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Sample records for affect physical function

  1. Using Conceptual Metaphor and Functional Grammar to Explore How Language Used in Physics Affects Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists' language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor.…

  2. Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-06-01

    This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists’ language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into ontological categories based on the grammatical structure of physicists’ language. We also hypothesize that students overextend and misapply conceptual metaphors in physicists’ speech and writing. Using our theory, we will show how, in some cases, we can explain student difficulties in quantum mechanics as difficulties with language.

  3. Acute Physical Exercise Affects Cognitive Functioning in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Maltais, Désirée B; Gane, Claire; Dufour, Sophie-Krystale; Wyss, Dominik; Bouyer, Laurent J; McFadyen, Bradford J; Zabjek, Karl; Andrysek, Jan; Voisen, Julien I

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the effects of acute exercise on the cognitive functioning of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Selected cognitive functions were thus measured using a pediatric version of the Stroop test before and after maximal, locomotor based aerobic exercise in 16 independently ambulatory children (8 children with CP), 6-15 years old. Intense exercise had: 1) a significant, large, positive effect on reaction time (RT) for the CP group (preexercise: 892 ± 56.5 ms vs. postexercise: 798 ± 45.6 ms, p < .002, d = 1.87) with a trend for a similar but smaller response for the typically developing (TD) group (preexercise: 855 ± 56.5 ms vs. postexercise: 822 ± 45.6 ms, p < .08, d = 0.59), and 2) a significant, medium, negative effect on the interference effect for the CP group (preexercise: 4.5 ± 2.5%RT vs. postexercise: 13 ± 2.9%RT, p < .04, d = 0.77) with no significant effect for the TD group (preexercise: 7.2 ± 2.5%RT vs. postexercise: 6.9 ± 2.9%RT, p > .4, d = 0.03). Response accuracy was high in both groups pre- and postexercise (>96%). In conclusion, intense exercise impacts cognitive functioning in children with CP, both by increasing processing speed and decreasing executive function. PMID:26502458

  4. Sperm function in affective illness.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, J; Winokur, A; Levin, R

    1981-04-01

    There is evidence for functional changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of patients with affective disorders. Little is known concerning spermatogenesis or sperm function in depressed men. We systematically evaluated the sperm indices in a group of depressed males complaining of diminished libido, and a healthy control group. No differences were noted in sperm parameters between the groups.

  5. Effects of current physical activity on affective response to exercise: physical and social-cognitive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Magnan, Renee E; Kwan, Bethany M; Bryan, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    Affective responses during exercise are often important determinants of exercise initiation and maintenance. Current physical activity may be one individual difference that is associated with the degree to which individuals have positive (or negative) affective experiences during exercise. The objective of this study was to explore physical and cognitive explanations of the relationship between current activity status (more versus less active) and affective response during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. Participants reported their current level of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy and affect during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. More active individuals experienced higher levels of positive affect and tranquillity and lower levels of negative affect and fatigue during exercise. Multivariate models for each affective state indicated separate processes through which physical activity may be associated with changes in affect during exercise. These models indicate that affect experienced during physical activity is related to the current activity level and these relationships can be partially explained by the physical and cognitive factors explored in this study. Recommendations for future research to elucidate whether positive affective response to physical activity improves as a function of becoming more active over time are discussed.

  6. Physical unclonable functions: A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Todd; Hamlet, Jason

    2014-11-01

    Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) make use of the measurable intrinsic randomness of physical systems to establish signatures for those systems. Thus, PUFs provide a means to generate unique keys that don't need to be stored in nonvolatile memory, and they offer exciting opportunities for new authentication and supply chain security technologies.

  7. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  8. Dust in the western U.S.: how biological, physical and human activities at the local scale interact to affect hydrologic function at the landscape scale (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belnap, J.; Reheis, M. C.; Munson, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Dryland regions constitute over 35% of terrestrial lands around the globe. Limited rainfall in these regions restricts plant growth and the spaces between vascular plants are often large. Most interspace soils are protected from wind erosion by the cover of rocks, physical crusts, and biological crusts (cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses). However, disturbance of the soil surface in dryland regions (e.g., recreation, livestock, mining and energy exploration, military exercises, fire) reduces or eliminates the protective cover of the soils. Rising temperatures will reduce soil moisture and thus plant cover. Wind tunnel data show that most desert surfaces produce little sediment under typical wind speeds. However, disturbing the soil surface with vehicles, humans, or animals resulted in much higher sediment production from all surfaces tested, regardless of parent material, texture, or age of the soil surface. Synergist effects, such as surface disturbance occurring during drought periods in annualized plant communities, can create very large dust events. As surface disturbance, invasion, and drought are expected to increase in the future, an increase in dust production can be expected as well. Increased particulates in the air threaten human well-being through disease, highway accidents, and economic losses. Where dust losses are greater than the inputs, the source areas lose carbon and nutrients. These compounds are transferred to high elevation regions, where such fertilization likely impacts ecosystem function. Deposition of dust on the snowpack darkens the surface, increasing snowmelt by 30 days or more and exposing soils to evaporation, all of which decrease the quantity and quality of water in major streams and rivers. As increases occur in temperature, pumping of shallow aquifers, human activities, and invasion of exotic annual plants in dryland regions, the frequency, severity, and negative impact of dust storms is expected to increase as well. The

  9. Teaching Affective Qualities in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, Brent; Welch, Mindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Physical educators at all levels have observed learners in a school-based physical education setting as well as physical activity or sport settings outside of organized school curricula demonstrating behaviors deemed inappropriate or inconsistent with professional standards. Because sport is such a public, social, and international phenomenon,…

  10. What physics does affect the MRI threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgisonis, V. I.; Lakhin, V. P.; Khalzov, I. V.; Smolyakov, A. I.

    2010-06-16

    Several physical effects, which can considerably decrease the magnetorotational instability (MRI) threshold are discussed. First, we show that MRI features are changed significantly in non-uniform magnetic field. Second, the buoyancy effect is shown to can be destabilizing for azimuthal flow of a resistive plasma. Third, we demonstrate that the rotating fluid may be unstable with respect to non-axisymmetric modes at much lower rotation velocities than with respect to usual symmetric modes.

  11. What Is Beautiful Feels Good: Affective Reactions to Physical Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Bernardo J.; Ogan, Tamra A.

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated that variations in physical attractiveness elicit different evaluative and behavioral responses. To assess differences in affective responses to variations in physical attractiveness and the affect of sex on those responses, 76 college students (31 male and 45 female) viewed colored slides of an…

  12. Physical parameters affecting living cells in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, Dieter

    The question is posed: Why does a living cell react to the absence of gravity? What sensors may it have? Does it note pressure, sedimentation, convection, or other parameters? If somewhere in a liquid volume sodium ions are replaced by potassium ions, the density of the liquid changes locally: the heavier regions sink, the lighter regions rise. This may contribute to species transport, to the metabolism. Under microgravity this mechanism is strongly reduced. On the other hand, other reasons for convection like thermal and solutal interface convection are left. Do they affect species transport? Another important effect of gravity is the hydrostatic pressure. On the macroscopic side, the pressure between our head and feet changes by 0.35 atmospheres. On the microscopic level the hydrostatic pressure on the upper half of a cell membrane is lower than on the lower half. This, by affecting the ion transport through the membrane, may change the surrounding electric potential. It has been suggested to be one of the reasons for graviperception. Following the discussion of these and other effects possibly important in life sciences in space, an order of magnitude analysis of the residual accelerations tolerable during experiments in materials sciences is outlined. In the field of life sciences only rough estimates are available at present.

  13. Gender Differences in Introductory University Physics Performance: The Influence of High School Physics Preparation and Affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazari, Zahra

    2006-12-01

    The attrition of females studying physics after high school has been a continuing concern for the physics education community. If females are well prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory college physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study uses HLM to identify factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that predict female and male performance in introductory college physics. The study includes controls for student demographic and academic background characteristics, and the final dataset consists of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory college physics classes. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially predict female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believe that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that similarly predict female and male performance. The results paint a dynamic picture of the factors from high school physics and the affective domain that influence the future physics performance of females and males. The implication is that there are many aspects to the teaching of physics in high school that, although widely used and thought to be effective, need reform in their implementation in order to be fully beneficial to females and/or males in college.

  14. Physical and Psychological Decrements Affecting Reading in the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Molly M.

    While reading has been recognized as a potentially useful and enjoyable pastime for the elderly, physical and psychological decrements affect the ability of the elderly to read. As the eyes age, near-point tasks become more difficult. In addition to reduced sensory intake, perceptual changes occur. The central nervous system slows, and data travel…

  15. The importance of physical activity and sleep for affect on stressful days: Two intensive longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    PubMed

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. PMID:27590367

  17. [Institutionalized elderly: functional capacity and physical fitness].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Lúcia Hisako Takase; Silva, Aline Huber da; Mazo, Giovana Zarpsellon; Benedetti, Tânia R Bertoldo; dos Santos, Silvia Maria Azevedo; Marques, Sueli; Rodrigues, Rosalina A Partezani; Portella, Marilene Rodrigues; Scortegagna, Helenice de Moura; Santos, Silvana Sidney C; Pelzer, Marlene Teda; Souza, Andrea dos Santos; Meira, Edmeia Campos; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Creutzberg, Marion; Resende, Thais de Lima; Rezende, Tais de Lima

    2010-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between physical fitness and functional capacity in 78 residents of long-stay institutions for low-income elderly located in five regions of Brazil. The majority of the sample consisted of women, and mean age was 77.4 years (SD = 7.9). Physical fitness was assessed with the AAHPERD test, adjusted for institutionalized elderly. The Katz scale was used for functional capacity. The five components of physical fitness rated fair for flexibility, coordination, agility, and aerobic endurance and good for strength. The mean general physical fitness (GPF) index was fair. According to the findings, the greater the degree of dependency in institutionalized elderly, the lesser their strength and GPF level; meanwhile, better coordination and agility are associated with greater independence for performing activities of daily living. The results can contribute to appropriate physical exercise programs for maintenance and/or recovery of functionality.

  18. Physical Androgyny and Cognitive Functioning in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of physical manifestations of sex hormone influence to cognitive functioning in a longitudinal sample of 106 adolescent males and 99 females (ages 13, 16, and 18 years). Analyses of the 35 males and 40 females who had all cognitive and physical data at all three ages are reported here. (Author/SB)

  19. Kidney function decline and physical function in women

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Julie; Curhan, Gary C.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Cross-sectional analyses of kidney function and physical function have identified profound quality of life impairments in people with advanced kidney dysfunction. No data are currently available, however, on how kidney function decline may be associated with physical function. Methods. We undertook a study of kidney function decline and physical function in 2544 women participating in the Nurses’ Health Study. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) were estimated using the four-variable MDRD equation from plasma creatinine measured in blood collected in 1989 and 2000. Physical function was assessed by the Physical Function Sub-Scale (PFS) score of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) in a questionnaire administered in the year 2000. PFS scores have been shown to correlate well with direct measures of physical function. Results. In the year 2000, the median age was 67 years, median body mass index (BMI) was 25.6 kg/m2, 48.5% had hypertension and 5.8% had diabetes. There were 427 women (16.8%) who experienced an ≥25% decline in eGFR between 1989 and 2000. Median PFS in 2000 for those with an eGFR decline of ≥25% was 80 compared to a PFS score of 85 for those without (P < 0.001). In fully adjusted models, the presence of an eGFR decline of ≥25% was independently associated with a 3.5-point lower PFS score (95% CI −5.4 to −1.5). Also, an eGFR decline of ≥25% was independently associated with an increased odds ratio of being in the lowest quartile of PFS score (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.04–1.81). Conclusions. We conclude that an eGFR decline of ≥25% over 11 years is independently associated with lower physical function in women. PMID:18398018

  20. Socioeconomic Disparities Affect Prefrontal Function in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishiyama, Mark M.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Jimenez, Amy M.; Perry, Lee M.; Knight, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Social inequalities have profound effects on the physical and mental health of children. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds perform below children from higher SES backgrounds on tests of intelligence and academic achievement, and recent findings indicate that low SES (LSES) children are impaired on behavioral measures of…

  1. Gender differences in introductory university physics performance: The influence of high school physics preparation and affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazari, Zahra Sana

    The attrition of females studying physics after high school is a concern to the science education community. Most undergraduate science programs require introductory physics coursework. Thus, success in introductory physics is necessary for students to progress to higher levels of science study. Success also influences attitudes; if females are well-prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study using multilevel modeling focused on determining factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that influenced female and male performance in introductory university physics. The study controlled for some university/course level characteristics as well as student demographic and academic background characteristics. The data consisted of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory physics courses within 35 universities across the US. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially influenced female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects, cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believed that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that had a similar influence on female and male performance. Positively related to performance were: covering fewer topics for longer periods of time, the history of physics as a recurring topic, physics-related videos, and test/quiz questions that involved calculations and/or were drawn from standardized tests. Negatively related to performance were: student-designed projects, reading/discussing labs the day before performing them, microcomputer based laboratories, discussion after demonstrations, and family

  2. Funny and Functional Physics: PEC Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen Stuart, Martien

    When the tendency of polyelectrolyte complexes to phase separate is judiciously combined with appropriate concepts from the realms of polymer physics and supramolecular chemistry, a wealth of novel self-assembled nanoparticles with original properties can be prepared. This presentation discusses how a high degree of complexity and functionality arises spontaneously, in the form of equilibrium structures, and how these structures can be understood from physical principles. Some promising applications are mentioned as well.

  3. Validation of questionnaires on physical function.

    PubMed

    Fortin, F; Kérouac, S

    1977-01-01

    Data-gathering instruments were used in a randomized controlled trial, designed to assess a structured preoperative educational program for elective surgical patients. The key dependent variable was the physical functional capacity of patients following surgery. Questionnaires were developed to measure physical functioning in the immediate postoperative period, after discharge from hospital, and 10 days and 33 days after surgery. Statistical techniques used to measure interobserver agreement and bias were worker's chi square, Cicchett's statistic, the contingency coefficient, Kendall's Taub, and Kendall's coefficient of concordance W. The standardized questionnaires permitted classification of patients's postoperative physical functions with results that agreed highly with the classification done by experienced clinicians who cared for the same patients.

  4. Effects of Physical (In)activity on Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Heber, Stefan; Volf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    As platelet activation is closely related to the liberation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, platelets play a central role in the development of CVD. Virtually all cardiovascular risk factors favor platelet hyperreactivity and, accordingly, also physical (in)activity affects platelet function. Within this paper, we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the impact of acute and habitual exercise on platelet function. Although there are apparent discrepancies regarding the reported effects of acute, strenuous exercise on platelet activation, a deeper analysis of the available literature reveals that the applied exercise intensity and the subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness represent critical determinants for the observed effects. Consideration of these factors leads to the summary that (i) acute, strenuous exercise can lead to platelet activation, (ii) regular physical activity and/or physical fitness diminish or prevent platelet activation in response to acute exercise, and (iii) habitual physical activity and/or physical fitness also favorably modulate platelet function at physical rest. Notably, these effects of exercise on platelet function show obvious similarities to the well-recognized relation between exercise and the risk for cardiovascular events where vigorous exercise transiently increases the risk for myocardial infarction and a physically active lifestyle dramatically reduces cardiovascular mortality. PMID:26557653

  5. Physical Activity Affects Brain Integrity in HIV + Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Mario; Baker, Laurie M.; Vaida, Florin; Paul, Robert; Basco, Brian; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested benefits of aerobic physical activity (PA) on cognition and brain volumes in HIV uninfected (HIV−) individuals, however, few studies have explored the relationships between PA and brain integrity (cognition and structural brain volumes) in HIV-infected (HIV +) individuals. Seventy HIV + individuals underwent neuropsychological testing, structural neuroimaging, laboratory tests, and completed a PA questionnaire, recalling participation in walking, running, and jogging activities over the last year. A PA engagement score of weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hr of activity was calculated using a compendium of PAs. HIV + individuals were classified as physically active (any energy expended above resting expenditure, n = 22) or sedentary (n = 48). Comparisons of neuropsychological performance, grouped by executive and motor domains, and brain volumes were completed between groups. Physically active and sedentary HIV + individuals had similar demographic and laboratory values, but the active group had higher education (14.0 vs. 12.6 years, p = .034). Physically active HIV + individuals performed better on executive (p = .040, unadjusted; p = .043, adjusted) but not motor function (p = .17). In addition, among the physically active group the amount of physical activity (METs) positively correlated with executive (Pearson’s r = 0.45, p = 0.035) but not motor (r = 0.21; p = .35) performance. In adjusted analyses the physically active HIV + individuals had larger putamen volumes (p = .019). A positive relationship exists between PA and brain integrity in HIV + individuals. Results from the present study emphasize the importance to conduct longitudinal interventional investigation to determine if PA improves brain integrity in HIV + individuals. PMID:26581799

  6. Physical health functioning among United Methodist clergy.

    PubMed

    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; LeGrand, Sara

    2012-09-01

    United Methodist clergy have been found to have higher than average self-reported rates of obesity, diabetes, asthma, arthritis, and high blood pressure. However, health diagnoses differ from physical health functioning, which indicates how much health problems interfere with activities of daily living. Ninety-five percent (n = 1726) of all actively serving United Methodist clergy in North Carolina completed the SF-12, a measure of physical health functioning that has US norms based on self-administered survey data. Sixty-two percent (n = 1074) of our sample completed the SF-12 by self-administered formats. We used mean difference tests among self-administered clergy surveys to compare the clergy SF-12 Physical Composite Scores to US-normed scores. Clergy reported significantly better physical health composite scores than their gender- and age-matched peers, despite above average disease burden in the same sample. Although health interventions tailored to clergy that address chronic disease are urgently needed, it may be difficult to elicit participation given pastors' optimistic view of their physical health functioning.

  7. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  8. Are physicians' ratings of pain affected by patients' physical attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Hadjistavropoulos, H D; Ross, M A; von Baeyer, C L

    1990-01-01

    The degree to which physical attractiveness and nonverbal expressions of pain influence physicians' perceptions of pain was investigated. Photographs of eight female university students were represented in four experimental conditions created by the manipulation of cosmetics, hairstyles, and facial expressions: (a) attractive-no pain, (b) attractive-pain, (c) unattractive-no pain, and (d) unattractive-pain. Each photograph was accompanied by a brief description of the patient's pain problem that was standard across conditions. Medical residents (N = 60) viewed the photographs and rated each patient's pain, distress, negative affective experience, health, personality, blame for the situation, and the physician's own solicitude for the patient. The results showed that physicians' ratings of pain were influenced both by attractiveness of patients and by nonverbal expressions of pain. Unattractive patients, and patients who were expressing pain, were perceived as experiencing more pain, distress, and negative affective experiences than attractive patients and patients who were not expressing pain. Unattractive patients also received higher ratings of solicitude on the doctor's part and lower ratings of health than attractive patients. Physician's assessments of pain appear to be influenced by the physical attractiveness of the patient. PMID:2367884

  9. Are physicians' ratings of pain affected by patients' physical attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Hadjistavropoulos, H D; Ross, M A; von Baeyer, C L

    1990-01-01

    The degree to which physical attractiveness and nonverbal expressions of pain influence physicians' perceptions of pain was investigated. Photographs of eight female university students were represented in four experimental conditions created by the manipulation of cosmetics, hairstyles, and facial expressions: (a) attractive-no pain, (b) attractive-pain, (c) unattractive-no pain, and (d) unattractive-pain. Each photograph was accompanied by a brief description of the patient's pain problem that was standard across conditions. Medical residents (N = 60) viewed the photographs and rated each patient's pain, distress, negative affective experience, health, personality, blame for the situation, and the physician's own solicitude for the patient. The results showed that physicians' ratings of pain were influenced both by attractiveness of patients and by nonverbal expressions of pain. Unattractive patients, and patients who were expressing pain, were perceived as experiencing more pain, distress, and negative affective experiences than attractive patients and patients who were not expressing pain. Unattractive patients also received higher ratings of solicitude on the doctor's part and lower ratings of health than attractive patients. Physician's assessments of pain appear to be influenced by the physical attractiveness of the patient.

  10. Coupled model of physical and biological processes affecting maize pollination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, R.; Westgate, M.; Riese, J.; Falk, M.; Takle, E.

    2003-04-01

    Controversy over the use of genetically modified (GM) crops has led to increased interest in evaluating and controlling the potential for inadvertent outcrossing in open-pollinated crops such as maize. In response to this problem we have developed a Lagrangian model of pollen dispersion as a component of a coupled end-to-end (anther to ear) physical-biological model of maize pollination. The Lagrangian method is adopted because of its generality and flexibility: first, the method readily accommodates flow fields of arbitrary complexity; second, each element of the material being transported can be identified by its source, time of release, or other properties of interest. The latter allows pollen viability to be estimated as a function of such factors as travel time, temperature, and relative humidity, so that the physical effects of airflow and turbulence on pollen dispersion can be considered together with the biological aspects of pollen release and viability. Predicted dispersion of pollen compares well both to observations and to results from a simpler Gaussian plume model. Ability of the Lagrangian model to handle complex air flows is demonstrated by application to pollen dispersion in the vicinity of an agricultural shelter belt. We also show results indicating that pollen viability can be quantified by an "aging function" that accounts for temperature, humidity, and time of exposure.

  11. The mechanical microenvironment in cancer: How physics affects tumours.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerke, Anika; Bussink, Johan; Rowan, Alan E; Span, Paul N

    2015-12-01

    The tumour microenvironment contributes greatly to the response of tumour cells. It consists of chemical gradients, for example of oxygen and nutrients. However, a physical environment is also present. Apart from chemical input, cells also receive physical signals. Tumours display unique mechanical properties: they are a lot stiffer than normal tissue. This may be either a cause or a consequence of cancer, but literature suggests it has a major impact on tumour cells as will be described in this review. The mechanical microenvironment may cause malignant transformation, possibly through activation of oncogenic pathways and inhibition of tumour suppressor genes. In addition, the mechanical microenvironment may promote tumour progression by influencing processes such as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhancing cell survival through autophagy, but also affects sensitivity of tumour cells to therapeutics. Furthermore, multiple intracellular signalling pathways prove sensitive to the mechanical properties of the microenvironment. It appears the increased stiffness is unlikely to be caused by increased stiffness of the tumour cells themselves. However, there are indications that tumours display a higher cell density, making them more rigid. In addition, increased matrix deposition in the tumour, as well as increased interstitial fluid pressure may account for the increased stiffness of tumours. Overall, tumour mechanics are significantly different from normal tissue. Therefore, this feature should be further explored for use in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  12. Positive and negative affective processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs during the viewing of affective pictures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Hong; Pan, Xiaohong

    2015-02-01

    Recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using graph theory metrics have revealed that the functional network of the human brain possesses small-world characteristics and comprises several functional hub regions. However, it is unclear how the affective functional network is organized in the brain during the processing of affective information. In this study, the fMRI data were collected from 25 healthy college students as they viewed a total of 81 positive, neutral, and negative pictures. The results indicated that affective functional networks exhibit weaker small-worldness properties with higher local efficiency, implying that local connections increase during viewing affective pictures. Moreover, positive and negative emotional processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs, emerging mainly in task-positive regions. These functional hubs, which are the centers of information processing, have nodal betweenness centrality values that are at least 1.5 times larger than the average betweenness centrality of the network. Positive affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the right orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the right putamen in the positive emotional network; negative affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the left OFC and the left amygdala in the negative emotional network. The local efficiencies in the left superior and inferior parietal lobe correlated with subsequent arousal ratings of positive and negative pictures, respectively. These observations provide important evidence for the organizational principles of the human brain functional connectome during the processing of affective information.

  13. Physical Factors Affecting Outflow Facility Measurements in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boussommier-Calleja, Alexandra; Li, Guorong; Wilson, Amanda; Ziskind, Tal; Scinteie, Oana Elena; Ashpole, Nicole E.; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Farsiu, Sina; Challa, Pratap; Gonzalez, Pedro; Downs, J. Crawford; Ethier, C. Ross; Stamer, W. Daniel; Overby, Darryl R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mice are commonly used to study conventional outflow physiology. This study examined how physical factors (hydration, temperature, and anterior chamber [AC] deepening) influence ocular perfusion measurements in mice. Methods Outflow facility (C) and pressure-independent outflow (Fu) were assessed by multilevel constant pressure perfusion of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6 mice. To examine the effect of hydration, seven eyes were perfused at room temperature, either immersed to the limbus in saline and covered with wet tissue paper or exposed to room air. Temperature effects were examined in 12 eyes immersed in saline at 20°C or 35°C. Anterior chamber deepening was examined in 10 eyes with the cannula tip placed in the anterior versus posterior chamber (PC). Posterior bowing of the iris (AC deepening) was visualized by three-dimensional histology in perfusion-fixed C57BL/6 eyes and by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in living CD1 mice. Results Exposure to room air did not significantly affect C, but led to a nonzero Fu that was significantly reduced upon immersion in saline. Increasing temperature from 20°C to 35°C increased C by 2.5-fold, more than could be explained by viscosity changes alone (1.4-fold). Perfusion via the AC, but not the PC, led to posterior iris bowing and increased outflow. Conclusions Insufficient hydration contributes to the appearance of pressure-independent outflow in enucleated mouse eyes. Despite the large lens, AC deepening may artifactually increase outflow in mice. Temperature-dependent metabolic processes appear to influence conventional outflow regulation. Physical factors should be carefully controlled in any outflow studies involving mice. PMID:26720486

  14. Effect of physical exhaustion on cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Féry, Y A; Ferry, A; Vom Hofe, A; Rieu, M

    1997-02-01

    Experiments utilizing reaction time to measure the effects of fatigue on cognition must discern sensitivity of peripheral and central processing to strenuous exercise. The additive factors method enables one to stipulate that if fatigue interacts with subjects' reaction time in a decision task, central processing is affected by fatigue. While pedaling at different intensities, 13 physically-fit men had to perform a series of short-term memory tests. The tests were executed during a constant workload session and a progressive workload session in which subjects pedaled until exhaustion. Subjects provided ratings on Borg's 1970 scale to measure the psychological effects of the physical effort such as perceived exertion. Allocation of processing resources was also measured to determine attentional constraints exerted by the dual-task situation. Analysis showed that decision reaction time was affected only during the exhausting bout of the progressive workload session and for the more difficult decision task. We discuss our results in the context of arousal and the allocation of processing resources.

  15. Physical modification of food starch functionalities.

    PubMed

    BeMiller, James N; Huber, Kerry C

    2015-01-01

    Because, in general, native starches do not have properties that make them ideally suited for applications in food products, most starch is modified by dervatization to improve its functionality before use in processed food formulations, and because food processors would prefer not to have to use the modified food starch label designation required when chemically modified starches are used, there is considerable interest in providing starches with desired functionalities that have not been chemically modified. One investigated approach is property modification via physical treatments, that is, modifications of starches imparted by physical treatments that do not result in any chemical modification of the starch. Physical treatments are divided into thermal and nonthermal treatments. Thermal treatments include those that produce pregelatinized and granular cold-water-swelling starches, heat-moisture treatments, annealing, microwave heating, so-called osmotic pressure treatment, and heating of dry starch. Nonthermal treatments include ultrahigh-pressure treatments, instantaneous controlled pressure drop, use of high-pressure homogenizers, dynamic pulsed pressure, pulsed electric field, and freezing and thawing.

  16. Physical exercise affects attentional orienting behavior through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T; Bucci, David J

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, is not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders. PMID:26030434

  17. Physical exercise affects attentional orienting behavior through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T; Bucci, David J

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, is not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders.

  18. Physical Exercise Affects Attentional Orienting Behavior through Noradrenergic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Andrea M.; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T.; Bucci, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs), a commonly-used animal model of ADHD, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a non-reinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, was not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders. PMID:26030434

  19. The Relationship of Freshmen's Physics Achievement and Their Related Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Almer (Abak); Eryilmaz, Ali; Fakioglu, Turgut

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the best-fitting structural equation model between the freshmen's physics achievement and selected affective characteristics related to physics. These characteristics are students' situational interest in physics, personal interest in physics, aspiring extra activities related to physics, importance of…

  20. Affect integration and reflective function: clarification of central conceptual issues.

    PubMed

    Solbakken, Ole André; Hansen, Roger Sandvik; Monsen, Jon Trygve

    2011-07-01

    The importance of affect regulation, modulation or integration for higher-order reflection and adequate functioning is increasingly emphasized across different therapeutic approaches and theories of change. These processes are probably central to any psychotherapeutic endeavor, whether explicitly conceptualized or not, and in recent years a number of therapeutic approaches have been developed that explicitly target them as a primary area of change. However, there still is important lack of clarity in the field regarding the understanding and operationalization of affect integration, particularly when it comes to specifying underlying mechanisms, the significance of different affect states, and the establishment of operational criteria for measurement. The conceptual relationship between affect integration and reflective function thus remains ambiguous. The present article addresses these topics, indicating ways in which a more complex and exhaustive understanding of integration of affect, cognition and behavior can be attained.

  1. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  2. Physical Education Performance Outcomes and Cognitive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    This article intends to inform physical education teachers about the current research describing the relationship between physical education performance outcomes as identified by the national physical education standards (i.e., regular participation in physical activity, physical fitness, motor competence; National Association of Physical…

  3. Does Physics Teaching Affect Gender-based Science Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udo, M. K.; Ramsey, G. P.; Reynolds-Alpert, S.; Mallow, J. V.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results of a study designed to measure the level of science anxiety in students enrolled in physics courses at Loyola University in Chicago. The leading factors contributing to science anxiety include nonscience anxiety and gender. Concludes that the teaching of an introductory physics course can reduce acute levels of science…

  4. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  5. Negative Experiences in Physical Education and Sport: How Much Do They Affect Physical Activity Participation Later in Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2013-01-01

    People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…

  6. Affective Learning Profiles in Compulsory High School Physical Education: An Instructional Communication Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Mindrila, Diana; Weaver, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Affective learning is a major focus of the national K-12 physical education (PE) content standards (National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE, 2004]). Understanding how students might fit into different affective learning subgroups would help extend affective learning theory in PE and suggest possible intervention strategies for…

  7. Affective and Physical Changes Associated with Oral Contraceptive Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Alane L.; And Others

    Although investigations of the physiological effects of oral contraceptives suggest that affective changes may accompany their use, empirical documentation of these effects has not been consistent. This study examined physiological and affective changes accompanying use of a low-dosage oral contraceptive while controlling for possible expectancy…

  8. Factors Affecting Junior High School Students' Interest in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-03-01

    We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest in physics was "neutral" (neither positive nor negative), with boys showing a higher interest than girls. We found a strong correlation between students' "neutral" interest in physics and their negative opinions about science classes. These findings raise serious questions about the implementation of changes made in the Israeli science curriculum in primary and junior high school, especially if the goal is to prepare the young generation for life in a scientific-technological era. A more in-depth analysis of the results led us to formulate curricular, behavioral, and organizational changes needed to reach this goal.

  9. Factors Affecting Length of Stay in Adult Outpatient Physical Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Christina; Turgeon-Provost, Félix; Dagenais, Kristin; Roy-Mathie, Bianca; Aggban, Martina; Preuss, Richard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify factors affecting length of stay (LOS) for adults participating in outpatient physical or occupational therapy programmes. Method: A scoping review of the literature was conducted using the Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and Cochrane Library databases. Results: A total of 19 articles were retained from the search, and 2 additional articles were retrieved from grey literature (i.e., non-published sources). Personal factors affecting LOS are age and sex, both of which had inconsistent effects on LOS, and communication, language, physical, and cognitive difficulties, for which higher levels of function were generally associated with shorter LOS. Institutional factors affecting LOS were location, interdisciplinary communication, number of disciplines involved, and type of rehabilitation setting. Finally, two clinician-related factors—fewer treatment goals and a selection of evidence-informed treatment techniques—were associated with shorter LOS. Conclusions: Research on factors affecting adult outpatient rehabilitation LOS is limited and inconsistent. A preliminary list of LOS factors was produced, but this topic should be further explored with the collaboration of researchers and clinical institutions. PMID:27504032

  10. Neighbourhood green space, physical function and participation in physical activities among elderly men: the Caerphilly Prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The built environment in which older people live plays an important role in promoting or inhibiting physical activity. Most work on this complex relationship between physical activity and the environment has excluded people with reduced physical function or ignored the difference between groups with different levels of physical function. This study aims to explore the role of neighbourhood green space in determining levels of participation in physical activity among elderly men with different levels of lower extremity physical function. Method Using data collected from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS) and green space data collected from high resolution Landmap true colour aerial photography, we first investigated the effect of the quantity of neighbourhood green space and the variation in neighbourhood vegetation on participation in physical activity for 1,010 men aged 66 and over in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK. Second, we explored whether neighbourhood green space affects groups with different levels of lower extremity physical function in different ways. Results Increasing percentage of green space within a 400 meters radius buffer around the home was significantly associated with more participation in physical activity after adjusting for lower extremity physical function, psychological distress, general health, car ownership, age group, marital status, social class, education level and other environmental factors (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.05, 1.41). A statistically significant interaction between the variation in neighbourhood vegetation and lower extremity physical function was observed (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.12, 3.28). Conclusion Elderly men living in neighbourhoods with more green space have higher levels of participation in regular physical activity. The association between variation in neighbourhood vegetation and regular physical activity varied according to lower extremity physical function. Subjects reporting poor lower extremity

  11. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1996-02-01

    The lubricating properties of mineral oils, and contaminants which affect those properties, are discussed. A contaminant is any material not in the original fresh oil, whether it is generated within the system or ingested. 5 refs.

  12. Associations between positive and negative affect and 12-month physical disorders in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    Associations between positive and negative affect and a range of 12-month physical disorders were investigated in the Midlife Development in the United States Survey, a nationally representative sample of 3,032 adults ages 25-74. These associations were examined, controlling for relevant sociodemographic and psychiatric covariates. High positive affect was associated with decreased risk of physical disorders, whereas high negative affect was associated with increased risk. However, associations between positive affect and physical disorders were partially attenuated following adjustment for concurrent negative affect. Additionally, high affect balance was associated with decreased risk of physical disorders before and after adjustments. These findings underscore the relevance of affective disposition in health status, suggesting that both positive and negative affect may serve as viable health risk parameters.

  13. Lambert W function for applications in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veberič, Darko

    2012-12-01

    The Lambert W(x) function and its possible applications in physics are presented. The actual numerical implementation in C++ consists of Halley's and Fritsch's iterations with initial approximations based on branch-point expansion, asymptotic series, rational fits, and continued-logarithm recursion. Program summaryProgram title: LambertW Catalogue identifier: AENC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1335 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 25 283 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ (with suitable wrappers it can be called from C, Fortran etc.), the supplied command-line utility is suitable for other scripting languages like sh, csh, awk, perl etc. Computer: All systems with a C++ compiler. Operating system: All Unix flavors, Windows. It might work with others. RAM: Small memory footprint, less than 1 MB Classification: 1.1, 4.7, 11.3, 11.9. Nature of problem: Find fast and accurate numerical implementation for the Lambert W function. Solution method: Halley's and Fritsch's iterations with initial approximations based on branch-point expansion, asymptotic series, rational fits, and continued logarithm recursion. Additional comments: Distribution file contains the command-line utility lambert-w. Doxygen comments, included in the source files. Makefile. Running time: The tests provided take only a few seconds to run.

  14. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  15. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  16. Functional neuroanatomy of intuitive physical inference.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jason; Mikhael, John G; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-08-23

    To engage with the world-to understand the scene in front of us, plan actions, and predict what will happen next-we must have an intuitive grasp of the world's physical structure and dynamics. How do the objects in front of us rest on and support each other, how much force would be required to move them, and how will they behave when they fall, roll, or collide? Despite the centrality of physical inferences in daily life, little is known about the brain mechanisms recruited to interpret the physical structure of a scene and predict how physical events will unfold. Here, in a series of fMRI experiments, we identified a set of cortical regions that are selectively engaged when people watch and predict the unfolding of physical events-a "physics engine" in the brain. These brain regions are selective to physical inferences relative to nonphysical but otherwise highly similar scenes and tasks. However, these regions are not exclusively engaged in physical inferences per se or, indeed, even in scene understanding; they overlap with the domain-general "multiple demand" system, especially the parts of that system involved in action planning and tool use, pointing to a close relationship between the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in parsing the physical content of a scene and preparing an appropriate action. PMID:27503892

  17. Hydration kinetics and physical properties of split chickpea as affected by soaking temperature and time.

    PubMed

    Johnny, Saeed; Razavi, Seyed M A; Khodaei, Diako

    2015-12-01

    In this study, some physical properties (principal dimensions, mean diameters, sphericity, area, density and electrical conductivity) of split chickpea were measured as function of soaking time (up to 360 min) and temperature (25-65 °C). Initially, the water absorption rate was high and then it showed a progressive decrease at all temperatures, whereas solid loss exhibited a power function of temperature (P < 0.05). The Peleg model was predicted well the kinetic of split chickpea soaking. No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in Peleg rate constant (K1) and Peleg capacity constant (K2) at all temperatures except for K1 at 25 °C. The discrepancy for K1 was in relation to permeability characteristics of split chickpea at temperature of 25 °C. As temperature increased from 25 to 65 °C, the K1 value decreased from 0.04620 to 0.00945 g h(-1), whereas the K2 value increased from 0.08597 to 0.11320 g(-1). Plot for K1 exhibited a slope changes around 45 °C corresponding to gelatinization temperature of split chickpeas. The effect of temperature and time on physical properties of split chickpea during soaking was monitored by regression equations. It was concluded that physical properties of split chickpea affected by its water absorption especially at higher temperatures.

  18. Cognitive function in the affective disorders: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bulbena, A; Berrios, G E

    1993-01-01

    A prospective, controlled study of 50 subjects confirmed claims that major depression or mania may cause temporary disorders of attention, memory, visuo-spatial function, and choice reaction time, and cause-independently of medication-the appearance of glabellar tap, positive hand-face test, nuchocephalic reflex, and graphesthesia. On follow-up, all these phenomena either disappeared or markedly improved. Age and age of onset, but not pre-morbid intelligence or history of ECT, seemed to modulate the severity of the cognitive impairment. Presence of delusions predicted poor (but reversible) visuo-spatial function. Cognitive impairment accompanied by reversible soft neurological signs was more marked but patients thus affected surprisingly showed lower depressive scores; this was interpreted as representing a secondary, 'organic' form of affective disorder (i.e. a behavioural phenocopy of depression) characterised by a reduced capacity to experience depressive symptoms and by little improvement at follow-up.

  19. Physics Buildings Today. A Supplement to Modern Physics Buildings: Design and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Physics, New York, NY.

    This supplement to "Modern Physics Buildings: Design and Function" is intended as an aid to physics department faculties, administrators, and architects responsible for designing new science buildings. It provides descriptions of 26 new physics buildings and science buildings with physics facilities. Presented are (1) floor plans, (2) photographs,…

  20. Physics of Galaxy Clusters and How it Affects Cosmological Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2004-01-01

    The main activities in 2004 were focused on completion of the new 400 square degrees ROSAT PSPC survey for distant galaxy clusters. We observed and reduced optical spectra for all X-ray candidates and now we have complete identification for a statistically complete sample of distant 283 clusters. The papers describing the cluster catalog and first science results are in preparation and will be submitted in early 2005. We also completed a project to measure temperature and density profiles at large radii using Chandra observations of a 11 well exposed low-redshift clusters. We were able to demonstrate that the density, temperature, and total mass profiles are self-similar at large radii. This analysis has led to significant improvements in determination of the cluster baryon fraction as well as cosmologically important scaling relations, such as Mtot-T. The paper describing these results is submitted to ApJ in November, 2004. We continued to study evolution of the cluster scaling relations at high redshifts using Chandra and XMM data. We developed code for image and spectral deconvolution of the XMM observations. This code was used to reconstruct the distribution of baryons and total mass from observations of distant clusters which suffer from the finite size of the XMM PSF. This study allowed us to derive a high-redshift relation between cluster temperature and mass and compare it with the local relation obtained. The paper describing the first results is submitted to the ApJ. However, the project is still on-going as more distant cluster observations enter XMh4 and Chandra public data archives. We continued our work on improving techniques for accurate measurements of the cluster mass function and obtaining cosmological constraints from such observations. We published (ApJ, 601, 610) a study in which we derived the baryon mass function for a complete sample of low-redshift clusters. These papers argued that it was an excellent proxy for the total mass function

  1. A Comparison of Video-Based and Interaction-Based Affect Detectors in Physics Playground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kai, Shiming; Paquette, Luc; Baker, Ryan S.; Bosch, Nigel; D'Mello, Sidney; Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; Shute, Valerie; Ventura, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Increased attention to the relationships between affect and learning has led to the development of machine-learned models that are able to identify students' affective states in computerized learning environments. Data for these affect detectors have been collected from multiple modalities including physical sensors, dialogue logs, and logs of…

  2. Feelings of well being in elderly people: relationship to physical activity and physical function.

    PubMed

    Garatachea, Nuria; Molinero, Olga; Martínez-García, Raquel; Jiménez-Jiménez, Rodrigo; González-Gallego, Javier; Márquez, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate in a sample of Spanish elderly whether measures of physical activity and physical function are related to feelings of well being, and whether level of dependence is a moderator in the relation of well being, physical activity and physical function. The sample was a cohort of 151 elderly people (89 women and 62 men, aged 60-98 years) from the North of Spain. Participants completed surveys including demographic characteristics, and measures of physical activity (Yale Physical Activity Survey, YPAS), instrumental activities of daily living (Barthel Index, BI) and well being (Psychological Well Being Scale, from Spanish: Escala de Bienestar Psicológico=EBP). Components of the physical function were measured by the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Upper and lower body strength, dynamic balance, aerobic endurance, self-reported weekly energy expenditure and physical activity total time were significantly correlated with both Material and Subjective well being. All components of physical function were significantly impaired in dependent subjects when compared to independent individuals of the same sex and physical activity category. Significant differences were also observed in Subjective well being among less active dependent or independent individuals. In conclusion, physical function and physical activity are related to feelings of well being, and results emphasize the positive functional and psychological effects of physical activity in dependent subjects.

