to the action of the median fins. PMID:26763759

  4. How Many People Are Affected by or at Risk for Down Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... people are affected by or at risk for Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... ethnicity. 4 , 5 Maternal Age and Risk for Down Syndrome Because the likelihood that an egg will contain ...

  5. How Many People Are Affected by or at Risk for Endometriosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... people are affected by or at risk for endometriosis? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... menstruates. Factors that May Increase the Risk of Endometriosis Studies show that women are at higher risk ...

  6. Food safety knowledge and practice among elderly people living at home

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. E.; Donkin, A. J.; Morgan, K.; Lilley, J. M.; Neale, R. J.; Page, R. M.; Silburn, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the food storage knowledge and practice of elderly people living at home. METHODS: Three phase survey data collection: face to face interviews; dietary diaries with a food frequency questionnaire; and follow up interviews. SETTING: Urban Nottingham. PARTICIPANTS: 809 elderly people (aged 65+) randomly selected from general practitioner lists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respondent's refrigerator temperature; knowledge of freezer star rating; understanding of "use by" and "sell by" dates; reported ability to read food product safety labels. RESULTS: From a weighted total of 645 refrigerators measured, 451 (70%) were too warm for the safe storage of food (> or = 6 degrees Celsius). Only 41% of respondents (n = 279) knew the star rating of their freezer. Within a smaller sub-sample knowledge of the "use by" and "sell by" dates was good, but 45% of these respondents reported difficulty reading food labels. The storage of foods at inappropriate temperatures was not independent of socioeconomic or demographic status, and tended to be more likely among the poorer and those not living alone. CONCLUSIONS: Food storage practices among the majority of elderly people interviewed in this study do not meet recommended safety standards to minimise the risk of food poisoning.   PMID:10396508

  7. The Living Astronomy and People of the Mayan World Today: Engaging Hispanic Populations in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, I.; Tapia, F.

    2008-06-01

    From long ago, the Maya civilizations of Mesoamerica have been keenly attuned to the cycles of nature. The Maya have always been careful observers, and more than a thousand years ago, they recorded the motion of the planets, the Sun, and the Moon, and predicted eclipses. These observations were used to create a complex calendar to organize the events of their world. The Maya built great cities containing buildings aligned with the Sun, Moon, and the stars to mark important times of the year. Many astronomical traditions are still practiced today by the Maya of the Yucatán peninsula, Southern states in México, and other areas in Mesoamerica. Traditional farming communities time the cultivation of corn by observing the sky. The living culture of the Mayan people in the Yucatan integrates science and astronomy with every other aspect of their culture. Yucatec Maya, the language spoken by more than 1 million people in the Yucatán today, still carries through oral histories the ancient knowledge of nature. Our hope is that you'll increase your interest and knowledge of the Mayan people and of the enduring wisdom reflected in the daily lives of Mayan families. We present the results of education and public outreach efforts that position astronomy within its cultural context as an effective means of capturing the interest and enabling authentic participation of under-represented populations in science.

  8. Imposing options on people in poverty: the harm of a live donor organ market.

    PubMed

    Rippon, Simon

    2014-03-01

    A prominent defence of a market in organs from living donors says that if we truly care about people in poverty, we should allow them to sell their organs. The argument is that if poor vendors would have voluntarily decided to sell their organs in a free market, then prohibiting them from selling makes them even worse off, at least from their own perspective, and that it would be unconscionably paternalistic to substitute our judgements for individuals' own judgements about what would be best for them. The author shows that this 'Laissez-Choisir Argument' for organ selling rests on a mistake. This is because the claim that it would be better for people in poverty to sell their organs if given the option is consistent with the claim that it would be even better for them to not have the option at all. The upshot is that objections to an organ market need not be at all paternalistic, since we need not accept that the absence of a market makes those in poverty any worse off, even from their own point of view. The author goes on to argue that there are strong theoretical and empirical reasons for believing that people in poverty would in fact be harmed by the introduction of a market for live donor organs and that the harm constitutes sufficient grounds for prohibiting a market.

  9. Everyday Living with Diabetes Described by Family Members of Adult People with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Paavilainen, Eija; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore family members' experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members' views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members' participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members' point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes. PMID:24455251

  10. Everyday living with diabetes described by family members of adult people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rintala, Tuula-Maria; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore family members' experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members' views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members' participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members' point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes. PMID:24455251

  11. Social marketing strategies for reaching older people with disabilities: findings from a survey of centers for independent living participants.

    PubMed

    Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities.

  12. Social marketing strategies for reaching older people with disabilities: findings from a survey of centers for independent living participants.

    PubMed

    Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities. PMID:19459127

  13. Promoting Ethical Research With American Indian and Alaska Native People Living in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Bartgis, Jami; Demers, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    Most health research with American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people has focused on tribal communities on reservation lands. Few studies have been conducted with AI/AN people living in urban settings despite their documented health disparities compared with other urban populations. There are unique considerations for working with this population. Engaging key stakeholders, including urban Indian health organization leaders, tribal leaders, research scientists and administrators, and policymakers, is critical to promoting ethical research and enhancing capacity of urban AI/AN communities. Recommendations for their involvement may facilitate an open dialogue and promote the development of implementation strategies. Future collaborations are also necessary for establishing research policies aimed at improving the health of the urban AI/AN population. PMID:25211730

  14. A Discourse of "Abnormality": Exploring Discussions of People Living in Australia With Deafness or Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Ferndale, Danielle; Munro, Louise; Watson, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a social constructionist framework, the authors conducted a synthetic discourse analysis to explore how people living in Australia with deafness construct their experience of deafness. An online forum facilitated access and communication between the lead author and 24 widely dispersed and linguistically diverse forum contributors. The authors discuss the productive and restrictive effects of the emergent discourse of deafness as abnormal and the rhetorical strategies mobilized in people's accounts: fitting in, acceptance as permission to be different, and the need to prove normality. Using these strategies was productive in that the forum respondents were enabled to reposition deafness as a positive, socially valued identity position. However, the need to manage deafness was reproduced as an individual concern, disallowing any exploration of how deafness could be reconstructed as socially valued. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of the deafness as abnormal discourse. PMID:26853067

  15. People who live in a cold climate: thermal adaptation differences based on availability of heating.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Cao, G; Cui, W; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2013-08-01

    Are there differences in thermal adaptation to cold indoor environments between people who are used to living in heating and non-heating regions in China? To answer this question, we measured thermal perceptions and physiological responses of young men from Beijing (where there are indoor space heating facilities in winter) and Shanghai (where there are not indoor space heating facilities in winter) during exposures to cold. Subjects were exposed to 12°C, 14°C, 16°C, 18°C, 20°C for 1 h. Subjects from Beijing complained of greater cold discomfort and demonstrated poorer physiological acclimatization to cold indoor environments than those from Shanghai. These findings indicate that people's chronic indoor thermal experience might be an important determinant of thermal adaptation.

  16. A Discourse of "Abnormality": Exploring Discussions of People Living in Australia With Deafness or Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Ferndale, Danielle; Munro, Louise; Watson, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a social constructionist framework, the authors conducted a synthetic discourse analysis to explore how people living in Australia with deafness construct their experience of deafness. An online forum facilitated access and communication between the lead author and 24 widely dispersed and linguistically diverse forum contributors. The authors discuss the productive and restrictive effects of the emergent discourse of deafness as abnormal and the rhetorical strategies mobilized in people's accounts: fitting in, acceptance as permission to be different, and the need to prove normality. Using these strategies was productive in that the forum respondents were enabled to reposition deafness as a positive, socially valued identity position. However, the need to manage deafness was reproduced as an individual concern, disallowing any exploration of how deafness could be reconstructed as socially valued. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of the deafness as abnormal discourse.

  17. Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

  18. Internet-based health information consumer skills intervention for people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Charsey; Cain, Demetria; Pope, Howard; Kalichman, Moira; Eaton, Lisa; Weinhardt, Lance; Benotsch, Eric G

    2006-06-01

    Medical information can improve health, and there is an enormous amount of health information available on the Internet. A randomized clinical trial tested the effectiveness of an intervention based on social- cognitive theory to improve information use among people living with HIV/AIDS. Men and women (N = 448) were placed in either (a) an 8-session intervention that focused on Internet information consumer skills or (b) a time-matched support group and were followed to 9 months postintervention. The Internet skills group demonstrated greater Internet use for health, information coping, and social support compared with the control group. The authors conclude that people with HIV infection may benefit from increased access to health information on the Internet and that vulnerability to misinformation and fraud can be reduced through behavioral interventions.

  19. A mixed-methods study into ballet for people living with Parkinson's.

    PubMed

    Houston, Sara; McGill, Ashley

    2013-06-01

    Background: Parkinson's is a neurological disease that is physically debilitating and can be socially isolating. Dance is growing in popularity for people with Parkinson's and claims have been made for its benefits. The paper details a mixed-methods study that examined a 12-week dance project for people with Parkinson's, led by English National Ballet. Methods: The effects on balance, stability and posture were measured through the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale and a plumb-line analysis. The value of participation and movement quality were interpreted through ethnographic methods, grounded theory and Effort analysis. Results: Triangulation of results indicates that people were highly motivated, with 100% adherence, and valued the classes as an important part of their lives. Additionally, results indicated an improvement in balance and stability, although not in posture. Conclusions: Dancing may offer benefit to people with Parkinson's through its intellectual, artistic, social and physical aspects. The paper suggests that a range of research methods is fundamental to capture the importance of multifaceted activity, such as dance, to those with Parkinson's. PMID:23805165

  20. A mixed-methods study into ballet for people living with Parkinson's1

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Sara; McGill, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parkinson's is a neurological disease that is physically debilitating and can be socially isolating. Dance is growing in popularity for people with Parkinson's and claims have been made for its benefits. The paper details a mixed-methods study that examined a 12-week dance project for people with Parkinson's, led by English National Ballet. Methods: The effects on balance, stability and posture were measured through the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale and a plumb-line analysis. The value of participation and movement quality were interpreted through ethnographic methods, grounded theory and Effort analysis. Results: Triangulation of results indicates that people were highly motivated, with 100% adherence, and valued the classes as an important part of their lives. Additionally, results indicated an improvement in balance and stability, although not in posture. Conclusions: Dancing may offer benefit to people with Parkinson's through its intellectual, artistic, social and physical aspects. The paper suggests that a range of research methods is fundamental to capture the importance of multifaceted activity, such as dance, to those with Parkinson's. PMID:23805165

  1. [Social support and living conditions in poor elderly people in urban Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Treviño-Siller, Sandra; González-Vázquez, Tonatiuh; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze social support and living conditions among poor elderly people in Mexican cities. A qualitative study with eight focus groups was carried out in Guadalajara, Cuernavaca, Chilpancingo, and Culiacan, Mexico, in 2005. Forty men and 63 women participated in the study. The main support for the elderly in daily living came from their immediate family and in some cases from neighbors. Social support was basically material and economic, in addition to providing company and transportation for medical appointments. Daily emotional support, companionship, and social inclusion were minimal or absent. The study identified a significant lack of support from government and religious or civil society organizations. The family is still the main source of support for the elderly. Increased government collaboration is dramatically needed to combat the misconception that the needs of the elderly are the individual family's responsibility rather than a collaborative effort by society.

  2. Prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 infection in people living with HIV/AIDS in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Mendes Cahú, Georgea Gertrudes; Morais, Viviane Martha Santos; Lopes, Thaisa Regina Rocha; da Silva, Dayvson Maurício; Tozetto-Mendoza, Tania Regina; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Cunha Duarte Coêlho, Maria Rosângela

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 500 individuals were tested for antibodies against HHV-8 using the whole-virus ELISA. The prevalence of anti-HHV-8 was 28.6% and the frequency among 140 men who have sex with men (MSM) was 38.6%. In the univariate model, there were significant associations with male gender, detectable HIV load, travel abroad, bissexual, and homossexual orientation. The first HHV-8 seroepidemiologic study, in northeast Brazil, documents a highly prevalent HHV-8 infection among MSM living with HIV/AIDS. J. Med. Virol. 88:2016-2020, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27089548

  3. Dignity and care for people with dementia living in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Heggestad, Anne Kari Tolo; Nortvedt, Per; Slettebø, Åshild

    2015-11-01

    This article presents and discusses findings from a qualitative study on how the dignity of patients with dementia is preserved or harmed when they live in a nursing home. The results build on participant observation in two nursing home wards, combined with qualitative interviews with seven relatives of patients with dementia. The most important issue for relatives was that their family member with dementia was confirmed as a relational human being. However, relatives experienced lack of resources and task-centred care as threats to confirming, relational care and to patients' dignity. Findings from participant observations confirmed this. In this article, we argue that care which focuses on the residents' personhood, combined with a relational focus, is of great importance in maintaining the dignity of people with dementia living in nursing homes.

  4. Transformative occupation in practice: changing media images and lives of people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Breeden, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Performers with disabilities in the entertainment industry of Southern California work together as a cohesive force for change, challenging common misconceptions about disability reflected in television and movies. This qualitative study was based on videotaped interviews with a cohort of actors and media activists with physical disabilities working in television and film. Narratives, field notes, and reflexive journal entries were coded, analyzed, and interpreted using qualitative methods. Ethnography and grounded theory approaches were combined, offering a conceptual framework suggesting that, for the participants in this study, performance is a transformative occupation or of such primary importance as to substantially organize their lives. A love of acting appears to inspire the creativity, adaptiveness, and motivation necessary to advance their careers despite significant personal challenges and social barriers inhibiting participation within the industry. This study provides evidence of the potential for occupational engagement to change people's lives while also changing society. PMID:24650784

  5. An exploratory survey measuring stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa: the People Living with HIV Stigma Index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The continued presence of stigma and its persistence even in areas where HIV prevalence is high makes it an extraordinarily important, yet difficult, issue to eradicate. The study aimed to assess current and emerging HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination trends in South Africa as experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Methods The PLHIV Stigma Index, a questionnaire that measures and detects changing trends in relation to stigma and discrimination experienced by PLHIV, was used as the survey tool. The study was conducted in 10 clinics in four provinces supported by the Foundation for Professional Development (FPD), with an interview total of 486 PLHIV. A cross-sectional design was implemented in the study, and both descriptive and inferential analysis was conducted on the data. Results Findings suggest that PLHIV in this population experience significant levels of stigma and discrimination that negatively impact on their health, working and family life, as well as their access to health services. Internalised stigma was prominent, with many participants blaming themselves for their status. Conclusion The findings can be used to develop and inform programmes and interventions to reduce stigma experienced by PLHIV. The current measures for dealing with stigma should be expanded to incorporate the issues related to health, education and discrimination experienced in the workplace, that were highlighted by the study. PMID:24461042

  6. Determinants of unequal HIV care access among people living with HIV in Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Equity in access to health care among people living with HIV (PLHA) has not been extensively studied in Peru despite the fact there is significant social diversity within this group. We aimed to assess the extent to which health care provision to PLHA, including ARVT, was equitable and, if appropriate, identify factors associated with lower access. Methods We conducted a survey among adult PLHA in four cities in Peru, recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS), to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, social network size, household welfare, economic activity, use of HIV-related services including ARV treatment, and health-related out-of-pocket expenses. Results Between September 2008 and January 2009, 863 individuals from PLHA organizations in four cities of Peru were enrolled. Median age was 35 (IQR = 29–41), and mostly male (62%). Overall, 25% reported to be gay, 11% bisexual and 3% transgender. Most PLHA (96%) reported access to some kind of HIV-related health service, and 84% were receiving those services at a public facility. Approximately 85% of those reporting access to care were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ARV), and 17% of those not in treatment already had indication to start treatment. Among those currently on ARV, 36% percent reported out-of-pocket expenses within the last month. Transgender identity and age younger than 35 years old, were associated with lower access to health care. Conclusions Our findings contribute to a better social and demographic characterization of the situation of PLHAs, their access to HIV care and their source of care, and provide an assessment of equity in access. In the long term, it is expected that HIV care access, as well as its social determinants, will impact on the morbidity and mortality rates among those affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. HIV care providers and program managers should further characterize the barriers to healthcare access and develop strategies to

  7. Ability for self-care in urban living older people in southern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Background The number of older people living in urban environments throughout the world will increase in the coming years. There is a trend in most European countries towards improved health among older people, and increased life expectancy for both women and men. Norway has experienced less increase in life expectancy than some other European countries, and it is therefore important to investigate older urban Norwegian people’s health and ways of living in a self-care environment, with special regard to health promotion. Aim The aim of this study was to describe self-care ability among home-dwelling older (65+ years) individuals living in urban areas in southern Norway in relation to general living conditions, sense of coherence (SOC), screened nutritional state, physical activity, perceived self-reported health, mental health, and perceived life situation. Methods In 2010, a randomized sample of 1044 men and women aged 65+ years who were living in urban areas in southern Norway answered a postal questionnaire consisting of five instruments, some background variables, and 17 health-related questions. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were used in the analyses of the data. Results The mean age of the participants was 74.8 years (SD = 7.1). Eighty-three percent of the participants had higher abilities to care for themselves. Self-care agency, perceived good health, being active, being frequently active, good mental health, not being at risk of undernutrition, and satisfaction with life were all positively related to self-care ability. Negative factors were perceived helplessness, receiving home nursing, being anxious, and being at a more advanced age. People aged 85+ years had worse mental health, were less physically active, and more at risk of undernutrition. Conclusion Health professionals should focus on the health-promoting factors that reinforce older people’s ability to care for themselves, and be aware of important symptoms and signs

  8. The community prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in older people living in their own homes: implications for treatment, screening and surveillance in the UK.

    PubMed

    Maudsley, J; Stone, S P; Kibbler, C C; Iliffe, S R; Conaty, S J; Cookson, B D; Duckworth, G J; Johnson, A; Wallace, P G

    2004-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) predominantly affects those over 65 years old. There may be a substantial pool of older people with MRSA in the community. We studied the prevalence in one London general practice, screening 258 older people living in their own home. MRSA (E-MRSA 15) was found in two participants (0.78%). Past history of MRSA was the only significant risk factor. The results of this and other studies suggest that national guidelines recommending early discharge for MRSA carriers have not resulted in widespread community acquisition amongst elderly people living in their own home. Community antibiotic policies for skin and soft-tissue infection do not require amendment. Patients with previous MRSA should be isolated and screened on admission especially to high-risk units.

  9. Telephone Consultation for Improving Health of People Living with or at Risk of HIV: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    van Velthoven, Michelle H. M. M. T.; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Car, Josip; Atun, Rifat

    2012-01-01

    Background Low cost, effective interventions are needed to deal with the major global burden of HIV/AIDS. Telephone consultation offers the potential to improve health of people living with HIV/AIDS cost-effectively and to reduce the burden on affected people and health systems. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of telephone consultation for HIV/AIDS care. Methods We undertook a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Two authors independently screened citations, extracted data and assessed the quality of randomized controlled trials which compared telephone interventions with control groups for HIV/AIDS care. Telephone interventions were voice calls with landlines or mobile phones. We present a narrative overview of the results as the obtained trials were highly heterogeneous in design and therefore the data could not be pooled for statistical analysis. Results The search yielded 3321 citations. Of these, nine studies involving 1162 participants met the inclusion criteria. The telephone was used for giving HIV test results (one trial) and for delivering behavioural interventions aimed at improving mental health (four trials), reducing sexual transmission risk (one trial), improving medication adherence (two trials) and smoking cessation (one trial). Limited effectiveness of the intervention was found in the trial giving HIV test results, in one trial supporting medication adherence and in one trial for smoking cessation by telephone. Conclusions We found some evidence of the benefits of interventions delivered by telephone for the health of people living with HIV or at risk of HIV. However, only limited conclusions can be drawn as we only found nine studies for five different interventions and they mainly took place in the United States. Nevertheless, given the high penetration of low-cost mobile phones in countries with high HIV endemicity, more evidence is needed on how telephone consultation can aid in the

  10. Using a reporting system to protect the human rights of people living with HIV and key populations: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Williamson, R Taylor; Wondergem, Peter; Amenyah, Richard N

    2014-06-14

    Human rights of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and key populations most affected by HIV are often violated, with negative implications for health outcomes. To facilitate access to justice in Ghana, a consortium of partners developed a web-based discrimination reporting system. The reporting system links the Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ) to civil society organizations through case reporting, follow-up, and aggregated reported data use. A reporting system can form a critical part of a country's human rights protection network. In Ghana, the combination of a supportive legal framework, an institutional home, and engaged stakeholders have created a favorable environment for developing such a system. Other institutions may learn from Ghana's experience by adapting these lessons.

  11. Incidence and prevalence of Parkinson's disease among Navajo people living in the Navajo nation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Paul H; Mehal, Jason M; Holman, Robert C; Bartholomew, Michael L; Cheek, James E; Rowland, Andrew S

    2015-04-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is largely unstudied among American Indians. Unique populations might harbor clues to elusive causes. We describe the incidence and prevalence of PD among Navajo people residing in the Navajo Nation, home to the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. We analyzed 2001-2011 inpatient and outpatient visit data for Navajo people obtained from the Indian Health Service, which provides health care to American Indian people living on the Navajo Reservation. Cases were defined by at least two inpatient or outpatient visits with the diagnosis of PD. Crude and age-adjusted incidence and prevalence rates were calculated overall as well as by age, sex, region of residence, and time period. Five hundred twenty-four Navajo people with median age-at-onset of 74.0 years were diagnosed with PD during the study period, yielding an average annual crude incidence rate of 22.5/100,000. Age-specific incidence was 232.0 for patients 65 years of age or older and 302.0 for 80 years of age or older. Age-adjusted incidence was 35.9 overall (238.1 for ≥65 years), was higher in men than in women (47.5 vs. 27.7; P<0.001), varied by region (P=0.03), and was similar between time periods (2002-2004 vs. 2009-2011). The age-adjusted point prevalence rate was 261.0. The rate of PD among Navajo People appears to be as high as or higher than rates reported in many other populations. Rates increased to the highest age group, consistent with population-based studies. Further investigation is warranted to examine risk factors for PD in this remote population. PMID:25649219

  12. Palliative and end of life care for people living with dementia in care homes: part 1.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne; McGreevy, Jessie; Diamond, Monica; Roble, Herlindina; McShane, Elaine; Strain, Joanne

    2016-06-22

    The terms palliative and end of life care are often used interchangeably and healthcare practitioners may perceive that palliative care is only appropriate during the terminal stages of an illness. This article, the first of two parts, provides healthcare practitioners with an overview of the concept of palliative care. It explains how this can be differentiated from end of life care and how it should be commenced in a timely manner, so that people who are living with dementia can contribute to the planning of their future care and death. The policies and tools used in the provision of palliative and end of life care are discussed, including advance care planning and The Gold Standards Framework. The article is framed in a care home context; there is little research about how to optimise palliative care for people living with dementia in care homes. The second part of this article will discuss end of life care and the best practices for providing end of life care, including nutrition and hydration, oral hygiene, pain management and spiritual care. PMID:27332611

  13. Predictive factors for the Nursing Diagnoses in people living with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo; Costa, Romanniny Hévillyn Silva; Nelson, Ana Raquel Cortês; Duarte, Fernando Hiago da Silva; Prado, Nanete Caroline da Costa; Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the predictive factors for the nursing diagnoses in people living with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Method: a cross-sectional study, undertaken with 113 people living with AIDS. The data were collected using an interview script and physical examination. Logistic regression was used for the data analysis, considering a level of significance of 10%. Results: the predictive factors identified were: for the nursing diagnosis of knowledge deficit-inadequate following of instructions and verbalization of the problem; for the nursing diagnosis of failure to adhere - years of study, behavior indicative of failure to adhere, participation in the treatment and forgetfulness; for the nursing diagnosis of sexual dysfunction - family income, reduced frequency of sexual practice, perceived deficit in sexual desire, perceived limitations imposed by the disease and altered body function. Conclusion: the predictive factors for these nursing diagnoses involved sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, defining characteristics, and related factors, which must be taken into consideration during the assistance provided by the nurse. PMID:27384466

  14. Randomised factorial trial of falls prevention among older people living in their own homes

    PubMed Central

    Day, Lesley; Fildes, Brian; Gordon, Ian; Fitzharris, Michael; Flamer, Harold; Lord, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of, and explore interactions between, three interventions to prevent falls among older people. Design A randomised controlled trial with a full factorial design. Setting Urban community in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 1090 aged 70 years and over and living at home. Most were Australian born and rated their health as good to excellent; just over half lived alone. Interventions Three interventions (group based exercise, home hazard management, and vision improvement) delivered to eight groups defined by the presence or absence of each intervention. Main outcome measure Time to first fall ascertained by an 18 month falls calendar and analysed with survival analysis techniques. Changes to targeted risk factors were assessed by using measures of quadriceps strength, balance, vision, and number of hazards in the home. Results The rate ratio for exercise was 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.97, P=0.02), and a significant effect (P<0.05) was observed for the combinations of interventions that involved exercise. Balance measures improved significantly among the exercise group. Neither home hazard management nor treatment of poor vision showed a significant effect. The strongest effect was observed for all three interventions combined (rate ratio 0.67 (0.51 to 0.88, P=0.004)), producing an estimated 14.0% reduction in the annual fall rate. The number of people needed to be treated to prevent one fall a year ranged from 32 for home hazard management to 7 for all three interventions combined. Conclusions Group based exercise was the most potent single intervention tested, and the reduction in falls among this group seems to have been associated with improved balance. Falls were further reduced by the addition of home hazard management or reduced vision management, or both of these. Cost effectiveness is yet to be examined. These findings are most applicable to Australian born adults aged 70-84 years living at home who rate their

  15. The social positioning of older people living with Alzheimer's disease who scream in long-term care homes.

    PubMed

    Bourbonnais, Anne; Ducharme, Francine

    2015-11-01

    This article describes the social positioning of older people living with Alzheimer's disease who scream in a long-term care home. Few studies have focused on the social positions taken by older people, their family and formal caregivers during interaction and their effects on screams. A secondary data analysis was conducted using Harré and Van Langenhove's positioning theory. The results show that older people are capable of positioning and repositioning themselves in relational patterns. Family and formal caregivers position older people who scream according to their beliefs about their lived experience. They also react emotionally to older people and try to influence their behaviors. Understanding the social positioning of older people with Alzheimer's disease brought out their capacities and their caregivers' concerns for their well-being. Interventions should focus on these strengths and on promoting healthy relations in the triads to enhance quality of care in long-term care homes. PMID:24339123

  16. University Students' Perception of People Living with HIV/AIDS: Discomfort, Fear, Knowledge and a Willingness to Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtsonen, Jarmo; Kylmä, Jari; Korhonen, Teija; Välimäki, Maritta; Suominen, Tarja

    2014-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are often subject to blame, fear and avoidance, particularly if they are perceived as personally responsible for their infection due to their risky behaviour or life style choices. Some people however, react to PLWHA with sympathy and a willingness to care. This paper explores how university students (n = 282)…

  17. Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

  18. Cognitive Impairment and Risk Factors in Elderly People Living in Fluorosis Areas in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Mang; Gao, Yanhui; Cui, Jing; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Bingyun; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xiaona; Liu, Hongxu; Zhao, Lijun; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-07-01

    Residents living in fluorosis areas generally experienced long-term exposure to excessive fluoride in drinking water. The adverse effects of high fluoride levels on the nervous system have been studied; however, the effect of fluoride exposure on cognitive functions of elderly people in fluorosis areas is rarely reported. This study was aimed to find out the potential risk factors of cognitive impairment among elderly people who lived in fluorosis areas of China. A total of 511 subjects, aged 60 years or above, were investigated in fluorosis areas of Heilongjiang Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to examine cognitive functions of the study subjects. Based on the MMSE scores, the study subjects were divided into normal group and cognitive impairment group that consisted of mild, moderate, and severe groups. Multivariable logistic regression showed that a higher risk of cognitive impairment was associated with increased age and decreased education levels. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that MMSE scores were negatively associated with serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels. However, both urinary fluoride and serum Hcy levels in the normal group were not the lowest among the four groups. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that urinary fluoride levels were positively correlated with serum Hcy (r s = 0.209, P < 0.01). Our study suggests that people with cognitive impairment in fluorosis areas have elevated serum Hcy levels, which was positively correlated with urinary fluoride concentrations. A certain low dose of fluoride intake may play a potential protective rather than harmful role in cognitive functions; however, high fluoride exposure is a potential risk factor for cognitive impairment.

  19. Indices of body fat distribution for assessment of lipodysthrophy in people living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic and morphological changes associated with excessive abdominal fat, after the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA). Accurate methods for body composition analysis are expensive and the use of anthropometric indices is an alternative. However the investigations about this subject in PLWHA are rare, making this research very important for clinical purpose and to advance scientific knowledge. The aim of this study is to correlate results of anthropometric indices of evaluation of body fat distribution with the results obtained by Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry(DEXA), in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods The sample was of 67 PLWHA(39 male and 28 female), aged 43.6+7.9 years. Body mass index, conicity index, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and waist/thigh were calculated. Separated by sex, each index/ratio was plotted in a scatter chart with linear regression fit and their respective Pearson correlation coefficients. Analyses were performed using Prism statistical program and significance was set at 5%. Results The waist/height ratio presented the highest correlation coefficient, for both male (r=0.80, p<0.001) and female (r=0.87, p <001), while the lowest were in the waist/thigh also for both: male group (r=0.58, p<0.001) and female group (r=0.03, p=0.86). The other indices also showed significant positive correlation with DEXA. Conclusion Anthropometric indices, especially waist/height ratio may be a good alternative way to be used for evaluating the distribution of fat in the abdominal region of adults living with HIV/ADIS. PMID:23031203

  20. Social support and the management of uncertainty for people living with HIV or AIDS.

    PubMed

    Brashers, Dale E; Neidig, Judith L; Goldsmith, Daena J

    2004-01-01

    People with chronic and acute illnesses experience uncertainty about their prognoses, potential treatments, social relationships, and identity concerns. In a focus group study of people living with HIV or AIDS, we examined how social support may facilitate or interfere with the management of uncertainty about health, identity, and relationships. We found that support from others helps people with HIV or AIDS to manage uncertainty by (a) assisting with information seeking and avoiding, (b) providing instrumental support, (c) facilitating skill development, (d) giving acceptance or validation, (e) allowing ventilation, and (f) encouraging perspective shifts. Respondents also reported a variety of ways in which supportive others interfered with uncertainty management or in which seeking support imposed costs. Problems associated with social support and uncertainty management included a lack of coordination in uncertainty management assistance, the addition of relational uncertainty to illness uncertainty, and the burden of others' uncertainty management. Our study reveals strategies respondents used to manage costs and complications of receiving support, including developing an active or self-advocating orientation, reframing supportive interactions, withdrawing from nonproductive social situations, selectively allowing others to be support persons, and maintaining boundaries.

  1. Quality of life, clinical characteristics and treatment adherence of people living with HIV/AIDS1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Cristina de Oliveira e; Reis, Renata Karina; Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Gir, Elucir

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to assess the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and verify its association with clinical characteristics and treatment adherence. METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted in a hospital in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and clinical data. The quality of life scale proposed by the World Health Organization and a questionnaire to measure treatment adherence were used. RESULTS: of the 314 interviewees, 190 (60.5%) were male, aged 43 years on average, 121 (38.5%) had attended up to five years of schooling, 108 (34.4%) received up to two times the minimum wage, and 112 (35.7%) were on sick leave. In regard to clinical variables, individuals with an undetectable viral load scored higher in all the domains concerning quality of life, with statistically significant differences in three domains. Regarding treatment adherence, 235 (73.8%) presented poor adherence and those who strictly adhered to treatment obtained better scores in quality of life. The results show that quality of life is better among individuals adherent to ART. Supporting people to adhere to the antiretroviral treatment should be a persistent task of healthcare workers and other people participating in the treatment, such as family members and friends. PMID:25591095

  2. My Body, My Stigma: Body Interpretations in a Sample of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varas-Diaz, Nelson; Toro-Alfonso, Jose; Serrano-Garcia, Irma

    2005-01-01

    AIDS related stigma continues to impact the lives of "People Living With HIV/AIDS" (PLWHA) negatively. Although the consequences of stigmatization have been widely documented, certain areas of study need to be further addressed in order to better understand their implications for PLWHA; such is the case of the perceptions of the body's role in…

  3. Educational Issues for Children and Young People in Families Living in Emergency Accommodation--An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Anna Fiona; Halpenny, Ann Marie; Gilligan, Robbie

    2006-01-01

    The article explores how homelessness may impact on the educational participation of children and young people in families living in emergency accommodation in Dublin. Many difficulties arise in terms of maintaining consistent schooling for children when they are part of a homeless family, including problems getting to and from school if living at…

  4. Life situation and identity among single older home-living people: A phenomenological–hermeneutic study

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Ulrika; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Being able to continue living in their own home as long as possible is the general preference for many older people, and this is also in line with the public policy in the Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of self-care and health for perception of life situation and identity among single-living older individuals in rural areas in southern Norway. Eleven older persons with a mean age of 78 years were interviewed and encouraged to narrate their self-care and health experiences. The interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a phenomenological–hermeneutic method inspired by the philosophy of Ricoeur. The findings are presented as a naïve reading, an inductive structural analysis characterized by two main themes; i.e., “being able to do” and “being able to be”, and a comprehensive interpretation. The life situation of the interviewed single-living older individuals in rural areas in southern Norway was interpreted as inevitable, appropriate and meaningful. Their identity was constituted by their freedom and self-chosen actions in their personal contexts. The overall impression was that independence and the ability to control and govern their own life in accordance with needs and preferences were ultimate goals for the study participants. PMID:22848230

  5. The effect of probiotics on CD4 counts among people living with HIV: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Miller, H; Ferris, R; Phelps, B R

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are defined by the WHO as 'live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host'. Ongoing research has shown probiotics provide benefits to humans, including protection and restoration of the gastrointestinal and other mucosal tracts. As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activates gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), several studies have investigated the effect of probiotics on CD4 cell count and related outcomes among those living with HIV. These studies are summarised here. Manuscripts were identified using the search terms 'probiotics', 'synbiotics', 'HIV', and 'CD4', and were reviewed for relevance and inclusion of CD4 count as an immunologic endpoint. Bibliographies of relevant manuscripts were also reviewed for additional studies matching inclusion and exclusion criteria. The search yielded 91 results; 13 included relevant outcomes. Seven of these studies produced beneficial CD4 outcomes, while the remaining 6 reported on insignificant beneficial or negative CD4 outcomes. The studies summarised here collectively suggest that daily consumption of probiotics over a prolonged period of time may improve CD4 count in people living with HIV.

  6. Incarceration of people living with HIV/AIDS: Implications for Treatment-As-Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Milloy, M-J; Montaner, Julio S.G.; Wood, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Contact with the criminal justice system, including incarceration, is a common experience for many people living with HIV/AIDS. Optimism has recently been expressed that correctional facilities could be important locations for Treatment-as-Prevention (TasP)-based initiatives. We review recent findings regarding the effect of incarceration on patterns of HIV transmission, testing, treatment initiation and retention. We found that the prevalence of HIV infection among incarcerated individuals remains higher than analogous non-incarcerated populations. Recent studies have shown that voluntary HIV/AIDS testing is feasible in many correctional facilities, although the number of previously undiagnosed individuals identified has been modest. Studies have implied enhanced linkage to HIV/AIDS treatment and care in jails in the United States was associated with improvements in the HIV cascade of care. However, for many individuals living with HIV/AIDS, exposure to the correctional system remains an important barrier to retention in HIV/AIDS treatment and care. Future research should evaluate structural interventions to address these barriers and facilitate the scale-up of TasP-based efforts among individuals living in correctional settings. PMID:24962285

  7. Life situation and identity among single older home-living people: a phenomenological-hermeneutic study.

    PubMed

    Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Being able to continue living in their own home as long as possible is the general preference for many older people, and this is also in line with the public policy in the Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of self-care and health for perception of life situation and identity among single-living older individuals in rural areas in southern Norway. Eleven older persons with a mean age of 78 years were interviewed and encouraged to narrate their self-care and health experiences. The interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic method inspired by the philosophy of Ricoeur. The findings are presented as a naïve reading, an inductive structural analysis characterized by two main themes; i.e., "being able to do" and "being able to be", and a comprehensive interpretation. The life situation of the interviewed single-living older individuals in rural areas in southern Norway was interpreted as inevitable, appropriate and meaningful. Their identity was constituted by their freedom and self-chosen actions in their personal contexts. The overall impression was that independence and the ability to control and govern their own life in accordance with needs and preferences were ultimate goals for the study participants. PMID:22848230

  8. Estimates of the Number of People Living with HIV in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Regine, Vincenza; Stanecki, Karen; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Raimondo, Mariangela; Suligoi, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To estimate the HIV prevalence and the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Italy with a projection for 2020. Methods. Two methods elaborated by Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) were used: Estimate and Projection Package and Spectrum. Results. A total of 123,000 (115,000–145,000) individuals aged 15 or more were estimated to be living with HIV in Italy at the end of 2012 and the estimated HIV prevalence was 0.28 (0.24–0.32) per 100 residents aged 15 or more. In 2012, the estimated number of new HIV infections among adults was 3,000 (2,700–4,000), and the number of adults in need for ART was 93,000 (80,000–110,000). The projection estimates that 130,000 (110,000–150,000) adults will live with HIV/AIDS in 2020 in Italy. Conclusion. Estimates of PLHIV in Italy stress the high number of PLHIV in need of care and treatment, as well as the need for more information and prevention campaigns. PMID:25136562

  9. Safety of live attenuated influenza vaccine in young people with egg allergy: multicentre prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Southern, Jo; Andrews, Nick J; Miller, Elizabeth; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Study question How safe is live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), which contains egg protein, in young people with egg allergy? Methods In this open label, phase IV intervention study, 779 young people (2-18 years) with egg allergy were recruited from 30 UK allergy centres and immunised with LAIV. The cohort included 270 (34.7%) young people with previous anaphylaxis to egg, of whom 157 (20.1%) had experienced respiratory and/or cardiovascular symptoms. 445 (57.1%) had doctor diagnosed asthma or recurrent wheeze. Participants were observed for at least 30 minutes after vaccination and followed-up by telephone 72 hours later. Participants with a history of recurrent wheeze or asthma underwent further follow-up four weeks later. The main outcome measure was incidence of an adverse event within two hours of vaccination in young people with egg allergy. Study answer and limitations No systemic allergic reactions occurred (upper 95% confidence interval for population 0.47% and in participants with anaphylaxis to egg 1.36%). Nine participants (1.2%, 95% CI 0.5% to 2.2%) experienced mild symptoms, potentially consistent with a local, IgE mediated allergic reaction. Delayed events potentially related to the vaccine were reported in 221 participants. 62 participants (8.1%, 95% CI for population 6.3% to 10.3%) experienced lower respiratory tract symptoms within 72 hours, including 29 with parent reported wheeze. No participants were admitted to hospital. No increase in lower respiratory tract symptoms occurred in the four weeks after vaccination (assessed with asthma control test). The study cohort may represent young people with more severe allergy requiring specialist input, since they were recruited from secondary and tertiary allergy centres. What this study adds LAIV is associated with a low risk of systemic allergic reactions in young people with egg allergy. The vaccine seems to be well tolerated in those with well controlled asthma or recurrent wheeze. Funding

  10. Electric and magnetic field exposures for people living near a 735-Kilovolt power line

    SciTech Connect

    Levallois, P.; Gauvin, D.; St. Laurent, J.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 735-kV transmission line on the electric and magnetic field exposures of people living at the edge of the line`s right of way. Exposure of 18 adults, mostly white-collar workers, living in different bungalows located 190-240 feet from the line (exposed subjects) was compared to that of 17 adults living in similar residences far away from any transmission line. Each subject carried a Positron meter for 24 hr during 1 workday, which measured 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields every minute. All measurements were carried out in parallel for exposed and unexposed subjects during the same weeks between September and December. During measurements the average loading on the line varied between 600 and 1100 A. The average magnetic field intensity while at home was 4.4 times higher among exposed subjects than unexposed (7.1 versus 1.6 Mg, p=0.0001) and 6.2 times higher when considering only the sleeping period (6.8 versus 1.1 mG, p=0.0001). Based on the 24-hr measurement, average magnetic field exposure was three times higher among the exposed was positively correlated with the loading on the line (r=0.8, p+0.001). Percentage of time above a magnetic field threshold F(2 mG or 7.8 mG) was a good indicator to distinguish the two types of exposure. Percentage of time above 20 V/m was significantly different, but percentage of time above 78 V/m was rare and comparable for the two groups. Variability of exposure was very low. This study demonstrates that a 735-kV line contributes significantly to residential 60-Hz magnetic field exposure and, to a lesser extent, electric fields for people living at the edge of the right way. Because of the limited size of our sample, caution is recommended before generalizing these results. Nevertheless, due to the uncertainty on the risks associated with such an unusual high residential exposure, research is needed on its possible effects. 30 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  11. 'Many people know the law, but also many people violate it': discrimination experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in Vietnam--results of a national study.

    PubMed

    Messersmith, Lisa J; Semrau, Katherine; Hammett, Theodore M; Phong, Nguyen Tuan; Tung, Nguyen Duy; Nguyen, Ha; Glandon, Douglas; Huong, Nguyen Mai; Anh, Hoang Tu

    2013-01-01

    In Vietnam, discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) is defined within and prohibited by the 2007 national HIV/AIDS law. Despite the law, PLHIV face discrimination in health care, employment, education and other spheres. This study presents the first national estimates of the levels and types of discrimination that are defined in Vietnamese law and experienced by PLHIV in Vietnam. A nationally representative sample of 1200 PLHIV was surveyed, and 129 PLHIV participated in focus group discussions (FGDs). In the last 12 months, nearly half of the survey population experienced at least one form of discrimination and many experienced up to six different types of discrimination. The most common forms of discrimination included disclosure of HIV status without consent; denial of access to education for children; loss of employment; advice, primarily from health care providers, to abstain from sex; and physical and emotional harm. In logistic regression analysis, the experience of discrimination differed by gender, region of residence and membership status in a PLHIV support group. The logistic regression and FGD results indicate that disclosure of HIV status without consent was associated with experiencing other forms of discrimination. Key programme and policy recommendations are discussed.

  12. In memoriam Ladislau Steiner, neurosurgeon: some people from transylvania do live forever.

    PubMed

    Dinca, Eduard B; Ciurea, Alexandru V; Valéry, Charles-Ambroise

    2014-01-01

    We review the extraordinary professional trajectory of Ladislau Steiner, a prolific neurosurgeon and radiosurgeon, who died earlier this year. Dr. Steiner trained and practiced as a neurosurgeon in his native Romania until he was 42, before moving to Stockholm. After 25 years at the Karolinska Institute, when most people consider retirement, he spent the following 25 years of his life as director of the Lars Leksell Center for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia. At 90, nostalgia for Europe made him accept the position of director of the Gamma Knife Center at the International Neuroscience Institute in Hannover, Germany. His life was dedicated to the 15,000 patients whose lives he saved in his lengthy career. PMID:24076211

  13. Complementary medicine use by people living with HIV in Australia - a national survey.

    PubMed

    Braun, Lesley A; Forrester, Catherine A; Rawlins, Matthew Dm; Levy, Russell W; Penm, Jonathan; Graham, Marissa M; Mackie, Kathryn F; Aran, Sohileh; Bridle, Sylvia; Bailey, Michael J; Duncan, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the use of complementary medicines by people living with HIV in Australia since the advent of more effective combination antiretroviral therapy. We conducted an anonymous survey of 1211 adult patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy from one of eight specialist HIV clinics across Australia, aiming to identify the current patterns of use of ingestible complementary medicines. Data collected included reasons for use, information sources and rates of disclosure of use of complementary medicines to medical practitioners and pharmacists. Ingestible complementary medicine was used by up to 53% of the 1037 patients returning a survey. Complementary medicine was commonly used for general health, to boost immune function and, to a lesser extent, to address co-morbidities. Disclosure of complementary medicines use to doctors was far higher than to pharmacists. Given the potential for interactions, pharmacists should be more aware of patients' complementary medicines use.

  14. A cost analysis of an internet based medication adherence intervention for people living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Page, Timothy F.; Horvath, Keith J.; Danilenko, Gene P.; Williams, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to document development costs and estimate implementation costs of an internet based medication adherence intervention for people living with HIV in the US. Participants (n=61) were enrolled in the 8 week study in 2011 and entered the intervention website remotely in the setting of their choice. Development costs were obtained from a feasibility and acceptability study of an internet based medication adherence intervention. Implementation costs were estimated based on an 8 week trial period during the feasibility and acceptability study. Results indicated that although developing an internet based medication adherence intervention is expensive, the monthly cost of implementing and delivering the intervention is low. If the efficacy of similar interventions can be established, these results suggest the internet could be an effective method for delivering medication adherence interventions to persons residing in areas with limited access to in-person adherence services. PMID:22362156

  15. Depressive symptoms and social support among people living with HIV in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honghong; Zhang, Caihong; Ruan, Ye; Li, Xianhong; Fennie, Kristopher; Williams, Ann B

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among people living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment and poor treatment outcomes. Our study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptoms in PLWH in one Chinese province. Data were collected from 496 PLWH between July 2009 and July 2010 at two HIV treatment sites in Hunan Province, China. Sixty-two percent (n = 309) of participants scored 16 or more on the Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression scale, indicating moderate to high levels of depressive symptoms. Independent predictors of depressive symptoms included active heroin use, lack of a stable job, female gender, and limited social support. These data suggest that interventions addressing depressive symptoms should be included in HIV care programs provided by the Chinese government, with a special focus on PLWH who are heroin users, female, unemployed, or socially isolated.