  3. Physical processes affecting the sedimentary environments of Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, R.P.; Knebel, H. J.; List, J.H.; Farris, A.S.; ,

    1997-01-01

    A modeling study was undertaken to simulate the bottom tidal-, wave-, and wind-driven currents in Long Island Sound in order to provide a general physical oceanographic framework for understanding the characteristics and distribution of seafloor sedimentary environments. Tidal currents are important in the funnel-shaped eastern part of the Sound, where a strong gradient of tidal-current speed was found. This current gradient parallels the general westward progression of sedimentary environments from erosion or non-deposition, through bedload transport and sediment sorting, to fine-grained deposition. Wave-driven currents, meanwhile, appear to be important along the shallow margins of the basin, explaining the occurrence of relatively coarse sediments in regions where tidal currents alone are not strong enough to move sediment. Finally, westerly wind events are shown to locally enhance bottom currents along the axial depression of the sound, providing a possible explanation for the relatively coarse sediments found in the depression despite tide- and wave-induced currents below the threshold of sediment movement. The strong correlation between the near-bottom current intensity based on the model results and the sediment response as indicated by the distribution of sedimentary environments provides a framework for predicting the long-term effects of anthropogenic activities.

  4. Physics teachers' perspectives on factors that affect urban physics participation and accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2013-06-01

    The accessibility of secondary physics in U.S. urban school districts is a complex issue. Many schools do not offer a physics option, and for those that do, access is often restricted by various school policies and priorities that do not promote physics participation for all. To analyze this problem in greater depth, I adopted a qualitative phenomenological methodology to explore urban physics teachers’ views on school- and district-based conditions that may marginalize traditionally underrepresented students. Teachers from three large urban districts shared concerns and suggestions regarding administrative commitment, student preparedness for physics, reform initiatives and testing mandates, promoting physics enrollments, and implementing high quality instruction. Data from interviews and focus groups provided contextual insights into ways in which physics study may be improved and encouraged for urban youth. Teachers believed expanding access could be facilitated with differentiated levels of physics, incorporating mathematical applications with multiple representations, educating students and counselors on the ramifications of choosing or not choosing elective sciences, well-designed grant-funded initiatives, and flexibility with prerequisites and science course sequencing. Teachers experienced frustration with standardized testing, lack of curricular autonomy, shifting administrative directives, and top-down reforms that did not incorporate their feedback in the decision-making processes. Data from this study revealed that physics teacher networks, often housed at local universities, have been a key resource for establishing supportive professional communities to share best practices that may influence school-based reforms that promote physics participation in urban schools.

  5. Can programmed or self-selected physical activity affect physical fitness of adolescents?

    PubMed

    Neto, Cláudio F; Neto, Gabriel R; Araújo, Adenilson T; Sousa, Maria S C; Sousa, Juliana B C; Batista, Gilmário R; Reis, Victor M M R

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness training group (PFT) with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years), who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  6. Tactile Teaching: Exploring Protein Structure/Function Using Physical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Tim; Morris, Jennifer; Colton, Shannon; Batiza, Ann; Patrick, Michael; Franzen, Margaret; Goodsell, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The technology now exists to construct physical models of proteins based on atomic coordinates of solved structures. We review here our recent experiences in using physical models to teach concepts of protein structure and function at both the high school and the undergraduate levels. At the high school level, physical models are used in a…

  7. Trajectory of change in pain, depression, and physical functioning after physical activity adoption in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Bigatti, Silvia M; Ang, Dennis C

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with widespread pain, depression, and declines in physical functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectory of these symptoms over time related to physical activity adoption and maintenance via motivational interviewing versus education, to increase physical activity. There were no treatment group differences; we divided the sample (n = 184) based on changes in physical activity. Repeated measures analyses demonstrated differential patterns in depression, pain, and physical functioning at 24 and 36 weeks. Findings suggest increased physical activity may serve as a multiple-target intervention that provides moderate to large, long-lasting benefits for individuals with fibromyalgia.

  8. Do Physical Activity Facilities near Schools Affect Physical Activity in High School Girls?

    PubMed Central

    Trilk, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Porter, Dwayne E.; Hibbert, James; Pate, Russell R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities within walking distance of school and physical activity behavior in 12th grade girls during after-school hours. Methods Girls (N=1394) from 22 schools completed a self-report to determine physical activity after 3:00 pm. The number of physical activity facilities within a 0.75-mile buffer of the school was counted with a Geographic Information System. Associations between the number of facilities and girls’ physical activity were examined using linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Results Overall, girls who attended schools with ≥ 5 facilities within the buffer reported more physical activity per day than girls in schools with < 5 facilities. In addition, girls who attended rural schools with ≥ 5 facilities reported ~12% more physical activity per day than girls who attended rural schools with < 5 facilities. No difference existed for girls in urban/suburban schools with ≥ 5 vs. < 5 facilities. Conclusion When school siting decisions are made, the number of physical activity facilities surrounding the school should be considered to encourage physical activity in 12th grade girls. PMID:21334248

  9. Some physical applications of generalized Lambert functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mező, István; Keady, Grant

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we show two applications for a generalization of the Lambert W function. Explicit calculations are given for the inverse Langevin function that plays an important role in the study of paramagnetic materials, and for the dispersion equations for water waves. After these examples we provide some additional knowledge on the generalized Lambert function as well as a review of former studies made towards this direction by other authors.

  10. Microbial composition affects the functioning of estuarine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Heather E; Martiny, Jennifer BH

    2013-01-01

    Although microorganisms largely drive many ecosystem processes, the relationship between microbial composition and their functioning remains unclear. To tease apart the effects of composition and the environment directly, microbial composition must be manipulated and maintained, ideally in a natural ecosystem. In this study, we aimed to test whether variability in microbial composition affects functional processes in a field setting, by reciprocally transplanting riverbed sediments between low- and high-salinity locations along the Nonesuch River (Maine, USA). We placed the sediments into microbial ‘cages' to prevent the migration of microorganisms, while allowing the sediments to experience the abiotic conditions of the surroundings. We performed two experiments, short- (1 week) and long-term (7 weeks) reciprocal transplants, after which we assayed a variety of functional processes in the cages. In both experiments, we examined the composition of bacteria generally (targeting the 16S rDNA gene) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) specifically (targeting the dsrAB gene) using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In the short-term experiment, sediment processes (CO2 production, CH4 flux, nitrification and enzyme activities) depended on both the sediment's origin (reflecting differences in microbial composition between salt and freshwater sediments) and the surrounding environment. In the long-term experiment, general bacterial composition (but not SRB composition) shifted in response to their new environment, and this composition was significantly correlated with sediment functioning. Further, sediment origin had a diminished effect, relative to the short-term experiment, on sediment processes. Overall, this study provides direct evidence that microbial composition directly affects functional processes in these sediments. PMID:23235294

  11. Seven types of nonsexual romantic physical affection among Brigham young university students.

    PubMed

    Gulledge, Andrew K; Stahmann, Robert F; Wilson, Colwick M

    2004-10-01

    College students from Brigham Young University (N= 186; 68 men, 118 women, M age=22.7 yr., SD=3.5) completed a survey regarding nonsexual, romantic physical affection-defined as any touch intended to arouse feelings of love in the giver or the recipient. Respondents included both dating and married individuals, although this was not specified on the questionnaire. This descriptive study reports the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for each of the seven physical affection types: backrubs/massages, caressing/stroking, cuddling/holding, holding hands, hugging, kissing on the face, and kissing on the lips. Grouped frequency distributions further describe the amounts of each type of physical affection. Although physical affection has been underrepresented in the literature, studies have shown it to be associated with relationship satisfaction, partner satisfaction, psychological intimacy, feeling understood, the development of attachment bonds, modulating cardiovascular arousal, and easier conflict resolution. PMID:15587229

  12. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-07-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients.

  13. PTSD is negatively associated with physical performance and physical function in older overweight military veterans

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Katherine S.; Beckham, Jean C.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Sloane, Richard; Pieper, Carl F.; Morey, Miriam C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on function and physical performance in older overweight military Veterans with comorbid conditions. This is a secondary data analysis of older Veterans (mean age = 62.9 yr) participating in a physical activity counseling trial. Study participants with PTSD (n = 67) and without PTSD (n = 235) were identified. Self-reported physical function (36-item Short Form Health Survey) and directly measured physical performance (mobility, aerobic endurance, strength) were assessed. Multivariate analyses of variance controlling for demographic factors and psychiatric disorders demonstrated significant physical impairment among those with PTSD. PTSD was negatively associated with self-reported physical function, functioning in daily activities, and general health (p < 0.01). Those with PTSD also performed significantly worse on tests of lower-limb function (p < 0.05). Despite being significantly younger, Veterans with PTSD had comparable scores on gait speed, aerobic endurance, grip strength, and bodily pain compared with Veterans without PTSD. This study provides preliminary data for the negative association between PTSD and physical function in older military Veterans. These data highlight the importance of ongoing monitoring of physical performance among returning Veterans with PTSD and intervening in older overweight Veterans with PTSD, whose physical performance scores are indicative of accelerated risk of premature functional aging. PMID:24933726

  14. PTSD is negatively associated with physical performance and physical function in older overweight military Veterans.

    PubMed

    Hall, Katherine S; Beckham, Jean C; Bosworth, Hayden B; Sloane, Richard; Pieper, Carl F; Morey, Miriam C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on function and physical performance in older overweight military Veterans with comorbid conditions. This is a secondary data analysis of older Veterans (mean age = 62.9 yr) participating in a physical activity counseling trial. Study participants with PTSD (n = 67) and without PTSD (n = 235) were identified. Self-reported physical function (36-item Short Form Health Survey) and directly measured physical performance (mobility, aerobic endurance, strength) were assessed. Multivariate analyses of variance controlling for demographic factors and psychiatric disorders demonstrated significant physical impairment among those with PTSD. PTSD was negatively associated with self-reported physical function, functioning in daily activities, and general health (p < 0.01). Those with PTSD also performed significantly worse on tests of lower-limb function (p < 0.05). Despite being significantly younger, Veterans with PTSD had comparable scores on gait speed, aerobic endurance, grip strength, and bodily pain compared with Veterans without PTSD. This study provides preliminary data for the negative association between PTSD and physical function in older military Veterans. These data highlight the importance of ongoing monitoring of physical performance among returning Veterans with PTSD and intervening in older overweight Veterans with PTSD, whose physical performance scores are indicative of accelerated risk of premature functional aging.

  15. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR.

  16. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B. Alex; Jetten, Anton M.; Austin, Christopher, P.; Tice, Raymond R.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. PMID:23562765

  17. Dehydration affects brain structure and function in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Matthew J; Ettinger, Ulrich; Foster, Russell; Williams, Steven C R; Calvert, Gemma A; Hampshire, Adam; Zelaya, Fernando O; O'Gorman, Ruth L; McMorris, Terry; Owen, Adrian M; Smith, Marcus S

    2011-01-01

    It was recently observed that dehydration causes shrinkage of brain tissue and an associated increase in ventricular volume. Negative effects of dehydration on cognitive performance have been shown in some but not all studies, and it has also been reported that an increased perceived effort may be required following dehydration. However, the effects of dehydration on brain function are unknown. We investigated this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 10 healthy adolescents (mean age = 16.8, five females). Each subject completed a thermal exercise protocol and nonthermal exercise control condition in a cross-over repeated measures design. Subjects lost more weight via perspiration in the thermal exercise versus the control condition (P < 0.0001), and lateral ventricle enlargement correlated with the reduction in body mass (r = 0.77, P = 0.01). Dehydration following the thermal exercise protocol led to a significantly stronger increase in fronto-parietal blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response during an executive function task (Tower of London) than the control condition, whereas cerebral perfusion during rest was not affected. The increase in BOLD response after dehydration was not paralleled by a change in cognitive performance, suggesting an inefficient use of brain metabolic activity following dehydration. This pattern indicates that participants exerted a higher level of neuronal activity in order to achieve the same performance level. Given the limited availability of brain metabolic resources, these findings suggest that prolonged states of reduced water intake may adversely impact executive functions such as planning and visuo-spatial processing.

  18. Dehydration affects brain structure and function in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Matthew J; Ettinger, Ulrich; Foster, Russell; Williams, Steven C R; Calvert, Gemma A; Hampshire, Adam; Zelaya, Fernando O; O'Gorman, Ruth L; McMorris, Terry; Owen, Adrian M; Smith, Marcus S

    2011-01-01

    It was recently observed that dehydration causes shrinkage of brain tissue and an associated increase in ventricular volume. Negative effects of dehydration on cognitive performance have been shown in some but not all studies, and it has also been reported that an increased perceived effort may be required following dehydration. However, the effects of dehydration on brain function are unknown. We investigated this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 10 healthy adolescents (mean age = 16.8, five females). Each subject completed a thermal exercise protocol and nonthermal exercise control condition in a cross-over repeated measures design. Subjects lost more weight via perspiration in the thermal exercise versus the control condition (P < 0.0001), and lateral ventricle enlargement correlated with the reduction in body mass (r = 0.77, P = 0.01). Dehydration following the thermal exercise protocol led to a significantly stronger increase in fronto-parietal blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response during an executive function task (Tower of London) than the control condition, whereas cerebral perfusion during rest was not affected. The increase in BOLD response after dehydration was not paralleled by a change in cognitive performance, suggesting an inefficient use of brain metabolic activity following dehydration. This pattern indicates that participants exerted a higher level of neuronal activity in order to achieve the same performance level. Given the limited availability of brain metabolic resources, these findings suggest that prolonged states of reduced water intake may adversely impact executive functions such as planning and visuo-spatial processing. PMID:20336685

  19. Functional roles affect diversity-succession relationships for boreal beetles.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Hjältén, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of "functional" groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species). We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists) responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies). Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood) thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience.

  20. Drive for thinness, affect regulation and physical activity in eating disorders: a daily life study.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, Kristof; Rijmen, Frank; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2007-08-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, the within patient associations between drive for thinness, emotional states, momentary urge to be physically active and physical activity were studied in 32 inpatients with an eating disorder. Participants received an electronic device and had to indicate at nine random times a day during 1 week their momentary drive for thinness, positive and negative emotional states and their urge to be physically active and physical activity. Multilevel analyses indicated that patients with higher mean levels for urge to be physically active were characterized by lower body mass index (BMI) and chronically negative affect whereas patients with higher mean levels for physical activity were characterized by lower BMI and higher dispositions for drive for thinness. In addition, within patient relations between drive for thinness and urge to be physically active were moderated by BMI and chronically negative affect whereas within patient relations between drive for thinness and physical activity were moderated by BMI. Finally, also positive emotional states were significantly associated with physical activity within patients. By using a daily process design, characteristics of physical activity were revealed that have not been identified with assessment methods that have a lower time resolution.

  1. Momentary Affective States Are Associated with Momentary Volume, Prospective Trends, and Fluctuation of Daily Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kanning, Martina K.; Schoebi, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Several interventions aiming to enhance physical activity in everyday life showed mixed effects. Affective constructs are thought to potentially support health behavior change. However, little is known about within-subject associations between momentary affect and subsequent physical activity in everyday life. This study analyzed the extent to which three dimensions of affective states (valence, calmness, and energetic arousal) were associated with different components of daily activity trajectories. Sixty-five undergraduates’ students (Age: M = 24.6; SD = 3.2; females: 57%) participated in this study. Physical activity was assessed objectively through accelerometers during 24 h. Affective states assessments were conducted randomly every 45 min using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was especially designed for ambulatory assessment. We conducted three-level multi-level analyses to investigate the extent to which momentary affect accounted for momentary volume, prospective trends, and stability vs. fluctuation of physical activity in everyday life. All three affect dimensions were significantly associated with momentary activity volumes and prospective trends over 45 min periods. Physical activity didn’t fluctuate freely, but featured significant autocorrelation across repeated measurements, suggesting some stability of physical activity across 5-min assessments. After adjusting for the autoregressive structure in physical activity assessments, only energetic arousal remained a significant predictor. Feeling energized and awake was associated with an increased momentary volume of activity and initially smaller but gradually growing decreases in subsequent activity within the subsequent 45 min. Although not related to trends in physical activity, higher valence predicted lower stability in physical activity across subsequent 45 min, suggesting more short-term fluctuations in daily activity the more participants reported positive affective valence. The

  2. Situational motivation and perceived intensity: their interaction in predicting changes in positive affect from physical activity.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P < .05) but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  3. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P < .05) but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed. PMID:22778914

  4. To what extent does urbanisation affect fragmented grassland functioning?

    PubMed

    van der Walt, L; Cilliers, S S; Kellner, K; Du Toit, M J; Tongway, D

    2015-03-15

    Urbanisation creates altered environments characterised by increased human habitation, impermeable surfaces, artificial structures, landscape fragmentation, habitat loss, resulting in different resource loss pathways. The vulnerable Rand Highveld Grassland vegetation unit in the Tlokwe Municipal area, South Africa, has been extensively affected and transformed by urbanisation, agriculture, and mining. Grassland fragments in urban areas are often considered to be less species rich and less functional than in the more untransformed or "natural" exurban environments, and are therefore seldom a priority for conservation. Furthermore, urban grassland fragments are often being more intensely managed than exurban areas, such as consistent mowing in open urban areas. Four urbanisation measures acting as indicators for patterns and processes associated with urban areas were calculated for matrix areas surrounding each selected grassland fragment to quantify the position of each grassland remnant along an urbanisation gradient. The grassland fragments were objectively classified into two classes of urbanisation, namely "exurban" and "urban" based on the urbanisation measure values. Grazing was recorded in some exurban grasslands and mowing in some urban grassland fragments. Unmanaged grassland fragments were present in both urban and exurban areas. Fine-scale biophysical landscape function was determined by executing the Landscape Function Analysis (LFA) method. LFA assesses fine-scale landscape patchiness (entailing resource conserving potential and erosion resistance) and 11 soil surface indicators to produce three main LFA parameters (stability, infiltration, and nutrient cycling), which indicates how well a system is functioning in terms of fine-scale biophysical soil processes and characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urbanisation and associated management practices on fine-scale biophysical landscape function of urban and exurban

  5. To what extent does urbanisation affect fragmented grassland functioning?

    PubMed

    van der Walt, L; Cilliers, S S; Kellner, K; Du Toit, M J; Tongway, D

    2015-03-15

    Urbanisation creates altered environments characterised by increased human habitation, impermeable surfaces, artificial structures, landscape fragmentation, habitat loss, resulting in different resource loss pathways. The vulnerable Rand Highveld Grassland vegetation unit in the Tlokwe Municipal area, South Africa, has been extensively affected and transformed by urbanisation, agriculture, and mining. Grassland fragments in urban areas are often considered to be less species rich and less functional than in the more untransformed or "natural" exurban environments, and are therefore seldom a priority for conservation. Furthermore, urban grassland fragments are often being more intensely managed than exurban areas, such as consistent mowing in open urban areas. Four urbanisation measures acting as indicators for patterns and processes associated with urban areas were calculated for matrix areas surrounding each selected grassland fragment to quantify the position of each grassland remnant along an urbanisation gradient. The grassland fragments were objectively classified into two classes of urbanisation, namely "exurban" and "urban" based on the urbanisation measure values. Grazing was recorded in some exurban grasslands and mowing in some urban grassland fragments. Unmanaged grassland fragments were present in both urban and exurban areas. Fine-scale biophysical landscape function was determined by executing the Landscape Function Analysis (LFA) method. LFA assesses fine-scale landscape patchiness (entailing resource conserving potential and erosion resistance) and 11 soil surface indicators to produce three main LFA parameters (stability, infiltration, and nutrient cycling), which indicates how well a system is functioning in terms of fine-scale biophysical soil processes and characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urbanisation and associated management practices on fine-scale biophysical landscape function of urban and exurban

  6. Integrating Negative Affect Measures in a Measurement Model: Assessing the Function of Negative Affect as Interference to Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the composition of negative affect and its function as inhibitory to thought processes such as self-regulation. Negative affect in the present study were composed of anxiety, worry, thought suppression, and fear of negative evaluation. These four factors were selected based on the criteria of negative affect by…

  7. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  8. Functional Roles Affect Diversity-Succession Relationships for Boreal Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Hjältén, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of “functional” groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species). We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists) responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies). Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood) thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience. PMID:23977350

  9. Examining the construct validity of affective judgments of physical activity measures.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Michael; Sala, Margarita; Tang, Rui; Baldwin, Austin

    2016-09-01

    Affective judgments of physical activity have emerged as important predictors of physical activity and interventions targeting affective judgments are a promising approach to improving regular physical activity. Currently, measures assessing a variety of potentially distinct constructs are treated as interchangeable assessments of affective judgments of physical activity. Moreover, little is known about the construct validity of the purported measures of this construct. We review several components of construct validity; highlighting their importance for health psychology research. Then, we examine the construct validity of a wide variety of affective judgment of physical activity measures in MTurk and student samples. Cronbach's alpha for the included measures was uniformly high; however, several scales contained excessively redundant items that ultimately lessen their construct validity. Moreover, dependability estimates for the majority of measures was poor, indicating high levels of transient measurement error. The included measures significantly predicted levels of physical activity; however, their relative predictive power was strongly associated with their dependability. In general, the affective judgment measures demonstrated poor convergent validity suggesting they are not interchangeable and best viewed as assessing distinct, albeit related, constructs. Another important limitation of these measures is that they exhibited poor discriminant validity from exercise self-efficacy, which represents an important theoretical and empirical issue for the field of health behavior research. Overall, the current findings indicate the available affective judgments of physical activity measures are suboptimal, have considerable construct validity limitations, and thereby prevent the further advancement of science, theory, and intervention development in this promising area of research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537007

  10. Correlation between physical function, cognitive function, and health-related quality of life in elderly persons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, DeokJu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to assess the quality of life of elderly people related to physical function, cognitive function, and health, and devised methods to enhance their health-related quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted from November 2014 to January 2015 in 140 people over 65 registered at welfare centers. Those with a functional psychological disorder or difficulty communicating were excluded. Data were collected for physical function, cognitive function, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using an assessment tool and questionnaire for healthy elderly people over 65. Physical function was measured using muscle strength muscle endurance, reaction time, and balance. [Results] Correlations were observed between cognitive function and endurance, reaction time, and balance. Physical HRQOL showed correlations with all domains of physical function; mental HRQOL showed correlations with all items of physical function except muscle strength. Among factors that influence HRQOL, all items except educational background were significant variables. Educational background had no influence on HRQOL. [Conclusion] Interventions will correct factors with a negative influence on HRQOL, utilizing regular checks on physical, cognitive, and other functions of elderly people, with early detection and intervention to enhance HRQOL. Cognitive intervention related to physical and other functions will be applied. PMID:27390430

  11. Acute physical exercise affected processing efficiency in an auditory attention task more than processing effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Dutke, Stephan; Jaitner, Thomas; Berse, Timo; Barenberg, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Research on effects of acute physical exercise on performance in a concurrent cognitive task has generated equivocal evidence. Processing efficiency theory predicts that concurrent physical exercise can increase resource requirements for sustaining cognitive performance even when the level of performance is unaffected. This hypothesis was tested in a dual-task experiment. Sixty young adults worked on a primary auditory attention task and a secondary interval production task while cycling on a bicycle ergometer. Physical load (cycling) and cognitive load of the primary task were manipulated. Neither physical nor cognitive load affected primary task performance, but both factors interacted on secondary task performance. Sustaining primary task performance under increased physical and/or cognitive load increased resource consumption as indicated by decreased secondary task performance. Results demonstrated that physical exercise effects on cognition might be underestimated when only single task performance is the focus.

  12. Soil physical and hydrological properties as affected by long-term addition of various organic amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Marie; Völkel, Jörg; Mercier, Vincent; Labat, Christophe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    The use of organic residues as soil amendments in agriculture not only reduces the amount of waste needing to be disposed of; it may also lead to improvements in soil properties, including physical and hydrological ones. The present study examines a long-term experiment called "Qualiagro", run jointly by INRA and Veolia Environment in Feucherolles, France (near Paris). It was initiated in 1998 on a loess-derived silt loam (787 g/kg silt, 152 g/kg clay) and includes ten treatments: four types of organic amendments and a control (CNT) each at two levels of mineral nitrogen (N) addition: minimal (Nmin) and optimal (Nopt). The amendments include three types of compost and farmyard manure (FYM), which were applied every other year at a rate of ca. 4 t carbon ha-1. The composts include municipal solid waste compost (MSW), co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (GWS), and biowaste compost (BIO). The plots are arranged in a randomized block design and have a size of 450 m²; each treatment is replicated four times (total of 40 plots). Ca. 15 years after the start of the experiment soil organic carbon (OC) had continuously increased in the amended plots, while it remained stable or decreased in the control plots. This compost- or manure-induced increase in OC plays a key role, affecting numerous dependant soil properties like bulk density, porosity and water retention. The water holding capacity (WHC) of a soil is of particular interest to farmers in terms of water supply for plants, but also indicates soil quality and functionality. Addition of OC may affect WHC in different ways: carbon-induced aggregation may increase larger-pore volume and hence WHC at the wet end while increased surface areas may lead to an increased retention of water at the dry end. Consequently it is difficult to predict (e.g. with pedotransfer functions) the impact on the amount of water available for plants (PAW), which was experimentally determined for the soils, along with the entire range

  13. Factors affecting daily physical activity and physical performance in maintenance dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kopple, Joel D; Kim, Jun C; Shapiro, Bryan B; Zhang, Min; Li, Yinan; Porszasz, Janos; Bross, Rachelle; Feroze, Usama; Upreti, Rajeev; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-03-01

    Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients display reduced daily physical activity (DPA) and physical performance (PP). Previous studies did not differentiate the effects of kidney failure and MHD treatments from comorbidities as causes for reduced DPA and PP. In relatively healthy MHD patients and normal adults, we evaluated DPA and PP and examined relationships between DPA and PP and possible associations between anxiety or depression and DPA and PP. DPA, 6-minute walk distance (6-MWD), sit-to-stand (STS), and stair-climbing tests were measured in 72 MHD patients (40% diabetics) with limited comorbidities and 39 normal adults of similar age and gender mix. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Beck anxiety and depression inventories. DPA, time-averaged over 7 days, and all 3 PP tests were impaired in MHD patients, to about 60% to 70% of normal values (P < .0001 for each measurement). MHD patients spent more time sleeping or physically inactive (P < .0001) and less time in ≥ moderate activity (P < .0001). Adjusted DPA correlated with 6-MWD but not STS or stair-climbing. Anxiety and depression were identified in 43% and 33% of MHD patients and 2.5% and 5.1% of normals (P < .0001 for each comparison). Most of the impairment in DPA and PP tests were also observed in MHD patients without anxiety or depression. However, MHD patients with both anxiety and depression generally had the most impaired DPA and PP. In MHD patients, higher adjusted anxiety scores were correlated with impaired 6-MWD and STS, whereas adjusted average DPA was negatively correlated with depression (r = -0.33, P = .006) but not anxiety. DPA on the hemodialysis day (P = .01), day after dialysis (P = .03), and day 2 after dialysis (P = .03) each correlated negatively with degree of depression but not with anxiety. MHD patients displayed negative-adjusted correlations between anxiety and 6-MWD (P = .03) and STS (P = .04). In relatively healthy MHD patients, DPA and PP are substantially impaired

  14. Plant diversity and root traits benefit physical properties key to soil function in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Gould, Iain J; Quinton, John N; Weigelt, Alexandra; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity loss impairs ecosystem functioning, including important effects on soil. Most studies that have explored plant diversity effects belowground, however, have largely focused on biological processes. As such, our understanding of how plant diversity impacts the soil physical environment remains limited, despite the fundamental role soil physical structure plays in ensuring soil function and ecosystem service provision. Here, in both a glasshouse and a long-term field study, we show that high plant diversity in grassland systems increases soil aggregate stability, a vital structural property of soil, and that root traits play a major role in determining diversity effects. We also reveal that the presence of particular plant species within mixed communities affects an even wider range of soil physical processes, including hydrology and soil strength regimes. Our results indicate that alongside well-documented effects on ecosystem functioning, plant diversity and root traits also benefit essential soil physical properties.

  15. Plant diversity and root traits benefit physical properties key to soil function in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Gould, Iain J; Quinton, John N; Weigelt, Alexandra; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity loss impairs ecosystem functioning, including important effects on soil. Most studies that have explored plant diversity effects belowground, however, have largely focused on biological processes. As such, our understanding of how plant diversity impacts the soil physical environment remains limited, despite the fundamental role soil physical structure plays in ensuring soil function and ecosystem service provision. Here, in both a glasshouse and a long-term field study, we show that high plant diversity in grassland systems increases soil aggregate stability, a vital structural property of soil, and that root traits play a major role in determining diversity effects. We also reveal that the presence of particular plant species within mixed communities affects an even wider range of soil physical processes, including hydrology and soil strength regimes. Our results indicate that alongside well-documented effects on ecosystem functioning, plant diversity and root traits also benefit essential soil physical properties. PMID:27459206

  16. Physical activity in prefrail older adults: confidence and satisfaction related to physical function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the hypothesis that physical activity will have favorable effects on measures of self-efficacy for a 400-m walk and satisfaction with physical functioning in older adults 701 years of age who have deficits in mobility. We randomized a total of 412 adults aged 70–89 years at elevated risk...

  17. Influence of fatigue on construction workers’ physical and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, M.; Murphy, L. A.; Fang, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite scientific evidence linking workers’ fatigue to occupational safety (due to impaired physical or cognitive function), little is known about this relationship in construction workers. Aims To assess the association between construction workers’ reported fatigue and their perceived difficulties with physical and cognitive functions. Methods Using data from a convenience sample of US construction workers participating in the 2010–11 National Health Interview Survey two multivariate weighted logistic regression models were built to predict difficulty with physical and with cognitive functions associated with workers’ reported fatigue, while controlling for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, sleep hygiene, psychological distress and arthritis status. Results Of 606 construction workers surveyed, 49% reported being ‘tired some days’ in the past 3 months and 10% reported ‘tired most days or every day’. Compared with those feeling ‘never tired’, workers who felt ‘tired some days’ were significantly more likely to report difficulty with physical function (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–3.51) and cognitive function (AOR = 2.27; 95% CI 1.06–4.88) after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions Our results suggest an association between reported fatigue and experiencing difficulties with physical and cognitive functions in construction workers. PMID:25701835

  18. Affect and achievement goals in physical activity: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ntoumanis, N; Biddle, S J

    1999-12-01

    Achievement goal orientation theory has been the subject of extensive research in recent years. In view of the importance of identifying the motivational antecedents of affect in physical activity, this study examined through meta-analysis the conflicting evidence regarding the links between different achievement goals and emotions. Using the formulas of Hunter and Schmidt (1), correlations were gathered from 41 independent samples and were corrected for both sampling and measurement errors. The results showed that task orientation and positive affect were moderately-to-highly correlated and in a positive fashion, whereas the relationship between task orientation and negative affect was negative and moderate to small. Both correlations were found to be heterogeneous, and so moderators were sought. The relationships between ego orientation and positive and negative affect were positive but very small, with the former being heterogeneous. Moderators coded were the time frame of affect (independent of context vs. after an athletic event), the physical activity setting (school physical education vs. recreation vs. competitive sport), age (university vs. school students), nationality (British vs. American), nature of negative affect (high vs. low arousal), and the publication status of the studies (published vs. unpublished). Lastly, a subset of the corrected correlations were inserted into a structural equation modelling analysis in order to look concurrently at the relationships among all the variables.

  19. Perceived occupational stress, affective, and physical well-being among telecommunication employees in Greece.

    PubMed

    Lazuras, Lambros; Rodafinos, Angelos; Matsiggos, Georgios; Stamatoulakis, Alexander

    2009-03-01

    The present study examined four potential roles of work-related negative affectivity on the associations between self-reported occupational stress and physical well-being among telecommunication employees in Greece. Participants (764, predominantly male) completed a battery of self-report measures on perceived occupational stress, negative affectivity, and illness symptoms. In line with previous research, negative affectivity exerted a nuisance effect, by inflating the association between reported stressors and illness symptoms, and significantly predicted illness symptoms, over and above the effects of stressors. In addition, negative affectivity influenced reported illness symptom indirectly, through the effects of stressors, and moderated the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work and illness symptoms. The findings suggest that negative affectivity can largely explain and influence in different ways the associations between self-reported stress and physical strain. It is recommended that future studies of occupational stress should control for the effects of negative affectivity, and that health professionals should be cautious of its effects when interpreting relationships between self-reported occupational stress and physical well-being. PMID:19185405

  20. Social-adaptive and psychological functioning of patients affected by Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Laney, Dawn Alyssia; Gruskin, Daniel J; Fernhoff, Paul M; Cubells, Joseph F; Ousley, Opal Y; Hipp, Heather; Mehta, Ami J

    2010-12-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A. In addition to the debilitating physical symptoms of FD, there are also under-recognized and poorly characterized psychiatric features. As a first step toward characterizing psychiatric features of FD, we administered the Achenbach adult self report questionnaire to 30 FD patients and the Achenbach adult behavior checklist questionnaire to 28 partners/parents/friends of FD patients. Data from at least one of the questionnaires were available on 33 subjects. Analysis focused on social-adaptive functioning in various aspects of daily life and on criteria related to the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV (DSM-IV). Adaptive functioning scale values, which primarily measure social and relationship functioning and occupational success, showed that eight FD patients (six female and two male) had mean adaptive functioning deficits as compared to population norms. Greater rates of depression (P < 0.01), anxiety (P = 0.05), depression and anxiety (P = 0.03), antisocial personality (P < 0.001), attention-deficit/hyperactivity (AD/H; P < 0.01), hyperactivity-impulsivity (P < 0.01), and aggressive behavior (P = 0.03) were associated with poorer adaptive functioning. Decreased social-adaptive functioning in this study was not statistically significantly associated to disease severity, pain, or level of vitality. This study shows for the first time that FD patients, particularly women, are affected by decreased social-adaptive functioning. Comprehensive treatment plans for FD should consider assessments and interventions to evaluate and improve social, occupational, and psychological functioning. Attention to the behavioral aspects of FD could lead to improved treatment outcome and improved quality of life. Individuals affected by Fabry disease exhibited social-adaptive functioning deficits that were significantly correlated with anxiety

  1. School and Classroom Goal Structures: Effects on Affective Responses in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Koidou, Eirini; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Grouios, George

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relative impact of school and classroom goal structures on students' affective responses and the mediating role of motivation. The sample of the study consisted of 368 high school students, who completed measures of school and classroom goal structures, motivational regulations in physical education, boredom, and…

  2. Pretend and Physical Play: Links to Preschoolers' Affective Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Colwell, Malinda J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated different forms of pretend and physical play as predictors of preschool children's "affective social competence" (ASC). Data were collected from 122 preschool children (57 boys, 65 girls; 86 European American, 9 African American, 17 Hispanic, and 10 other ethnicity) over a 2-year period. Children participated…

  3. Sociocultural and Motivational Factors Affecting Asian American Females Studying Physics and Engineering in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Saliha L.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated whether and to what extent the motivational and sociocultural factors affect female Asian American high school physics students' achievement, their intended major in college, and their planned career goals at work fields. A survey of 62 questions, extracted from subscales of AAMAS,STPQ and PSE, were…

  4. Factors Affecting the Link between Physical Discipline and Child Externalizing Problems in Black and White Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Anna S.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Newton, Rae R.; Black, Maureen M.; Everson, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined contextual factors that may affect the impact of physical discipline on later child behavior problems among high-risk Black and White families. We examined race, parental warmth, and early child problems as potential moderators of the discipline-behavior problem link. The sample included 442 White and Black children and their…

  5. Physical exercise and quantitative lower limb collateral function

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Michael; Stoller, David; Seiler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tested the hypothesis that global physical activity and physical performance parameters are directly related to invasively obtained left superficial femoral artery (SFA) collateral flow index (CFI). Background So far, the association between different measures of physical exercise activity and quantitative lower limb collateral function has not been investigated. Methods The primary study end point was pressure-derived CFI as obtained during a 3 min left SFA balloon occlusion. CFI is the ratio of simultaneously recorded mean SFA distal occlusive pressure divided by mean aortic pressure, both subtracted by central venous pressure. As independent variables, the items of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) and physical exercise performance (maximal workload in watts) as achieved during a bicycle or treadmill exercise test were determined. The secondary study end point was transcutaneous left calf partial oxygen pressure (PO2 in mm Hg) divided by transcutaneous PO2 at a non-ischaemic reference site as obtained simultaneously to CFI measurement. Results Of the 110 study patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography, 79 belonged to the group without and 31 with engagement in regular intensive leisure time physical activity according to GPAQ. Left SFA CFI tended to be lower in the group without than with intensive leisure time physical activity: 0.514 ±0.141 vs 0.560 ±0.184 (p =0.0566). Transcutaneous PO2 index was associated with simultaneous left SFA CFI: CFI =018 +0.57 PO2 index; p<0.0001. Maximal physical workload was directly associated with left SFA CFI: CFI =0.40 +0.0009 maximal workload; p =0.0044. Conclusions Quantitative left SFA collateral function is directly reflected by maximal physical workload as achieved during an exercise test. Trial registration number NCTO02063347. PMID:26977310

  6. Physical models have gender‐specific effects on student understanding of protein structure–function relationships

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Michelle A.; Chang, Wesley S.; Dent, Erik W.; Nordheim, Erik V.; Franzen, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Understanding how basic structural units influence function is identified as a foundational/core concept for undergraduate biological and biochemical literacy. It is essential for students to understand this concept at all size scales, but it is often more difficult for students to understand structure–function relationships at the molecular level, which they cannot as effectively visualize. Students need to develop accurate, 3‐dimensional mental models of biomolecules to understand how biomolecular structure affects cellular functions at the molecular level, yet most traditional curricular tools such as textbooks include only 2‐dimensional representations. We used a controlled, backward design approach to investigate how hand‐held physical molecular model use affected students' ability to logically predict structure–function relationships. Brief (one class period) physical model use increased quiz score for females, whereas there was no significant increase in score for males using physical models. Females also self‐reported higher learning gains in their understanding of context‐specific protein function. Gender differences in spatial visualization may explain the gender‐specific benefits of physical model use observed. © 2016 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):326–335, 2016. PMID:26923186

  7. Physical models have gender-specific effects on student understanding of protein structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Forbes-Lorman, Robin M; Harris, Michelle A; Chang, Wesley S; Dent, Erik W; Nordheim, Erik V; Franzen, Margaret A

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how basic structural units influence function is identified as a foundational/core concept for undergraduate biological and biochemical literacy. It is essential for students to understand this concept at all size scales, but it is often more difficult for students to understand structure-function relationships at the molecular level, which they cannot as effectively visualize. Students need to develop accurate, 3-dimensional mental models of biomolecules to understand how biomolecular structure affects cellular functions at the molecular level, yet most traditional curricular tools such as textbooks include only 2-dimensional representations. We used a controlled, backward design approach to investigate how hand-held physical molecular model use affected students' ability to logically predict structure-function relationships. Brief (one class period) physical model use increased quiz score for females, whereas there was no significant increase in score for males using physical models. Females also self-reported higher learning gains in their understanding of context-specific protein function. Gender differences in spatial visualization may explain the gender-specific benefits of physical model use observed. © 2016 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):326-335, 2016. PMID:26923186

  8. Physical models have gender-specific effects on student understanding of protein structure-function relationships

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Michelle A.; Chang, Wesley S.; Dent, Erik W.; Nordheim, Erik V.; Franzen, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how basic structural units influence function is identified as a foundational/core concept for undergraduate biological and biochemical literacy. It is essential for students to understand this concept at all size scales, but it is often more difficult for students to understand structure-function relationships at the molecular level, which they cannot as effectively visualize. Students need to develop accurate, 3-dimensional (3D) mental models of biomolecules to understand how biomolecular structure affects cellular functions at the molecular level, yet most traditional curricular tools such as textbooks include only 2-dimensional (2D) representations. We used a controlled, backwards design approach to investigate how hand-held physical molecular model use affected students’ ability to logically predict structure-function relationships. Brief (one class period) physical model use increased quiz score for females, whereas there was no significant increase in score for males using physical models. Females also self-reported higher learning gains in their understanding of context-specific protein function. Gender differences in spatial visualization may explain the gender-specific benefits of physical model use observed. PMID:26923186

  9. Adjoint Function: Physical Basis of Variational & Perturbation Theory in Transport

    2009-07-27

    Version 00 Dr. J.D. Lewins has now released the following legacy book for free distribution: Importance: The Adjoint Function: The Physical Basis of Variational and Perturbation Theory in Transport and Diffusion Problems, North-Holland Publishing Company - Amsterdam, 582 pages, 1966 Introduction: Continuous Systems and the Variational Principle 1. The Fundamental Variational Principle 2. The Importance Function 3. Adjoint Equations 4. Variational Methods 5. Perturbation and Iterative Methods 6. Non-Linear Theory

  10. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression.

    PubMed

    Shackman, Jessica E; Pollak, Seth D

    2014-11-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children's allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders. PMID:24914736

  11. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression.

    PubMed

    Shackman, Jessica E; Pollak, Seth D

    2014-11-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children's allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders.

  12. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression

    PubMed Central

    SHACKMAN, JESSICA E.; POLLAK, SETH D.