  16. Treating Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among People Living with HIV: a Critical Review of Intervention Trials.

    PubMed

    McLean, Carmen P; Fitzgerald, Hayley

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people living with HIV (PLWH) is significantly higher than the rate among the general population. Moreover, PTS symptoms have been linked with numerous negative health-related outcomes in PLWH. While these findings suggest that studies evaluating the efficacy of treatments for PTS symptoms among PLWH are sorely needed, according to prior reviews, such studies are lacking. The purpose of the present systematic review was to provide an updated critical evaluation of treatment studies that targeted PTS among PLWH. Following PRIMSA guidelines, we searched PubMed and PsycINFO and identified eight articles (representing seven studies) evaluating the impact of various individual and group treatments on PTS symptoms. The limited evidence base to date precludes clinical recommendations for this population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of existing evidence-based treatments for PTSD among PLWH and then, if necessary, evaluate the impact of any treatment modifications for this population.

  17. Depression and Apathy Among People Living with HIV: Implications for Treatment of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Nicole E.; Burrell, Larry E.; Dotson, Vonetta M.; Cook, Robert L.; Malloy, Paul; Devlin, Kathryn; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    Depression and apathy are common among people living with HIV (PLWH). However, in PLWH, it is unclear whether depression and apathy are distinct conditions, which contribute to different patterns of disruption to cognitive processing and brain systems. Understanding these conditions may enable the development of prognostic indicators for HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The present study examined substance use behavior and cognitive deficits, associated with depression and apathy, in 120 PLWH, using hierarchical regression analyses. Higher levels of depression were associated with a history of alcohol dependence and greater deficits in processing speed, motor and global cognitive functioning. Higher levels of apathy were associated with a history of cocaine dependence. It is recommended that PLWH get screened appropriately for apathy and depression, in order to receive the appropriate treatment, considering the comorbidities associated with each condition. Future research should examine the neurological correlates of apathy and depression in PLWH. PMID:25533921

  18. In memoriam Ladislau Steiner, neurosurgeon: some people from transylvania do live forever.

    PubMed

    Dinca, Eduard B; Ciurea, Alexandru V; Valéry, Charles-Ambroise

    2014-01-01

    We review the extraordinary professional trajectory of Ladislau Steiner, a prolific neurosurgeon and radiosurgeon, who died earlier this year. Dr. Steiner trained and practiced as a neurosurgeon in his native Romania until he was 42, before moving to Stockholm. After 25 years at the Karolinska Institute, when most people consider retirement, he spent the following 25 years of his life as director of the Lars Leksell Center for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia. At 90, nostalgia for Europe made him accept the position of director of the Gamma Knife Center at the International Neuroscience Institute in Hannover, Germany. His life was dedicated to the 15,000 patients whose lives he saved in his lengthy career.

  19. Menthol cigarettes and the cardiovascular risks of people living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Míguez-Burbano, María José; Vargas, Mayra; Quiros, Clery; Lewis, John E.; Espinoza, Luis; Asthana, Deshratan

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that menthol cigarettes add to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of smoking has been barely discussed. Although cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are at the forefront of medical concerns of people living with HIV (PLWH), an important, yet unknown, issue for clinicians and public health authorities is whether use of menthol-flavored cigarettes heightens CVD risk factors. Our study aims to assess traditional (10-year risk using the Framingham Risk Model) and nontraditional CVD risk factors and to contrast the effects of menthol-flavored versus non-menthol flavored cigarettes on these risk factors. Compared to controls, menthol smokers were twice as likely to have hypertension. Users of menthol-flavored cigarettes had higher body mass index values, and increased risk of abdominal obesity. Multivariate analyses indicated that menthol smokers doubled the odds of having moderate to high CVD risk. This finding is highly significant given the widespread use of menthol-flavored cigarettes, particularly among women, minorities, and PLWH. PMID:24581861

  20. Factors impacting the provision of antiretroviral therapy to people living with HIV: the view from Haiti.

    PubMed

    Rouzier, Vanessa; Farmer, Paul E; Pape, Jean W; Jerome, Jean-Gregory; Van Onacker, Joelle Deas; Morose, Willy; Joseph, Patrice; Leandre, Fernet; Severe, Patrice; Barry, Donna; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Koenig, Serena P

    2014-01-01

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and has the highest number of people living with HIV in the Caribbean, the region most impacted by HIV outside of Africa. Despite continuous political, socioeconomic and natural catastrophes, Haiti has mounted a very successful response to the HIV epidemic. Prevention and treatment strategies implemented by the government in collaboration with non-governmental organizations have been instrumental in decreasing the national HIV prevalence from a high of 6.2% in 1993 to 2.2% in 2012. We describe the history and epidemiology of HIV in Haiti and the expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the past decade, with the achievement of universal access to ART for patients meeting the 2010 World Health Organization guidelines. We also describe effective models of care, successes and challenges of international funding, and current challenges in the provision of ART. We are optimistic that the goal of providing ART for all in need remains in reach.

  1. Social Capital and Quality of Life Among People Living With HIV/AIDS in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Lan, Gui-Lian; Yuan, Zhao-Kang; Clements-Nolle, Kristen D; Cook, Angelie; Yuan, Ling-Ling; Xu, Qun-Ying; Jiang, Hong-Ying; Zheng, Hui-Lie; Wang, Li; Yang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted with 261 people living with HIV (PLWH) in Southeast China. A social capital questionnaire was used to measure social capital dimensions (trust, social connection, and social participation). A Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) was used to assess Quality of Life (QoL); Physical Health Summary Scores (PHS) and Mental Health Summary Scores (MHS) were calculated. Multiple regression assessed whether social capital and its dimensions were associated with PHS and MHS. After controlling for sociodemographics and HIV-related factors, lower PHS scores were found among participants with low overall social capital (P < .01) and low trust (P < .001). Lower MHS scores were found among participants with low overall social capital (P < .001), low trust (P < .001) and low social connection (P < .01). Our findings identify potential intervention targets to improve QoL among PLWH in Southeast China, including the promotion of social capital.

  2. Mental health needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in India: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Das, Shankar; Leibowitz, George S

    2011-04-01

    We describe the global conditions associated with the AIDS pandemic and its socioeconomic and psychological impacts. A systematic review was performed to investigate the literature on the mental health needs of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in India. The focus is on the prevalence, nature, and sociocultural factors of the epidemic in India. A conceptual framework is offered and the findings of this study are presented across three major domains: (a) prevalence of mental health disorders among the HIV-infected population; (b) mental health needs of PLHA; and (c) gaps in policies and programs addressing these issues. Experiences of HIV stigma and discrimination are also noted in this population. We conclude with implications for future research, interventions, and public policy.

  3. Self-compassion and risk behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Dawson Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Cuca, Yvette P; Wantland, Dean; Johnson, Mallory O; Brion, John; Portillo, Carmen J; Corless, Inge B; Voss, Joachim; Chen, Wei-Ti; Phillips, J Craig; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Nicholas, Patrice K; Nokes, Kathleen; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Iipinge, Scholastika; Kirksey, Kenn; Chaiphibalsarisdi, Puangtip; Davila, Nancy; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Hickey, Dorothy; Maryland, Mary; Reid, Paula; Holzemer, William L

    2014-04-01

    Sexual risk behavior and illicit drug use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) contribute to poor health and onward transmission of HIV. The aim of this collaborative multi-site nursing research study was to explore the association between self-compassion and risk behaviors in PLWHA. As part of a larger project, nurse researchers in Canada, China, Namibia, Puerto Rico, Thailand and the US enrolled 1211 sexually active PLWHA using convenience sampling. The majority of the sample was male, middle-aged, and from the US. Illicit drug use was strongly associated with sexual risk behavior, but participants with higher self-compassion were less likely to report sexual risk behavior, even in the presence of illicit drug use. Self-compassion may be a novel area for behavioral intervention development for PLWHA.

  4. Complementary medicine use by people living with HIV in Australia - a national survey.

    PubMed

    Braun, Lesley A; Forrester, Catherine A; Rawlins, Matthew Dm; Levy, Russell W; Penm, Jonathan; Graham, Marissa M; Mackie, Kathryn F; Aran, Sohileh; Bridle, Sylvia; Bailey, Michael J; Duncan, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the use of complementary medicines by people living with HIV in Australia since the advent of more effective combination antiretroviral therapy. We conducted an anonymous survey of 1211 adult patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy from one of eight specialist HIV clinics across Australia, aiming to identify the current patterns of use of ingestible complementary medicines. Data collected included reasons for use, information sources and rates of disclosure of use of complementary medicines to medical practitioners and pharmacists. Ingestible complementary medicine was used by up to 53% of the 1037 patients returning a survey. Complementary medicine was commonly used for general health, to boost immune function and, to a lesser extent, to address co-morbidities. Disclosure of complementary medicines use to doctors was far higher than to pharmacists. Given the potential for interactions, pharmacists should be more aware of patients' complementary medicines use. PMID:25681264

  5. Treating Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among People Living with HIV: a Critical Review of Intervention Trials.

    PubMed

    McLean, Carmen P; Fitzgerald, Hayley

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people living with HIV (PLWH) is significantly higher than the rate among the general population. Moreover, PTS symptoms have been linked with numerous negative health-related outcomes in PLWH. While these findings suggest that studies evaluating the efficacy of treatments for PTS symptoms among PLWH are sorely needed, according to prior reviews, such studies are lacking. The purpose of the present systematic review was to provide an updated critical evaluation of treatment studies that targeted PTS among PLWH. Following PRIMSA guidelines, we searched PubMed and PsycINFO and identified eight articles (representing seven studies) evaluating the impact of various individual and group treatments on PTS symptoms. The limited evidence base to date precludes clinical recommendations for this population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of existing evidence-based treatments for PTSD among PLWH and then, if necessary, evaluate the impact of any treatment modifications for this population. PMID:27439305

  6. Patient Perspectives on Improving Oral Health-Care Practices Among People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E.; McCluskey, Amanda; Guevara, Ernesto; Verdecias, Niko; Jeanty, Yves; DeMayo, Michael; Mofidi, Mahyar

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the impact on oral health-care knowledge, attitudes, and practices among 39 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participating in a national initiative aimed at increasing access to oral health care. Personal values and childhood dental experiences, beliefs about the importance of oral health in relation to HIV health, and concerns for appearance and self-esteem were found to be determinants of oral health knowledge and practice. Program participation resulted in better hygiene practices, improved self-esteem and appearance, relief of pain, and better physical and emotional health. In-depth exploration of the causes for these changes revealed a desire to continue with dental care due to the dental staff and environmental setting, and a desire to maintain overall HIV health, including oral health. Our findings emphasize the importance of addressing both personal values and contextual factors in providing oral health-care services to PLWHA. PMID:22547879

  7. Self-compassion and Risk Behavior among People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Webel, Allison; Sullivan, Kathleen M.; Cuca, Yvette P.; Wantland, Dean; Johnson, Mallory O.; Brion, John; Portillo, Carmen J.; Corless, Inge B.; Voss, Joachim; Chen, Wei-Ti; Phillips, J. Craig; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Nokes, Kathleen; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Iipinge, Scholastika; Kirksey, Kenn; Chaiphibalsarisdi, Puangtip; Davila, Nancy; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Hickey, Dorothy; Maryland, Mary; Reid, Paula; Holzemer, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual risk behavior and illicit drug use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) contribute to poor health and onward transmission of HIV. The aim of this collaborative multi-site nursing research study was to explore the association between self-compassion and risk behaviors in PLWHA. Nurse researchers in Canada, China, Namibia, Puerto Rico, Thailand and the U.S. enrolled 2,182 PLWHA using convenience sampling. Over half of study participants were sexually active in the past three months. Participants with higher self-compassion were less likely to report sexual risk behavior. However, if a person also used illicit drugs, the relationship with self-compassion was reduced. Self-compassion may be a novel area for behavioral intervention development for PLWHA. PMID:24510757

  8. Self-compassion and risk behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Dawson Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Cuca, Yvette P; Wantland, Dean; Johnson, Mallory O; Brion, John; Portillo, Carmen J; Corless, Inge B; Voss, Joachim; Chen, Wei-Ti; Phillips, J Craig; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Nicholas, Patrice K; Nokes, Kathleen; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Iipinge, Scholastika; Kirksey, Kenn; Chaiphibalsarisdi, Puangtip; Davila, Nancy; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Hickey, Dorothy; Maryland, Mary; Reid, Paula; Holzemer, William L

    2014-04-01

    Sexual risk behavior and illicit drug use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) contribute to poor health and onward transmission of HIV. The aim of this collaborative multi-site nursing research study was to explore the association between self-compassion and risk behaviors in PLWHA. As part of a larger project, nurse researchers in Canada, China, Namibia, Puerto Rico, Thailand and the US enrolled 1211 sexually active PLWHA using convenience sampling. The majority of the sample was male, middle-aged, and from the US. Illicit drug use was strongly associated with sexual risk behavior, but participants with higher self-compassion were less likely to report sexual risk behavior, even in the presence of illicit drug use. Self-compassion may be a novel area for behavioral intervention development for PLWHA. PMID:24510757

  9. The Value of a Gardening Service for the Frail Elderly and People With a Disability Living in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Same, Anne; Lee, Elinda Ai Lim; McNamara, Beverley; Rosenwax, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the significance of gardening services for frail elderly people. This study explored the value of a gardening service for frail older people and people with a disability living in the community. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected from pre-gardening (n = 38) and post-gardening service delivery interviews (n = 35) and the Housing Enabler, the value of a gardening service was examined. Findings suggest that the service had a positive impact on the independence and emotional well-being of frail aged people and younger people with a functional disability, with little impact on physical health. Results indicate that gardening services should be fundamental to planning for these populations to remain or return to living in the community. PMID:27746669

  10. [From economic difficulties to social suffering of people living with HIV in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Bila, Blandine; Kouanda, Seni; Desclaux, Alice

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative study conducted in 2006 shows that many people in Burkina Faso, living with HIV and receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), have difficulties in meeting the expenses related to care. This anthropological analysis considers their perceptions, the causes and the social impact of these economic problems. This research is based on semi-structured interviews with 35 people living with HIV (PLWHIV) infection, contacted through HIV care programs in Ouagadougou, Bobo-Dioulasso and Ouahigouya. After recording, transcribing and indexing the interviews, we analysed them. Even when they did not have to pay for treatment, most of the subjects faced economic problems dealing with follow-up care and monitoring, transportation, and other expenses, and these problems occur when PLWHIV have already faced the long, complex and expensive therapeutic itinerary before the test that diagnosed HIV infection. The new diet required by the treatment is also mentioned. Moreover, work problems often due to the disease (low output at work, inability to work, job loss) have already decreased patients' income by the time they get treatment. It is not easy for them to return to the level of resources they had before their disease, even if they can find a job. This financial exhaustion frequently leads to the exclusion of PLWHIV from their former solidarity networks, mostly because they can no longer participate in collective contributions or return what they were given when they were totally dependent. The analysis of these conversations shows the relevance of the concept of "social suffering" in describing the social effects of the economic problems that face many PLWHIV on ART, even when treatment is subsidized.

  11. State of Australia's Young People: A Report on the Social, Economic, Health and Family Lives of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Kristy; Mullan, Killian; Powell, Abigail; Flaxman, Saul; Thompson, Denise; Griffiths, Megan

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a comprehensive picture of how young Australians are faring by bringing together data from a variety of sources and drawing on the comments of young people themselves. Overall the report presents a positive picture, showing how important young people are to this country and why it makes good economic and social sense for…

  12. To protect and to support: How citizenship and self-determination are legally constructed and managed in practice for people living with dementia in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nedlund, Ann-Charlotte; Taghizadeh Larsson, Annika

    2016-05-01

    Since living with dementia implies increasing difficulties in taking charge of rights due to cognitive as well as communicative impairments, many people with dementia are vulnerable and in need of support in order to realize full citizenship. In Sweden, all adults right to self-determination is strongly emphasized in law, regulations, and policies. Further, and in contrast to the situation in many other countries, people living with dementia cannot be declared as incompetent of making decisions concerning social care and their right to self-determination cannot legally be taken away. The article shows that in the Swedish welfare system, the focus is more on protecting the self-determination of citizens than on supporting people in making decisions and exercising citizenship. Subsequently, this causes legally constructed zones of inclusion and exclusion. This article examines and problematizes how different institutional contexts, legal constructions, norms, and practices in Sweden affect the management of issues concerning guardianship, supported decision-making and self-determination, and outline the implications for people living with dementia.

  13. We are all people living with AIDS: myths and realities of AIDS in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Daniel, H

    1991-01-01

    Although AIDS was expected in Brazil, no serious efforts were undertaken to prevent AIDS from taking root. Irresponsible press and media coverage highlighted the spread of AIDS within the gay community of the United States, creating an aura of immunity in Brazil to what was characterized as a "foreign" disorder. When AIDS did surface in 1983, the official response was to adopt an abstract, inappropriate, and ideological "Western" model, in which only stigmatized "others" and "minorities" were at risk of HIV infection. Brazilian health authorities subsequently downplayed the significance of the sale of contaminated blood in HIV transmission, and likewise ignored the rising rates of AIDS among Brazil's one unarguable majority group: the poor. An analysis of efforts to force the "facts" of AIDS to fit a false model's predictions leads to a clearer definition of the broader context of the Brazilian epidemic: we all are people living with AIDS, precisely because we live in this age of AIDS; it is sheer folly to discriminate against persons infected by HIV and to obstruct their participation in efforts to curtail the epidemic's spread; and the necessary response to AIDS is solidarity, not because it is poetic, but because no other response will suffice.

  14. Managing and resisting stigma: a qualitative study among people living with HIV in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Background Living with HIV is of daily concern for many South Africans and poses challenges including adapting to a chronic illness and continuing to achieve and meet social expectations. This study explored experiences of being HIV-positive and how people manage stigma in their daily social interactions. Methods Using qualitative methods we did repeat interviewed with 42 HIV-positive men and women in Cape Town and Mthatha resulting in 71 interviews. Results HIV was ubiquitous in our informants’ lives, and almost all participants reported fear of stigma (perceived stigma), but this fear did not disrupt them completely. The most common stigma experiences were gossips and insults where HIV status was used as a tool, but these were often resisted. Many feared the possibility of stigma, but very few had experiences that resulted in discrimination or loss of social status. Stigma experiences were intertwined with other daily conflicts and together created tensions, particularly in gender relations, which interfered with attempts to regain normality. Evidence of support and resistance to stigma was common, and most encouraging was the evidence of how structural interventions such as de-stigmatizing policies impacted on experiences and transference into active resistance. Conclusions The study showed the complex and shifting nature of stigma experiences. These differences must be considered when we intensify stigma reduction with context- and gender-specific strategies focussing on those not yet on ARV programmes. PMID:22905361

  15. Housing Status and the Health of People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Milloy, M-J; Marshall, Brandon DL; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who are homeless or living in marginal conditions have an elevated burden of infection with HIV. Existing research suggests the HIV/AIDS pandemic in resource-rich settings is increasingly concentrated among members of vulnerable and marginalized populations, including homeless/marginally-housed individuals, who have yet to benefit fully from recent advances in highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We reviewed the scientific evidence investigating the relationships between inferior housing and the health status, HAART access and adherence and HIV treatment outcomes of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA.) Studies indicate being homeless/marginally-housed is common among PLWHA and associated with poorer levels of HAART access and sub-optimal treatment outcomes. Among homeless/marginally-housed PLWHA, determinants of poorer HAART access/adherence or treatment outcomes include depression, illicit drug use and medication insurance status. Future research should consider possible social- and structural-level determinants of HAART access and HV treatment outcomes that have been shown to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among homeless/marginally-housed individuals. As evidence indicates homeless/marginally-housed PLWHA with adequate levels of adherence can benefit from HAART at similar rates to housed PLWHA, and given the individual and community benefits of expanding HAART use, interventions to identify HIV-seropositive homeless/marginally-housed individuals and engage them in HIV care including comprehensive support for HAART adherence are urgently needed. PMID:22968432

  16. Caring for Ethnic Older People Living with Dementia - Experiences of Nursing Staff.

    PubMed

    Söderman, Mirkka; Rosendahl, Sirpa Pietilä

    2016-09-01

    The total number of persons living with dementia is estimated to double every 20 years and ageing migrant populations are growing in several countries. There are gaps in the health and social care of people from other countries, regardless of the efforts made when someone has a dementia diagnosis; similarly, receiving care in sheltered accommodation is less common. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the nursing staff's experiences of caring for non-Swedish speaking persons living with dementia in a Finnish speaking group home in relation to a Swedish speaking group home in Sweden. 27 qualitative semi-structured interviews were analysed using qualitative content analyses. The first main category, "communication", concentrated on language abilities and deficiencies, non-verbal language, highlighting the consequences of not understanding and the benefits of a common language. The second main category, "culturally oriented activities", focused on being served traditional food, celebrating holidays at the group home, the importance of traditions and the importance of familiar music as cultural elements. The Swedish speaking nursing staff could provide qualitative and equitable care, but the challenge was greater for them than for the bilingual nursing staff who spoke the same language as the residents. PMID:27287438

  17. Exploring Coping and Social Support with Gender and Education Among People Living with HIV in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Liang, Li-Jung; Ji, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Social support promotes positive coping strategies among people living with HIV (PLH); however, little is known about the various aspects of social support and their distinct effects on coping. The present study investigates the specific links between coping and perceived social support with respect to gender and education among PLH. A total of 522 PLH in Anhui, China, participated in an assessment that collected data on demographics, perceived tangible and emotional support, and cognitive and behavioral coping. The assessment was conducted using the computer-assisted personal interviewing method. The data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Emotional support was significantly associated with both cognitive and behavioral coping. Tangible support was significantly associated with behavioral coping but not with emotional coping. Women reported significantly lower levels of emotional support, cognitive coping, and behavioral coping than men did. Significant associations between tangible support and coping were found only among illiterate males. Women living with HIV are in greater need of social support and coping strategies. Future interventions should be gender specific, with targeted support for women with lower education levels to enhance their coping strategies.

  18. Caring for Ethnic Older People Living with Dementia - Experiences of Nursing Staff.

    PubMed

    Söderman, Mirkka; Rosendahl, Sirpa Pietilä

    2016-09-01

    The total number of persons living with dementia is estimated to double every 20 years and ageing migrant populations are growing in several countries. There are gaps in the health and social care of people from other countries, regardless of the efforts made when someone has a dementia diagnosis; similarly, receiving care in sheltered accommodation is less common. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the nursing staff's experiences of caring for non-Swedish speaking persons living with dementia in a Finnish speaking group home in relation to a Swedish speaking group home in Sweden. 27 qualitative semi-structured interviews were analysed using qualitative content analyses. The first main category, "communication", concentrated on language abilities and deficiencies, non-verbal language, highlighting the consequences of not understanding and the benefits of a common language. The second main category, "culturally oriented activities", focused on being served traditional food, celebrating holidays at the group home, the importance of traditions and the importance of familiar music as cultural elements. The Swedish speaking nursing staff could provide qualitative and equitable care, but the challenge was greater for them than for the bilingual nursing staff who spoke the same language as the residents.

  19. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  20. Stress and Burnout among Health-Care Staff Working with People Affected by HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David

    1995-01-01

    The nature, causes, consequences, and symptoms of stress and burnout among health-care staff working with people affected by HIV are identified. The extent to which these characteristics are specific to HIV/AIDS workers is discussed. Some options for prevention and management of burnout are presented. (Author)

  1. Young People's Time-of-Day Preferences Affect Their School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Frech, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    During puberty, young people shift their time-of-day preferences from morningness to eveningness. One of the main problems seems to be early school-start times, which force adolescents to start working at a given time that may be too early for them; and this, in turn, negatively affects school functioning. Here, we ask whether…

  2. What matters to older people with assisted living needs? A phenomenological analysis of the use and non-use of telehealth and telecare.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Hinder, Sue; Procter, Rob; Stones, Rob

    2013-09-01

    Telehealth and telecare research has been dominated by efficacy trials. The field lacks a sophisticated theorisation of [a] what matters to older people with assisted living needs; [b] how illness affects people's capacity to use technologies; and [c] the materiality of assistive technologies. We sought to develop a phenomenologically and socio-materially informed theoretical model of assistive technology use. Forty people aged 60-98 (recruited via NHS, social care and third sector) were visited at home several times in 2011-13. Using ethnographic methods, we built a detailed picture of participants' lives, illness experiences and use (or non-use) of technologies. Data were analysed phenomenologically, drawing on the work of Heidegger, and contextualised using a structuration approach with reference to Bourdieu's notions of habitus and field. We found that participants' needs were diverse and unique. Each had multiple, mutually reinforcing impairments (e.g. tremor and visual loss and stiff hands) that were steadily worsening, culturally framed and bound up with the prospect of decline and death. They managed these conditions subjectively and experientially, appropriating or adapting technologies so as to enhance their capacity to sense and act on their world. Installed assistive technologies met few participants' needs; some devices had been abandoned and a few deliberately disabled. Successful technology arrangements were often characterised by 'bricolage' (pragmatic customisation, combining new with legacy devices) by the participant or someone who knew and cared about them. With few exceptions, the current generation of so-called 'assisted living technologies' does not assist people to live with illness. To overcome this irony, technology providers need to move beyond the goal of representing technology users informationally (e.g. as biometric data) to providing flexible components from which individuals and their carers can 'think with things' to improve the

  3. What matters to older people with assisted living needs? A phenomenological analysis of the use and non-use of telehealth and telecare.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Hinder, Sue; Procter, Rob; Stones, Rob

    2013-09-01

    Telehealth and telecare research has been dominated by efficacy trials. The field lacks a sophisticated theorisation of [a] what matters to older people with assisted living needs; [b] how illness affects people's capacity to use technologies; and [c] the materiality of assistive technologies. We sought to develop a phenomenologically and socio-materially informed theoretical model of assistive technology use. Forty people aged 60-98 (recruited via NHS, social care and third sector) were visited at home several times in 2011-13. Using ethnographic methods, we built a detailed picture of participants' lives, illness experiences and use (or non-use) of technologies. Data were analysed phenomenologically, drawing on the work of Heidegger, and contextualised using a structuration approach with reference to Bourdieu's notions of habitus and field. We found that participants' needs were diverse and unique. Each had multiple, mutually reinforcing impairments (e.g. tremor and visual loss and stiff hands) that were steadily worsening, culturally framed and bound up with the prospect of decline and death. They managed these conditions subjectively and experientially, appropriating or adapting technologies so as to enhance their capacity to sense and act on their world. Installed assistive technologies met few participants' needs; some devices had been abandoned and a few deliberately disabled. Successful technology arrangements were often characterised by 'bricolage' (pragmatic customisation, combining new with legacy devices) by the participant or someone who knew and cared about them. With few exceptions, the current generation of so-called 'assisted living technologies' does not assist people to live with illness. To overcome this irony, technology providers need to move beyond the goal of representing technology users informationally (e.g. as biometric data) to providing flexible components from which individuals and their carers can 'think with things' to improve the

  4. People living under threat of volcanic hazard in southern Iceland: vulnerability and risk perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóhannesdóttir, G.; Gísladóttir, G.

    2010-02-01

    Residents in the village of Vík and in the farming community of Álftaver in southern Iceland are living with the threat of volcanic hazards. The highly active subglacial volcano Katla has erupted approximately twice per century since the beginning of settlement around 874 AD. The last major eruption was in 1918 and Katla has recently entered an agitated stage. The purpose of this research was to (1) review residents' responses in relation to vulnerability, (2) examine their risk perception, preparedness and mitigation in relation to an eruption of Katla, and (3) investigate the public and the representative of the local authorities and emergency manager's knowledge of the official evacuation plan. In 2004, we conducted in-depth, face-to-face interviews with local residents using a snowball sample technique. All participants were permanent residents of the two communities, between the ages of 25-95 and most had lived in the area their entire lives. Regardless of the residents' knowledge about past volcanic activity of Katla and the associated future risk, many residents were doubtful about the imminent eruption forecast by scientists and they believed that the volcano is no longer active. In both communities, different social, cultural and economic factors played a central role in how people perceived natural hazards and how they dealt with the fact that their lives and livelihoods could be at risk. The participants had good knowledge about the existing evacuation plan and had participated in evacuation exercises. However, they had not made personal mitigation or preparedness plans in the event of a future eruption. In contrast to the residents of Vík, the inhabitants in Álftaver are concerned about the evacuation process and found it very confusing; they neither found the emergency plan nor the proposed methods for risk communication relevant for their farming community. The perception of the inhabitants, especially in Álftaver, does not correspond to those

  5. How do people judge risks: availability heuristic, affect heuristic, or both?

    PubMed

    Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph; Steinmann, Florian

    2012-09-01

    How does the public reckon which risks to be concerned about? The availability heuristic and the affect heuristic are key accounts of how laypeople judge risks. Yet, these two accounts have never been systematically tested against each other, nor have their predictive powers been examined across different measures of the public's risk perception. In two studies, we gauged risk perception in student samples by employing three measures (frequency, value of a statistical life, and perceived risk) and by using a homogeneous (cancer) and a classic set of heterogeneous causes of death. Based on these judgments of risk, we tested precise models of the availability heuristic and the affect heuristic and different definitions of availability and affect. Overall, availability-by-recall, a heuristic that exploits people's direct experience of occurrences of risks in their social network, conformed to people's responses best. We also found direct experience to carry a high degree of ecological validity (and one that clearly surpasses that of affective information). However, the relative impact of affective information (as compared to availability) proved more pronounced in value-of-a-statistical-life and perceived-risk judgments than in risk-frequency judgments. Encounters with risks in the media, in contrast, played a negligible role in people's judgments. Going beyond the assumption of exclusive reliance on either availability or affect, we also found evidence for mechanisms that combine both, either sequentially or in a composite fashion. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications of our results, including how to foster people's risk calibration and the success of education campaigns. PMID:22564084

  6. [Characteristics of digital and palmar dermatoglyphics in people of different ages living in the territory of the Ukrainian Polesie].

    PubMed

    Zagariia, A M; Berdyshev, G D

    1991-01-01

    Examination of dermatoglyphs in people aged 50-103 living in the territory of the Ukrainian Polesie has revealed age differences in some indices of dermatoglyphics: total crest count, palmar angle, character of the cutaneous pattern of fingers. It assumed that these differences have arisen as a consequence of selection of persons characterized by high reliability of the genotype functioning. The data obtained permit supposing that it is possible to use dermatoglyphics for determining hereditary predisposition of people to longevity.

  7. Personalization, self-advocacy and inclusion: An evaluation of parent-initiated supported living schemes for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Reindl, Marie-Sol; Waltz, Mitzi; Schippers, Alice

    2016-06-01

    This study focused on parent-initiated supported living schemes in the South of the Netherlands and the ability of these living schemes to enhance participation, choice, autonomy and self-advocacy for people with intellectual or developmental disabilities through personalized planning, support and care. Based on in-depth interviews with tenants, parents and caregivers, findings included that parent-initiated supported housing schemes made steps towards stimulating self-advocacy and autonomy for tenants. However, overprotective and paternalistic attitudes expressed by a significant number of parents, as well as structural constraints affecting the living schemes, created obstacles to tenants' personal development. The study calls for consideration of interdependence as a model for the relationship of parents and adult offspring with disabilities. The benefits and tensions inherent within this relationship must be taken into consideration during inclusive community building.

  8. Personalization, self-advocacy and inclusion: An evaluation of parent-initiated supported living schemes for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Reindl, Marie-Sol; Waltz, Mitzi; Schippers, Alice

    2016-06-01

    This study focused on parent-initiated supported living schemes in the South of the Netherlands and the ability of these living schemes to enhance participation, choice, autonomy and self-advocacy for people with intellectual or developmental disabilities through personalized planning, support and care. Based on in-depth interviews with tenants, parents and caregivers, findings included that parent-initiated supported housing schemes made steps towards stimulating self-advocacy and autonomy for tenants. However, overprotective and paternalistic attitudes expressed by a significant number of parents, as well as structural constraints affecting the living schemes, created obstacles to tenants' personal development. The study calls for consideration of interdependence as a model for the relationship of parents and adult offspring with disabilities. The benefits and tensions inherent within this relationship must be taken into consideration during inclusive community building. PMID:26864287

  9. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  10. Lives Remembered: Telling the Stories of Older People - The second anthology University of York Lives Remembered: Telling the Stories of Older People - The second anthology 117pp University of York 9780901931078 0901931071 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2012-01-25

    Lives Remembered is the second anthology of older people's reminiscences published by the University of York. Using a creative writing approach, third-year nursing students interviewed a number of nursing home residents and have written up their stories in a sympathetic and respectful manner.

  11. The inclusivity of exclusion: isolation and community among leprosy-affected people in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Jane

    2011-01-01

    From 1911 to 1969 those people diagnosed with leprosy in the South Pacific were gradually isolated and received medical treatment at the Central Lepers' Hospital, Makogai Island, Fiji. Until the discovery of sulfones in the 1940s leprosy was largely incurable and it was expected that those who went to the island would never return. This paper assumes that the stigma attendant on leprosy which provoked the isolation order is itself a form of disability. The paper draws on patients'stories to explore their individual and collective experience of isolation and suggests that for many, collective isolation on Makogai was an enabling experience. On Makogai, leprosy was the 'norm', the social disability of stigma was removed and people were able to be self-sufficient, to build community and social relationships and to live a fairly ordinary island life.

  12. Ready to give up on life: The lived experience of elderly people who feel life is completed and no longer worth living.

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, Els; Leget, Carlo; Goossensen, Anne

    2015-08-01

    In the Netherlands, there has been much debate on the question whether elderly people over 70 who are tired of life and who consider their life to be completed, should have legal options to ask for assisted dying. So far there has been little research into the experiences of these elderly people. In order to develop deliberate policy and care that targets this group of elderly people, it is necessary to understand their lifeworld. The aim of this paper is to describe the phenomenon 'life is completed and no longer worth living' from a lifeworld perspective, as it is lived and experienced by elderly people. Between April to December 2013, we conducted 25 in-depth interviews. A reflective lifeworld research design, drawing on the phenomenological tradition, was used during the data gathering and data analysis. The essential meaning of the phenomenon is understood as 'a tangle of inability and unwillingness to connect to one's actual life', characterized by a permanently lived tension: daily experiences seem incompatible with people's expectations of life and their idea of whom they are. While feeling more and more disconnected to life, a yearning desire to end life is strengthened. The experience is further explicated in its five constituents: 1) a sense of aching loneliness; 2) the pain of not mattering; 3) the inability to express oneself; 4) multidimensional tiredness; and 5) a sense of aversion towards feared dependence. This article provides evocative and empathic lifeworld descriptions contributing to a deeper understanding of these elderly people and raises questions about a close association between death wishes and depression in this sample.

  13. Ready to give up on life: The lived experience of elderly people who feel life is completed and no longer worth living.

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, Els; Leget, Carlo; Goossensen, Anne

    2015-08-01

    In the Netherlands, there has been much debate on the question whether elderly people over 70 who are tired of life and who consider their life to be completed, should have legal options to ask for assisted dying. So far there has been little research into the experiences of these elderly people. In order to develop deliberate policy and care that targets this group of elderly people, it is necessary to understand their lifeworld. The aim of this paper is to describe the phenomenon 'life is completed and no longer worth living' from a lifeworld perspective, as it is lived and experienced by elderly people. Between April to December 2013, we conducted 25 in-depth interviews. A reflective lifeworld research design, drawing on the phenomenological tradition, was used during the data gathering and data analysis. The essential meaning of the phenomenon is understood as 'a tangle of inability and unwillingness to connect to one's actual life', characterized by a permanently lived tension: daily experiences seem incompatible with people's expectations of life and their idea of whom they are. While feeling more and more disconnected to life, a yearning desire to end life is strengthened. The experience is further explicated in its five constituents: 1) a sense of aching loneliness; 2) the pain of not mattering; 3) the inability to express oneself; 4) multidimensional tiredness; and 5) a sense of aversion towards feared dependence. This article provides evocative and empathic lifeworld descriptions contributing to a deeper understanding of these elderly people and raises questions about a close association between death wishes and depression in this sample. PMID:25982088

  14. Governing people's lives. Strategies for improving the health of the nations in England, Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Vallgårda, S

    2001-12-01

    Public health strategies reflect governments' wish to make people's lives longer and healthier. This can either be achieved by influencing the frames of people's lives and activities or the way they behave, i.e. to try to 'conduct their conduct'. In this paper the motivations for and methods of four national public health strategies are analysed. They are the English, the Norwegian, the Danish and the Swedish. Four questions are addressed: i) how is the governing activities aimed at improving the health of the population justified; ii) which issues are defined as problems; iii) which causes of the problems are identified; and iv) which governing techniques are suggested to solve the problems. The English and Danish programmes focus on mortality while the others give high priority to non-lethal diseases and conditions. The Danish programme mainly aims at making people conduct themselves in a more healthy way, i.e. change their behaviour, often guided by health professionals. The Norwegian paper has empowerment as its central strategy. The strategy is based on the assumption that if people get more power over their own lives they will become more healthy and behave in a more healthy way. The Swedish emphasis is on changing people's living conditions and much less is said about the role of the individual. The English programme launches a national contract where individuals and authorities should work both to change people's behaviour and their living conditions. All strategies deal with the increasing social inequality in health, the English and Swedish strategies more than the others. There does not seem to be a specific Nordic model in this field of welfare state politics. PMID:11766478

  15. Network stigma towards people living with HIV/AIDS and their caregivers: An egocentric network study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; He, Xin; Guida, Jennifer; Xu, Yongfang; Liu, Hongjie

    2015-10-01

    HIV stigma occurs among peers in social networks. However, the features of social networks that drive HIV stigma are not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate anticipated HIV stigma within the social networks of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (N = 147) and the social networks of PLWHA's caregivers (N = 148). The egocentric social network data were collected in Guangxi, China. More than half of PLWHA (58%) and their caregivers (53%) anticipated HIV stigma from their network peers. Both PLWHA and their caregivers anticipated that spouses or other family members were less likely to stigmatise them, compared to friend peers or other relationships. Married network peers were believed to stigmatise caregivers more than unmarried peers. The association between frequent contacts and anticipated stigma was negative among caregivers. Being in a close relationship with PLWHA or caregivers (e.g., a spouse or other family member) was associated with less anticipated stigma. Lower network density was associated with higher anticipated stigma among PLWHA's alters, but not among caregivers' alters. Findings may shed light on innovative stigma reduction interventions at the social network level and therefore improve HIV/AIDS treatment utilisation.

  16. Condom Use Determinants and Practices Among People Living with HIV in Kisii County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Wamalwa; Edward, Neyole; Moses, Poipoi; William, Ringera; Geoffrey, Otomu; Monicah, Bitok; Rosemary, Mbaluka

    2015-01-01

    The male condom remains the single, most efficient and available technology to reduce sexual transmission of HIV as well as sexually transmitted infections. This study sought to establish condom use determinants and practices among people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in Kisii County, Kenya. We interviewed 340 PLHIVs and 6 health workers. Although most PLHIVs had correct knowledge and approved condoms as effective for HIV prevention, consistent use and condom use at last sex were notably low especially among PLHIVs aged 18 – 24, those who depended on remittances from kin as main source of income, as well as during sex with secondary and casual partners. This study notes that knowledge on various benefits of using condoms is associated with enhanced condom use practices. Non-disclosure of HIV status to secondary and casual partners remains a key barrier to condom use among PLHIVs Our observations highlight the need to further promote condom use among specific PLHIVs socio-demographic groups who continue to exhibit low condom use rates. PMID:26668671

  17. Three Sides of a Coin in the Life of People Living with HIV (PLWH)

    PubMed Central

    Khakha, Deepika Cecil; Kapoor, Bimla; Manju; Sharma, Singh K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a global epidemic, a major challenge as a health care problem of modern times. As the survival of life increases from the time of an HIV-positive diagnosis, growing concern for the quality of the life has been extended. Objectives: To assess and correlate the coping, social support and quality of life. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic of AIIMS, New Delhi. The sample comprised people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who were seropositive for last six months. The tools used to assess the coping, social support and quality of life were BREF COPE, MOS social support survey and WHO QOL-HIV BREF, respectively. Permission was taken from the authors of the tools. The ethical permission was taken from the center. The coping, social support and quality of life were assessed and their association was observed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17. Results: The most commonly used coping styles were acceptance and religion. The social support used by most of PLWHA was tangible support and affectionate support, while the least used support was positive social interaction. The lowest quality of life is seen in social relations, followed by physical quality of life. There was positive association seen between coping and quality of life as well as social support and quality of life. Conclusion: There was positive association between coping, social support and quality of life. PMID:26435595

  18. Selective Disclosure of HIV Status in Egocentric Support Networks of People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Chunpeng; He, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate HIV disclosure activities in social support networks of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). An egocentric network study was conducted in Nanning, China. A sample of 147 PLWHAs (egos) nominated 922 network members (alters) who would provide egos with social support. All egos disclosed their HIV status to at least one alter in their support networks and 26.5 % disclosed to all alters. Among network alters, 95.7 % of spouse alters, 59.9 % of other family member alters, and 29.7 % of friend alters were aware of egos’ HIV status. PLWHA egos were more likely to disclose their HIV status to their spouse and other family members, frequently-contacted alters, and alters who provided more social support. In addition, older egos and unmarried egos were more likely to disclose their HIV status. The findings indicate that network-based HIV intervention programs should take into consideration selective disclosure in social networks. PMID:24996393

  19. Factors impacting the provision of antiretroviral therapy to people living with HIV: the view from Haiti.

    PubMed

    Rouzier, Vanessa; Farmer, Paul E; Pape, Jean W; Jerome, Jean-Gregory; Van Onacker, Joelle Deas; Morose, Willy; Joseph, Patrice; Leandre, Fernet; Severe, Patrice; Barry, Donna; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Koenig, Serena P

    2014-01-01

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and has the highest number of people living with HIV in the Caribbean, the region most impacted by HIV outside of Africa. Despite continuous political, socioeconomic and natural catastrophes, Haiti has mounted a very successful response to the HIV epidemic. Prevention and treatment strategies implemented by the government in collaboration with non-governmental organizations have been instrumental in decreasing the national HIV prevalence from a high of 6.2% in 1993 to 2.2% in 2012. We describe the history and epidemiology of HIV in Haiti and the expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the past decade, with the achievement of universal access to ART for patients meeting the 2010 World Health Organization guidelines. We also describe effective models of care, successes and challenges of international funding, and current challenges in the provision of ART. We are optimistic that the goal of providing ART for all in need remains in reach. PMID:25310257

  20. TB screening among people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Date, Anand; Modi, Surbhi

    2015-04-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), making improved prevention and treatment of HIV-associated TB critical to ensuring long-term survival of PLHIV. TB screening among PLHIV is central to implementation of the World Health Organization's 3 I's interventions for reducing the impact of the TB and HIV syndemics. Effective TB screening will result in the identification of PLHIV with presumptive TB disease (ie, those with a positive symptom screen who require appropriate evaluation, including the use of diagnostic tools such as the Xpert MTB/RIF assay) and those eligible for isoniazid preventive therapy (ie, those who have a negative clinical symptom screen or who have a positive screen but are found not to have TB disease). Identification of PLHIV with presumptive TB also facilitates implementation of basic administrative measures for TB infection control, including fast tracking of coughing patients and separation from noncoughing PLHIV to reduce TB transmission. By contributing to the early diagnosis of TB disease among PLHIV, TB screening is also critical to facilitate early initiation of antiretroviral treatment among PLHIV diagnosed with TB disease who might not otherwise be eligible for antiretroviral treatment based on CD4 count or clinical staging. TB screening thus serves as a gateway for multiple TB/HIV interventions and is an integral part of routine clinical services for PLHIV at each clinic visit.

  1. Mortality among People Living with HIV and AIDS in China: Implications for Enhancing Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Tang, Weiming; Bu, Kai; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Zhang, Xiayan; Feng, Yibing; Chen, Fangfang; Guo, Wei; Wang, Liyan; Ding, Zhengwei; Qin, Qianqian; Liu, Shiliang; Tucker, Joseph D.; Wang, Lu; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    To assess the patterns and predictors of AIDS-related mortality and identify its correlates among adult people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China, a retrospective record-based cohort study was conducted among 18 years or older PLWHA, who had at least one follow up reported to the national database between January-1989 and June-2012. Cumulative Incidence Function was used to calculate AIDS-related mortality rate. Gray’s test was used to determine the variation in cumulative incidence across strata. The Fine and Gray model was used to measure the burden of cumulative incidence of AIDS-related mortality and strength of its association with potential correlates. Among 375,629 patients, 107,634 died during study period, of which 54,759 (50.87%) deaths were AIDS-related. Cumulative mortality rates of AIDS-related death at one, two, five, 10 and 15 years post-diagnosis were 5.7%, 8.2%, 14.3%, 22.9% and 30.9%, respectively. Among PLWHA, male gender, ethnic minority and having AIDS were associated with significantly higher mortality. Further, homosexual transmission, being on ART and increasing CD4-testing frequency were associated with lower mortality. To reduce mortality among PLWHA, efficient interventions targeting males, ethnic minority, heterosexually infected and AIDS patients should be combined with immunologic monitoring, enhancement of coverage of HIV-testing and ART. PMID:27324204

  2. Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors among People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Dal-Bó, Márcio José; Manoel, André Luciano; Filho, Arthur Onofre Beltram; Silva, Bibiana Quatrin Tiellet da; Cardoso, Yuri Souza; Cortez, Josué; Tramujas, Lucas; Silva, Rosemeri Maurici da

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated variables among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in a specialized treatment center in a city located in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Beck Depression Inventory to assess the presence of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 53.5% among the surveyed population, which supports the idea that depressive symptoms are more common among PLWHA, mainly if compared with the general population. It was observed that 57.7% of the study participants were with depressive symptoms and did not take any psychiatric medication and 100% did not undergo psychotherapy, which indicates undertreatment. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean CD4 count between patients with depressive symptoms (484.1  ±  353) and patients without depressive symptoms (528.4  ±  263). Further actions should be taken to improve the care for PLWHA. The interface between psychology, psychiatry, and internal medicine is of utmost importance to provide a more humanized care, in which the psychosocial, psychological, and psychiatric aspects are not neglected.