    2015-01-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children’s allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders. PMID:24914736

  13. Phillips' Lambda function: Data summary and physical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irisov, V.; Plant, W.

    2016-03-01

    Measurements of Phillips' Lambda function describing the average length of breakers on the ocean per unit area at speed cb are summarized. An expression is developed that fits these data within reasonable bounds. A physical model for the Lambda function is derived based on the assumption that breaking occurs when the surface steepness exceeds a threshold value. The energy contained in the breaking region is related to the fifth power of the breaker speed, as Phillips showed, and from this the probability of finding a breaker with a speed cb may be determined from a simulation of the long-wave surface based on a linear superposition of Fourier components. This probability is directly related to the Lambda function so that a form for this function can be determined. The Lambda function so determined agrees in both shape and intensity with the fit to the measured Lambda functions.

  14. Concomitant gastroparesis negatively affects children with functional gallbladder disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis and biliary dyskinesia (BD) occur in children, and if so, to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis affects clinical outcome in children with BD. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with BD (ejecti...

  15. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  16. Muscle metabolic function and free-living physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Sirikul, Bovorn; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2006-11-01

    We have previously shown that muscle metabolic function measured during exercise is related to exercise performance and subsequent 1-yr weight gain. Because it is well established that physical activity is important in weight maintenance, we examined muscle function relationships with free-living energy expenditure and physical activity. Subjects were 71 premenopausal black and white women. Muscle metabolism was evaluated by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy during 90-s isometric plantar flexion contractions (45% maximum). Free-living energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water, activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as 0.9 x TEE - sleeping energy expenditure from room calorimetry, and free-living physical activity (ARTE) was calculated by dividing AEE by energy cost of standard physical activities. At the end of exercise, anaerobic glycolytic rate (ANGLY) and muscle concentration of phosphomonoesters (PME) were negatively related to TEE, AEE, and ARTE (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that both PME (partial r = -0.29, <0.02) and ANGLY (partial r = -0.24, P < 0.04) were independently related to ARTE. PME, primarily glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, was significantly related to ratings of perceived exertion (r = 0.21, P < or = 0.05) during a maximal treadmill test. PME was not related to ARTE after inclusion of RPE in the multiple regression model, suggesting that PME may be obtaining its relationship with ARTE through an increased perception of effort during physical activity. In conclusion, physically inactive individuals tend to be more dependent on anaerobic glycolysis during exercise while relying on a glycolytic pathway that may not be functioning optimally. PMID:16825516

  17. Muscle metabolic function and free-living physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Sirikul, Bovorn; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2006-11-01

    We have previously shown that muscle metabolic function measured during exercise is related to exercise performance and subsequent 1-yr weight gain. Because it is well established that physical activity is important in weight maintenance, we examined muscle function relationships with free-living energy expenditure and physical activity. Subjects were 71 premenopausal black and white women. Muscle metabolism was evaluated by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy during 90-s isometric plantar flexion contractions (45% maximum). Free-living energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water, activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as 0.9 x TEE - sleeping energy expenditure from room calorimetry, and free-living physical activity (ARTE) was calculated by dividing AEE by energy cost of standard physical activities. At the end of exercise, anaerobic glycolytic rate (ANGLY) and muscle concentration of phosphomonoesters (PME) were negatively related to TEE, AEE, and ARTE (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that both PME (partial r = -0.29, <0.02) and ANGLY (partial r = -0.24, P < 0.04) were independently related to ARTE. PME, primarily glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, was significantly related to ratings of perceived exertion (r = 0.21, P < or = 0.05) during a maximal treadmill test. PME was not related to ARTE after inclusion of RPE in the multiple regression model, suggesting that PME may be obtaining its relationship with ARTE through an increased perception of effort during physical activity. In conclusion, physically inactive individuals tend to be more dependent on anaerobic glycolysis during exercise while relying on a glycolytic pathway that may not be functioning optimally.

  18. Home environmental problems and physical function in Taiwanese older adults.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tzuo-Yun; Wu, Shwu-Chong; Chang, Wen-Chiung; Chen, Ching-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental hazards play an important role in the disablement process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between home environmental problems and personal physical function. Data were based on a two-stage nationwide survey and evaluation on the needs of long-term care in Taiwan. A total of 10,596 individuals aged 65 and over were included in this study. These participants were identified with physical or cognitive problems at the screening interview and further evaluated at the second interview on health condition, functional status, needs of long-term care, and home environmental problems. Six items of environmental hazards were assessed at the participants' homes with direct observation. The prevalence rates of home environmental problems were similar among older adults with different levels of physical function. No grab bars (79.6-85.1%) and no protections against slip (81.9-92.8%) in the bathroom were two commonly present hazards in older adults' homes. Older adults with a higher income (Odds ratio=OR=0.75), without income information (OR=0.78) or living with other persons (OR=0.74) were less likely to experience environmental problems at home. Results from this study revealed that home environment condition was associated with factors other than personal disabling conditions for the elderly. Modifying home environment, especially the bathroom, should be attached with great importance for physically disabled older adults. PMID:19124167

  19. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context

    PubMed Central

    Niermann, Christina Y. N.; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  20. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Christina Y N; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  1. Chemical and Physical Sensors in the Regulation of Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Pluznick, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the status of the volume and composition of the body fluid compartment, the kidney monitors a wide variety of chemical and physical parameters. It has recently become clear that the kidney’s sensory capacity extends well beyond its ability to sense ion concentrations in the forming urine. The kidney also keeps track of organic metabolites derived from a surprising variety of sources and uses a complex interplay of physical and chemical sensing mechanisms to measure the rate of fluid flow in the nephron. Recent research has provided new insights into the nature of these sensory mechanisms and their relevance to renal function. PMID:25280495

  2. SUMO1 Affects Synaptic Function, Spine Density and Memory.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Lee, Linda; Knock, Erin; Srikumar, Tharan; Sakurai, Mikako; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Katayama, Taiichi; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Raught, Brian; Arancio, Ottavio; Fraser, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) plays a number of roles in cellular events and recent evidence has given momentum for its contributions to neuronal development and function. Here, we have generated a SUMO1 transgenic mouse model with exclusive overexpression in neurons in an effort to identify in vivo conjugation targets and the functional consequences of their SUMOylation. A high-expressing line was examined which displayed elevated levels of mono-SUMO1 and increased high molecular weight conjugates in all brain regions. Immunoprecipitation of SUMOylated proteins from total brain extract and proteomic analysis revealed ~95 candidate proteins from a variety of functional classes, including a number of synaptic and cytoskeletal proteins. SUMO1 modification of synaptotagmin-1 was found to be elevated as compared to non-transgenic mice. This observation was associated with an age-dependent reduction in basal synaptic transmission and impaired presynaptic function as shown by altered paired pulse facilitation, as well as a decrease in spine density. The changes in neuronal function and morphology were also associated with a specific impairment in learning and memory while other behavioral features remained unchanged. These findings point to a significant contribution of SUMO1 modification on neuronal function which may have implications for mechanisms involved in mental retardation and neurodegeneration. PMID:26022678

  3. The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2014-03-01

    Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces. PMID:24486620

  4. The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2014-03-01

    Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces.

  5. Recent approaches in physical modification of protein functionality.

    PubMed

    Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Shojaee Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh

    2016-05-15

    Today, there is a growing demand for novel technologies, such as high hydrostatic pressure, irradiation, ultrasound, filtration, supercritical carbon dioxide, plasma technology, and electrical methods, which are not based on chemicals or heat treatment for modifying ingredient functionality and extending product shelf life. Proteins are essential components in many food processes, and provide various functions in food quality and stability. They can create interfacial films that stabilize emulsions and foams as well as interact to make networks that play key roles in gel and edible film production. These properties of protein are referred to as 'protein functionality', because they can be modified by different processing. The common protein modification (chemical, enzymatic and physical) methods have strong effects on the structure and functionality of food proteins. Furthermore, novel technologies can modify protein structure and functional properties that will be reviewed in this study.

  6. Recent approaches in physical modification of protein functionality.

    PubMed

    Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Shojaee Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh

    2016-05-15

    Today, there is a growing demand for novel technologies, such as high hydrostatic pressure, irradiation, ultrasound, filtration, supercritical carbon dioxide, plasma technology, and electrical methods, which are not based on chemicals or heat treatment for modifying ingredient functionality and extending product shelf life. Proteins are essential components in many food processes, and provide various functions in food quality and stability. They can create interfacial films that stabilize emulsions and foams as well as interact to make networks that play key roles in gel and edible film production. These properties of protein are referred to as 'protein functionality', because they can be modified by different processing. The common protein modification (chemical, enzymatic and physical) methods have strong effects on the structure and functionality of food proteins. Furthermore, novel technologies can modify protein structure and functional properties that will be reviewed in this study. PMID:26776016

  7. Impairments that Influence Physical Function among Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Carmen L.; Gawade, Prasad L.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Children treated for cancer are at increased risk of developing chronic health conditions, some of which may manifest during or soon after treatment while others emerge many years after therapy. These health problems may limit physical performance and functional capacity, interfering with participation in work, social, and recreational activities. In this review, we discuss treatment-induced impairments in the endocrine, musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiopulmonary systems and their influence on mobility and physical function. We found that cranial radiation at a young age was associated with a broad range of chronic conditions including obesity, short stature, low bone mineral density and neuromotor impairments. Anthracyclines and chest radiation are associated with both short and long-term cardiotoxicity. Although numerous chronic conditions are documented among individuals treated for childhood cancer, the impact of these conditions on mobility and function are not well characterized, with most studies limited to survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. Moving forward, further research assessing the impact of chronic conditions on participation in work and social activities is required. Moreover, interventions to prevent or ameliorate the loss of physical function among children treated for cancer are likely to become an important area of survivorship research. PMID:25692094

  8. Physical Performance and Physical Activity in Older Adults: Associated but Separate Domains of Physical Function in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Elders, Petra J. M.; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical function is a crucial factor in the prevention and treatment of health conditions in older adults and is usually measured objectively with physical performance tests and/or physical activity monitoring. Objective To examine whether 1) physical performance (PP) and physical activity (PA) constitute separate domains of physical function; 2) differentiation of PA classes is more informative than overall PA. Design Cross-sectional study to explore the relationships within and among PP and PA measures. Methods In 49 older participants (83±7 years; M±SD), performance-based tests were conducted and PA was measured for one week. Activity monitor data were reduced in terms of duration, periods, and mean duration of periods of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion. The relation between and within PP scores and PA outcomes were analysed using rank order correlation and factor analysis. Results Factor structure after varimax rotation revealed two orthogonal factors explaining 78% of the variance in the data: one comprising all PA variables and one comprising all PP variables. PP scores correlated moderately with PA in daily life. Differentiation of activity types and quantification of their duration, intensity and frequency of occurrence provided stronger associations with PP, as compared to a single measure of acceleration expressing overall PA. Limitations For independent validation, the conclusions about the validity of the presented conceptual framework and its clinical implications need to be confirmed in other studies. Conclusions PP and PA represent associated but separate domains of physical function, suggesting that an improvement of PP does not automatically imply an increase of PA, i.e. a change to a more active lifestyle. Differentiation of activity classes in the analysis of PA provides more insights into PA and its association with PP than using a single overall measure of acceleration. PMID:26630268

  9. Physical Activity, Mind Wandering, Affect, and Sleep: An Ecological Momentary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Michael; Roberts, Sarah; Crato, Ines; Ehlers, Diane; McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background A considerable portion of daily thought is spent in mind wandering. This behavior has been related to positive (eg, future planning, problem solving) and negative (eg, unhappiness, impaired cognitive performance) outcomes. Objective Based on previous research suggesting future-oriented (ie, prospective) mind wandering may support autobiographical planning and self-regulation, this study examined associations between hourly mind wandering and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and the impact of affect and daily sleep on these relations. Methods College-aged adults (N=33) participated in a mobile phone-delivered ecological momentary assessment study for 1 week. Sixteen hourly prompts assessing mind wandering and affect were delivered daily via participants’ mobile phones. Perceived sleep quality and duration was assessed during the first prompt each day, and participants wore an ActiGraph accelerometer during waking hours throughout the study week. Results Study findings suggest present-moment mind wandering was positively associated with future MVPA (P=.03), and this relationship was moderated by affective state (P=.04). Moreover, excessive sleep the previous evening was related to less MVPA across the following day (P=.007). Further, mind wandering was positively related to activity only among those who did not oversleep (P=.007). Conclusions Together, these results have implications for multiple health behavior interventions targeting physical activity, affect, and sleep. Researchers may also build on this work by studying these relationships in the context of other important behaviors and psychosocial factors (eg, tobacco use, depression, loneliness). PMID:27580673

  10. Telomerase deficiency affects normal brain functions in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Jo, Yong Sang; Sung, Young Hoon; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Hyuk; Kim, Song-Yi; Yi, Sun Shin; Choi, June-Seek; Sun, Woong; Seong, Je Kyung; Lee, Han-Woong

    2010-02-01

    Telomerase maintains telomere structures and chromosome stability, and it is essential for preserving the characteristics of stem and progenitor cells. In the brain, the hippocampus and the olfactory bulbs are continuously supplied with neural stem and progenitor cells that are required for adult neurogenesis throughout the life. Therefore, we examined whether telomerase plays important roles in maintaining normal brain functions in vivo. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression was observed in the hippocampus, the olfactory bulbs, and the cerebellum, but the telomerase RNA component (TERC) was not detected in hippocampus and olfactory bulbs. Interestingly, TERT-deficient mice exhibited significantly altered anxiety-like behaviors and abnormal olfaction measuring the functions of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulbs, respectively. However, the cerebellum-dependent behavior was not changed in these mutant mice. These results suggest that TERT is constitutively expressed in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulbs, and that it is important for regulating normal brain functions. PMID:19685288

  11. Fetal urinoma and prenatal hydronephrosis: how is renal function affected?

    PubMed Central

    Oktar, Tayfun; Salabaş, Emre; Kalelioğlu, İbrahim; Atar, Arda; Ander, Haluk; Ziylan, Orhan; Has, Recep; Yüksel, Atıl

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In our study, the functional prognosis of kidneys with prenatal urinomas were investigated. Material and methods: Between 2006 and 2010, fetal urinomas were detected in 19 fetuses using prenatal ultrasonography (US), and the medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 19 cases, the follow-up data were available for 10 fetuses. The gestational age at diagnosis, prognosis of urinomas, clinical course and renal functions were recorded. Postnatal renal functions were assessed with renal scintigraphy. Results: Unilateral urinomas and increased parenchyma echogenicity in the ipsilateral kidney were detected in all of the fetuses. Of the 10 fetuses with follow-up data, the option of termination was offered in 6 cases of anhydramnios, including 3 cases with signs of infravesical obstruction (a possible posterior urethral valve (PUV) and poor prognostic factors and 3 cases with unilateral hydronephrosis and increased echogenicity in the contralateral kidney. Only one family agreed the termination. The other 5 fetuses died during the early postnatal period. The average postnatal follow-up period in the 4 surviving fetuses was 22.5 months (8–38 months). One patient with a PUV underwent ablation surgery during the early postnatal period. In the postnatal period, none of the 4 kidneys that were ipsilateral to the urinoma were functional on scintigraphic evaluation. The urinomas disappeared in 3 cases. Nephrectomy was performed in one case due to recurrent urinary tract infections. Conclusion: In our study, no function was detected in the ipsilateral kidney of surviving patients with urinomas. Upper urinary tract dilatation accompanied by a urinoma is a poor prognostic factor for renal function. PMID:26328088

  12. Physical activity ameliorates cardiovascular health in elderly subjects: the functional role of the β adrenergic system

    PubMed Central

    Santulli, Gaetano; Ciccarelli, Michele; Trimarco, Bruno; Iaccarino, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a complex process characterized by a gradual decline in organ functional reserves, which eventually reduces the ability to maintain homeostasis. An exquisite feature of elderly subjects, which constitute a growing proportion of the world population, is the high prevalence of cardiovascular disorders, which negatively affect both the quality of life and the life expectancy. It is widely acknowledged that physical activity represents one of the foremost interventions capable in reducing the health burden of cardiovascular disease. Interestingly, the benefits of moderate-intensity physical activity have been established both in young and elderly subjects. Herein we provide a systematic and updated appraisal of the literature exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms evoked by physical activity in the elderly, focusing on the functional role of the β adrenergic system. PMID:23964243

  13. Chemical Modifications that Affect Nutritional and Functional Properties of Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, T.; Kester, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical alterations of selected amino acids resulting from environmental effects (photooxidations, pH extremes, thermally induced effects). Also dicusses use of intentional chemical derivatizations of various functional groups in amino acid residue side chains and how recombinant DNA techniques might be useful in structure/function…

  14. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  15. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria.

  16. Physical invariant strain energy function for passive myocardium.

    PubMed

    Shariff, M H B M

    2013-04-01

    Principal axis formulations are regularly used in isotropic elasticity, but they are not often used in dealing with anisotropic problems. In this paper, based on a principal axis technique, we develop a physical invariant orthotropic constitutive equation for incompressible solids, where it contains only a one variable (general) function. The corresponding strain energy function depends on six invariants that have immediate physical interpretation. These invariants are useful in facilitating an experiment to obtain a specific constitutive equation for a particular type of materials. The explicit appearance of the classical ground-state constants in the constitutive equation simplifies the calculation for their admissible values. A specific constitutive model is proposed for passive myocardium, and the model fits reasonably well with existing simple shear and biaxial experimental data. It is also able to predict a set of data from a simple shear experiment.

  17. DHHC2 Affects Palmitoylation, Stability, and Functions of Tetraspanins CD9 and CD151

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Chandan; Yang, Xiuwei H.

    2008-01-01

    Although palmitoylation markedly affects tetraspanin protein biochemistry and functions, relevant palmitoylating enzymes were not known. There are 23 mammalian “DHHC” (Asp-His-His-Cys) proteins, which presumably palmitoylate different sets of protein substrates. Among DHHC proteins tested, DHHC2 best stimulated palmitoylation of tetraspanins CD9 and CD151, whereas inactive DHHC2 (containing DH→AA or C→S mutations within the DHHC motif) failed to promote palmitoylation. Furthermore, DHHC2 associated with CD9 and CD151, but not other cell surface proteins, and DHHC2 knockdown diminished CD9 and CD151 palmitoylation. Knockdown of six other Golgi-resident DHHC proteins (DHHC3, -4, -8, -17, -18, and -21) had no effect on CD9 or CD151. DHHC2 selectively affected tetraspanin palmitoylation, but not the palmitoylations of integrin β4 subunit and bulk proteins visible in [3H]palmitate-labeled whole cell lysates. DHHC2-dependent palmitoylation also had multiple functional effects. First, it promoted physical associations between CD9 and CD151, and between α3 integrin and other proteins. Second, it protected CD151 and CD9 from lysosomal degradation. Third, the presence of DHHC2, but not other DHHC proteins, shifted cells away from a dispersed state and toward increased cell–cell contacts. PMID:18508921

  18. SLE-associated risk factors affect DC function.

    PubMed

    Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Numerous risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have now been identified. Analysis of the expression of genes with risk alleles in cells of hematopoietic origin demonstrates them to be most abundantly expressed in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that these cell types may be the drivers of the inflammatory changes seen in SLE. DCs are of particular interest as they act to connect the innate and the adaptive immune response. Thus, DCs can transform inflammation into autoimmunity, and autoantibodies are the hallmark of SLE. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of tolerance that maintain DCs in a non-activated, non-immunogenic state. We demonstrate, using examples from our own studies, how alterations in DC function stemming from either DC-intrinsic abnormalities or DC-extrinsic regulators of function can predispose to autoimmunity.

  19. SLE-associated risk factors affect DC function.

    PubMed

    Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Numerous risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have now been identified. Analysis of the expression of genes with risk alleles in cells of hematopoietic origin demonstrates them to be most abundantly expressed in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that these cell types may be the drivers of the inflammatory changes seen in SLE. DCs are of particular interest as they act to connect the innate and the adaptive immune response. Thus, DCs can transform inflammation into autoimmunity, and autoantibodies are the hallmark of SLE. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of tolerance that maintain DCs in a non-activated, non-immunogenic state. We demonstrate, using examples from our own studies, how alterations in DC function stemming from either DC-intrinsic abnormalities or DC-extrinsic regulators of function can predispose to autoimmunity. PMID:26683148

  20. SLE-associated risk factors affect DC function

    PubMed Central

    Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Numerous risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have now been identified. Analysis of the expression of genes with risk alleles in cells of hematopoietic origin demonstrates them to be most abundantly expressed in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that these cell types may be the drivers of the inflammatory changes seen in SLE. DCs are of particular interest as they act to connect the innate and the adaptive immune response. Thus, DCs can transform inflammation into autoimmunity, and autoantibodies are the hallmark of SLE. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of tolerance that maintain DCs in a non-activated, non-immunogenic state. We demonstrate, using examples from our own studies, how alterations in DC function stemming from either DC-intrinsic abnormalities or DC-extrinsic regulators of function can predispose to autoimmunity. PMID:26683148

  1. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention.

  2. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  3. Nuclear cyclophilins affect spliceosome assembly and function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Adams, B M; Coates, Miranda N; Jackson, S RaElle; Jurica, Melissa S; Davis, Tara L

    2015-07-15

    Cyclophilins are ubiquitously expressed proteins that bind to prolines and can catalyse cis/trans isomerization of proline residues. There are 17 annotated members of the cyclophilin family in humans, ubiquitously expressed and localized variously to the cytoplasm, nucleus or mitochondria. Surprisingly, all eight of the nuclear localized cyclophilins are found associated with spliceosomal complexes. However, their particular functions within this context are unknown. We have therefore adapted three established assays for in vitro pre-mRNA splicing to probe the functional roles of nuclear cyclophilins in the context of the human spliceosome. We find that four of the eight spliceosom-associated cyclophilins exert strong effects on splicing in vitro. These effects are dose-dependent and, remarkably, uniquely characteristic of each cyclophilin. Using both qualitative and quantitative means, we show that at least half of the nuclear cyclophilins can act as regulatory factors of spliceosome function in vitro. The present work provides the first quantifiable evidence that nuclear cyclophilins are splicing factors and provides a novel approach for future work into small molecule-based modulation of pre-mRNA splicing.

  4. Development of affective theory of mind across adolescence: disentangling the role of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Nora C; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across adolescence. Affective theory of mind and three subcomponents of executive functions (inhibition, updating, and shifting) were measured. Affective theory of mind was positively related to age, and all three executive functions. Specifically, inhibition explained the largest amount of variance in age-related differences in affective theory of mind.

  5. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100367

  6. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    PubMed

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p < 0.05), but all other factors were not significantly different. It was concluded that among previously inactive people, receiving this guide may change some informational/motivational constructs, but key motivational antecedents (affective attitude, perceived behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  7. Does prolonged cycling of moderate intensity affect immune cell function?

    PubMed Central

    Scharhag, J; Meyer, T; Gabriel, H; Schlick, B; Faude, O; Kindermann, W; Shephard, R

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prolonged exercise may induce temporary immunosuppression with a presumed increased susceptibility for infection. However, there are only few data on immune cell function after prolonged cycling at moderate intensities typical for road cycling training sessions. Methods: The present study examined the influence on immune cell function of 4 h of cycling at a constant intensity of 70% of the individual anaerobic threshold. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocyte and lymphocyte populations, activities of natural killer (NK), neutrophils, and monocytes were examined before and after exercise, and also on a control day without exercise. Results: Cycling for 4 h induced a moderate acute phase response with increases in IL-6 from 1.0 (SD 0.5) before to 9.6 (5.6) pg/ml 1 h after exercise and CRP from 0.5 (SD 0.4) before to 1.8 (1.3) mg/l 1 day after exercise. Although absolute numbers of circulating NK cells, monocytes, and neutrophils increased during exercise, on a per cell basis NK cell activity, neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis, and monocyte oxidative burst did not significantly change after exercise. However, a minor effect over time for neutrophil oxidative burst was noted, tending to decrease after exercise. Conclusions: Prolonged cycling at moderate intensities does not seem to seriously alter the function of cells of the first line of defence. Therefore, the influence of a single typical road cycling training session on the immune system is only moderate and appears to be safe from an immunological point of view. PMID:15728699

  8. Yersinia enterocolitica Affects Intestinal Barrier Function in the Colon.

    PubMed

    Hering, Nina A; Fromm, Anja; Kikhney, Judith; Lee, In-Fah M; Moter, Annette; Schulzke, Jörg D; Bücker, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Infection with Yersinia enterocolitica causes acute diarrhea in early childhood. A mouse infection model presents new findings on pathological mechanisms in the colon. Symptoms involve diarrhea with watery feces and weight loss that have their functional correlates in decreased transepithelial electrical resistance and increased fluorescein permeability. Y. enterocolitica was present within the murine mucosa of both ileum and colon. Here, the bacterial insult was of focal nature and led to changes in tight junction protein expression and architecture. These findings are in concordance with observations from former cell culture studies and suggest a leak flux mechanism of diarrhea.

  9. Repeated Traumatic Brain Injury Affects Composite Cognitive Function in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Friess, Stuart H.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A.; Smith, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Cumulative effects of repetitive mild head injury in the pediatric population are unknown. We have developed a cognitive composite dysfunction score that correlates white matter injury severity in neonatal piglets with neurobehavioral assessments of executive function, memory, learning, and problem solving. Anesthetized 3- to 5-day-old piglets were subjected to single (n = 7), double one day apart (n = 7), and double one week apart (n = 7) moderate (190 rad/s) rapid non-impact axial rotations of the head and compared to instrumented shams (n = 7). Animals experiencing two head rotations one day apart had a significantly higher mortality rate (43%) compared to the other groups and had higher failures rates in visual-based problem solving compared to instrumented shams. White matter injury, assessed by β-APP staining, was significantly higher in the double one week apart group compared to that with single injury and sham. Worsening performance on cognitive composite score correlated well with increasing severity of white matter axonal injury. In our immature large animal model of TBI, two head rotations produced poorer outcome as assessed by neuropathology and neurobehavioral functional outcomes compared to that with single rotations. More importantly, we have observed an increase in injury severity and mortality when the head rotations occur 24 h apart compared to 7 days apart. These observations have important clinical translation to infants subjected to repeated inflicted head trauma. PMID:19275468

  10. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  11. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-06-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=-0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index.

  12. Nurses' perceptions of how physical environment affects medication errors in acute care settings.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Atiya; Chaudhury, Habib; Valente, Maria

    2011-11-01

    The work that nurses perform in hospital environments is physically and psychologically intense, with the potential for burnout and stress. This issue is compounded by crowded and poorly designed work spaces in nursing units that can contribute to medical mistakes, including medication errors. This article is based on a study that examined the nurses' perception of how the physical environment in hospitals affects medication errors. Literature suggests that reduction of staff stress can be achieved through physical environmental considerations, such as improved air quality, acoustics, and lighting. However, there is no empirical study specifically exploring the relationship between aspects of the physical environment and medication errors. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with nursing staff (N = 84) in four hospitals in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The survey included questions on nursing unit design, medication room configurations, perceived incidence of errors, and adverse events. Respondents noted several physical environmental factors that are potentially problematic in the nursing station area and can lead to medication, documentation, and other types of nursing errors. These factors include inadequate space in charting and documentation area, lengthy walking distances to patient rooms, insufficient patient surveillance opportunity/lack of visibility to all parts of the nursing unit, small size of the medication room, inappropriate organization of medical supplies, high noise levels in nursing unit, poor lighting, and lack of privacy in the nursing stations. As administrators in acute care facilities consider strategies for organizational and staff interventions to reduce medication errors, it is important to consider physical environmental factors to have a comprehensive understanding of the issue.

  13. Does vitamin C deficiency affect cognitive development and function?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(-/-) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies.

  14. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(−/−) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

  15. Interacting Physical and Biological Processes Affecting Nutrient Transport Through Human Dominated Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities increasingly dominate biogeochemical cycles of limiting nutrients on Earth. Urban and agricultural landscapes represent the largest sources of excess nutrients that drive water quality degradation. The physical structure of both urban and agricultural watersheds has been extensively modified, and these changes have large impacts on water and nutrient transport. Despite strong physical controls over nutrient transport in human dominated landscapes, biological processes play important roles in determining the fates of both nitrogen and phosphorus. This talk uses examples from research in urban and agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern USA to illustrate interactions of physical and biological controls over nutrient cycles that have shifted nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sources and cycling in unexpected ways in response to management changes. In urban watersheds, efforts to improve water quality have been hindered by legacy sources of phosphorus added to storm water through transport to drainage systems by vegetation. Similarly, reductions in field erosion in agricultural watersheds have not led to major reductions in phosphorus transport, because of continued release of biological sources of P. Where management of phosphorus has been most effective in reducing eutrophication of lakes, decreases in N removal processes have led to long term increases in N concentration and transport. Together, these examples show important roles for biological processes affecting nutrient movement in highly modified landscapes. Consideration of the downstream physical and biological responses of management changes are thus critical toward identification of actions that will most effectively reduce excess nutrients watersheds and coastal zones.

  16. A brief intervention affects parents' attitudes toward using less physical punishment.

    PubMed

    Chavis, Antwon; Hudnut-Beumler, Julia; Webb, Margaret W; Neely, Jill A; Bickman, Len; Dietrich, Mary S; Scholer, Seth J

    2013-12-01

    Consecutive English and Spanish speaking caregivers of 6-24 month old children were randomly assigned to either a control or intervention group. Parents in the intervention group were instructed to view at least 4 options to discipline a child in an interactive multimedia program. The control group participants received routine primary care with their resident physician. After the clinic visit, all parents were invited to participate in a research study; the participation rate was 98% (258/263). The key measure was the Attitudes Toward Spanking (ATS) scale. The ATS is correlated with parents' actual use of physical punishment. Parents with higher scores are more likely to use physical punishment to discipline their children. Parents in the intervention group had an ATS score that was significantly lower than the ATS score of parents in the control group (median=24.0, vs. median=30; p=0.043). Parents in the control group were 2 times more likely to report that they would spank a child who was misbehaving compared with parents in the intervention group (16.9% vs. 7.0%, p=0.015). In the short-term, a brief intervention, integrated into the primary care visit, can affect parents' attitudes toward using less physical punishment. It may be feasible to teach parents to not use physical punishment using a population-based approach. The findings have implications for how to improve primary care services and the prevention of violence.

  17. A brief intervention affects parents' attitudes toward using less physical punishment.

    PubMed

    Chavis, Antwon; Hudnut-Beumler, Julia; Webb, Margaret W; Neely, Jill A; Bickman, Len; Dietrich, Mary S; Scholer, Seth J

    2013-12-01

    Consecutive English and Spanish speaking caregivers of 6-24 month old children were randomly assigned to either a control or intervention group. Parents in the intervention group were instructed to view at least 4 options to discipline a child in an interactive multimedia program. The control group participants received routine primary care with their resident physician. After the clinic visit, all parents were invited to participate in a research study; the participation rate was 98% (258/263). The key measure was the Attitudes Toward Spanking (ATS) scale. The ATS is correlated with parents' actual use of physical punishment. Parents with higher scores are more likely to use physical punishment to discipline their children. Parents in the intervention group had an ATS score that was significantly lower than the ATS score of parents in the control group (median=24.0, vs. median=30; p=0.043). Parents in the control group were 2 times more likely to report that they would spank a child who was misbehaving compared with parents in the intervention group (16.9% vs. 7.0%, p=0.015). In the short-term, a brief intervention, integrated into the primary care visit, can affect parents' attitudes toward using less physical punishment. It may be feasible to teach parents to not use physical punishment using a population-based approach. The findings have implications for how to improve primary care services and the prevention of violence. PMID:23859768

  18. [Effect of physical exercise on endothelial function, indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Madry, Edyta; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-02-01

    Endothelium plays an important role in regulation of the activity of inflammation and oxidative stress. Numerous studies have shown that physical training affects endothelial function. It is proven that regular physical activity reduces the seventy of inflammation and the risk of cardiovascular events. Changes observed in effect of physical activity include increase in production of nitric oxide (NO), a decrease of plaque volume, a decrease in vascular wall viscosity and an increase in diastolic coronary perfusion. It has been shown that exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in subjects with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease and hypertension, as well as in healthy people. In above populations the benefits result from improved endothelial function. It has been proven that regular physical activity improves enzymatic antioxidant systems and the immune response. It is a result of the stimulating effect of muscle tissue micro-injuries and recruitment of various cell types of the inflammatory response and their migration deeper into the tissues. The biggest changes in the immune response are observed in prolonged aerobic exercise. Physical activity has a significant impact on endothelial function, intensity of inflammatory processes and exponents of oxidative stress. There is a need for further researches, in particular in order to determine the optimal model of training.

  19. Physical mechanisms affecting hot carrier-induced degradation in gallium nitride HEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Shubhajit

    Gallium Nitride or GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) is currently the most promising device technology in several key military and civilian applications due to excellent high-power as well as high-frequency performance. Even though the performance figures are outstanding, GaN-based HEMTs are not as mature as some competing technologies, which means that establishing the reliability of the technology is important to enable use in critical applications. The objective of this research is to understand the physical mechanisms affecting the reliability of GaN HEMTs at moderate drain biases (typically VDS < 30 V in the devices considered here). The degradation in device performance is believed to be due to the formation or modification of charged defects near the interface by hydrogen depassivation processes (due to electron-activated hydrogen removal) from energetic carriers. A rate-equation describing the defect generation process is formulated based on this assumption. A combination of ensemble Monte-Carlo (EMC) simulation statistics, ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and accelerated stress experiments is used to relate the candidate defects to the overall degradation behavior (VT and gm). The focus of this work is on the 'semi-ON' mode of transistor operation in which the degradation is usually observed to be at its highest. This semi-ON state is reasonably close to the biasing region of class-AB high power amplifiers, which are popular because of the combination of high efficiency and low distortion that is associated with this configuration. The carrier-energy distributions are obtained using an EMC simulator that was developed specifically for III-V HFETs. The rate equation is used to model the degradation at different operating conditions as well as longer stress times from the result of one short duration stress test, by utilizing the carrier-energy distribution obtained from EMC simulations for one baseline condition

  20. Assessing Physical Functioning in Otolaryngology: Feasibility of the Short Physical Performance Battery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, David S.; Blake, Caitlin R.; Genther, Dane J.; Li, Lingsheng; Lin, Frank R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Objective measures of physical functioning and mobility are considered to be the strongest indicators of overall health and mortality risk in older adults. These measures are not routinely used in otolaryngology research. We investigated the feasibility of using a validated physical performance battery to assess the functioning of older adults seen in a tertiary care otolaryngology clinic. Materials and Methods The Short Physical Performance Battery was performed on 22 individuals aged 50 years or older enrolled in the Studying Multiple Outcomes after Aural Rehabilitative Treatment (SMART) study at Johns Hopkins Results We successfully administered the SPPB to 22 participants, and this testing resulted in minimal participant and provider burden with respect to time, training, and space requirements. The mean time to complete 5 chair stands was 13.0 ± 3.8 seconds. The mean times for the side-by-side, semi-tandem, and tandem stands were 10.0 ± 0.0, 9.5 ± 2.1, and 8.8 ± 3.2 seconds, respectively. Mean walking speed was 1.1 ± 0.3 meters per second, and composite SPPB scores ranged from 6 to 12 (mean = 10.45, S.D. = 1.6). Conclusions Our results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a standardized physical performance battery to assess physical functioning in a cohort of older adults seen in a tertiary otolaryngology clinic. We provide detailed instructions, references, and analytic methods for implementing the SPPB in future otolaryngology studies involving older adults. PMID:25179123

  1. Texercise Effectiveness: Impacts on Physical Functioning and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee; Jiang, Luohua; Howell, Doris; Chen, Shuai; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Stevens, Alan B

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of Texercise Select, a 12-week lifestyle program to improve physical functioning (as measured by gait speed) and quality of life. Baseline and 12-week follow-up assessments were collected from 220 enrollees who were older (mean = 75 years), predominantly female (85%), White (82%), and experiencing multiple comorbidities (mean = 2.4). Linear mixed-models were fitted for continuous outcome variables and GEE models with logit link function for binary outcome variables. At baseline, over 52% of participants had Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test times of 12 s or more, which indicates below-normal performance. On average, participants showed significant reductions in TUG test scores at the postintervention (11% reduction, p < .001). Participants also showed significant improvements in general health status (p = .002), unhealthy physical days (p = .032), combined unhealthy physical and mental days (p = .006), and days limited from usual activity (p = .045). Findings suggest that performance indicators can be objectively collected and integrated into evaluation designs of community-based, activity-rich lifestyle programs.

  2. Endocannabinoids affect the reproductive functions in teleosts and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Cottone, E; Guastalla, A; Mackie, K; Franzoni, M F

    2008-04-16

    Following the discovery in the brain of the bonyfish Fugu rubripes of two genes encoding for type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1A and CB1B), investigations on the phylogeny of these receptors have indicated that the cannabinergic system is highly conserved. Among the multiple functions modulated by cannabinoids/endocannabinoids through the CB1 receptors one of the more investigated is the mammalian reproduction. Therefore, since studies performed in animal models other than mammals might provide further insight into the biology of these signalling molecules, the major aim of the present paper was to review the comparative data pointing toward the endocannabinoid involvement in the reproductive control of non-mammalian vertebrates, namely bonyfish and amphibians. The expression and distribution of CB1 receptors were investigated in the CNS and gonads of two teleosts, Pelvicachromis pulcher and Carassius auratus as well as in the anuran amphibians Xenopus laevis and Rana esculenta. In general the large diffusion of neurons targeted by cannabinoids in both fish and amphibian forebrain indicate endocannabinoids as pivotal local messengers in several neural circuits involved in either sensory integrative activities, like the olfactory processes (in amphibians) and food response (in bonyfish), or neuroendocrine machinery (in both). By using immunohistochemistry for CB1 and GnRH-I, the codistribution of the two signalling molecules was found in the fish basal telencephalon and preoptic area, which are key centers for gonadotropic regulation in all vertebrates. A similar topographical codistribution was observed also in the septum of the telencephalon in Rana esculenta and Xenopus laevis. Interestingly, the double standard immunofluorescence on the same brain section, aided with a laser confocal microscope, showed that in anurans a subset of GnRH-I neurons exhibited also the CB1 immunostaining. The fact that CB1-LI-IR was found indeed in the FSH gonadotrophs of the Xenopus

  3. Consumption of bee pollen affects rat ovarian functions.

    PubMed

    Kolesarova, A; Bakova, Z; Capcarova, M; Galik, B; Juracek, M; Simko, M; Toman, R; Sirotkin, A V

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of bee pollen added to the feed mixture (FM) on rat ovarian functions (secretion activity and apoptosis). We evaluated the bee pollen effect on the release of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol), as well as on the expression of markers of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3) in rat ovarian fragments. Female rats (n = 15) were fed during 90 days by FM without or with rape seed bee pollen in dose either 3 kg/1000 kg FM or 5 kg/1000 kg FM. Fragments of ovaries isolated from rats of each group (totally 72 pieces) were incubated for 24 h. Hormonal secretion into the culture medium was detected by RIA. The markers of apoptosis were evaluated by Western blotting. It was observed that IGF-I release by rat ovarian fragments was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased; on the other hand, progesterone and estradiol secretion was increased after bee pollen treatment at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM but not at 3 kg/1000 FM. Accumulation of Bcl-2 was increased by bee pollen added at 3 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at higher dose. Accumulation of Bax was increased in ovaries of rats fed by bee pollen at doses either 3 or 5 kg/1000 kg FM, whilst accumulation of caspase-3 increased after feeding with bee pollen at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at 3 kg/1000 kg FM. Our results contribute to new insights regarding the effect of bee pollen on both secretion activity (release of growth factor IGF-I and steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol) and apoptosis (anti- and pro-apoptotic markers Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3). Bee pollen is shown to be a potent regulator of rat ovarian functions. PMID:23137268

  4. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis affects functional diversity of rhizosphere fluorescent pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Frey-Klett, Pascale; Chavatte, Michaël; Clausse, Marie-Lise; Courrier, Sébastien; Le Roux, Christine; Raaijmakers, Jos; Martinotti, Maria Giovanna; Pierrat, Jean-Claude; Garbaye, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Here we characterized the effect of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on the genotypic and functional diversity of soil Pseudomonas fluorescens populations and analysed its possible consequences in terms of plant nutrition, development and health. Sixty strains of P. fluorescens were isolated from the bulk soil of a forest nursery, the ectomycorrhizosphere and the ectomycorrhizas of the Douglas fir (Pseudostuga menziesii) seedlings-Laccaria bicolor S238N. They were characterized in vitro with the following criteria: ARDRA, phosphate solubilization, siderophore, HCN and AIA production, genes of N2-fixation and antibiotic synthesis, in vitro confrontation with a range of phytopathogenic and ectomycorrhizal fungi, effect on the Douglas fir-L. bicolor symbiosis. For most of these criteria, we demonstrated that the ectomycorrhizosphere significantly structures the P. fluorescens populations and selects strains potentially beneficial to the symbiosis and to the plant. This prompts us to propose the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis as a true microbial complex where multitrophic interactions take place. Moreover it underlines the fact that this symbiosis has an indirect positive effect on plant growth, via its selective pressure on bacterial communities, in addition to its known direct positive effect. PMID:15720643

  5. Area-efficient physically unclonable function circuit architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Gurrieri, Thomas; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2015-04-28

    Generating a physically a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit value includes comparing each of first identification components in a first bank to each of second identification components in a second bank. A given first identification component in the first bank is not compared to another first identification component in the first bank and a given second identification component in the second bank is not compared to another second identification component in the second bank. A digital bit value is generated for each comparison made while comparing each of the first identification components to each of the second identification components. A PUF circuit value is generated from the digital bit values from each comparison made.