  3. Condom Use Determinants and Practices Among People Living with HIV in Kisii County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Wamalwa; Edward, Neyole; Moses, Poipoi; William, Ringera; Geoffrey, Otomu; Monicah, Bitok; Rosemary, Mbaluka

    2015-01-01

    The male condom remains the single, most efficient and available technology to reduce sexual transmission of HIV as well as sexually transmitted infections. This study sought to establish condom use determinants and practices among people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in Kisii County, Kenya. We interviewed 340 PLHIVs and 6 health workers. Although most PLHIVs had correct knowledge and approved condoms as effective for HIV prevention, consistent use and condom use at last sex were notably low especially among PLHIVs aged 18 - 24, those who depended on remittances from kin as main source of income, as well as during sex with secondary and casual partners. This study notes that knowledge on various benefits of using condoms is associated with enhanced condom use practices. Non-disclosure of HIV status to secondary and casual partners remains a key barrier to condom use among PLHIVs Our observations highlight the need to further promote condom use among specific PLHIVs socio-demographic groups who continue to exhibit low condom use rates. PMID:26668671

  4. Hepatotoxicity during Treatment for Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Araújo-Mariz, Carolline; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa; Acioli-Santos, Bartolomeu; Maruza, Magda; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Lacerda, Heloísa Ramos; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima P. Militão

    2016-01-01

    Hepatotoxicity is frequently reported as an adverse reaction during the treatment of tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of hepatotoxicity and to identify predictive factors for developing hepatotoxicity after people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) start treatment for tuberculosis. This was a prospective cohort study with PLWHA who were monitored during the first 60 days of tuberculosis treatment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Hepatotoxicity was considered increased levels of aminotransferase, namely those that rose to three times higher than the level before initiating tuberculosis treatment, these levels being associated with symptoms of hepatitis. We conducted a multivariate logistic regression analysis and the magnitude of the associations was expressed by the odds ratio with a confidence interval of 95%. Hepatotoxicity was observed in 53 (30.6%) of the 173 patients who started tuberculosis treatment. The final multivariate logistic regression model demonstrated that the use of fluconazole, malnutrition and the subject being classified as a phenotypically slow acetylator increased the risk of hepatotoxicity significantly. The incidence of hepatotoxicity during treatment for tuberculosis in PLWHA was high. Those classified as phenotypically slow acetylators and as malnourished should be targeted for specific care to reduce the risk of hepatotoxicity during treatment for tuberculosis. The use of fluconazole should be avoided during tuberculosis treatment in PLWHA. PMID:27332812

  5. Can Geographic Bridging Social Capital Improve the Health of People Who Live in Deprived Urban Neighborhoods?

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-O; Cho, Byong-Hee

    2016-10-01

    The growing number of people living in deprived urban neighborhoods, which often have unhealthy environments, is of growing concern to inequality researchers. Social capital could be a resource to help such communities get ahead. In this study, we examined the differential effects of bonding and bridging social capital on self-rated health using two operational definitions, which we call personal and geographic social capital. Bonding and bridging social capital were operationally distinguished as respondents' perceived similarity to other members of a group with respect to personal characteristics (personal social capital) or as structural similarity with respect to geographical location (geographic social capital). The results showed that although both bonding and bridging social capital as defined by person-based criteria were associated with increased odds of self-rated health compared to those who reported zero participation, when defined by place-based criteria, only bridging social capital was associated with increased odds of self-rated health; no clear association was found between health and belonging to groups within the neighborhood, so-called geographic bonding social capital. The present study suggests that geographic bridging social capital can function as linking social capital that enables an upward approach depending on the political and economic contexts of urbanization.

  6. Perceived discrimination, social support, and perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaoyou; Lau, Joseph T F; Mak, Winnie W S; Chen, Lin; Choi, K C; Song, Junmin; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Guanglu; Feng, Tiejian; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Liu, De; Cheng, Jinquan

    2013-01-01

    Perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) was associated with severe mental health problems and risk behaviors. Discrimination toward PLWH in China is prevalent. Both perceived discrimination and social supports are determinants of the stress level among PLWH. Psychological support services for PLWH in China are scarce. It is unknown whether social support is a buffer between the perceived discrimination and perceived stress. With written consent, this study surveyed 258 PLWH recruited from multiple sources in two cities in China. Instruments were validated in previous or the present study, including the perceived stress scale for PLWH (PSSHIV), the perceived social support scale (PSSS), and the perceived discrimination scale for PLWH (PDSHIV). Pearson correlations and multiple regression models were fit. PDSHIV was associated with the Overall Scale and all subscales of PSSHIV, whilst lower socioeconomic status in general and lower scores of PSSS were associated with various subscales of PSSHIV. The interaction item (PSSS×PSDHIV) was nonsignificant in modeling PSSHIV, hence no significant moderating effect was detected. Whilst perceived discrimination is a major source of stress and social support can reduce stress among PLWH in China, improved social support cannot buffer the stressful consequences due to perceived discrimination. The results highlight the importance to reduce discrimination toward PLWH and the difficulty to alleviate its negative consequences. It is warranted to improve mental health among PLWH in China and it is still important to foster social support among PLWH as it has direct effects on perceived stress. PMID:22835331

  7. Smoking-cessation interventions in people living with HIV infection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Farley, Jason; DiGiacomo, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains a prevalent behavior in people living with HIV infection (PLWHs) and is associated with impaired immune functioning, increased cardiovascular risk, and decreased response to antiretroviral therapy. This review presents a critique and synthesis of evidence on effective smoking-cessation interventions for PLWHs. A comprehensive search identified nine peer-reviewed intervention studies published between 1989 and 2012. The highest likelihood of smoking cessation (range of odds ratios 4.33-5.6) were in two randomized controlled trial interventions using cell phone technology. Clinically significant reductions in systolic blood pressure, weight gain, and increased CD(4+) T-cell count were reported in participants who ceased smoking in three of the nine studies. Overall, multistrategy smoking-cessation interventions, delivered over multiple sessions, were effective. However, the most effective interventions were tailored to the unique individual needs of PLWHs, including assessment of and intervention for polysubstance abuse and mental health issues, as well as the inclusion of access-promoting elements.

  8. Increasing Access to Oral Health Care for People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rural Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jill; Mofidi, Mahyar; Bednarsh, Helene; Gambrell, Alan; Tobias, Carol R.

    2012-01-01

    Access to oral health care for people living with HIV/AIDS is a severe problem. This article describes the design and impact of an Innovations in Oral Health Care Initiative program, funded through the Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) program, that expanded oral health-care services for these individuals in rural Oregon. From April 2007 to August 2010, 473 patients received dental care (exceeding the target goal of 410 patients) and 153 dental hygiene students were trained to deliver oral health care to HIV-positive patients. The proportion of patients receiving oral health care increased from 10% to 65%, while the no-show rate declined from 40% to 10%. Key implementation components were leveraging SPNS funding and services to create an integrated delivery system, collaborations that resulted in improved service delivery systems, using dental hygiene students to deliver oral health care, enhanced care coordination through the services of a dental case manager, and program capacity to adjust to unanticipated needs. PMID:22547878

  9. Perceived vision-related quality of life and risk of falling among community living elderly people.

    PubMed

    Källstrand-Eriksson, Jeanette; Baigi, Amir; Buer, Nina; Hildingh, Cathrine

    2013-06-01

    Falls and fall injuries among the elderly population are common, since ageing is a risk factor of falling. Today, this is a major problem because the ageing population is increasing. There are predictive factors of falling and visual impairment is one of them. Usually, only visual acuity is considered when measuring visual impairment, and nothing regarding a person's functional visual ability is taken into account. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the perceived vision-related quality of life among the community living elderly using the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) and to investigate whether there was any association among vision-related quality of life and falls. There were 212 randomly selected elderly people participating in the study. Our study indicated that the participants had an impaired perceived vision-related health status. General health was the only NEI VFQ-25 variable significantly associated with falls in both men and women. However, among men, near and distance activities, vision-specific social functioning, role difficulties and dependency, color and peripheral vision were related to falls.

  10. Do Social Networks Differ? Comparison of the Social Networks of People with Intellectual Disabilities, People with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other People Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Asselt-Goverts, A. E.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Hendriks, A. H. C.; Wegman, K. M.; Teunisse, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the similarities and differences in social network characteristics, satisfaction and wishes with respect to the social network between people with mild or borderline intellectual disabilities (ID), people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a reference group. Data were gathered from 105 young adults…

  11. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  12. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  13. Factors affecting people with intellectual disabilities in learning to use computer technology.

    PubMed

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia; Yeung, Susanna; Chan, Chetwyn; Hui-Chan, Christina

    2005-06-01

    Using information technology (IT) in work and leisure has become an essential part of life. However, people with intellectual disabilities (ID) may have difficulties in learning the complex skills involved in IT. The aim of this study was to explore (1) level of competency in IT, (2) requirements to learn IT and (3) factors related to IT competency for people with ID. Three-hundred-and-fifty-three adults (age 16 years or above, mean age=28.77 years) with ID were assessed on basic IT skills using a self-developed skill-based checklist including the use of the keyboard and mouse and getting onto the Internet. A short questionnaire was sent out to the parents and caregivers to explore the various factors affecting the learning-teaching process. Results indicated that only 6.2% (22) of the participants knew how to operate the keyboard and mouse and 9.1% (32) were able to get onto the Internet; 33.1% of participants could not operate the computer system at all. Younger people with ID and with mild-grade ID have better IT skills. Three-hundred-and-twenty-seven (92.6%) caregivers reported that although they had a computer in their home or at their work place, people with ID were not given any opportunity to use it. They also reported difficulties in training people with ID to use IT due to insufficient knowledge on training techniques and a lack of software that is suitable for training. As modern society relies more and more on IT in daily activities, the poor computer competency of people with ID may lower their level of participation in leisure, functional and vocational aspects of life. Their general perception was that with sufficient training and support, people with ID could also join the world of IT.

  14. As We Tell Our Stories. Living Traditions and the Algonkian Peoples of Indian New England: A New Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Lynne

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new exhibit initiative at the American Indian Archeological Institute (Washington, Connecticut), which seeks to relate Algonkian peoples' historical and contemporary art forms to each other and to the ongoing cultural context from which they spring. Describes exhibit sections: land, exchange, clay, living spaces, corn, deer, and…

  15. Listening to Bodies and Watching Machines: Developing Health Information Skills, Tools and Services for People Living with Chronic Kidney Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbold, Natalya

    2013-01-01

    When patients need information, they may visit a doctor, ask a nurse, or look online. But these are not the only sources of information used by patients. This paper examines discussion threads in online renal support groups to describe how people living with kidney failure conceive of help, information and support. I use Actor Network Theory to…

  16. Factors Associated with Perceived Stigma among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C.; Orach, Christopher G.; Earnest, Jaya

    2011-01-01

    HIV-related stigma continues to persist in several African countries including Uganda. This study quantified the burden of stigma and examined factors associated with stigma among 476 people living with HIV (PLHTV) in Gulu, northern Uganda. Data were collected between February and May 2009 using the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-PLWA. Females more…

  17. “There is no Proof that HIV Causes AIDS”: AIDS Denialism Beliefs among People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa; Cherry, Chauncey

    2010-01-01

    AIDS denialists offer false hope to people living with HIV/AIDS by claiming that HIV is harmless and that AIDS can be cured with natural remedies. The current study examined the prevalence of AIDS denialism beliefs and their association to health-related outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS. Confidential surveys and unannounced pill counts were collected from a predominantly middle aged and African American convenience sample of 266 men and 77 women living with HIV/AIDS. One in five participants stated that there is no proof that HIV causes AIDS and that HIV treatments do more harm than good. AIDS denialism beliefs were more often endorsed by people who more frequently used the internet after controlling for confounds. Believing that there is a debate among scientists about whether HIV causes AIDS was related to refusing HIV treatments and poorer health outcomes. AIDS denialism beliefs may be common among people living with HIV/AIDS and such beliefs are associated with poor health outcomes. PMID:20571892

  18. An Exploratory Study on the Quality of Life of Older Chinese People Living Alone in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jik Joen

    2005-01-01

    This study successfully interviewed 109 randomly selected Chinese people aged 60 and over living alone in two public housing estates in an urban area of Hong Kong. The results show that mental health status, number of days staying in hospital, life satisfaction, age, and self-esteem are significant factors in predicting the life quality of older…

  19. Musical Meaning in the Lives of Those Affected by the Holocaust: Implications for Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the role of music in the lives of those affected by the Holocaust. Participants were identified through purposeful and snowball sampling techniques, and a total of five were selected based on their connection to the Holocaust. Participants included those incarcerated in camps and ghettos, those who escaped…

  20. Autonomous motivation is associated with the maintenance stage of behaviour change in people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Moens, Herman; Madou, Tomas; De Backer, Tanja; Vallons, Veerle; Bruyninx, Peter; Vanheuverzwijn, Sarah; Mota, Cindy Teixeira; Soundy, Andy; Probst, Michel

    2016-06-30

    The present study examined whether in people with affective disorders motives for adopting and maintaining physical activity recommendations (as formulated by the self-determination theory) differed across the stages of behaviour change (identified by the transtheoretical model). A total of 165 (105♀) persons (45.6±14.2years) with affective disorders [major depressive disorder (n=96) or bipolar disorder (n=69)] completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and the Patient-centred Assessment and Counselling for Exercise questionnaire. Discriminant and multivariate analyses demonstrated that persons with affective disorders at the early stages of change have less autonomous and more controlled physical activity motives than those at the later stages. Our results suggest that autonomous motivation may have an important role to play in the maintenance of health recommendations in persons with affective disorders. Longitudinal and intervention studies should be designed in people with affective disorders to identify the causal pathways between motives for maintaining health recommendations, effective changes in health behaviour and physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:27131627

  1. Food insufficiency and medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS in urban and peri-urban settings.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Pellowski, Jennifer; Kalichman, Moira O; Cherry, Chauncey; Detorio, Mervi; Caliendo, Angela M; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2011-09-01

    Food insufficiency is associated with medication non-adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS. The current study examines the relationship between hunger and medication adherence in a US urban and peri-urban sample of people living with HIV/AIDS. Men (N=133) and women (N=46) living with HIV/AIDS were recruited using snowball sampling and small media in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants completed computerized behavioral interviews that included measures of demographics, food insufficiency, social support, depression, and substance use, and provided blood specimens to determine HIV viral load. Participants also completed monthly unannounced pill counts to prospectively monitor medication adherence over 8 months. Results indicated that 45% of participants were less than 85% adherent to their medications and that food insufficiency was related to non-adherence; nearly half of non-adherent participants reported recent hunger. Geocoding of participant residences showed that 40% lived more than 5 miles from the city center. Multivariable logistic regression controlling for demographics and common factors associated with adherence showed that the interaction between distance from downtown and experiencing hunger significantly predicted non-adherence over and above all other factors. Medication adherence interventions should address access to food, particularly for people living outside of urban centers. PMID:21607719

  2. Cancer incidence in people living with HIV/AIDS in Israel, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Mor; Micha, Barchana

    2015-09-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improved the survival of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and decreased HIV-related morbidities. This study assesses the cancer incidence of all adult PLWHA in Israel by transmission routes before and after 1996. This cohort study was based on cross-matching the National HIV/AIDS and Cancer Registries of all HIV/AIDS and cancer cases reported from 1981 to 2010 with the National civil census. PLWHA were followed-up until cancer diagnosis, death, leaving Israel, or 2010, whichever occurred first. Cancer incidence was adjusted for age, and compared with the National incidence. Of all 5,154 PLWHA followed-up for 36,296 person-years, 362 (7.0%) developed cancer (997.4 cases per 100,000 person-years). Higher hazard ratios to develop cancer were demonstrated among older PLWHA, Jewish people, and intravenous drug users. Cancer incidence among PLWHA was higher in the pre-ART period than after 1997 (1,232.0 and 846.7 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively). The incidence of AIDS-defining cancers was higher than non-AIDS-defining malignancies, and higher in the pre-ART than the post-ART period (777.0 and 467.2 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively), while the incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers showed the opposite trend (376.5 and 455.0 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively). The incidence of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers declined between the pre-ART and the post-ART period by 2.0 to 3.4 times. PLWHA had higher rates of malignancies than the general population. In conclusion, cancer incidence among PLWHA was associated with age, and declined after ART introduction; yet it was higher than that of the general population. PLWHA may benefit from age-related cancer screening, increased adherence to ART, and reduction of environmental oncogenes.

  3. Perspectives of People Living with HIV on Access to Health Care: Protocol for a Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Maybank, Allison; Hurley, Oliver; Modir, Hilary; Farrell, Alison; Marshall, Zack; Kendall, Claire; Johnston, Sharon; Hogel, Matthew; Rourke, Sean B; Liddy, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Background Strategies to improve access to health care for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) have demonstrated limited success. Whereas previous approaches have been informed by the views of health providers and decision-makers, it is believed that incorporating patient perspectives into the design and evaluations of health care programs will lead to improved access to health care services. Objective We aim to map the literature on the perspectives of PLHIV concerning access to health care services, to identify gaps in evidence, and to produce an evidence-informed research action plan to guide the Living with HIV program of research. Methods This scoping review includes peer-reviewed and grey literature from 1946 to May 2014 using double data extraction. Variations of the search terms “HIV”, “patient satisfaction”, and “health services accessibility” are used to identify relevant literature. The search strategy is being developed in consultation with content experts, review methodologists, and a librarian, and validated using gold standard studies identified by those stakeholders. The inclusion criteria are (1) the study includes the perspectives of PLHIV, (2) study design includes qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods, and (3) outcome measures are limited to patient satisfaction, their implied needs, beliefs, and desires in relation to access to health care. The papers are extracted by two independent reviewers, including quality assessment. Data is then collated, summarized, and thematically analyzed. Results A total of 12,857 references were retrieved, of which 326 documents were identified as eligible in pre-screening, and 64 articles met the inclusion criteria (56% qualitative studies, 38% quantitative studies and 6% mixed-method studies). Only four studies were conducted in Canada. Data synthesis is in progress and full results are expected in June, 2016. Conclusions This scoping review will record and characterize the

  4. Virtual Intervention to Support Self-Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Among People Living With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Gaston; Ramirez-Garcia, Pilar; Rouleau, Geneviève; Bourbonnais, Anne; Guéhéneuc, Yann-Gaël; Tremblay, Cécile; Otis, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) necessitates long-term health care follow-up, particularly with respect to antiretroviral therapy (ART) management. Taking advantage of the enormous possibilities afforded by information and communication technologies (ICT), we developed a virtual nursing intervention (VIH-TAVIE) intended to empower HIV patients to manage their ART and their symptoms optimally. ICT interventions hold great promise across the entire continuum of HIV patient care but further research is needed to properly evaluate their effectiveness. Objective The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of two types of follow-up—traditional and virtual—in terms of promoting ART adherence among HIV patients. Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted. Participants were 179 HIV patients on ART for at least 6 months, of which 99 were recruited at a site offering virtual follow-up and 80 at another site offering only traditional follow-up. The primary outcome was medication adherence and the secondary outcomes were the following cognitive and affective variables: self-efficacy, attitude toward medication intake, symptom-related discomfort, stress, and social support. These were evaluated by self-administered questionnaire at baseline (T0), and 3 (T3) and 6 months (T6) later. Results On average, participants had been living with HIV for 14 years and had been on ART for 11 years. The groups were highly heterogeneous, differing on a number of sociodemographic dimensions: education, income, marital status, employment status, and living arrangements. Adherence at baseline was high, reaching 80% (59/74) in the traditional follow-up group and 84% (81/97) in the virtual follow-up group. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis was run, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics at baseline. A time effect was detected indicating that both groups improved in adherence over time but did not differ in this regard

  5. Does the informal caregiver notice HIV associated mild cognitive impairment in people living with HIV?

    PubMed

    Murray, Kenneth J; Cummins, Denise; Batterham, Marijka; Trotter, Garry; Healey, Loretta; O'Connor, Catherine C

    2016-01-01

    HIV associated minor neurocognitive disorder (MND) may be difficult to identify as key signs and symptoms (S & S) may be due to other clinical conditions. Using a self-assessment booklet "HIV and associated MND" we recruited 123 people living with HIV (PLHIV) from three sites: two hospital HIV clinics and a sexual health clinic in Sydney, Australia. Patients may down play S & S. Caregivers may notice subtle changes. By including caregivers, we aimed to find whether the caregivers noticed S & S undetected by the PLHIV. This is a sub-study of a prospective observational multi-site study aimed to validate the usefulness of a patient self-assessment tool (HIV-associated MND booklet). Using the booklet, participants and their caregivers subsequently identified S & S of MND. Sixty-four per cent (79) did not nominate a caregiver to be contacted. Participants from 2 sites 44 (36%) nominated caregivers to be contacted. Twenty-five caregivers identified more than four S & S of MND. S & S reported most by caregivers related to participants being more tired at the end of the day (76%). Participants agreed (77%). Participants also reported that they found it more difficult to remember things such as taking medications or attending medical appointments (67%). The most agreed on symptom was the requirement for increased concentration to get the same things done (Kappa P 0.599 <0.001 and McNemar 0.289). For each question at least one caregiver identified a symptom when the PLHIV did not. Caregivers were more likely than participants to report irritability and communication difficulties. It is important to include caregivers when investigating PLHIV for MND, as caregivers may validate the experience of the patient, and may also be uniquely placed to identify S & S not otherwise identified. PMID:26489931

  6. Does the informal caregiver notice HIV associated mild cognitive impairment in people living with HIV?

    PubMed

    Murray, Kenneth J; Cummins, Denise; Batterham, Marijka; Trotter, Garry; Healey, Loretta; O'Connor, Catherine C

    2016-01-01

    HIV associated minor neurocognitive disorder (MND) may be difficult to identify as key signs and symptoms (S & S) may be due to other clinical conditions. Using a self-assessment booklet "HIV and associated MND" we recruited 123 people living with HIV (PLHIV) from three sites: two hospital HIV clinics and a sexual health clinic in Sydney, Australia. Patients may down play S & S. Caregivers may notice subtle changes. By including caregivers, we aimed to find whether the caregivers noticed S & S undetected by the PLHIV. This is a sub-study of a prospective observational multi-site study aimed to validate the usefulness of a patient self-assessment tool (HIV-associated MND booklet). Using the booklet, participants and their caregivers subsequently identified S & S of MND. Sixty-four per cent (79) did not nominate a caregiver to be contacted. Participants from 2 sites 44 (36%) nominated caregivers to be contacted. Twenty-five caregivers identified more than four S & S of MND. S & S reported most by caregivers related to participants being more tired at the end of the day (76%). Participants agreed (77%). Participants also reported that they found it more difficult to remember things such as taking medications or attending medical appointments (67%). The most agreed on symptom was the requirement for increased concentration to get the same things done (Kappa P 0.599 <0.001 and McNemar 0.289). For each question at least one caregiver identified a symptom when the PLHIV did not. Caregivers were more likely than participants to report irritability and communication difficulties. It is important to include caregivers when investigating PLHIV for MND, as caregivers may validate the experience of the patient, and may also be uniquely placed to identify S & S not otherwise identified.

  7. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    teachers in Iceland and on Friday to teachers in Ireland. Fred and Frances from Southgate College showed great team spirit in the world's most chaotic quiz, then sang in harmony with Dave from Barnsley and Yoji from Japan amongst others. Kirsten from across the Atlantic shared her research on children and museums on Friday and later I discovered how much I didn't know about global warming from a chemist and a set of unreadable graphs in a computer lab. What a pleasure to see Tom and Seamus from Ireland again. The day closed with a barn dance fling where I managed to boogie on down with some teachers from Turkey. A final 'strip the willow' with Pete and Allison finished me off. Saturday started with breakfast with Ken from Greenwich offering me some part-time work. The exhibitions called and amongst others I hugged Sue from Cardiff, Barry and Leila from London, Pauline from Scotland and an unknown but very friendly lady from Holland. I met a lady from Scotland who lived in Iceland but who taught in Norway and of course Catherine was everywhere. I had tea with Jean from Edinburgh, Janet from London, Gordon from Aberdeen. I laughed with Mick from Sheffield and the same friendly lady from Holland. I ate posh food with Susie from Ayr and applauded big names from America and Australia. I shared a lump in my throat for John and for Wynne and nodded and smiled at countless people whose names I had forgotten but our paths had crossed sometime in the past. There are more than 20 000 members in the ASE and countless thousands of science teachers across the globe. The world is indeed expansive but for three days in Guildford it seemed that the very best speakers and the very cheeriest folk had magically converged on one place. If ever there were confirmation that science and science teaching were alive and well it was there and it was then. If you were there you will know exactly what I mean. If you weren't there then don't miss it next January in Liverpool.www.ase.org.uk

  8. Social defeat or social resistance? Reaction to fear of crime and violence among people with severe mental illness living in urban 'recovery communities'.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2011-12-01

    This article is propelled by recent theory positing that 'social defeat' is a common experience for people with severe mental illness, potentially affecting course and outcome. The primary objective is to investigate how far fear of crime and violence contributes toward 'social defeat' among people with mental illness. This is done through examining 6 years of ethnographic data collected from a sample of urban-dwelling people with severe mental illness, all securely-housed in apartments located in small scale "recovery communities." Findings suggest that many participants living in the highest crime neighborhoods report that they deliberately restrict their temporal and spatial movement as a consequence of such crime. This hinders aspects of their recovery. Nevertheless, participants actively confront the nefarious affects of neighborhood crime by engaging in various empowering strategies of resistance. These include confronting disruptive people, fortifying homes, moving around the neighborhood in small groups and carrying objects such as umbrellas and canes that can be used in self-defense. Some reported that fear of crime directly contributed to the development of a rich and gratifying domestic life, centered on hospitality and religion. I conclude that participants partake in valiant and durable "social resistance," and may better be perceived as imaginative and resourceful resistors, rather than passive victims of "social defeat." An influential factor fostering such resistance is the "recovery community' itself, which creates secure and reliable housing within a micro-community in which participants could thrive. PMID:21701942

  9. Social defeat or social resistance? Reaction to fear of crime and violence among people with severe mental illness living in urban 'recovery communities'.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2011-12-01

    This article is propelled by recent theory positing that 'social defeat' is a common experience for people with severe mental illness, potentially affecting course and outcome. The primary objective is to investigate how far fear of crime and violence contributes toward 'social defeat' among people with mental illness. This is done through examining 6 years of ethnographic data collected from a sample of urban-dwelling people with severe mental illness, all securely-housed in apartments located in small scale "recovery communities." Findings suggest that many participants living in the highest crime neighborhoods report that they deliberately restrict their temporal and spatial movement as a consequence of such crime. This hinders aspects of their recovery. Nevertheless, participants actively confront the nefarious affects of neighborhood crime by engaging in various empowering strategies of resistance. These include confronting disruptive people, fortifying homes, moving around the neighborhood in small groups and carrying objects such as umbrellas and canes that can be used in self-defense. Some reported that fear of crime directly contributed to the development of a rich and gratifying domestic life, centered on hospitality and religion. I conclude that participants partake in valiant and durable "social resistance," and may better be perceived as imaginative and resourceful resistors, rather than passive victims of "social defeat." An influential factor fostering such resistance is the "recovery community' itself, which creates secure and reliable housing within a micro-community in which participants could thrive.

  10. Improving outcomes for caregivers through treatment of young people affected by war: a randomized controlled trial in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Salhi, Carmel; Hann, Katrina; Kellie, Jim; Kamara, Alimamy; Salomon, Joshua A; Kim, Jane J; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To measure the benefits to household caregivers of a psychotherapeutic intervention for adolescents and young adults living in a war-affected area. Methods Between July 2012 and July 2013, we carried out a randomized controlled trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention – a cognitive–behavioural intervention for war-affected young people who exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms and conduct problems – in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Overall, 436 participants aged 15–24 years were randomized to receive the intervention (n = 222) or care as usual (n = 214). Household caregivers for the participants in the intervention arm (n = 101) or control arm (n = 103) were interviewed during a baseline survey and again, if available (n = 155), 12 weeks later in a follow-up survey. We used a burden assessment scale to evaluate the burden of care placed on caregivers in terms of emotional distress and functional impairment. The caregivers’ mental health – i.e. internalizing, externalizing and prosocial behaviour – was evaluated using the Oxford Measure of Psychosocial Adjustment. Difference-in-differences multiple regression analyses were used, within an intention-to-treat framework, to estimate the treatment effects. Findings Compared with the caregivers of participants of the control group, the caregivers of participants of the intervention group reported greater reductions in emotional distress (scale difference: 0.252; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.026–0.4782) and greater improvements in prosocial behaviour (scale difference: 0.249; 95% CI: 0.012–0.486) between the two surveys. Conclusion A psychotherapeutic intervention for war-affected young people can improve the mental health of their caregivers. PMID:26668435

  11. Chronic disease, risk factors and disability in adults aged 50 and above living with and without HIV: findings from the Wellbeing of Older People Study in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mugisha, Joseph O.; Schatz, Enid J.; Randell, Madeleine; Kuteesa, Monica; Kowal, Paul; Negin, Joel; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on the prevalence of chronic conditions, their risk factors, and their associations with disability in older people living with and without HIV are scarce in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives In older people living with and without HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: 1) to describe the prevalence of chronic conditions and their risk factors and 2) to draw attention to associations between chronic conditions and disability. Methods Cross-sectional individual-level survey data from people aged 50 years and over living with and without HIV were analyzed from three study sites in Uganda. Diagnoses of chronic conditions were made through self-report, and disability was determined using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS). We used ordered logistic regression and calculated predicted probabilities to show differences in the prevalence of multiple chronic conditions across HIV status, age groups, and locality. We used linear regression to determine associations between chronic conditions and the WHODAS. Results In total, 471 participants were surveyed; about half the respondents were living with HIV. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and eye problems (except for those aged 60–69 years) was higher in the HIV-positive participants and increased with age. The prevalence of diabetes and angina was higher in HIV-negative participants. The odds of having one or more compared with no chronic conditions were higher in women (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) and in those aged 70 years and above (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.6). Sleep problems (coefficient 14.2, 95% CI 7.3–21.0) and depression (coefficient 9.4, 95% CI 1.2–17.0) were strongly associated with higher disability scores. Conclusion Chronic conditions are common in older adults and affect their functioning. Many of these conditions are not currently addressed by health services in Uganda. There is a need to revise health care policy and practice in Uganda to consider the health needs of

  12. ‘I am doing fine only because I have not told anyone’: the necessity of concealment in the lives of people living with HIV in India

    PubMed Central

    George, Mathew Sunil; Lambert, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In HIV prevention and care programmes, disclosure of status by HIV-positive individuals is generally encouraged to contain the infection and provide adequate support to the person concerned. Lack of disclosure is generally framed as a barrier to preventive behaviours and accessing support. The assumption that disclosure is beneficial is also reflected in studies that aim to identify determinants of disclosure and recommend individual-level measures to promote disclosure. However, in contexts where HIV infection is stigmatised and there is fear of rejection and discrimination among those living with HIV, concealment of status becomes a way to try and regain as much as possible the life that was disrupted by the discovery of HIV infection. In this study of HIV-positive women and children in India, concealment was considered essential by individuals and families of those living with HIV to re-establish and maintain their normal lives in an environment where stigma and discrimination were prevalent. This paper describes why women and care givers of children felt the need to conceal HIV status, the various ways in which people tried to do so and the implications for treatment of people living with HIV. We found that while women were generally willing to disclose their status to their husband or partner, they were very keen to conceal their status from all others, including family members. Parents and carers with an HIV-positive child were not willing to disclose this status to the child or to others. Understanding the different rationales for concealment would help policy makers and programme managers to develop more appropriate care management strategies and train care providers to assist clients in accessing care and support without disrupting their lives. PMID:25706959

  13. Problems of providing services to people affected by HIV/AIDS: service providers and recipients perspectives.

    PubMed

    Moradi, G; Mohraz, M; Gouya, M M; Dejman, M; Alinaghi, S S; Rahmani, K; Malekafzali-Ardakani, H

    2015-02-25

    This qualitative study aimed to identify the health-care problems of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in 2 large cities: Tehran and Kermanshah. Two main groups of stakeholders - service providers (policy-makers, managers, physicians and counsellors) and service recipients (PLHIV and their relatives) - participated in focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. We identified 24 themes covering the major health problems of PLHIV, including: incomplete and inadequate coverage of health-care services; patients' substance abuse; patients' fear of stigma; occupational burnout of certain service providers; patients' dissatisfaction with some of the services provided by counselling centres/clinics; medical staff's failure to observe confidentiality; and patients' lack of access to required specialized services. The problems and needs identified can inform the design and implementation of health programmes in our country and elsewhere in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of community vegetable gardens for people living with HIV in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is little evidence to date of the potential impact of vegetable gardens on people living with HIV (PLHIV), who often suffer from social and economic losses due to the disease. From 2008 through 2011, Action Contre la Faim France (ACF) implemented a project in Chipinge District, eastern Zimbabwe, providing low-input vegetable gardens (LIGs) to households of PLHIV. Program partners included Médecins du Monde, which provided medical support, and Zimbabwe's Agricultural Extension Service, which supported vegetable cultivation. A survey conducted at the end of the program found LIG participants to have higher Food Consumption Scores (FCS) and Household Dietary Diversity Scores (HDDS) relative to comparator households of PLHIV receiving other support programs. This study assessed the incremental cost-effectiveness of LIGs to improve FCS and HDDS of PLHIV compared to other support programs. Methods This analysis used an activity-based cost model, and combined ACF accounting data with estimates of partner and beneficiary costs derived using an ingredients approach to build an estimate of total program resource use. A societal perspective was adopted to encompass costs to beneficiary households, including their opportunity costs and an estimate of their income earned from vegetable sales. Qualitative methods were used to assess program benefits to beneficiary households. Effectiveness data was taken from a previously-conducted survey. Results Providing LIGs to PLHIV cost an additional 8,299 EUR per household with adequate FCS and 12,456 EUR per household with HDDS in the upper tertile, relative to comparator households of PLHIV receiving other support programs. Beneficiaries cited multiple tangible and intangible benefits from LIGs, and over 80% of gardens observed were still functioning more than one year after the program had finished. Conclusions Cost outcomes were 20–30 times Zimbabwe's per capita GDP, and unlikely to be affordable within government

  15. Housing Status, Medical Care, and Health Outcomes Among People Living With HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael G.; Shubert, Virginia; Gogolishvili, David; Globerman, Jason; Rueda, Sergio; Bozack, Anne K.; Caban, Maria; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Accumulating evidence suggests responses to HIV that combine individual-level interventions with those that address structural or contextual factors that influence risks and health outcomes of infection. Housing is such a factor. Housing occupies a strategic position as an intermediate structural factor, linking “upstream” economic, social, and cultural determinants to the more immediate physical and social environments in which everyday life is lived. The importance of housing status for HIV prevention and care has been recognized, but much of this attention has focused on homeless individuals as a special risk group. Analyses have less often addressed community housing availability and conditions as factors influencing population health or unstable, inadequate, or unaffordable housing as a situation or temporary state. A focus on individual-level characteristics associated with literal homelessness glosses over social, economic, and policy drivers operating largely outside any specific individual’s control that affect housing and residential environments and the health resources or risk exposures such contexts provide. Objectives. We examined the available empirical evidence on the association between housing status (broadly defined), medical care, and health outcomes among people with HIV and analyzed results to inform future research, program development, and policy implementation. Search methods. We searched 8 electronic health and social science databases from January 1, 1996, through March 31, 2014, using search terms related to housing, dwelling, and living arrangements and HIV and AIDS. We contacted experts for additional literature. Selection criteria. We selected articles if they were quantitative analyses published in English, French, or Spanish that included at least 1 measure of housing status as an independent variable and at least 1 health status, health care, treatment adherence, or risk behavior outcome among people with HIV in

  16. Self-Harm among People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Secure Service Provision: A Qualitative Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jessica; Beail, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research into self-harm among people with intellectual disabilities has focused predominantly on high frequency internally maladaptive behaviour among people whose disability is severe or profound. Research into different forms of self-harm, such as cutting or burning the skin, found in those with mild intellectual disabilities;…

  17. Measures for Preparing Mentally Handicapped People to Live in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharoni, Chanan

    The father of a retarded adult describes the development of a course designed to teach independent living skills to mentally retarded adults living in a group home in Israel. The course included instruction on home management, food preparation, and interpersonal skills. How initial neighborhood opposition diminished is recounted. Difficulties…

  18. Nutritional self-care among a group of older home-living people in rural Southern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Background Older home-living people are an at-risk group for undernutrition, particularly those who are living alone. Lack of knowledge about healthy dietary habits, altered taste sensation, and declined health status are shown to be some of the factors related to undernutrition. The aims of this study were to explore how a small group of older people in Southern Norway perceived their nutritional self-care. Methods An exploratory qualitative approach, combined with a simple self-report questionnaire, was used. Five persons living in rural areas in Southern Norway, who in a former study were screened and found to be at risk for undernutrition, participated. Qualitative data assessed by means of individual self-care talks in the persons’ own homes were analyzed using directed content analysis. A simple self-report questionnaire containing demographic variables, two health-related questions, and the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE-NO) instrument was filled out at baseline and 6 months after the self-care talks. Results The qualitative data showed that the participants had adequate knowledge about healthy and nutritious diets. They were aware of and motivated to adapt their diet to their current state of health and to perform the necessary actions to maintain an optimal nutritional status and nutritional self-care. Conclusion Older people living at home are a diverse group. However, this study showed that they may have sufficient knowledge, willingness, and ability to perform nutritional self-care, even if they live alone and have several chronic illnesses and impaired health. PMID:25670905

  19. The impact of representative payee services on medication adherence among unstably housed people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Mary; McLaughlin, Jamie; Farmartino, Christina; King, Miranda; Davis, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Rates of viral suppression among people living with HIV/AIDS remain low, especially within marginalized populations such as people who are unstably housed. Representative payee is a service in which the US Social Security Administration appoints an individual or an organization to provide financial management for vulnerable individuals who are unable to manage their finances including housing payments. Little or no published research examines the association between financial management services such as representative payee and HIV clinical adherence. We conducted a pilot study with 18 unstably housed participants living with HIV/AIDS to examine the impact of representative payee services on viral suppression. Of the 11 participants who were not virally suppressed at baseline, 9 (81.8%) of them had achieved viral suppression at six-month follow-up (p = .004). Our findings suggest that providing unstably housed people living with HIV/AIDS with representative payee services may help them to improve their housing stability and clinical adherence. Additional research is needed to fully explore correlations between representative payee services and viral suppression. PMID:26444847

  20. Knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes towards affected people among teachers in training in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Brabcová, Dana; Kohout, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare knowledge about, confidence with, and attitudes towards epilepsy and affected people between groups of freshmen and senior teachers in training (preservice teachers) at the Faculty of Education in Pilsen, Czech Republic. Two hundred thirty-six freshmen and 138 seniors completed the 21-item Scale of Attitudes Towards People with Epilepsy (ATPE), an 18-item multiple-choice test measuring their knowledge about epilepsy, and a 5-item questionnaire focused on confidence with epilepsy in a school environment. We found that despite a higher level of knowledge about epilepsy among seniors (mean score of 9.6 points compared with 8.48 points for freshmen, p<0.001), attitudes towards epilepsy, and also confidence in how to manage children affected with this disease did not differ significantly. The presented findings suggest that epilepsy-related training of preservice teachers should be more effective especially with respect to their ability to resolve problems that may happen to children with epilepsy in a class.

  1. Building Life Around the Foster Home vs. Moving On: The Competing Needs of People Living in Foster Homes

    PubMed Central

    Piat, Myra; Ricard, Nicole; Sabetti, Judith; Beauvais, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Amid the current shift toward more autonomous housing for mental health consumers, people living in psychiatric foster homes in Montreal, Canada articulated complex concerns over what type of housing would best meet their present and future needs. Semi structured interviews were conducted with 33 residents. Consumers describe the tensions associated with foster home life. Two overall competing needs emerged: the need to build their lives around the foster home and the need to build life beyond the foster home. Residents describe their need for security and support versus their need for greater personal autonomy, the dilemmas associated with communal living, and their struggle to envisage a positive future. Housing arrangements, as well as the relationships and patterns of support that develop there, are critically important for residents. Mental health professionals mandated to dismantle foster homes for more autonomous housing need to take this reality into account. PMID:18614447

  2. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among People Living with HIV and Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Role of Shame and Posttraumatic Growth.

    PubMed

    Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Peasant, Courtney; Kershaw, Trace; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2016-08-01

    There is a critical need to examine protective and risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in order to improve quality of life. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the associations between HIV-related shame, sexual abuse-related shame, posttraumatic growth, and anxiety and depressive symptoms among a cohort of 225 heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Higher sexual abuse-related shame was related to more anxiety and depressive symptoms for heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less anxiety symptoms for only heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less depressive symptoms for heterosexual women and MSM, but the magnitude of this effect was stronger for heterosexual women than MSM. Psychosocial interventions may need to be tailored to meet the specific needs of heterosexual women and MSM living with HIV and CSA.

  3. Living within stories: Exploring the experiences of people with transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Crowfoot, Gary Mitchell; van der Riet, Pamela Jane; Maguire, Jane Margaret

    2016-03-01

    A transient ischemic attack (TIA) significantly increases a person's risk of ischemic stroke. However, little is known about the experiences of these people or what influences their decision to access care. This article explores the stories of three people who experienced a TIA. All participants were interviewed after receiving a diagnosis of TIA by a specialist neurologist. By utilizing a framework of narrative inquiry, several storylines were revealed across temporal, social, and geographical landscapes. The main storylines include: bodily disruption, time stasis, altered temporal perceptions, the roles of others, and help-seeking behavior. The primary author also reflects upon his own origin and explores how this inquiry has influenced his perceptions, career, and nursing practice. This inquiry may assist healthcare workers to gain insight into the experiences of people with TIA and suggests how involvement of significant others is beneficial when educating people at risk of TIA.

  4. AIDS awareness and attitudes among Yemeni young people living in high-risk areas.

    PubMed

    Al-Serouri, A W; Anaam, M; Al-Iryani, B; Al Deram, A; Ramaroson, S

    2010-03-01

    Despite te low rate of infection in Yemen, there are concerns about the possible spread of HIV among high-risk and vulnerable groups. A community-based study was made in 2005 of AIDS awareness and attitudes among 601 young people aged 15-24 years from low-income, high-risk neighbourhoods in Aden. Young people lacked proper information about HIV/AIDS. Although 89% had heard of AIDS, fewer (46%) could name 3 ways of transmission or 3 ways to avoid infection (28%). Misconceptions about modes of transmissions were prevalent and many young people believed that they faced little or no risk. There were intolerant attitudes towards AIDS patients. About half the young people knew that prostitution and homosexuality existed in their area. PMID:20795436

  5. Living within stories: Exploring the experiences of people with transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Crowfoot, Gary Mitchell; van der Riet, Pamela Jane; Maguire, Jane Margaret

    2016-03-01

    A transient ischemic attack (TIA) significantly increases a person's risk of ischemic stroke. However, little is known about the experiences of these people or what influences their decision to access care. This article explores the stories of three people who experienced a TIA. All participants were interviewed after receiving a diagnosis of TIA by a specialist neurologist. By utilizing a framework of narrative inquiry, several storylines were revealed across temporal, social, and geographical landscapes. The main storylines include: bodily disruption, time stasis, altered temporal perceptions, the roles of others, and help-seeking behavior. The primary author also reflects upon his own origin and explores how this inquiry has influenced his perceptions, career, and nursing practice. This inquiry may assist healthcare workers to gain insight into the experiences of people with TIA and suggests how involvement of significant others is beneficial when educating people at risk of TIA. PMID:26275055

  6. Working Together to Improve the Lives of People Affected by Epilepsy in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birbeck, Gretchen L.

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurologic disorder that results in recurrent, unprovoked seizures. The biomedical burden of epilepsy can be substantial, but for many the social consequences may be just as extreme, with epilepsy victims suffering from social abandonment as well as economic and physical vulnerabilities. Since its founding in 2000, the Chikankata…

  7. The prevalence, impact and management of musculoskeletal disorders in older people living in care homes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smith, Toby O; Purdy, Rachel; Latham, Sarah K; Kingsbury, Sarah R; Mulley, Graham; Conaghan, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to systematically review the literature describing the prevalence, impact and current management of musculoskeletal pain in older people living in care homes. Published literature (AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, psycINFO, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library) and unpublished literature (OpenGrey, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Current Controlled Trials, UK National Research Register Archive) were searched on 1 March 2015. All studies assessing the prevalence, impact and management of musculoskeletal disorders in older people living in care homes were included. Literature was appraised using the CASP cohort and qualitative critical appraisal tools. Data were analysed using descriptive statistical approaches, meta-analysis and meta-ethnography techniques. Twenty-four papers reporting the results of 263,775 care home residents in 12 countries were identified. The evidence base was moderate in quality. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain for people in care homes was 30.2 % (95 % confidence intervals 29.9-30.5 %; n = 105,463). Care home residents reported that musculoskeletal pain had a significant impact on their perceived independence and overall ability to participate in everyday activities of daily living. Three papers which presented data on interventions demonstrated that whilst multi-component assessment and management packages did not significantly change clinical outcomes, these empowered care home staff to feel more confident in managing these patients. Musculoskeletal pain is a common problem in care homes worldwide, and residents report significant impact on their lives. However, there is uncertainty regarding how to assess and manage such pain. PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42014009824.

  8. Prevalence of obesity and affecting factors in physically disabled adults living in the city centre of Malatya

    PubMed Central

    Bozkir, Çiğdem; Özer, Ali; Pehlivan, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity, and the risk factors associated with it, in physically disabled adults living in the city centre of Malatya, Turkey. Method This research was designed as a cross-sectional study conducted on physically disabled people aged 20–65 years living in the city centre of Malatya. The prevalence of obesity in disabled people was within 95% CIs, the power was calculated as 80%, and the sample size of our population was calculated as 258 individuals. Results The prevalence of obesity was found to be 13.2%. The relationship between disability type and obesity status was found to be significant. The prevalence of obesity was 21.3% in visually impaired people, 17.9% in speech-impaired people, 17.8% in hearing-impaired people and 6.5% in orthopaedically disabled people. Conclusions Educational interventions on nutrition and lifestyle can be effective considering the high prevalence of obesity in visually impaired people, the prevalence of weakness in orthopaedically disabled people and the risk related to the area in which body fat is localised even when body mass index is within the normal range. Training disabled people in sports appropriate to their disability type and building appropriate facilities for those sports might have a positive effect. PMID:27609842

  9. Living In A Country With A Strong Primary Care System Is Beneficial To People With Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Johan; Groenewegen, Peter P; Boerma, Wienke G W; Kringos, Dionne S

    2015-09-01

    In light of the growing pressure that multiple chronic diseases place on health care systems, we investigated whether strong primary care was associated with improved health outcomes for the chronically ill. We did this by combining country- and individual-level data for the twenty-seven countries of the European Union, focusing on people's self-rated health status and whether or not they had severe limitations or untreated conditions. We found that people with chronic conditions were more likely to be in good or very good health in countries that had a stronger primary care structure and better coordination of care. People with more than two chronic conditions benefited most: Their self-rated health was higher if they lived in countries with a stronger primary care structure, better continuity of care, and a more comprehensive package of primary care services. In general, while having access to a strong primary care system mattered for people with chronic conditions, the degree to which it mattered differed across specific subgroups (for example, people with primary care-sensitive conditions) and primary care dimensions. Primary care reforms, therefore, should be person centered, addressing the needs of subgroups of patients while also finding a balance between structure and service delivery.

  10. Effectiveness of an occupational therapy home programme in Spain for people affected by stroke.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Adriana; Durán, Montserrat; Peralbo, Manuel; Torres, Gabriel; Saavedra, Miguel; Viana, Inés M

    2015-03-01

    The main aim of this paper is to assess the effects of an occupational therapy home programme in Spain on 23 people who had had stroke (mean age 61.17 years). The programme was made up of a set of activities and techniques of physical, cognitive, social and functional nature aimed at preventing, maintaining and/or rehabilitating the abilities affected of people who had had stroke. A multiple-baseline intrasubject design and replication with a treatment withdrawal period to check whether the effects of the programme remained was applied. The results show a significant statistical improvement, concerning not only the participants' cognitive skills through Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment Battery - Second Edition but also their functional independence as assessed by the Barthel Index. Despite the low number of participants, being one of the limitations of our study, the results support the need to carry out research about the effectiveness of rehabilitation treatments in the home with the goal to plan how public healthcare systems should tackle them and how to improve those already being used.

  11. Neuropathic pain in neuromyelitis optica affects activities of daily living and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sizheng; Mutch, Kerry; Elsone, Liene; Nurmikko, Turo; Jacob, Anu

    2014-10-01

    Though pain in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has been described in two recent reports, the proportion with true neuropathic pain (NP), its features, impact on activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life has not been well characterised. A cross-sectional study of 50 NMO patients with transverse myelitis was performed using Douleur Neuropathique 4, Brief Pain Inventory, Extended Disability Status Scale and Short Form 36. NP was identified in 62% of patients. Pain was constant in 68% affecting most ADL. Pain was associated with significant reduction of the SF36 Mental Composite Score. The high prevalence of NP and associated disability necessitates an in-depth enquiry in patients with NMO.

  12. Understanding sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender people of color in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Bith-Melander, Pollie; Sheoran, Bhupendra; Sheth, Lina; Bermudez, Carlos; Drone, Jennifer; Wood, Woo; Schroeder, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic qualitative study explored the needs of transgender people of color, including biological transitioning issues, gender and group membership identity formation, HIV, and other health issues. The sample consisted of transgender youth and adults of color in San Francisco (N = 43). Data were collected from in-depth interviews with 20 youth and adults and focus groups with 23 individuals. The study focused on perspectives of racial and ethnic minorities from Asian/Pacific Islander, African American, and Latino backgrounds. The medical decision-making perspective was used to gain a deeper understanding of sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender individuals of color in San Francisco. The major themes that emerged were gender identity, group membership, transitioning and related issues, sex work, alcohol and drug use, mental health and health care, sense of community, HIV, resources, and other support. Key clinical considerations that health providers can use to improve care of transgender individuals of color are included.

  13. Integration of health services in the care of people living with aids: an approach using a decision tree.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Leidyanny Barbosa; Trigueiro, Débora Raquel Soares Guedes; da Silva, Daiane Medeiros; do Nascimento, João Agnaldo; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Leadebal, Oriana Deyze Correia Paiva

    2016-02-01

    The care offer to people living with HIV/AIDS must transcend specialized outpatient services and include the participation of the Family Health Strategy. By understanding the importance of integration between these two points in the care network, the study aimed to build a decision support model to assist professionals of specialized health services in identifying behavior patterns in the use of Family Health Strategy services by people living with HIV/AIDS attended in the outpatient clinic. Thus, was proposed a model called decision tree, created from a database of 141 people with AIDS, users of a specialized outpatient clinic. The decision-making variable was the use of Family Health Strategy services by evaluating the integration of care. The model enabled the establishment of 23 rules with 80.1% hit percentage, what may support the decision-making of professionals in identifying situations in which it is necessary to stimulate the use of the Family Health Strategy by users. PMID:26910161

  14. The Impact of Living in a Care Home on the Health and Wellbeing of Spinal Cord Injured People

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brett; Caddick, Nick

    2015-01-01

    In the UK, 20% of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) are discharged from rehabilitation into an elderly care home. Despite this, and knowledge that the home is central to health and wellbeing, little research has examined the impact of being in care homes on the health and wellbeing of people with SCI. The purpose of this study was to address this gap. Twenty adults who lived in care homes or had done so recently for over two years were interviewed in-depth. Qualitative data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Analyses revealed that living in a care home environment severely damages quality of life, physical health and psychological wellbeing in the short and long-term. Reasons why quality of life, health, and wellbeing were damaged are identified. These included a lack of freedom, control, and flexibility, inability to participate in community life, inability to sustain relationships, safety problems, restricted participation in work and leisure time physical activity, lack of meaning, self-expression, and a future, loneliness, difficulties with the re-housing process, depression, and suicidal thoughts and actions. It is concluded that for people with SCI, the care home environment violates social dignity, is oppressive, and denies human rights. Implications for housing and health care policies are also offered. PMID:25884273

  15. [From "acute AIDS" to "chronic AIDS": body perception and surgical interventions in people living with HIV and AIDS].

    PubMed

    de Alencar, Tatianna Meireles Dantas; Nemes, Maria Ines Battistella; Velloso, Marco Aurélio

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian government has been providing free and universal access to the HAART therapy for people living with HIV and AIDS for ten years. Since then, many epidemiological characteristics have changed, and AIDS passed scientifically and medically to be classified as a chronic condition. This qualitative study aims to comprehend the challenges posed by self-perception of body changes experienced by people living with AIDS during recent years, as a result of prolonged use of antiretroviral medication.With this purpose, in 1999 and 2005, 32 semi-structured interviews with HIV positive individuals were held in the State of Sao Paulo to capture the challenges occurred during this period, in particular with regard to the lipodystrophy syndrome. The analysis of the data indicates that even with the availability and use of new technologies that allowed for AIDS to transform into a chronic, clinically treatable disease, there are still important aspects lived by patients that reedit fears and difficulties similar to those of the initial periods of the epidemic, among others appearance-impairing physical stigma.

  16. Prevalence and predictive factors of stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV in the remote villages on the Maroni River in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Jolivet, Anne; Flamand, Claude; Pigeon, Perrine; Caudal, Johanna; Lydié, Nathalie; Halfen, Sandrine; Goerger-Sow, Marie-Thérèse; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The Maroni basin, an isolated region which lies between Suriname and French Guiana, has been affected by the HIV epidemic 10 years after coastal French Guiana. However, the rise in HIV prevalence was sharp with a prevalence exceeding 1% within 10 years. Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWHIV) or "suspected to have HIV" is rampant as reported by health professionals or non-governmental organisations. The objective of this article is to present the first quantitative data from the general population of this region on stigma towards people living with HIV. Data were collected in 2012 by a structured questionnaire among a random sample of 896 individuals residing in remote villages on the Maroni River. Proportion comparisons between the Maroni sample and the sample from the general population on the coastline in 2011 were conducted. Simple and multivariate logistic regression models were used to predict stigmatising attitudes. For all situations involving PLWHIV, the proportion of negative attitudes was significantly higher on the Maroni than in coastal French Guiana (p < 0.001). Findings indicate that the different levels of knowledge, erroneous beliefs and poor situation (not having electricity in one's home; not having French health insurance) were associated with stigmatising attitudes. The present data could help both sides coordinate interventions both at the individual level by improving knowledge and at the community level to change norms in order to reduce stigma and discrimination aiming for increased impact.

  17. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV.

  18. Poetics, Power, Possibilities, and Playfulness: Zombies, Performance, and Making Meaning in Young People's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers drama/theater education as a form of constructivism where popular culture is both accessed and employed to engage young people and animate education. Using the familiar cultural trope of zombies, and in reference to three separate performance projects, attention is drawn to why projects such as these matter and why they…

  19. Disempowerment and Psychological Distress in the Lives of Young People in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nduna, Mzikazi; Jewkes, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted in Butterworth, in the rural Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, to explore sources of distress for young people. Semi-structured, individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 men and 24 women aged 16-22 years. The findings revealed interconnections between structural factors such as death, poverty,…

  20. The Multilingual Mind: Issues Discussed by, for, and about People Living with Many Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokuhama-Espinosa, Tracey, Ed.

    This collection of 21 essays focuses on people who experience the world with multiple languages: (1) "Myths about Multilingualism" (Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa); (2) "Teaching Languages using the Multiple Intelligences and the Senses" (Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa); (3) "The Role of the Sense of Smell in Language Learning" (Sara Ackerman Aoyana); (4)…

  1. Self-Management Abilities of Diabetes in People with an Intellectual Disability Living in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Leigh A.; Trip, Henrietta T.; Whitehead, Lisa; Conder, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Self-management of diabetes is encouraged; however, it is not an easy task and requires a good understanding of the disease. To determine how to improve the self-management abilities of diabetes in people with an intellectual disability (ID), this study explored the knowledge and understanding of diabetes held by a select group of adults with…

  2. Notions of HIV and Medication among Multiethnic People Living with HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oggins, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Examines why people of ethnic minority groups tend to be less likely to take medication for HIV. Respondents viewed HIV/AIDS and medication in terms of other illnesses and drugs, including colds, cancer, and street drugs. Some also thought antiretroviral medications were toxic. Others thought they should wait to take medication to prevent…

  3. The Impact of Education in Shaping Lives: Reflections of Young People with Disabilities in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singal, Nidhi; Mahama Salifu, Edward; Iddrisu, Khadijatu; Casely-Hayford, Leslie; Lundebye, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of focusing on people with disabilities (PWDs) in international efforts aimed at poverty alleviation. While universal education has been central to these efforts, the specific and additional needs of children with disabilities are often overlooked in policies and programmes. In order to gain a…

  4. Citizenship in Young People's Daily Lives: Differences in Citizenship Competences of Adolescents in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geijsel, Femke; Ledoux, Guuske; Reumerman, Rene; ten Dam, Geert

    2012-01-01

    The results of a nationwide study of the citizenship competences of adolescents in the Netherlands are presented from the perspective of democratic citizenship in this article. Citizenship competences are defined as the knowledge, skills, attitudes and reflection needed by young people in a democratic and multicultural society to adequately fulfil…

  5. Tobacco Cessation Intervention for People with Disabilities: Survey of Center for Independent Living Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorhouse, Michael D.; Pomeranz, Jamie L.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Yu, Nami S.; Curbow, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    People with disabilities (PWD) are 50% more likely to smoke compared with the general population, yet interventions tailored to the needs of PWD remain limited. The authors surveyed directors from a leading disability service organization to assess their delivery of tobacco cessation interventions. Although tobacco cessation was identified as a…

  6. Assistance with Integrity: The Search for Accountability and the Lives of People with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, John; O'Brien, Connie Lyle

    This report discusses basic issues in the provision of residential services for people with developmental disabilities. Main points of the discussion include: (1) the service system for this population is in a crisis of accountability as meeting safety and quality requirements threatens to become counterproductive; (2) the current system is well…

  7. Social Aspects of Eating Events among People with Intellectual Disability in Community Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolfsson, Paivi; Sydner, Ylva Mattsson; Fjellstrom, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Background: In Sweden, a process involving the deinstitutionalisation of services and the establishment of community-based settings for people with intellectual disability has meant changes in meal arrangements. In the present study, we focus on the social arrangements of meals in community-based settings. Method: Participant observations were…

  8. Household Living Arrangements and Transition to Sexual Debut among Young People in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Adjei, Jones K.

    2015-01-01

    There is abundant research on the links between family and household structure and young people's sexual risk-taking behaviours, but this scholarship although emerging in sub-Saharan Africa is largely limited to the West. Using data from the 2004 National Adolescent Survey conducted among 12-19 year olds in Ghana, and applying discrete time…

  9. Reported School Experiences of Young People Living with Sickle Cell Disorder in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Simon Martin; Abuateya, Hala; Atkin, Karl; Culley, Lorraine; Dyson, Sue Elizabeth; Rowley, Dave

    2010-01-01

    A survey of 569 young people with sickle cell disorder (SCD) in England has found such pupils miss considerable periods of time from school, typically in short periods of two or three days. One in eight has school absences equating to government-defined "persistent absence". Students with SCD report that they are not helped to catch up after these…

  10. Building Society: Young People's Experiences and Outcomes in the Technologies. Transforming Lives through Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Scotland, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report continues the series in which Education Scotland evaluates the quality of young people's learning and achievements, in this case in the technologies. The report contributes to the overall picture of what it is like to be a learner in a Scottish early learning or childcare setting or school in this second decade of the 21st Century. The…

  11. Conceptualising the Lives of NEET Young People: Structuration Theory and "Disengagement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Lisa; Simmons, Robin; Thompson, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Official discourse in the United Kingdom and many other OECD countries emphasises education and training as a vehicle for social inclusion and economic growth. Accordingly, those who do not participate are seen to be at risk of long-term exclusion. However, interventions aimed at re-engaging young people not in education, employment or training…

  12. Laughing it off? Humour, affect and emotion work in communities living with nuclear risk.

    PubMed

    Parkhill, K A; Henwood, K L; Pidgeon, N F; Simmons, P

    2011-06-01

    Over the past two decades, an increasing number of risk researchers have recognized that risks are not simply objective hazards but that the meanings of risk are discursively negotiated, dynamic and embedded within the wider social relations that constitute everyday life. A growing interest in the complexity and nuances of risk subjectivities has alerted sociocultural researchers not only to what is said in a risk situation, but also to how it is said and to what is unsaid and even, in a particular context, unsayable; to the intangible qualities of discourse that communicate additional meanings. Humour is both an intangible and marks such intangible meanings, yet it has largely been ignored and insufficiently theorized by risk researchers. In this paper, we draw upon insights from the humour literature - suspending the belief that humour is inherently good - to analyse and theorize humour as a way of examining the meanings and functions of risk. We show how humour can both mask and carefully reveal affectively charged states about living with nuclear risk. As such, it helps risk subjects to live with risk by suppressing vulnerabilities, enabling the negotiation of what constitutes a threat, and engendering a sense of empowerment. We conclude that humorous talk can be serious talk which can enrich our understandings of the lived experience of risk and of risk subjectivities. PMID:21631461

  13. Laughing it off? Humour, affect and emotion work in communities living with nuclear risk.

    PubMed

    Parkhill, K A; Henwood, K L; Pidgeon, N F; Simmons, P

    2011-06-01

    Over the past two decades, an increasing number of risk researchers have recognized that risks are not simply objective hazards but that the meanings of risk are discursively negotiated, dynamic and embedded within the wider social relations that constitute everyday life. A growing interest in the complexity and nuances of risk subjectivities has alerted sociocultural researchers not only to what is said in a risk situation, but also to how it is said and to what is unsaid and even, in a particular context, unsayable; to the intangible qualities of discourse that communicate additional meanings. Humour is both an intangible and marks such intangible meanings, yet it has largely been ignored and insufficiently theorized by risk researchers. In this paper, we draw upon insights from the humour literature - suspending the belief that humour is inherently good - to analyse and theorize humour as a way of examining the meanings and functions of risk. We show how humour can both mask and carefully reveal affectively charged states about living with nuclear risk. As such, it helps risk subjects to live with risk by suppressing vulnerabilities, enabling the negotiation of what constitutes a threat, and engendering a sense of empowerment. We conclude that humorous talk can be serious talk which can enrich our understandings of the lived experience of risk and of risk subjectivities.

  14. [Implementation of a continuum of care for people living with HIV/AIDS in Hanoi (Vietnam)].

    PubMed

    de Loenzien, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) encompasses various tasks, from prevention to palliative care. It involves a set of consistent and coordinated actions. This article presents the first free-of-charge management programme including antiretroviral treatment in Vietnam (as opposed to research and evaluation programmes). It was launched in 2004 in Hanoi. Our study was conducted in 2003-2004 as part of a collaborative research programme led by IRD (Research Institute for Development) and the National Economic University in Hanoi and was funded by ESTHER (Together for a Therapeutic Solidarity in Hospital Network) group. Data collection included 68 qualitative interviews with patients, members of their families and members of the hospital staff, observations of outpatient consultations, and analysis of inpatient files. The results show that patients, their families and hospital staff members all perceive a comprehensive care and treatment programme as very important and consider that it should include social and psychological care as well as an integrated set of actions involving various types of participants. Outpatient and inpatient care are closely linked: they take place in the same hospital department, they involve patients with similar social and demographic characteristics marked by multiple risk behaviours and recourse to several kinds of healthcare services. The observation of outpatient consultations showed the limitations of strictly biomedical care to which social and psychological care were added only lately. One of the principal difficulties is patients' difficulties in keeping their outpatient appointments. Overall, patients consider themselves lucky to able to receive care and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. They nevertheless complain about the lack of social and psychological support, which they expect should help them to tolerate and adapt to their biomedical treatment and to include counselling and information about this treatment and

  15. [Implementation of a continuum of care for people living with HIV/AIDS in Hanoi (Vietnam)].

    PubMed

    de Loenzien, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) encompasses various tasks, from prevention to palliative care. It involves a set of consistent and coordinated actions. This article presents the first free-of-charge management programme including antiretroviral treatment in Vietnam (as opposed to research and evaluation programmes). It was launched in 2004 in Hanoi. Our study was conducted in 2003-2004 as part of a collaborative research programme led by IRD (Research Institute for Development) and the National Economic University in Hanoi and was funded by ESTHER (Together for a Therapeutic Solidarity in Hospital Network) group. Data collection included 68 qualitative interviews with patients, members of their families and members of the hospital staff, observations of outpatient consultations, and analysis of inpatient files. The results show that patients, their families and hospital staff members all perceive a comprehensive care and treatment programme as very important and consider that it should include social and psychological care as well as an integrated set of actions involving various types of participants. Outpatient and inpatient care are closely linked: they take place in the same hospital department, they involve patients with similar social and demographic characteristics marked by multiple risk behaviours and recourse to several kinds of healthcare services. The observation of outpatient consultations showed the limitations of strictly biomedical care to which social and psychological care were added only lately. One of the principal difficulties is patients' difficulties in keeping their outpatient appointments. Overall, patients consider themselves lucky to able to receive care and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. They nevertheless complain about the lack of social and psychological support, which they expect should help them to tolerate and adapt to their biomedical treatment and to include counselling and information about this treatment and

  16. What People Living with Aphasia Think about the Availability of Aphasia Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Hasselkus, Amy; Ganzfried, Ellayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Obtaining health information and resources can influence an individual's (a) access to services, (b) interactions with health care providers, and (c) ability to manage one's own health needs. The purpose of this study was to gather the perceptions of consumers living with aphasia about resource availability and information needs. Method:…

  17. Who knows, who cares? Dementia knowledge among nurses, care workers, and family members of people living with dementia.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew; Eccleston, Claire; Annear, Michael; Elliott, Kate-Ellen; Andrews, Sharon; Stirling, Christine; Ashby, Michael; Donohue, Catherine; Banks, Susan; Toye, Christine; McInerney, Fran

    2014-01-01

    The number of people with dementia is increasing rapidly worldwide. Commensurate with population ageing, the use of nursing homes in Australia (known as residential aged care facilities) for individuals with dementia is growing. As a terminal condition, dementia is best managed by instituting a palliative approach to care. A good knowledge of dementia, including its progression and management, among staff and families of people living with dementia is essential for clear decision making and the provision of appropriate care. Yet there is limited information regarding relative levels of dementia knowledge. This paper reports the results of a study that assessed dementia knowledge among these two cohorts using the Dementia Knowledge Assessment Tool; the study surveyed 279 staff members and 164 family members of residents with dementia. Dementia knowledge deficits were evident in both cohorts across a range of areas. It is critical that dementia knowledge deficits are identified and addressed in order to support evidence-based dementia care. PMID:25265739

  18. Life satisfaction and life values in people with spinal cord injury living in three Asian countries: A multicultural study

    PubMed Central

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Priebe, Michael M.; Wilski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences in life satisfaction and life values among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in three economically similar Asian countries: India, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Design Cross-sectional and comparative investigation using the unified questionnaire. Setting Indian Spinal Injuries Centre in New Delhi (India), Spinal Cord Rehabilitation Department of the Bach Mai Hospital in Hanoi (Vietnam), and Foundation for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled in Colombo (Sri Lanka). Participants Two hundred and thirty-seven people with SCI using a wheelchair; 79 from India, 92 from Vietnam, and 66 from Sri Lanka. Outcome measures Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey. Results People with SCI in Vietnam had significantly higher general life satisfaction than participants in India and Sri Lanka. Significant differences were identified in several demographic and life situation variables among the three Asian countries. With regard to “Traditional”, “Universal”, and “Personal” life values significant differences among three participating countries were identified in all domains. No significant relationships were identified between life satisfaction and life values for people with SCI in India, Vietnam, or Sri Lanka. Conclusion It could be presumed that particular demographic and life situation variables are more powerful factors of life satisfaction following SCI than the dominant culture of a country expressed by life values. PMID:23809526

  19. Adolescents' and children's knowledge about rights: some evidence for how young people view rights in their own lives.

    PubMed

    Ruck, M D; Keating, D P; Abramovitch, R; Koegl, C

    1998-06-01

    The present study examined the development of knowledge about rights from childhood to adolescence. One hundred and sixty-nine 8-16-year-olds participated in individual semi-structured interviews assessing knowledge and importance of rights both generally and in children's and adolescents' lives. Detailed content analyses indicated that a global stage account may not capture key features of the development of young people's knowledge about rights. Even the oldest adolescents consistently "defined" rights in concrete rather than abstract terms. In contrast, by 10 years of age the majority of subjects were aware of the universal nature of rights. These results suggest that what adolescents and children think about rights appears to be influenced by how they view rights in their own lives. The findings are discussed in terms of developmental theory and in relation to practical implications for children's rights.

  20. Characteristics of the Activity-Affect Association in Inactive People: An Ambulatory Assessment Study in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    von Haaren, Birte; Loeffler, Simone Nadine; Haertel, Sascha; Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Stumpp, Juergen; Hey, Stefan; Boes, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity (PA) is related to well-being and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to PA or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants’ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between PA and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 ± 1.7 years) using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and PA was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every 2 h on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence, and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level [mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET) value] and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 min before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Analyzing the PA-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine characteristics of affective responses of inactive people to PA in daily life. General assumptions

  1. The potential role for probiotic yogurt for people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    In demonstrating that it is feasible to create a community-run kitchen that produces probiotic yogurt, and that this can contribute to the health of people with HIV/AIDS, we embellished the 2001 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) report on probiotics that recommended efforts be made to take probiotics to developing countries. We proved that driven by humanitarian goals not profit, probiotic yogurt can be produced in the world's poor regions. This food can be safely consumed by HIV/AIDS subjects, and in many of them benefits can be accrued in gut health, nutritional and potentially immune status. Such outcomes have a scientific rationale, many social implications, and perhaps most importantly raise the question, why have developed countries not tried harder to bring nutrition-based probiotics to people in need?

  2. An assisted-living home architecture with integrated healthcare services for elderly people.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Andy; Biniaris, Christos; Vergados, Dimitrios; Eppler, Arnold; Kavvadias, Christoforos; Bigalke, Olaf; Robert, Eric; Jerabek, Boro; Alevizos, Alevizos; Caragiozidis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Since the population of elderly people grows absolutely and in relation to the overall population in the world, the improvement of the quality of life of elderly people at home is of a great importance. This can be achieved through the development of generic technologies for managing their domestic ambient environment consisting of medical sensors, entertainment equipment, home automation systems and white goods, increasing their autonomy and safety. In this context, the provision intelligent interactive healthcare services will improve their daily life and allowing at the same time the continuous monitoring of their health and their effective treatment. This work is supported by the INHOME Project EU IST-045061-STP, http://www.ist-inhome.eu.

  3. Citizenship and people living with dementia: A case for the ethics of care.

    PubMed

    Brannelly, Tula

    2016-05-01

    The ethics of care is an emerging field of interest in many disciplines, including care for people with dementia. The ethics of care as proposed by Joan Tronto is a political argument for care together with a set of principles, the integrity of care, to guide and critique practice. This two-pronged approach enables on one hand, a political, complex and situated examination of inequality, and on the other hand the integrity of care provides a set of principles to guide inclusive citizenship practices. This approach has the significant advantage of recognition of the fight that people with dementia face to achieve rights and citizenship as an issue of social justice. In this paper, three challenges to citizenship are discussed in relation to people with dementia using an ethics of care lens: (a) citizenship as a relationship between the individual and the state; (b) citizenship as a practice and (c) citizenship as identity and belonging. I propose that citizenship can be achieved by promoting inclusion in defining and creating policy, research and practice.

  4. Emergency Preparedness Among People Living Near US Army Chemical Weapons Sites After September 11, 2001

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Bryan L.; Magsumbol, Melina S.

    2007-01-01

    We examined trust in the army and perceptions of emergency preparedness among residents living near the Anniston, Ala, and Richmond, Ky, US Army chemical weapons stockpile sites shortly after September 11, 2001. Residents (n = 655) living near the 2 sites who participated in a cross-sectional population were relatively unprepared in the event of a chemical emergency. The events of September 11 gave rise to concerns regarding the security of stored chemical weapons and the sites’ vulnerability to terrorist attacks. Although residents expressed trust in the army to manage chemical weapons safely, only a few expressed a desire to actively participate in site decisions. Compliance with procedures during emergencies could be seriously limited, putting residents in these sites at higher levels of risk of exposure to chemical hazards than nonresidents. PMID:17666684

  5. Increasing the provision of mental health care for vulnerable, disaster-affected people in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bangladesh has the highest natural disaster mortality rate in the world, with over half a million people lost to disaster events since 1970. Most of these people have died during floods or cyclones, both of which are likely to become more frequent due to global climate change. To date, the government’s post-disaster response strategy has focused, increasingly effectively, on the physical needs of survivors, through the provision of shelter, food and medical care. However, the serious and widespread mental health consequences of natural disasters in Bangladesh have not yet received the attention that they deserve. This Debate article proposes a practical model that will facilitate the provision of comprehensive and effective post-disaster mental health services for vulnerable Bangladeshis on a sustainable basis. Discussion A series of socially determined factors render the women and the poor of Bangladesh particularly vulnerable to dying in natural disasters; and, for those who survive, to suffering from some sort of disaster-related mental health illness. For women, this is largely due to the enforced gender separation, or purdah, that they endure; while for the poor, it is the fact that they are, by definition, only able to afford to live in the most climatically dangerous, and under-served parts of the country. Although the disasters themselves are brought by nature, therefore, social determinants increase the vulnerability of particular groups to mental illness as a result of them. While deeply entrenched, these determinants are at least partially amenable to change through policy and action. Summary In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the World Health Organisation developed a framework for providing mental health and psychosocial support after major disasters, which, we argue, could be adapted to Bangladeshi post-cyclone and post-flood contexts. The framework is community-based, it includes both medical and non-clinical components, and it

  6. Health care provider attitudes and beliefs about people living with HIV: Initial validation of the Health Care Provider HIV/AIDS Stigma Scale (HPASS).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Anne C; Hart, Trevor A; McShane, Kelly E; Margolese, Shari; Girard, Todd A

    2014-12-01

    HIV stigma is a pressing concern for people living with HIV, and particularly when it is perpetuated by health care providers, as it may affect quality of life and access to health care services. The current study describes the development and initial validation of a contextually appropriate HIV stigma scale for health care providers in North America. A ground-up qualitative approach was used to develop the scale, and it was assessed psychometrically with health care trainees across Canada. The measure demonstrates excellent internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability, as well as convergent and divergent validity. The study supports a tripartite model of HIV stigma consisting of stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. The scale provides a new tool to assess HIV stigma in health care providers and can be used to inform training, intervention and self-evaluation of stigmatizing attitudes, beliefs and behaviors among providers. PMID:24965675

  7. Health care provider attitudes and beliefs about people living with HIV: Initial validation of the Health Care Provider HIV/AIDS Stigma Scale (HPASS).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Anne C; Hart, Trevor A; McShane, Kelly E; Margolese, Shari; Girard, Todd A

    2014-12-01

    HIV stigma is a pressing concern for people living with HIV, and particularly when it is perpetuated by health care providers, as it may affect quality of life and access to health care services. The current study describes the development and initial validation of a contextually appropriate HIV stigma scale for health care providers in North America. A ground-up qualitative approach was used to develop the scale, and it was assessed psychometrically with health care trainees across Canada. The measure demonstrates excellent internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability, as well as convergent and divergent validity. The study supports a tripartite model of HIV stigma consisting of stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. The scale provides a new tool to assess HIV stigma in health care providers and can be used to inform training, intervention and self-evaluation of stigmatizing attitudes, beliefs and behaviors among providers.

  8. Life memories and the ability to act: the meaning of autonomy and participation for older people when living with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Maria; Pöder, Ulrika; Mamhidir, Anna-Greta; Nilsson, Annika; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Häggström, Elisabeth

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about how older people living with chronic illness describe the meaning of autonomy and participation, indicating a risk for reduced autonomy and participation in their everyday life. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of autonomy and participation among older people living with chronic illness in accordance with their lived experience. The design was descriptive with a phenomenological approach guided by Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological psychological method. Purposive sampling was used, and 16 older people living with chronic illness who lived in an ordinary home participated in individual interviews. The findings showed that the meaning of autonomy and participation among the older people emerged when it was challenged and evoked emotional considerations of the lived experience of having a chronic illness. It involved living a life apart, yet still being someone who is able, trustworthy and given responsibility--still being seen and acknowledged. The meaning of autonomy and participation was derived through life memories and used by the older people in everyday life for adjustment or adaption to the present life and the future. Our conclusion is that autonomy and participation were considered in relation to older people's life memories in the past, in their present situation and also their future wishes. Ability or disability is of less importance than the meaning of everyday life among older people. We suggest using fewer labels for limitations in everyday life when caring for older people and more use of the phrase 'ability to act' in different ways, based on older people's descriptions of the meaning of autonomy and participation.

  9. Rehabilitation living lab in the mall community of practice: learning together to improve rehabilitation, participation and social inclusion for people living with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mazer, Barbara; Kairy, Dahlia; Guindon, Andréanne; Girard, Michel; Swaine, Bonnie; Kehayia, Eva; Labbé, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    Communities of practice (CoP) can facilitate collaboration between people who share a common interest, but do not usually work together. A CoP was initiated and developed including stakeholders from clinical, research, community and governmental backgrounds involved in a large multidisciplinary and multi-sectorial project: the Rehabilitation Living Lab in a Mall (RehabMaLL). This study aimed to evaluate the structure, process and outcomes of this CoP. A single case-study, using mixed-methods, evaluated the RehabMaLL CoP initiative after one year, based on Donabedian's conceptual evaluation model. Forty-three participants took part in the RehabMaLL CoP with 60.5% (n = 26) participating at least once on the online platform where 234 comments were posted. Four in-person meetings were held. Members expressed satisfaction regarding the opportunity to share knowledge with people from diverse backgrounds and the usefulness of the CoP for the RehabMaLL project. Collaboration led to concrete outcomes, such as a sensitization activity and a research project. Common challenges included lack of time and difficulty finding common objectives. A CoP can be a useful strategy to facilitate knowledge sharing on disability issues. Future research is necessary to determine strategies of increasing knowledge creation between members.

  10. Rehabilitation Living Lab in the Mall Community of Practice: Learning Together to Improve Rehabilitation, Participation and Social Inclusion for People Living with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Mazer, Barbara; Kairy, Dahlia; Guindon, Andréanne; Girard, Michel; Swaine, Bonnie; Kehayia, Eva; Labbé, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Communities of practice (CoP) can facilitate collaboration between people who share a common interest, but do not usually work together. A CoP was initiated and developed including stakeholders from clinical, research, community and governmental backgrounds involved in a large multidisciplinary and multi-sectorial project: the Rehabilitation Living Lab in a Mall (RehabMaLL). This study aimed to evaluate the structure, process and outcomes of this CoP. A single case-study, using mixed-methods, evaluated the RehabMaLL CoP initiative after one year, based on Donabedian’s conceptual evaluation model. Forty-three participants took part in the RehabMaLL CoP with 60.5% (n = 26) participating at least once on the online platform where 234 comments were posted. Four in-person meetings were held. Members expressed satisfaction regarding the opportunity to share knowledge with people from diverse backgrounds and the usefulness of the CoP for the RehabMaLL project. Collaboration led to concrete outcomes, such as a sensitization activity and a research project. Common challenges included lack of time and difficulty finding common objectives. A CoP can be a useful strategy to facilitate knowledge sharing on disability issues. Future research is necessary to determine strategies of increasing knowledge creation between members. PMID:25913187

  11. Rehabilitation living lab in the mall community of practice: learning together to improve rehabilitation, participation and social inclusion for people living with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mazer, Barbara; Kairy, Dahlia; Guindon, Andréanne; Girard, Michel; Swaine, Bonnie; Kehayia, Eva; Labbé, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    Communities of practice (CoP) can facilitate collaboration between people who share a common interest, but do not usually work together. A CoP was initiated and developed including stakeholders from clinical, research, community and governmental backgrounds involved in a large multidisciplinary and multi-sectorial project: the Rehabilitation Living Lab in a Mall (RehabMaLL). This study aimed to evaluate the structure, process and outcomes of this CoP. A single case-study, using mixed-methods, evaluated the RehabMaLL CoP initiative after one year, based on Donabedian's conceptual evaluation model. Forty-three participants took part in the RehabMaLL CoP with 60.5% (n = 26) participating at least once on the online platform where 234 comments were posted. Four in-person meetings were held. Members expressed satisfaction regarding the opportunity to share knowledge with people from diverse backgrounds and the usefulness of the CoP for the RehabMaLL project. Collaboration led to concrete outcomes, such as a sensitization activity and a research project. Common challenges included lack of time and difficulty finding common objectives. A CoP can be a useful strategy to facilitate knowledge sharing on disability issues. Future research is necessary to determine strategies of increasing knowledge creation between members. PMID:25913187

  12. Sociodemographic and lifestyle statistics of oldest old people (>80 years) living in ikaria island: the ikaria study.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Chrysohoou, Christina; Siasos, Gerasimos; Zisimos, Konstantinos; Skoumas, John; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-01-01

    Background. There are places around the world where people live longer and they are active past the age of 100 years, sharing common behavioral characteristics; these places (i.e., Sardinia in Italy, Okinawa in Japan, Loma Linda in California and Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica) have been named the "Blue Zones". Recently it was reported that people in Ikaria Island, Greece, have also one of the highest life expectancies in the world, and joined the "Blue Zones". The aim of this work work was to evaluate various demographic, lifestyle and psychological characteristics of very old (>80 years) people participated in Ikaria Study. Methods. During 2009, 1420 people (aged 30+) men and women from Ikaria Island, Greece, were voluntarily enrolled in the study. For this work, 89 males and 98 females over the age of 80 yrs were studied (13% of the sample). Socio-demographic, clinical, psychological and lifestyle characteristics were assessed using standard questionnaires and procedures. Results. A large proportion of the Ikaria Study's sample was over the age of 80; moreover, the percent of people over 90 were much higher than the European population average. The majority of the oldest old participants reported daily physical activities, healthy eating habits, avoidance of smoking, frequent socializing, mid-day naps and extremely low rates of depression. Conclusion. Modifiable risk factors, such as physical activity, diet, smoking cessation and mid-day naps, might depict the "secrets" of the long-livers; these findings suggest that the interaction of environmental, behavioral together with clinical characteristics may determine longevity. This concept must be further explored in order to understand how these factors relate and which are the most important in shaping prolonged life.

  13. The influence of egocentrism and focalism on people's optimism in competitions: when what affects us equally affects me more.

    PubMed

    Windschitl, Paul D; Kruger, Justin; Simms, Ericka Nus

    2003-09-01

    Six experiments investigated people's optimism in competitions. The studies involved hypothetical and real competitions (course grades in Experiments 1 and 2, a trivia game in Experiments 3-5, and a poker game in Experiment 6) in which the presence of shared adversities and benefits (factors that would generally hinder or help the absolute performance of all competitors) was manipulated. Shared adversities tended to reduce people's subjective likelihoods of winning, whereas shared benefits tended to increase them. The findings suggest that when people judge their likelihood of winning, their assessments of their own strengths and weaknesses have greater impact than their assessments of their competitors' strengths and weaknesses. We identify egocentrism and focalism as two causes of the bias. The experiments revealed moderators of this bias, but also illustrated its robust nature across a variety of conditions.

  14. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    microscopes, chemical analyses etc. The NHM has big labs—like a university—in the basement. I write papers, give talks... For the public galleries of the NHM my group provides expert input to exhibitions-when the meteorite pavilion was recently refurbished we suggested a layout, wrote text and selected samples, but this was then 'edited' by the exhibition designers. I'm also working on a new website with virtual meteorite specimens. As an expert on Martian meteorites I often get interviewed by the media: for example, I am on a new Channel 4 programme called Destination Mars. I have also just finished a general interest book—it's called Search for Life; the NHM have just published it (in March). And do you get to go to exciting places? As a researcher I go to conferences I am just off to the States this week. I went to Antarctica ten years ago meteorite collecting and I am hoping to go to Australia this year. It is good fun but they really do need an expert who can recognise a meteorite. I'll be going to the Nullarbor region of Australia for 2 3 weeks depending on the weather if it's too green there is too much grass, so you can't see the meteorites. How do you find people respond to meteorites? People love touching rocks from outer space, especially primary school children. You can see how they are burnt on the outside. When you feel the weight of them it really brings it home: iron meteorites are heavy! They'll often say 'Wow, it fell from the sky' as they glance upwards, half expecting another one to come crashing through the ceiling. Everyone finds it amazing that a solid object has come as if from nowhere. And they are so old. They can't believe how old they are. We want to know where we come from. There is always lots of media coverage about what is happening in the sky (eclipses and the like). It's there and it's a bit of a mystery. If we can get to grips with how our planets and how our own Sun formed it can put us in the picture as to where we have come from and

  15. Correlates and consequences of internalized stigma for people living with mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Livingston, James D; Boyd, Jennifer E

    2010-12-01

    An expansive body of research has investigated the experiences and adverse consequences of internalized stigma for people with mental illness. This article provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of the extant research regarding the empirical relationship between internalized stigma and a range of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and psychiatric variables for people who live with mental illness. An exhaustive review of the research literature was performed on all articles published in English that assessed a statistical relationship between internalized stigma and at least one other variable for adults who live with mental illness. In total, 127 articles met the inclusion criteria for systematic review, of which, data from 45 articles were extracted for meta-analyses. None of the sociodemographic variables that were included in the study were consistently or strongly correlated with levels of internalized stigma. The review uncovered a striking and robust negative relationship between internalized stigma and a range of psychosocial variables (e.g., hope, self-esteem, and empowerment). Regarding psychiatric variables, internalized stigma was positively associated with psychiatric symptom severity and negatively associated with treatment adherence. The review draws attention to the lack of longitudinal research in this area of study which has inhibited the clinical relevance of findings related to internalized stigma. The study also highlights the need for greater attention on disentangling the true nature of the relationship between internalized stigma and other psychosocial variables.

  16. Stigma Related Avoidance in People Living with Severe Mental Illness (SMI): Findings of an Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Abiri, Sadat; Oakley, Linda Denise; Hitchcock, Mary E; Hall, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to synthesize primary evidence of the impact of internalized stigma on avoidance in adult community treatment patients living with SMI. A keyword database search of articles published through 2015 yielded 21 papers and a total of 4256 patients. Our analyses found that stigmatizing beliefs associated with avoidance are related to significant loss of self-esteem. Factors generally thought to reduce stigma internalized as self-stigmatizing beliefs, such as improved insight, increased self-awareness, and psycho-education to improve stigma coping skills, do not appear to improve self-esteem.

  17. [Factors affecting health behavior of the people aged forties--a test of the health belief model].

    PubMed

    Tohnai, S; Hata, E

    1994-04-01

    The health behavior of 1120 persons, aged in their forties, living in a city, a mountain village and a fishing village were analyzed according to the Health Belief Model. Women practiced more health behaviors than men. People living in the city and mountain village practiced more than people in fishing village. Company employees, farmers and housewives practiced more than self-employeds and fishermen. Education level had no significant influence in the practice of health behavior. As predicted, people who believed in the effectiveness of health behavior practiced more health behaviors. On the other hand, people who perceived barriers to health behavior practiced less. Paradoxically, people who perceived vulnerability to hypertension, cerebrovascular disease or cancer, and the seriousness of these diseases, practiced less health behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that health beliefs, social supports and information from mass media could account for 33.0% of the Health Behavior Score variation. Perceived barriers to health behavior was the strongest determinant for practice of health behavior. Perceived barriers may account for gender and occupational differences in health behavior.

  18. Fear of falling in elderly people living in a nursing home -- perspective from Manisa.

    PubMed

    Tavsanli, Nurgul Gungor; Turkmen, Sevgi Nehir

    2015-04-01

    Our study aimed to determine the level of fear of falling in elderly nursing home residents. The research population consisted of all the elderly residents of Manisa Municipal Nursing Home between November 2011 and February 2012. The 76 elderly people who agreed to participate were included in the study. A demographics form and the Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale were used in data collection. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS 15.0, using percentage calculations, the t-test and Cronbach's alpha. The mean score on the Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale for elderly individuals was found to be 4.57 ± 3.80. 57.9% of the old people feared falling while taking a bath, 59.2% while going to bed or getting up, and 53.6% while sitting down or getting up from a chair. It was found that mean fear of falling scores were significantly higher in elderly individuals with chronic diseases, sleep problems and urinary incontinence.

  19. Fear of falling in elderly people living in a nursing home -- perspective from Manisa.

    PubMed

    Tavsanli, Nurgul Gungor; Turkmen, Sevgi Nehir

    2015-04-01

    Our study aimed to determine the level of fear of falling in elderly nursing home residents. The research population consisted of all the elderly residents of Manisa Municipal Nursing Home between November 2011 and February 2012. The 76 elderly people who agreed to participate were included in the study. A demographics form and the Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale were used in data collection. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS 15.0, using percentage calculations, the t-test and Cronbach's alpha. The mean score on the Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale for elderly individuals was found to be 4.57 ± 3.80. 57.9% of the old people feared falling while taking a bath, 59.2% while going to bed or getting up, and 53.6% while sitting down or getting up from a chair. It was found that mean fear of falling scores were significantly higher in elderly individuals with chronic diseases, sleep problems and urinary incontinence. PMID:25976579

  20. Factors Influencing Food Choice for Independently Living Older People-A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Host, Alison; McMahon, Anne-Therese; Walton, Karen; Charlton, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Unyielding, disproportionate growth in the 65 years and older age group has precipitated serious concern about the propensity of health and aged-care services to cope in the very near future. Preservation of health and independence for as long as possible into later life will be necessary to attenuate demand for such services. Maintenance of nutritional status is acknowledged as fundamental for achievement of this aim. Determinants of food choice within this age group need to be identified and better understood to facilitate the development of pertinent strategies for encouraging nutritional intakes supportive of optimal health. A systematic review of the literature consistent with PRISMA guidelines was performed to identify articles investigating influences on food choice among older people. Articles were limited to those published between 1996 and 2014 and to studies conducted within countries where the dominant cultural, political and economic situations were comparable to those in Australia. Twenty-four articles were identified and subjected to qualitative analysis. Several themes were revealed and grouped into three broad domains: (i) changes associated with ageing; (ii) psychosocial aspects; and (iii) personal resources. Food choice among older people is determined by a complex interaction between multiple factors. Findings suggest the need for further investigations involving larger, more demographically diverse samples of participants, with the inclusion of a direct observational component in the study design.