  6. Aluminum fluoride affects the structure and functions of cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, M; Norris, B; Villena, F; Cuevas, F; Sotomayor, P; Zatta, P

    2004-06-01

    No useful biological function for aluminum has been found. To the contrary, it might play an important role in several pathologies, which could be related to its interactions with cell membranes. On the other hand, fluoride is a normal component of body fluids, soft tissues, bones and teeth. Its sodium salt is frequently added to drinking water to prevent dental caries. However, large doses cause severe pathological alterations. In view of the toxicity of Al(3+) and F(-) ions, it was thought of interest to explore the damaging effects that AlF(3) might induce in cell membranes. With this aim, it was incubated with human erythrocytes, which were examined by phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy, and molecular models of biomembranes. The latter consisted of large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and bilayers of DMPC and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) which were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. In order to understand the effects of AlF(3) on ion transport (principally sodium and chloride) we used the isolated toad skin to which electrophysiological measurements were applied. It was found that AlF(3) altered the shape of erythrocytes inducing the formation of echinocytes. This effect was explained by X-ray diffraction which revealed that AlF(3) perturbed the structure of DMPC, class of lipids located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. This result was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy on DMPC LUV. The biphasic (stimulatory followed by inhibitory) effects on the isolated skin suggested changes in apical Cl(-) secretion and moderate ATPase inactivation. PMID:15110101

  7. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  8. Phosphate Ions Affect the Water Structure at Functionalized Membrane Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Aliyah; Imbrogno, Joseph; Belfort, Georges; Petersen, Poul B

    2016-09-01

    Antifouling surfaces improve function, efficiency, and safety in products such as water filtration membranes, marine vehicle coatings, and medical implants by resisting protein and biofilm adhesion. Understanding the role of water structure at these materials in preventing protein adhesion and biofilm formation is critical to designing more effective coatings. Such fouling experiments are typically performed under biological conditions using isotonic aqueous buffers. Previous studies have explored the structure of pure water at a few different antifouling surfaces, but the effect of electrolytes and ionic strength (I) on the water structure at antifouling surfaces is not well studied. Here sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to characterize the interfacial water structure at poly(ether sulfone) (PES) and two surface-modified PES films in contact with 0.01 M phosphate buffer with high and low salt (Ionic strength, I= 0.166 and 0.025 M, respectively). Unmodified PES, commonly used as a filtration membrane, and modified PES with a hydrophobic alkane (C18) and with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used. In the low ionic strength phosphate buffer, water was strongly ordered near the surface of the PEG-modified PES film due to exclusion of phosphate ions and the creation of a surface potential resulting from charge separation between phosphate anions and sodium cations. However, in the high ionic strength phosphate buffer, the sodium and potassium chloride (138 and 3 mM, respectively) in the phosphate buffered saline screened this charge and substantially reduced water ordering. A much smaller water ordering and subsequent reduction upon salt addition was observed for the C18-modified PES, and little water structure change was seen for the unmodified PES. The large difference in water structuring with increasing ionic strength between widely used phosphate buffer and phosphate buffered saline at the PEG interface demonstrates the importance of studying

  9. Familial Clustering of Executive Functioning in Affected Sibling Pair Families with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo; Buitelaar, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate familial clustering of executive functioning (i.e., response inhibition, fine visuomotor functioning, and attentional control) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-affected sibling pairs. Method: Fifty-two affected sibling pairs aged 6 to 18 years and diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV performed the…

  10. The cerebellum: its role in language and related cognitive and affective functions.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Hyo Jung; Paquier, Philippe; Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The traditional view on the cerebellum as the sole coordinator of motor function has been substantially redefined during the past decades. Neuroanatomical, neuroimaging and clinical studies have extended the role of the cerebellum to the modulation of cognitive and affective processing. Neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated cerebellar connectivity with the supratentorial association areas involved in higher cognitive and affective functioning, while functional neuroimaging and clinical studies have provided evidence of cerebellar involvement in a variety of cognitive and affective tasks. This paper reviews the recently acknowledged role of the cerebellum in linguistic and related cognitive and behavioral-affective functions. In addition, typical cerebellar syndromes such as the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) and the posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) will be briefly discussed and the current hypotheses dealing with the presumed neurobiological mechanisms underlying the linguistic, cognitive and affective modulatory role of the cerebellum will be reviewed.

  11. The Physical Content of Eigenvalues from Density Functional Theory (DFT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagayoko, D.; Franklin, L.; Ekuma, C.; Malozovsky, Y.

    2013-03-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) of Hohenberg and Kohn rests on the energy functional Ev[n] assuming its minimum for the correct density n(r), with the admissible functions restricted by the condition N[n] = ∫ n(r) dr = N , where N is the number of particles in the system under study. We show that, for such a system, there is an infinite number of basis sets (of localized orbitals) for which N is fixed while the density is not necessarily the correct one. Consequently, the eigenvalues obtained with self consistent DFT calculations using a single basis set do not necessarily have any particular physical content. The physical content is ensured only by the search and utilization of the optimal basis set that yields the minima of the occupied energies and physically meaningful values of low laying unoccupied energies. Further, by virtue of the Rayleigh theorem, there exist many basis sets larger than the optimal one [and that contain it] for which some unoccupied energies are lowered on account of a mathematical artifact. We illustrate these points in the cases of ZnO, TiO2, and SrTiO3. The calculated band gaps and other properties of these materials are in excellent agreement with experiment. Work funded by in part by the National Science Foundation, through LASiGMA [NSF AwardEPS-1003897, No. NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR, and No. HRD-1002541], LONI [Award No. 2-10915], and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSPACE).

  12. Urbanization affects stream ecosystem function by altering hydrology, chemistry, and biotic richness.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Michael A; Dobberfuhl, Dean R; Benke, Arthur C; Huryn, Alexander D; Suberkropp, Keller; Thiele, John E

    2006-10-01

    Catchment urbanization can alter physical, chemical, and biological attributes of stream ecosystems. In particular, changes in land use may affect the dynamics of organic matter decomposition, a measure of ecosystem function. We examined leaf-litter decomposition in 18 tributaries of the St. Johns River, Florida, USA. Land use in all 18 catchments ranged from 0% to 93% urban which translated to 0% to 66% total impervious area (TIA). Using a litter-bag technique, we measured mass loss, fungal biomass, and macroinvertebrate biomass for two leaf species (red maple [Acer rubrum] and sweetgum [Liquidambar styraciflua]). Rates of litter mass loss, which ranged from 0.01 to 0.05 per day for red maple and 0.006 to 0.018 per day for sweetgum, increased with impervious catchment area to levels of approximately 30-40% TIA and then decreased as impervious catchment area exceeded 40% TIA. Fungal biomass was also highest in streams draining catchments with intermediate levels of TIA. Macroinvertebrate biomass ranged from 17 to 354 mg/bag for red maple and from 15 to 399 mg/bag for sweetgum. Snail biomass and snail and total invertebrate richness were strongly related to breakdown rates among streams regardless of leaf species. Land-use and physical, chemical, and biological variables were highly intercorrelated. Principal-components analysis was therefore used to reduce the variables into several orthogonal axes. Using stepwise regression, we found that flow regime, snail biomass, snail and total invertebrate richness, and metal and nutrient content (which varied in a nonlinear manner with impervious surface area) were likely factors affecting litter breakdown rates in these streams.

  13. The Fox and the Grapes—How Physical Constraints Affect Value Based Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    One fundamental question in decision making research is how humans compute the values that guide their decisions. Recent studies showed that people assign higher value to goods that are closer to them, even when physical proximity should be irrelevant for the decision from a normative perspective. This phenomenon, however, seems reasonable from an evolutionary perspective. Most foraging decisions of animals involve the trade-off between the value that can be obtained and the associated effort of obtaining. Anticipated effort for physically obtaining a good could therefore affect the subjective value of this good. In this experiment, we test this hypothesis by letting participants state their subjective value for snack food while the effort that would be incurred when reaching for it was manipulated. Even though reaching was not required in the experiment, we find that willingness to pay was significantly lower when subjects wore heavy wristbands on their arms. Thus, when reaching was more difficult, items were perceived as less valuable. Importantly, this was only the case when items were physically in front of the participants but not when items were presented as text on a computer screen. Our results suggest automatic interactions of motor and valuation processes which are unexplored to this date and may account for irrational decisions that occur when reward is particularly easy to reach. PMID:26061087

  14. Deacetylation affects the physical properties and bioactivity of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Chokboribal, Jaroenporn; Tachaboonyakiat, Wanpen; Sangvanich, Polkit; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya; Jettanacheawchankit, Suwimon; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2015-11-20

    Acemannan, an acetylated polymannose from Aloe vera, induces tissue repair. We investigated the role of acemannan's acetyl-groups on its physical and biological properties. Deacetylated acemannan (DeAcAM) was prepared and characterized. The physical properties and microscopic structure of DeAcAM were evaluated using water solubility, contact angle, X-ray diffraction, and scanning-electron microscopy. The activity of DeAcAM on cell proliferation and gene expression were assessed. Acemannan and DeAcAM structures were simulated and the acemannan tetramer diad and its completely deacetylated structure were also determined. Increased acemannan deacetylation reduced its water solubility and hydrophilicity. Complete deacetylation altered acemannan's conformation to a partial crystal structure. The bioactivity of acemannan was reduced corresponding to its deacetylation. Acemannan induced cell proliferation, and VEGF and Collagen I expression; however, 100% DeAcAM did not. The simulated structures of the acemannan diad and the completely deacetylated diad were different. We conclude acetyl-groups affect acemannan's structure and physical/biological properties.

  15. Deacetylation affects the physical properties and bioactivity of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Chokboribal, Jaroenporn; Tachaboonyakiat, Wanpen; Sangvanich, Polkit; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya; Jettanacheawchankit, Suwimon; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2015-11-20

    Acemannan, an acetylated polymannose from Aloe vera, induces tissue repair. We investigated the role of acemannan's acetyl-groups on its physical and biological properties. Deacetylated acemannan (DeAcAM) was prepared and characterized. The physical properties and microscopic structure of DeAcAM were evaluated using water solubility, contact angle, X-ray diffraction, and scanning-electron microscopy. The activity of DeAcAM on cell proliferation and gene expression were assessed. Acemannan and DeAcAM structures were simulated and the acemannan tetramer diad and its completely deacetylated structure were also determined. Increased acemannan deacetylation reduced its water solubility and hydrophilicity. Complete deacetylation altered acemannan's conformation to a partial crystal structure. The bioactivity of acemannan was reduced corresponding to its deacetylation. Acemannan induced cell proliferation, and VEGF and Collagen I expression; however, 100% DeAcAM did not. The simulated structures of the acemannan diad and the completely deacetylated diad were different. We conclude acetyl-groups affect acemannan's structure and physical/biological properties. PMID:26344314

  16. When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Debarnot, Ursula; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-06-01

    When people listen to music, they hear beat and a metrical structure in the rhythm; these perceived patterns enable coordination with the music. A clear correspondence between the tempo of actual movement (e.g., walking) and that of music has been demonstrated, but whether similar coordination occurs during motor imagery is unknown. Twenty participants walked naturally for 8m, either physically or mentally, while listening to slow and fast music, or not listening to anything at all (control condition). Executed and imagined walking times were recorded to assess the temporal congruence between physical practice (PP) and motor imagery (MI). Results showed a difference when comparing slow and fast time conditions, but each of these durations did not differ from soundless condition times, hence showing that body movement may not necessarily change in order to synchronize with music. However, the main finding revealed that the ability to achieve temporal congruence between PP and MI times was altered when listening to either slow or fast music. These data suggest that when physical movement is modulated with respect to the musical tempo, the MI efficacy of the corresponding movement may be affected by the rhythm of the music. Practical applications in sport are discussed as athletes frequently listen to music before competing while they mentally practice their movements to be performed.

  17. Do the physical properties of occlusal-indicating media affect muscle activity [EMG) during use?

    PubMed

    Forrester, Stephanie E; Pain, Matthew T G; Presswood, Ron; Toy, Andy

    2009-06-01

    Four occlusal marking media (Parkell film, articulating silk, articulating paper and T-Scan foil) were tested to assess whether they affected neuromuscular function during occlusal marking events. Muscle activity of the anterior temporalis (TA) and superficial masseter (MS) muscles were obtained from surface EMG measurements during a slow closure to occlusion followed immediately by a forceful bite and a maximum clench onto each of the various occlusal indicating media. Muscle activity during the whole period of activation and immediately following onset were investigated. Significant differences in neuromuscular function between the occlusal marking media were observed, particularly between the Parkell film and articulating silk as opposed to the articulating paper and the T-Scan foil. The Parkell film and articulating silk gave neuromuscular function very similar to that of natural dentition occlusal contact, while the articulating paper and T-Scan foil showed similarities to occluding onto cotton rolls as previously reported (1). These results suggest that both the thickness and plasticity of the indicating media affect neuromuscular function during occlusion.

  18. Fluids of the ocular surface: concepts, functions and physics.

    PubMed

    Cher, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    General adoption of the ocular surface (OS) concept has advanced the therapy of the external eye. Fresh physical findings have prompted new concepts; examples taken from each section of the text are: (i) ever-present lipid sealant bridges the palpebral fissure capping the three-dimensional 'OS' sac. The muco-aqueous pool (MAP) is thus enclosed, secluded from atmosphere, evaporation mitigated. Hence, the OS is conceptually, a compartment. The term 'dacruon' (otherwise 'tear film') has been coined for the combined fluids of the OS, viz. lipid film and MAP. (ii) Investigative techniques of physics yield data on (say) surface tension and viscosity, and on functions such as anchorage of dacruon base to the varied mucosae of the OS, lubrication, renovation of intermarginal fluid layers as the eye opens after each blink, and refinement of optics and vision by the fluids attached to the cornea. (iii) Physical events in the opening eye produce the unique 'black line' phenomenon in which capillary force induces subsurface flows into thirsty menisci, bringing about parameniscal dark grooves, pupil-ward of each meniscus. Attenuation of fluorescein in the shallowed fluid gaps behind each groove makes the dye appear unilluminated ('black lines') relative to adjacent full-thickness MAP fluid glowing under cobalt-blue illumination. Isolated from cornea by grooves and gaps, the meniscal fluid cannot pass freely over the cornea. It therefore streams through the menisci to nasolacrimal outflow.

  19. Circumcision during the phallic period: does it affect the psychosexual functions in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Armagan, A; Silay, M S; Karatag, T; Akman, T; Tepeler, A; Ersoz, C; Akcay, M

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether circumcision during the phallic period (3-to 6-year old) has a negative impact on psychosexual functions in adulthood. Over a 6-month period, healthy and sexually active men between 30 and 40 years without any comorbidities were involved. Participants were evaluated with detailed history, physical examination, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and Beck Depression Inventory. Cases were divided into two groups according to the age at circumcision (group-1: phallic period, group-2: nonphallic period). Student's t-test and Kruskall-Wallis were used for statistical analysis. Of the 321 participants, a total of 302 men were eligible for the study (group-1: n = 135, group-2: n = 167). No statistical difference was found between the mean total IIEF scores (group-1: 25.1 ± 4.8, group-2: 25.4 ± 4.6, P > 0.05). The subdomains of IIEF; erectile function, orgasm, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, overall satisfaction were also found to be comparable. Additionally, the PEDT scores were similar between the two groups (group-1: 8.2 ± 4.8, group-2: 8.7 ± 5.4, P > 0.05). Finally, Beck depression scores were also found to be comparable between the groups (group-1: 10.8 ± 10.4, group-2: 9.8 ± 8.9, P > 0.05). Our results suggest that circumcision during the phallic period does not negatively affect the psychosexual functions in adulthood.

  20. Gender Differences in Introductory University Physics Performance: The Influence of High School Physics Preparation and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.

    2007-01-01

    The attrition of females studying physics after high school is a growing concern to the science education community. Most undergraduate science programs require introductory physics coursework. Thus, success in introductory physics is usually necessary for students to progress to higher levels of science study. Success also influences attitudes;…

  1. Habitual physical activity levels are associated with performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity according to triaxial accelerometers; physical function and mobility according to the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, stair climb time, and a lift-and-lower task; aerobic capacity according to maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2) max); and leg press and chest pr...

  2. Affects of different tillage managements on soil physical quality in a clayey soil.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Mustafa; Selvi, Kemal Çağatay; Dengiz, Orhan; Gürsoy, Fatma Esra

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted in 2011, researches the effects of different tillage practices on the physical soil quality of clayey soil. This soil quality index (SQI) assessment was made by studying the changes in physical soil functions such as suitability for root development, facilitation for water entry, movement and storage, and resistance against surface degradation based on tillage management. When compared with the control parcel, statistically significant decreases were seen in the SQI with different tillage practices (p < 0.05). Among the tillage practices, the highest SQI was seen with the plow + rotary tiller + direct seeding machine, while the lowest SQI was seen with the direct drilling practice. On the other hand, the statistically insignificant effects of tillage practices on the soil quality of the study area were considered to be a result of either the study period or the joint effect of soil texture and climatic features. Thus, long-term tillage practices were recommended in order to get healthier information about soil quality by considering soil and climatic conditions. In addition, for heavy clayey soils, reduced tillage practices, which included plowing, were thought to develop physical soil qualities of root development and water movement.

  3. Near-surface physics during convection affecting air-water gas transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksson, S. T.; Arneborg, L.; Nilsson, H.; Handler, R. A.

    2016-05-01

    The gas flux at the water surface is affected by physical processes including turbulence from wind shear, microscale wave breaking, large-scale breaking, and convection due to heat loss at the surface. The main route in the parameterizations of the gas flux has been to use the wind speed as a proxy for the gas flux velocity, indirectly taking into account the dependency of the wind shear and the wave processes. The interest in the contributions from convection processes has increased as the gas flux from inland waters (with typically lower wind and sheltered conditions) now is believed to play a substantial role in the air-water gas flux budget. The gas flux is enhanced by convection through the mixing of the mixed layer as well as by decreasing the diffusive boundary layer thickness. The direct numerical simulations performed in this study are shown to be a valuable tool to enhance the understanding of this flow configuration often present in nature.

  4. Quality and safety aspects of meat products as affected by various physical manipulations of packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Taik

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the effects of physically manipulated packaging materials on the quality and safety of meat products. Recently, innovative measures for improving quality and extending the shelf-life of packaged meat products have been developed, utilizing technologies including barrier film, active packaging, nanotechnology, microperforation, irradiation, plasma and far-infrared ray (FIR) treatments. Despite these developments, each technology has peculiar drawbacks which will need to be addressed by meat scientists in the future. To develop successful meat packaging systems, key product characteristics affecting stability, environmental conditions during storage until consumption, and consumers' packaging expectations must all be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the safety issues related to packaging materials must also be taken into account when processing, packaging and storing meat products.

  5. Short-term Physical Inactivity Impairs Vascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Nosova, Emily V.; Yen, Priscilla; Chong, Karen C.; Alley, Hugh F.; Stock, Eveline O.; Quinn, Alex; Hellmann, Jason; Conte, Michael S.; Owens, Christopher D.; Spite, Matthew; Grenon, S. Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sedentarism, also termed physical inactivity, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mechanisms thought to be involved include insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and increased inflammation. It is unknown whether changes in vascular and endothelial function also contribute to this excess risk. We hypothesized that short-term exposure to inactivity would lead to endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and increased vascular inflammation. Methods Five healthy subjects (4 males and 1 female) underwent 5 days of bed rest (BR) to simulate inactivity. Measurements of vascular function [flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) to evaluate endothelial function; applanation tonometry to assess arterial resistance], inflammation and metabolism were made before BR, daily during BR and after 2 recovery days. Subjects maintained an isocaloric diet throughout. Results Bed rest led to significant decreases in brachial artery and femoral artery FMD [Brachial: 11 ± 3% pre-BR vs. 9 ± 2% end-BR, P=0.04; Femoral: 4 ± 1% vs. 2 ± 1%, P=0.04]. The central augmentation index increased with BR [−4 ± 9% vs. 5 ± 11%, P=0.03]. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased [58 ± 7 mmHg vs. 62 ± 7 mmHg, P=0.02], while neither systolic blood pressure nor heart rate changed. 15-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite, increased but the other inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers were unchanged. Conclusions Our findings show that acute exposure to sedentarism results in decreased endothelial function, arterial stiffening, increased DBP, and an increase in 15-HETE. We speculate that inactivity promotes a vascular “deconditioning” state characterized by impaired endothelial function, leading to arterial stiffness and increased arterial tone. Although physiologically significant, the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance of these findings need to be further explored. PMID:24630521

  6. Training of affect recognition (TAR) in schizophrenia--impact on functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Sachs, G; Winklbaur, B; Jagsch, R; Lasser, I; Kryspin-Exner, I; Frommann, N; Wölwer, W

    2012-07-01

    Deficits in facial affect recognition as one aspect of social cognitive deficits are treatment targets to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia. According to preliminary results antipsychotics alone show little effects on affect recognition. A few randomized intervention studies have evaluated special psychosocial treatment programs on social cognition. In this study, the effects of a computer-based training of affect recognition were investigated as well as its impact on facial affect recognition and functional outcome, particularly on patients' quality of life. Forty clinically stabilized schizophrenic patients were randomized to a six-week training on affect recognition (TAR) or treatment as usual including occupational therapy (TAU) and completed pre- and post-treatment assessments of emotion recognition, cognition, quality of life and clinical symptoms. Between pre- and post treatment, the TAR group achieved significant improvements in facial affect recognition, in particular in recognizing sad faces and, in addition, in the quality of life domain social relationship. These changes were not found in the TAU group. Furthermore, the TAR training contributes to enhancing some aspects of cognitive functioning and negative symptoms. These improvements in facial affect recognition and quality of life were independent of changes in clinical symptoms and general cognitive functions. The findings support the efficacy of an affect recognition training for patients with schizophrenia and the generalization to social relationship. Further development is needed in the impact of a psychosocial intervention in other aspects of social cognition and functional outcome.

  7. Sarcopenia and physical function in overweight patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Prado, Carla M M; Lieffers, Jessica R; Bowthorpe, Lindsay; Baracos, Vickie E; Mourtzakis, Marina; McCargar, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    Advanced cancer is associated with numerous metabolic abnormalities that may lead to significant body composition changes, particularly muscle loss or sarcopenia. Sarcopenia in cancer has been associated with poor clinical outcomes, including poor physical function. Accurate tools to assess body composition are expensive and not readily available in clinical settings. Unfortunately, little is known about the efficacy of affordable and portable techniques to assess functional status in patients with cancer. We investigated the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with different portable and low-cost functional status measurement tools (i.e., handgrip strength testing, a two-minute walking test, and a self-report questionnaire) in overweight/obese patients (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m²) with advanced cancer. Twenty-eight patients (68% men) aged 64.5 ± 9.5 years with advanced lung or colorectal cancer were included. Sarcopenia was assessed by measuring appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) adjusted by height (ASM index), using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Approximately 36% of patients had sarcopenia. Average handgrip strength was greater in men without sarcopenia than in men with it (p=0.035). In men, ASM index was positively correlated with average (r=0.535, p=0.018) and peak handgrip strength (r=0.457, p=0.049). No differences were observed among female patients. Handgrip strength was associated with sarcopenia in male patients with advanced cancer, and therefore it may be used as a portable and simple nutritional screening tool.

  8. Predicting the accuracy of facial affect recognition: the interaction of child maltreatment and intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Noll, Jennie G

    2013-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying levels of intellectual functioning. A sample of maltreated (n=50) and nonmaltreated (n=56) adolescent females, 14 to 19 years of age, was recruited to participate in this study. Participants completed demographic and study-related questionnaires and interviews to control for potential psychological and psychiatric confounds such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, negative affect, and difficulties in emotion regulation. Participants also completed an experimental paradigm that recorded responses to facial affect displays starting in a neutral expression and changing into a full expression of one of six emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear, or surprise. Hierarchical multiple regression assessed the incremental advantage of evaluating the interaction between child maltreatment and intellectual functioning. Results indicated that the interaction term accounted for a significant amount of additional variance in the accurate identification of facial affect after controlling for relevant covariates and main effects. Specifically, maltreated females with lower levels of intellectual functioning were least accurate in identifying facial affect displays, whereas those with higher levels of intellectual functioning performed as well as nonmaltreated females. These results suggest that maltreatment and intellectual functioning interact to predict the recognition of facial affect, with potential long-term consequences for the interpersonal functioning of maltreated females.

  9. Predicting the accuracy of facial affect recognition: the interaction of child maltreatment and intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Noll, Jennie G

    2013-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying levels of intellectual functioning. A sample of maltreated (n=50) and nonmaltreated (n=56) adolescent females, 14 to 19 years of age, was recruited to participate in this study. Participants completed demographic and study-related questionnaires and interviews to control for potential psychological and psychiatric confounds such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, negative affect, and difficulties in emotion regulation. Participants also completed an experimental paradigm that recorded responses to facial affect displays starting in a neutral expression and changing into a full expression of one of six emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear, or surprise. Hierarchical multiple regression assessed the incremental advantage of evaluating the interaction between child maltreatment and intellectual functioning. Results indicated that the interaction term accounted for a significant amount of additional variance in the accurate identification of facial affect after controlling for relevant covariates and main effects. Specifically, maltreated females with lower levels of intellectual functioning were least accurate in identifying facial affect displays, whereas those with higher levels of intellectual functioning performed as well as nonmaltreated females. These results suggest that maltreatment and intellectual functioning interact to predict the recognition of facial affect, with potential long-term consequences for the interpersonal functioning of maltreated females. PMID:23036371

  10. Qualitative case study of physical therapist students' attitudes, motivations, and affective behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hayward, L M; Noonan, A C; Shain, D

    1999-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to describe and document the attitudes, motivations, and affective behaviors of senior physical therapist students at a single university, and 2) to determine how data gathered from this work might assist with curriculum changes designed to promote professional behavior and self-directed learning. Student attitudes, behaviors, and motivations were identified using a qualitative case-study method. Phase one of the study examined clinical experiences using four focus groups, one conducted with six clinical instructors and three with 21 senior physical therapist students. Five follow-up interviews were conducted with students. During phase two, the same 21 students were queried about their classroom experiences using three focus groups and five follow-up interviews. Five major themes were identified: 1) mismatch of expectations between students and instructors, 2) preferred learning environment, 3) student-instructor relationship, 4) vocational expectations, and 5) stress. These themes parallel Chickering's theory of social development in college students. The authors encourage curriculum changes that directly address issues of professionalism, create an active learning environment, promote collaboration, and provide students with strategies for stress management. PMID:10507499

  11. Quasar Spectral Energy Distributions As A Function Of Physical Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Shonda; Ganguly, R.; Stark, M. A.; Derseweh, J. A.; Richmond, J. M.

    2012-05-01

    Galaxy evolution models have shown that quasars are a crucial ingredient in the evolution of massive galaxies. Outflows play a key role in the story of quasars and their host galaxies, by helping regulate the accretion process, the star-formation rate and mass of the host galaxy (i.e., feedback). The prescription for modeling outflows as a contributor to feedback requires knowledge of the outflow velocity, geometry, and column density. In particular, we need to understand how these depend on physical parameters and how much is determined stochastically (and with what distribution). In turn, models of outflows have shown particular sensitivity to the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED), depending on the UV luminosity to transfer momentum to the gas, the X-ray luminosity to regulate how efficiently that transfer can be, etc. To investigate how SED changes with physical properties, we follow up on Richards et al. (2006), who constructed SEDs with varying luminosity. Here, we construct SEDs as a function of redshift, and physical property (black hole mass, bolometric luminosity, Eddington ratio) for volume limited samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with photometry supplemented from 2MASS, WISE, GALEX, ROSAT, and Chandra. To estimate black hole masses, we adopt the scaling relations from Greene & Ho (2005) based on the H-alpha emission line FWHM. This requires redshifts less than 0.4. To construct volume-limited subsamples, we begin by adopting g=19.8 as a nominal limiting magnitude over which we are guaranteed to detect z<0.4 quasars. At redshift 0.4, we are complete down to Mg=-21.8, which yields 3300 objects from Data Release 7. At z=0.1, we are complete down to Mg=-18.5. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. 09-ADP09-0016 issued through the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program.

  12. Impact of aerobic exercise training on cognitive functions and affect associated to the COMT polymorphism in young adults.

    PubMed

    Stroth, Sanna; Reinhardt, Ralf K; Thöne, Jan; Hille, Katrin; Schneider, Matthias; Härtel, Sascha; Weidemann, Wolfgang; Bös, Klaus; Spitzer, Manfred

    2010-10-01

    Physical fitness can serve as a means to enhance cognitive functioning by modulating particular aspects of brain functioning. However, mechanisms underlying this modulating effect remain widely unresolved. To examine the impact and to clarify the mechanisms of physical fitness training in a young and healthy population, it was investigated whether an increase in fitness would result in improvements in executive control processes and positive and negative affect. Moreover, genotype of the Val158Met polymorphism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) as an index of relative central dopamine bioavailability was determined to elucidate dopamine tuning efficiency and its association with performance in the applied cognitive tasks. Seventy-five individuals participated and underwent an incremental fitness test to assess physical fitness. An exercising group subsequently engaged in a 17 weeks running training consisting of three running sessions at moderate to high, individually adjusted intensities. Associated with increased fitness improved cognitive flexibility and cognitive control were observed, whereas working memory remained unaffected. In runners, Val/Val participants improved cognitive performance to a greater extent compared to individuals carrying a Met allele. From the present results it is concluded that an increase in physical fitness provides a means to improve cognitive functioning via dopaminergic modulation.

  13. Memristive crypto primitive for building highly secure physical unclonable functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yansong; Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Al-Sarawi, Said F.; Kavehei, Omid; Abbott, Derek

    2015-08-01

    Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) exploit the intrinsic complexity and irreproducibility of physical systems to generate secret information. The advantage is that PUFs have the potential to provide fundamentally higher security than traditional cryptographic methods by preventing the cloning of devices and the extraction of secret keys. Most PUF designs focus on exploiting process variations in Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In recent years, progress in nanoelectronic devices such as memristors has demonstrated the prevalence of process variations in scaling electronics down to the nano region. In this paper, we exploit the extremely large information density available in nanocrossbar architectures and the significant resistance variations of memristors to develop an on-chip memristive device based strong PUF (mrSPUF). Our novel architecture demonstrates desirable characteristics of PUFs, including uniqueness, reliability, and large number of challenge-response pairs (CRPs) and desirable characteristics of strong PUFs. More significantly, in contrast to most existing PUFs, our PUF can act as a reconfigurable PUF (rPUF) without additional hardware and is of benefit to applications needing revocation or update of secure key information.

  14. Memristive crypto primitive for building highly secure physical unclonable functions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yansong; Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Al-Sarawi, Said F.; Kavehei, Omid; Abbott, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) exploit the intrinsic complexity and irreproducibility of physical systems to generate secret information. The advantage is that PUFs have the potential to provide fundamentally higher security than traditional cryptographic methods by preventing the cloning of devices and the extraction of secret keys. Most PUF designs focus on exploiting process variations in Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In recent years, progress in nanoelectronic devices such as memristors has demonstrated the prevalence of process variations in scaling electronics down to the nano region. In this paper, we exploit the extremely large information density available in nanocrossbar architectures and the significant resistance variations of memristors to develop an on-chip memristive device based strong PUF (mrSPUF). Our novel architecture demonstrates desirable characteristics of PUFs, including uniqueness, reliability, and large number of challenge-response pairs (CRPs) and desirable characteristics of strong PUFs. More significantly, in contrast to most existing PUFs, our PUF can act as a reconfigurable PUF (rPUF) without additional hardware and is of benefit to applications needing revocation or update of secure key information. PMID:26239669

  15. Physical Unclonable Function with Multiplexing Units and its Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Masaya; Asai, Toshiya; Shiozaki, Mitsuru; Fujino, Takeshi

    Recently, semiconductor counterfeiting has become an increasingly serious problem. Therefore, techniques to prevent the counterfeit by using random characteristic patterns that are difficult to control artificially have attracted attention. The physical unclonable function (PUF) is one of the techniques. It is a method to derive ID information peculiar to a device by detecting random physical features that cannot be controlled during the device's manufacture. Because information such as the ID information is difficult to replicate, PUF is used as a technique to prevent counterfeiting. Several studies have been reported on PUF. Arbiter PUF, which utilizes the difference in signal propagation delay between selectors, is the typical method of composing PUF using delay characteristics. This paper proposed a new PUF which is based on the arbiter PUF. The proposed PUF introduces new multiplexing selector units. It attempts to generate an effective response using the orders of three signal arrivals. Experiments using FPGAs verify the validity of the proposed PUF. Although Uniqueness is deteriorated, Correctness, Steadiness, Randomness and Resistance against the machine learning attacks are improved in comparison with conventional one.

  16. Physical characterization of functionalized spider silk: electronic and sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steven, Eden; Park, Jin Gyu; Paravastu, Anant; Branco Lopes, Elsa; Brooks, James S.; Englander, Ongi; Siegrist, Theo; Kaner, Papatya; Alamo, Rufina G.

    2011-10-01

    This work explores functional, fundamental and applied aspects of naturally harvested spider silk fibers. Natural silk is a protein polymer where different amino acids control the physical properties of fibroin bundles, producing, for example, combinations of β-sheet (crystalline) and amorphous (helical) structural regions. This complexity presents opportunities for functional modification to obtain new types of material properties. Electrical conductivity is the starting point of this investigation, where the insulating nature of neat silk under ambient conditions is described first. Modification of the conductivity by humidity, exposure to polar solvents, iodine doping, pyrolization and deposition of a thin metallic film are explored next. The conductivity increases exponentially with relative humidity and/or solvent, whereas only an incremental increase occurs after iodine doping. In contrast, iodine doping, optimal at 70 °C, has a strong effect on the morphology of silk bundles (increasing their size), on the process of pyrolization (suppressing mass loss rates) and on the resulting carbonized fiber structure (that becomes more robust against bending and strain). The effects of iodine doping and other functional parameters (vacuum and thin film coating) motivated an investigation with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) to monitor doping-induced changes in the amino acid-protein backbone signature. MAS-NMR revealed a moderate effect of iodine on the helical and β-sheet structures, and a lesser effect of gold sputtering. The effects of iodine doping were further probed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, revealing a partial transformation of β-sheet-to-amorphous constituency. A model is proposed, based on the findings from the MAS-NMR and FTIR, which involves iodine-induced changes in the silk fibroin bundle environment that can account for the altered physical properties. Finally, proof-of-concept applications of

  17. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity.

  18. Lexical and Affective Prosody in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Bemis, Rhyannon H.; Skwerer, Daniela Plesa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the perception and production of lexical stress and processing of affective prosody in adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA). We hypothesized preserved processing of lexical and affective prosody but atypical lexical prosody production. Method: Sixteen children with HFA and 15 typically developing (TD) peers…

  19. Measures of GCM Performance as Functions of Model Parameters Affecting Clouds and Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Mu, Q.; Sen, M.; Stoffa, P.

    2002-05-01

    This abstract is one of three related presentations at this meeting dealing with several issues surrounding optimal parameter and uncertainty estimation of model predictions of climate. Uncertainty in model predictions of climate depends in part on the uncertainty produced by model approximations or parameterizations of unresolved physics. Evaluating these uncertainties is computationally expensive because one needs to evaluate how arbitrary choices for any given combination of model parameters affects model performance. Because the computational effort grows exponentially with the number of parameters being investigated, it is important to choose parameters carefully. Evaluating whether a parameter is worth investigating depends on two considerations: 1) does reasonable choices of parameter values produce a large range in model response relative to observational uncertainty? and 2) does the model response depend non-linearly on various combinations of model parameters? We have decided to narrow our attention to selecting parameters that affect clouds and radiation, as it is likely that these parameters will dominate uncertainties in model predictions of future climate. We present preliminary results of ~20 to 30 AMIPII style climate model integrations using NCAR's CCM3.10 that show model performance as functions of individual parameters controlling 1) critical relative humidity for cloud formation (RHMIN), and 2) boundary layer critical Richardson number (RICR). We also explore various definitions of model performance that include some or all observational data sources (surface air temperature and pressure, meridional and zonal winds, clouds, long and short-wave cloud forcings, etc...) and evaluate in a few select cases whether the model's response depends non-linearly on the parameter values we have selected.

  20. Changes in brain activation in stroke patients after mental practice and physical exercise: a functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Song, Luping; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Mental practice is a new rehabilitation method that refers to the mental rehearsal of motor imagery content with the goal of improving motor performance. However, the relationship between activated regions and motor recovery after mental practice training is not well understood. In this study, 15 patients who suffered a first-ever subcortical stroke with neurological deficits affecting the right hand, but no significant cognitive impairment were recruited. 10 patients underwent mental practice combined with physical practice training, and 5 patients only underwent physical practice training. We observed brain activation regions after 4 weeks of training, and explored the correlation of activation changes with functional recovery of the affected hands. The results showed that, after 4 weeks of mental practice combined with physical training, the Fugl-Meyer assessment score for the affected right hand was significantly increased than that after 4 weeks of practice training alone. Functional MRI showed enhanced activation in the left primary somatosensory cortex, attenuated activation intensity in the right primary motor cortex, and enhanced right cerebellar activation observed during the motor imagery task using the affected right hand after mental practice training. The changes in brain cortical activity were related to functional recovery of the hand. Experimental findings indicate that cortical and cerebellar functional reorganization following mental practice contributed to the improvement of hand function. PMID:25317160

  1. The physics of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, Richard B.

    2013-09-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a methodology for detecting dynamic patterns of activity in the working human brain. Although the initial discoveries that led to fMRI are only about 20 years old, this new field has revolutionized the study of brain function. The ability to detect changes in brain activity has a biophysical basis in the magnetic properties of deoxyhemoglobin, and a physiological basis in the way blood flow increases more than oxygen metabolism when local neural activity increases. These effects translate to a subtle increase in the local magnetic resonance signal, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, when neural activity increases. With current techniques, this pattern of activation can be measured with resolution approaching 1 mm3 spatially and 1 s temporally. This review focuses on the physical basis of the BOLD effect, the imaging methods used to measure it, the possible origins of the physiological effects that produce a mismatch of blood flow and oxygen metabolism during neural activation, and the mathematical models that have been developed to understand the measured signals. An overarching theme is the growing field of quantitative fMRI, in which other MRI methods are combined with BOLD methods and analyzed within a theoretical modeling framework to derive quantitative estimates of oxygen metabolism and other physiological variables. That goal is the current challenge for fMRI: to move fMRI from a mapping tool to a quantitative probe of brain physiology.

  2. The physics of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a methodology for detecting dynamic patterns of activity in the working human brain. Although the initial discoveries that led to fMRI are only about 20 years old, this new field has revolutionized the study of brain function. The ability to detect changes in brain activity has a biophysical basis in the magnetic properties of deoxyhemoglobin, and a physiological basis in the way blood flow increases more than oxygen metabolism when local neural activity increases. These effects translate to a subtle increase in the local magnetic resonance signal, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, when neural activity increases. With current techniques, this pattern of activation can be measured with resolution approaching 1 mm3 spatially and 1 s temporally. This review focuses on the physical basis of the BOLD effect, the imaging methods used to measure it, the possible origins of the physiological effects that produce a mismatch of blood flow and oxygen metabolism during neural activation, and the mathematical models that have been developed to understand the measured signals. An overarching theme is the growing field of quantitative fMRI, in which other MRI methods are combined with BOLD methods and analyzed within a theoretical modeling framework to derive quantitative estimates of oxygen metabolism and other physiological variables. That goal is the current challenge for fMRI: to move fMRI from a mapping tool to a quantitative probe of brain physiology. PMID:24006360

  3. Multi-taxa trait and functional responses to physical disturbance.

    PubMed

    Pedley, Scott M; Dolman, Paul M

    2014-11-01

    Examining assemblage trait responses to environmental stressors extends our understanding beyond patterns of taxonomic diversity and composition, with results potentially transferable among bioregions. But the degree to which trait responses may be generalized across taxonomic groups remains incompletely understood. We compared trait responses among carabids, spiders and plants to an experimentally manipulated gradient of physical disturbance, replicated in open habitats within a forested landscape. Recolonization of recently disturbed habitats is expected to favour species with traits that promote greater dispersal ability, independent of taxa. We specifically predicted that physical disturbance would increase the representation of carabids with smaller body size, wings or wing dimorphism, spiders able to disperse aerially, and plants with therophyte life-history and wind-dispersed seed. We sampled 197 arthropod species (14,738 individuals) and 164 species of plant. The strength of association between each trait and the disturbance intensity was quantified by correlating matrices of species by traits, species abundance by sites and sites by environment, with significance assessed by comparison with a null model. Responses of biological traits varied among taxa but could be consistently interpreted in terms of dispersal ability. Trait shifts for carabid and plant assemblages were as predicted and correspond to those observed in other disturbance regimes. Assemblages after disturbance comprised smaller and winged carabids, and smaller plants with wind-dispersed seed, consistent with selection for species with better dispersal ability. In contrast, aerial dispersal did not appear important in spider recolonization, instead terrestrial dispersal ability was suggested by the increased abundance of larger-bodied and cursorial species. However, larger spider body size was also associated with an active-hunting strategy, also favoured in the post-disturbance environment

  4. Underwater linear polarization: physical limitations to biological functions.

    PubMed

    Shashar, Nadav; Johnsen, Sönke; Lerner, Amit; Sabbah, Shai; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-03-12

    Polarization sensitivity is documented in a range of marine animals. The variety of tasks for which animals can use this sensitivity, and the range over which they do so, are confined by the visual systems of these animals and by the propagation of the polarization information in the aquatic environment. We examine the environmental physical constraints in an attempt to reveal the depth, range and other limitations to the use of polarization sensitivity by marine animals. In clear oceanic waters, navigation that is based on the polarization pattern of the sky appears to be limited to shallow waters, while solar-based navigation is possible down to 200-400 m. When combined with intensity difference, polarization sensitivity allows an increase in target detection range by 70-80% with an upper limit of 15 m for large-eyed animals. This distance will be significantly smaller for small animals, such as plankton, and in turbid waters. Polarization-contrast detection, which is relevant to object detection and communication, is strongly affected by water conditions and in clear waters its range limit may reach 15 m as well. We show that polarization sensitivity may also serve for target distance estimation, when examining point source bioluminescent objects in the photic mesopelagic depth range.

  5. Underwater linear polarization: physical limitations to biological functions

    PubMed Central

    Shashar, Nadav; Johnsen, Sönke; Lerner, Amit; Sabbah, Shai; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Mäthger, Lydia M.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2011-01-01

    Polarization sensitivity is documented in a range of marine animals. The variety of tasks for which animals can use this sensitivity, and the range over which they do so, are confined by the visual systems of these animals and by the propagation of the polarization information in the aquatic environment. We examine the environmental physical constraints in an attempt to reveal the depth, range and other limitations to the use of polarization sensitivity by marine animals. In clear oceanic waters, navigation that is based on the polarization pattern of the sky appears to be limited to shallow waters, while solar-based navigation is possible down to 200–400 m. When combined with intensity difference, polarization sensitivity allows an increase in target detection range by 70–80% with an upper limit of 15 m for large-eyed animals. This distance will be significantly smaller for small animals, such as plankton, and in turbid waters. Polarization-contrast detection, which is relevant to object detection and communication, is strongly affected by water conditions and in clear waters its range limit may reach 15 m as well. We show that polarization sensitivity may also serve for target distance estimation, when examining point source bioluminescent objects in the photic mesopelagic depth range. PMID:21282168

  6. Quantification of lumbar function. Part 6: The use of psychological measures in guiding physical functional restoration.

    PubMed

    Gatchel, R J; Mayer, T G; Capra, P; Diamond, P; Barnett, J

    1986-01-01

    The present article reviews the use of psychologic measures in guiding a functional restoration treatment program with chronic low-back pain patients. The results of the first 134 consecutive patients completing this program are reviewed. These results demonstrate that various psychologic measures paralleled improvement in physical function. Of particular interest is the finding that various Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scales that were initially clinically elevated showed a significant decrease to nonelevated levels after treatment. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed, along with the important observation that one should avoid assuming that a single psychologic test can reliably be used as the sole predictor variable in clinical cases. PMID:2939568

  7. Concentration, physical state, and purity of bacterial endotoxin affect its detoxification by ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Csako, G.; Tsai, C.M.; Hochstein, H.D.; Elin, R.J.

    1986-11-01

    Increasing concentrations of a highly purified bacterial lipopolysaccharide preparation, the U.S. Reference Standard Endotoxin, were exposed to increasing doses of ionizing radiation from a 60Co source. At identical radiation doses both the structural change and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) reactivity were progressively smaller with increasing concentrations of the lipopolysaccharide in an aqueous medium. Under the experimental conditions used, there was a linear relationship between the endotoxin concentration and radiation dose for the structural changes. In contrast to endotoxin in aqueous medium, endotoxin irradiated in its dry state showed no decrease in LAL reactivity and rabbit pyrogenicity. Endotoxin exposed to radiation in water in the presence of albumin showed a much smaller decrease in LAL and pyrogenic activities than expected. The results show that the concentration, physical state, and purity of endotoxin influence its structural and functional alteration by ionizing radiation.

  8. Salt matters: How salt affects the rheological and physical properties of gelatine for analogue modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizzi, S.; Funiciello, F.; Corbi, F.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Mojoli, G.

    2016-06-01

    Gelatine is extensively used as analogue material for the easiness to tune its physical and rheological properties. The addition of salt to gelatine is generally adopted to increase the density of the material, improving the scaling of the models. However, the way the addition of salt changes the rheological properties of gelatine is generally underestimated. Here, we investigate both rheological and physical properties (i.e., density and transparency) of type A pig-skin 2.5 wt.% gelatine at T = 10 °C as a function of salt concentration, cNaCl, and ageing time. We established a standard preparation recipe and measuring protocol, yielding to uniform samples with reproducible behaviour. Rheometric measurements show that the presence of salt weakens the gelatine structure, with a decrease of both material rigidity and viscosity as cNaCl increases. Salted gelatine behaviour moves from viscoelastic to dominantly elastic as the ageing time increases. Density and cloudiness also increase with cNaCl. Finally, we present results from subduction interplate seismicity models performed with pure and salted gelatines, showing that the modified material may improve the modelling performance and open new perspectives in experimental tectonics.

  9. How the type of input function affects the dynamic response of conducting polymer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Xingcan; Alici, Gursel; Mutlu, Rahim; Li, Weihua

    2014-10-01

    There has been a growing interest in smart actuators typified by conducting polymer actuators, especially in their (i) fabrication, modeling and control with minimum external data and (ii) applications in bio-inspired devices, robotics and mechatronics. Their control is a challenging research problem due to the complex and nonlinear properties of these actuators, which cannot be predicted accurately. Based on an input-shaping technique, we propose a new method to improve the conducting polymer actuators’ command-following ability, while minimizing their electric power consumption. We applied four input functions with smooth characteristics to a trilayer conducting polymer actuator to experimentally evaluate its command-following ability under an open-loop control strategy and a simulated feedback control strategy, and, more importantly, to quantify how the type of input function affects the dynamic response of this class of actuators. We have found that the four smooth inputs consume less electrical power than sharp inputs such as a step input with discontinuous higher-order derivatives. We also obtained an improved transient response performance from the smooth inputs, especially under the simulated feedback control strategy, which we have proposed previously [X Xiang, R Mutlu, G Alici, and W Li, 2014 “Control of conducting polymer actuators without physical feedback: simulated feedback control approach with particle swarm optimization’, Journal of Smart Materials and Structure, 23]. The idea of using a smooth input command, which results in lower power consumption and better control performance, can be extended to other smart actuators. Consuming less electrical energy or power will have a direct effect on enhancing the operational life of these actuators.

  10. Perception of affective prosody in major depression: a link to executive functions?

    PubMed

    Uekermann, Jennifer; Abdel-Hamid, Mona; Lehmkämper, Caroline; Vollmoeller, Wolfgang; Daum, Irene

    2008-07-01

    Major depression is associated with impairments of executive functions and affect perception deficits, both being linked to dysfunction of fronto-subcortical networks. So far, little is known about the relationship between cognitive and affective deficits in major depression. In the present investigation, affect perception and executive functions were assessed in 29 patients with a diagnosis of major depression (Dep) and 29 healthy controls (HC). Both groups were comparable on IQ, age, and gender distribution. Depressed patients showed deficits of perception of affective prosody, which were significantly related to inhibition, set shifting, and working memory. Our findings suggest a significant association between cognitive deficits and affect perception impairments in major depression, which may be of considerable clinical relevance and might be addressed in treatment approaches. Future studies are desirable to investigate the nature of the association in more detail.

  11. Negative affect predicts social functioning across schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Findings from an integrated data analysis.

    PubMed

    Grove, Tyler B; Tso, Ivy F; Chun, Jinsoo; Mueller, Savanna A; Taylor, Stephan F; Ellingrod, Vicki L; McInnis, Melvin G; Deldin, Patricia J

    2016-09-30

    Most people with a serious mental illness experience significant functional impairment despite ongoing pharmacological treatment. Thus, in order to improve outcomes, a better understanding of functional predictors is needed. This study examined negative affect, a construct comprised of negative emotional experience, as a predictor of social functioning across serious mental illnesses. One hundred twenty-seven participants with schizophrenia, 113 with schizoaffective disorder, 22 with psychosis not otherwise specified, 58 with bipolar disorder, and 84 healthy controls (N=404) completed self-report negative affect measures. Elevated levels of negative affect were observed in clinical participants compared with healthy controls. For both clinical and healthy control participants, negative affect measures were significantly correlated with social functioning, and consistently explained significant amounts of variance in functioning. For clinical participants, this relationship persisted even after accounting for cognition and positive/negative symptoms. The findings suggest that negative affect is a strong predictor of outcome across these populations and treatment of serious mental illnesses should target elevated negative affect in addition to cognition and positive/negative symptoms.

  12. The interplay between physical and chemical properties of protein films affects their bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Grover, Chloe N; Farndale, Richard W; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2012-09-01

    Although mechanical properties, roughness, and receptor molecule expression have all been shown to influence the cellular reactivity of collagen-based biomaterials, their relative contribution, in a given system remains unclear. Here, we study films containing combinations of collagen, gelatin, and soluble and insoluble elastin, crosslinking of which results in altered film stiffness and roughness. Collagen and gelatin have similar amino acid sequences but altered cell-binding sites. We studied cell response with both C2C12 myoblast cells (which possess RGD-recognizing integrins α(V)β(3) and α(5)β(1)) and C2C12-α2+ cells (which, in addition, express the collagen-binding integrin α(2)β(1)) to establish the effect of altering the available binding sites on cell adhesion and spreading on films. Systematically altering the composition, crosslinking and cell type, allows us to deconvolute the effects of physical parameters and available binding sites on the cell reactivity of films in this system. Collagen-based films were rougher and stiffer and supported lower cell surface coverage than gelatin-based films. Additionally, C2C12-α2+ cells showed preferential attachment to collagen-based films compared with C2C12 cells, but no significant difference was seen using gelatin-based films. The cell count and surface coverage were found to decrease significantly on all films after crosslinking (Coll XL coverage = 2-6%, Gel XL coverage = 20-32%), but cell area and aspect ratio on collagen films were affected to a greater extent than on gelatin films. The results show that, in this system, the composition, and more significantly, crosslinking, of films affects the cell reactivity to a greater extent than their stiffness or roughness.

  13. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Minority Physics Taking in U.S. High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In the September issue, we saw that a lower proportion of Hispanics and blacks take physics in U.S. high schools than do whites and Asians. Last month, we examined physics offerings and students by socioeconomic profile of the high school as reported by the principal. We saw that there were more physics classes and more physics students at…

  14. Linking and Psychological Functioning in a Chinese Sample: The Multiple Mediation of Response to Positive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongfei; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas…

  15. Determining place and process: functional traits of ectomycorrhizal fungi that affect both community structure and ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Koide, Roger T; Fernandez, Christopher; Malcolm, Glenna

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest amongst community ecologists in functional traits. Response traits determine membership in communities. Effect traits influence ecosystem function. One goal of community ecology is to predict the effect of environmental change on ecosystem function. Environmental change can directly and indirectly affect ecosystem function. Indirect effects are mediated through shifts in community structure. It is difficult to predict how environmental change will affect ecosystem function via the indirect route when the change in effect trait distribution is not predictable from the change in response trait distribution. When response traits function as effect traits, however, it becomes possible to predict the indirect effect of environmental change on ecosystem function. Here we illustrate four examples in which key attributes of ectomycorrhizal fungi function as both response and effect traits. While plant ecologists have discussed response and effect traits in the context of community structuring and ecosystem function, this approach has not been applied to ectomycorrhizal fungi. This is unfortunate because of the large effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on ecosystem function. We hope to stimulate further research in this area in the hope of better predicting the ecosystem- and landscape-level effects of the fungi as influenced by changing environmental conditions.

  16. Effects of various physical stress factors on mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species in rat spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suhee; Agca, Cansu; Agca, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of various physical interventions on the function of epididymal rat spermatozoa and determine whether there are correlations among these functional parameters. Epididymal rat spermatozoa were subjected to various mechanical (pipetting, centrifugation and Percoll gradient separation) and anisotonic conditions, and sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity (PMI), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated. Repeated pipetting caused a loss in motility, PMI and MMP (P < 0.05). Minimal centrifugation force (200g) had no effect on motility, PMI and MMP, whereas an increase in the centrifugation force to 400g or 600g decreased sperm function (P < 0.005). Percoll gradient separation increased total motility, PMI and MMP (P < 0.05). However, the spermatozoa that were subjected to mechanical interventions showed high susceptibility to a ROS stimulant (P < 0.005). Anisotonic conditions decreased motility, PMI and MMP, and hypotonic conditions in particular increased basal ROS (P < 0.05). In correlation tests, there were strong positive correlations among total motility, PMI and MMP, whereas ROS showed no or negatively weak correlations with the other parameters. In conclusion, the physical interventions may act as important variables, affecting functional parameters of epididymal rat spermatozoa. Therefore, careful consideration and proper protocols for handling of rat spermatozoa and osmotic conditions are required to achieve reliable results and minimise damage. PMID:23140582

  17. Demographic, physical, and radiographic factors associated with functional flatfoot deformity.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Kitterman, Ryan T; LaFontaine, Javier; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    In 1 of our previous studies, the occurrence of self-reported flatfoot was associated with self-reported increased age, male gender, Asian and African American races, veteran status, poor health, increased body mass index, callus, bunion, hammertoe, and arthritis. However, we had to rely on survey data to identify these risk factors, and the accuracy of the survey results was unknown. Therefore, we decided to identify the risk factors associated with flatfeet using objectively and more accurately measured data. A total of 94 patients were enrolled in the present study. The demographic data and physical and radiographic examination results were recorded by the investigators in the clinic. The data were then analyzed to identify the factors unique to flatfoot, measured and defined using a plantar pressure measurement system during natural gait. We learned that a painful tibialis posterior tendon was associated with flatfoot. The calcaneal inclination angle was also decreased in the flatfoot group. The talar declination, intermetatarsal, hallux abductus, and calcaneal cuboid angles, and static calcaneal stance eversion were elevated in the flatfoot group compared with the non-flatfoot group. Systematic evaluation of these associated factors will help in the understanding of the functional status of the flatfoot deformity.

  18. Physical activity associated with increased resting-state functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Patterson, Beth; Janssen, Alisha; Abduljalil, Amir; Boster, Aaron

    2011-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, resulting in physical, cognitive and affective disturbances, with notable declines in the ability to learn and retain new information. In this study, we examined if higher levels of physical activity in MS individuals were associated with an increased resting-state connectivity of the hippocampus and cortex, resulting in better performance on a task of episodic memory. Forty-five individuals with a clinically definite diagnosis of MS were recruited for the study. Consistent with previous reports, hippocampus was functionally connected to the posteromedial cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, and the medial frontal cortex. Higher levels of physical activity in MS patients were associated with an increased coherence between the hippocampus and the posteromedial cortex (PMC). The increased connectivity between these two regions, in turn, was predictive of better relational memory, such that MS patients who showed an increased coherence between the left (not right) hippocampus and the PMC also showed better relational memory. Results of the study are interpreted in light of the challenge of disentangling effects of physical activity from effects of disease severity and its neuropathological correlates.

  19. Physical Activity Play: The Nature and Function of a Neglected Aspect of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, A. D.; Smith, Peter K.

    1998-01-01

    Considers the nature and developmental functions of physical activity play. Distinguishes three kinds of physical activity play with consecutive age peaks: rhythmic stereotypies, exercise play, and rough-and-tumble play. Considers gender differences and function in terms of immediate and deferred consequences in physical, cognitive, and social…

  20. Physical, functional and structural characterization of the cell wall fractions from baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Borchani, Chema; Fonteyn, Fabienne; Jamin, Guilhem; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe; Blecker, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The yeast cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important source of β-d-glucan, a glucose homopolymer with many functional, nutritional and human health benefits. In the present study, the yeast cell wall fractionation process involving enzymatic treatments (savinase and lipolase enzymes) affected most of the physical and functional characteristics of extracted fractions. Thus, the fractionation process showed that β-d-glucan fraction F4 had significantly higher swelling power and fat binding capacity compared to other fractions (F1, F2 and F3). It also exhibited a viscosity of 652.12mPas and a high degree of brightness of extracted β-d-glucan fraction. Moreover, the fractionation process seemed to have an effect on structural and thermal properties of extracted fractions. Overall, results showed that yeast β-d-glucan had good potential for use as a prebiotic ingredient in food, as well as medicinal and pharmaceutical products.

  1. Physical, functional and structural characterization of the cell wall fractions from baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Borchani, Chema; Fonteyn, Fabienne; Jamin, Guilhem; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe; Blecker, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The yeast cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important source of β-d-glucan, a glucose homopolymer with many functional, nutritional and human health benefits. In the present study, the yeast cell wall fractionation process involving enzymatic treatments (savinase and lipolase enzymes) affected most of the physical and functional characteristics of extracted fractions. Thus, the fractionation process showed that β-d-glucan fraction F4 had significantly higher swelling power and fat binding capacity compared to other fractions (F1, F2 and F3). It also exhibited a viscosity of 652.12mPas and a high degree of brightness of extracted β-d-glucan fraction. Moreover, the fractionation process seemed to have an effect on structural and thermal properties of extracted fractions. Overall, results showed that yeast β-d-glucan had good potential for use as a prebiotic ingredient in food, as well as medicinal and pharmaceutical products. PMID:26471666

  2. Long-Term Effects of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Physical Fitness and Executive Functions in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating physical activity into the curriculum has potential health and cognitive benefits in primary school children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physically active academic lessons on cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness and executive functions. In the current randomized controlled trial, 499 second and third…

  3. Representations of modality-specific affective processing for visual and auditory stimuli derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    PubMed

    Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Wang, Jing; Kim, Jongwan; Facciani, Matthew J; Baucom, Laura B; Wedell, Douglas H

    2014-07-01

    There is converging evidence that people rapidly and automatically encode affective dimensions of objects, events, and environments that they encounter in the normal course of their daily routines. An important research question is whether affective representations differ with sensory modality. This research examined the nature of the dependency of affect and sensory modality at a whole-brain level of analysis in an incidental affective processing paradigm. Participants were presented with picture and sound stimuli that differed in positive or negative valence in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Global statistical tests, applied at a level of the individual, demonstrated significant sensitivity to valence within modality, but not valence across modalities. Modality-general and modality-specific valence hypotheses predict distinctly different multidimensional patterns of the stimulus conditions. Examination of lower dimensional representation of the data demonstrated separable dimensions for valence processing within each modality. These results provide support for modality-specific valence processing in an incidental affective processing paradigm at a whole-brain level of analysis. Future research should further investigate how stimulus-specific emotional decoding may be mediated by the physical properties of the stimuli.

  4. Physical Activity as a Function of Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Đukanović, Nina; Mašić, Zoran; Kostovski, Žarko; Širić, Vesna; Blažević, Stipe

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity means any form of body movement that is associated with certain metabolic demands. At the same time, physical activity is one of the most important steps in the maintenance, protection and improvement of health. There is strong evidence to suggest that higher levels of physical activity are associated with numerous preventive effects and therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases. Although they account for a larger portion of the population, physical inactivity is more often registered in women, which can be attributed to a variety of reasons--ranging from anatomical and physiological to the socio-psychological. The present paper discusses some of the most important benefits associated with physical activity in women, to encourage their greater participation in various forms of physical activity.

  5. Education Majors' Expectations and Reported Experiences with Inquiry-Based Physics: Implications for Student Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.

    2013-01-01

    To address a perennial need to provide K-8 teachers with a solid foundation in science, there are many physics content courses throughout the United States. One such course is Physics and Astronomy for Teachers (PAT), which relies heavily on active-learning strategies. Although PAT is successful in teaching physics content, students sometimes…

  6. Gender Differences in the High School and Affective Experiences of Introductory College Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The disparity in persistence between males and females studying physics has been a topic of concern to physics educators for decades. Overall, while female students perform as well as or better than male students, they continue to lag considerably in terms of persistence. The most significant drop in females studying physics occurs between high…

  7. Education Affects Attitudes of Physical Therapy Providers toward People with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, William H.; Killian, Clyde B.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was sent to every skilled nursing home (N = 495) in Indiana regarding the demographics, education, and whether the severity of dementia impacts the attitudes of people in physical therapy practice. Physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) practicing in nursing homes spend considerable time (44.0%) working with…

  8. Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Jeremy; MacIvor, J. Scott; MacDougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Background Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Conclusions/Significance Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms

  9. Affect and the Brain's Functional Organization: A Resting-State Connectivity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Christiane S.; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Craddock, R. Cameron; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    The question of how affective processing is organized in the brain is still a matter of controversial discussions. Based on previous initial evidence, several suggestions have been put forward regarding the involved brain areas: (a) right-lateralized dominance in emotional processing, (b) hemispheric dominance according to positive or negative valence, (c) one network for all emotional processing and (d) region-specific discrete emotion matching. We examined these hypotheses by investigating intrinsic functional connectivity patterns that covary with results of the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS) from 65 participants. This approach has the advantage of being able to test connectivity rather than activation, and not requiring a potentially confounding task. Voxelwise functional connectivity from 200 regions-of-interest covering the whole brain was assessed. Positive and negative affect covaried with functional connectivity involving a shared set of regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the visual cortex and the cerebellum. In addition, each affective domain had unique connectivity patterns, and the lateralization index showed a right hemispheric dominance for negative affect. Therefore, our results suggest a predominantly right-hemispheric network with affect-specific elements as the underlying organization of emotional processes. PMID:23935850

  10. Physical processes affecting availability of dissolved silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, David K.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    A passive tracer to represent dissolved silicate concentrations, with biologically realistic uptake kinetics, is successfully incorporated into a three-dimensional, eddy-resolving, ocean circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Hypotheses are tested to evaluate physical processes which potentially affect the availability of silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea. An alternative mechanism is offered to the idea that open ocean upwelling is primarily responsible for the high, vertical nutrient flux and consequent large-scale phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. Model results show that dissolved silicate in surface waters available for uptake by diatoms is primarily influenced by the intensity of nearshore upwelling from soutwest monsoonal wind forcing and by the offshore advective transport of surface waters. The upwelling, which in the model occurs within 200 +/- 50 km of the coast, appears to be a result of a combination of coastal upwelling, Elkman pumping, and divergence of the coastal flow as it turns offshore. Localized intensifications of silicate concentrations appear to be hydrodynamically driven and geographically correlated to coastal topographic features. The absence of diatoms in sediments of the eastern Arabian Basin is consistent with modeled distributional patterns of dissolved silicate resulting from limited westward advection of upwelled coastal waters from the western continental margin of India and rapid uptake of available silicate by diatoms. Concentrations of modeled silicate become sufficiently low to become unavailable for diatom production in the eastern Arabian Sea, a region between 61 deg E and 70 deg E at 8 deg N on the south, with the east and west boundaries converging on the north at approximately 67 deg E, 20 deg N.

  11. Differential Effects of Acute and Regular Physical Exercise on Cognition and Affect

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Michael E.; Davis, F. Caroline; VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Whalen, Paul J.; Bucci, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either a) a four-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, b) a four-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for four weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. PMID:22554780

  12. Valence of physical stimuli, not housing conditions, affects behaviour and frontal cortical brain activity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Vögeli, Sabine; Lutz, Janika; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2014-07-01

    Modulation of short-term emotions by long-term mood is little understood but relevant to understand the affective system and of importance in respect to animal welfare: a negative mood might taint experiences, whilst a positive mood might alleviate single negative events. To induce different mood states in sheep housing conditions were varied. Fourteen ewes were group-housed in an unpredictable, stimulus-poor and 15 ewes in a predictable, stimulus-rich environment. Sheep were tested individually for mood in a behavioural cognitive bias paradigm. Also, their reactions to three physical stimuli thought to differ in their perceived valence were observed (negative: pricking, intermediate: slight pressure, positive: kneading). General behaviour, activity, ear movements and positions, and haemodynamic changes in the cortical brain were recorded during stimulations. Generalised mixed-effects models and model probabilities based on the BIC (Bayesian information criterion) were used. Only weak evidence for mood difference was found. Sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing condition had a somewhat more negative cognitive bias, showed slightly more aversive behaviour, were slightly more active and moved their ears somewhat more. Sheep most clearly differentiated the negative from the intermediate and positive stimulus in that they exhibited more aversive behaviour, less nibbling, were more active, showed more ear movements, more forward ear postures, fewer backward ear postures, and a stronger decrease in deoxyhaemoglobin when subjected to the negative stimulus. In conclusion, sheep reacted towards stimuli according to their presumed valence but their mood was not strongly influenced by housing conditions. Therefore, behavioural reactions and cortical brain activity towards the stimuli were hardly modulated by housing conditions.

  13. Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, M E; Davis, F C; Vantieghem, M R; Whalen, P J; Bucci, D J

    2012-07-26

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either (a) a 4-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, (b) a 4-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, (c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or (d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for 4 weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans.

  14. Physical and functional properties of arrowroot starch extrudates.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, A N; Sheriff, J T; Sajeev, M S

    2009-03-01

    Arrowroot starch, a commercially underexploited tuber starch but having potential digestive and medicinal properties, has been subjected to extrusion cooking using a single screw food extruder. Different levels of feed moisture (12%, 14%, and 16%) and extrusion temperatures (140, 150, 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C) were used for extrusion. The physical properties--bulk density, true density, porosity, and expansion ratio; functional properties such as water absorption index, water solubility index, oil absorption index, pasting, rheological, and textural properties; and in vitro enzyme digestibility of the extrudates were determined. The expansion ratio of the extrudates ranged from 3.22 to 6.09. The water absorption index (6.52 to 8.85 g gel/g dry sample), water solubility index (15.92% to 41.31%), and oil absorption index (0.50 to 1.70 g/g) were higher for the extrudates in comparison to native starch (1.81 g gel/g dry sample, 1.16% and 0.60 g/g, respectively). The rheological properties, storage modulus, and loss modulus of the gelatinized powdered extrudates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and these behaved like solutions rather than a paste or a gel. Hardness and toughness were more for the samples extruded at higher feed moisture and lower extrusion temperature, whereas snap force and energy were higher at lower feed moisture and temperature. There was a significant decrease in the percentage digestibility of arrowroot starch (30.07% after 30 min of incubation with the enzyme) after extrusion (25.27% to 30.56%). Extrusion cooking of arrowroot starch resulted in products with very good expansion, color, and lower digestibility, which can be exploited for its potential use as a snack food. PMID:19323747

  15. Physical and functional properties of arrowroot starch extrudates.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, A N; Sheriff, J T; Sajeev, M S

    2009-03-01

    Arrowroot starch, a commercially underexploited tuber starch but having potential digestive and medicinal properties, has been subjected to extrusion cooking using a single screw food extruder. Different levels of feed moisture (12%, 14%, and 16%) and extrusion temperatures (140, 150, 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C) were used for extrusion. The physical properties--bulk density, true density, porosity, and expansion ratio; functional properties such as water absorption index, water solubility index, oil absorption index, pasting, rheological, and textural properties; and in vitro enzyme digestibility of the extrudates were determined. The expansion ratio of the extrudates ranged from 3.22 to 6.09. The water absorption index (6.52 to 8.85 g gel/g dry sample), water solubility index (15.92% to 41.31%), and oil absorption index (0.50 to 1.70 g/g) were higher for the extrudates in comparison to native starch (1.81 g gel/g dry sample, 1.16% and 0.60 g/g, respectively). The rheological properties, storage modulus, and loss modulus of the gelatinized powdered extrudates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and these behaved like solutions rather than a paste or a gel. Hardness and toughness were more for the samples extruded at higher feed moisture and lower extrusion temperature, whereas snap force and energy were higher at lower feed moisture and temperature. There was a significant decrease in the percentage digestibility of arrowroot starch (30.07% after 30 min of incubation with the enzyme) after extrusion (25.27% to 30.56%). Extrusion cooking of arrowroot starch resulted in products with very good expansion, color, and lower digestibility, which can be exploited for its potential use as a snack food.

  16. Correlation between gas compositions and physical phenomena affecting the reservoir fluid in Palinpinon geothermal field (Philippines)

    SciTech Connect

    D'More F.; Nuti, S.; Ruaya, J.R.; Ramos-Candelaria, M.N.; Seastres, J.S.

    1993-01-28

    Using thermodynamic gas equilibria to calculate temperature and steam fraction in the reservoir, three main physical phenomena due to exploitation of Palinpinon field are identified. 1) Pressure drawdown producing a local increase in the computed steam fraction, with the fluid maintaining high temperature values (close to 300°C). Strong decline in flow rate is observed. 2) Irreversible steam losses from the original high temperature liquid phase during its ascent through fractures in upper zones of the reservoir. Steam is generally lost at temperatures (e.g. 240°C) lower then those of the original aquifer. 3) Dilution and cooling effects due to reinjection fluid returns. These are function of the local geostructural conditions linking through fractures the injectors and production wells. The computed fraction of the recovered reinjected brine can in some case exceed 80% of the total produced fluid. At the same time the computed gas equilibration temperatures can decline from 280-300°C to as low as 215-220°C. Comparing these values with the well bottom measured temperatures, the proposed methodology based on gas chemistry gives more reliable temperature estimate than water chemistry based geothermometers for fluids with high fractions of injected brine.

  17. Outdoor temperature, precipitation, and wind speed affect physical activity levels in children: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Nicholas M.; Myer, Gregory D.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Khoury, Philip R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood. Methods Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature < 65°F or ≥ 65°F, respectively), wind, and precipitation. Mixed regression analyses, adjusted for repeated measures, were used to test the relationship between weather and physical activity. Results Precipitation and wind speed were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<0.0001). Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all P<0.0001), independent of age, sex, race, BMI, day length, wind, and precipitation. For every 10 additional heating degrees there was a five-minute daily reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies. PMID:25423667

  18. Gender Differences in the High School and Affective Experiences of Introductory College Physics Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazari, Zahra; Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.

    2008-10-01

    The disparity in persistence between males and females studying physics has been a topic of concern to physics educators for decades. Overall, while female students perform as well as or better than male students, they continue to lag considerably in terms of persistence. The most significant drop in females studying physics occurs between high school and college.2 Since most female physicists report that they became attracted to physics and decided to study it further while in high school, according to the International Study of Women in Physics,3 it is problematic that high school is also the stage at which females begin to opt out at much higher rates than males. Although half of the students taking one year of physics in high school are female, females are less likely than males to take a second or Advanced Placement (AP) physics course.4 In addition, the percentage of females taking the first physics course in college usually falls between 30% and 40%. In other words, although you may see gender parity in a first high school physics course, this parity does not usually persist to the next level of physics course. In addition, even if there is parity in a high school physics course, it does not mean that males and females experience the course in the same way. It is this difference in experience that may help to explain the drop in persistence of females.

  19. Sexual function and affect in parkinsonian men treated with L-dopa.

    PubMed

    Brown, E; Brown, G M; Kofman, O; Quarrington, B

    1978-12-01

    Using psychiatric interviews, sexual and affect rating scales, hormonal studies, and neurologic assessment, the authors assessed the effect of L-dopa treatment on men with Parkinson's disease. Patients demonstrated variable affect changes. Approximately one-half of the patients reported an increased sexual interest that was not related to improvement in locomotor function. Hormonal factors appeared to be involved. The findings suggest that male parkinsonian patients who possess an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis experience increased sexual function related to L-dopa treatment.

  20. Therapist Competency as a Function of Physical Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Carmen

    Research has suggested that physical attractiveness contributes to subjects' perception of female competency. This finding has generated interest in investigating the effect of physical attractiveness on subjects' perceptions of competency in male and female therapists. Undergraduates (N=192) viewed a 15-minute videotaped session reflecting either…

  1. Physical and Cognitive-Affective Factors Associated with Fatigue in Individuals with Fibromyalgia: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Veronica; Brooks, Jessica; Tu, Wei-Mo; Moser, Erin; Lo, Chu-Ling; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which physical and cognitive-affective factors are associated with fibromyalgia (FM) fatigue. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using correlation techniques and multiple regression analysis. The participants consisted of 302 members of the National Fibromyalgia &…

  2. Assessing Assessment: Examination of Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment and Factors Affecting Their Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pre-service physics teachers' attitudes towards assessment. It was also aimed to examine the factors affecting their attitudes. Two factors were considered. The first was difficulties that pre-service teachers experienced relating to assessment. The second factor was teachers' self-efficacy regarding…

  3. Manipulation of the Self-Determined Learning Environment on Student Motivation and Affect within Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Secondary physical education (PE) has become a popular area of inquiry because students are not meeting overarching goals of PE programs, are less motivated, and demonstrate negative affect while in class. As such, teachers and researchers are starting to examine pedagogical approaches that support student motivation as a means to alleviate some…

  4. Children's Use of the Yahooligans! Web Search Engine: I. Cognitive, Physical, and Affective Behaviors on Fact-based Search Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilal, Dania

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a research project that investigated seventh grade science students' cognitive, affective, and physical behaviors as they used the Yahooligans! search engine to find information on a specific search task. Describes measurement techniques that included software, interviews, and questionnaires, and discusses implications for user training…

  5. Association between Body Mass Index and Physical Function among Endometrial Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to quantify the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and physical function among endometrial cancer survivors. Understanding this relationship would help healthcare providers target efforts to refer obese endometrial cancer survivors to weight loss and exercise interventions. Methods We conducted a survey of 213 endometrial cancer survivors who received cancer care at an academic l health system between 2006 and 2010. Physical function subscale was quantified using physical functional component score from the SF-12 questionnaire. We compared physical function of endometrial cancer survivors to population-based age-standardized normative values. Results Among the 213 patients, 16% were normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2), and 52% were obese (≥30 kg/m2). Higher BMI categories were associated with lower physical function (Ptrend = 0.003), as a continuous variable each 5kg/m2 higher BMI, physical function score was lower by 0.15 points (β = -0.15; P = 0.045). Compared to population-based age-standardized normative values, patients <75yrs reported lower physical function, whereas patients ≥75yrs reported better physical function. BMI was the only covariate associated with differences in physical function between survivors and age-standardized normative values (P = 0.039). Conclusions Among endometrial cancer survivors, higher BMI is associated with lower physical function. Younger endometrial cancer survivors report lower physical function compared to age-standardized normative values. Healthcare providers should be aware that younger, obese endometrial cancer survivors may particularly benefit from interventions such as exercise and weight loss to increase or preserve physical function. PMID:27529546

  6. Factors that affect the physical science career interest of female students: Testing five common hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2013-12-01

    There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project (n=7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what factors might impact females’ physical science career interest: (i) having a single-sex physics class, (ii) having a female physics teacher, (iii) having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, (iv) discussing the work of female scientists in physics class, and (v) discussing the underrepresentation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences on physical science career interest is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including prior science interests, prior mathematics interests, grades in science, grades in mathematics, and years of enrollment in high school physics. No significant effects are found for single-sex classes, female teachers, female scientist guest speakers, and discussing the work of female scientists. However, discussions about women’s underrepresentation have a significant positive effect.

  7. Socioeconomic factors affecting minority physics taking in U.S. high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-11-01

    In the September issue, we saw that a lower proportion of Hispanics and blacks take physics in U.S. high schools than do whites and Asians. Last month, we examined physics offerings and students by socioeconomic profile of the high school as reported by the principal. We saw that there were more physics classes and more physics students at better-off high schools. These increased offerings allow the teachers who teach physics to focus more on physics. We combined race and ethnicity data from the National Center for Education Statistics with data from our principals to examine the percent of each race and ethnicity attending schools by our socioeconomic profile of the school. Less than one-third of white and Asian public high school students attend a school that our principals classify as "worse off." Less than one-fourth of black and Hispanic students attend a school that our principals classify as "better off." The difference is stark. When combined with the percent of physics classes and physics students at each type of school, we have some insight into explaining the variation in physics taking by race and ethnicity.

  8. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy in Japanese Patients: Clinical Features, Visual Function, and Factors Affecting Visual Function

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Saho; Saito, Wataru; Saito, Michiyuki; Hashimoto, Yuki; Mori, Shohei; Noda, Kousuke; Namba, Kenichi; Ishida, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical features and investigate their relationship with visual function in Japanese patients with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Methods Fifty-two eyes of 38 Japanese AZOOR patients (31 female and 7 male patients; mean age at first visit, 35.0 years; median follow-up duration, 31 months) were retrospectively collected: 31 untreated eyes with good visual acuity and 21 systemic corticosteroid-treated eyes with progressive visual acuity loss. Variables affecting the logMAR values of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the mean deviation (MD) on Humphrey perimetry at initial and final visits were examined using multiple stepwise linear regression analysis. Results In untreated eyes, the mean MD at the final visit was significantly higher than that at the initial visit (P = 0.00002). In corticosteroid-treated eyes, the logMAR BCVA and MD at the final visit were significantly better than the initial values (P = 0.007 and P = 0.02, respectively). The final logMAR BCVA was 0.0 or less in 85% of patients. Variables affecting initial visual function were moderate anterior vitreous cells, myopia severity, and a-wave amplitudes on electroretinography; factors affecting final visual function were the initial MD values, female sex, moderate anterior vitreous cells, and retinal atrophy. Conclusions Our data indicated that visual functions in enrolled patients significantly improved spontaneously or after systemic corticosteroids therapy, suggesting that Japanese patients with AZOOR have good visual outcomes during the follow-up period of this study. Furthermore, initial visual field defects, gender, anterior vitreous cells, and retinal atrophy affected final visual functions in these patients. PMID:25919689

  9. Physical Parameters Affecting the Emanation of RADON-222 from Coal Ash.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Terence Patrick

    The Rn-222 emanation coefficients for coal ash and parameters which affected them were measured. Samples of ash from both stoker fired and pulverized coal fired boilers were obtained. The stoker ash samples were mechanically separated into size fractions. The pulverized samples were too fine for mechanical sizing and were categorized qualitatively according to origin. Bulk density of the stoker fractions was measured and ranged from .488 to .944 g-cm('-3), increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Bulk density of the pulverized ash ranged from 1.254 to 1.520 g-cm('-3). Specific gravity of the stoker fractions ranged from 2.017 to 2.390 g-cm('-3), also increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Specific gravity of the pulverized ash ranged from 2.357 to 2.588 g-cm(' -3). Ra-226 content of the samples was determined by gamma spectrometric analysis of the 352-KeV gamma of Pb -214 and the 609-KeV gamma of Bi-214 from sealed samples of ash. Ra-226 concentrations in the stoker fractions ranged from 11.82 to 16.77 dpm-g('-1), increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Ra-226 concentrations in the pulverized ash ranged from 6.44 to 7.59 dpm-g(' -1). Scintillation cells were constructed out of commonly available materials and a commercial preparation of ZnS(Ag) scintillator. Emanation chambers which allowed for moderately large sample masses were constructed. The procedure used to measure emanation coefficients was shown to be insensitive to ingrowth time at greater than 3 days ingrowth and relatively insensitive to variations in sample porosity. Emanation coefficients of the stoker fractions were measured at moisture contents of 0, 1.0, 10, 20, and 40 percent by weight. Within each size fraction the emanation coefficient increased as a function of moisture content, ranging from 9.58 x 10('-4) to 4.13 x 10('-2) between 0 and 20 percent moisture, respectively. Emanation coefficients also increased as a function of decreasing particle size

  10. Hostility and social support explain physical activity beyond negative affect among young men, but not women, in college.

    PubMed

    Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps < .05. Effects were observed for men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.

  11. Affective dysfunction in a mouse model of Rett syndrome: Therapeutic effects of environmental stimulation and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Mari A; Gray, Laura J; Pelka, Gregory J; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Christodoulou, John; Tam, Patrick P L; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and consequent dysregulation of brain maturation. Patients suffer from a range of debilitating physical symptoms, however, behavioral and emotional symptoms also severely affect their quality of life. Here, we present previously unreported and clinically relevant affective dysfunction in the female heterozygous Mecp2(tm1Tam) mouse model of RTT (129sv and C57BL6 mixed background). The affective dysfunction and aberrant anxiety-related behavior of the Mecp2(+/-) mice were found to be reversible with environmental enrichment (EE) from 4 weeks of age. The effect of exercise alone (via wheel running) was also explored, providing the first evidence that increased voluntary physical activity in an animal model of RTT is beneficial for some phenotypes. Mecp2(+/-) mutants displayed elevated corticosterone despite decreased Crh expression, demonstrating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. EE of Mecp2(+/-) mice normalized basal serum corticosterone and hippocampal BDNF protein levels. The enrichment-induced rescue appears independent of the transcriptional regulation of the MeCP2 targets Bdnf exon 4 and Crh. These findings provide new insight into the neurodevelopmental role of MeCP2 and pathogenesis of RTT, in particular the affective dysfunction. The positive outcomes of environmental stimulation and physical exercise have implications for the development of therapies targeting the affective symptoms, as well as behavioral and cognitive dimensions, of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder.

  12. Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ξ (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with

  13. Weight Reduction in Athletes May Adversely Affect the Phagocytic Function of Monocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kono, Ichiro; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the monocyte phagocytic function in nine competitive athletes before and after a two-week weight reduction (through calorie restriction) program revealed that their pre-program phagocytic activity was higher than in sedentary controls but decreased significantly after the program. This suggests calorie restriction may affect the human…

  14. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  15. Role Playing in Physical Education to Teach in the Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury

    2014-01-01

    Using role playing during physical education provides limitless opportunities for intervention and for the demonstration of personal and social qualities. The purpose of this article is to provide easy steps for implementing role playing as a strategy to teach social skills to students in the physical education setting.