  1. Factors Influencing Food Choice for Independently Living Older People-A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Host, Alison; McMahon, Anne-Therese; Walton, Karen; Charlton, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Unyielding, disproportionate growth in the 65 years and older age group has precipitated serious concern about the propensity of health and aged-care services to cope in the very near future. Preservation of health and independence for as long as possible into later life will be necessary to attenuate demand for such services. Maintenance of nutritional status is acknowledged as fundamental for achievement of this aim. Determinants of food choice within this age group need to be identified and better understood to facilitate the development of pertinent strategies for encouraging nutritional intakes supportive of optimal health. A systematic review of the literature consistent with PRISMA guidelines was performed to identify articles investigating influences on food choice among older people. Articles were limited to those published between 1996 and 2014 and to studies conducted within countries where the dominant cultural, political and economic situations were comparable to those in Australia. Twenty-four articles were identified and subjected to qualitative analysis. Several themes were revealed and grouped into three broad domains: (i) changes associated with ageing; (ii) psychosocial aspects; and (iii) personal resources. Food choice among older people is determined by a complex interaction between multiple factors. Findings suggest the need for further investigations involving larger, more demographically diverse samples of participants, with the inclusion of a direct observational component in the study design. PMID:27153249

  2. More than seizures: improving the lives of people with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mula, M; Cock, H R

    2015-01-01

    As captured by the proposed new definition, epilepsy is increasingly recognized as a disorder characterized not only by an enduring predisposition to recurrent seizures but explicitly also by the neurobiological, cognitive, psychological and social consequences of this condition. Further, both in the estimated 15 million people worldwide who have ongoing seizures despite optimal management and in a substantial proportion of those in remission, the consequences and comorbidities of epilepsy are the major determinants of quality of life. These include mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, dose related and longer term effects of antiepileptic drugs, including on prenatal development and bone health, and neurobehavioural effects. Whilst separating those that are part of an underlying condition or have unrelated contributors from those that are potentially remediable can be difficult, given the range of tools now available to assist with screening and management there is no excuse for not at least trying as part of standard care for people with epilepsy. Managing epilepsy well is about much more than controlling seizures and this needs to be recognized in planning and delivering services, as well as in prioritizing research.

  3. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    PubMed

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p < 0.05), but all other factors were not significantly different. It was concluded that among previously inactive people, receiving this guide may change some informational/motivational constructs, but key motivational antecedents (affective attitude, perceived behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  4. Integrating self-management and exercise for people living with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, A D; McCullough, C; Chan, A

    2011-02-01

    The Program for Arthritis Control through Education and Exercise, PACE-Ex™, is an arthritis self-management program incorporating principles and practice of self-management, goal setting and warm water exercise. The purpose of this program review is to examine the impact of PACE-Ex on participants' self-efficacy for condition management, self-management behaviors, goal achievement levels and self-reported disability, pain and health status. A retrospective review was conducted on participants who completed PACE-Ex from 1998 to 2006. A total of 347 participants completed 24 PACE-Ex programs [mean age 69.9 (±12.2) years, living with arthritis mean of 14.1 (±13.2) years]. Participants showed statistically significant improvements in their self-efficacy to manage their condition (Program for Rheumatic Independent Self-Management Questionnaire) (P < 0.001) and performance of self-management behaviors (Self-Management Behavior Questionnaire) (P < 0.01). Self-reported health status, disability and pain levels improved post-program (P < 0.01) despite reporting statistically significant increase in the total swollen and tender joint counts (Health Assessment Questionnaire) (P < 0.05). Sixty-eight percent of participants achieved or exceeded their long-term goal as measured by Goal Attainment Scaling. These findings remain to be proven with a more rigorous method yet they suggest that PACE-Ex is a promising intervention that supports healthy living for individuals with arthritis.

  5. The role of social support among people living with HIV in rural Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Beverley; Gutin, Sarah A; Jaiantilal, Prafulta; Correia, Della; Malimane, Inacio; Rose, Carol Dawson

    2014-11-01

    A Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention framework is being implemented in Mozambique to maintain the health of persons living with HIV (PLHIV) and prevent onward HIV transmission. An important intervention component is psycho-social support. However, coordinating support services has been challenging. Seventy in-depth individual interviews were conducted with PLHIV between January and June 2010 in three rural provinces to clarify the receipt and provision of support by PLHIV. Thematic coding and analysis were conducted to identify salient responses. PLHIV reported that the majority of social support received was instrumental, followed by emotional and informational support. Instrumental support included material, medical, and financial assistance. Emotional support was mentioned less frequently and was supplied most by family and friends. PLHIV also received informational support from a variety of sources, the most common being family members. Informational support from health providers was rarely mentioned, but this advice was valued and used to educate others. Although most participants described receiving social support from many sources, there were consistently identified needs. This study revealed that social support is central in the lives of PLHIV and identified areas where social support can be improved to better respond to the needs of PLHIV in the Mozambican context.

  6. Food availability affects onset of reproduction in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Simone; Hatch, Scott; Mangel, Marc; Kitaysky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that suboptimal developmental conditions may lead to faster life histories (younger age at recruitment and higher reproductive investment), but experimental testing of this prediction is still scarce in long-lived species. We report the effects of an experimental manipulation of food availability during early development and at recruitment on the onset of reproduction and reproductive performance (productivity at first breeding) in a long-lived seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, breeding on Middleton Island, Alaska. Birds were born and raised in nests with supplemented food (‘fed’) or unsupplemented control nests (‘unfed’), and later recruited into either fed or unfed nests. Fed chicks grew faster than unfed chicks, and males grew faster than females. Birds were more likely to reproduce at younger ages when recruiting into fed nests. Faster growth during development tended to increase age at recruitment in all individuals. Social rank of individuals also affected age at recruitment: B-chicks recruited earlier than A-chicks and singletons recruited later than A- and B-chicks. Productivity increased with the age at recruitment and growth rate as chick, but much of the variability remained unexplained. We conclude that results of this study at least partially support predictions of life-history theory: younger age at first breeding for kittiwakes that experienced suboptimal natal conditions, as well as greater productivity of early recruiting kittiwakes that grew in control nests compared with those that grew in food-supplemented nests. PMID:23576791

  7. The association between socioeconomic status, oral hygiene practice, denture stomatitis and oral status in elderly people living different residential homes.

    PubMed

    Evren, Buket Akalin; Uludamar, Altay; Işeri, Ufuk; Ozkan, Yasemin Kulak

    2011-01-01

    Oral hygiene practices and denture status of elderly people living in residential homes are different depending on the type of residential homes. In this study the elderly people living in three different residential homes were investigated for this purpose. A total of 269 subjects, 119 males (mean age 73.9±8.8) and 150 females (mean age 78.5±7.2) were involved in this study. All subjects were interviewed and clinically examined. Age, sex, educational status, financial status, general health, dental visiting, overnight denture wearing, brushing habits and frequency were recorded using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of edentulism, the presence and type of dental prostheses, denture cleanliness and the presence of denture stomatitis were evaluated. Forty-one percent of subjects were non-educated. Fifty-one percent of subjects had low income. The majority of people (66.6%) were edentulous. Among the edentulous subjects 32% had full denture and 16% had no denture. Forty three percent of the subjects reported cleaning their dentures with water and 40% with a toothbrush only. Denture hygiene was good for 14% of the subjects. Denture stomatitis was observed in 44% of the subjects wearing dentures. There was statistically significant difference between residential homes and educational status, level of income, dental visiting, denture status, brushing methods and brushing frequency (p<0.001). A positive relationship was observed between poor denture hygiene habits and the presence of denture-related stomatitis. The most important need within the residents of the residential home was the enhancement of oral care social insurance.

  8. Effects of Nurse-Led Multifactorial Care to Prevent Disability in Community-Living Older People: Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buurman, Bianca M.; ter Riet, Gerben; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effects of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent disability in community-living older people. Methods In a cluster randomized trail, 11 practices (n = 1,209 participants) were randomized to the intervention group, and 13 practices (n = 1,074 participants) were randomized to the control group. Participants aged ≥ 70 years were at increased risk of functional decline based on a score ≥ 2 points on the Identification of Seniors at Risk- Primary Care, ISAR-PC. Participants in the intervention group received a systematic comprehensive geriatric assessment, and individually tailored multifactorial interventions coordinated by a trained community-care registered nurse (CCRN) with multiple follow-up home visits. The primary outcome was the participant’s disability as measured by the modified Katz activities of daily living (ADL) index score (range 0–15) at one year follow-up. Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life, hospitalization, and mortality. Results At baseline, the median age was 82.7 years (IQR 77.0–87.1), the median modified Katz-ADL index score was 2 (IQR 1–5) points in the intervention group and 3 (IQR 1–5) points in the control group. The follow-up rate was 76.8% (n = 1753) after one year and was similar in both trial groups. The adjusted intervention effect on disability was -0.07 (95% confidence interval -0.22 to 0.07; p = 0.33). No intervention effects were found for the secondary outcomes. Conclusions We found no evidence that a one-year individualized multifactorial intervention program with nurse-led care coordination was better than the current primary care in community-living older people at increased risk of functional decline in The Netherlands. Trial Registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2653 PMID:27459349

  9. The text telephone as an empowering technology in the daily lives of deaf people-A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Roos, Carin; Wengelin, Åsa

    2016-01-01

    Text-telephone technology (TTY) has been used for communication between deaf people since 1964. There is a gap in the scientific knowledge about the influence this may have had especially in relation to effective participation in society as well as the feeling of capability, confidence and collective meaningfulness. The aim of the present paper is, first, to disentangle the different aspects of TTY as an empowering artifact; and, second, to explore the role of TTY in their lives. To provide a framework for the empirical analysis, the paper draws on Empowerment Theory: personal control, a proactive approach to life, and a critical awareness of one's socio-political environment. Twenty-four people aged 16-64 with Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as their first language were interviewed. The findings indicate that the introduction of the TTY was of great importance for self-esteem, equality and independence. The findings show that feelings of empowerment are closely linked to language use and contextually driven, and it is in interaction between deaf and hearing that such feelings arise (or not). The results indicate the need for further research into Deaf people's use of other means of interacting, using modern technique for example in social digital media and interactive platforms. PMID:26479953

  10. 'That's the problem with living in a small town': privacy and sexual health issues for young rural people.

    PubMed

    Warr, D; Hillier, L

    1997-08-01

    Survey and focus group discussions examining sexual health issues for young people were conducted with 1168 year 8 and year 10 secondary school students living in small rural communities across Australia. Growing up in the country was generally perceived as a positive experience; however, many young people felt that they had little privacy. Two main areas of concern emerged in relation to sexual health issues: worries about being recognised in public venues such as doctor's surgeries and chemists, and the informal mechanisms among peer groups that appraised and regulated sexual behaviour and attitudes. There were some significant gender differences evident in the expectations and experiences attached to these concerns, with girls expressing more awareness of and concern towards their public reputations when accessing sexual health services. They also felt that their sexual reputations among peers were closely monitored by way of their behaviour and appearance. This can militate against confident and assertive safer sex strategies such as condom use, when initiating or insisting upon condom use is construed as evidence of promiscuity or a preparedness to engage in sex. Concerns around privacy may be acutely experienced by young rural women, and health services providers need to be aware of these issues and efforts need to be made to address and allay the apprehensions of young people in this sensitive area.

  11. Food insecurity and other poverty indicators among people living with HIV/AIDS: effects on treatment and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Hernandez, Dominica; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar

    2014-12-01

    Health disparities in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as the demands of long-term medication adherence have meant the full benefits of HIV treatment are often not realized. In particular, food insecurity has emerged as a robust predictor of ART non-adherence. However, research is limited in determining whether food insecurity uniquely impedes HIV treatment or if food insecurity is merely a marker for poverty that interferes more broadly with treatment. This study examined indicators of poverty at multiple levels in a sample of 364 men and 157 women living with HIV recruited through an offering of a free holiday food basket. Results showed that 61 % (N = 321) of participants had experienced at least one indicator of food insecurity in the previous month. Multivariate analyses showed that food insecurity was closely tied to lack of transportation. In addition, food insecurity was associated with lacking access to ART and poor ART adherence after adjusting for neighbourhood poverty, living in an area without a supermarket (food desert), education, stable housing, and reliable transportation. Results therefore affirm previous research that has suggested food insecurity is uniquely associated with poor ART adherence and calls for structural interventions that address basic survival needs among people living with HIV, especially food security.

  12. Digital life storybooks for people with dementia living in care homes: an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Ponnusamy; Woods, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim There is increasing interest in using information and communication technology to help older adults with dementia to engage in reminiscence work. Now, the feasibility of such approaches is beginning to be established. The purpose of this study was to establish an evidence-base for the acceptability and efficacy of using multimedia digital life storybooks with people with dementia in care homes, in comparison with conventional life storybooks, taking into account the perspectives of people with dementia, their relatives, and care staff. Methods Participatory design was used to create a life story movie based on a previously completed conventional life storybook with six older adults with dementia (four females; mean age 82 years). Relatives were involved in helping the participant to provide additional information and materials for the digital life storybook. In this multiple case study design, both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. For quantitative purposes, a set of questionnaires that had been completed three times before and after the conventional life storybook was developed were repeated 4 weeks after the life story movie was completed. Semistructured interview questions were designed to collect feedback from participants, relatives, and care staff. Results The result indicated that five of the six participants showed additional improvement in measures of quality of life and autobiographical memory. All participants showed improvement or stability in depression scores. Thematic analysis showed that, participants, relatives, and care home staff viewed digital life storybooks as a very useful tool triggering memories and (largely) positive emotions. Participants’ case vignettes were presented to document the impact of digital life storybook. PMID:27698556

  13. Digital life storybooks for people with dementia living in care homes: an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Ponnusamy; Woods, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim There is increasing interest in using information and communication technology to help older adults with dementia to engage in reminiscence work. Now, the feasibility of such approaches is beginning to be established. The purpose of this study was to establish an evidence-base for the acceptability and efficacy of using multimedia digital life storybooks with people with dementia in care homes, in comparison with conventional life storybooks, taking into account the perspectives of people with dementia, their relatives, and care staff. Methods Participatory design was used to create a life story movie based on a previously completed conventional life storybook with six older adults with dementia (four females; mean age 82 years). Relatives were involved in helping the participant to provide additional information and materials for the digital life storybook. In this multiple case study design, both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. For quantitative purposes, a set of questionnaires that had been completed three times before and after the conventional life storybook was developed were repeated 4 weeks after the life story movie was completed. Semistructured interview questions were designed to collect feedback from participants, relatives, and care staff. Results The result indicated that five of the six participants showed additional improvement in measures of quality of life and autobiographical memory. All participants showed improvement or stability in depression scores. Thematic analysis showed that, participants, relatives, and care home staff viewed digital life storybooks as a very useful tool triggering memories and (largely) positive emotions. Participants’ case vignettes were presented to document the impact of digital life storybook.

  14. Cancer Mortality Among People Living in Areas With Various Levels of Natural Background Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Fornalski, Krzysztof W.; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.

    2015-01-01

    There are many places on the earth, where natural background radiation exposures are elevated significantly above about 2.5 mSv/year. The studies of health effects on populations living in such places are crucially important for understanding the impact of low doses of ionizing radiation. This article critically reviews some recent representative literature that addresses the likelihood of radiation-induced cancer and early childhood death in regions with high natural background radiation. The comparative and Bayesian analysis of the published data shows that the linear no-threshold hypothesis does not likely explain the results of these recent studies, whereas they favor the model of threshold or hormesis. Neither cancers nor early childhood deaths positively correlate with dose rates in regions with elevated natural background radiation. PMID:26674931

  15. Health behavior predictors of medication adherence among low health literacy people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Pellowski, Jennifer A; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-09-01

    One particularly vulnerable population for HIV treatment non-adherence is persons with poor health literacy skills. For these individuals, it is important to simplify medication taking as much as possible by integrating medication adherence into other routine health behaviors. This study aims to ascertain the relationship between medication adherence and other health behaviors. Adults living with HIV (N = 422) completed intake measures and 3 months of unannounced pill counts. Endorsement of diet and exercise behaviors at intake predicted higher medication adherence, over and above other known predictors of medication adherence such as HIV symptoms, depression, social support, and stress. These results support integrating strategies for medication management into a constellation of routine health practices. PMID:25706334

  16. Comparative Yield of Different Diagnostic Tests for Tuberculosis among People Living with HIV in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, Joseph S.; Modi, Surbhi; Musau, Susan; McCarthy, Kimberly; Alexander, Heather; Burmen, Barbara; Heilig, Charles M.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Cain, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnosis followed by effective treatment of tuberculosis (TB) reduces transmission and saves lives in persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Sputum smear microscopy is widely used for diagnosis, despite limited sensitivity in PLHIV. Evidence is needed to determine the optimal diagnostic approach for these patients. Methods From May 2011 through June 2012, we recruited PLHIV from 15 HIV treatment centers in western Kenya. We collected up to three sputum specimens for Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) and fluorescence microscopy (FM), GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), and culture, regardless of symptoms. We calculated the incremental yield of each test, stratifying results by CD4 cell count and specimen type; data were analyzed to account for complex sampling. Results From 778 enrolled patients, we identified 88 (11.3%) laboratory-confirmed TB cases. Of the 74 cases who submitted 2 specimens for microscopy and Xpert testing, ZN microscopy identified 25 (33.6%); Xpert identified those plus an additional 18 (incremental yield = 24.4%). Xpert testing of spot specimens identified 48 (57.0%) of 84 cases; whereas Xpert testing of morning specimens identified 50 (66.0%) of 76 cases. Two Xpert tests detected 22/24 (92.0%) TB cases with CD4 counts <100 cells/μL and 30/45 (67.0%) of cases with CD4 counts ≥100 cells/μl. Conclusions In PLHIV, Xpert substantially increased diagnostic yield compared to smear microscopy and had the highest yield when used to test morning specimens and specimens from PLHIV with CD4 count <100 cells/μL. TB programs unable to replace smear microscopy with Xpert for all symptomatic PLHIV should consider targeted replacement and using morning specimens. PMID:27023213

  17. Stigma against People Living with HIV/AIDS in China: Does the Route of Infection Matter?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Shan; Zhang, Liying; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Shen, Zhiyong; Chen, Yi

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that people who contracted HIV from "blameless" routes (e.g., blood transfusion, sex with stable partners) are less stigmatized compared to people who contracted HIV from "blamable" routes (e.g., injection drug use, sex with sex workers). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,987 participants in Guangxi province, China, between 2012 and 2013. We employed both explanatory and predictive modeling strategy by using multivariate linear regression models. In the explanatory models, we assessed the association between routes of infection and three types of stigma (perceived, internalized, and enacted). From identified routes of infection that significantly contributed to higher stigma, we employed predictive modeling to explore predictors for the specific type of stigma. Multiple-imputation was employed for sensitivity analyses. Of the total sample, 63% were male and the average age was 42.9 years (ranged between 18 and 88). Multivariate regression models revealed that contraction from commercial sex increased the perceived (β = 0.46, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.90) and internalized stigma (β = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.09, 1.10), while injecting drug use increased the perceived (β = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.07, 1.22) and enacted stigma (β = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.16) after controlling for confounders. Among PLWHA who were infected via commercial sex partners, social support was negatively associated with perceived (β = -0.47, 95%CI = -0.79, -0.14) and internalized stigma (β = -0.80, 95%CI = -1.24, -0.35). Among PLWHA who were infected via injecting drugs, no adherence to antiretroviral treatment (β = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.01, 0.82) was positively associated with perceived stigma, and disclosure of serostatus to others was negatively associated with enacted stigma (β = -0.20, 95%CI = -0.34, -0.05). Knowledge of the association between routes of infection and stigma can guide health professionals and policy makers to develop tailored intervention

  18. Stigma against People Living with HIV/AIDS in China: Does the Route of Infection Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Shan; Zhang, Liying; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Shen, Zhiyong; Chen, Yi

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that people who contracted HIV from “blameless” routes (e.g., blood transfusion, sex with stable partners) are less stigmatized compared to people who contracted HIV from “blamable” routes (e.g., injection drug use, sex with sex workers). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,987 participants in Guangxi province, China, between 2012 and 2013. We employed both explanatory and predictive modeling strategy by using multivariate linear regression models. In the explanatory models, we assessed the association between routes of infection and three types of stigma (perceived, internalized, and enacted). From identified routes of infection that significantly contributed to higher stigma, we employed predictive modeling to explore predictors for the specific type of stigma. Multiple-imputation was employed for sensitivity analyses. Of the total sample, 63% were male and the average age was 42.9 years (ranged between 18 and 88). Multivariate regression models revealed that contraction from commercial sex increased the perceived (β = 0.46, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.90) and internalized stigma (β = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.09, 1.10), while injecting drug use increased the perceived (β = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.07, 1.22) and enacted stigma (β = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.16) after controlling for confounders. Among PLWHA who were infected via commercial sex partners, social support was negatively associated with perceived (β = -0.47, 95%CI = -0.79, -0.14) and internalized stigma (β = -0.80, 95%CI = -1.24, -0.35). Among PLWHA who were infected via injecting drugs, no adherence to antiretroviral treatment (β = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.01, 0.82) was positively associated with perceived stigma, and disclosure of serostatus to others was negatively associated with enacted stigma (β = -0.20, 95%CI = -0.34, -0.05). Knowledge of the association between routes of infection and stigma can guide health professionals and policy makers to develop tailored

  19. Association between Food Insecurity and Procurement Methods among People Living with HIV in a High Resource Setting

    PubMed Central

    Anema, Aranka; Fielden, Sarah J.; Shurgold, Susan; Ding, Erin; Messina, Jennifer; Jones, Jennifer E.; Chittock, Brian; Monteith, Ken; Globerman, Jason; Rourke, Sean B.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV in high-resource settings suffer severe levels of food insecurity; however, limited evidence exists regarding dietary intake and sub-components that characterize food insecurity (i.e. food quantity, quality, safety or procurement) in this population. We examined the prevalence and characteristics of food insecurity among people living with HIV across British Columbia, Canada. Design This cross-sectional analysis was conducted within a national community-based research initiative. Methods Food security was measured using the Health Canada Household Food Security Scale Module. Logistic regression was used to determine key independent predictors of food insecurity, controlling for potential confounders. Results Of 262 participants, 192 (73%) reported food insecurity. Sub-components associated with food insecurity in bivariate analysis included: < RDI consumption of protein (p = 0.046); being sick from spoiled/unsafe food in the past six months (p = 0.010); and procurement of food using non-traditional methods (p <0.05). In multivariable analyses, factors significantly associated with food insecurity included: procurement of food using non-traditional methods [AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 4.79–25.68, p = <0.001]; younger age [AOR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86–0.96, p = <0.001]; unstable housing [AOR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.15–17.36, p = 0.031]; household gross annual income [AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 1.74–11.60, p = 0.002]; and symptoms of depression [AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.25–5.96, p = 0.012]. Conclusions Food insecurity among people living with HIV in British Columbia is characterized by poor dietary quality and food procurement methods. Notably, participants who reported procuring in non-traditional manners were over 10 times more likely to be food insecure. These findings suggest a need for tailored food security and social support interventions in this setting. PMID:27487041

  20. [Diet quality and mortality in elderly people living in Warsaw Region].

    PubMed

    Frackiewicz, Joanna; Roszkowski, Wojciech; Brzozowska, Anna; Kałuza, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between indicators of diet quality and all-cause mortality in a group of elderly people. The study was carried out among 411 participants aged 75-80 years (190 men and 221 women). During this study 78 men (42%) and 79 women (36.6%) died. Quality of diet was evaluated using following indicators: Greek Mediterranean Diet Score (GMDS), Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), Healthy Eating Index (HEI), Diet Quality Index (DQI), and Diet Quality Index-Revised (DQI-R). Among men there were not significant relationships between all-cause mortality and diet quality measured by the indicators. While the risk of all-cause mortality was statistically significantly lower in women with lower HDI (RR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.37-0.99) and DQI-R (RR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.37-0.96) compared to women with higher quality of diet. A similar tendency was shown for MDS indicator (RR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40-1.05). It was concluded that indicators used to assessment of diet quality were not good predictors of mortality in Polish population. Therefore to continue study in this field it is necessary to create new diet quality indicator more suitable to nutritional habits in Poland. PMID:20499672

  1. Living with constipation—older people's experiences and strategies with constipation before and during hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Munch, Lene; Tvistholm, Nina; Trosborg, Ingelise; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Constipation is a common problem among older people. This study aimed to explore how older patients experience constipation and which strategies they used in handling the condition before and during hospitalization. Methods A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (61–91 years of age) during hospitalization. Data were analyzed by using content analysis. Results Themes concerning experiences were Bodily signs and symptoms of constipation; the participants described severe pain during constipation, as well as pronounced relief after bowel movements, Impact on well-being and social activities; being constipated negatively impacted their mood and limited social activities, Striving for bowel balance; the participants experienced an ongoing strive for balancing between constipation and diarrhea. Themes related to strategies were Struggling to find a solution; they were aware of different strategies to prevent and treat constipation, though the most common solution described was the use of laxatives, Wait and see; the participants were awaiting to take action until they experienced constipation symptoms, Constipation is a private problem being challenged during hospitalization; constipation was considered a private issue rarely discussed with health-care professionals. Conclusion This study illuminates the need for health-care professionals to be attentive to this issue and initiate the conversation with patients in order to advise on the management of constipation. PMID:27121271

  2. Social anxiety and its psychosocial impact on the lives of people with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Heersink, Michelle; Kocovski, Nancy L; MacKenzie, Meagan B; Denomme, Kyla; Macrodimitris, Sophia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about social anxiety among people with epilepsy (PWE), although PWE are more likely to be diagnosed with social anxiety disorder than the general population. The purpose of this study was to determine which psychosocial and seizure-related variables are associated with social anxiety. It was hypothesized that social anxiety would be positively correlated with perceived seizure severity, stigma, impact of epilepsy, fear of negative evaluation, and experiential avoidance. Further, social anxiety would be negatively correlated with epilepsy knowledge and disclosure of epilepsy. Finally, if a seizure occurred in public and others were unaware of the epilepsy, participants would report greater judgment, anxiety, and rumination compared with those in a situation where others were aware of the epilepsy. A total of 101 individuals with epilepsy participated in this online study. Social anxiety was found to correlate with both psychosocial and seizure-related variables in the expected directions. Further, social anxiety predicted significant variance in stigma and disclosure beyond known predictors of stigma. Participants in both conditions (disclosed diagnosis of epilepsy versus undisclosed diagnosis of epilepsy) were equally distressed by having a seizure in public. These findings provide an initial basis for discerning how to best assess and support PWE with social anxiety. PMID:26318791

  3. Use of Ethnomedicinal Plants by the People Living around Indus River.

    PubMed

    Mussarat, Sakina; Abdel-Salam, Nasser M; Tariq, Akash; Wazir, Sultan Mehmood; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The objective of present study was to document and preserve ethnomedicinal knowledge use to treat different human ailments by traditional healers of Dera Ismail Khan region, Pakistan. Field work was conducted between February 2012 and January 2013 using semistructured questionnaires. Data was collected from 120 traditional healers through questionnaire survey. Traditional healers in the study area use 70 plant species mostly herbs (57%) for ethnomedicinal and other purposes. The highest FIC values (0.80) were obtained each for gastrointestinal and kidney problems followed by respiratory infections (0.72) and skin infections (0.73). There was a significant correlation (r (2) = 0.950; p < 0.01) between the age and traditional knowledge of respondent. Direct matrix ranking indicated Morus alba and Dalbergia sissoo as highly multipurpose and threatened species in the study area. The results showed high dependency of local inhabitants on medicinal plants in meeting their primary health care needs. Moreover, the traditional knowledge has been restricted to elder people. Protection measures should be taken in order to conserve precious multipurpose species that are facing overexploitation. Medicinal plants treating major ailments in the region may be subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological investigations for the identification of bioactive compounds. PMID:24778701

  4. Use of Ethnomedicinal Plants by the People Living around Indus River

    PubMed Central

    Mussarat, Sakina; AbdEl-Salam, Nasser M.; Tariq, Akash; Wazir, Sultan Mehmood; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The objective of present study was to document and preserve ethnomedicinal knowledge use to treat different human ailments by traditional healers of Dera Ismail Khan region, Pakistan. Field work was conducted between February 2012 and January 2013 using semistructured questionnaires. Data was collected from 120 traditional healers through questionnaire survey. Traditional healers in the study area use 70 plant species mostly herbs (57%) for ethnomedicinal and other purposes. The highest FIC values (0.80) were obtained each for gastrointestinal and kidney problems followed by respiratory infections (0.72) and skin infections (0.73). There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.950; p < 0.01) between the age and traditional knowledge of respondent. Direct matrix ranking indicated Morus alba and Dalbergia sissoo as highly multipurpose and threatened species in the study area. The results showed high dependency of local inhabitants on medicinal plants in meeting their primary health care needs. Moreover, the traditional knowledge has been restricted to elder people. Protection measures should be taken in order to conserve precious multipurpose species that are facing overexploitation. Medicinal plants treating major ailments in the region may be subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological investigations for the identification of bioactive compounds. PMID:24778701

  5. Effects of Reiki With Music Compared to Music Only Among People Living With HIV.

    PubMed

    Bremner, Marie N; Blake, Barbara J; Wagner, V Doreen; Pearcey, Sharon M

    2016-01-01

    Persons living with HIV (PLWH) often seek complementary treatments to improve their overall health and well-being. Reiki, an ancient healing practice, has been found to be effective in reducing symptoms of stress, anxiety, pain, and depression. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Reiki as a complementary treatment for PLWH. Using a two-group mixed-methods experimental design, 37 participants were randomized to either a 6-week Reiki with Music Group or a Music Only Group. Self-reported and physiologic measures were obtained at baseline, 6 weeks, and 10 weeks. Significant improvements in relief of pain and stress in those receiving RMG were found. At the 6-week assessment, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants. Qualitative findings indicated that Reiki and music therapy helped reduce stress, anxiety, and depression. Evidence-based data regarding the effectiveness of Reiki will help nurses help patients better manage HIV-related symptoms. PMID:27184735

  6. [Reproductive options for people living with HIV: 2013 guidelines from the French expert working group].

    PubMed

    Mandelbrot, L; Berrebi, A; Rouzioux, C; Partisani, M; Faucher, P; Tubiana, R; Matheron, S; Bujan, L; Morlat, P

    2014-01-01

    The desire for children is a legitimate aspiration that should be part of multidisciplinary care for all men, women or couples living with HIV. The use of effective antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the prevention of sexual, as well as mother-to-child HIV transmission. When the HIV plasma viral load is undetectable on long-term antiretroviral therapy, the risk of mother-to-child transmission is <1% and the risk of heterosexual HIV transmission without condom use in a stable relationship is very low (estimated at less than 1/10,000) in the absence of inflammation of the genital tract. In a man with a long-term undetectable viral load, viral shedding in semen is uncommon, but may occur persistently or intermittently. The same appears true of viral shedding in the vaginal tract of women. Reproductive options are: natural conception, self-insemination when the woman is HIV-infected, assisted reproduction. Natural conception is now considered to be an acceptable option when the conditions are met, after exploring four aspects: (1) virological (viral load undetectable sustained for at least 6 months on therapy), (2) genital (absence of genital infections or lesions), (3) fertility (after appropriate evaluation) and (4) detecting the ovulation period to limit intercourse without condoms. Assisted reproduction has two objectives in the context of HIV, to allow the couple to conceive without abandoning condom use and/or to treat infertility.

  7. Effects of Reiki With Music Compared to Music Only Among People Living With HIV.

    PubMed

    Bremner, Marie N; Blake, Barbara J; Wagner, V Doreen; Pearcey, Sharon M

    2016-01-01

    Persons living with HIV (PLWH) often seek complementary treatments to improve their overall health and well-being. Reiki, an ancient healing practice, has been found to be effective in reducing symptoms of stress, anxiety, pain, and depression. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Reiki as a complementary treatment for PLWH. Using a two-group mixed-methods experimental design, 37 participants were randomized to either a 6-week Reiki with Music Group or a Music Only Group. Self-reported and physiologic measures were obtained at baseline, 6 weeks, and 10 weeks. Significant improvements in relief of pain and stress in those receiving RMG were found. At the 6-week assessment, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants. Qualitative findings indicated that Reiki and music therapy helped reduce stress, anxiety, and depression. Evidence-based data regarding the effectiveness of Reiki will help nurses help patients better manage HIV-related symptoms.

  8. Experiences of living with myasthenia gravis: a qualitative study with Taiwanese people.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu Tai; Shih, Fu Jin; Hayter, Mark; Hou, Chang Chiu; Yeh, Jiann Horng

    2013-04-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an auto-immune, neuromuscular disorder, which presents with symptoms of fluctuating muscle fatigue because of a dysfunction of the neuromuscular junction. This study explores the illness experience of patients with MG, their experiences of illness, its challenges, and their coping and support strategies. In-depth interviews were undertaken with nine participants with MG (six for a generalized type of MG, three for ocular type). Data were subjected to inductive content and thematic analysis. Four themes emerged from MG patients with associated subthemes. They were "perceptions of MG," "challenges of MG, "social support," and "adapting and adjusting to MG." The study reveals the way in which individuals respond to and cope with their diagnosis. The importance of social and peer support is a key factor as well as the development of psychological strategies to live with MG. The recognition that there was a need to recognize the role of Western medicine in controlling their disease was also an important finding. PMID:23422699

  9. Do the Most Vulnerable People Live in the Worst Slums? A Spatial Analysis of Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Marta M.; Weeks, John R.; Engstrom, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Slums are examples of localized communities within third world urban systems representing a range of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. This study examines vulnerability in relation to flooding, environmental degradation, social-status, demographics, and health in the slums of Accra, Ghana by utilizing a place-based approach informed by fieldwork, remote sensing, census data, and geographically weighted regression. The study objectives are threefold: (1) to move slums from a dichotomous into a continuous classification and examine the spatial patterns of the gradient, (2) develop measures of vulnerability for a developing world city and model the relationship between slums and vulnerability, and (3) to assess if the most vulnerable individuals live in the worst slums. A previously developed slum index is utilized, and four new measures of vulnerability are developed through principle components analysis, including a novel component of health vulnerability based on child mortality. Visualizations of the vulnerability measures assess spatial patterns of vulnerability in Accra. Ordinary least squares, spatial, and geographically weighted regression model the ability of the slum index to predict the four vulnerability measures. The slum index performs well for three of the four vulnerability measures, but is least able to predict health vulnerability underscoring the complex relationship between slums and child mortality in Accra. Finally, quintile analysis demonstrates the elevated prevalence of high vulnerability in places with high slum index scores. PMID:22379509

  10. Comparing the characteristics of people living with and without HIV in long-term care and home care in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Foebel, Andrea D; Hirdes, John P; Lemick, Rita; Tai, Justin Wei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Population aging and successful drug therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management mean that more people are living longer with HIV. As these individuals age, they become more at risk of developing other chronic health conditions which will have many implications for disease management and choice of care setting. As people living with HIV turn to home care and long-term care (LTC) settings for care, understanding the particular needs of this population is becoming increasingly important. This study sought to describe the sociodemographic, clinical, and social attributes of people living with HIV in the home care and institutional environments. This work involved secondary analysis of data collected from both the international Resident Assessment Instruments (interRAI) home care and minimum data set instruments in the Canadian province of Ontario. Descriptive analysis was used to describe key attributes of people living with and without HIV in LTC, complex continuing care, and home care settings. A comparison of differences between people living with HIV across the three environments was also done using Chi-square analysis. People living with HIV were often younger, male and unmarried than other populations in the care settings studied. Together with specific health needs associated with issues like mental health and social isolation, people living with HIV represent a population with complex and distinctive health needs. Finding ways to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population will help to develop strategies to provide better formal and informal care and improve the quality of life of this group. interRAI standardized assessment instruments may be important tools for meeting this challenge. PMID:26367102

  11. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    design of the BepiColombo Mercury Surface Element (lander) ©ESA. Conceptual image of the BepiColombo spacecraft at Mercury ©ESA. As well as being interesting in its own right, the regolith also interacts with almost all other aspects of the Mercurian environment. By analysing the regolith we will be able to find out about Mercury's thin atmosphere and also (because the magnetosphere affects the amount of solar wind hitting the planet's surface) changes in the magnetosphere. Planets like the Earth and Jupiter rely on an electrically conductive ionosphere to close the current systems generated by the magnetosphere. Some researchers believe that on Mercury these currents could flow through, or very close to, the surface itself! Designing and building instruments to work in an environment like the surface of Mercury is one of the major challenges I face. Not only must they be capable of surviving extremes of temperature and vibration they must also be small enough to fit into a total lander payload mass of just 7 kg and complete their investigations within the one week expected lifetime of the MSE. In order to take measurements in more than one place, the lander must be equipped with some limited form of mobility. A 'micro-rover' will be carried and deployed after landing, a miniature tracked vehicle that will carry instruments (probably an alpha x-ray spectrometer) to specific target rocks and areas around the lander. To keep things simple the rover will be physically and electronically connected to the lander by a flexible tether. The lander will also carry a 'mole', a slender cylinder (currently being developed for the Beagle-2 Mars lander) with an internal hammering mechanism. Once pushed into the top layer of soil the mole will be able to drive itself down, pushing aside or breaking small rocks, to a depth of several metres, taking measurements as it goes. Over the past few months we have been studying some of the instruments which could be carried by the mole

  12. Foreclosure and Health in Southern Europe: Results from the Platform for People Affected by Mortgages.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Vera, Hugo; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Palència, Laia; Borrell, Carme

    2016-04-01

    Housing instability has been shown to be related to poorer health outcomes in various studies, mainly in the USA and UK. Affected individuals are more prone to psychiatric (e.g., major depression, anxiety) and physical disorders (e.g., hypertension). This situation has deteriorated with the onset of the economic crisis. One of the most affected countries is Spain, which has high rates of foreclosure and eviction that continue to rise. In response, a civil movement, The Platform for People Affected by Mortgages (PAH), works to provide solutions to its members affected by foreclosure and advocates for the right to decent housing. The aims of this study ware to describe and compare the health status of PAH members from Catalonia to a sample of the general population and to analyze the association between health status and mortgage status, foreclosure stage, and other socioeconomic variables, among members of the PAH. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered online questionnaire (2014) administered to 905 PAH members in Catalonia (>18 years; 559 women and 346 men). Results were compared with health indicators from The Health Survey of Catalonia 2013 (n = 4830). The dependent variables were poor mental health (GHQ 12 ≥ 3), and poor self-reported health (fair or poor). All analyses were stratified by sex. We computed age-standardized prevalence and prevalence ratios of poor mental and self-reported health in both samples. We also analyzed health outcomes among PAH members according to mortgage status (mortgage holders or guarantors), stage of foreclosure, and other socioeconomic variables by computing prevalence ratios from robust Poisson regression models. The prevalence of poor mental health among PAH members was 90.6 % in women and 84.4 % in men, and 15.5 and 10.2 % in the general population, respectively. The prevalence of poor self-reported health was 55.6 % in women and 39.4 % in men from the PAH, and 19.2 and 16.1 % in the general

  13. Between a rock and a hard place: stigma and the desire to have children among people living with HIV in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C; Orach, Christopher G; Earnest, Jaya

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-related stigma, among other factors, has been shown to have an impact on the desire to have children among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Our objective was to explore the experiences of HIV-related stigma among PLHIV in post-conflict northern Uganda, a region of high HIV prevalence, high infant and child mortality and low contraception use, and to describe how stigma affected the desires of PLHIV to have children in the future. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 PLHIV in Gulu district, northern Uganda. The interviews, conducted in Luo, the local language, were audio recorded, transcribed and then translated into English. Thematic data analysis was undertaken using NVivo8 and was underpinned by the “Conceptual Model of HIV/AIDS Stigma”. Results HIV-related stigma continues to affect the quality of life of PLHIV in Gulu district, northern Uganda, and also influences PLHIV's desire to have children. PLHIV in northern Uganda continue to experience stigma in various forms, including internal stigma and verbal abuse from community members. While many PLHIV desire to have children and are strongly influenced by several factors including societal and cultural obligations, stigma and discrimination also affect this desire. Several dimensions of stigma, such as types of stigma (received, internal and associated stigma), stigmatizing behaviours (abusing and desertion) and agents of stigmatization (families, communities and health systems), either directly, or indirectly, enhanced or reduced PLHIV's desire to have more children. Conclusion The social-cultural context within which PLHIV continue to desire to have children must be better understood by all health professionals who hope to improve the quality of PLHIV's lives. By delineating the stigma process, the paper proposes interventions for reducing stigmatization of PLHIV in northern Uganda in order to improve the quality of life and health outcomes for PLHIV and their children

  14. Individual and Service Factors Affecting Deinstitutionalization and Community Use of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate the effect of the closure of a small intellectual disability hospital on the community use of those people involved. In addition, the study sought to identify those factors that might influence the community use of people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The impact of resettlement was investigated using…

  15. Testing the Efficiency of Markov Chain Monte Carlo with People Using Facial Affect Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jay B.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Sanborn, Adam N.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring how people represent natural categories is a key step toward developing a better understanding of how people learn, form memories, and make decisions. Much research on categorization has focused on artificial categories that are created in the laboratory, since studying natural categories defined on high-dimensional stimuli such as…

  16. The Role of Attention in the Affective Life of People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Pieter; De Cock, Paul; Munde, Vera; Neerinckx, Heleen; Petry, Katja; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Maes, Bea

    2013-01-01

    Although it is shown that attention plays an important role both in the onset and in the regulation of emotions in people without disabilities there is no information about how attention is related to emotions in people with severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). Therefore, in our study, we investigated the role of attention in the onset…

  17. Testing the Contact Hypothesis: Improving College Students' Affective Attitudes toward People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickline, Virginia B.; Neu, Tricia; Dodge, Chad P.; Shriver, Edwin R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that high quality contact between people from different groups is a relatively consistent way of decreasing stereotypes and prejudices. The authors determined that a very short-term, service-learning project with people with developmental disabilities (DD) could reduce college students' fear of this population. In…

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Employment Motivation in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Abbye; Rose, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively small numbers of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are engaging in paid employment and those who are tend to be working only part-time. This preliminary study addressed the question of what factors motivate people with ID to work. The issue was investigated in a sample of 10 young work-age adults attending supported learning…

  19. Understanding Space Weather influence on earthquake triggering to shield people living in seismic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachikyan, Galina; Inchin, Alexander; Kim, Alexander; Khassanov, Eldar

    2016-07-01

    There is an idea at present that space weather can influence not only the technological infrastructure and people's health, but seismic activity as well. Space weather impact on the Earth results from magnetic reconnection between the Sun's and Earth's magnetic fields. The effectiveness of reconnection depends on sign and magnitude of Z-components in solar wind magnetic field and earth's magnetic field as measured in the geocentric solar magnetosphere (GSM) coordinate system. The more negative value of Zgsm in the solar wind magnetic field, and the more positive value of Zgsm in the geomagnetic field, the more solar wind energy penetrates into the earth's environment due to reconnection. It was found recently by Khachikyan et al. [2012, http://www.scirp.org/journal/ijg] that maximal possible earthquake magnitude in a particular seismic region (seismic potential - Mmax) may be determined, in first approximation, on the base of maximal geomagnetic Zgsm value in this region, namely: Mmax = (5.22 +- 0.17) + (0.78 +- 0.06) x [abs (Zgsm)]. In this report we present statistical results on association between variations in space weather and global seismic activity, and demonstrate that a great Sumatra earthquake (M=9.1, on December 26, 2004, at 00:58:53 GMT) indeed occurred in region where the geomagnetic Zgsm components are largest at the globe. In the time of earthquake occurrence, geomagnetic Zgsm value in the epicenter (3.30N, 95.980E) was equal to ~37147 nT. A range of possible maximal magnitude, as estimated from above relation, could be of 8.8 - 9.2. The recorded magnitude M=9.1 is within this range.

  20. Sexuality and intimacy among people living with serious mental illnesses: Factors contributing to sexual activity

    PubMed Central

    Bonfils, Kelsey A.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Wright, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Limited research has focused on sexuality for those diagnosed with a severe mental illness. We aimed to extend existing work by exploring relationships between mastery (perception of control of one's life and future), sexual self-esteem (perceptions of one's capacity to engage in healthy sexual behavior), sexual attitudes (permissive ideas about sexuality), and perceived importance of relationships/sexuality and number of sexual partners. Methods A secondary analysis of survey data from adult participants living with a severe mental illness (N=401) in the Indiana Mental Health Services and HIV-Risk Study (Perry & Wright, 2006) was conducted. Analysis of covariance (controlling for marital status) compared those with zero partners, one partner, or multiple partners over the past three months on the dependent variables of mastery, sexual self-esteem, sexual attitudes, and perceived importance. Results Participants with more permissive attitudes, greater perceived importance, and higher mastery were more likely to be sexually active with multiple partners. Self-esteem did not differentiate groups. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Given the key role of sexual satisfaction in quality of life and the high rates of sexual risk behavior in this population, it is important that clinicians systematically assess mastery, perceived importance, and attitudes about sexuality when working with consumers diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Individually tailoring existing interventions based on consumers' levels of mastery, related to self-efficacy for implementing changes in life, could improve long-term outcomes for these programs. Future research should examine other constructs that may account for more variance in sexual activity, such as perceptions of risk, intentions for sexual safety, or romantic relationship functioning. PMID:25664756

  1. Prevalence of stroke and related burden among older people living in Latin America, India and China

    PubMed Central

    Schoenborn, Claudia; Kalra, Lalit; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Liu, Zhaorui; Moriyama, Tais; Valhuerdi, Adolfo; Prince, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Despite the growing importance of stroke in developing countries, little is known of stroke burden in survivors. The authors investigated the prevalence of self-reported stroke, stroke-related disability, dependence and care-giver strain in Latin America (LA), China and India. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted on individuals aged 65+ (n=15 022) living in specified catchment areas. Self-reported stroke diagnosis, disability, care needs and care giver burden were assessed using a standardised protocol. For those reporting stroke, the correlates of disability, dependence and care-giver burden were estimated at each site using Poisson or linear regression, and combined meta-analytically. Results The prevalence of self-reported stroke ranged between 6% and 9% across most LA sites and urban China, but was much lower in urban India (1.9%), and in rural sites in India (1.1%), China (1.6%) and Peru (2.7%). The proportion of stroke survivors needing care varied between 20% and 39% in LA sites but was higher in rural China (44%), urban China (54%) and rural India (73%). Comorbid dementia and depression were the main correlates of disability and dependence. Conclusion The prevalence of stroke in urban LA and Chinese sites is nearly as high as in industrialised countries. High levels of disability and dependence in the other mainly rural and less-developed sites suggest underascertainment of less severe cases as one likely explanation for the lower prevalence in those settings. As the health transition proceeds, a further increase in numbers of older stroke survivors is to be anticipated. In addition to prevention, stroke rehabilitation and long-term care needs should be addressed. PMID:21402745

  2. Embodiment and biographical disruption in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA).

    PubMed

    Alexias, George; Savvakis, Manos; Stratopoulou, Ιfigenia

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to provide a concrete understanding to the embodied experience of HIV/AIDS. PLWHA have to cope with physical changes, especially lipodystrophy, caused by HIV and its treatment. These clinical manifestations make the disease socially visible and form a potential source of stigmatization. Visibility seems to transform the personal experience of this particular illness into a collective one. The changing body image and the stigma, which is often internalized by individuals, along with other consequences of chronic illness, such as alteration of life plans and social relationships, constitute new elements that appear in their life after diagnosis. These new experiences can break one's biographical continuity, especially in cases like HIV/AIDS. Semi-structured and in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 HIV-positive individuals (13 men, 5 women) with lipodystrophy. Their ages ranged from 36 to 65 years. The analysis of data revealed three main themes: loss of control over the body, ambivalence about visibility of HIV/AIDS, attributing positive meaning to HIV/AIDS. Physical changes caused by lipodystrophy are a source of dysphoria for PLWHA. This dissatisfaction was closely associated with the absence of control over their own body, due to the virus and the side effects of medication. Furthermore, it became evident that there was ambivalence among participants about the visibility of HIV, as it was in parallel a source of stigmatization, but also a part of their identity and biography. Results indicate that individuals were in search of meaning and constitute strategies in order to "answer" to the disruptive aspects of HIV. These were the normalization of illness, the integration into personal identity and the recognition of positive effects of HIV in their lives (e.g., stopping drug and alcohol abuse). Further research is required to identify the factors that determine the selection of each "answer" by these particular individuals who belong to

  3. Technology use and reasons to participate in online social networking websites for people living with HIV in the US

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Keith J.; Danilenko, Gene P.; Williams, Mark L.; Simoni, Jane; Amico, K. Rivet; Oakes, J. Michael; Rosser, B.R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown if online social networking technologies are already highly integrated among some people living with HIV (PLWH) or have yet to be adopted. To fill this gap in understanding, 312 PLWH (84% male, 69% white) residing in the US completed on online survey in 2009 of their patterns of social networking and mobile phone use. Twenty-two persons also participated in one of two online focus groups. Results showed that 76% of participants with lower adherence to HIV medication used social networking websites/features at least once a week. Their ideal online social networking health websites included one that facilitated socializing with others (45% of participants) and relevant informational content (22%), although privacy was a barrier to use (26%). Texting (81%), and to a lesser extent mobile web-access (51%), was widely used among participants. Results support the potential reach of online social networking and text messaging intervention approaches. PMID:22350832

  4. Attitudes regarding life-sustaining measures in people born in Japan, China, and Vietnam and living in Texas.

    PubMed

    Duke, Gloria

    2013-02-01

    Cultural beliefs about and preferences for care at the end of life are diverse and unique in many respects. This descriptive qualitative study presents findings about the attitudes and preferences of people born in Japan, China, and Vietnam and living in the southern part of the USA regarding life-sustaining measures. In-depth personal and focus group interviews were conducted with 46 participants and thematic analysis completed. The findings reflected some similarities and differences among the three groups concerning initiation and discontinuance of artificial nutrition and mechanical ventilation. They also demonstrated the requirement for sensitivity to individual needs when honouring the wishes of patients and surrogate decision makers. Interventional studies should follow that test educational strategies to improve practice outcomes for health-care providers who care for these populations at this vulnerable time of life.

  5. The meaning and perceived value of mind-body practices for people living with HIV: a qualitative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Donald, Graeme; Lawrence, Maggie; Lorimer, Karen; Stringer, Jacqui; Flowers, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mind-body practices (MBPs) are a subset of complementary medicine that represents a selection of self-care activities that may promote the health of people living with HIV (PLWH). No synthesis of qualitative research in this context, which might inform service provision and research priorities, has yet been published. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted, identifying papers exploring the experience of MBPs in PLWH. During thematic synthesis, all text under the headings "results" or "findings" was scanned line by line, and discrete, meaningful units of text were extracted as data items. Categories were identified, and second- and third-order constructs were developed. Concerns related to control and self-management appeared in the convergence of participants' worlds with the medical world and in being pragmatic about selecting MBPs and goal setting. The themes developed suggest a desire for more holistic and person-centered care, arguably marginalized as a result of effective antiretroviral therapy.

  6. Palliative Care, Hospice, and Advance Care Planning: Views of People Living with HIV and Other Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Jacquelyn; Prince-Paul, Maryjo; Webel, Allison; Daly, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) who survive to older adulthood risk developing multiple chronic medical conditions. Health policymakers recognize the role of early palliative care and advance care planning in improving health quality for at-risk populations, but misperceptions about palliative care, hospice, and advance care planning are common. Before testing a program of early palliative care for PLWH and other chronic conditions, we conducted focus groups to elicit perceptions of palliative care, hospice, and advance care planning in our target population. Overall, participants were unfamiliar with the term palliative care, confused concepts of palliative care and hospice, and/or associated hospice care with dying. Participants misunderstood advance care planning, but valued communication about health care preferences. Accepting palliative care was contingent on distinguishing it from hospice and historical memories of HIV and dying. Provision of high-quality, comprehensive care will require changing public perceptions and individuals' views in this high-risk population.

  7. FOOD INSECURITY AND ITS RELATION TO PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AMONG SOUTH INDIAN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV

    PubMed Central

    Heylen, Elsa; Panicker, Siju Thomas; Chandy, Sara; Steward, Wayne T.; Ekstrand, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity (FI) and its link with depression and quality of life (QOL) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India are not well-documented. We analyzed cohort data from 243 male and 129 female PLHIV from Bengaluru, and found 19% of men and 26% of women reported moderate or severe FI over a six-month period. Women reported higher mean depression than men, and lower mean QOL. In multivariate analyses adjusting for HIV stigma and demographic covariates, both male and female PLHIV with moderate to severe FI showed lower mean QOL than those reporting mild to no FI. Male but not female food insecure participants also had higher depression scores in adjusted regression analyses. As ART has improved the physical health of PLHIV, more effort is being invested in improving their psychological well-being. Our results suggest such interventions could benefit from including nutritional support to reduce FI among PLHIV. PMID:25488171

  8. A qualitative study of stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thi, Mai Doan Anh; Brickley, Deborah Bain; Vinh, Dang Thi Nhat; Colby, Donn J; Sohn, Annette H; Trung, Nguyen Quang; Giang, Le Truong; Mandel, Jeffrey S

    2008-07-01

    Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) are a pressing problem in Vietnam, in particular because of propaganda associating HIV with the "social evils" of sex work and drug use. There is little understanding of the causes and sequelae of stigma and discrimination against PLHIV in Vietnam. Fifty-three PLHIV participated in focus group discussions in Ho Chi Minh City. Nearly all participants experienced some form of stigma and discrimination. Causes included exaggerated fears of HIV infection, misperceptions about HIV transmission, and negative representations of PLHIV in the media. Participants faced problems getting a job, perceived unfair treatment in the workplace and experienced discrimination in the healthcare setting. Both discrimination and support were reported in the family environment. There is a need to enforce laws against discrimination and provide education to decrease stigma against PLHIV in Vietnam. Recent public campaigns encouraging compassion toward PLHIV and less discrimination from healthcare providers who work with PLHIV have been encouraging.

  9. Measuring food and nutrition security: tools and considerations for use among people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Fielden, Sarah J; Anema, Aranka; Fergusson, Pamela; Muldoon, Katherine; Grede, Nils; de Pee, Saskia

    2014-10-01

    As an increasing number of countries implement integrated food and nutrition security (FNS) and HIV programs, global stakeholders need clarity on how to best measure FNS at the individual and household level. This paper reviews prominent FNS measurement tools, and describes considerations for interpretation in the context of HIV. There exist a range of FNS measurement tools and many have been adapted for use in HIV-endemic settings. Considerations in selecting appropriate tools include sub-types (food sufficiency, dietary diversity and food safety); scope/level of application; and available resources. Tools need to reflect both the needs of PLHIV and affected households and FNS program objectives. Generalized food sufficiency and dietary diversity tools may provide adequate measures of FNS in PLHIV for programmatic applications. Food consumption measurement tools provide further data for clinical or research applications. Measurement of food safety is an important, but underdeveloped aspect of assessment, especially for PLHIV.

  10. Integrating tuberculosis and HIV services for people living with HIV: Costs of the Zambian ProTEST Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Ginwalla, Rokaya; Ayles, Helen; Kayawe, Ignatius; Hillery, Mary; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background In the face of the dual TB/HIV epidemic, the ProTEST Initiative was one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of providing collaborative TB/HIV care for people living with HIV (PLWH) in poor settings. The ProTEST Initiative facilitated collaboration between service providers. Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) acted as the entry point for services including TB screening and preventive therapy, clinical treatment for HIV-related disease, and home-based care (HBC), and a hospice. This paper estimates the costs of the ProTEST Initiative in two sites in urban Zambia, prior to the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy. Methods Annual financial and economic providers costs and output measures were collected in 2000–2001. Estimates are made of total costs for each component and average costs per: person reached by ProTEST; VCT pre-test counselled, tested and completed; isoniazid preventive therapy started and completed; clinic visit; HBC patient; and hospice admission and bednight. Results Annual core ProTEST costs were (in 2007 US dollars) $84,213 in Chawama and $31,053 in Matero. The cost of coordination was 4%–5% of total site costs ($1–$6 per person reached). The largest cost component in Chawama was voluntary counselling and testing (56%) and the clinic in Matero (50%), where VCT clients had higher HIV-prevalences and more advanced HIV. Average costs were lower for all components in the larger site. The cost per HBC patient was $149, and per hospice bednight was $24. Conclusion This study shows that coordinating an integrated and comprehensive package of services for PLWH is relatively inexpensive. The lessons learnt in this study are still applicable today in the era of ART, as these services must still be provided as part of the continuum of care for people living with HIV. PMID:18215255

  11. Multiple discriminations experienced by people living with HIV in France: results from the ANRS-Vespa2 study.

    PubMed

    Marsicano, Elise; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Lert, France; Aubrière, Cindy; Spire, Bruno; Hamelin, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Since the advent of AIDS, discrimination has remained at the core of the experience of people living with HIV (PLHIV). PLHIV who belong to minority groups are exposed to discrimination not only on the grounds of their HIV infection but also because of rejecting attitudes towards drug users, homosexuals and black people. This article aimed to measure the frequency of discrimination and assess its correlates among PLHIV in France. We used data from a national representative survey, the ANRS-Vespa2 study, conducted in France in 2011 among 3022 male and female HIV-positive patients followed at hospitals. Respondents answered a face-to-face questionnaire documenting their health status and living conditions. Discrimination was documented during the previous two years on the grounds of HIV infection, gender, country of birth, skin colour, sexual orientation, place of residence, and substance abuse in a variety of contexts. For each context, we performed logistic regressions on discrimination, controlling for socio-epidemiological group, age, education level and employment status. Discrimination is frequently experienced by PLHIV in France (26%), particularly when applying for a job (24%), interacting with family (11%) or seeking health services (8%). Women from sub-Saharan Africa reported the highest levels of discrimination, whereas heterosexual non-African men reported the lowest. Men who have sex with men experienced levels of discrimination that fell between those of these two groups. The major perceived reason for discrimination was HIV status (13%). Nationality, skin colour and sexual orientation were cited by 5% each, whereas gender was cited by 1% of respondents. Our analyses show that discrimination is a frequent and cross-cutting experience with differences across the various contexts and among the diverse subpopulations. The intertwining of HIV-related stigma with sexism, racism and homophobia needs to be addressed to understand why discrimination against

  12. The predictors of psychiatric disorders among people living with epilepsy as seen in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Institution

    PubMed Central

    Ayanda, Kazeem Ayinde; Sulyman, Dauda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mental disorders may complicate epilepsy which can further impair the quality of life of people living with this chronic neurological condition. The aim of this study was to determine the types of psychiatric disorders in patients with epilepsy and to determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors that may predict these psychiatric illnesses. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out over a period of 6 months at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to determine the psychological health of 74 consecutively recruited adult patients with epilepsy attending the psychiatric outpatients' clinic of the hospital. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria, and logistic regression analysis was done to determine variables that predict psychiatric disorder. Results: Majority of the participants were male (67.6%) with their age ranging from 18 to 68 years and the mean age of 30.55 ± 10.91 years. Thirty-three (44.6%) of our study respondents had psychiatric diagnoses that included major depressive disorder (21.6%), schizophrenia (17.6%), generalized anxiety disorder (4.1%), and hypomania (1.4%). Being unemployed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.24. 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15–9.10, P = 0.026) and short-term seizure free period (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.04–0.78, P = 0.022) were the variables found to be predictive of psychiatric diagnoses. Conclusions: The study revealed that a large percentage of people living with epilepsy develop mental disorders which can further increase the burden and worsen the quality of life of patients with this chronic debilitating condition. PMID:27185975

  13. Incidence and Risk Factors for Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV: Cohort from HIV Referral Health Centers in Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Joanna d’Arc Lyra; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão; Maruza, Magda; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Santos, Marcela Lopes; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; de Barros Miranda-Filho, Demócrito; Lacerda, Heloisa Ramos; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the incidence of and risk factors for tuberculosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design Observational, prospective cohort study. Methods A total of 2069 HIV-infected patients was observed between July 2007 and December 2010. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the probability of survival free of tuberculosis, and Cox regression analysis to identify risk factors associated with the development of tuberculosis. Results Survival free of tuberculosis (TB) was 91%. The incidence rate of tuberculosis was 2.8 per 100 persons/years. Incidence of tuberculosis was higher when subjects had CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3; were not on antiretroviral therapy; in those who had, a body mass index <18.5 kg/m2, anemia (or were not tested for it), were illiterate or referred previous tuberculosis treatment at entry into the cohort. Those not treated for latent TB infection had a much higher risk (HR = 7.9) of tuberculosis than those with a negative tuberculin skin test (TST). Having a TST≥5 mm but not being treated for latent TB infection increased the risk of incident tuberculosis even in those with a history of previous tuberculosis. Conclusions Preventive actions to reduce the risk of TB in people living with HIV should include an appropriate HAART and treatment for latent TB infection in those with TST≥5 mm. The actions towards enabling rigorous implementation of treatment of latent TB infection and targeting of PLHIV drug users both at the individual and in public health level can reduce substantially the incidence of TB in PLHIV. PMID:23675515

  14. A narrative review of cost-effectiveness analysis of people living with HIV treated with HAART: from interventions to outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Wah Fung; Yang, Weimin; Huang, Wenlong

    2015-01-01

    Background Since its introduction in 1996, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which involves the combination of antiretroviral drugs, has resulted in significant improvements in the morbidity, mortality, and life expectancy of HIV-infected patients. Numerous studies of the cost-effectiveness of HAART from different perspectives in HIV have been reported. Aim To investigate the economic outcomes and relevance of HAART for people living with HIV. Materials and methods A narrative literature review was conducted on 22 peer-reviewed full economic evaluations of people living with HIV treated with different HAART regimens and published in English between January 2005 and December 2014. Information regarding study details, such as interventions, outcomes, and modeling methods, was extracted. The high heterogeneity of the included studies rendered a meta-analysis inappropriate; therefore, we conducted a comparative analysis of studies grouped according to the similarity of the different intervention types and outcomes. Results Most of the economic evaluations of HAART focused on comparisons between the specific HAART regimens and others from the following perspectives: injecting drug users versus noninjecting drug users, HIV-infected adults without AIDS versus those with AIDS, regimens based on developed world guidelines versus those based on developing world guidelines, self-administered HAART versus directly observed HAART, and “ideal” versus “typical” regimens. Conclusion In general, HAART is more cost-effective than other therapeutic regimens adopted so far. Further investigations, especially head-to-head comparisons of “ideal” and “typical” trials of different regimen combinations, are required to identify the optimal HAART regimens. PMID:26316787

  15. Multiple discriminations experienced by people living with HIV in France: results from the ANRS-Vespa2 study.

    PubMed

    Marsicano, Elise; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Lert, France; Aubrière, Cindy; Spire, Bruno; Hamelin, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Since the advent of AIDS, discrimination has remained at the core of the experience of people living with HIV (PLHIV). PLHIV who belong to minority groups are exposed to discrimination not only on the grounds of their HIV infection but also because of rejecting attitudes towards drug users, homosexuals and black people. This article aimed to measure the frequency of discrimination and assess its correlates among PLHIV in France. We used data from a national representative survey, the ANRS-Vespa2 study, conducted in France in 2011 among 3022 male and female HIV-positive patients followed at hospitals. Respondents answered a face-to-face questionnaire documenting their health status and living conditions. Discrimination was documented during the previous two years on the grounds of HIV infection, gender, country of birth, skin colour, sexual orientation, place of residence, and substance abuse in a variety of contexts. For each context, we performed logistic regressions on discrimination, controlling for socio-epidemiological group, age, education level and employment status. Discrimination is frequently experienced by PLHIV in France (26%), particularly when applying for a job (24%), interacting with family (11%) or seeking health services (8%). Women from sub-Saharan Africa reported the highest levels of discrimination, whereas heterosexual non-African men reported the lowest. Men who have sex with men experienced levels of discrimination that fell between those of these two groups. The major perceived reason for discrimination was HIV status (13%). Nationality, skin colour and sexual orientation were cited by 5% each, whereas gender was cited by 1% of respondents. Our analyses show that discrimination is a frequent and cross-cutting experience with differences across the various contexts and among the diverse subpopulations. The intertwining of HIV-related stigma with sexism, racism and homophobia needs to be addressed to understand why discrimination against

  16. Alcohol, Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Obesity among People Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Míguez-Burbano, María José; Espinoza, Luis; Cook, Robert L.; Mayra, Mayra; Bueno, Diego; Lewis, John E.; Asthana, Deshratan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In an expanding HAART era, obesity has become a health problem among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Whereas the rising level of obesity has been largely attributed to poor nutrition and exercise habits, differences in biological factors may explain why some individuals gain more weight than others. Thus, our main goal is to prospectively determine in PLWH whether plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and hazardous alcohol use (HAU), two overlooked but highly prevalent conditions among PLWH, correlate with an adverse anthropometric profile. Also to test whether these relationships varied in men and women Methods The Platelets mediating Alcohol and HIV Damage Study (PADS) is an ongoing multiethnic study of 400 PLWH receiving regular medical care in South Florida (37% females and 63% males). Semi-annual visits consisted of a medical exam, including anthropometrics to assess both general (body mass index: BMI) and central obesity (waist and hip circumferences). Participants also completed health history questionnaires, and provided a fasting blood sample to obtain BDNF and immune and biochemical assessments. Results A sizable proportion of participants met the National Institutes of Health definition of overweight (BMI = 25–29.9 kg/m2; 26%) and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; 35%). Women were more likely to be obese than men (OR=4.9, 95% CI=2.9–8.2, p=0.0001). Compared to men, women also exhibited the highest mean plasma BDNF levels (9,959 ± 6,578 vs. 7,470 ± 6,068 pg/ml, p=0.0001). Additional analyses indicated that HAU, particularly heavy drinkers, had the smallest waist and hip circumferences if they were males, but the opposite if they were females. High BDNF levels were positively correlated with BMI. Linear regression analysis revealed that gender, BDNF, and HAU were the best predictors of BMI. Conclusion In summary, our findings offer novel insights into the relationships between BDNF, and alcohol use among overweight and obese PLWH. Our

  17. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Performance and Role Satisfaction in People With and Without Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Michael P.; Hershey, Linda A.; Prodan, Calin I.; Holm, Margo B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We investigated differences in observed performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and self-reported satisfaction with social role performance between people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) and age- and gender-matched control participants. METHOD. We measured observed performance of 14 IADLs using the Independence, Safety, and Adequacy domains of the Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills (PASS) and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS) to examine satisfaction with social role performance. RESULTS. Total PASS scores were significantly lower in participants with a-MCI (median = 40.6) than in control participants (median = 44.2; p = .006). Adequacy scores were also significantly lower. No significant differences were found between groups on the PROMIS measures. CONCLUSION. IADL differences between groups were related more to errors in adequacy than to safety and independence. Occupational therapy practitioners can play a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of subtle IADL deficits in people with MCI. PMID:25871600

  18. Stigma, discrimination, and sexual (dis)satisfaction among people living with HIV: results from the "AIDES et toi" survey.

    PubMed

    Rojas Castro, D; Le Gall, J M; Andreo, C; Spire, B

    2010-08-01

    The effects of HIV-related stigma and discrimination have been studied in several areas, such as access to testing, quality of care quality, and access to work. Nevertheless, the effects of stigma and discrimination on the sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have not been studied enough. AIDES, a French community-based organization, has developed a biannual survey which assesses several socioeconomical and psychosocial dimensions of the people in contact with this organization. A focus on the results concerning sexual (dis)satisfaction and the factors associated are presented here. A convenience sample of 521 HIV-positive men having sex with men, heterosexual men and women was analyzed. A logistic regression was performed to examine which factors were significantly associated with sexual dissatisfaction. Results showed that being older, not having a full-time job, not having a steady sexual partner, lower frequency of sexual intercourse, discrimination in the sexual relationship setting, and the perception of loneliness were independently associated with sexual dissatisfaction. A quality health approach must include the aspects linked to sexual life and sexual satisfaction. Given the potentially harmful effects that HIV-related stigma and discrimination have on PLWHA's well-being, more specific actions and advocacy in this direction should be developed and implemented.

  19. An electronic medication reminder, supported by a monitoring service, to improve medication compliance for elderly people living independently.

    PubMed

    Parker, Roger; Frampton, Christopher; Blackwood, Angela; Shannon, Ady; Moore, Graeme

    2012-04-01

    We conducted a pilot study of a personal medication reminder unit, supported by a monitoring service. A total of 31 elderly residents were offered the reminder service for a period of eight weeks (1736 person-days of service). A telephone call from the monitoring service was made after four weeks to check that each participant was happy with the service and keen to continue. No one opted out and users of the service found it easy to manage, helpful and acceptable. There was a significant improvement (P = 0.012) in the rate of self-assessed medication compliance, from pre (52%) to post (81%) service introduction. There was a significant improvement in people's perceived ability to look after themselves at home (self-care ability) (P = 0.001). The percentage of participants rating their ability to look after themselves at home as excellent increased from 42% to 68%. Health-related quality of life measures, such as physical and mental health, showed positive improvement, but the changes were not significant. The service has the potential to improve health and well-being outcomes for people on multiple medications living independently in the community. PMID:22362828

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection and associated factors in people living with HIV in Midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Natália Alberto Alves; Pfrimer, Irmtraut Araci Hoffmann; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Turchi, Marília Dalva

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of infection by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and analyze sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with such co-infection. A cross-section study was performed in 495 individuals treated at a public center in the city of Goiânia. Participants were interviewed and blood collected for evaluation of serological and molecular markers for HBV and HCV. The rate of exposure to HBV was 33.5% (95% CI 29.4-37.9). Nineteen patients (3.8%) were diagnosed as HBV carriers, of whom 68.4% were HBV DNA positive. The prevalence of anti-HCV was 9.7% (95% CI 7.3-12.7). Genotype 1a was identified in 72.7% of the PCR samples positive for HCV. Co-infection by all three viruses was 4.4% (95% CI 2.9-6.8). Being, male, aged ≥40 years, history of sexually transmitted disease (STD), and having homosexual practices were independently associated with the presence of markers of HBV exposure. A history of injectable drugs use and STDs showed association with HCV seropositivity. Approximately 50% of participants were not aware of their HBV and HCV serostatus. The results obtained may contribute to assess the burden of viral hepatitis in people living with HIV and to guiding preventive measures for more vulnerable groups. PMID:25766773

  1. Quality of life in people living with HIV: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bakiono, Fidèle; Ouédraogo, Laurent; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Samadoulougou, Sékou; Guiguemdé, Patrice Wendpouiré Laurent; Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Robert, Annie

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of death in most of sub-Saharan countries. HIV/AIDS impact on the quality of life of persons living with HIV in Burkina Faso hasn't been well documented. The aim of the study was to assess the quality of life in persons living with HIV and its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ouagadougou. 424 persons living with HIV were included in the study according to their status with regard to Highly Active Anti Retroviral Treatment: 115 were not yet under treatment, 21 started the treatment within the three months preceding the enrolment and 288 were under treatment for at least 12 months. The quality of life was assessed through the WHOQOL HIV-BREF. Statistical comparisons were made using Mann Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, Pearson's khi2 or Fisher's exact test. Correlations were appreciated using Spearman's rho. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between the quality of life scores and sociodemographic or clinical variables. The mean global score of quality of life in all patients was 82.4. Better scores were recorded in the spiritual domain and worst scores in the environmental domain. Men had a higher global score than women (p < 0.001). Illiteracy was significantly associated with a lower quality of life (p = 0.001). Patients having support for medical treatment had a significantly better quality of life (p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, being a man, having a support for medical care, getting older and self-perceived as healthy, were associated with a global score of quality of life higher than 77, that corresponds to the mid-range of the score in our data. These findings suggest the importance of the socio-psychological support and of a good environment in order to improve the quality of life of people living with HIV, especially in women, in younger and in those having no support for medical care. In the environmental domain, actions of HIV services providers should focus on better

  2. Dimensions of Poverty and Health Outcomes Among People Living with HIV Infection: Limited Resources and Competing Needs.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Hernandez, Dominica; Kegler, Christopher; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O; Grebler, Tamar

    2015-08-01

    HIV infection is concentrated in populations living in poverty. We examined the overlapping and independent effects of multiple poverty indicators on HIV-related health status. Because substance use can create competing survival needs when resources are limited, we also sought to objectively measure expenditures on food relative to alcohol and tobacco products. To achieve these aims, 459 men and 212 women living with HIV infection in Atlanta, GA completed measures of socio-demographic and heath characteristics as well as multiple indicators of poverty including housing stability, transportation, food insecurity, and substance use. Participants were given a $30 grocery gift card for their participation and we collected receipts which were coded for alcohol (beer, wine, liquors) and tobacco purchases. Results showed that participants with unsuppressed HIV replication were significantly more likely to experience multiple indicators of poverty. In addition, one in four participants purchased alcohol or tobacco products with their gift cards, with as much as one-fourth of money spent on these products. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that food insecurity was independently associated with unsuppressed HIV, and purchasing alcohol or tobacco products did not moderate this association. Results confirm previous research to show the primacy of food insecurity in relation to HIV-related health outcomes. Competing survival needs, including addictive substances, should be addressed in programs that aim to alleviate poverty to enhance the health and well-being of people with HIV infection.

  3. Improving the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of TB among people living with HIV: the role of operational research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Operational research is necessary to improve the access to and delivery of tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment interventions for people living with HIV. We conducted an extensive review of the literature and reports from recent expert consultations and research-related meetings organized by the World Health Organization and the Stop TB Partnership to identify a TB/HIV operational research agenda. We present critical operational research questions in a series of key areas: optimizing TB prevention by enhancing the uptake of isoniazid preventive therapy and the implementation of infection control measures; assessing the effectiveness of existing diagnostic tools and scaling up new technologies; improving service delivery models; and reducing risk factors for mortality among TB patients living with HIV. We discuss the potential impact that addressing the operational research questions may have on improving programmes’ performance, assessing new strategies or interventions for TB control, or informing global or national policy formulation. Financial resources to implement these operational research questions should be mobilized from existing and new funding mechanisms. National TB and HIV/AIDS programmes should develop their operational research agendas based on these questions, and conduct the research that they consider crucial for improving TB and HIV control in their settings in collaboration with research stakeholders. PMID:21967874

  4. The impact of psychological factors on self-reported sleep disturbance among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Leila; Nezhad-Ahmadi, Mohammad-Reza; Gohari, Mahmood; Bigelow, Philip; McColl, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Canada's wind energy capacity has grown from approximately 137MW (MW) in 2000 to over 9700MW in 2014, and this progressive development has made Canada the fifth-largest market in the world for the installation of new wind turbines (WTs). Although wind energy is now one of the fastest growing sources of power in Canada and many other countries, the growth in both number and size of WTs has raised questions regarding potential health impacts on individuals who live close to such turbines. This study is the first published research using a prospective cohort design, with noise and sleep measurements obtained before and after installation of WTs to investigate effect of such turbines on self-reported sleep disturbances of nearby residents. Subjective assessment of sleep disturbance was conducted in Ontario, Canada through standard sleep and sleepiness scales, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Epworth daytime Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Both audible and infra-sound noises were also measured inside the bedroom. Descriptive and comparison analyses were performed to investigate the effect of WT exposure on sleep data. Results of the analysis show that participants reported poorer sleep quality if they had a negative attitude to WTs, if they had concerns related to property devaluation, and if they could see turbines from their properties. This study provides evidence for the role of individual differences and psychological factors in reports of sleep disturbance by people living in the vicinity of WTs.

  5. Gender Differences in Severity and Correlates of Depression Symptoms in People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Aljassem, Kinda; Raboud, Janet M; Hart, Trevor A; Benoit, Anita; Su, DeSheng; Margolese, Shari L; Rourke, Sean B; Rueda, Sergio; Burchell, Ann; Cairney, John; Shuper, Paul; Loutfy, Mona R

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in severity and correlates of depression symptoms among 1069 men and 267 women living with HIV in Ontario, Canada, who completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Women had higher CES-D scores than that of men (median [interquartile range]: 13 [5-26] versus 9 [3-20], P=.0004). More women had total CES-D scores>15 (mild-moderate depression; 44% versus 33%, P=.002) and >21 (severe depression; 31% versus 23%, P=.003). Unlike men, at age 40, women's scores increased yearly (0.4 per increased year, P=.005). The distribution of scores differed by gender: There was no difference in the 10th percentile of depression scores, 0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.0) but the 75th percentile of depression scores for women was 6 (95% CI: 2.0-10.0) points higher than that of men. Important gender differences exist in depression symptoms and in correlates of symptoms in people living with HIV.

  6. Dimensions of Poverty and Health Outcomes Among People Living with HIV Infection: Limited Resources and Competing Needs.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Hernandez, Dominica; Kegler, Christopher; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O; Grebler, Tamar

    2015-08-01

    HIV infection is concentrated in populations living in poverty. We examined the overlapping and independent effects of multiple poverty indicators on HIV-related health status. Because substance use can create competing survival needs when resources are limited, we also sought to objectively measure expenditures on food relative to alcohol and tobacco products. To achieve these aims, 459 men and 212 women living with HIV infection in Atlanta, GA completed measures of socio-demographic and heath characteristics as well as multiple indicators of poverty including housing stability, transportation, food insecurity, and substance use. Participants were given a $30 grocery gift card for their participation and we collected receipts which were coded for alcohol (beer, wine, liquors) and tobacco purchases. Results showed that participants with unsuppressed HIV replication were significantly more likely to experience multiple indicators of poverty. In addition, one in four participants purchased alcohol or tobacco products with their gift cards, with as much as one-fourth of money spent on these products. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that food insecurity was independently associated with unsuppressed HIV, and purchasing alcohol or tobacco products did not moderate this association. Results confirm previous research to show the primacy of food insecurity in relation to HIV-related health outcomes. Competing survival needs, including addictive substances, should be addressed in programs that aim to alleviate poverty to enhance the health and well-being of people with HIV infection. PMID:25572901

  7. The impact of psychological factors on self-reported sleep disturbance among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Leila; Nezhad-Ahmadi, Mohammad-Reza; Gohari, Mahmood; Bigelow, Philip; McColl, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Canada's wind energy capacity has grown from approximately 137MW (MW) in 2000 to over 9700MW in 2014, and this progressive development has made Canada the fifth-largest market in the world for the installation of new wind turbines (WTs). Although wind energy is now one of the fastest growing sources of power in Canada and many other countries, the growth in both number and size of WTs has raised questions regarding potential health impacts on individuals who live close to such turbines. This study is the first published research using a prospective cohort design, with noise and sleep measurements obtained before and after installation of WTs to investigate effect of such turbines on self-reported sleep disturbances of nearby residents. Subjective assessment of sleep disturbance was conducted in Ontario, Canada through standard sleep and sleepiness scales, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Epworth daytime Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Both audible and infra-sound noises were also measured inside the bedroom. Descriptive and comparison analyses were performed to investigate the effect of WT exposure on sleep data. Results of the analysis show that participants reported poorer sleep quality if they had a negative attitude to WTs, if they had concerns related to property devaluation, and if they could see turbines from their properties. This study provides evidence for the role of individual differences and psychological factors in reports of sleep disturbance by people living in the vicinity of WTs. PMID:27131794

  8. Food insecurity, depression and the modifying role of social support among people living with HIV/AIDS in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alexander C; Bangsberg, David R; Frongillo, Edward A; Hunt, Peter W; Muzoora, Conrad; Martin, Jeffrey N; Weiser, Sheri D

    2012-06-01

    Depression is common among people living with HIV/AIDS and contributes to a wide range of worsened HIV-related outcomes, including AIDS-related mortality. Targeting modifiable causes of depression, either through primary or secondary prevention, may reduce suffering as well as improve HIV-related outcomes. Food insecurity is a pervasive source of uncertainty for those living in resource-limited settings, and cross-sectional studies have increasingly recognized it as a critical determinant of poor mental health. Using cohort data from 456 men and women living with HIV/AIDS initiating HIV antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda, we sought to (a) estimate the association between food insecurity and depression symptom severity, (b) assess the extent to which social support may serve as a buffer against the adverse effects of food insecurity, and (c) determine whether the buffering effects are specific to certain types of social support. Quarterly data were collected by structured interviews and blood draws. The primary outcome was depression symptom severity, measured by a modified Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression. The primary explanatory variables were food insecurity, measured with the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, and social support, measured with a modified version of the Functional Social Support Questionnaire. We found that food insecurity was associated with depression symptom severity among women but not men, and that social support buffered the impacts of food insecurity on depression. We also found that instrumental support had a greater buffering influence than emotional social support. Interventions aimed at improving food security and strengthening instrumental social support may have synergistic beneficial effects on both mental health and HIV outcomes among PLWHA in resource-limited settings.

  9. Satisfaction with sexual life in people living with HIV in Romania, together with associated individual and social factors.

    PubMed

    Lazăr, Florin; Verdeş, Ludmila; Henry, Emilie; Fugon, Lionel; Bernier, Adeline; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify social and individual factors associated with satisfaction with sexual life (SSL) in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in contact with a community-based organisation in Romania. A standardised questionnaire was administered (N = 300) in a community-based research study. Multivariate analysis (using a weighted logistic regression restricted to the 291 respondents who answered a question about SSL) was used to determine factors associated with SSL. Sixty-eight per cent of the participants declared that they were satisfied with their sexual life. The following individual factors were associated with SSL: being over 36 years old (Odds Ratio [95% CI]: 0.27 [0.13-0.55]), having ceased sexual intercourse because of HIV (0.33 [0.14-0.76]), not knowing how infection had occurred (0.29 [0.15-0.59]), being officially registered with a level of disability lower than "severe" (0.47 [0.23-0.98]) and having a higher self-efficacy score (1.36 [1.14-1.61]). Living in a couple (7.60 [3.69-15.66]), knowing at least one HIV-infected person who had publicly disclosed his/her seropositivity (2.23 [1.03-4.84]), and having a higher social exclusion score (0.91 [0.82-1]) were social factors associated with SSL. The results suggest that HIV service providers must be sensitised to the necessity of systematically including the topic of PLHIV SSL in field interventions. Self-empowerment, positive examples of public disclosure, promoting the benefits of living in a couple, and supporting social integration can all improve the well-being of PLHIV, including their SSL.

  10. The Kupffer Cell Number Affects the Outcome of Living Donor Liver Transplantation from Elderly Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Masaaki; Eguchi, Susumu; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Soyama, Akihiko; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Natsuda, Koji; Kugiyama, Tota; Hara, Takanobu; Okada, Satomi; Imamura, Hajime; Miuma, Satoshi; Miyaaki, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been no previous reports how Kupffer cells affect the outcome of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) with an elderly donor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of Kupffer cells on LDLT. Methods A total of 161 adult recipients underwent LDLT. The graft survival, prognostic factors for survival, and graft failure after LDLT were examined between cases with a young donor (<50, n = 112) and an elderly donor (≥50, N = 49). The Kupffer cells, represented by CD68-positive cell in the graft, were examined in the young and elderly donors. Results In a multivariable analysis, a donor older than 50 years, sepsis, and diabetes mellitus were significant predictors of graft failure after LDLT. The CD68 in younger donors was significantly more expressed than that in elderly donors. The group with a less number of CD68-positive cells in the graft had a significantly poor survival in the elderly donor group and prognostic factor for graft failure. Conclusions The worse outcome of LDLT with elderly donors might be related to the lower number of Kupffer cells in the graft, which can lead to impaired recovery of the liver function and may predispose patients to infectious diseases after LDLT.

  11. [How generativity affects motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people].

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Megumi; Gondo, Yasuyuki

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify a model of motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people. Erikson's developmental task theory and concept of "generativity" was used as the basis of a hypothetic model. We assumed that memory about parents in childhood has a direct impact on motivation for participating in child-support, and has an indirect impact through generativity and the view of child rearing. Also, the view of child rearing has an indirect impact through generativity. Data was analyzed from questionnaires completed by 236 elderly people (M=68.35 years old, SD=7.64 years). Structural equation modeling showed that the effect of memory about parents and the view of child rearing on the motivation for participating in child-support were mediated by generativity. These results suggested that generativity is a key concept in explaining the motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people.