  16. How Student Characteristics Affect Girls' and Boys' Verbal Engagement in Physics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurik, Verena; Groschner, Alexander; Seidel, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how student characteristics predict the nature of girls' and boys' verbal interactions with their teachers in physics classes. The sample included (N = 1378) students from 81 randomly selected high-school physics classrooms in Germany and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. At the beginning of the school year, the…

  17. Physical Condition Does Not Affect Gravity-Induced Loss of Consciousness during Human Centrifuge Training in Well-Experienced Young Aviators

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhee; Yun, Chul; Kang, Seungcheol

    2016-01-01

    Background Consensus on whether physical condition affects the risk of gravity-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) has not been reached, and most previous studies about the issue did not include well-experienced aviators. We compared the physical conditions of well-experienced young aviators according to the occurrence of G-LOC during human centrifuge training. Methods Among 361 young male aviators on active flight duty with experience in high performance aircrafts for at least 2 years, 350 had full data available and were reviewed in this study. We divided the aviators into the G-LOC group and the non-G-LOC group according to their human centrifuge training results. We then compared their basic characteristics, body composition, physical fitness level, and pulmonary function. Results Twenty nine aviators (8.3%) who experienced G-LOC during human centrifuge training in their first trials were classified into the G-LOC group. There was no difference in physical condition of aviators between the two groups. Conclusions Young aviators with experience in G-LOC showed no difference in physical condition such as muscle mass, strength, and general endurance from the aviators with no such experience. Although more studies are needed, physical condition does not seem to be a significant determinant of G-LOC among the experienced aviators. PMID:26812597

  18. Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-17

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

  19. Physical stigma and academic performance as factors affecting children's first impressions of handicapped peers.

    PubMed

    Siperstein, G N; Gottlieb, J

    1977-03-01

    The effects of four variables on attitudes toward children were studied: the sex and social status of the rater and the physical appearance and academic competence of the target child being rated. The results indicated that competent and physically nonstigmatized children were rated more favorably than incompetent and physically stigmatized children. The data also revealed that girls had a significantly more positive stereotype than did boys of a competent male target child but that boys were more willing to be in physical proximity to the male target child as measured by a social-distance scale. Finally, the results indicated that popular children rated the attractive and competent target child less favorably than children who were not so popular. However, the popular children rated the attractive and incompetent target child more favorably than the less popular children did. The findings were discussed in terms of the salience of physical labels (i.e., stigma) on attitudes toward children.

  20. The galaxy correlation function as a constraint on galaxy formation physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Daalen, Marcel P.; Henriques, Bruno M. B.; Angulo, Raul E.; White, Simon D. M.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce methods which allow observed galaxy clustering to be used together with observed luminosity or stellar mass functions to constrain the physics of galaxy formation. We show how the projected two-point correlation function of galaxies in a large semi-analytic simulation can be estimated to better than ˜10 per cent using only a very small subsample of the subhalo merger trees. This allows measured correlations to be used as constraints in a Monte Carlo Markov Chain exploration of the astrophysical and cosmological parameter space. An important part of our scheme is an analytic profile which captures the simulated satellite distribution extremely well out to several halo virial radii. This is essential to reproduce the correlation properties of the full simulation at intermediate separations. As a first application, we use low-redshift clustering and abundance measurements to constrain a recent version of the Munich semi-analytic model. The preferred values of most parameters are consistent with those found previously, with significantly improved constraints and somewhat shifted `best' values for parameters that primarily affect spatial distributions. Our methods allow multi-epoch data on galaxy clustering and abundance to be used as joint constraints on galaxy formation. This may lead to significant constraints on cosmological parameters even after marginalizing over galaxy formation physics.

  1. Influence of physical activity and nutrition on obesity-related immune function.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Zourdos, Michael C; Jo, Edward; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Research examining immune function during obesity suggests that excessive adiposity is linked to impaired immune responses leading to pathology. The deleterious effects of obesity on immunity have been associated with the systemic proinflammatory profile generated by the secretory molecules derived from adipose cells. These include inflammatory peptides, such as TNF- α , CRP, and IL-6. Consequently, obesity is now characterized as a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, a condition considerably linked to the development of comorbidity. Given the critical role of adipose tissue in the inflammatory process, especially in obese individuals, it becomes an important clinical objective to identify lifestyle factors that may affect the obesity-immune system relationship. For instance, stress, physical activity, and nutrition have each shown to be a significant lifestyle factor influencing the inflammatory profile associated with the state of obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to comprehensively evaluate the impact of lifestyle factors, in particular psychological stress, physical activity, and nutrition, on obesity-related immune function with specific focus on inflammation.

  2. Influence of Physical Activity and Nutrition on Obesity-Related Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Zourdos, Michael C.; Jo, Edward; Ormsbee, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Research examining immune function during obesity suggests that excessive adiposity is linked to impaired immune responses leading to pathology. The deleterious effects of obesity on immunity have been associated with the systemic proinflammatory profile generated by the secretory molecules derived from adipose cells. These include inflammatory peptides, such as TNF-α, CRP, and IL-6. Consequently, obesity is now characterized as a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, a condition considerably linked to the development of comorbidity. Given the critical role of adipose tissue in the inflammatory process, especially in obese individuals, it becomes an important clinical objective to identify lifestyle factors that may affect the obesity-immune system relationship. For instance, stress, physical activity, and nutrition have each shown to be a significant lifestyle factor influencing the inflammatory profile associated with the state of obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to comprehensively evaluate the impact of lifestyle factors, in particular psychological stress, physical activity, and nutrition, on obesity-related immune function with specific focus on inflammation. PMID:24324381

  3. Factors affecting longitudinal functional decline and survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hazuki; Atsuta, Naoki; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Senda, Jo; Katsuno, Masahisa; Izumi, Yuishin; Morita, Mitsuya; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Akira; Aiba, Ikuko; Abe, Koji; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Oda, Masaya; Kano, Osamu; Okamoto, Koichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Imai, Takashi; Aoki, Masashi; Tsuji, Shoji; Nakano, Imaharu; Kaji, Ryuji; Sobue, Gen

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to elucidate the clinical factors affecting functional decline and survival in Japanese amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We constructed a multicenter prospective ALS cohort that included 451 sporadic ALS patients in the analysis. We longitudinally utilized the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) as the functional scale, and determined the timing of introduction of a tracheostomy for positive-pressure ventilation and death. A joint modelling approach was employed to identify prognostic factors for functional decline and survival. Age at onset was a common prognostic factor for both functional decline and survival (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). Female gender (p = 0.019) and initial symptoms, including upper limb weakness (p = 0.010), lower limb weakness (p = 0.008) or bulbar symptoms (p = 0.005), were related to early functional decline, whereas neck weakness as an initial symptom (p = 0.018), non-use of riluzole (p = 0.030) and proximal dominant muscle weakness in the upper extremities (p = 0.01) were related to a shorter survival time. A decline in the ALSFRS-R score was correlated with a shortened survival time (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the factors affecting functional decline and survival in ALS were common in part but different to some extent. This difference has not been previously well recognized but is informative in clinical practice and for conducting trials.

  4. Promoting a Functional Physical Self-Concept in Physical Education: Evaluation of a 10-Week Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Mirko; Valkanover, Stefan; Roebers, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Most physical education intervention studies on the positive effect of sports on self-concept development have attempted to "increase" schoolchildren's self-concept without taking the "veridicality" of the self-concept into account. The present study investigated whether a 10-week intervention in physical education would…

  5. Influence of Temple Headache Frequency on Physical Functioning and Emotional Functioning in Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorder Pain

    PubMed Central

    List, Thomas; John, Mike T.; Ohrbach, Richard; Schiffman, Eric L.; Truelove, Edmond L.; Anderson, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship of headache frequency with patient-reported physical functioning and emotional functioning in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) subjects with concurrent temple headache. Methods The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) Validation Project identified, as a subset of 614 TMD cases and 91 controls (n = 705), 309 subjects with concurrent TMD pain diagnoses (RDC/TMD) and temple headache. The temple headaches were subdivided into infrequent, frequent, and chronic headache according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD–II). Study variables included self-report measures of physical functioning (Jaw Function Limitation Scale [JFLS], Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS], Short Form–12 [SF–12]) and emotional functioning (depression and anxiety as measured by the Symptom Checklist–90R/SCL–90R). Differences among the three headache subgroups were characterized by increasing headache frequency. The relationship between ordered headache frequency and physical as well as emotional functioning was analyzed using linear regression and trend tests for proportions. Results Physical functioning, as assessed with the JFLS (P < .001), SF-12 (P < .001), and GCPS (P < .001), was significantly associated with increased headache frequency. Emotional functioning, reflected in depression and anxiety, was also associated with increased frequency of headache (both P < .001). Conclusion Headache frequency was substantially correlated with reduced physical functioning and emotional functioning in subjects with TMD and concurrent temple headaches. A secondary finding was that headache was precipitated by jaw activities more often in subjects with more frequent temple headaches. PMID:22558607

  6. Individual factors affecting preferences for feedback message tactics in the contexts of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Noora; Enwald, Heidi; Bath, Peter A; Pyky, Riitta; Korpelainen, Raija; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Tailored feedback on personal physical activity behavior has been used to inform individuals and promote physical activity among different populations. This study aimed to increase the understanding of factors associated with young men's preferences for feedback message tactics in the context of physical activity and exercise. How preferences vary was analyzed in terms of the self-reported physical activity, stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, objectively measured physical health status, and sociodemographic characteristics of young Finnish men. Population-based survey data, including physiological measurements (n = 525), were collected at the Finnish Defence Forces' call-ups in the city of Oulu, Finland, in September 2011. The results indicate that the stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, physical health status, and educational level are associated with a preference for normative and ipsative comparison. Multivariate logistic regression models show that an advanced stage of exercise behavior change and education in the academic track of an upper secondary school are independent predictors of preferring ipsative and normative physical activity feedback among young men. The study provides new insights into how the stage of behavior change influences health information behavior and is in line with studies emphasizing social factors--including education--as being important in shaping health-related behavior. These factors could form the basis for tailoring information when designing health promotion. PMID:25491473

  7. Individual factors affecting preferences for feedback message tactics in the contexts of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Noora; Enwald, Heidi; Bath, Peter A; Pyky, Riitta; Korpelainen, Raija; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Tailored feedback on personal physical activity behavior has been used to inform individuals and promote physical activity among different populations. This study aimed to increase the understanding of factors associated with young men's preferences for feedback message tactics in the context of physical activity and exercise. How preferences vary was analyzed in terms of the self-reported physical activity, stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, objectively measured physical health status, and sociodemographic characteristics of young Finnish men. Population-based survey data, including physiological measurements (n = 525), were collected at the Finnish Defence Forces' call-ups in the city of Oulu, Finland, in September 2011. The results indicate that the stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, physical health status, and educational level are associated with a preference for normative and ipsative comparison. Multivariate logistic regression models show that an advanced stage of exercise behavior change and education in the academic track of an upper secondary school are independent predictors of preferring ipsative and normative physical activity feedback among young men. The study provides new insights into how the stage of behavior change influences health information behavior and is in line with studies emphasizing social factors--including education--as being important in shaping health-related behavior. These factors could form the basis for tailoring information when designing health promotion.

  8. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  9. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  10. Small but Powerful: Top Predator Local Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure and Function in an Intermittent Stream

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators’ extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a ‘mesopredator release’, affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to ‘mesopredator release’, and also to ‘prey release’ despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem’s structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers’ extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been

  11. Impact of Trichiasis Surgery on Physical Functioning in Ethiopian Patients: STAR Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wolle, Meraf A.; Cassard, Sandra D.; Gower, Emily W.; Munoz, Beatriz E.; Wang, Jiangxia; Alemayehu, Wondu; West, Sheila K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the physical functioning of Ethiopian trichiasis surgery patients before and six months after surgery. Design Nested Cohort Study Methods This study was nested within the Surgery for Trichiasis, Antibiotics to Prevent Recurrence (STAR) clinical trial conducted in Ethiopia. Demographic information, ocular examinations, and physical functioning assessments were collected before and 6 months after surgery. A single score for patients’ physical functioning was constructed using Rasch analysis. A multivariate linear regression model was used to determine if change in physical functioning was associated with change in visual acuity. Results Of the 438 participants, 411 (93.8%) had both baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Physical functioning scores at baseline ranged from −6.32 (great difficulty) to +6.01 (no difficulty). The percent of participants reporting no difficulty in physical functioning increased by 32.6%; the proportion of participants in the mild/no visual impairment category increased by 8.6%. A multivariate linear regression model showed that for every line of vision gained, physical functioning improves significantly (0.09 units; 95% CI: 0.02–0.16). Conclusions Surgery to correct trichiasis appears to improve patients’ physical functioning as measured at 6 months. More effort in promoting trichiasis surgery is essential, not only to prevent corneal blindness, but also to enable improved functioning in daily life. PMID:21333268

  12. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  13. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  14. Physical capacity and functional abilities improve in young adults with intellectual disabilities after functional training.

    PubMed

    Barwick, Ryan B; Tillman, Mark D; Stopka, Christine B; Dipnarine, Krishna; Delisle, Anthony; Sayedul Huq, Mona

    2012-06-01

    Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have higher rates of obesity, lower rates of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular endurance than do typically developed individuals (TDI) and are twice as likely to develop chronic disease, living half as long as TDIs do. The purpose of this study was to examine the improvements in physical capacity and functional ability in Special Olympic Athletes (SOAs) aged 19-22 years after participating in a functional training (FT) program and compare these scores with those of the SOAs in a resistance weight training (WT) program. Twenty SOAs (13 men, 7 women with mild to moderate ID) participated in a 1-hour FT program, twice a week, for 10 weeks, compared with 22 same-aged SOAs (14 men, 8 women) participating in a 1-hour WT program (2× week for 8 weeks). Prefitness and postfitness tests consisting of heart rate (HR) for the 3-minute step test, static plank, body weight squats, static bar hang, and knee push-ups were conducted. Two-tailed, paired sample t-tests (p < 0.05) were used to evaluate the differences in the FT group. Change scores were used to compare FTG with the WT group. The HR decreased by 31.8 b·min⁻¹ pre-post in the FTG (p < 0.001). Static plank duration improved by 22.4 seconds in the FTG (p = 0.016); static plank change scores improved (p = 0.037) for the FTG (26.5 ± 32.1 seconds compared with that for the WT group (4.6 ± 22 seconds). Height and weight values were unchanged in both the groups. The results of this study demonstrate the value of FT programs for this population, because weight equipment is not always available in many settings.

  15. 21 CFR 890.5880 - Multi-function physical therapy table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multi-function physical therapy table. 890.5880 Section 890.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5880...

  16. 21 CFR 890.5880 - Multi-function physical therapy table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Multi-function physical therapy table. 890.5880 Section 890.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5880...

  17. 21 CFR 890.5880 - Multi-function physical therapy table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Multi-function physical therapy table. 890.5880 Section 890.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5880...

  18. 21 CFR 890.5880 - Multi-function physical therapy table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Multi-function physical therapy table. 890.5880 Section 890.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5880...

  19. 21 CFR 890.5880 - Multi-function physical therapy table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Multi-function physical therapy table. 890.5880 Section 890.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5880...

  20. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations differentially affect large-scale functional networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Disha; Blockx, Ines; Keliris, Georgios A; Kara, Firat; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2016-07-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a widely implemented technique used to investigate large-scale topology in the human brain during health and disease. Studies in mice provide additional advantages, including the possibility to flexibly modulate the brain by pharmacological or genetic manipulations in combination with high-throughput functional connectivity (FC) investigations. Pharmacological modulations that target specific neurotransmitter systems, partly mimicking the effect of pathological events, could allow discriminating the effect of specific systems on functional network disruptions. The current study investigated the effect of cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists on large-scale brain networks in mice. The cholinergic system is involved in cognitive functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, while the serotonergic system is involved in emotional and introspective functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, depression and autism. Specific interest goes to the default-mode-network (DMN), which is studied extensively in humans and is affected in many neurological disorders. The results show that both cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists impaired the mouse DMN-like network similarly, except that cholinergic modulation additionally affected the retrosplenial cortex. This suggests that both neurotransmitter systems are involved in maintaining integrity of FC within the DMN-like network in mice. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations also affected other functional networks, however, serotonergic modulation impaired the frontal and thalamus networks more extensively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of pharmacological rsfMRI in animal models to provide insights into the role of specific neurotransmitter systems on functional networks in neurological disorders. PMID:26195064

  1. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine.

  2. Impressions of Counselors as a Function of Counselor Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jean A.

    1978-01-01

    Research assessed the effects of counselor physical attractiveness and inter-actions between attractiveness and counselor subject sex. It is suggested that sex of counselor and client may play a more important role independently and in conjunction with attractiveness than does attractiveness alone in influencing impressions and expectations.…

  3. Functions and sources of perceived social support among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-06-01

    While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:21287421

  4. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  5. Posttraumatic Distress and Physical Functioning: A Longitudinal Study of Injured Survivors of Community Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Jaycox, Lisa H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the cross-lagged relationships between posttraumatic distress symptoms and physical functioning, using a sample of 413 persons who were hospitalized for injuries resulting from community violence. Posttraumatic distress was assessed at 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months postinjury, and posttraumatic physical functioning was…

  6. Informal science participation positively affects the communication and pedagogical skills of university physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinko, Kathleen; Finkelstein, Noah

    2013-04-01

    Many undergraduate and graduate physics students choose to participate in an informal science program at the University of Colorado Boulder (Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC)). They coach elementary and middle school students in inquiry-based physics activities during weekly, afterschool sessions. Observations from the afterschool sessions, field notes from the students, and pre/post surveys are collected. University students are also pre/post- videotaped explaining a textbook passage on a physics concept to an imagined audience for the Communications in Everyday Language assessment (CELA). We present findings from these data that indicate informal experiences improve the communication and pedagogical skills of the university student as well as positively influence their self-efficacy as scientific communicators and teachers.

  7. Beyond emotional benefits: physical activity and sedentary behaviour affect psychosocial resources through emotions.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Candice L; Catalino, Lahnna I; Mata, Jutta; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is known to improve emotional experiences, and positive emotions have been shown to lead to important life outcomes, including the development of psychosocial resources. In contrast, time spent sedentary may negatively impact emotional experiences and, consequently, erode psychosocial resources. Two studies tested whether activity independently influenced emotions and psychosocial resources, and whether activity indirectly influenced psychosocial resources through emotional experiences. Using cross-sectional (Study 1a) and longitudinal (Study 1b) methods, we found that time spent physically active independently predicted emotions and psychosocial resources. Mediation analyses suggested that emotions may account for the relation between activity and psychosocial resources. The improved emotional experiences associated with physical activity may help individuals build psychosocial resources known to improve mental health. Study 1a provided first indicators to suggest that, in contrast, sedentary behaviour may reduce positive emotions, which could in turn lead to decrements in psychosocial resources.

  8. Cognitive Function in Adolescent Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Unipolar Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarrar, Lea; Holzhausen, Martin; Warschburger, Petra; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Schneider, Nora

    2016-05-01

    Studies have shown impairments in cognitive function among adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and affective disorders (AD). The association between cognitive dysfunctions, AN and AD as well as the specificity for these psychiatric diagnoses remains unclear. Therefore, we examined cognitive flexibility and processing speed in 47 female adolescent patients with AN, 21 female adolescent patients with unipolar affective disorders and 48 female healthy adolescents. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. There were no significant group differences regarding cognitive function, except for psychomotor processing speed with poorer performance in patients with AN. A further analysis revealed that all groups performed with the normal range, although patients with AN were over represented in the poorest performing quartile. We found no severe cognitive impairments in either patient group. Nevertheless, belonging to the AN group contributed significantly to poor performances in neuropsychological tasks. Therefore, we conclude that the risk for cognitive impairments is slightly higher for patients with AN.

  9. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  10. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  11. Intermediate Filaments as Organizers of Cellular Space: How They Affect Mitochondrial Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Nicole; Leube, Rudolf E.

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments together with actin filaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton, which is a complex and highly dynamic 3D network. Intermediate filaments are the major mechanical stress protectors but also affect cell growth, differentiation, signal transduction, and migration. Using intermediate filament-mitochondrial crosstalk as a prominent example, this review emphasizes the importance of intermediate filaments as crucial organizers of cytoplasmic space to support these functions. We summarize observations in different mammalian cell types which demonstrate how intermediate filaments influence mitochondrial morphology, subcellular localization, and function through direct and indirect interactions and how perturbations of these interactions may lead to human diseases. PMID:27399781

  12. Functional topography of serotonergic systems supports the Deakin/Graeff hypothesis of anxiety and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Paul, Evan D; Lowry, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Over 20 years ago, Deakin and Graeff hypothesized about the role of different serotonergic pathways in controlling the behavioral and physiologic responses to aversive stimuli, and how compromise of these pathways could lead to specific symptoms of anxiety and affective disorders. A growing body of evidence suggests these serotonergic pathways arise from topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons located in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei. We argue that serotonergic neurons in the dorsal/caudal parts of the dorsal raphe nucleus project to forebrain limbic regions involved in stress/conflict anxiety-related processes, which may be relevant for anxiety and affective disorders. Serotonergic neurons in the "lateral wings" of the dorsal raphe nucleus provide inhibitory control over structures controlling fight-or-flight responses. Dysfunction of this pathway could be relevant for panic disorder. Finally, serotonergic neurons in the median raphe nucleus, and the developmentally and functionally-related interfascicular part of the dorsal raphe nucleus, give rise to forebrain limbic projections that are involved in tolerance and coping with aversive stimuli, which could be important for affective disorders like depression. Elucidating the mechanisms through which stress activates these topographically and functionally distinct serotonergic pathways, and how dysfunction of these pathways leads to symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders, may lead to the development of novel approaches to both the prevention and treatment of anxiety and affective disorders.

  13. Vascular function in health, hypertension, and diabetes: effect of physical activity on skeletal muscle microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, M; Gliemann, L; Hellsten, Y

    2015-12-01

    Regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow is a complex process, which involves an integration of multiple mechanisms and a number of vasoactive compounds. Overall, muscle blood flow is regulated through a balance between vasoconstrictor and vasodilator signals. In a healthy cardiovascular system, the increase in muscle blood flow required for oxygen supply during exercise is achieved through a substantial increase in vasodilators locally formed in the active muscle tissue that overcome the vasoconstrictor signals. Most of the vasodilator signals are mediated via endothelial cells, which lead to the formation of vasodilators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin. In essential hypertension and type II diabetes, the endothelial function and regulation of vascular tone is impaired with consequent increases in peripheral vascular resistance and inadequate regulation of oxygen supply to the skeletal muscle, which can affect muscle function. Central aspects in the vascular impairments are alterations in the formation of prostacyclin, the bioavailability of NO and an increased formation of vasoconstrictors and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regular physical activity effectively improves vascular function by enhancing vasodilator formation and reducing the levels of vasoconstrictors and ROS. PMID:26589119

  14. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  15. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  16. Tip110: Physical properties, primary structure, and biological functions.

    PubMed

    Whitmill, Amanda; Timani, Khalid Amine; Liu, Ying; He, Johnny J

    2016-03-15

    HIV-1 Tat-interacting protein of 110kDa (Tip110), also referred to as squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T cells 3 (Sart3), p110 or p110(nrb), was initially identified as a cDNA clone (KIAA0156) without annotated functions. Over the past twenty years, several functions have been attributed to this protein. The proposed biological functions include roles for Tip110 in pre-mRNA splicing, gene transcription, stem cell biology, and development. Dysregulation of Tip110 is also a contributing factor in the development of cancer and other human diseases. It is clear that our understanding of this protein is rapidly evolving. In this review, we aimed to provide a summary of all the existing literature on this gene/protein and its proposed biological functions. PMID:26896687

  17. Interfacial Strength and Physical Properties of Functionalized Graphene - Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Heimann, Paula; Scheiman, Daniel; Adamson, Douglas H.; Aksay, Iihan A.; Prud'homme, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    The toughness and coefficient of thermal expansion of a series of functionalized graphene sheet - epoxy nanocomposites are investigated. Functionalized graphene sheets are produced by splitting graphite oxide into single graphene sheets through a rapid thermal expansion process. These graphene sheets contain approx. 10% oxygen due to the presence of hydroxide, epoxide, and carboxyl functional groups which assist in chemical bond formation with the epoxy matrix. Intrinsic surface functionality is used to graft alkyl amine chains on the graphene sheets, and the addition of excess hardener insures covalent bonding between the epoxide matrix and graphene sheets. Considerable improvement in the epoxy dimensional stability is obtained. An increase in nanocomposite toughness is observed in some cases.

  18. Two Year Exercise Program Improves Physical Function in Parkinson’s Disease: the PRET-PD Study

    PubMed Central

    Prodoehl, Janey; Rafferty, Miriam; David, Fabian J.; Poon, Cynthia; Vaillancourt, David E.; Comella, Cynthia L.; Leurgans, Sue; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Corcos, Daniel M.; Robichaud, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The progressive resistance exercise (PRE) in Parkinson’s disease trial (PRET-PD) showed that PRE improved the motor signs of PD compared to a modified Fitness Counts (mFC) program. It is unclear how long-term exercise affects physical function in these individuals. Objective To examine the effects of long-term PRE and mFC on physical function outcome measures in individuals with PD. Methods A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted using data from the 38 patients with idiopathic PD who completed the PRET-PD trial. Participants were randomized into PRE or mFC groups and exercised 2 days/week up to 24 months. Blinded assessors obtained functional outcomes on and off medication at baseline, 6 and 24 months with the Modified Physical Performance Test (mPPT), five times sit to stand test (STS), Functional Reach Test (FRT), Timed Up and Go (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 6 minute walk test (6MWT), and 50ft walking speed (walk speed). Results The groups did not differ on any physical function measure at 6 or 24 months (p’s > 0.1). Across time, all physical function measures improved from baseline to 24 months when tested on medication (p’s < .0001), except for 6MWT(p = .068). Off medication results were similar except that the 6MWT was now significant. Conclusions 24 months of supervised and structured exercise (either PRE or mFC) is effective at improving functional performance outcomes in individuals with moderate PD. Clinicians should strive to include structured and supervised exercise in the long-term plan of care for individuals with PD. PMID:24961994

  19. Associations between early adrenarche, affective brain function and mental health in children

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Strikwerda-Brown, Cherie; Kerestes, Rebecca; Seal, Marc L.; Olsson, Craig A.; Dudgeon, Paul; Mundy, Lisa K.; Patton, George C.

    2015-01-01

    Early timing of adrenarche, associated with relatively high levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in children, has been associated with mental health and behavioral problems. However, little is known about effects of adreneracheal timing on brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early adrenarche (defined by high DHEA levels independent of age) on affective brain function and symptoms of psychopathology in late childhood (N = 83, 43 females, M age 9.53 years, s.d. 0.34 years). Results showed that higher DHEA levels were associated with decreased affect-related brain activity (i) in the mid-cingulate cortex in the whole sample, and (ii) in a number of cortical and subcortical regions in female but not male children. Higher DHEA levels were also associated with increased externalizing symptoms in females, an association that was partly mediated by posterior insula activation to happy facial expressions. These results suggest that timing of adrenarche is an important moderator of affect-related brain function, and that this may be one mechanism linking early adrenarche to psychopathology. PMID:25678548

  20. Associations between early adrenarche, affective brain function and mental health in children.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Byrne, Michelle L; Strikwerda-Brown, Cherie; Kerestes, Rebecca; Seal, Marc L; Olsson, Craig A; Dudgeon, Paul; Mundy, Lisa K; Patton, George C; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-09-01

    Early timing of adrenarche, associated with relatively high levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in children, has been associated with mental health and behavioral problems. However, little is known about effects of adreneracheal timing on brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early adrenarche (defined by high DHEA levels independent of age) on affective brain function and symptoms of psychopathology in late childhood (N = 83, 43 females, M age 9.53 years, s.d. 0.34 years). Results showed that higher DHEA levels were associated with decreased affect-related brain activity (i) in the mid-cingulate cortex in the whole sample, and (ii) in a number of cortical and subcortical regions in female but not male children. Higher DHEA levels were also associated with increased externalizing symptoms in females, an association that was partly mediated by posterior insula activation to happy facial expressions. These results suggest that timing of adrenarche is an important moderator of affect-related brain function, and that this may be one mechanism linking early adrenarche to psychopathology.

  1. The predictive value of self assessed general, physical, and mental health on functional decline and mortality in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the extent to which older people's self assessments of general health, physical health, and mental health predict functional decline and mortality.
DESIGN—The study uses population-based secondary data from the US Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA).
PARTICIPANTS—A total of 7527 persons aged 70 years or above living in the community.
METHODS—Eight different measures on self reported general, physical, and mental health were used. Change in functional status was measured using a composite index of ADLs and IADLs over a period of six years. Duration of survival was calculated over a period of seven years. Adjusting for age and gender, multiple logistic regression was used in analysing functional decline, and Cox proportional hazard model, for mortality. Then all of the self assessed health measures were incorporated into the final model—controlling for baseline sociodemographic characteristics, functional status, disease/conditions, and use of health and social services—to assess the independent contribution of each measure in predicting future health outcomes.
MAIN RESULTS—Overall, older people's self assessed general, physical, and mental health were predictive of functional decline and mortality. In multivariate analyses, older people who assessed their global health, self care ability, and physical activity less favourably were more likely to experience poor health outcomes. Gender disparity, however, was observed with poor global health affecting functional decline in men only. Self care ability was predictive of functioning in women only, whereas it was predictive of mortality in men only.
CONCLUSIONS—Self assessed global health, as well as, specific dimensions of health act as significant, independent predictors of functioning and mortality in a community dwelling older people.


Keywords: age; self assessed health; functional status; mortality PMID:10715745

  2. The Effects of Exercise on the Physical Fitness of High and Moderate-Low Functioning Older Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Mason, R Christopher; Horvat, Michael; Nocera, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Understanding how exercise affects individuals with varying levels of functional ability will provide further insight into the role of exercise during the aging process. It will also aid in the development of exercise programs that are appropriate for a wider spectrum of older adults. Specifically it was the primary aim of this study to determine and compare the effects of 10 weeks of community-based exercise on the cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and balance fitness components of older adult women with high and moderate-low levels of physical function. Methods. Participants were placed in either the high functioning (n = 13) or moderate/low functioning (n = 17) groups based on their level of physical functioning. Fitness components were measured by the Senior Fitness Test and physical function was determined by the Composite Physical Function scale. Results. The results of the 3 × 2 mixed ANOVA statistical analysis showed no significant interaction effect for time ⁎ group for any of the six subtests (chair stand, arm curls, 2-minute step, chair sit-and-reach, back scratch, and 6-foot up-and-go) of the SFT. However, the main effect of time was significant for all fitness components and the main effect of group was significant for all fitness components except lower extremity flexibility. Discussion. Community-based exercise programs offering a variety of exercise types to people with varying levels of functional ability can be useful in maintaining or improving fitness and independence. These programs may also be capable of improving the self-efficacy of lower functioning older adults toward performing daily tasks.

  3. The Effects of Exercise on the Physical Fitness of High and Moderate-Low Functioning Older Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Mason, R Christopher; Horvat, Michael; Nocera, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Understanding how exercise affects individuals with varying levels of functional ability will provide further insight into the role of exercise during the aging process. It will also aid in the development of exercise programs that are appropriate for a wider spectrum of older adults. Specifically it was the primary aim of this study to determine and compare the effects of 10 weeks of community-based exercise on the cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and balance fitness components of older adult women with high and moderate-low levels of physical function. Methods. Participants were placed in either the high functioning (n = 13) or moderate/low functioning (n = 17) groups based on their level of physical functioning. Fitness components were measured by the Senior Fitness Test and physical function was determined by the Composite Physical Function scale. Results. The results of the 3 × 2 mixed ANOVA statistical analysis showed no significant interaction effect for time ⁎ group for any of the six subtests (chair stand, arm curls, 2-minute step, chair sit-and-reach, back scratch, and 6-foot up-and-go) of the SFT. However, the main effect of time was significant for all fitness components and the main effect of group was significant for all fitness components except lower extremity flexibility. Discussion. Community-based exercise programs offering a variety of exercise types to people with varying levels of functional ability can be useful in maintaining or improving fitness and independence. These programs may also be capable of improving the self-efficacy of lower functioning older adults toward performing daily tasks. PMID:27478640

  4. The Effects of Exercise on the Physical Fitness of High and Moderate-Low Functioning Older Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Michael; Nocera, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Understanding how exercise affects individuals with varying levels of functional ability will provide further insight into the role of exercise during the aging process. It will also aid in the development of exercise programs that are appropriate for a wider spectrum of older adults. Specifically it was the primary aim of this study to determine and compare the effects of 10 weeks of community-based exercise on the cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and balance fitness components of older adult women with high and moderate-low levels of physical function. Methods. Participants were placed in either the high functioning (n = 13) or moderate/low functioning (n = 17) groups based on their level of physical functioning. Fitness components were measured by the Senior Fitness Test and physical function was determined by the Composite Physical Function scale. Results. The results of the 3 × 2 mixed ANOVA statistical analysis showed no significant interaction effect for time ⁎ group for any of the six subtests (chair stand, arm curls, 2-minute step, chair sit-and-reach, back scratch, and 6-foot up-and-go) of the SFT. However, the main effect of time was significant for all fitness components and the main effect of group was significant for all fitness components except lower extremity flexibility. Discussion. Community-based exercise programs offering a variety of exercise types to people with varying levels of functional ability can be useful in maintaining or improving fitness and independence. These programs may also be capable of improving the self-efficacy of lower functioning older adults toward performing daily tasks. PMID:27478640

  5. Revealing how species loss affects ecosystem function: the trait-based Price Equation partition.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jeremy W; Harpole, W Stanley

    2008-01-01

    Species loss can alter ecosystem function. Recent work proposes a general theoretical framework, the "Price Equation partition," for understanding how species loss affects ecosystem functions that comprise the summed contributions of individual species (e.g., primary production). The Price Equation partition shows how the difference in function between a pre-species-loss site and a post-loss site can be partitioned into effects of random loss of species richness (species-richness effect; SRE), nonrandom loss of high- or low-functioning species (species-composition effect; SCE), and post-loss changes in the functional contributions of the remaining species (context-dependence effect; CDE). However, the Price Equation partition is silent on the underlying determinants of species' functional contributions. Here we extend the Price Equation partition by using multiple regression to describe how species' functional contributions depend on species' traits. This allows us to reexpress the SCE and CDE in terms of nonrandom loss of species with particular traits (trait-based SCE), and post-loss changes in species' traits and in the relationship between species' traits and species' functional contributions (trait-based CDE). We apply this new trait-based Price Equation partition to studies of species loss from grassland plant communities and protist microcosm food webs. In both studies, post-loss changes in the relationship between species' traits and their functional contributions alter ecosystem function more than nonrandom loss of species with particular traits. The protist microcosm data also illustrate how the trait-based Price Equation partition can be applied when species' functional contributions depend in part on the traits of other species. To do this, we define "synecological" traits that quantify how unique species are (e.g., in diet) compared to other species. Context dependence in the protist microcosm experiment arises in part because species loss alters the

  6. Affective Response to a Loved One's Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Latorre, Valeria; Petito, Annamaria; Gentili, Nicoletta; Fazio, Leonardo; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion. PMID:21179564

  7. Peers and Teachers as Sources of Relatedness Perceptions, Motivation, and Affective Responses in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality)…

  8. Does Recent Physical and Sexual Victimization Affect Further Substance Use for Adult Drug-Involved Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Janine M.; Yahner, Jennifer; Rossman, Shelli B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether physical and sexual victimization experiences were related to further substance use for a sample of drug-involved adult offenders and whether this increase could be attributed to depression experienced after the victimization occurred. A total of 674 men and 284 women from the longitudinal Multisite Adult Drug Court…

  9. Exploring Social and Environmental Factors Affecting Adolescents' Participation in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagkas, Symeon; Stathi, Afroditi

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the social factors that influence young people's participation in school and out of school physical activities. Fifty-two 16-year-old adolescents from different socioeconomic backgrounds in one suburban and one inner-city secondary school in the Midlands, UK, participated in group interviews which explored their perceptions…

  10. The Stigma of Obesity: Does Perceived Weight Discrimination Affect Identity and Physical Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is widely recognized as a health risk, but it also represents a disadvantaged social position. Viewing body weight within the framework of stigma and its effects on life chances, we examine how perceived weight-based discrimination influences identity and physical health. Using national survey data with a 10-year longitudinal follow-up, we…

  11. Qualitative Case Study of Physical Therapist Students' Attitudes, Motivations, and Affective Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Lorna M.; Noonan, Ann C.; Shain, Donnalee

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups of six instructors and 21 physical-therapy students examined separately clinical and classroom experience. Results revealed (1) a mismatch between student and faculty expectations; (2) student preference for passive learning; (3) concern about teacher/student relationships; (4) student anxiety about career expectations; and (5)…

  12. Rate of Physical Growth and Its Affect on Head Start Children's Motor and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    In the United States, growth retardation is higher among low-income children, with adverse cognitive effects of undernutrition more prevalent when combined with poverty. This study examined anthropometric indicators of physical development and their relationship to motor and cognitive development in Head Start children. Motor integration and…

  13. How contrast situations affect the assignment of causality in symmetric physical settings

    PubMed Central

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In determining the prime cause of a physical event, people often weight one of two entities in a symmetric physical relation as more important for bringing about the causal effect than the other. In a broad survey (Bender and Beller, 2011), we documented such weighting effects for different kinds of physical events and found that their direction and strength depended on a variety of factors. Here, we focus on one of those: adding a contrast situation that—while being formally irrelevant—foregrounds one of the factors and thus frames the task in a specific way. In two experiments, we generalize and validate our previous findings by using different stimulus material (in Experiment 1), by applying a different response format to elicit causal assignments, an analog rating scale instead of a forced-choice decision (in Experiment 2), and by eliciting explanations for the physical events in question (in both Experiments). The results generally confirm the contrast effects for both response formats; however, the effects were more pronounced with the force-choice format than with the rating format. People tended to refer to the given contrast in their explanations, which validates our manipulation. Finally, people’s causal assignments are reflected in the type of explanation given in that contrast and property explanations were associated with biased causal assignments, whereas relational explanations were associated with unbiased assignments. In the discussion, we pick up the normative questions of whether or not these contrast effects constitute a bias in causal reasoning. PMID:25620937

  14. Factors that Affect the Physical Science Career Interest of Female Students: Testing Five Common Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project ("n" = 7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what…

  15. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Method: Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5 to 18 years old enrolled in 58…

  16. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  17. How contrast situations affect the assignment of causality in symmetric physical settings.

    PubMed

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In determining the prime cause of a physical event, people often weight one of two entities in a symmetric physical relation as more important for bringing about the causal effect than the other. In a broad survey (Bender and Beller, 2011), we documented such weighting effects for different kinds of physical events and found that their direction and strength depended on a variety of factors. Here, we focus on one of those: adding a contrast situation that-while being formally irrelevant-foregrounds one of the factors and thus frames the task in a specific way. In two experiments, we generalize and validate our previous findings by using different stimulus material (in Experiment 1), by applying a different response format to elicit causal assignments, an analog rating scale instead of a forced-choice decision (in Experiment 2), and by eliciting explanations for the physical events in question (in both Experiments). The results generally confirm the contrast effects for both response formats; however, the effects were more pronounced with the force-choice format than with the rating format. People tended to refer to the given contrast in their explanations, which validates our manipulation. Finally, people's causal assignments are reflected in the type of explanation given in that contrast and property explanations were associated with biased causal assignments, whereas relational explanations were associated with unbiased assignments. In the discussion, we pick up the normative questions of whether or not these contrast effects constitute a bias in causal reasoning.

  18. Can Contact Affect Greek Children's Understanding of and Attitudes towards Peers with Physical Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored typically developing children's understanding of, and attitudes towards, the inclusion of children with physical disabilities (PD) in mainstream settings. The 60 children who participated in the study attended sixth grade in two mainstream primary schools (30 in contact with a child with PD and 30 without such contact).…

  19. Physical exercise and osteoporosis: effects of different types of exercises on bone and physical function of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Oliveira, Mônica Longo de; Lirani-Galvão, Ana Paula; Marin-Mio, Rosângela Villa; Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco dos; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise is an important stimulus for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. However, it is not clear yet which modality would be better to stimulate bone metabolism and enhance physical function of postmenopausal women. This review paper aims to summarize and update present knowledge on the effects of different kinds of aquatic and ground physical exercises on bone metabolism and physical function of postmenopausal women. Moderate to intense exercises, performed in a high speed during short intervals of time, in water or on the ground, can be part of a program to prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mechanical vibration has proven to be beneficial for bone microarchitecture, improving bone density and bone strength, as well as increasing physical function. Although impact exercises are recognized as beneficial for the stimulation of bone tissue, other variables such as muscle strength, type of muscle contraction, duration and intensity of exercises are also determinants to induce changes in bone metabolism of postmenopausal women. Not only osteoanabolic exercises should be recommended; activities aimed to develop muscle strength and body balance and improve the proprioception should be encouraged to prevent falls and fractures.

  20. Strategies for tissue engineering cardiac constructs to affect functional repair following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Kathy Yuan; Black, Lauren Deems

    2011-10-01

    Tissue-engineered cardiac constructs are a high potential therapy for treating myocardial infarction. These therapies have the ability to regenerate or recreate functional myocardium following the infarction, restoring some of the lost function of the heart and thereby preventing congestive heart failure. Three key factors to consider when developing engineered myocardial tissue include the cell source, the choice of scaffold, and the use of biomimetic culture conditions. This review details the various biomaterials and scaffold types that have been used to generate engineered myocardial tissues as well as a number of different methods used for the fabrication and culture of these constructs. Specific bioreactor design considerations for creating myocardial tissue equivalents in vitro, such as oxygen and nutrient delivery as well as physical stimulation, are also discussed. Lastly, a brief overview of some of the in vivo studies that have been conducted to date and their assessment of the functional benefit in repairing the injured heart with engineered myocardial tissue is provided.