  12. [Evaluation of the work-related disability in people affected by Ehlers-Danlos syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bogni, M; Basotti, A; Vigna, L; Brunani, A; Bertazzi, P A; Riboldi, L

    2012-01-01

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), inherited disorder of connective tissue, frequently leads to impairment of various functional areas, including employment. In 35 subjects with classic type EDS, 14 hypermobile, 3 vascular was administered 7 visual analogical scales (pain, stiffness, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, work, social relations). An impairment of particular significance in total score and in individual areas emerges is in the hypermobile group, followed by classic, less for the vasculature. Overall there is a significant alteration of the quality of life that deserves proper evaluation to facilitate the definition of fitness and the improvement of job insertion in patients with EDS. PMID:23405630

  13. How Are Young People's Experiences of "Home" Affecting Their Engagement with Schooling and Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Paula; Savelsberg, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the influence of housing tenure on young people's developmental pathways. This paper draws on empirical findings from research conducted in the northern suburbs of Adelaide in 2009 to highlight how secure and quality housing tenure, when combined with familial support and positive relationships with teachers…

  14. Education Affects Attitudes of Physical Therapy Providers toward People with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, William H.; Killian, Clyde B.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was sent to every skilled nursing home (N = 495) in Indiana regarding the demographics, education, and whether the severity of dementia impacts the attitudes of people in physical therapy practice. Physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) practicing in nursing homes spend considerable time (44.0%) working with…

  15. How People Have Used Soils, How Soils Have Affected U.S. History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polak, Julia

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that investigates social aspects of the land and soil and how people use these resources. Following an introduction by the teacher on land and soil use, students answer related questions on handouts. Later handouts direct the students to group research projects and class presentations. (MJP)

  16. A taboo within a stigma? a qualitative study of managing incontinence with people with dementia living at home

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Incontinence in people with dementia is one of the factors associated with the decision to move to a care home. Managing incontinence adds to carer burden and has been reported by family carers as more difficult to manage than behavioural symptoms. Active management strategies have been reported to be associated with less carer depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate carers' perceptions of the range of incontinence problems they helped their relative with and the strategies they employed to manage these. Methods Family carers of people with dementia living in their own homes were recruited through primary care, specialist community mental health services and voluntary organisations. Qualitative semi structured interviews were conducted either face to face or by telephone and thematically analysed. Results Thirty two carers were interviewed. They described a range of problems from supporting the person to remain independent in toileting, through to dealing with inappropriate behaviours, to containing and managing incontinence. All carers actively used problem solving strategies but sometimes these were not acceptable or understood by the person with dementia, particularly as the dementia progressed. Most carers reported protecting the person's dignity by not seeking health professionals help often until the point of a crisis. Once the carer has decided to seek help the responses from health professionals can be less than helpful, and carers report local health service policies on access to continence products to be inconsistent and often inappropriate to their circumstances. A few carers reported strategies for managing toileting and incontinence that have the potential for distress and harm to the person with dementia. Conclusions Primary care professionals could be more proactive in enquiry, repeated over time, about toileting and incontinence problems and in giving advice and information to reduce crisis and problems. PMID:22081876

  17. Social networks and mental health among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Odek, Willis Omondi

    2014-01-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in developing countries can live longer due to improved treatment access, and a deeper understanding of determinants of their quality of life is critical. This study assessed the link between social capital, operationally defined in terms of social networks (group-based and personal social networks) and access to network resources (access to material and non-material resources and social support) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among 554 (55% female) adults on HIV treatment through South Africa's public health system. Female study participants were involved with more group-based social networks but had fewer personal social networks in comparison to males. Access to network resources was higher among females and those from larger households but lower among older study participants. Experience of social support significantly increased with household economic status and duration at current residence. Social capital indicators were unrelated to HIV disease status indicators, including duration since diagnosis, CD4 count and viral load. Only a minority (13%) of study participants took part in groups formed by and for predominantly PLHIV (HIV support groups), and participation in such groups was unrelated to their mental or physical health. Personal rather than group-linked social networks and access to network resources were significantly associated with mental but not physical health, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings of limited participation in HIV support groups and that the participation in such groups was not significantly associated with physical or mental health may suggest efforts among PLHIV in South Africa to normalise HIV as a chronic illness through broad-based rather than HIV-status bounded social participation, as a strategy for deflecting stigma. Further research is required to examine the effects of HIV treatment on social networking and participation

  18. Disclosure Pattern of Self-Labeled People Living with HIV/AIDS on Chinese Social Networking Site: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin; Tian, Xianyun; Yu, Guang; He, Fang

    2016-08-01

    HIV/AIDS is an important public health issue in China. The number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has been increasing since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. PLWHA's life quality is becoming an important issue, with lack of research in China. In this study, a group of PLWHA (n = 663) was identified using HIV/AIDS relevant usernames on a Chinese social networking site (Weibo) to study their daily living situations. We found that more than 99.10% of PLWHA were male, among whom 90.80% turned out to be homosexual. They had significantly more fans and followees, but fewer postings compared to the general population. The mean age of the PLWHA was 28.96 (SD = 5.05) years old, and southwest and northwest China had a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. In addition, PLWHA's postings were coded and we found that more than half of the postings (n = 769, 51.03%) contained strong emotions. Less than one-fifth of the postings were directly related to HIV/AIDS topics (n = 269, 17.85%), while seeking emotional support, such as looking for stable partnership, was ranked as the first priority of support seeking. In summary, we found that the majority of the self-labeled PLWHA were likely to be men who have sex with men. They used Weibo to share their daily life events and seek emotional support. Implications for promoting HIV/AIDS education and prevention through Chinese social networking sites were also discussed. PMID:27494331

  19. Does social capital travel? Influences on the life satisfaction of young people living in England and Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study used a social capital framework to examine the relationship between a set of potential protective ('health assets') factors and the wellbeing of 15 year adolescents living in Spain and England. The overall purpose of the study was to compare the consistency of these relationships between countries and to investigate their respective relative importance. Methods Data were drawn from the 2002, English and Spanish components of the WHO Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey A total of 3,591 respondents (1884, Spain; 1707, England) aged 15, drawn from random samples of students in 215 and 80 schools respectively were included in the study. A series of univariate, bivariate and multivariate (general linear modelling and decision tree) analyses were used to establish the relationships. Results Results showed that the wellbeing of Spanish and English adolescents is similar and good. Three measures of social capital and 2 measures of social support were found to be important factors in the general linear model. Namely, family autonomy and control; family and school sense of belonging; and social support at home and school. However, there were differences in how the sub components of social capital manifest themselves in each country--feelings of autonomy of control, were more important in England and social support factors in Spain. Conclusions There is some evidence to suggest that social capital (and its related concept of social support) do travel and are applicable to young people living in Spain and England. Given the different constellation of assets found in each country, it is not possible to define exactly the precise formula for applying social capital across cultures. This should more appropriately be defined at the programme planning stage. PMID:22353283

  20. Social networks and mental health among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Odek, Willis Omondi

    2014-01-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in developing countries can live longer due to improved treatment access, and a deeper understanding of determinants of their quality of life is critical. This study assessed the link between social capital, operationally defined in terms of social networks (group-based and personal social networks) and access to network resources (access to material and non-material resources and social support) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among 554 (55% female) adults on HIV treatment through South Africa's public health system. Female study participants were involved with more group-based social networks but had fewer personal social networks in comparison to males. Access to network resources was higher among females and those from larger households but lower among older study participants. Experience of social support significantly increased with household economic status and duration at current residence. Social capital indicators were unrelated to HIV disease status indicators, including duration since diagnosis, CD4 count and viral load. Only a minority (13%) of study participants took part in groups formed by and for predominantly PLHIV (HIV support groups), and participation in such groups was unrelated to their mental or physical health. Personal rather than group-linked social networks and access to network resources were significantly associated with mental but not physical health, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings of limited participation in HIV support groups and that the participation in such groups was not significantly associated with physical or mental health may suggest efforts among PLHIV in South Africa to normalise HIV as a chronic illness through broad-based rather than HIV-status bounded social participation, as a strategy for deflecting stigma. Further research is required to examine the effects of HIV treatment on social networking and participation

  1. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cognitive Status: The Delicate Balance Among People Living with HIV, with and without Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Míguez-Burbano, María José; Espinoza, Luis; Whitehead, Nicole Ennis; Bryant, Vaughn E.; Vargas, Mayra; Cook, Robert L.; Quiros, Clery; Lewis, John E.; Deshratan, Asthana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The advent of combination antiretroviral therapy(cART) has lead to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV(PLWH). However, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still remain a significant problem. One possible mechanism for the persistence of these disorders is through the effect of HIV on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF is influenced by various factors including hazardous alcohol use (HAU), which is prevalent among PLWH. This study attempts to elucidate the relationships between HAU, BDNF and HAND. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a sample of 199 hazardous alcohol users and 198 non-HAU living with HIV. Members of each group were matched according to sociodemographic characteristics and CD4 count. Research procedures included validated questionnaires, neuropsychological assessments and a blood sample to obtain BDNF and immune measurements. Results Hazardous alcohol users showed either significantly lower or significantly higher BDNF levels compared to the Non-hazardous (OR=1,4; 95% CI: 1–2.1, p = 0.003). Therefore, for additional analyses, subjects were categorized based on BDNF values in: Group 1 < 4000, Group 2: 4001–7,999 (reference group), and Group 3 for those >8,000 pg/mL. Groups 1 and 3 performed significantly worse than those in Group 2 in the domains of processing speed, auditory-verbal and visuospatial learning and memory. Multivariate analyses confirmed that HAU and BDNF are significant contributors of HAND. Conclusion Our findings offer novel insights into the relationships between BDNF, and alcohol use among PLWH. Our results also lend support to expanding clinical movement to use BDNF as an intervention target for PLWH, in those with evidence of deficiencies, and highlight the importance of including HAU at the inception of clinical trials. PMID:25053366

  2. Experiences of HIV stigma: the role of visible symptoms, HIV centrality and community attachment for people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Brener, Loren; Callander, Denton; Slavin, Sean; de Wit, John

    2013-01-01

    For many people living with HIV (PLHIV), disclosure or concealment of their HIV status may be under their personal control; however, for PLHIV with visible symptoms of their illness, disclosure may no longer be a choice. Previous research suggests that those with visible HIV symptoms have poorer mental and physical health than those without visible HIV symptoms. This study aimed to extend these findings and assess the role of perceived centrality of HIV in the lives of PLHIV as well as the role of attachment to an HIV-positive community in understanding the negative effects on health and well-being for PLHIV with visible HIV symptoms. Participants were 697 PLHIV who completed an online survey that assessed symptom visibility, HIV-status disclosure, perceived stigma, health and well-being, how central HIV was to identity and HIV community attachment. Results indicate that those with visible symptoms experienced more HIV-related stigma and had poorer outcomes on a range of psychological and mental health measures than those who were able to conceal their stigma. These effects remained after controlling for length of time since diagnosis, time on HIV treatment, perceived health satisfaction and age. PLHIV with visible symptoms also reported that HIV was more central to their identity and reported greater attachment to an HIV-positive community. Furthermore, findings suggest that while HIV centrality appears to increase the negative effects of having visible symptoms associated with HIV, greater community attachment seems to ameliorate these effects. This suggests the need for a nuanced understanding of the implications of visible HIV symptoms for PLHIV. The study also highlights the potential benefits of HIV-positive community attachment in buffering PLHIV from the negative effect of visible HIV symptoms on their health and well-being.

  3. Otoacoustic Emissions, Auditory Evoked Potentials and Self-Reported Gender in People Affected by Disorders of Sex Development (DSD)

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Amy B.; Espinoza-Varas, Blas; Aston, Christopher E.; Edmundson, Shelagh; Champlin, Craig A.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Both otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are sexually dimorphic, and both are believed to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure. OAEs and AEPs were collected from people affected by 1 of 3 categories of disorders of sex development (DSD) – (1) women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS); (2) women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH); and (3) individuals with 46, XY DSD including prenatal androgen exposure who developed a male gender despite initial rearing as females (men with DSD). Gender identity (GI) and role (GR) were measured both retrospectively and at the time of study participation, using standardized questionnaires. The main objective of this study was to determine if patterns of OAEs and AEPs correlate with gender in people affected by DSD and in controls. A second objective was to assess if OAE and AEP patterns differed according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure across groups. Control males, men with DSD, and women with CAH produced fewer spontaneous OAEs (SOAEs) – the male-typical pattern – than control females and women with CAIS. Additionally, the number of SOAEs produced correlated with gender development across all groups tested. Although some sex differences in AEPs were observed between control males and females, AEP measures did not correlate with gender development, nor did they vary according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure, among people with DSD. Thus, OAEs, but not AEPs, may prove useful as bioassays for assessing early brain exposure to androgens and predicting gender development in people with DSD. PMID:25038289

  4. Otoacoustic emissions, auditory evoked potentials and self-reported gender in people affected by disorders of sex development (DSD).

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Amy B; Espinoza-Varas, Blas; Aston, Christopher E; Edmundson, Shelagh; Champlin, Craig A; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Both otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are sexually dimorphic, and both are believed to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure. OAEs and AEPs were collected from people affected by 1 of 3 categories of disorders of sex development (DSD) - (1) women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS); (2) women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH); and (3) individuals with 46,XY DSD including prenatal androgen exposure who developed a male gender despite initial rearing as females (men with DSD). Gender identity (GI) and role (GR) were measured both retrospectively and at the time of study participation, using standardized questionnaires. The main objective of this study was to determine if patterns of OAEs and AEPs correlate with gender in people affected by DSD and in controls. A second objective was to assess if OAE and AEP patterns differed according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure across groups. Control males, men with DSD, and women with CAH produced fewer spontaneous OAEs (SOAEs) - the male-typical pattern - than control females and women with CAIS. Additionally, the number of SOAEs produced correlated with gender development across all groups tested. Although some sex differences in AEPs were observed between control males and females, AEP measures did not correlate with gender development, nor did they vary according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure, among people with DSD. Thus, OAEs, but not AEPs, may prove useful as bioassays for assessing early brain exposure to androgens and predicting gender development in people with DSD.

  5. Perception of Lay People Regarding Determinants of Health and Factors Affecting It: An Aggregated Analysis from 29 Countries

    PubMed Central

    ZAHRA, Aqeela; LEE, Eun-Whan; SUN, Li-Yuan; PARK, Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the perception of lay people regarding determinants of health at global level and factors affecting it. Methods: Data was collected from International Social Survey Program (ISSP) and World Bank website. Multilevel regression analysis was done and lay people’s perception regarding health behavior, environment, poverty and genes as health determinants was assessed. Various socio demographic factors were used as independent variables. Results: The highest percentage of people agreed environment as determinant of health. An inverse relationship was observed between GNI quartiles and an individual’s agreement with poverty, health behavior, and environment as health determinant. There was a significant negative association of females with health damaging behavior (P<0.05) and positive association with environment and genes (P<0.05) as health determinants. Elderly people agreed with poverty as determinant of health (P<0.05). GNI was negatively related to environment (P<0.05) and poverty (P<0.05) as health determinant. Conclusion: The common public is now becoming aware of a broadened concept of health and people belonging to different backgrounds have different perceptions regarding determinants of health. Our results show that highest percentage of people agreed with environment as determinant of health, which is consistent with scientific view of increased burden of disease, caused by environmental factors. Thus, tailored health programs and policies that address an individual’s specific problems are likely to induce a change in behavior and attitude, hence decreasing the disease burden. PMID:26811813

  6. Live substrate positively affects root growth and stolon direction in the woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Erica M.; Watson, Maxine A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of clonal plant foraging generally focus on growth responses to patch quality once rooted. Here we explore the possibility of true plant foraging; the ability to detect and respond to patch resource status prior to rooting. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the morphological changes that occur when individual daughter ramets of Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry) were exposed to air above live (non-sterilized) or dead (sterilized) substrates. Contact between daughter ramets and substrate was prohibited. Daughter ramet root biomass was significantly larger over live versus dead substrate. Root:shoot ratio also increased over live substrate, a morphological response we interpret as indicative of active nutrient foraging. Daughter ramet root biomass was positively correlated with mother ramet size over live but not dead substrate. Given the choice between a live versus a dead substrate, primary stolons extended preferentially toward live substrates. We conclude that exposure to live substrate drives positive nutrient foraging responses in F. vesca. We propose that volatiles emitted from the substrates might be effecting the morphological changes that occur during true nutrient foraging. PMID:26483826

  7. College Student Affect and Heavy Drinking: Variable Associations Across Days, Semesters, and People

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea L.; Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested associations between positive and negative affect and heavy drinking in 734 college students who completed daily diaries in 14-day bursts once per semester over 7 semesters (≤98 days per person). Three-level multilevel models tested whether affect and heavy drinking were linked across days, semesters, and persons. Higher daily, between-semester, and between-person positive affect were each associated with a greater odds of heavy drinking on weekdays and on weekend days. A significant interaction with semester in college showed that the association between daily positive affect and heavy drinking on weekend days became stronger over time. That is, heavy drinking on a weekend day with higher positive affect was more likely in later years of college (OR=2.93, Fall of 4th year), compared to earlier in college (OR=1.80, Fall of 1st year). A similar interaction was found for between-semester positive affect and heavy drinking on weekdays. Higher daily negative affect was associated with a greater odds of heavy drinking on weekdays only for students who first began drinking in 7th grade or earlier (OR=2.36). Results of this study highlight the importance of varied time spans in studying the etiology, consequences, and prevention of heavy drinking. Harm-reduction strategies that target positive affect-related drinking by encouraging protective behaviors during celebratory events may become increasingly important as students transition to later years of college. PMID:25347017

  8. College student affect and heavy drinking: Variable associations across days, semesters, and people.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrea L; Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    This study tested associations between positive and negative affect and heavy drinking in 734 college students who completed daily diaries in 14-day bursts once per semester over 7 semesters (≤98 days per person). Three-level multilevel models tested whether affect and heavy drinking were linked across days, semesters, and persons. Higher daily, between-semester, and between-person positive affect were each associated with greater odds of heavy drinking on weekdays and on weekend days. A significant interaction with semester in college showed that the association between daily positive affect and heavy drinking on weekend days became stronger over time. That is, heavy drinking on a weekend day with higher positive affect was more likely in later years of college (OR = 2.93, Fall of 4th year), compared to earlier in college (OR = 1.80, Fall of 1st year). A similar interaction was found for between-semester positive affect and heavy drinking on weekdays. Higher daily negative affect was associated with a greater odds of heavy drinking on weekdays only for students who first began drinking in 7th grade or earlier (OR = 2.36). Results of this study highlight the importance of varied time spans in studying the etiology, consequences, and prevention of heavy drinking. Harm-reduction strategies that target positive affect-related drinking by encouraging protective behaviors during celebratory events may become increasingly important as students transition to later years of college. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany.

    PubMed

    Brath, Helmut; Grabovac, Igor; Schalk, Horst; Degen, Olaf; Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-1.00) and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15-0.79) were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74-8.07) and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49-17.17) were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30-9.05) and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46-7.94), were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91-0.99), with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits.

  10. Social support exchanges in a social media community for people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Shi, Jingyuan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, social media has become an important source of social support. People living with HIV/AIDS in China created an online support group (the HIV/AIDS Weibo Group) on Weibo, the Chinese version of Twitter, in January 2011. The current study examined how social support transmitted in this social media community. First, messages over five successive weeks (2 May 2011 to 13 June 2011) were randomly selected from the HIV/AIDS Weibo Group on Weibo. Next, we employed social network analysis to map the HIV/AIDS Weibo Group's structure and to measure the study variables. After that, a multivariate analysis of variance was applied to examine the influence of frequency of contact and reciprocity on informational and emotional social support exchanged in each dyad. The results revealed that pairs with a high level of contact frequency or reciprocity exchanged more informational support than do pairs with a low level of contact frequency or reciprocity. Moreover, dyadic partners with high frequency of contact exchanged a larger amount of emotional support than those with a low level frequency of contact; but strongly reciprocal dyads did not exchange significantly more emotional social support than their counterparts with a low level of reciprocity.

  11. Gender and Ethnicity Differences in HIV-related Stigma Experienced by People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona R.; Logie, Carmen H.; Zhang, Yimeng; Blitz, Sandra L.; Margolese, Shari L.; Tharao, Wangari E.; Rourke, Sean B.; Rueda, Sergio; Raboud, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma experienced by 1026 HIV-positive individuals living in Ontario, Canada that were enrolled in the OHTN Cohort Study. Total and subscale HIV-related stigma scores were measured using the revised HIV-related Stigma Scale. Correlates of total stigma scores were assessed in univariate and multivariate linear regression. Women had significantly higher total and subscale stigma scores than men (total, median = 56.0 vs. 48.0, p<0.0001). Among men and women, Black individuals had the highest, Aboriginal and Asian/Latin-American/Unspecified people intermediate, and White individuals the lowest total stigma scores. The gender-ethnicity interaction term was significant in multivariate analysis: Black women and Asian/Latin-American/Unspecified men reported the highest HIV-related stigma scores. Gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma were identified in our cohort. Findings suggest differing approaches may be required to address HIV-related stigma based on gender and ethnicity; and such strategies should challenge racist and sexist stereotypes. PMID:23300514

  12. The Framing and Fashioning of Therapeutic Citizenship Among People Living With HIV Taking Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Steve; Namukwaya, Stella; Zalwango, Flavia; Seeley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine how people living with HIV (PLWH) were able to reconceptualize or “reframe” their understanding of HIV and enhance their capacity to self-manage the condition. Two in-depth interviews were held with 38 PLWH (20 women, 18 men) selected from three government and nongovernment antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery sites in Wakiso District, and the narratives analyzed. ART providers played an important role in shaping participants’ HIV self-management processes. Health workers helped PLWH realize that they could control their condition, provided useful concepts and language for emotional coping, and gave advice about practical self-management tasks, although this could not always be put into practice. ART providers in this setting were spaces for the development of a collective identity and a particular form of therapeutic citizenship that encouraged self-management, including adherence to ART. Positive framing institutions are important for many PLWH in resource-limited settings and the success of ART programs. PMID:26246523

  13. Engaging therapeutic citizenship and clientship: Untangling the reasons for therapeutic pacifism among people living with HIV in urban Zambia.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Amy S

    2016-10-01

    This article explores the reasons for therapeutic pacifism among people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in urban Zambia. It contributes to a growing ethnography on global health, biosociality, and patient-provider dynamics. Therapeutic citizenship is a biopolitical citizenship that includes claims and ethical projects that emerge from techniques to control and manage bodies. In some contexts, therapeutic citizenship has included activism and claims-making against local, national, and international power brokers. This article investigates therapeutic citizenship in the specific context of impoverished urban Zambian compounds, sites of food insecurity, unemployment, and political exclusion, as well as targets for donor, NGO, and faith-based organisation projects and PLHIV support group proliferation. The article utilises data from participant observations at two Lusaka AIDS clinics, interviews, and focused discussions with support groups of PLHIVs. It argues that PLHIVs continuously negotiate subjectivities related to kinship, clientship, religious belief, and political citizenship in processes that complicate therapeutic citizenship. Rather than fostering participation in PLHIV support groups or challenging 'politics as usual' through activist claims-making to institutions of biopower, these processes lead to therapeutic pacifism.

  14. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, M. L.; LaPlante, A. M.; Altice, F. L.; Copenhaver, M.; Molina, P. E.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI), the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs) were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1) negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2) high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3) local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4) healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5) misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6) PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol's impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI. PMID:26697216

  15. Promoting self-help activities for people living with HIV / AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le Truong Giang; Nguyen Huu Luyen; Le Thuy Lan Thao; Narimani, P

    1999-01-01

    The rising epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City presents new challenges for sexually transmitted disease/HIV prevention in Vietnam. Most HIV/AIDS cases are found south of the country and this puts a burden on the Ho Chi Minh City AIDS Committee. Building on experiences from other countries, the AIDS Committee successfully implemented measures such as needle-exchange programs, condom distribution, peer education, and outreach activities. It also established a meeting place, the Cafe Hy Vong, for female sex workers and intravenous drug users. From the beginning, the Committee regarded meeting the special needs of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHA) as important prevention activities, and encouraged PHA to discuss their concerns with the committee. The PHA formed the Friend-to-Friend group in October 1995, where the Ho Chi Minh AIDS Committee gave its full support. The group organizes meetings and social gatherings where they can share their feelings and experiences, as well as get information and counseling.

  16. Alcohol and Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions among People Living in Russia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Chiao-Wen; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Kate B.; Johnson, Blair T.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and is experiencing one of the fastest-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Given these co-occurring health problems, we systematically reviewed combined alcohol and sexual risk interventions to reduce HIV among Russians. We completed comprehensive electronic searches to locate studies that (a) sampled people living in Russia, (b) used a behavioral intervention, and (c) assessed both alcohol and sexual risk behavior. These searches yielded 584 studies, of these, 2 were included. Compared with controls, intervention participants reported increasing their condom use (ds ranged from 0.12 to 0.85). Within-group improvements in sexual behaviors were found for both groups (ds ranged from 0.19 to 1.94); participants reported fewer sexual partners, more condom use, and reduced alcohol or drug use before sex. These findings support the need and potential benefits for alcohol and HIV interventions among Russians, and suggest directions for public policy. PMID:24104461

  17. Cholesterol as a Mediator of Alcohol-Induced Risks for Respiratory Disease Hospitalizations among People Living With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Míguez, María José; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Burbano, Ximena; Malow, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the role of cholesterol as a potential mediator of alcohol-increased risk of respiratory infections that required hospitalization in People Living with HIV (PLWH). Using a longitudinal clinic-based design, 346 PLWH were consecutively admitted and followed at Jackson Memorial Medical Center(enrolled in the study). Following national guidelines, PLWH were stratified according to cholesterol levels: <150 mg/dl (Hypocholesterolemia= HypoCHL), 151-200, and >200 mg/dl Hypercholesterolemia =HyperCHL), and compared on the basis of clinical outcomes, lymphocyte phenotypes and behavioral risks. Analyses indicated that compared to HyperCHL participants, HypoCHL subjects were more likely to be hospitalized, particularly for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Excessive admissions were associated with more deviant lymphocyte profiles, particularly limited NK cells. In logistic regression analyses, smoking (OR=1.5), HypoCHL (OR=7.7), and alcohol (OR=1.2) were predictors of LRTI. These findings warrant further investigation of the potential use of HypoCHL as a risk marker, and the cost-effectiveness of switching prevention gears towards HypoCHL, alcohol and tobacco in PLWH. PMID:23565339

  18. Virological and Immunological Status of the People Living with HIV/AIDS Undergoing ART Treatment in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dumre, Shyam Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased the life span of the people living with HIV (PLHIV), but their virological and immunological outcomes are not well documented in Nepal. The study was conducted at a tertiary care center including 826 HIV-1 seropositive individuals undergoing ART for at least six months. Plasma viral load (HIV-1 RNA) was detected by Real Time PCR and CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4+) counts were estimated by flow cytometry. The mean CD4+ count of patients was 501 (95% CI = 325–579) cells/cumm, but about 35% of patients had CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/cumm. With increasing age, average CD4+ count was found to be decreasing (p = 0.005). Of the total cases, 82 (9.92%) were found to have virological failure (viral load: >1000 copies/ml). Tenofovir/Lamivudine/Efavirenz (TDF/3TC/EFV), the frequently used ART regimen in Nepal, showed virological failure in 11.34% and immunological failure in 37.17% of patients. Virological failure rate was higher among children < 15 years (14.5%) (p = 0.03); however, no association was observed between ART outcomes and gender or route of transmission. The study suggests there are still some chances of virological and immunological failures despite the success of highly active ART (HAART). PMID:27547761

  19. Vaccination status of people living with HIV/AIDS in outpatient care in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Gilmara Holanda da; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Medeiros, Camila Martins de; Rocha, Ryvanne Paulino; Lima, Maria Amanda Correia; Fechine, Francisco Vagnaldo

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has increased the survival of patients with HIV/AIDS, thus necessitating health promotion practice with immunization. Vaccines are critical components for protecting people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The purpose of study was to analyze the vaccination status of PLWHA in outpatient care in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Cross-sectional study performed from June 2014 to June 2015. The screening was done with patients in antiretroviral therapy, 420 patients underwent screening, but only 99 met the inclusion criteria. Data were collected for interviews using forms to characterize sociodemographic, clinical and vaccination situations. Only 14 patients had complete vaccination schedules. The most used vaccines were hepatitis B, influenza vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal. There was no difference between men and women regarding the proportion of PLWHA with full vaccination schedule or between sex, skin color, marital status, sexual orientation, religion or occupational status. There was no difference between having or not having a complete vaccination schedule and age, years of education, family income or number of hospitalizations. CD4+ T-cells count of patients with incomplete immunization was lower than patients with complete immunization. Health education strategies can be done individually or in groups to explain the importance of vaccination and to remind about doses to be administered. Most patients did not have proper adherence to vaccination schedules, especially due to lack of guidance. Results implied that education in health is important for vaccination adhesion, knowledge of adverse events and continuation of schemes. PMID:27542868

  20. Modelling level, trend and geographical variations in stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Samson B; Fakolade, Richard; Anyanti, Jennifer; Ekweremadu, Bright; Ladipo, Olaronke; Ankomah, Augustine

    2011-01-01

    People living with HIV and AIDS (PLHA) often face stigma and discrimination. Stigma is a powerful tool for social control and PLHA are to varying degrees stigmatised against. Consequences of stigma and discrimination against PLHA may result in low turn-out for HIV counselling and testing, identity crises, isolation, loneliness, low self-esteem and lack of interest in containing the disease. To achieve the millennium development goal on HIV reduction, efforts should be targeted at measuring impact of HIV preventive interventions. In this paper, effort was made to explore geographical variations in addition to level and trend of accepting attitude towards PLHA using 2003 - 2007 population-based household survey data. Inferences are based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, while model selection was based on Deviance Information Criteria. Findings revealed significant positive trend and spatial variations on level of accepting attitude towards PLHA. Level of exposure to HIV prevention interventions and perceptions about social support received on HIV are significantly associated with accepting attitude towards PLHA. Findings provide policy makers with tools to discern states where prevention efforts on HIV-related stigma and discrimination should be intensified. This in turn, can enhance an effective utilization of scarce resources that is paramount in developing countries.

  1. More intense experiences, less intense forecasts: why people overweight probability specifications in affective forecasts.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Eva C; Zhang, Jiao; Morewedge, Carey K; Vosgerau, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We propose that affective forecasters overestimate the extent to which experienced hedonic responses to an outcome are influenced by the probability of its occurrence. The experience of an outcome (e.g., winning a gamble) is typically more affectively intense than the simulation of that outcome (e.g., imagining winning a gamble) upon which the affective forecast for it is based. We suggest that, as a result, experiencers allocate a larger share of their attention toward the outcome (e.g., winning the gamble) and less to its probability specifications than do affective forecasters. Consequently, hedonic responses to an outcome are less sensitive to its probability specifications than are affective forecasts for that outcome. The results of 6 experiments provide support for our theory. Affective forecasters overestimated how sensitive experiencers would be to the probability of positive and negative outcomes (Experiments 1 and 2). Consistent with our attentional account, differences in sensitivity to probability specifications disappeared when the attention of forecasters was diverted from probability specifications (Experiment 3) or when the attention of experiencers was drawn toward probability specifications (Experiment 4). Finally, differences in sensitivity to probability specifications between forecasters and experiencers were diminished when the forecasted outcome was more affectively intense (Experiments 5 and 6).

  2. More intense experiences, less intense forecasts: why people overweight probability specifications in affective forecasts.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Eva C; Zhang, Jiao; Morewedge, Carey K; Vosgerau, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We propose that affective forecasters overestimate the extent to which experienced hedonic responses to an outcome are influenced by the probability of its occurrence. The experience of an outcome (e.g., winning a gamble) is typically more affectively intense than the simulation of that outcome (e.g., imagining winning a gamble) upon which the affective forecast for it is based. We suggest that, as a result, experiencers allocate a larger share of their attention toward the outcome (e.g., winning the gamble) and less to its probability specifications than do affective forecasters. Consequently, hedonic responses to an outcome are less sensitive to its probability specifications than are affective forecasts for that outcome. The results of 6 experiments provide support for our theory. Affective forecasters overestimated how sensitive experiencers would be to the probability of positive and negative outcomes (Experiments 1 and 2). Consistent with our attentional account, differences in sensitivity to probability specifications disappeared when the attention of forecasters was diverted from probability specifications (Experiment 3) or when the attention of experiencers was drawn toward probability specifications (Experiment 4). Finally, differences in sensitivity to probability specifications between forecasters and experiencers were diminished when the forecasted outcome was more affectively intense (Experiments 5 and 6). PMID:24128184

  3. Reducing Medical Students' Stigmatization of People with Chronic Mental Illness: A Field Intervention at the "Living Museum" State Hospital Art Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Janis L.; Harding, Kelli J.; Hutner, Lucy A.; Cortland, Clarissa; Graham, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors designed an intervention to reduce beginning medical students' stigmatization of people with chronic mental illness (CMI). Methods: Pre-clinical medical students visited a state psychiatric facility's "Living Museum," a combination patient art studio/display space, as the intervention. During the visit, students interacted…

  4. Grief and Bereavement Issues and the Loss of a Companion Animal: People Living with a Companion Animal, Owners of Livestock, and Animal Support Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Companion animals play various roles in people's lives and these roles can impact on loss, grief, bereavement and mourning when the animal has been lost, whether that is through death, when missing, or when relinquished. This paper considers not only companion animal owners, but also those who own farm animals and those who work in animal service…

  5. Living through Exposure to Toxic Psychiatric Orthodoxies: Exploring Narratives of People with "Mental Health Problems" Who Are Looking for Employment on the Open Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roets, Griet; Kristiansen, Kristjana; Van Hove, Geert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter

    2007-01-01

    This article explores lived experiences and insights of five people with long-term "mental health problems", focusing on their search for employment in a disabling society. In our qualitative, inductive analysis we investigate why it seems almost impossible to attain a status as respected adult workers. We present five central findings: (1) losing…

  6. End-of-Life Care and Dying: Issues Raised by Staff Supporting Older People with Intellectual Disability in Community Living Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Michele; Stancliffe, Roger J.; Balandin, Susan; Howarth, Glennys; Dew, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore the current status of end-of-life care and dying of people with intellectual disability based on the experiences of staff in community living services. Materials and Methods: Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted, guided by grounded theory methodology. Results: The current status of…

  7. A Qualitative Exploration of Motivation to Self-Manage and Styles of Self-Management amongst People Living with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Newton, Paul; Asimakopoulou, Koula; Scambler, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the motives that people living with type 2 diabetes (T2D) had for self-managing their condition and ways they used to assess the success of their self-management efforts. Using semistructured interviews (N = 25), focus groups (3 × N = 12 participants), and open-ended questionnaires (N = 6), people living with and self-managing T2D were recruited from a community-based T2D participation group. Most participants were older (aged 60+) and lived in a socioeconomically deprived area in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed thematically using framework analysis. Patients' motives for self-management included (i) concern about the anticipative effects of T2D; (ii) wishing to "stay well"; (iii) maintaining independence; (iv) reducing the need for healthcare professionals; and (v) improving quality of life. Six self-management styles were found and pertained to self-managing: (i) through routinisation; (ii) as a burden; (iii) as maintenance; (iv) through delegation; (v) through comanagement; and (vi) through autonomy. Motivators for self-management shaped the criteria people used to judge the success of their self-management practices and influenced their self-management style. The findings show that styles of T2D self-management are mediated and moderated by sociocontextual issues. Healthcare professionals should take these into account when supporting people living with T2D. PMID:26075285

  8. How Many People Are Affected By or Are at Risk for Neural Tube Defects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are affected by or are at risk for neural tube defects? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... with spina bifida. 1 The other types of neural tube defects are less common. About 340 infants are born ...

  9. Global Epidemiology of HIV Infection and Related Syndemics Affecting Transgender People

    PubMed Central

    Scheim, Ayden; Xavier, Jessica; Reisner, Sari; Baral, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Transgender populations have been underrepresented in HIV epidemiologic studies and consequently in HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs. Since 2012, there has been a dramatic increase in research focused on transgender people. Studies highlight the burden of HIV and risk determinants, including intersecting stigmas, as drivers of syndemics among transgender populations. This review synthesizes the most recent global epidemiology of HIV infection and describes current gaps in research and interventions to inform prioritization of HIV research for transgender populations. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of the medical literature published between January 1, 2012 and November 30, 2015. The data focused on HIV prevalence, determinants of risk, and syndemics among transgender populations. Results: Estimates varied dramatically by location and subpopulation. Transfeminine individuals have some of the highest concentrated HIV epidemics in the world with laboratory-confirmed prevalence up to 40%. Data were sparse among trans masculine individuals; however, they suggest potential increased risk for trans masculine men who have sex with men (MSM). No prevalence data were available for transgender people across Sub-Saharan Africa or Eastern Europe/Central Asia. Emerging data consistently support the association of syndemic conditions with HIV risk in transgender populations. Discussion: Addressing syndemic conditions and gender-specific challenges is critical to ensure engagement and retention in HIV prevention by transgender populations. Future research should prioritize: filling knowledge gaps in HIV epidemiology; elucidating how stigma shapes syndemic factors to produce HIV and other deleterious effects on transgender health; and understanding how to effectively implement HIV interventions for transgender people. PMID:27429185

  10. At home in hospital? Interaction and stigma in people affected by cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kate; Luker, Karen A

    2006-04-01

    Social research conducted in cancer hospitals has tended to focus on interaction between patients and staff, and studies of interaction amongst people with cancer often centre on group therapy and patient-patient support mediated by health professionals. Informal interaction between patients and fellow patients, and their carers/visitors, occurs in cancer hospitals every day but has remained largely unanalysed, particularly in the case of visitors. In this paper, based on data from 71 in-depth interviews, we compare patient and carer perceptions of interacting with fellow patients/visitors in a cancer centre with their perceptions of interacting in the outside world. We apply Erving Goffman's theories on stigma to the data and argue that these theories have both relevance and currency. The outside world can be seen as a 'civil place' where people with cancer often encountered difficulties such as undue admiration, uneasiness, avoidance and lack of tact, whereas the cancer centre appears to have been a 'back place' where, for most patients, stigmatisation was not an issue, and they could 'get on with it' in the company of fellow patients and their visitors. However, some groups of patients experienced social isolation in the hospital or seemed to be assigned to the lower strata of cancer patient society. We conclude that patients who are outside the informal support system in cancer hospitals may have psychosocial difficulties that might be recognised and addressed by healthcare staff, and that patients and their carers might benefit from enhanced support following discharge from hospital.

  11. Abnormal surround inhibition does not affect asymptomatic limbs in people with cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Laura; Kiernan, Dovin; Kiss, Zelma H T; Suchowersky, Oksana; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-14

    Surround inhibition is a neural mechanism hypothesized to facilitate goal-directed action by disinhibiting agonist muscle activity while simultaneously inhibiting antagonist and other uninvolved muscle activity. The present study was designed to investigate if abnormalities in surround inhibition are found in asymptomatic body parts (the hand) of people with focal cervical dystonia (neck). Participants with (n=7) and without (n=17) cervical dystonia completed a protocol in which they abducted their index finger while EMG was recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (agonist) and abductor digiti minimi (uninvolved) muscles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered over the primary motor cortex at intervals ranging from 0 to 950+ms after the onset of agonist muscle activity. Motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes from both muscles were compared. In control participants, MEPs from the uninvolved muscle were significantly lower than agonist MEPs at intervals from 0 to 480ms. Similarly, in the hands of participants with cervical dystonia - the asymptomatic body part - MEPs from the uninvolved muscle were significantly lower than agonist MEPs from 0 to 175ms. These findings suggest that surround inhibition in people with focal dystonia may be intact in asymptomatic hands. In other words, abnormalities in surround inhibition may be restricted to the dystonic limb.

  12. From potential donor to actual donation: does socioeconomic position affect living kidney donation? A systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Phillippa; Tomson, Charles; Risdale, Saira; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2014-11-15

    Evidence from Europe, Australia and the United States demonstrates that socioeconomically deprived individuals with advanced chronic kidney disease are less likely to receive a living kidney transplant compared with less deprived individuals. This systematic review focuses on how socioeconomic position (SEP) may influence hypothetical and actual living kidney donors and where appropriate, summarizes the quantitative evidence.In the general population, a higher SEP appears to be associated with an increased 'hypothetical' willingness to be a living kidney donor but with marked heterogeneity in the absolute differences (I = 95.9%, P < 0.001). In a commercial setting, lower SEP motivates people to donate. Outside of this setting, there is no evidence of discordance in the SEP of donors and recipients that would suggest undisclosed financial exchange. There is evidence for a complex interaction between SEP and other variables, such as ethnicity, sex, and the national economic climate. Some evidence suggests that measures to remove financial disincentives to donation are associated with an increase in living donation rates. Future research needs to study how SEP impacts the potential donor population from willingness to donate, progression through donor assessment to actual donor nephrectomy.

  13. Activating health goals reduces (increases) hedonic evaluation of food brands for people who harbor highly positive (negative) affect toward them.

    PubMed

    Connell, Paul M; Mayor, Lauren F

    2013-06-01

    Associations of pleasure and fun with junk foods have the potential to create considerable challenges for efforts to improve diets. The aim of this research was to determine whether activating health goals had the potential to exploit mixed motivations (i.e., health and pleasure) that people have related to food, and subsequently strip junk foods of the expected pleasure derived from them. In study 1, 98 participants evaluated a soft drink brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In study 2, 93 participants evaluated a presweetened breakfast cereal brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In both studies, participants who harbored highly positive feelings for the food brands devalued their hedonic judgments of them when they were primed for health. However, in an unexpected result, participants in both studies who harbored highly negative feelings for the food brands revalued their hedonic judgments of them (i.e., increased the favorability) when they were primed for health. Thus, increasing health salience is only effective in decreasing expected pleasure derived from junk foods for people who harbor positive affect toward junk food brands, and is likely counterproductive for people who harbor negative affect toward junk food brands.

  14. Activating health goals reduces (increases) hedonic evaluation of food brands for people who harbor highly positive (negative) affect toward them.

    PubMed

    Connell, Paul M; Mayor, Lauren F

    2013-06-01

    Associations of pleasure and fun with junk foods have the potential to create considerable challenges for efforts to improve diets. The aim of this research was to determine whether activating health goals had the potential to exploit mixed motivations (i.e., health and pleasure) that people have related to food, and subsequently strip junk foods of the expected pleasure derived from them. In study 1, 98 participants evaluated a soft drink brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In study 2, 93 participants evaluated a presweetened breakfast cereal brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In both studies, participants who harbored highly positive feelings for the food brands devalued their hedonic judgments of them when they were primed for health. However, in an unexpected result, participants in both studies who harbored highly negative feelings for the food brands revalued their hedonic judgments of them (i.e., increased the favorability) when they were primed for health. Thus, increasing health salience is only effective in decreasing expected pleasure derived from junk foods for people who harbor positive affect toward junk food brands, and is likely counterproductive for people who harbor negative affect toward junk food brands. PMID:23428938

  15. Assessment of dietary intake and nutritional status (MNA) in Polish free-living elderly people from rural environments.

    PubMed

    Wyka, Joanna; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta; Piotrowska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the global population is rapidly increasing. Their nutritional status indicates many deficiencies that are risky to health. The aim of this paper was to assess the nutrition and nutritional status in elderly individuals above 60 years old living in their family houses in rural areas. Dietary intake and nutritional status were measured in 174 elderly women and 64 men living in the rural areas of Oleśnica (near Wrocław, SW Poland). Energy intake, consumption of nutrients, selected anthropometric and biochemical indicators, were measured in two groups: one at risk of malnutrition and one with adequate nutrition. Using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) questionnaire, 238 persons over 60 years of age were qualified according to their nutritional status. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. The group of women at risk of malnutrition (n=30) showed a statistically significantly lower energy intake in their diet (1,127 kcal) compared to women with adequate nutrition (1,351 kcal). The entire group of examined individuals showed a too low consumption of fiber, calcium, vitamins C and D, and folates. Most of the examined women had a too high body mass index (BMI) (on average 28.8), waist circumference was 96.3 cm, and the triceps skinfold (TSF) was 25.2mm thick. Women at a risk of malnutrition had statistically significantly lower lipid parameters than those with adequate nutrition (respectively: TC 191.1 vs. 219.1m/dl, p<0.001, LDL-cholesterol 107.1 vs. 125.1m/dl, p<0.008, TG 129 vs. 143 mg/dl). Men with a risk of malnutrition had a statistically significantly lower BMI (26.0 vs. 28.7, p<0.04), and also lower waist and arm perimeters compared to men with correct nutrition. According to the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), 8.2% of person with adequate nutrition had poor prognostic indicator for overall survival. All the examined individuals showed many significant nutritional deficiencies. The group with

  16. HIV Status Disclosure Among People Living with HIV in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART)

    PubMed Central

    Madi, Deepak; Gupta, Parul; Bhaskaran, Unnikrishnan; Ramapuram, John T.; Rao, Satish; Mahalingam, Soundarya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As patients with HIV live longer due to Combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy (cART) serostatus disclosure becomes an important issue. Disclosure can have both positive and negative outcomes. Disclosure of HIV status has been associated with better adherence to medication and reduction in levels of psychological distress. Stigma and disruption of family relationships are barriers for disclosure. Most studies regarding disclosure status have been conducted in West. There are many cultural differences in Indian society when compared to west. There is a dearth of research in the field of disclosure of HIV infection in India. Aim To determine the prevalence of HIV status disclosure among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in South India. Materials and Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was done in the hospital attached to Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Mangalore, India from May–June 2013. PLHIV of age more than 18 years were included. During the study period 111 consecutive patients who consented for the study were enrolled. Statistical Analysis Data was collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered semi structured questionnaire. Data collected was analysed using SPSS Version 11.5 statistical software. Descriptive statistics were done and the results are presented as proportions and mean. Results The mean age of the study population was 44.86 ± 10.8 years. Majority of the study subjects were men 76 (68.4%). Out of 111 study subjects, 102 (91.9%) had disclosed their HIV status to at least one person while 9 (8.1%) had not disclosed their HIV status to anyone. Disclosure on doctor’s advice was the main reason for 56 (54.9%) participants to disclose their HIV status. The main reason for non-disclosure was fear of shame in family. Conclusion Disclosure rate was high in our study in the era of cART. Society must stop discriminating against PLHIV so that they can disclose their serostatus and gain access to care and treatment services without

  17. Arsenic intake via water and food by a population living in an arsenic-affected area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Yanase, Tatsuya; Matsuo, Yuki; Kimura, Tetsuro; Rahman, M Hamidur; Magara, Yasumoto; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2007-08-01

    More and more people in Bangladesh have recently become aware of the risk of drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater, and have been trying to obtain drinking water from less arsenic-contaminated sources. In this study, arsenic intakes of 18 families living in one block of a rural village in an arsenic-affected district of Bangladesh were evaluated to investigate their actual arsenic intake via food, including from cooking water, and to estimate the contribution of each food category and of drinking water to the total arsenic intake. Water consumption rates were estimated by the self-reporting method. The mean drinking water intake was estimated as about 3 L/d without gender difference. Arsenic intakes from food were evaluated by the duplicate portion sampling method. The duplicated foods from each family were divided into four categories (cooked rice, solid food, cereals for breakfast, and liquid food), and the arsenic concentrations of each food category and of the drinking water were measured. The mean arsenic intake from water and food by all 18 respondents was 0.15 +/-0.11 mg/d (range, 0.043 - 0.49), that by male subjects was 0.18 +/- 0.13 mg/d (n = 12) and that by female subjects was 0.096 +/- 0.007 mg/d (n = 6). The average contributions to the total arsenic intake were, from drinking water, 13%; liquid food, 4.4%; cooked rice, 56%; solid food, 11%; and cereals, 16%. Arsenic intake via drinking water was not high despite the highly contaminated groundwater in the survey area because many families had changed their drinking water sources to less-contaminated ones. Instead, cooked rice contributed most to the daily arsenic intake. Use of contaminated water for cooking by several families was suspected based on comparisons of arsenic concentrations between drinking water and liquid food, and between rice before and after cooking. Detailed investigation suggested that six households used contaminated water for cooking but not drinking, leading to an increase of

  18. 4 Living roofs in 3 locations: Does configuration affect runoff mitigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassman-Beck, Elizabeth; Voyde, Emily; Simcock, Robyn; Hong, Yit Sing

    2013-05-01

    Four extensive living roofs and three conventional (control) roofs in Auckland, New Zealand have been evaluated over periods of 8 months to over 2 yrs for stormwater runoff mitigation. Up to 56% cumulative retention was measured from living roofs with 50-150 mm depth substrates installed over synthetic drainage layers, and with >80% plant coverage. Variation in cumulative %-retention amongst sites is attributed to different durations of monitoring, rather than actual performance. At all sites, runoff rarely occurred at all from storms with less than 25 mm of precipitation, from the combined effects of substrates designed to maximize moisture storage and because >90% of individual events were less than 25 mm. Living roof runoff depth per event is predicted well by a 2nd order polynomial model (R2 = 0.81), again demonstrating that small storms are well managed. Peak flow per event from the living roofs was 62-90% less than a corresponding conventional roof's runoff. Seasonal retention performance decreased slightly in winter, but was nonetheless substantial, maintaining 66% retention at one site compared to 45-93% in spring-autumn at two sites. Peak flow mitigation did not vary seasonally. During a 4-month period of concurrent monitoring at all sites, varied substrate depth did not influence runoff depth (volume), %-retention, or %-peak flow mitigation compared to a control roof at the same site. The magnitude of peak flow was greater from garden shed-scale living roofs compared to the full-scale living roofs. Two design aspects that could be manipulated to increase peak flow mitigation include lengthening the flow path through the drainage layer to vertical gutters and use of flow-retarding drainage layer materials.