  1. Growth, lung function, and physical activity in schoolchildren who were very-low-birth-weight preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Winck, Aline Dill; Heinzmann-Filho, João Paulo; Schumann, Deise; Zatti, Helen; Mattiello, Rita; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Stein, Renato Tetelbom

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare somatic growth, lung function, and level of physical activity in schoolchildren who had been very-low-birth-weight preterm infants (VLBWPIs) or normal-birth-weight full-term infants. Methods: We recruited two groups of schoolchildren between 8 and 11 years of age residing in the study catchment area: those who had been VLBWPIs (birth weight < 1,500 g); and those who had been normal-birth-weight full-term infants (controls, birth weight ≥ 2,500 g). Anthropometric and spirometric data were collected from the schoolchildren, who also completed a questionnaire regarding their physical activity. In addition, data regarding the perinatal and neonatal period were collected from the medical records of the VLBWPIs. Results: Of the 93 schoolchildren screened, 48 and 45 were in the VLBWPI and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding anthropometric characteristics, nutritional status, or pulmonary function. No associations were found between perinatal/neonatal variables and lung function parameters in the VLBWPI group. Although the difference was not significant, the level of physical activity was slightly higher in the VLBWPI group than in the control group. Conclusions: Among the schoolchildren evaluated here, neither growth nor lung function appear to have been affected by prematurity birth weight, or level of physical activity.

  2. Kindergarten Practitioners' Experience of Promoting Children's Involvement in and Enjoyment of Physically Active Play: Does the Contagion of Physical Energy Affect Physically Active Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjørgen, Kathrine; Svendsen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    This research is based on interviews that explore the reflections of 10 Norwegian kindergarten practitioners with regard to the importance of their involvement in children's physically active outdoor playtime. The data were analysed from a qualitative phenomenological perspective and resulted in basic themes that describe the practitioners'…

  3. Assessment of anthropological, physical and functional indices in sportsmen (basketball players) against the background of high physical loading.

    PubMed

    Chakhunashvili, G; Jobava, N; Guchashvili, M; Chakhunashvili, K; Gogilashvili, T; Shvangiradze, M; Pagava, K

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the investigation was the estimation of functional condition of anthropometrical, physical and cardiovascular system of sportsmen-basketball players against the background of high physical loading. 100 basketball players at the age from 12 till 18 years underlay the study. Randomized and open controllable research was carried out during 6 months. The following characteristics have been studied: how many days the sportsman is training in a week, how many hours the sportsman is training per day, his mood after training, over fatigue and overtension, frequency of heartbeat, time of breath holding, the general condition, the height in sitting and standing position; circumference of lumbus, chest, arm and limbs, the pulse, pulse, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure before and after physical loading. According to these factors the following sport indices are calculated: Index of Rufe (physical work capacity), the coefficient of endurance (Kvas formula), Shtange test (breath holding at sighing), Genchi test (breath holding at exhalation), average arterial pressure, systolic and cardiac output of blood circulation (the formula of Lilienstrad and Tsander), the coefficient of blood circulation effectiveness, Ketle index (the ratio of height and weight), Minuvre index (the ratio of body and feet length), Pinie index (power of body-build). Statistically authentic increase of breath and pulse in frequency was observed in sportsmen-basketball players after physical loading. The study of amplitude parameters of cardiac cycle among sportsmen-basketball players before and after physical loading has revealed the ability of rather low adaptation of cardiovascular system to physical loading.

  4. Changes in work affect in response to lunchtime walking in previously physically inactive employees: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C; Loughren, E A; Kinnafick, F-E; Taylor, I M; Duda, J L; Fox, K R

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity may regulate affective experiences at work, but controlled studies are needed and there has been a reliance on retrospective accounts of experience. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of lunchtime walks on momentary work affect at the individual and group levels. Physically inactive employees (N = 56; M age = 47.68; 92.86% female) from a large university in the UK were randomized to immediate treatment or delayed treatment (DT). The DT participants completed both a control and intervention period. During the intervention period, participants partook in three weekly 30-min lunchtime group-led walks for 10 weeks. They completed twice daily affective reports at work (morning and afternoon) using mobile phones on two randomly chosen days per week. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data. Lunchtime walks improved enthusiasm, relaxation, and nervousness at work, although the pattern of results differed depending on whether between-group or within-person analyses were conducted. The intervention was effective in changing some affective states and may have broader implications for public health and workplace performance.

  5. Changes in work affect in response to lunchtime walking in previously physically inactive employees: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C; Loughren, E A; Kinnafick, F-E; Taylor, I M; Duda, J L; Fox, K R

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity may regulate affective experiences at work, but controlled studies are needed and there has been a reliance on retrospective accounts of experience. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of lunchtime walks on momentary work affect at the individual and group levels. Physically inactive employees (N = 56; M age = 47.68; 92.86% female) from a large university in the UK were randomized to immediate treatment or delayed treatment (DT). The DT participants completed both a control and intervention period. During the intervention period, participants partook in three weekly 30-min lunchtime group-led walks for 10 weeks. They completed twice daily affective reports at work (morning and afternoon) using mobile phones on two randomly chosen days per week. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data. Lunchtime walks improved enthusiasm, relaxation, and nervousness at work, although the pattern of results differed depending on whether between-group or within-person analyses were conducted. The intervention was effective in changing some affective states and may have broader implications for public health and workplace performance. PMID:25559067

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness moderates the effect of an affect-guided physical activity prescription: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Austin S; Kangas, Julie L; Denman, Deanna C; Smits, Jasper A J; Yamada, Tetsuhiro; Otto, Michael W

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions have a clear role in promoting mental health. Current PA guidelines directed toward specific PA intensities may have negative effects on affective response to exercise, and affective response is an important determinant of PA adherence. In this randomized trial of 67 previously inactive adults, we compared the effects of a PA prescription emphasizing the maintenance of positive affect to one emphasizing a target heart rate, and tested the extent to which the effect of the affect-guided prescription on PA is moderated by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). We found the effect of an affect-guided prescription was significantly moderated by CRF. At one week, for participants with lower CRF (i.e. poor conditioning), the affect-guided prescription resulted in significantly greater change in PA minutes (M = 240.8) than the heart rate-guided prescription (M = 165.7), reflecting a moderate-sized effect (d = .55). For those with higher CRF (i.e. good conditioning), the means were in the opposite direction but not significantly different. At one month, the same pattern emerged but the interaction was not significant. We discuss the implications of these findings for the type of PA prescriptions offered to individuals in need.

  7. How the sourdough may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods.

    PubMed

    Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Sourdough fermentation is one of the oldest food biotechnologies, which has been studied and recently rediscovered for its effect on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked goods. Acidification, proteolysis and activation of a number of enzymes as well as the synthesis of microbial metabolites cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, which affect the dough and baked good matrix, and influence the nutritional/functional quality. Currently, the literature is particularly rich of results, which show how the sourdough fermentation may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods. In the form of pre-treating raw materials, fermentation through sourdough may stabilize or to increase the functional value of bran fractions and wheat germ. Sourdough fermentation may decrease the glycaemic response of baked goods, improve the properties and bioavailability of dietary fibre complex and phytochemicals, and may increase the uptake of minerals. Microbial metabolism during sourdough fermentation may also produce new nutritionally active compounds, such as peptides and amino acid derivatives (e.g., γ-amino butyric acid) with various functionalities, and potentially prebiotic exo-polysaccharides. The wheat flour digested via fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactobacilli has been demonstrated to be probably safe for celiac patients.

  8. How the sourdough may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods.

    PubMed

    Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Sourdough fermentation is one of the oldest food biotechnologies, which has been studied and recently rediscovered for its effect on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked goods. Acidification, proteolysis and activation of a number of enzymes as well as the synthesis of microbial metabolites cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, which affect the dough and baked good matrix, and influence the nutritional/functional quality. Currently, the literature is particularly rich of results, which show how the sourdough fermentation may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods. In the form of pre-treating raw materials, fermentation through sourdough may stabilize or to increase the functional value of bran fractions and wheat germ. Sourdough fermentation may decrease the glycaemic response of baked goods, improve the properties and bioavailability of dietary fibre complex and phytochemicals, and may increase the uptake of minerals. Microbial metabolism during sourdough fermentation may also produce new nutritionally active compounds, such as peptides and amino acid derivatives (e.g., γ-amino butyric acid) with various functionalities, and potentially prebiotic exo-polysaccharides. The wheat flour digested via fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactobacilli has been demonstrated to be probably safe for celiac patients. PMID:24230470

  9. Ozone gas affects the physical and chemical properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone can oxidize hydroxyl groups present at C2, C3, and C6 positions on the starch molecule and affect its physicochemical properties. In this experiment, bread wheat flour and isolated wheat starch were treated with ozone gas (1,500 ppm, gas flow rate 2.5 L/minutes) for 45 minutes and 30 minutes, ...

  10. Statistical Learning Is Not Affected by a Prior Bout of Physical Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, David J.; Arciuli, Joanne; Anderson, David I.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a prior bout of exercise on implicit cognition. Specifically, we examined whether a prior bout of moderate intensity exercise affected performance on a statistical learning task in healthy adults. A total of 42 participants were allocated to one of three conditions--a control group, a group that exercised for…

  11. The impact of 100 hours of exercise and sleep deprivation on cognitive function and physical capacities.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Anson, J Greg; Palmer, Craig D; Hellemans, Ien J; Cotter, James D

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of 96-125 h of competitive exercise on cognitive and physical performance. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Stroop test (n = 9) before, during, and after the 2003 Southern Traverse adventure race. Strength (MVC) and strength endurance (time to failure at 70% current MVC) of the knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles were assessed before and after racing. Changes in vertical jump (n = 24) and 30-s Wingate performance (n = 27) were assessed in a different group of athletes. Complex response times were affected by the race (16% slower), although not significantly so (P = 0.18), and were dependent on exercise intensity (less so at 50% peak power output after racing). Reduction of strength (P < 0.05) of the legs (17%) and arms (11%) was equivalent (P = 0.17). Reductions in strength endurance were inconsistent (legs 18%, P = 0.09; arms 13%, P = 0.40), but were equivalent between limbs (P = 0.80). Similar reductions were observed in jump height (-8 +/- 9%, P < 0.01) and Wingate peak power (-7 +/- 15%, P = 0.04), mean power (-7 +/- 11%, P < 0.01), and end power (-10 +/- 11%, P < 0.01). We concluded that: moderate-intensity exercise may help complex decision making during sustained stress; functional performance was modestly impacted, and the upper and lower limbs were affected similarly despite being used disproportionately. PMID:19437188

  12. The impact of 100 hours of exercise and sleep deprivation on cognitive function and physical capacities.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Anson, J Greg; Palmer, Craig D; Hellemans, Ien J; Cotter, James D

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of 96-125 h of competitive exercise on cognitive and physical performance. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Stroop test (n = 9) before, during, and after the 2003 Southern Traverse adventure race. Strength (MVC) and strength endurance (time to failure at 70% current MVC) of the knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles were assessed before and after racing. Changes in vertical jump (n = 24) and 30-s Wingate performance (n = 27) were assessed in a different group of athletes. Complex response times were affected by the race (16% slower), although not significantly so (P = 0.18), and were dependent on exercise intensity (less so at 50% peak power output after racing). Reduction of strength (P < 0.05) of the legs (17%) and arms (11%) was equivalent (P = 0.17). Reductions in strength endurance were inconsistent (legs 18%, P = 0.09; arms 13%, P = 0.40), but were equivalent between limbs (P = 0.80). Similar reductions were observed in jump height (-8 +/- 9%, P < 0.01) and Wingate peak power (-7 +/- 15%, P = 0.04), mean power (-7 +/- 11%, P < 0.01), and end power (-10 +/- 11%, P < 0.01). We concluded that: moderate-intensity exercise may help complex decision making during sustained stress; functional performance was modestly impacted, and the upper and lower limbs were affected similarly despite being used disproportionately.

  13. Phytoplankton behavior affects ocean mixed layer dynamics through biological-physical feedback mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, S.; Hense, I.

    2011-08-01

    Biologically induced changes in physical oceanic properties through phytoplankton provide potential positive and negative feedback loops. In particular, surface floating cyanobacteria, which are expected to be favored from future environmental conditions and can form large surface mats, can increase light absorption and the surface albedo and decrease momentum input from the atmosphere by wind. In this work we study the effect of a changing phytoplankton community composition to one dominated by buoyant cyanobacteria on the physical oceanic properties. We use the water column model General Ocean Turbulence Model and set up an idealized biological model taking into account the phytoplankton species' characteristics as well as the effects of biology on physics. The model results show that an increase of buoyant cyanobacteria leads to substantial changes in the seasonal cycle of the mixed layer. The results furthermore indicate that the effects due to altered absorption and biologically induced reduction of the wind drag are larger than contrary effects due to changes in the surface albedo. Overall, our model results suggest that the development of cyanobacterial surface blooms and their feedbacks on light absorption and wind drag need to be taken into account in ocean models used for climate scenarios in order to capture changes in the dynamics of the upper ocean.

  14. Age-related Differential Item Functioning for the Patient-Reported Outcomes Information System (PROMIS®) Physical Functioning Items

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Sylvia H; Spritzer, Karen L; Morales, Leo S; Hays, Ron D

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the equivalence of the PROMIS® wave 1 physical functioning item bank, by age (50 years or older versus 18-49). Materials and methods A total of 114 physical functioning items with 5 response choices were administered to English- (n=1504) and Spanish-language (n=640) adults. Item frequencies, means and standard deviations, item-scale correlations, and internal consistency reliability were estimated. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by age was evaluated. Results Thirty of the 114 items were fagged for DIF based on an R-squared of 0.02 or above criterion. The expected total score was higher for those respondents who were 18-49 than those who were 50 or older. Conclusions Those who were 50 years or older versus 18-49 years old with the same level of physical functioning responded differently to 30 of the 114 items in the PROMIS® physical functioning item bank. This study yields essential information about the equivalence of the physical functioning items in older versus younger individuals. PMID:24052925

  15. Functional Foot Symmetry and Its Relation to Lower Extremity Physical Performance in Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riskowski, J.L.; Hagedorn, TJ; Dufour, AB; Hannan, MT

    2012-01-01

    Background While many studies use gait symmetry as a marker of healthy gait, the evidence that gait symmetry exists is limited. Because gait symmetry is thought to arise through laterality (i.e., limb preference) and affects gait retraining efforts, it is important to understand if symmetry exists during gait in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate foot and gait symmetry in the population-based Framingham Foot Study as well as to determine the effects of vertical force symmetry on physical performance measures. Methods Members of the Framingham Foot Study were included in this analysis (N=1333). Foot function and force data were collected using the Tekscan Matscan during self-selected gait, with symmetry evaluated using the symmetry index. The short physical performance battery (SPPB) measures of balance, chair stands and gait speed assessed lower extremity physical function. Participants were evaluated using quartiles of gait speed and foot symmetry to determine the effects of symmetry on lower extremity physical function. Results Individuals with faster gait speed displayed greater foot function asymmetry; individuals with −3.0% to −9.5% asymmetry in foot function performed better on the short physical performance battery (SPPB). Further, with aging, the degree of asymmetry was reduced. Conclusions While this research suggests that a moderate degree of foot asymmetry is associated with better lower extremity function, the causes of vertical force asymmetry are unknown. Future studies should evaluate the causes of foot asymmetry and should track the changes in symmetry that occur with aging. PMID:22560642

  16. Physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darfour, B.; Wilson, D. D.; Ofosu, D. O.; Ocloo, F. C. K.

    2012-04-01

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour obtained from gamma irradiated cowpea. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy with the unirradiated cultivars serving as controls. The samples were hammer milled, sieved and stored at 4 °C for analysis. Physical, proximate, functional, pasting properties were determined using appropriate methods. In general, the irradiation dose applied to cowpea for insect control did not significantly affect the physical and proximate properties of the flour. However, significant increase (p<0.05) was achieved in paste bulk density, water and oil absorption capacities, foam capacities and least gelation concentrations of flour in general, which may be attributed to the irradiation. The radiation reduced the swelling power and water solubility index significantly. The peak temperature, peak viscosity and setback viscosity of the pastes were significantly (p<0.05) reduced while breakdown viscosity was significantly (p<0.05) increased by the radiation. It was established that the doses used on cowpea affected both the functional and pasting properties of the flour.

  17. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands.

  18. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands. PMID:27164912

  19. Phthalate esters affect maturation and function of primate testis tissue ectopically grafted in mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Sosa, Jose R; Bondareva, Alla; Tang, Lin; Avelar, Gleide F; Coyle, Krysta M; Modelski, Mark; Alpaugh, Whitney; Conley, Alan; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; França, Luiz R; Meyers, Stuart; Dobrinski, Ina

    2014-12-01

    Di-n-Butyl (DBP) and Di-(2-EthylHexyl) (DEHP) phthalates can leach from daily-use products resulting in environmental exposure. In male rodents, phthalate exposure results in reproductive effects. To evaluate effects on the immature primate testis, testis fragments from 6-month-old rhesus macaques were grafted subcutaneously to immune-deficient mice, which were exposed to 0, 10, or 500 mg/kg of DBP or DEHP for 14 weeks or 28 weeks (DBP only). DBP exposure reduced the expression of key steroidogenic genes, indicating that Leydig cell function was compromised. Exposure to 500 mg/kg impaired tubule formation and germ cell differentiation and reduced numbers of spermatogonia. Exposure to 10 mg/kg did not affect development, but reduced Sertoli cell number and resulted in increased expression of inhibin B. Exposure to DEHP for 14 week also affected steroidogenic genes expression. Therefore, long-term exposure to phthalate esters affected development and function of the primate testis in a time and dosage dependent manner.

  20. Incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Wei; Zhang, Wen; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Identifying how developmental temperature affects the immune system is critical for understanding how ectothermic animals defend against pathogens and their fitness in the changing world. However, reptiles have received little attention regarding this issue. We incubated eggs at three ecologically relevant temperatures to determine how incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. When exposed to bacterial infections, hatchlings from 24 °C had lower cumulative mortalities (55%, therefore, higher immunocompetence) than those from 28 °C (85%) or 32 °C (100%). Consistent with higher immunocompetence, hatchlings from low incubation temperature had higher IgM, IgD, and CD3γ expressions than their counterparts from the other two higher incubation temperatures. Conversely, the activity of immunity-related enzymes did not match the among-temperature difference in immune function. Specifically, enzyme activity was higher at intermediate temperatures (alkaline phosphatase) or was not affected by incubation temperature (acid phosphatase, lysozyme). Our study is the first to provide unequivocal evidence (at the molecular and organismal level) about the significant effect of incubation temperature on offspring immunity in reptiles. Our results also indicate that the reduced immunity induced by high developmental temperatures might increase the vulnerability of reptiles to the outbreak of diseases under global warming scenarios. PMID:26028216

  1. Phthalate esters affect maturation and function of primate testis tissue ectopically grafted in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Sosa, Jose R; Bondareva, Alla; Tang, Lin; Avelar, Gleide F.; Coyle, Krysta M.; Modelski, Mark; Alpaugh, Whitney; Conley, Alan; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; França, Luiz R; Meyers, Stuart; Dobrinski, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Di-n-Butyl (DBP) and Di-(2-EthylHexyl) (DEHP) phthalates can leach from daily-use products resulting in environmental exposure. In male rodents, phthalate exposure results in reproductive effects. To evaluate effects on the immature primate testis, testis fragments from 6-month-old rhesus macaques were grafted subcutaneously to immune-deficient mice, which were exposed to 0, 10, or 500 mg/kg of DBP or DEHP for 14 weeks or 28 weeks (DBP only). DBP exposure reduced the expression of key steroidogenic genes, indicating that Leydig cell function was compromised. Exposure to 500 mg/kg impaired tubule formation and germ cell differentiation and reduced numbers of spermatogonia. Exposure to 10 mg/kg did not affect development, but reduced Sertoli cell number and resulted in increased expression of inhibin B. Exposure to DEHP for 14 week also affected steroidogenic genes expression. Therefore, long-term exposure to phthalate esters affected development and function of the primate testis in a time and dosage dependent manner. PMID:25450860

  2. Incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Dang, Wei; Zhang, Wen; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-06-01

    Identifying how developmental temperature affects the immune system is critical for understanding how ectothermic animals defend against pathogens and their fitness in the changing world. However, reptiles have received little attention regarding this issue. We incubated eggs at three ecologically relevant temperatures to determine how incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. When exposed to bacterial infections, hatchlings from 24 °C had lower cumulative mortalities (55%, therefore, higher immunocompetence) than those from 28 °C (85%) or 32 °C (100%). Consistent with higher immunocompetence, hatchlings from low incubation temperature had higher IgM, IgD, and CD3γ expressions than their counterparts from the other two higher incubation temperatures. Conversely, the activity of immunity-related enzymes did not match the among-temperature difference in immune function. Specifically, enzyme activity was higher at intermediate temperatures (alkaline phosphatase) or was not affected by incubation temperature (acid phosphatase, lysozyme). Our study is the first to provide unequivocal evidence (at the molecular and organismal level) about the significant effect of incubation temperature on offspring immunity in reptiles. Our results also indicate that the reduced immunity induced by high developmental temperatures might increase the vulnerability of reptiles to the outbreak of diseases under global warming scenarios.

  3. Physical, metabolic and developmental functions of the seed coat

    PubMed Central

    Radchuk, Volodymyr; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

    2014-01-01

    The conventional understanding of the role of the seed coat is that it provides a protective layer for the developing zygote. Recent data show that the picture is more nuanced. The seed coat certainly represents a first line of defense against adverse external factors, but it also acts as channel for transmitting environmental cues to the interior of the seed. The latter function primes the seed to adjust its metabolism in response to changes in its external environment. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a comprehensive view of the structure and functionality of the seed coat, and to expose its hidden interaction with both the endosperm and embryo. Any breeding and/or biotechnology intervention seeking to increase seed size or modify seed features will have to consider the implications on this tripartite interaction. PMID:25346737

  4. Modulation of α power and functional connectivity during facial affect recognition.

    PubMed

    Popov, Tzvetan; Miller, Gregory A; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    Research has linked oscillatory activity in the α frequency range, particularly in sensorimotor cortex, to processing of social actions. Results further suggest involvement of sensorimotor α in the processing of facial expressions, including affect. The sensorimotor face area may be critical for perception of emotional face expression, but the role it plays is unclear. The present study sought to clarify how oscillatory brain activity contributes to or reflects processing of facial affect during changes in facial expression. Neuromagnetic oscillatory brain activity was monitored while 30 volunteers viewed videos of human faces that changed their expression from neutral to fearful, neutral, or happy expressions. Induced changes in α power during the different morphs, source analysis, and graph-theoretic metrics served to identify the role of α power modulation and cross-regional coupling by means of phase synchrony during facial affect recognition. Changes from neutral to emotional faces were associated with a 10-15 Hz power increase localized in bilateral sensorimotor areas, together with occipital power decrease, preceding reported emotional expression recognition. Graph-theoretic analysis revealed that, in the course of a trial, the balance between sensorimotor power increase and decrease was associated with decreased and increased transregional connectedness as measured by node degree. Results suggest that modulations in α power facilitate early registration, with sensorimotor cortex including the sensorimotor face area largely functionally decoupled and thereby protected from additional, disruptive input and that subsequent α power decrease together with increased connectedness of sensorimotor areas facilitates successful facial affect recognition.

  5. Functional connectivity of pain-mediated affect regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Niedtfeld, Inga; Kirsch, Peter; Schulze, Lars; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Affective instability and self-injurious behavior are important features of Borderline Personality Disorder. Whereas affective instability may be caused by a pattern of limbic hyperreactivity paired with dysfunctional prefrontal regulation mechanisms, painful stimulation was found to reduce affective arousal at the neural level, possibly underlying the soothing effect of pain in BPD.We used psychophysiological interactions to analyze functional connectivity of (para-) limbic brain structures (i.e. amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex) in Borderline Personality Disorder in response to painful stimulation. Therefore, we re-analyzed a dataset from 20 patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and 23 healthy controls who took part in an fMRI-task inducing negative (versus neutral) affect and subsequently applying heat pain (versus warmth perception).Results suggest an enhanced negative coupling between limbic as well as paralimbic regions and prefrontal regions, specifically with the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, when patients experienced pain in addition to emotional arousing pictures. When neutral pictures were combined with painful heat sensation, we found positive connectivity in Borderline Personality Disorder between (para-)limbic brain areas and parts of the basal ganglia (lentiform nucleus, putamen), as well areas involved in self-referential processing (precuneus and posterior cingulate).We found further evidence for alterations in the emotion regulation process in Borderline Personality Disorder, in the way that pain improves the inhibition of limbic activity by prefrontal areas. This study provides new insights in pain processing in BPD, including enhanced coupling of limbic structures and basal ganglia. PMID:22428013

  6. Density functional theory across chemistry, physics and biology.

    PubMed

    van Mourik, Tanja; Bühl, Michael; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2014-03-13

    The past decades have seen density functional theory (DFT) evolve from a rising star in computational quantum chemistry to one of its major players. This Theme Issue, which comes half a century after the publication of the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems that laid the foundations of modern DFT, reviews progress and challenges in present-day DFT research. Rather than trying to be comprehensive, this Theme Issue attempts to give a flavour of selected aspects of DFT.

  7. Physical activity interventions and children's mental function: An introduction and overview

    PubMed Central

    Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Lambourne, Kate; Okumura, Michelle S.

    2011-01-01

    Background This review provides a historical overview of physical activity interventions designed by American educators and an evaluation of research that has assessed the effects of exercise on children's mental function. Method Historical descriptions of the emergence of American physical education doctrine throughout the 20th century were evaluated. Prior reviews of studies that assessed the effects of single acute bouts of exercise and the effects of chronic exercise training on children's mental function were examined and the results of recent studies were summarized. Results Physical activity interventions designed for American children have reflected two competing views: activities should promote physical fitness and activities should promote social, emotional, and intellectual development. Research results indicate that exercise fosters the emergence of children's mental function; particularly executive functioning. The route by which physical activity impacts mental functioning is complex and is likely moderated by several variables, including physical fitness level, health status, and numerous psycho-social factors. Conclusion Physical activity interventions for children should be designed to meet multiple objectives; e.g., optimize physical fitness, promote health-related behaviors that offset obesity, and facilitate mental development. PMID:21420981

  8. Executive Functions in Learning Processes: Do They Benefit from Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barenberg, Jonathan; Berse, Timo; Dutke, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    As executive functions play an essential role in learning processes, approaches capable of enhancing executive functioning are of particular interest to educational psychology. Recently, the hypothesis has been advanced that executive functioning may benefit from changes in neurobiological processes induced by physical activity. The present…

  9. Discretionary time among older adults: how do physical activity promotion interventions affect sedentary and active behaviors?

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca E; King, Abby C

    2003-01-01

    Investigation goals were to document discretionary time activities among older adults, determine whether time spent in discretionary activities varied by gender, and investigate whether participation in a prescribed physical activity (P) intervention increased the time that older adults spend in discretionary time physical activities that were not specifically prescribed by interventions. Longitudinal data were drawn from 2 published studies of older adults. Study 1 compared 2 PA interventions in healthy older men and women (N = 103, M =70.2 years), and Study 2 compared a PA intervention with a nutrition intervention in healthy older women (N =93, M =63.1 years). Participants in both studies completed similar assessments of their discretionary time activities using the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors questionnaire. Across both studies, at baseline, over 95% of participants reported talking on the telephone and reading as frequent sedentary discretionary time activities; over 80% reported visiting with friends and watching television or listening to the radio. Women engaged in significantly greater hours of social activities and household maintenance activities than did men (p <.05). From baseline to 12-month posttest, social, recreational, and household activities remained stable by gender and across time after participating in a PA intervention. Despite previously documented 2- to 3-hr increases in physical activities occurring in response to the study interventions, increases did not generalize for most participants to activities not prescribed by the intervention. Older adults are participating in numerous sedentary social and recreational activities that appear to remain stable across time and in the face of PA intervention prescriptions. PMID:12704013

  10. Violence Affects Physical and Mental Health Differently: The General Population Based Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Friborg, Oddgeir; Emaus, Nina; Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Bilden, Unni; Olsen, Jan Abel; Pettersen, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability) following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the “Tromsø Study” (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years). Self-reported data on psychological (threats) and physical violence (beaten/kicked), mental health (anxiety/depression), musculoskeletal pain (MSP), and granting of disability pension (DP) were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group), whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence. PMID:26317970

  11. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    PubMed Central

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Methods Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5–18 yr. enrolled in 58 dance classes at 21 dance studios in Southern California. MVPA and SB were assessed with accelerometry, with data aggregated to 15-sec epochs. Percent and minutes of MVPA and SB during dance class segments and percent of class time and minutes spent in each segment were calculated using Freedson age-specific cut points. Differences in MVPA (>3 METS) and SB (<100 counts/min) were examined using mixed effects linear regression. Results The length of each class segment was fairly consistent across dance types, with the exception that in ballet, more time was spent in technique as compared to private jazz/hip-hop classes, and Latin-flamenco and less time was spent in routine/practice as compared to Latin-salsa/ballet folklorico. Segment type accounted for 17% of the variance in the proportion of the segment spent in MVPA. The proportion of the segment in MVPA was higher for routine/practice (44.2%) than technique (34.7%). The proportion of the segment in SB was lowest for routine/practice (22.8%). Conclusion The structure of dance lessons can impact youth’s physical activity. Working with instructors to increase time in routine/practice during dance classes could contribute to physical activity promotion in youth. PMID:25775088

  12. Acute stress affects the global DNA methylation profile in rat brain: modulation by physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Gelson M; Toffoli, Leandro V; Manfredo, Marcelo H; Francis-Oliveira, José; Silva, Andrey S; Raquel, Hiviny A; Martins-Pinge, Marli C; Moreira, Estefânia G; Fernandes, Karen B; Pelosi, Gislaine G; Gomes, Marcus V

    2015-02-15

    The vulnerability of epigenetic marks of brain cells to environmental stimuli and its implication for health have been recently debated. Thus, we used the rat model of acute restraint stress (ARS) to evaluate the impact of stress on the global DNA methylation and on the expression of the Dnmt1 and Bdnf genes of hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Furthermore, we verified the potential of physical exercise to modulate epigenetic responses evoked by ARS. Sedentary male Wistar rats were submitted to ARS at the 75th postnatal day (PND), whereas animals from a physically active group were previously submitted to swimming sessions (35-74th PND) and to ARS at the 75th PND. Global DNA methylation profile was quantified using an ELISA-based method and the quantitative expression of the Dnmt1 and Bdnf genes was evaluated by real-time PCR. ARS induced a decrease in global DNA methylation in hippocampus, cortex and PAG of sedentary animals and an increased expression of Bdnf in PAG. No change in DNA methylation was associated with ARS in the exercised animals, although it was associated with abnormal expression of Dnmt1 and Bdnf in cortex, hypothalamus and PAG. Our data reveal that ARS evokes adaptive changes in global DNA methylation of rat brain that are independent of the expression of the Dnmt1 gene but might be linked to abnormal expression of the Bdnf gene in the PAG. Furthermore, our evidence indicates that physical exercise has the potential to modulate changes in DNA methylation and gene expression consequent to ARS.

  13. The benefits and barriers to physical activity and lifestyle interventions for osteoarthritis affecting the adult knee

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis prevalence is increasing, placing greater demands on healthcare and future socioeconomic costing models. Exercise and non-pharmacological methods should be employed to manage this common and disabling disease. Expectations at all stages of disease are increasing with a desire to remain active and independent. Three key areas have been reviewed; the evidence for physical activity, lifestyle changes and motivational techniques concerning knee osteoarthritis and the barriers to instituting such changes. Promotion of activity in primary care is discussed and evidence for compliance has been reviewed. This article reviews a subject that is integral to all professionals involved with osteoarthritis care. PMID:22462601

  14. Heart rate, body temperature and physical activity are variously affected during insulin treatment in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Howarth, F C; Jacobson, M; Shafiullah, M; Ljubisavljevic, M; Adeghate, E

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with a variety of cardiovascular complications including impaired cardiac muscle function. The effects of insulin treatment on heart rate, body temperature and physical activity in the alloxan (ALX)-induced diabetic rat were investigated using in vivo biotelemetry techniques. The electrocardiogram, physical activity and body temperature were recorded in vivo with a biotelemetry system for 10 days before ALX treatment, for 20 days following administration of ALX (120 mg/kg) and thereafter, for 15 days whilst rats received daily insulin. Heart rate declined rapidly after administration of ALX. Pre-ALX heart rate was 321+/-9 beats per minute, falling to 285+/-12 beats per minute 15-20 days after ALX and recovering to 331+/-10 beats per minute 5-10 days after commencement of insulin. Heart rate variability declined and PQ, QRS and QT intervals were prolonged after administration of ALX. Physical activity and body temperature declined after administration of ALX. Pre-ALX body temperature was 37.6+/-0.1 °C, falling to 37.3+/-0.1 °C 15-20 days after ALX and recovering to 37.8+/-0.1 °C 5-10 days after commencement insulin. ALX-induced diabetes is associated with disturbances in heart rhythm, physical activity and body temperature that are variously affected during insulin treatment.

  15. Molecular Basis and Therapeutic Strategies to Rescue Factor IX Variants That Affect Splicing and Protein Function.

    PubMed

    Tajnik, Mojca; Rogalska, Malgorzata Ewa; Bussani, Erica; Barbon, Elena; Balestra, Dario; Pinotti, Mirko; Pagani, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Mutations that result in amino acid changes can affect both pre-mRNA splicing and protein function. Understanding the combined effect is essential for correct diagnosis and for establishing the most appropriate therapeutic strategy at the molecular level. We have identified a series of disease-causing splicing mutations in coagulation factor IX (FIX) exon 5 that are completely recovered by a modified U1snRNP particle, through an SRSF2-dependent enhancement mechanism. We discovered that synonymous mutations and missense substitutions associated to a partial FIX secretion defect represent targets for this therapy as the resulting spliced-corrected proteins maintains normal FIX coagulant specific activity. Thus, splicing and protein alterations contribute to define at the molecular level the disease-causing effect of a number of exonic mutations in coagulation FIX exon 5. In addition, our results have a significant impact in the development of splicing-switching therapies in particular for mutations that affect both splicing and protein function where increasing the amount of a correctly spliced protein can circumvent the basic functional defects. PMID:27227676

  16. Laterality affects spontaneous recovery of contralateral hand motor function following motor cortex injury in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Darling, Warren G; Helle, Nicole; Pizzimenti, Marc A; Rotella, Diane L; Hynes, Stephanie M; Ge, Jizhi; Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S; Morecraft, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether brain laterality influences spontaneous recovery of hand motor function after controlled brain injuries to arm areas of M1 and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) of the hemisphere contralateral to the preferred hand in rhesus monkeys. We hypothesized that monkeys with stronger hand preference would exhibit poorer recovery of skilled hand use after such brain injury. Degree of handedness was assessed using a standard dexterity board task in which subjects could use either hand to retrieve small food pellets. Fine hand/digit motor function was assessed using a modified dexterity board before and after the M1 and LPMC lesions in ten monkeys. We found a strong negative relationship between the degree of handedness and the recovery of manipulation skill, demonstrating that higher hand preference was associated with poorer recovery of hand fine motor function. We also observed that monkeys with larger lesions within M1 and LPMC had greater initial impairment of manipulation and poorer recovery of reaching skill. We conclude that monkeys with a stronger hand preference are likely to show poorer recovery of contralesional hand fine motor skill after isolated brain lesions affecting the lateral frontal motor areas. These data may be extended to suggest that humans who exhibit weak hand dominance, and perhaps individuals who use both hands for fine motor tasks, may have a more favorable potential for recovery after a unilateral stroke or brain injury affecting the lateral cortical motor areas than individuals with a high degree of hand dominance.

  17. Microbial Functional Potential and Community Composition in Permafrost-Affected Soils of the NW Canadian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Frank-Fahle, Béatrice A.; Yergeau, Étienne; Greer, Charles W.; Lantuit, Hugues; Wagner, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost-affected soils are among the most obvious ecosystems in which current microbial controls on organic matter decomposition are changing as a result of global warming. Warmer conditions in polygonal tundra will lead to a deepening of the seasonal active layer, provoking changes in microbial processes and possibly resulting in exacerbated carbon degradation under increasing anoxic conditions. To identify current microbial assemblages in carbon rich, water saturated permafrost environments, four polygonal tundra sites were investigated on Herschel Island and the Yukon Coast, Western Canadian Arctic. Ion Torrent sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA amplicons revealed the presence of all major microbial soil groups and indicated a local, vertical heterogeneity of the polygonal tundra soil community with increasing depth. Microbial diversity was found to be highest in the surface layers, decreasing towards the permafrost table. Quantitative PCR analysis of functional genes involved in carbon and nitrogen-cycling revealed a high functional potential in the surface layers, decreasing with increasing active layer depth. We observed that soil properties driving microbial diversity and functional potential varied in each study site. These results highlight the small-scale heterogeneity of geomorphologically comparable sites, greatly restricting generalizations about the fate of permafrost-affected environments in a warming Arctic. PMID:24416279

  18. Microbial functional potential and community composition in permafrost-affected soils of the NW Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Frank-Fahle, Béatrice A; Yergeau, Etienne; Greer, Charles W; Lantuit, Hugues; Wagner, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost-affected soils are among the most obvious ecosystems in which current microbial controls on organic matter decomposition are changing as a result of global warming. Warmer conditions in polygonal tundra will lead to a deepening of the seasonal active layer, provoking changes in microbial processes and possibly resulting in exacerbated carbon degradation under increasing anoxic conditions. To identify current microbial assemblages in carbon rich, water saturated permafrost environments, four polygonal tundra sites were investigated on Herschel Island and the Yukon Coast, Western Canadian Arctic. Ion Torrent sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA amplicons revealed the presence of all major microbial soil groups and indicated a local, vertical heterogeneity of the polygonal tundra soil community with increasing depth. Microbial diversity was found to be highest in the surface layers, decreasing towards the permafrost table. Quantitative PCR analysis of functional genes involved in carbon and nitrogen-cycling revealed a high functional potential in the surface layers, decreasing with increasing active layer depth. We observed that soil properties driving microbial diversity and functional potential varied in each study site. These results highlight the small-scale heterogeneity of geomorphologically comparable sites, greatly restricting generalizations about the fate of permafrost-affected environments in a warming Arctic.

  19. Molecular Basis and Therapeutic Strategies to Rescue Factor IX Variants That Affect Splicing and Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    Bussani, Erica; Barbon, Elena; Pinotti, Mirko; Pagani, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Mutations that result in amino acid changes can affect both pre-mRNA splicing and protein function. Understanding the combined effect is essential for correct diagnosis and for establishing the most appropriate therapeutic strategy at the molecular level. We have identified a series of disease-causing splicing mutations in coagulation factor IX (FIX) exon 5 that are completely recovered by a modified U1snRNP particle, through an SRSF2-dependent enhancement mechanism. We discovered that synonymous mutations and missense substitutions associated to a partial FIX secretion defect represent targets for this therapy as the resulting spliced-corrected proteins maintains normal FIX coagulant specific activity. Thus, splicing and protein alterations contribute to define at the molecular level the disease-causing effect of a number of exonic mutations in coagulation FIX exon 5. In addition, our results have a significant impact in the development of splicing-switching therapies in particular for mutations that affect both splicing and protein function where increasing the amount of a correctly spliced protein can circumvent the basic functional defects. PMID:27227676

  20. Effects of light therapy on neuropsychological function and mood in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Michalon, M; Eskes, G A; Mate-Kole, C C

    1997-01-01

    To date, little attention has been paid to changes in neuropsychological function in seasonal affective disorders (SAD). In this study, we investigated the performance of 30 patients with SAD on a wide range of cognitive variables before and after 2 weeks of light treatment with either white or placebo red light, as well as later in the summertime. Performance of subjects with SAD on neuropsychological tests was compared with a group of 29 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects. The most consistent deficits associated with SAD were on tests of cognitive failures, visual memory, and visual-construction skills. In contrast to specific bright light effects on psychiatric measures, reports of cognitive failures did not change with either light treatment. Visual memory and constructional deficits responded nonspecifically to treatment with either white or the presumed placebo red light. Surprisingly, visual memory deficits were seen again in the summer, at a time when mood, cognitive failures, and other cognitive functions appeared at normal levels. These data suggest that cognitive functioning is affected by SAD. In addition, light treatment may have differential effects on mood and cognition. PMID:9002389

  1. Dietary protein during gestation affects circulating indicators of placental function and fetal development in heifers.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T M; Micke, G C; Magalhaes, R S; Martin, G B; Wallace, C R; Green, J A; Perry, V E A

    2009-04-01

    The influences of nutritional protein during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy on placental hormones and fetal growth were determined in composite beef heifers. At artificial insemination, heifers were stratified by weight within each composite genotype into 4 treatment groups: High High (HH=1.4kg crude protein (CP)/day for first and second trimesters of gestation; n=16), High Low (HL=1.4kg CP/day for first trimester and 0.4kg CP/day for second trimester; n=19), Low High (LH=0.4kg CP/day for first trimester and 1.4kg CP/day for second trimester; n=17) or Low Low (LL=0.4kg CP/day for first and second trimesters; n=19). Maternal plasma bovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein (bPAG) and progesterone (P4) were determined at gestation day (gd) 28, 82, 179 and 271 (mean gestation length 286 days) in addition to P4 at term. Estrone sulphate (ES) and bovine placental lactogen (bPL) concentrations were measured at gd 124, 179, 236 and 271 and at term in addition to ES at gd 82. Low dietary protein increased placental function as indicated by increased bPAG (P<0.001) and ES (P=0.02) concentrations in first trimester and increased bPL concentrations (P=0.01) in the second trimester of gestation. In the third trimester, when dietary treatment had ceased, placental function was no longer associated with previous dietary treatments. Dam genotype affected placental function as measured by bPL (P<0.001) and ES concentrations (P=0.02). Calf gender, heifer age and maternal insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, -II and leptin did not affect hormonal indicators or circulating markers of placental function. Enhanced placental function during the third trimester, as measured by ES, was associated with increased calf birth weight (P=0.003).