  19. FRAT-up, a Web-based Fall-Risk Assessment Tool for Elderly People Living in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Cattelani, Luca; Palumbo, Pierpaolo; Palmerini, Luca; Bandinelli, Stefania; Becker, Clemens; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Background About 30% of people over 65 are subject to at least one unintentional fall a year. Fall prevention protocols and interventions can decrease the number of falls. To be effective, a prevention strategy requires a prior step to evaluate the fall risk of the subjects. Despite extensive research, existing assessment tools for fall risk have been insufficient for predicting falls. Objective The goal of this study is to present a novel web-based fall-risk assessment tool (FRAT-up) and to evaluate its accuracy in predicting falls, within a context of community-dwelling persons aged 65 and up. Methods FRAT-up is based on the assumption that a subject’s fall risk is given by the contribution of their exposure to each of the known fall-risk factors. Many scientific studies have investigated the relationship between falls and risk factors. The majority of these studies adopted statistical approaches, usually providing quantitative information such as odds ratios. FRAT-up exploits these numerical results to compute how each single factor contributes to the overall fall risk. FRAT-up is based on a formal ontology that enlists a number of known risk factors, together with quantitative findings in terms of odds ratios. From such information, an automatic algorithm generates a rule-based probabilistic logic program, that is, a set of rules for each risk factor. The rule-based program takes the health profile of the subject (in terms of exposure to the risk factors) and computes the fall risk. A Web-based interface allows users to input health profiles and to visualize the risk assessment for the given subject. FRAT-up has been evaluated on the InCHIANTI Study dataset, a representative population-based study of older persons living in the Chianti area (Tuscany, Italy). We compared reported falls with predicted ones and computed performance indicators. Results The obtained area under curve of the receiver operating characteristic was 0.642 (95% CI 0.614-0.669), while the

  20. Temporal trends in the use of antidiabetic medicines: a nationwide 9-year study in older people living in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Nishtala, Prasad S.; Salahudeen, Mohammed Saji

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global burden of diabetes is increasing worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the trends in use of antidiabetic medicines among older New Zealanders between 2005 and 2013, and to perform a separate analysis by age, sex, ethnicity, district health board domicile and socioeconomic deprivation index. Methods: The study population included individuals’ aged 65 years and older living in New Zealand (NZ) captured in the pharmaceutical collections. Repeated cross-sectional analysis of population-level dispensing data was conducted from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2013. Linear regression model using a gamma link function was used to estimate prevalence ratios and trends between 2005 and 2013. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of antidiabetic medicines in older New Zealanders. Results: The prevalence of antidiabetic medicines in older New Zealanders increased by 17.6% between 2005 and 2013. Individuals in the 70–74 age group had the highest utilization of each of the classes of antidiabetic medicines and those aged ⩾85 had the lowest utilization. Among the antidiabetic class of medicines, utilization of sulfonylureas was highest and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors the least. The utilization of thiazolidinediones increased over the study period. In 2013, insulin isophane and insulin glargine were the most common insulin analogues used. Insulin use was high in those aged ⩾85 years across the entire study period. The utilization of metformin increased gradually throughout the study period (by 43.9% in 2013 compared with 2005). Conclusion: This population-level study showed an increase in utilization of antidiabetic medicines in older people in NZ from 2005 to 2013; however, the increase does not seem to parallel the proportional increase in prevalence of diabetes for the study period. Improving access to newer antidiabetic medicines in line with emerging evidence should be a consideration for decision makers.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Brath, Helmut; Grabovac, Igor; Schalk, Horst; Degen, Olaf; Dorner, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92–1.00) and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15–0.79) were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74–8.07) and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49–17.17) were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30–9.05) and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46–7.94), were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91–0.99), with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits. PMID:26919722

  2. Home and community based care program assessment for people living with HIV/AIDS in Arba Minch, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) require significant care and support; however, most care needs are still unmet. To our knowledge, no studies have described the activities and challenges of care services in Ethiopia. Our objective was to assess the status, shortcomings and prospects of care and support services provided to PLWHA in the town of Arba Minch, Ethiopia, and surrounding areas. Methods A cross-sectional quantitative study combined with qualitative methods was conducted in Southern Ethiopia among 226 randomly selected PLWHAs and 10 service providers who were purposively selected. Data was collected using a pre-tested structured interview questionnaire and in-depth interview guideline. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS windows based statistical software while qualitative data was analyzed manually using thematic framework analysis. Results A total of 226 PLWHAs were interviewed. Socio-economic support (material and income generating activities) was being received by 108 (47.8%) of the respondents, counseling services (e.g. psychological support) were being received 128(56.6%), 144 (63.7%) alleviation of stigma and discrimination as human right and legal support for study participants. Inadequate external financial support, lack of proper referral systems between different care providers were among the reasons identified for the low quality and redundancy of care and support activities. Nonetheless, many opportunities and prospects, including easily accessible care receivers (PLWHA), good political and societal will were also implicated. Conclusion Care and support services provided to PLWHAs in the study area are by far lower in terms of coverage and quantity. Strategies for improvement could be facilitated given the observed political will, social support and access to care givers. PMID:22703842

  3. Improving mental health among people living with HIV: a review of intervention trials in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Dennis, Alexis C.; Watt, Melissa. H.; Choi, Karmel W.; Yemeke, Tatenda T.; Joska, John A.

    2015-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) experience greater psychological distress than the general population. Evidence from high-incomes countries suggests that psychological interventions for PLWH can improve mental health symptoms, quality of life, and HIV care engagement. However, little is known about the effectiveness of mental health interventions for PLWH in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the large majority of PLWH reside. This systematized review aims to synthesize findings from mental health intervention trials with PLWH in LMICs to inform the delivery of mental health services in these settings. A systematic search strategy was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed published papers of intervention trials addressing negative psychological states or disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) among PLWH in LMIC settings. Search results were assessed against pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data from papers meeting criteria were extracted for synthesis. Twenty-six papers, published between 2000 and 2014, describing 22 unique interventions were identified. Trials were implemented in sub-Saharan Africa (n=13), Asia (n=7), and the Middle East (n=2), and addressed mental health using a variety of approaches, including cognitive-behavioral (n=18), family-level (n=2), and pharmacological (n=2) treatments. Four randomized controlled trials reported significant intervention effects in mental health outcomes, and eleven preliminary studies demonstrated promising findings. Among the limited mental health intervention trials with PLWH in LMICs, few demonstrated efficacy. Mental health interventions for PLWH in LMICs must be further developed and adapted for resource-limited settings to improve effectiveness. PMID:26435843

  4. Palliative chemotherapy among people living in poverty with metastasised colon cancer: facilitation by primary care and health insurance

    PubMed Central

    Gorey, Kevin M; Bartfay, Emma; Kanjeekal, Sindu M; Wright, Frances C; Hamm, Caroline; Luginaah, Isaac N; Zou, Guangyong; Holowaty, Eric J; Richter, Nancy L; Balagurusamy, Madhan K

    2016-01-01

    Background Many Americans with metastasised colon cancer do not receive indicated palliative chemotherapy. We examined the effects of health insurance and physician supplies on such chemotherapy in California. Methods We analysed registry data for 1199 people with metastasised colon cancer diagnosed between 1996 and 2000 and followed for 1 year. We obtained data on health insurance, census tract-based socioeconomic status and county-level physician supplies. Poor neighbourhoods were oversampled and the criterion was receipt of chemotherapy. Effects were described with rate ratios (RR) and tested with logistic regression models. Results Palliative chemotherapy was received by less than half of the participants (45%). Facilitating effects of primary care (RR=1.23) and health insurance (RR=1.14) as well as an impeding effect of specialised care (RR=0.86) were observed. Primary care physician (PCP) supply took precedence. Adjusting for poverty, PCP supply was the only significant and strong predictor of chemotherapy (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.56). The threshold for this primary care advantage was realised in communities with 8.5 or more PCPs per 10 000 inhabitants. Only 10% of participants lived in such well-supplied communities. Conclusions This study’s observations of facilitating effects of primary care and health insurance on palliative chemotherapy for metastasised colon cancer clearly suggested a way to maximise Affordable Care Act (ACA) protections. Strengthening America’s system of primary care will probably be the best way to ensure that the ACA’s full benefits are realised. Such would go a long way towards facilitating access to palliative care.

  5. Combined cognitive–behavioural and mindfulness programme for people living with dystonia: a proof-of-concept study

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, H; Bernstein, C J; Davies, G; Tang, N K Y; Belhag, M; Tingle, A; Field, M; Foss, J; Lindahl, A; Underwood, M; Ellard, D R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To design and test the delivery of an intervention targeting the non-motor symptoms of dystonia and pilot key health and well-being questionnaires in this population. Design A proof-of-concept study to test the delivery, acceptability, relevance, structure and content for a 3-day group residential programme for the management of dystonia. Setting Participants were recruited from a single botulinum toxin clinic. The intervention was delivered in the community. Participants 14 participants consented to take part (2 withdrew prior to the starting of intervention). The average age was 60 years (range 44–77), 8 of whom were female. After drop-out, 9 participants completed the 3-day programme. Intervention A 3-day group residential programme. Primary and secondary outcome measures Process evaluation and interviews were carried out before and after the intervention to explore participant's views and expectations, as well as experiences of the intervention. Select questionnaires were completed at baseline, 1-month and 3-month follow-up. Results Although participants were not sure what to expect from the programme, they found it informative and for many this together with being in a group with other people with dystonia legitimised their condition. Mindfulness was accepted and adopted as a coping strategy. This was reflected in the 1-month follow-up. Conclusions We successfully delivered a 3-day residential programme to help those living with dystonia manage their condition. Further improvements are suggested. The quantitative outcome measures were acceptable to this group of patients with dystonia. PMID:27496234

  6. Alcohol-antiretroviral therapy interactive toxicity beliefs and daily medication adherence and alcohol use among people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Pellowski, Jennifer A; Kalichman, Seth C; Kalichman, Moira O; Cherry, Chauncey

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol-antiretroviral therapy (ART) interactive toxicity beliefs reflect perceived adverse outcomes of mixing alcohol and ART. Previous research has shown a significant relationship between alcohol-ART interactive toxicity beliefs and ART non-adherence, over and above other correlates of non-adherence such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)symptoms and frequency of alcohol use. Most past studies have collected data over extended periods and have not determined if alcohol use and missed medications occur at the day-level among people holding interactive toxicity beliefs. Previous daily analyses, however, have been limited by self-reported adherence and relatively short periods of observation. To address these gaps in the literature, men and women living with HIV in Atlanta, GA, were enrolled in a 45-day observational cohort study. Daily alcohol use was collected using two-way interactive text message surveys and daily adherence was collected via the Wisepill device. Fifty-seven participants completed a measure of alcohol-ART interactive toxicity beliefs and contributed 2565 days of daily data. Participants who endorsed high levels of interactive toxicity beliefs had significantly more days when they missed doses of medication. Alcohol-antiretroviral toxicity beliefs predicted missing doses of medication on days when participants were drinking and on days when they were not drinking. Multilevel multivariate regressions showed that these toxicity beliefs predicted daily missed doses of medication over and above quantity of alcohol consumed, depression and general medication concerns. This study replicates and extends previous literature and indicates the necessity of addressing alcohol-ART toxicity beliefs within adherence interventions.

  7. Stress, needs, and quality of life of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ming-Chu; Feng, Jui-Ying; Yu, Chien-Tai; Chen, Li-Hua; Yang, Pei-Hsuan; Shih, Chung-Ching; Lu, Po-Liang

    2015-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS is a manageable infectious disease by the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS-related stigma and conflict may create distress and deteriorate quality of life (QoL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study using structural questionnaires aimed to explore the stress, needs, QoL, and associated factors of PLWHA in Taiwan. A total of 200 PLWHA participating in this study needed most on treatment of HIV and prevention of AIDS, and health maintenance. They had worse QoL in physical, psychological, and social domains (all p < 0.001) than the general population. Stress was the most significant predictor (β = -0.25 to -0.54, p < 0.01) for all four domains of QoL. Needs was not significantly associated with QoL. The QoL of PLWHA can be explained by demographics, self-perception on health, needs, and stress for 25.3-40.7% of variances. No association existed between CD4(+) counts and QoL in Taiwanese PLWHA. It is important to recognize the perception of PLWHA on their health status, which is significantly associated with their QoL, besides monitoring their physical indicators of health (CD4(+) counts). To recognize the stress and needs that PLWHA experience and to develop intervention programs targeting strategies on HIV disclosure, prevention and health maintenance are crucial for PLWHA's QoL.

  8. Pregnancy desire and dual method contraceptive use among people living with HIV attending clinical care in Kenya, Namibia and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Antelman, Gretchen; Medley, Amy; Mbatia, Redempta; Pals, Sherri; Arthur, Gilly; Haberlen, Sabina; Ackers, Marta; Elul, Batya; Parent, Julie; Rwebembera, Anath; Wanjiku, Lucy; Muraguri, Nicholas; Gweshe, Justice; Mudhune, Sandra; Bachanas, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe factors associated with pregnancy desire and dual method use among people living with HIV in clinical care in sub-Saharan Africa. Design Sexually active HIV-positive adults were enrolled in 18 HIV clinics in Kenya, Namibia and Tanzania. Demographic, clinical and reproductive health data were captured by interview and medical record abstraction. Correlates of desiring a pregnancy within the next 6 months, and dual method use [defined as consistent condom use together with a highly effective method of contraception (hormonal, intrauterine device (IUD), permanent)], among those not desiring pregnancy, were identified using logistic regression. Results Among 3375 participants (median age 37 years, 42% male, 64% on antiretroviral treatment), 565 (17%) desired a pregnancy within the next 6 months. Of those with no short-term fertility desire (n=2542), 686 (27%) reported dual method use, 250 (10%) highly effective contraceptive use only, 1332 (52%) condom use only, and 274 (11%) no protection. Respondents were more likely to desire a pregnancy if they were from Namibia and Tanzania, male, had a primary education, were married/cohabitating, and had fewer children. Factors associated with increased likelihood of dual method use included being female, being comfortable asking a partner to use a condom, and communication with a health care provider about family planning. Participants who perceived that their partner wanted a pregnancy were less likely to report dual method use. Conclusions There was low dual method use and low use of highly effective contraception. Contraceptive protection was predominantly through condom-only use. These findings demonstrate the importance of integrating reproductive health services into routine HIV care. PMID:25512359

  9. Trends in attitudes toward people living with HIV, homophobia, and HIV transmission knowledge in Quebec, Canada (1996, 2002, and 2010).

    PubMed

    Adrien, Alix; Beaulieu, Marianne; Leaune, Viviane; Perron, Michèle; Dassa, Clément

    2013-01-01

    People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in 1996, 2002, and 2010. We also examined the relationship between negative attitudes toward PWHIV, homophobia, and knowledge about HIV transmission. The scale included 16 items and had a five-factor structure: F1 (fear of being infected), F2 (fear of contact with PWHIV), F3 (prejudicial beliefs toward groups at high risk of HIV), F4 (tolerance regarding sexual mores and behaviors), and F5 (social support for PWHIV). The validity and reliability of the scale were assessed and found to be high. Overall, Quebecers had positive attitudes toward PWHIV, with more negative attitudes observed in subgroups defined as male, ≥50 years of age, <14 years of education, higher levels of homophobia, and below-average knowledge about HIV transmission. Scores were stable between 1996 and 2002, and increased in 2010. Negative attitudes were correlated with higher levels of homophobia and lesser knowledge about HIV transmission. The lowest scores for each factor were observed in the same subgroups that had low overall scores on the Attitudes Scale. The findings from this study can be used to intensify interventions that promote compassion for PWHIV, address attitudes toward homosexuality, and encourage greater knowledge about the transmission of HIV in these subgroups.

  10. Toxic substances in the environment affecting respiratory function of people in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenborg, C.P.; Marsh, N.; Moser, S.

    1991-03-01

    In this trilogy the authors have collected data from authors who are concerned with patients with respiratory complaints. Surprisingly there are unique problems in the residents of our State. The full impact of problems known to cause respiratory illnesses, such as asbestosis, will not be known for years to come. Other problems such as the effect of sugarcane burning are just now being identified and may show a parallel to the inhalation of asbestos dust. VOG may be simply an irritant or it may explain in part the high incidence of asthma in our State. Clearly more work needs to be done to explain the pathophysiology, the risk and possible treatment for the consequences on people of these putative toxic substances.

  11. Nearly 60,000 uninsured and low-income people with HIV/AIDS live in states that are not expanding Medicaid.

    PubMed

    Snider, Julia Thornton; Juday, Timothy; Romley, John A; Seekins, Daniel; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Sanchez, Yuri; Goldman, Dana P

    2014-03-01

    Health insurance gives people living with HIV/AIDS access to medical care, including antiretroviral therapy, which in turn can dramatically improve health and reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Yet many people living with HIV/AIDS remain uninsured. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) seeks to decrease the number of uninsured Americans in part by extending Medicaid coverage to individuals with incomes of up to 138 percent of the federal poverty level. However, many states are not moving forward with this expansion. Using national HIV surveillance data and data from the National Health Interview Survey, we estimated that nearly 115,000 uninsured, low-income people living with HIV/AIDS would be eligible for Medicaid if all states adopted the expansion. Of these, nearly 60,000 live in states not moving forward with the Medicaid expansion. States' decisions about whether or not to participate in the expansion are likely to have important consequences for the health of this population and the evolution of the HIV epidemic.

  12. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  13. Microcredit for people affected by HIV and AIDS: insights from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Datta, Dipankar; Njuguna, James

    2008-07-01

    Consequences of HIV and AIDS are exponential in Kenya, touching not only the health of those infected, but also depleting socioeconomic resources of entire families. Access to financial services is one of the important ways to protect and build economic resources. Unfortunately, the norm of financial viability discourages microfinance institutions from targeting people severely impacted by HIV and AIDS. Thus, HIV and AIDS service NGOs have been increasingly getting involved in microcredit activity in recent years for economic empowerment of their clients. Despite limited human resources and funding in the area of microcredit activity, these NGOs have demonstrated that nearly 50% of their microcredit beneficiaries invested money in income-generating activities, resulting in enhancement to their livelihood security. In the short term these NGOs need to improve their current practices. However, this does not mean launching microfinance initiatives within their AIDS-focused programmes, as financial services are best provided by specialised institutions. Longer-term cooperation between microfinance institutions and other AIDS service organisations and donors is necessary to master appropriate and rapid responses in areas experiencing severe impacts of HIV and AIDS.

  14. Seeking information about HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study of health literacy among people living with HIV/AIDS in a low prevalence context.

    PubMed

    Zukoski, Ann P; Thorburn, Sheryl; Stroud, Josh

    2011-11-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS in rural and low HIV prevalence areas face a number of challenges including stigma, limited access to specialized medical care, lack of an HIV/AIDS specialist and fear which may interfere with their ability to find and use information to manage their health. With a large number of HIV cases located in non-metropolitan and rural areas in the US, more research is needed to better understand the health seeking behaviors of individuals living in this context. This study examined how 16 individuals living with HIV sought out information to meet their health needs. In qualitative semi-structured interviews, we explored participants' primary sources of information, types of information sought, and barriers to accessing information. The sample was comprised of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who resided in a predominantly rural area with low HIV prevalence. The majority of participants relied on a combination of sources including their HIV/AIDS physician, the Internet, a Ryan-White caseworker and a staff member of a community-based support organization to meet their informational needs. Information sought focused primarily on drug regimens, drug side effects, or drug research. Participants shared barriers to accessing information including stigma, fear, concern about disclosure, and feelings of futility and anger. Findings point to a need to expand health literacy research and interventions to address broader social and structural barriers to health improvement for PLWHA, especially among those living in rural and low HIV prevalence areas.

  15. Lighting to Make You Feel Better: Improving the Mood of Elderly People with Affective Ambiences.

    PubMed

    Kuijsters, Andre; Redi, Judith; de Ruyter, Boris; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Current lighting technologies extend the options for changing the appearance of rooms and closed spaces, as such creating ambiences with an affective meaning. Using intelligence, these ambiences may instantly be adapted to the needs of the room's occupant(s), possibly improving their well-being. We hypothesized that ambiences with a clearly recognizable, positive affective meaning could be used to effectively mitigate negative mood in elderly. After inducing a sad mood with a short movie one group of elderly was immersed in a positive high arousing (i.e., activating) ambience, and another group in a neutral ambience. Similarly, after inducing anxiety with a short movie one group of elderly was immersed in a pleasant low arousing (i.e., cozy) ambience, and another group in a neutral ambience. We monitored the evolution of the mood of the four groups of elderly over a period of ten minutes after the mood induction, with both self-reported mood measurements (every 2 minutes) and constant measurements of the skin conductance response (SCR) and electrocardiography (ECG). In line with our hypothesis we found that the activating ambience was physiologically more arousing than the neutral ambience. The cozy ambience was more effective in calming anxious elderly than the neutral ambience, as reflected by both the self-reported and physiological measurements. PMID:26192281

  16. Lighting to Make You Feel Better: Improving the Mood of Elderly People with Affective Ambiences.

    PubMed

    Kuijsters, Andre; Redi, Judith; de Ruyter, Boris; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Current lighting technologies extend the options for changing the appearance of rooms and closed spaces, as such creating ambiences with an affective meaning. Using intelligence, these ambiences may instantly be adapted to the needs of the room's occupant(s), possibly improving their well-being. We hypothesized that ambiences with a clearly recognizable, positive affective meaning could be used to effectively mitigate negative mood in elderly. After inducing a sad mood with a short movie one group of elderly was immersed in a positive high arousing (i.e., activating) ambience, and another group in a neutral ambience. Similarly, after inducing anxiety with a short movie one group of elderly was immersed in a pleasant low arousing (i.e., cozy) ambience, and another group in a neutral ambience. We monitored the evolution of the mood of the four groups of elderly over a period of ten minutes after the mood induction, with both self-reported mood measurements (every 2 minutes) and constant measurements of the skin conductance response (SCR) and electrocardiography (ECG). In line with our hypothesis we found that the activating ambience was physiologically more arousing than the neutral ambience. The cozy ambience was more effective in calming anxious elderly than the neutral ambience, as reflected by both the self-reported and physiological measurements.

  17. Lighting to Make You Feel Better: Improving the Mood of Elderly People with Affective Ambiences

    PubMed Central

    Kuijsters, Andre; Redi, Judith; de Ruyter, Boris; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Current lighting technologies extend the options for changing the appearance of rooms and closed spaces, as such creating ambiences with an affective meaning. Using intelligence, these ambiences may instantly be adapted to the needs of the room’s occupant(s), possibly improving their well-being. We hypothesized that ambiences with a clearly recognizable, positive affective meaning could be used to effectively mitigate negative mood in elderly. After inducing a sad mood with a short movie one group of elderly was immersed in a positive high arousing (i.e., activating) ambience, and another group in a neutral ambience. Similarly, after inducing anxiety with a short movie one group of elderly was immersed in a pleasant low arousing (i.e., cozy) ambience, and another group in a neutral ambience. We monitored the evolution of the mood of the four groups of elderly over a period of ten minutes after the mood induction, with both self-reported mood measurements (every 2 minutes) and constant measurements of the skin conductance response (SCR) and electrocardiography (ECG). In line with our hypothesis we found that the activating ambience was physiologically more arousing than the neutral ambience. The cozy ambience was more effective in calming anxious elderly than the neutral ambience, as reflected by both the self-reported and physiological measurements. PMID:26192281

  18. El Portal Latino Alzheimer's Project: model program for Latino caregivers of Alzheimer's disease-affected people.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Maria P; Villa, Valentine M; Trejo, Laura; Ramírez, Rosa; Ranney, Martha

    2003-04-01

    The article describes the El Portal Latino Alzheimer's Project--a dementia-specific outreach and services program targeting Latino caregivers in the Los Angeles County area. The project is an example of an interorganizational community-based collaborative developed to provide an array of coordinated, ethnic-sensitive services to Latino dementia-affected adults and their family caregivers, using culturally specific outreach and services delivery strategies. Results of an evaluation of service utilization indicate a reduction in barriers to care and an increase in services utilization. Los Angeles County provides a natural urban laboratory to study the special needs and circumstances of older Latinos dealing with chronic and debilitating illnesses. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  19. Etiology and risk factors associated with a pruritic papular eruption in people living with HIV in India

    PubMed Central

    Farsani, Terry T; Kore, Sachin; Nadol, Patrick; Ramam, Mandalaparthy; Thierman, Sara J; Leslie, Kieron; Chandrasekar, Chockalingam; Sikhamani, Rajasekaran; Manoharan, Gurusamy; Kubba, Asha; Maurer, Toby A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Papulopruritic eruption (PPE) occurs in people living with HIV in India. Understanding the risk factors associated with this disease may help decrease the prevalence of PPE. Methods This study was a case-control study performed at the Government Hospital of Thoracic Medicine, a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, India. Cases included HIV-positive, antiretroviral (ARV) therapy-naïve adults experiencing a pruritic skin eruption for longer than one month, with evidence of multiple papular or nodular lesions and biopsy consistent with arthropod bite. Controls included HIV-positive, ARV-naïve patients without active skin rash. Main outcome measures were CD4 cell count, histology, and environmental exposures. We performed statistical analysis using Epi Info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 11.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Categorical variables such as gender, urban versus rural residence, occupation, treatment history, CD4 count, use of insect repellents, and environmental exposures were evaluated using the χ2 test (or the Fisher exact test when an expected value for a category was less than 5). The t-test was used to evaluate differences in age and the duration since HIV diagnosis. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare non-normally distributed values such as CD4 cell count. A p-value that was less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Forty-one cases and 149 control subjects were included. Subjects with PPE had significantly lower CD4 cell counts compared to controls (225.5 cells/µL vs. 425 cells/µL; p=0.0001). Sixty-six percent of cases had a CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/µL. PPE cases were less likely to use mosquito repellent techniques (odds ratio 2.81, CI = 1.45–5.45). Discussion PPE may be an altered and exaggerated immune response to arthropod bites in HIV-positive patients. CD4 cell count is significantly lower in patients with PPE, and therefore it may be considered a qualifying clinical finding for ARV

  20. Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liping, Ma; Peng, Xu; Haijiang, Lin; Lahong, Ju; Fan, Lv

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become a concept commonly used in the related research. Using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), this study evaluated the Quality of Life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Zhejiang province, China, and assessed the influences of demographic, laboratory and disease-related variables on QOL. This cross-sectional study was conducted among PLWHA aged ≥ 18 years in Taizhou municipality, Zhejiang province, China, between August 1 and October 31, 2014. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the influential factors. Of 403 subjects, 72.48% were male, 72.46% had received a high- school or above education, 94.79% were of Han ethnicity, and 65.51% were non farmers. The total score of QOL was 15.99±1.99. The scores of QOL in physiological, psychological, social relation, and environmental domains were 14.99 ±2.25, 14.25 ±2.12, 13.22 ±2.37, and 13.31 ±1.99 respectively. Except the total score of QOL and the score of environmental domain (p<0.05), the scores in other domains had no significant difference with the results of the national norm level. The multiple linear regression model identified the physical domain related factors to be age (β = -0.045), CD4 count (β = 0.002), and ART adherence(β = 1.231). And it also showed that psychological domain related factors included CD4 count (β = 0.002) and WHO clinical stage (β = -0.437); social domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (β = -0.704) and ART adherence (β = 1.177); while environmental domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (β = -0.538), educational status(β = 0.549) and ART adherence(β = 1.078).Those who are young, with higher level of education, higher CD4 count and good access and adherence of ART, are likely to have better QOL among PLWHA in Zhejiang province. This suggests that in addition to ART, many other factors should be taken into consideration

  1. Level of Satisfaction Among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) Attending the HIV Clinic of Tertiary Care Center in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Vahab, Sanoj Abdul; Ramapuram, John; Bhaskaran, Unnikrishnan; Achappa, Basavaprabhu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patient satisfaction is an important issue for the health care sector. Hospitals routinely collect patient satisfaction data so that they can improve the quality of their services. There is a dearth of research in the field of satisfaction among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Aim The aim of our study was to determine the level of satisfaction among PLHIV attending the HIV clinic of tertiary health centre in Southern India. Materials and Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was done in the HIV clinic attached to Kasturba Medical College (KMC) Hospital, Mangalore, India from August 2012 - August 2013. PLHIV of age more than 18 years were included. During the study period 422 consecutive patients who consented for the study were enrolled. To determine patient satisfaction towards healthcare service, we used the Short Form Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-18). Data was analysed using SPSS Version 11.5 statistical software. Results A total of 422 patients were included in the study out of whom 253(60%) were males and 169(40%) were females. Mean age of the patients was 37.08±7.2 years. The median CD4 count was 345 cells/mm3 (IQR 245-451.2). The mean score for general satisfaction was 4.43±0.48, for technical quality 4.77±0.26, for interpersonal manner 4.59±0.4, for communication 4.64±0.42, for financial aspects 3.20±0.78), for accessibility and convenience 4.50±0.72 and for time spent with the doctor was 4.59±0.45. Subscale scores for general satisfaction, technical quality, accessibility, interpersonal manner, finance and communication were higher in females when compared to males which were found to be statistically significant. Younger PLHIV (≤ 35 years) had significantly higher scores in technical quality, interpersonal manner and time spent with the doctor when compared to older PLHIV. Conclusion Patient satisfaction was highest for technical quality and it was lowest for financial aspects. If hospitals wish to

  2. Communication Robots for Elderly People and Their Families to Support Their Daily Lives - Case Study of Two Families Living with the Communicaton Robot.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kaoru; Sasaki, Chihiro; Nakamura, Mio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project is to analyze how two families (one is living with a senior with physical disabilities and the other is living with seniors) feel about using the human-type communication robot "Palro" and what they demand for the improvement through their 3 weeks usage. All of them liked Palro and its programs, but needed some new programs. They pointed out that Palro sometimes had problems in the facial or voice recognition systems. Palro is useful in the area of self-care and social isolation.

  3. Information and decision-making needs among people with affective disorders – results of an online survey

    PubMed Central

    Liebherz, Sarah; Tlach, Lisa; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient decision aids are one possibility for enabling and encouraging patients to participate in medical decisions. Objective This paper aims to describe patients’ information and decision-making needs as a prerequisite for the development of high-quality, web-based patient decision aids for affective disorders. Design We conducted an online cross-sectional survey by using a self-administered questionnaire including items on Internet use, online health information needs, role in decision making, and important treatment decisions, performing descriptive and comparative statistical analyses. Participants A total of 210 people with bipolar disorder/mania as well as 112 people with unipolar depression participated in the survey. Results Both groups specified general information search as their most relevant information need and decisions on treatment setting (inpatient or outpatient) as well as decisions on pharmacological treatment as the most difficult treatment decisions. For participants with unipolar depression, decisions concerning psychotherapeutic treatment were also especially difficult. Most participants of both groups preferred shared decisions but experienced less shared decisions than desired. Discussion and conclusion Our results show the importance of information for patients with affective disorders, with a focus on pharmacological treatment and on the different treatment settings, and highlight patients’ requirements to be involved in the decision-making process. Since our sample reported a chronic course of disease, we do not know if our results are applicable for newly diagnosed patients. Further studies should consider how the reported needs could be addressed in health care practice. PMID:25999698

  4. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    PubMed

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas.

  5. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    PubMed

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas. PMID:24287801

  6. Emotional episodes in the everyday lives of people with schizophrenia: the role of intrinsic motivation and negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Bryan P; Snethen, Gretchen; Lysaker, Paul H

    2012-12-01

    Research on emotional experience has indicated that subjects with schizophrenia experience less positive, and more negative emotional experience than non-psychiatric subjects in natural settings. Differences in the experience of emotion may result from differences in experiences such that everyday activities may evoke emotions. The purpose of this study was to identify if everyday experience of competence and autonomy were related to positive and negative emotion. Adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited from day treatment programs (N=45). Data were collected using experience-sampling methods. A number of subjects failed to meet data adequacy (N=13) but did not differ from retained subjects (N=32) in symptoms or cognition. Positive and negative emotion models were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling Everyday activities were characterized by those reported as easily accomplished and requiring at most moderate talents. Positive emotional experiences were stronger than negative emotional experiences. The majority of variance in positive and negative emotion existed between persons. Negative symptoms were significantly related to positive emotion, but not negative emotion. The perception that motivation for activity was external to subjects (e.g. wished they were doing something else) was related to decreased positive emotion and enhanced negative emotion. Activities that required more exertion for activities was related to enhanced positive emotion, whereas activities that subjects reported they wanted to do was associated with reduced negative emotion. The implications of this study are that everyday experiences of people with schizophrenia do affect emotional experience and that management of experience to enhance positive emotion may have therapeutic benefits.

  7. Estimating minimum adult HIV prevalence: a cross-sectional study to assess the characteristics of people living with HIV in Italy.

    PubMed

    Camoni, Laura; Raimondo, Mariangela; Dorrucci, Maria; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to assess the number of people living with HIV linked to care and, among these, the number of people on antiretroviral therapy. The health authority in each of the 20 Italian Regions provided the list of Public Infectious Diseases Clinics providing antiretroviral therapy and monitoring people with HIV infection. We asked every Public Infectious Diseases Clinic to report the number of HIV-positive people diagnosed and linked to care and the number of those on antiretroviral therapy during 2012. In 2012, 94,146 people diagnosed with HIV and linked to care were reported. The majority were males (70.1%), Italians (84.4%), and aged between 25 and 49 years (63.4%); the probable route of transmission was heterosexual contact in 37.5% of cases, injecting drug use in 28.1%, and male-to-male contact in 27.9%. Among people in care, 20.1% had less than 350 CD4 cells/μl, 87.6% received antiretroviral therapy, and among these, 62.4% had a CD4 cell count higher than 350 cells/μl. The overall estimated prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care in 2012 in Italy was 0.16 per 100 residents (all ages). Adding the estimated proportion of undiagnosed people, the estimated HIV prevalence would range between 0.19 and 0.26 per 100 residents. In Italy, the majority of people diagnosed and linked to care receive antiretroviral therapy. A higher prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care was observed in Northern Italy and among males. More information for developing the HIV care continuum is necessary to improve the entire engagement in care, focusing on test-and-treat strategies to substantially reduce the proportion of people still undiagnosed or with a detectable viral load.

  8. Estimating Minimum Adult HIV Prevalence: A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess the Characteristics of People Living with HIV in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Mariangela; Dorrucci, Maria; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2012, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to assess the number of people living with HIV linked to care and, among these, the number of people on antiretroviral therapy. The health authority in each of the 20 Italian Regions provided the list of Public Infectious Diseases Clinics providing antiretroviral therapy and monitoring people with HIV infection. We asked every Public Infectious Diseases Clinic to report the number of HIV-positive people diagnosed and linked to care and the number of those on antiretroviral therapy during 2012. In 2012, 94,146 people diagnosed with HIV and linked to care were reported. The majority were males (70.1%), Italians (84.4%), and aged between 25 and 49 years (63.4%); the probable route of transmission was heterosexual contact in 37.5% of cases, injecting drug use in 28.1%, and male-to-male contact in 27.9%. Among people in care, 20.1% had less than 350 CD4 cells/μl, 87.6% received antiretroviral therapy, and among these, 62.4% had a CD4 cell count higher than 350 cells/μl. The overall estimated prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care in 2012 in Italy was 0.16 per 100 residents (all ages). Adding the estimated proportion of undiagnosed people, the estimated HIV prevalence would range between 0.19 and 0.26 per 100 residents. In Italy, the majority of people diagnosed and linked to care receive antiretroviral therapy. A higher prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care was observed in Northern Italy and among males. More information for developing the HIV care continuum is necessary to improve the entire engagement in care, focusing on test-and-treat strategies to substantially reduce the proportion of people still undiagnosed or with a detectable viral load. PMID:25432098

  9. Specific Hopanoid Classes Differentially Affect Free-Living and Symbiotic States of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Gargi; Busset, Nicolas; Molinaro, Antonio; Gargani, Daniel; Chaintreuil, Clemence; Silipo, Alba

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A better understanding of how bacteria resist stresses encountered during the progression of plant-microbe symbioses will advance our ability to stimulate plant growth. Here, we show that the symbiotic system comprising the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens and the legume Aeschynomene afraspera requires hopanoid production for optimal fitness. While methylated (2Me) hopanoids contribute to growth under plant-cell-like microaerobic and acidic conditions in the free-living state, they are dispensable during symbiosis. In contrast, synthesis of extended (C35) hopanoids is required for growth microaerobically and under various stress conditions (high temperature, low pH, high osmolarity, bile salts, oxidative stress, and antimicrobial peptides) in the free-living state and also during symbiosis. These defects might be due to a less rigid membrane resulting from the absence of free or lipidA-bound C35 hopanoids or the accumulation of the C30 hopanoid diploptene. Our results also show that C35 hopanoids are necessary for symbiosis only with the host Aeschynomene afraspera but not with soybean. This difference is likely related to the presence of cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides in Aeschynomene nodules that induce drastic modification in bacterial morphology and physiology. The study of hopanoid mutants in plant symbionts thus provides an opportunity to gain insight into host-microbe interactions during later stages of symbiotic progression, as well as the microenvironmental conditions for which hopanoids provide a fitness advantage. PMID:26489859

  10. Validating Difference and Counting the Cost of Exclusion in the Lives of People Who Identify as on the Autistic Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lauren L.

    2012-01-01

    This current issues piece will explore how autobiographies written by people with autism can help identify sensory processing differences that might be viewed as possible attributes in an enabling society, but for which ableist perceptions are often negative. In concrete terms, these constructions may be preventing people from entering employment…

  11. What's School about for Kids?: Meanings and Uses of Homework in Young People's Lives. Families, Literacy, and Schooling: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Amy; Stack, Carol

    An ethnographic study used a multidimensional social perspective on learning and literacy to look at the educational experiences and perspectives of urban young people through an examination of student homework. Subjects, upwards of 40 young people, were drawn from four sites: a sixth-grade classroom at Woodside Elementary School (located in a…

  12. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…

  13. Where Should People with Dementia Live? Using the Views of Service Users to Inform Models of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbat, Liz; Wilkinson, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on research that illuminates how people with a learning disability understand dementia and indicates the implications of these understandings for developing appropriate models of care. As this new policy and practice area struggles to provide appropriate and effective models of care for people with a learning disability and…

  14. Living with Dementia in Rural and Remote Scotland: Diverse Experiences of People with Dementia and Their Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstock, K. L.; Innes, A.; Cox, S.; Smith, A.; Mason, A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a lack of research into people's experiences of using services as dementia sufferers themselves, or because they care for someone with dementia, in rural areas. This article explores their experiences in the context of rural Scotland, drawing on data gathered from both people with dementia and their carers. Our research suggests that…

  15. Does Ethnicity Affect Where People with Cancer Die? A Population-Based 10 Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Koffman, Jonathan; Ho, Yuen King; Davies, Joanna; Gao, Wei; Higginson, Irene J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ageing is a growing issue for people from UK black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups. The health experiences of these groups are recognised as a ‘tracer’ to measure success in end of life patient-preferred outcomes that includes place of death (PoD). Aim To examine patterns in PoD among BAME groups who died of cancer. Material and Methods Mortality data for 93,375 cancer deaths of those aged ≥65 years in London from 2001–2010 were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS). Decedent's country of birth was used as a proxy for ethnicity. Linear regression examined trends in place of death across the eight ethnic groups and Poisson regression examined the association between country of birth and place of death. Results 76% decedents were born in the UK, followed by Ireland (5.9%), Europe(5.4%) and Caribbean(4.3%). Most deaths(52.5%) occurred in hospital, followed by home(18.7%). During the study period, deaths in hospital declined with an increase in home deaths; trend for time analysis for those born in UK(0.50%/yr[0.36–0.64%]p<0.001), Europe (1.00%/yr[0.64–1.30%]p<0.001), Asia(1.09%/yr[0.94–1.20%]p<0.001) and Caribbean(1.03%/yr[0.72–1.30%]p<0.001). However, time consistent gaps across the geographical groups remained. Following adjustment hospital deaths were more likely for those born in Asia(Proportion ratio(PR)1.12[95%CI1.08–1.15]p<0.001) and Africa(PR 1.11[95%CI1.07–1.16]p<0.001). Hospice deaths were less likely for those born in Asia(PR 0.73 [0.68–0.80] p<0.001), Africa (PR 0.83[95%CI0.74–0.93]p<0.001), and ‘other’ geographical regions (PR0.90[95% 0.82–0.98]p<0.001). Home deaths were less likely for those born in the Caribbean(PR0.91[95%CI 0.85–0.98]p<0.001). Conclusions Location of death varies by country of birth. BAME groups are more likely to die in a hospital and less likely to die at home or in a hospice. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these differences result from

  16. Examining the associations between HIV-related stigma and health outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS: a series of meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sanjana; Chen, Shiyi; Gogolishvili, David; Globerman, Jason; Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Logie, Carmen H; Shi, Qiyun; Morassaei, Sara; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review and series of meta-analyses on the association between HIV-related stigma and health among people living with HIV. Data sources A structured search was conducted on 6 electronic databases for journal articles reporting associations between HIV-related stigma and health-related outcomes published between 1996 and 2013. Study eligibility criteria Controlled studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies in people living with HIV were considered for inclusion. Outcome measures Mental health (depressive symptoms, emotional and mental distress, anxiety), quality of life, physical health, social support, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, access to and usage of health/social services and risk behaviours. Results 64 studies were included in our meta-analyses. We found significant associations between HIV-related stigma and higher rates of depression, lower social support and lower levels of adherence to antiretroviral medications and access to and usage of health and social services. Weaker relationships were observed between HIV-related stigma and anxiety, quality of life, physical health, emotional and mental distress and sexual risk practices. While risk of bias assessments revealed overall good quality related to how HIV stigma and health outcomes were measured on the included studies, high risk of bias among individual studies was observed in terms of appropriate control for potential confounders. Additional research should focus on elucidating the mechanisms behind the negative relationship between stigma and health to better inform interventions to reduce the impact of stigma on the health and well-being of people with HIV. Conclusions This systematic review and series of meta-analyses support the notion that HIV-related stigma has a detrimental impact on a variety of health-related outcomes in people with HIV. This review can inform the development of multifaceted, intersectoral interventions to

  17. Variations in the Social Inclusion of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Supported Living Schemes and Residential Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConkey, R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The social inclusion of tenants living in two forms of supported living schemes--those clustered on one site and those dispersed in neighbourhoods--is contrasted with more traditional provision found on the island of Ireland, namely, small group homes, residential homes and campus-style settings. Methods: A standard pro forma based on…

  18. Nonadherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among People Living with HIV/AIDS Attending Two Tertiary Care Hospitals in District of Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Mukesh; Agarwal, Monika; Singh, Jai Vir; Tripathi, Anil Kumar; Srivastava, Anand Kumar; Singh, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a principal predictor for the success of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment. It remains as a challenge to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment and care with the widespread of the associated risks. Therefore, study aims to assess nonadherence level and factors associated with nonadherence to ART among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted at two tertiary care hospital of Lucknow. A total of 322 adult HIV-positive patients registered in the ART center were included. Systematic random sampling was used to recruit patients. Nonadherence was assessed on the basis of pill count method. Results: A total of 10.9% of patients were found to be nonadherent to ART. Principal causes cited were being busy with other work (40.0%), felt sick or ill (28.5%), not having money (14.2%), and being away from home (11.4). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that nonadherence was significantly associated with nonbeneficial perceptions towards ART (odds ratio (OR) 18.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2-106.6; P = 0.001), being counseled for adherence for more than 3 months (OR 13.9; 95% CI 1.6-118.9; P = 0.01), presence of depression (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.0-6.7; P = 0.04), and those who were not satisfied with healthcare facilities (OR 5.63; 95% CI 1.88-16.84; P = 0.00). Conclusion: Although adherence to ART varies between individuals and over time, the factors that affect nonadherence can be addressed with proper periodic counseling and motivation of patients and their family members. Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) could delay the progression of this lethal disease and minimize the risk of developing drug resistance. PMID:26917875

  19. Comparing the Metal Concentration in the Hair of Cancer Patients and Healthy People Living in the Malwa Region of Punjab, India

    PubMed Central

    Blaurock-Busch, Eleonore; Busch, Yvette M.; Friedle, Albrecht; Buerner, Holger; Parkash, Chander; Kaur, Anudeep

    2014-01-01

    The cancer prevalence in the Malwa region of Punjab (1089/million/year) is much higher than the national average cancer prevalence in India (800/million/year). The participants in the present study were 50 healthy individuals and 49 cancer patients all living in the Malwa region of Punjab, with the healthy people being selected from the same household as the cancer patients. High concentrations of several potentially toxic elements were found in hair samples from people living in Punjab. Compared to standard reference ranges, the metals in excess in both the control and patient groups were aluminium (Al), barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), strontium (Sr) and uranium (U). The most significant findings were high lead (Pb), U and Ba concentrations. The maximum values for Ba, Mn, Pb and U were found in hair from breast cancer patients. The mean concentration of U in hair from the breast cancer patients was 0.63 μg U/g, which is more than double the value found in the control group and over six times higher than the reference range of 0.1 μg U/g. Water, soil, and phosphate fertilizers all seem to play a potential role, causing an increased metal burden in Punjabi people living in the Malwa region. The present study indicates that metals, and especially U, may be a factor in the development of breast cancer among Punjabi women. PMID:24453505

  20. 'You can spend your life dying or you can spend your life living': identity transition in people who are HIV-positive.

    PubMed

    Tsarenko, Yelena; Polonsky, Michael Jay

    2011-04-01

    This article examines, through the lenses of HIV-positive people, the unique phenomenon of identity transition. This research proposes that life-changing illnesses, such as HIV, are an undesired 'possession' that people accept to varying degrees, which we refer to as 'ownership'. While illnesses, such as HIV compel individuals to undergo a transformation process that usually begins with a deep feeling of detachment, and then proceeds to acceptance of their illness, and to feeling empowered and in control of their HIV status and lives, this process is very complex and non-linear as it involves many iterative progressions in identity transition. These transitions are highly individualistic; however, the underlying theme is that the more positive trajectories were those of people who focus on their new lives, living with HIV (i.e. taking ownership of their illness), rather than focusing on what they have lost when they became HIV-positive. The findings demonstrate that identity transition is a result of the ways that individuals rework, negotiate and transform their roles, actions and behaviours through their active engagement with support mechanisms. This study suggests that it is vital to promote positive interactions with support mechanisms to ensure that those with HIV view themselves positively.