  2. Conceptual foundation for measures of physical function and behavioral health function for Social Security work disability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Haley, Stephen M; Jette, Alan M; Eisen, Susan V; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    Physical and mental impairments represent the 2 largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person's underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this article is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, 2 content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies 5 major domains: (1) behavior control, (2) basic interactions, (3) temperament and personality, (4) adaptability, and (5) workplace behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes 3 domains: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole-body mobility, and (3) carrying, moving, and handling objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development and measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work.

  3. Conceptual foundation for measures of physical function and behavioral health function for Social Security work disability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Haley, Stephen M; Jette, Alan M; Eisen, Susan V; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    Physical and mental impairments represent the 2 largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person's underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this article is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, 2 content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies 5 major domains: (1) behavior control, (2) basic interactions, (3) temperament and personality, (4) adaptability, and (5) workplace behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes 3 domains: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole-body mobility, and (3) carrying, moving, and handling objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development and measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. PMID:23548543

  4. Biochar affects soil organic matter cycling and microbial functions but does not alter microbial community structure in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Wang, Jingyuan; Dippold, Michaela; Gao, Yang; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-06-15

    The application of biochar (BC) in conjunction with mineral fertilizers is one of the most promising management practices recommended to improve soil quality. However, the interactive mechanisms of BC and mineral fertilizer addition affecting microbial communities and functions associated with soil organic matter (SOM) cycling are poorly understood. We investigated the SOM in physical and chemical fractions, microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and functions (by analyzing enzymes involved in C and N cycling and Biolog) in a 6-year field experiment with BC and NPK amendment. BC application increased total soil C and particulate organic C for 47.4-50.4% and 63.7-74.6%, respectively. The effects of BC on the microbial community and C-cycling enzymes were dependent on fertilization. Addition of BC alone did not change the microbial community compared with the control, but altered the microbial community structure in conjunction with NPK fertilization. SOM fractions accounted for 55% of the variance in the PLFA-related microbial community structure. The particulate organic N explained the largest variation in the microbial community structure. Microbial metabolic activity strongly increased after BC addition, particularly the utilization of amino acids and amines due to an increase in the activity of proteolytic (l-leucine aminopeptidase) enzymes. These results indicate that microorganisms start to mine N from the SOM to compensate for high C:N ratios after BC application, which consequently accelerate cycling of stable N. Concluding, BC in combination with NPK fertilizer application strongly affected microbial community composition and functions, which consequently influenced SOM cycling. PMID:26974565

  5. Biochar affects soil organic matter cycling and microbial functions but does not alter microbial community structure in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Wang, Jingyuan; Dippold, Michaela; Gao, Yang; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-06-15

    The application of biochar (BC) in conjunction with mineral fertilizers is one of the most promising management practices recommended to improve soil quality. However, the interactive mechanisms of BC and mineral fertilizer addition affecting microbial communities and functions associated with soil organic matter (SOM) cycling are poorly understood. We investigated the SOM in physical and chemical fractions, microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and functions (by analyzing enzymes involved in C and N cycling and Biolog) in a 6-year field experiment with BC and NPK amendment. BC application increased total soil C and particulate organic C for 47.4-50.4% and 63.7-74.6%, respectively. The effects of BC on the microbial community and C-cycling enzymes were dependent on fertilization. Addition of BC alone did not change the microbial community compared with the control, but altered the microbial community structure in conjunction with NPK fertilization. SOM fractions accounted for 55% of the variance in the PLFA-related microbial community structure. The particulate organic N explained the largest variation in the microbial community structure. Microbial metabolic activity strongly increased after BC addition, particularly the utilization of amino acids and amines due to an increase in the activity of proteolytic (l-leucine aminopeptidase) enzymes. These results indicate that microorganisms start to mine N from the SOM to compensate for high C:N ratios after BC application, which consequently accelerate cycling of stable N. Concluding, BC in combination with NPK fertilizer application strongly affected microbial community composition and functions, which consequently influenced SOM cycling.

  6. How do interactions with the physical environment affect the distribution of Antarctic krill?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Sally; Murphy, Eugene; Tarling, Geraint; Renner, Angelika

    2010-05-01

    Antarctic krill Euphausia superba are a relatively large (60+ mm), long-lived (~6 years) crustacean with a patchy distribution in the Southern Ocean. In addition to being a key food source for many of the higher marine predators of the Southern Ocean, Antarctic krill is also the target of a commercial fishery. This increases the importance of understanding what drives the observed heterogeneous distribution of krill. In this study we use a coupled physical-biological model to examine the role of physical forcing in generating the observed distribution. By incorporating aspects of the life cycle of krill into a particle tracking model (using output from the OCCAM ocean model), we can identify key stages at which interaction with the environment determines the dispersal or retention of the local krill populations. For example, sea ice is an important habitat for young krill and our results suggest that in places the association of the krill with the sea ice can create opposing population connections to those due solely to ocean circulation. A long time series of output from the ORCA ocean model allows us to investigate the variability in some of these population connections and suggests that trends in the environmental forcing, as observed for example with the Southern Annular Mode, are likely to impact the Southern Ocean ecosystem.

  7. Weed management practices affect the diversity and relative abundance of physic nut mites.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Althiéris de Sousa; Sarmento, Renato A; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; de Souza, Danival José; Teodoro, Adenir V; Silva, Daniella G

    2015-03-01

    Crop management practices determine weed community, which in turn may influence patterns of diversity and abundance of associated arthropods. This study aimed to evaluate whether local weed management practices influence the diversity and relative abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites, as well as mites with undefined feeding habits--of the families Oribatidae and Acaridae--in a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation subjected to (1) within-row herbicide spraying and between-row mowing; (2) within-row herbicide spraying and no between-row mowing; (3) within-row weeding and between-row mowing; (4) within-row weeding and no between-row mowing; and (5) unmanaged (control). The herbicide used was glyphosate. Herbicide treatments resulted in higher diversity and relative abundance of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit on physic nut shrubs. This was probably due to the toxic effects of the herbicide on mites or to removal of weeds. Within-row herbicide spraying combined with between-row mowing was the treatment that most contributed to this effect. Our results show that within-row weeds harbor important species of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit. However, the dynamics of such mites in the system can be changed according to the weed management practice applied. Among the predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae Amblydromalus sp. was the most abundant, whereas Brevipalpus phoenicis was the most frequent phytophagous mite and an unidentified oribatid species was the most frequent mite with undefined feeding habit.

  8. How physical alteration of technic materials affects mobility and phytoavailabilty of metals in urban soils?

    PubMed

    El Khalil, Hicham; Schwartz, Christophe; El Hamiani, Ouafae; Sirguey, Catherine; Kubiniok, Jochen; Boularbah, Ali

    2016-06-01

    One fundamental characteristic distinguishing urban soils from natural soils is the presence of technic materials or artefacts underlining the influence of human activity. These technic materials have different nature (organic or inorganic) and origins. They contribute to the enrichment of the soil solution by metallic trace elements. The present study aims to determine the effect of physical alteration of the technic coarse fraction on the bioavailability of metallic trace elements in urban Technosols. In general, results show that physical alteration increases the metallic trace elements water extractible concentrations of technic materials. The ability of lettuce to accumulate metallic trace elements, even at low concentrations, underlines the capacity of technic materials to contaminate the anthropised soil solution by bioavailable metals. The highest metal levels, accumulated by the various organs of the lettuce (leaves and roots), were measured in plants grown in presence of metallic particles mixtures. This indicates that the majority of metallic trace elements released by this technic constituent is bioavailable and explains the low plant biomass obtained. The abundant part of metallic trace elements released by the other technic constituents (building materials, bones, wood, plastic and fabric-paper) remains less bioavailable. Under anthropised soil conditions, technic materials have a significant effect on the metallic trace elements behavior. They impact the flow of these metallic elements in Technosols, which can increase their bioavailability and, therefore, the contamination of the food chain. PMID:26999750

  9. The Space Physics of Life: Searching for Biosignatures on Habitable Icy Worlds Affected by Space Weathering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2006-01-01

    Accessible surfaces of the most likely astrobiological habitats (Mars, Europa, Titan) in the solar system beyond Earth are exposed to various chemical and hydrologic weathering processes directly or indirectly induced by interaction with the overlying space environment. These processes can be both beneficial, through provision of chemical compounds and energy, and destructive, through chemical dissociation or burial, to detectable presence of biosignatures. Orbital, suborbital, and surface platforms carrying astrobiological instrumentation must survive, and preferably exploit, space environment interactions to reach these habitats and search for evidence of life or its precursors. Experience from Mars suggests that any detection of biosignatures must be accompanied by characterization of the local chemical environment and energy sources including irradiation by solar ultraviolet photons and energetic particles from the space environment. Orbital and suborbital surveys of surface chemistry and astrobiological potential in the context of the space environment should precede targeted in-situ measurements to maximize probability of biosignature detection through site selection. The Space Physics of Life (SPOL) investigation has recently been proposed to the NASA Astrobiology Institute and is briefly described in this presentation. SPOL is the astrobiologically relevant study of the interactions and relationships of potentially? or previously inhabited, bodies of the solar system with the surrounding environments. This requires an interdisciplinary effort in space physics, planetary science, and radiation biology. The proposed investigation addresses the search for habitable environments, chemical resources to support life, and techniques for detection of organic and inorganic signs of life in the context of the space environment.

  10. Physical and topographic factors affecting suspended particulate matter composition in a shallow tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Yu; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Yamamuro, Masumi; Koike, Isao

    2009-08-01

    To better understand topography-dependent characteristics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a tropical shallow estuary during dry season, the physical factors causing an increase in SPM and the sources of SPM were investigated at the western coast of Thailand. Single and multiple regression analyses using physical parameters as independent variables indicated that periodic tidal current-driven resuspension, episodic wind-driven resuspension, and river-borne inputs were the most important factors controlling SPM increases in areas surrounded by sand bars, areas directly facing the ocean, and areas close to the river mouth, respectively. The assessment of the origin of increased SPM over the background levels estimated from the chemical signatures (delta(13)C and C/N ratio) at all investigated locations and for each event responsible for an increase in SPM confirmed the results of the multiple regression analyses. The results suggested that specific characteristics of SPM at each location were highly contributed by sedimentary materials and could be rather consistent through the season under similar weather conditions. PMID:19439351

  11. Improved cognitive, affective and anxiety measures in patients with chronic systemic disorders following structured physical activity.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Robson Bonoto; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; de Sá Junior, Antonio Reis; de Carvalho, Cristiane Junqueira; da Silva Moura, Tiago Augusto; Lade, Carlos Gabriel; Rizvanov, Albert A; Kiyasov, Andrey P; Mukhamedyarov, Marat A; Zefirov, Andrey L; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Mental illnesses are frequent co-morbid conditions in chronic systemic diseases. High incidences of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment complicate cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle changes including regular exercise have been advocated to reduce blood pressure and improve glycaemic control. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of physical training on the most prevalent corollary psychiatric problems in patients with chronic organic ailments. This longitudinal study assessed the mental health of hypertensive (age: 57 ± 8 years) and/or diabetic (age: 53 ± 8 years) patients using mini-mental state examination, Beck's depression inventory, Beck's anxiety inventory and self-reporting questionnaire-20 before and after a 3-month supervised resistance and aerobic exercise programme comprising structured physical activity three times a week. Clinically relevant improvement was observed in the Beck's depression inventory and Beck's anxiety inventory scores following the 12-week training (61%, p = 0.001, and 53%, p = 0.02, respectively). Even though statistically not significant (p = 0.398), the cognitive performance of this relatively young patient population also benefited from the programme. These results demonstrate positive effects of active lifestyle on non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with chronic systemic diseases, recommending exercise as an alternative treatment option. PMID:26410835

  12. Adolescents’ Perception of the Psychosocial Factors affecting Sustained Engagement in Sports and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    GAVIN, JAMES; MCBREARTY, MADELEINE; MALO, KIT; ABRAVANEL, MICHAEL; MOUDRAKOVSKI, TATIANA

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adolescents’ perceptions of psychosocial influences – personal characteristics, environmental factors and behavioural undertakings – influencing their prolonged involvement in sports and physical activity (PA). A qualitative approach was adopted wherein 16 adolescents (8 boys, 8 girls; mean age 15.9 years), who had been physically active for at least the last 8 years, and sixteen adults identified as their ‘parents’ or ‘guardians’ participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using the HyperRESEARCH software. Data were analysed using thematic analysis procedures. Four main themes pertaining to psychosocial influences were identified: 1) personal characteristics; 2) school and community resources; 3) parental support; and 4) social interaction. Except for social interaction, for which participants did not identify challenges, themes are discussed according to their motivational aspects and the challenges they represent for adolescents’ PA involvement. The research has implications for health promotion endeavours directed toward parents of children and adolescents. Given the limitations of a qualitative study, readers are invited to apply the conclusions to their own context. PMID:27766129

  13. Physical activity and memory functions: are neurotrophins and cerebral gray matter volume the missing link?

    PubMed

    Flöel, A; Ruscheweyh, R; Krüger, K; Willemer, C; Winter, B; Völker, K; Lohmann, H; Zitzmann, M; Mooren, F; Breitenstein, C; Knecht, S

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiological studies reveal better cognitive function in physically active individuals. Possible mediators for this effect are neurotrophins, which are up-regulated through physical exercise and induce neuronal growth and synaptogenesis in the animal model. Here we cross-sectionally assessed 75 healthy older individuals for levels of physical activity, aerobic fitness, and memory encoding, as well as neurotrophin levels and cerebral gray matter volume. We found that physical activity, but not cardiovascular fitness, was associated with better memory encoding after controlling for age, sex, education, depression, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Higher levels of physical activity were associated with higher levels of the neurotrophin granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and increased cerebral gray matter volume in prefrontal and cingulate cortex as assessed by magnetic resonance voxel-based morphometry. While mediating factors will need to be further elucidated, these findings indicate that even low-level physical activity exerts beneficial effects on memory functions in older individuals.

  14. Lifestyle engagement affects cognitive status differences and trajectories on executive functions in older adults.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A

    2014-02-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  15. Cure Kinetics of Epoxy Nanocomposites Affected by MWCNTs Functionalization: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Bakhshandeh, Ehsan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Mäder, Edith; Scheffler, Christina; Heinrich, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The current paper provides an overview to emphasize the role of functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in manipulating cure kinetics of epoxy nanocomposites, which itself determines ultimate properties of the resulting compound. In this regard, the most commonly used functionalization schemes, that is, carboxylation and amidation, are thoroughly surveyed to highlight the role of functionalized nanotubes in controlling the rate of autocatalytic and vitrification kinetics. The current literature elucidates that the mechanism of curing in epoxy/MWCNTs nanocomposites remains almost unaffected by the functionalization of carbon nanotubes. On the other hand, early stage facilitation of autocatalytic reactions in the presence of MWCNTs bearing amine groups has been addressed by several researchers. When carboxylated nanotubes were used to modify MWCNTs, the rate of such reactions diminished as a consequence of heterogeneous dispersion within the epoxy matrix. At later stages of curing, however, the prolonged vitrification was seen to be dominant. Thus, the type of functional groups covalently located on the surface of MWCNTs directly affects the degree of polymer-nanotube interaction followed by enhancement of curing reaction. Our survey demonstrated that most widespread efforts ever made to represent multifarious surface-treated MWCNTs have not been directed towards preparation of epoxy nanocomposites, but they could result in property synergism. PMID:24348181

  16. Exercise VE and physical performance at altitude are not affected by menstrual cycle phase.

    PubMed

    Beidleman, B A; Rock, P B; Muza, S R; Fulco, C S; Forte, V A; Cymerman, A

    1999-05-01

    We hypothesized that progesterone-mediated ventilatory stimulation during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle would increase exercise minute ventilation (VE; l/min) at sea level (SL) and with acute altitude (AA) exposure but would only increase arterial O2 saturation (SaO2, %) with AA exposure. We further hypothesized that an increased exercise SaO2 with AA exposure would enhance O2 transport and improve both peak O2 uptake (VO2 peak; ml x kg-1 x min-1) and submaximal exercise time to exhaustion (Exh; min) in the midluteal phase. Eight female lowlanders [33 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD) yr, 58 +/- 6 kg] completed a VO2 peak and Exh test at 70% of their altitude-specific VO2 peak at SL and with AA exposure to 4,300 m in a hypobaric chamber (446 mmHg) in their early follicular and midluteal phases. Progesterone levels increased (P < 0.05) approximately 20-fold from the early follicular to midluteal phase at SL and AA. Peak VE (101 +/- 17) and submaximal VE (55 +/- 9) were not affected by cycle phase or altitude. Submaximal SaO2 did not differ between cycle phases at SL, but it was 3% higher during the midluteal phase with AA exposure. Neither VO2 peak nor Exh time was affected by cycle phase at SL or AA. We conclude that, despite significantly increased progesterone levels in the midluteal phase, exercise VE is not increased at SL or AA. Moreover, neither maximal nor submaximal exercise performance is affected by menstrual cycle phase at SL or AA.

  17. The Functional Effect of Teacher Positive and Neutral Affect on Task Performance of Students with Significant Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungho; Singer, George H. S.; Gibson, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The study uses an alternating treatment design to evaluate the functional effect of teacher's affect on students' task performance. Tradition in special education holds that teachers should engage students using positive and enthusiastic affect for task presentations and praise. To test this assumption, we compared two affective conditions. Three…

  18. Using function-focused care to increase physical activity among older adults.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Despite the known benefits of physical activity for older adults, adherence to regular physical activity recommendations is poor. Less than half of adults in this country meet physical activity recommendations with reasons for lack of adherence including such things as access, motivation, pain, fear, comorbidities, among others. To overcome these challenges, function-focused care was developed. Function-focused care is a philosophy of care that focuses on evaluating the older adult's underlying capability with regard to function and physical activity and helping him or her optimize and maintain physical function and ability and continually increase time spent in physical activity. Examples of function-focused care include such things as using verbal cues during bathing, so the older individual performs the tasks rather than the caregiver bathing the individual; walking a resident or patient to the bathroom rather than using a urinal, or taking a resident to an exercise class. There are now over 20 studies supporting the benefits of function-focused care approaches across all settings and different types of patient groups (i.e, those with mild versus moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment). The approaches for implementation of function-focused care have also been well supported and have moved beyond establishing effectiveness to considering dissemination and implementation of this approach into real world clinical settings. The process of dissemination and implementation has likewise been articulated and supported, and ongoing work needs to continue in this venue across all care settings. PMID:24894140

  19. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks.

  20. Using Interviews and Peer Pairs to Better Understand How School Environments Affect Young Children's Playground Physical Activity Levels: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Anne-Maree; Yeatman, Heather; Iverson, Don; Russell, Ken

    2012-01-01

    School break times provide a daily opportunity for children to be active; however, research indicates this time is underutilized. Reasons for low children's playground activity levels have primarily focused on physical barriers. This research aimed to contribute to physical environmental findings affecting children's playground physical activity…

  1. Six-Digit CPK and Mildly Affected Renal Function in McArdle Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mcinnes, Andrew D.; DeGroote, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    A previously healthy, white 12-year-old girl presented with diffuse body aches and poor perfusion. She developed severe respiratory failure and marked rhabdomyolysis and was mechanically ventilated. Although her CPK peaked at 500,000 IU/L, her renal function was mildly affected and her creatinine did not exceed the 0.8 mg/dL. The rhabdomyolysis was gradually resolved following aggressive fluid hydration. The patient did not require dialysis and made a complete recovery. Genetic studies revealed the diagnosis of McArdle disease. PMID:25371840

  2. Physics of the multi-functionality of lanthanum ferrite ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargav, K. K.; Ram, S.; Majumder, S. B.

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, we have illustrated the physics of the multifunctional characteristics of nano-crystalline LaFeO3 powder prepared using auto-combustion synthesis. The synthesized powders were phase pure and crystallized into centro-symmetric Pnma space group. The temperature dependence of dielectric constant of pure LaFeO3 exhibits dielectric maxima similar to that observed in ferroelectric ceramics with non-centrosymmetric point group. The dielectric relaxation of LaFeO3 correlates well with small polaron conduction. The occurrence of polarization hysteresis in LaFeO3 (with centro-symmetric Pnma space group) is thought to be spin current induced type. The canting of the Fe3+ spins induce weak ferromagnetism in nano-crystalline LaFeO3. Room temperature saturation magnetization of pure LaFeO3 is reported to be 3.0 emu/g. Due to the presence of both ferromagnetic as well as polarization ordering, LaFeO3 behaves like a single phase multiferroic ceramics. The magneto-electric coupling in this system has been demonstrated through the magneto-dielectric measurements which yield about 0.8% dielectric tuning (at 10 kHz) with the application of 2 T magnetic field. As a typical application of the synthesized nano-crystalline LaFeO3 powder, we have studied its butane sensing characteristics. The efficient butane sensing characteristics have been correlated to their catalytic activity towards oxidation of butane. Through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, we detect the surface adsorbed oxygen species on LaFeO3 surface. Surface adsorbed oxygen species play major role in their low temperature butane sensing. Finally, we have hypothesized that the desorbed H2O and O2 (originate from surface adsorbed hydroxyl and oxygen) initiate the catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane resulting in weakening of the electrostatics of the gas molecules.

  3. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy.

    PubMed

    Flodin, P; Martinsen, S; Mannerkorpi, K; Löfgren, M; Bileviciute-Ljungar, I; Kosek, E; Fransson, P

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown aberrant patterns of intrinsic brain activity in FM. Fourteen FM patients and eleven healthy controls successfully completed the physical exercise treatment. We investigated post- versus pre-treatment changes of brain connectivity, as well as changes in clinical symptoms in the patient group. FM patients reported improvements in symptom severity. Although several brain regions showed a treatment-related change in connectivity, only the connectivity between the right anterior insula and the left primary sensorimotor area was significantly more affected by the physical exercise among the fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that previously observed aberrant intrinsic brain connectivity patterns in FM are partly normalized by the physical exercise therapy. However, none of the observed normalizations in intrinsic brain connectivity were significantly correlated with symptom changes. Further studies conducted in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate the precise relationship between improvements in fibromyalgia symptoms and changes in intrinsic brain activity. PMID:26413476

  4. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy.

    PubMed

    Flodin, P; Martinsen, S; Mannerkorpi, K; Löfgren, M; Bileviciute-Ljungar, I; Kosek, E; Fransson, P

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown aberrant patterns of intrinsic brain activity in FM. Fourteen FM patients and eleven healthy controls successfully completed the physical exercise treatment. We investigated post- versus pre-treatment changes of brain connectivity, as well as changes in clinical symptoms in the patient group. FM patients reported improvements in symptom severity. Although several brain regions showed a treatment-related change in connectivity, only the connectivity between the right anterior insula and the left primary sensorimotor area was significantly more affected by the physical exercise among the fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that previously observed aberrant intrinsic brain connectivity patterns in FM are partly normalized by the physical exercise therapy. However, none of the observed normalizations in intrinsic brain connectivity were significantly correlated with symptom changes. Further studies conducted in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate the precise relationship between improvements in fibromyalgia symptoms and changes in intrinsic brain activity.

  5. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy

    PubMed Central

    Flodin, P.; Martinsen, S.; Mannerkorpi, K.; Löfgren, M.; Bileviciute-Ljungar, I.; Kosek, E.; Fransson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown aberrant patterns of intrinsic brain activity in FM. Fourteen FM patients and eleven healthy controls successfully completed the physical exercise treatment. We investigated post- versus pre-treatment changes of brain connectivity, as well as changes in clinical symptoms in the patient group. FM patients reported improvements in symptom severity. Although several brain regions showed a treatment-related change in connectivity, only the connectivity between the right anterior insula and the left primary sensorimotor area was significantly more affected by the physical exercise among the fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that previously observed aberrant intrinsic brain connectivity patterns in FM are partly normalized by the physical exercise therapy. However, none of the observed normalizations in intrinsic brain connectivity were significantly correlated with symptom changes. Further studies conducted in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate the precise relationship between improvements in fibromyalgia symptoms and changes in intrinsic brain activity. PMID:26413476

  6. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  7. Increases in physical activity may affect quality of life differently in men and women: The PACE project

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Duncan, Glen E.; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; McTiernan, Anne; Patrick, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL), but less is known about physical activity. We investigated how decreases in body mass index (BMI) and increases in activity affect obesity-specific QoL and potential gender differences in associations. Methods In a large worksite-randomized trial of a multilevel intervention on diet and physical activity behaviors, we conducted a cohort analysis at two years of follow-up. Self-reported activity and Obesity and Weight-Loss Quality Of Life (OWLQOL) were analyzed for individual-level associations using linear mixed models accounting for random worksite effects. Results Gender modified the BMI-OWLQOL relationship, so analyses were conducted for males and females separately. Adjusting for demographic confounders, baseline OWLQOL, and several worksite-level variables including intervention arm, a 1.9 unit decrease in BMI (the interquartile range) was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.2) in males and 3.6 (95% CI: 3.2, 4.0) in females. Similarly, a 23 unit increase in physical activity score was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 0.9 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.4) in males and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) in females. Physical activity associations were attenuated when adjusting for change in BMI, but remained significant for women (mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2). Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that increasing physical activity may improve obesity-specific QoL to a greater extent in women, particularly among overweight women, independent of BMI. Results may inform the design of interventions tailored to women targeting well-being through messages of increasing physical activity. PMID:23504523

  8. Ecosystem structure, function, and composition in rangelands are negatively affected by livestock grazing.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, David J; Poore, Alistair G B; Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Letnic, Mike; Soliveres, Santiago

    2016-06-01

    Reports of positive or neutral effects of grazing on plant species richness have prompted calls for livestock grazing to be used as a tool for managing land for conservation. Grazing effects, however, are likely to vary among different response variables, types, and intensity of grazing, and across abiotic conditions. We aimed to examine how grazing affects ecosystem structure, function, and composition. We compiled a database of 7615 records reporting an effect of grazing by sheep and cattle on 278 biotic and abiotic response variables for published studies across Australia. Using these data, we derived three ecosystem measures based on structure, function, and composition, which were compared against six contrasts of grazing pressure, ranging from low to heavy, two different herbivores (sheep, cattle), and across three different climatic zones. Grazing reduced structure (by 35%), function (24%), and composition (10%). Structure and function (but not composition) declined more when grazed by sheep and cattle together than sheep alone. Grazing reduced plant biomass (40%), animal richness (15%), and plant and animal abundance, and plant and litter cover (25%), but had no effect on plant richness nor soil function. The negative effects of grazing on plant biomass, plant cover, and soil function were more pronounced in drier environments. Grazing effects on plant and animal richness and composition were constant, or even declined, with increasing aridity. Our study represents a comprehensive continental assessment of the implications of grazing for managing Australian rangelands. Grazing effects were largely negative, even at very low levels of grazing. Overall, our results suggest that livestock grazing in Australia is unlikely to produce positive outcomes for ecosystem structure, function, and composition or even as a blanket conservation tool unless reduction in specific response variables is an explicit management objective.

  9. Ecosystem structure, function, and composition in rangelands are negatively affected by livestock grazing.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, David J; Poore, Alistair G B; Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Letnic, Mike; Soliveres, Santiago

    2016-06-01

    Reports of positive or neutral effects of grazing on plant species richness have prompted calls for livestock grazing to be used as a tool for managing land for conservation. Grazing effects, however, are likely to vary among different response variables, types, and intensity of grazing, and across abiotic conditions. We aimed to examine how grazing affects ecosystem structure, function, and composition. We compiled a database of 7615 records reporting an effect of grazing by sheep and cattle on 278 biotic and abiotic response variables for published studies across Australia. Using these data, we derived three ecosystem measures based on structure, function, and composition, which were compared against six contrasts of grazing pressure, ranging from low to heavy, two different herbivores (sheep, cattle), and across three different climatic zones. Grazing reduced structure (by 35%), function (24%), and composition (10%). Structure and function (but not composition) declined more when grazed by sheep and cattle together than sheep alone. Grazing reduced plant biomass (40%), animal richness (15%), and plant and animal abundance, and plant and litter cover (25%), but had no effect on plant richness nor soil function. The negative effects of grazing on plant biomass, plant cover, and soil function were more pronounced in drier environments. Grazing effects on plant and animal richness and composition were constant, or even declined, with increasing aridity. Our study represents a comprehensive continental assessment of the implications of grazing for managing Australian rangelands. Grazing effects were largely negative, even at very low levels of grazing. Overall, our results suggest that livestock grazing in Australia is unlikely to produce positive outcomes for ecosystem structure, function, and composition or even as a blanket conservation tool unless reduction in specific response variables is an explicit management objective. PMID:27509764

  10. Irisin Levels are Not Affected by Physical Activity in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Ahnis, Anne; Kobelt, Peter; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high and moderate physical activity to evaluate whether irisin differs with increasing physical activity. Hospitalized female anorexic patients (n = 39) were included. Plasma irisin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and locomotor activity were assessed at the same time. Patients were separated into two groups (n = 19/group; median excluded): moderate and high activity (6331 ± 423 vs. 13743 ± 1047 steps/day, p < 0.001). The groups did not differ in body mass index (14.2 ± 0.4 vs. 15.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2), irisin levels (558.2 ± 26.1 vs. 524.9 ± 25.2 ng/ml), and body weight-adjusted resting energy expenditure (17.6 ± 0.3 vs. 18.0 ± 0.3 kcal/kg/day, p > 0.05), whereas body weight-adjusted total energy expenditure (46.0 ± 1.4 vs. 41.1 ± 1.1 kcal/kg/day), metabolic equivalents (METs, 1.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.7 ± 0.1 METs/day), body weight-adjusted exercise activity thermogenesis (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 kcal/kg/day), duration of exercise (18.6 ± 4.7 vs. 6.2 ± 3.1 min/day), and body weight-adjusted non-exercise activity thermogenesis (21.6 ± 1.0 vs. 18.8 ± 0.8 kcal/kg/day) were higher in the high activity compared to the moderate activity group (p < 0.05). No correlations were observed between irisin and activity parameters in the whole sample (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the current data do not support the concept of irisin being induced by exercise, at least not under

  11. The relationship between change in self-perceptions of aging and physical functioning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry A; Anstey, Kaarin J; Luszcz, Mary A

    2012-09-01

    Negative self-perceptions of aging (SPA) have been linked to poor physical health and functioning outcomes in late life, yet the direction of this relationship remain unclear. Using data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Aging, we investigated the directionality of the dynamic relationship between self-perceptions of aging and physical functioning in 1,212 adults 65 years and above (mean age = 76.89, SD = 6.12) over 5 waves (up to 16 years). Bivariate Dual Change Score Models (BDCSM) revealed that the best fitting model for the data was that which allowed SPA to predict change in physical functioning over time lags of 1 year. The direction of the relationship remained after controlling for age, gender, partner status, residential care, number of medical conditions, self-rated health, and psychological well-being. Findings suggest that more positive SPA may be protective of decline in physical functioning in late life. PMID:22390161

  12. Relation of Physical Activity to Memory Functioning in Older Adults: The Memory Workout Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebok, George W.; Plude, Dana J.

    2001-01-01

    The Memory Workout, a CD-ROM program designed to help older adults increase changes in physical and cognitive activity influencing memory, was tested with 24 subjects. Results revealed a significant relationship between exercise time, exercise efficacy, and cognitive function, as well as interest in improving memory and physical activity.…

  13. Weed management practices affect the diversity and relative abundance of physic nut mites.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Althiéris de Sousa; Sarmento, Renato A; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; de Souza, Danival José; Teodoro, Adenir V; Silva, Daniella G

    2015-03-01

    Crop management practices determine weed community, which in turn may influence patterns of diversity and abundance of associated arthropods. This study aimed to evaluate whether local weed management practices influence the diversity and relative abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites, as well as mites with undefined feeding habits--of the families Oribatidae and Acaridae--in a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation subjected to (1) within-row herbicide spraying and between-row mowing; (2) within-row herbicide spraying and no between-row mowing; (3) within-row weeding and between-row mowing; (4) within-row weeding and no between-row mowing; and (5) unmanaged (control). The herbicide used was glyphosate. Herbicide treatments resulted in higher diversity and relative abundance of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit on physic nut shrubs. This was probably due to the toxic effects of the herbicide on mites or to removal of weeds. Within-row herbicide spraying combined with between-row mowing was the treatment that most contributed to this effect. Our results show that within-row weeds harbor important species of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit. However, the dynamics of such mites in the system can be changed according to the weed management practice applied. Among the predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae Amblydromalus sp. was the most abundant, whereas Brevipalpus phoenicis was the most frequent phytophagous mite and an unidentified oribatid species was the most frequent mite with undefined feeding habit. PMID:25528451

  14. Modest maternal caffeine exposure affects developing embryonic cardiovascular function and growth.

    PubMed

    Momoi, Nobuo; Tinney, Joseph P; Liu, Li J; Elshershari, Huda; Hoffmann, Paul J; Ralphe, John C; Keller, Bradley B; Tobita, Kimimasa

    2008-05-01

    Caffeine consumption during pregnancy is reported to increase the risk of in utero growth restriction and spontaneous abortion. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that modest maternal caffeine exposure affects in utero developing embryonic cardiovascular (CV) function and growth without altering maternal hemodynamics. Caffeine (10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) subcutaneous) was administered daily to pregnant CD-1 mice from embryonic days (EDs) 9.5 to 18.5 of a 21-day gestation. We assessed maternal and embryonic CV function at baseline and at peak maternal serum caffeine concentration using high-resolution echocardiography on EDs 9.5, 11.5, 13.5, and 18.5. Maternal caffeine exposure did not influence maternal body weight gain, maternal CV function, or embryo resorption. However, crown-rump length and body weight were reduced in maternal caffeine treated embryos by ED 18.5 (P < 0.05). At peak maternal serum caffeine concentration, embryonic carotid artery, dorsal aorta, and umbilical artery flows transiently decreased from baseline at ED 11.5 (P < 0.05). By ED 13.5, embryonic aortic and umbilical artery flows were insensitive to the peak maternal caffeine concentration; however, the carotid artery flow remained affected. By ED 18.5, baseline embryonic carotid artery flow increased and descending aortic flow decreased versus non-caffeine-exposed embryos. Maternal treatment with the adenosine A(2A) receptor inhibitor reproduced the embryonic hemodynamic effects of maternal caffeine exposure. Adenosine A(2A) receptor gene expression levels of ED 11.5 embryo and ED 18.5 uterus were decreased. Results suggest that modest maternal caffeine exposure has adverse effects on developing embryonic CV function and growth, possibly mediated via adenosine A(2A) receptor blockade.

  15. Factors affecting recovery of postoperative bowel function after pediatric laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Daphnée; Andreu-Gallien, Juliette; Skhiri, Alia; Bonnard, Arnaud; Nivoche, Yves; Dahmani, Souhayl

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Laparoscopic pediatric surgery allows a rapid postoperative rehabilitation and hospital discharge. However, the optimal postoperative pain management preserving advantages of this surgical technique remains to be determined. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the postoperative recovery of bowel function after laparoscopic surgery in children. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of factors affecting recovery of bowel function in children and infants undergoing laparoscopic surgery between January 1, 2009 and September 30, 2009, was performed. Factors included were: Age, weight, extent of surgery (extensive, regional or local), chronic pain (sickle cell disease or chronic intestinal inflammatory disease), American Society of Anaesthesiologists status, postoperative analgesia (ketamine, morphine, nalbuphine, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], nefopam, regional analgesia) both in the Postanesthesia Care Unit and in the surgical ward; and surgical complications. Data analysis used classification and regression tree analysis (CART) with a 10-fold cross validation. Results: One hundred and sixty six patients were included in the analysis. Recovery of bowel function depended upon: The extent of surgery, the occurrence of postoperative surgical complications, the administration of postoperative morphine in the surgical ward, the coadministration of paracetamol and NSAIDs and/or nefopam in the surgical ward and the emergency character of the surgery. The CART method generated a decision tree with eight terminal nodes. The percentage of explained variability of the model and the cross validation were 58% and 49%, respectively. Conclusion: Multimodal analgesia using nonopioid analgesia that allows decreasing postoperative morphine consumption should be considered for the speed of bowel function recovery after laparoscopic pediatric surgery. PMID:27625488

  16. Factors affecting recovery of postoperative bowel function after pediatric laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Daphnée; Andreu-Gallien, Juliette; Skhiri, Alia; Bonnard, Arnaud; Nivoche, Yves; Dahmani, Souhayl

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Laparoscopic pediatric surgery allows a rapid postoperative rehabilitation and hospital discharge. However, the optimal postoperative pain management preserving advantages of this surgical technique remains to be determined. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the postoperative recovery of bowel function after laparoscopic surgery in children. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of factors affecting recovery of bowel function in children and infants undergoing laparoscopic surgery between January 1, 2009 and September 30, 2009, was performed. Factors included were: Age, weight, extent of surgery (extensive, regional or local), chronic pain (sickle cell disease or chronic intestinal inflammatory disease), American Society of Anaesthesiologists status, postoperative analgesia (ketamine, morphine, nalbuphine, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], nefopam, regional analgesia) both in the Postanesthesia Care Unit and in the surgical ward; and surgical complications. Data analysis used classification and regression tree analysis (CART) with a 10-fold cross validation. Results: One hundred and sixty six patients were included in the analysis. Recovery of bowel function depended upon: The extent of surgery, the occurrence of postoperative surgical complications, the administration of postoperative morphine in the surgical ward, the coadministration of paracetamol and NSAIDs and/or nefopam in the surgical ward and the emergency character of the surgery. The CART method generated a decision tree with eight terminal nodes. The percentage of explained variability of the model and the cross validation were 58% and 49%, respectively. Conclusion: Multimodal analgesia using nonopioid analgesia that allows decreasing postoperative morphine consumption should be considered for the speed of bowel function recovery after laparoscopic pediatric surgery.

  17. Physics of the multi-functionality of lanthanum ferrite ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargav, K. K.; Ram, S.; Majumder, S. B.

    2014-05-28

    In the present work, we have illustrated the physics of the multifunctional characteristics of nano-crystalline LaFeO{sub 3} powder prepared using auto-combustion synthesis. The synthesized powders were phase pure and crystallized into centro-symmetric Pnma space group. The temperature dependence of dielectric constant of pure LaFeO{sub 3} exhibits dielectric maxima similar to that observed in ferroelectric ceramics with non-centrosymmetric point group. The dielectric relaxation of LaFeO{sub 3} correlates well with small polaron conduction. The occurrence of polarization hysteresis in LaFeO{sub 3} (with centro-symmetric Pnma space group) is thought to be spin current induced type. The canting of the Fe{sup 3+} spins induce weak ferromagnetism in nano-crystalline LaFeO{sub 3}. Room temperature saturation magnetization of pure LaFeO{sub 3} is reported to be 3.0 emu/g. Due to the presence of both ferromagnetic as well as polarization ordering, LaFeO{sub 3} behaves like a single phase multiferroic ceramics. The magneto-electric coupling in this system has been demonstrated through the magneto-dielectric measurements which yield about 0.8% dielectric tuning (at 10 kHz) with the application of 2 T magnetic field. As a typical application of the synthesized nano-crystalline LaFeO{sub 3} powder, we have studied its butane sensing characteristics. The efficient butane sensing characteristics have been correlated to their catalytic activity towards oxidation of butane. Through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, we detect the surface adsorbed oxygen species on LaFeO{sub 3} surface. Surface adsorbed oxygen species play major role in their low temperature butane sensing. Finally, we have hypothesized that the desorbed H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} (originate from surface adsorbed hydroxyl and oxygen) initiate the catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane resulting in weakening of the electrostatics of the gas molecules.

  18. Early Life Stress and Physical and Psychosocial Functioning in Late Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Alastalo, Hanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. Methods The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934–44. Of them, 267 (14.8%) had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36) between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Results Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = −0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: −0.71 to −0.08). Those men separated in school age (>7 years) and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = −0.89, 95% CI: −1.58 to −0.20) and (b = −0.65, 95% CI: −1.25 to −0.05), respectively). Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = −0.70, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.06). These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. Conclusion Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood. PMID:23861956

  19. Exergames: neuroplastic hypothesis about cognitive improvement and biological effects on physical function of institutionalized older persons

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Vaghetti, César Augusto Otero; Nascimento, Osvaldo José M.; Laks, Jerson; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz

    2016-01-01

    Exergames can be considered a dual task because the games are performed by a man-videogame interface, requiring cognitive and motor functions simultaneously. Although the literature has shown improvements of cognitive and physical functions due to exergames, the intrinsic mechanisms involved in these functional changes have still not been elucidated. The aims of the present study were (1) to demonstrate the known biological mechanisms of physical exercise regarding muscle adaptation and establish a relationship with exergames; and (2) to present a neurobiological hypothesis about the neuroplastic effects of exergames on the cognitive function of institutionalized older persons. These hypotheses are discussed. PMID:27073355

  20. Functional Connectivity under Anticipation of Shock: Correlates of Trait Anxious Affect versus Induced Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bijsterbosch, Janine; Smith, Stephen; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-09-01

    Sustained anxiety about potential future negative events is an important feature of anxiety disorders. In this study, we used a novel anticipation of shock paradigm to investigate individual differences in functional connectivity during prolonged threat of shock. We examined the correlates of between-participant differences in trait anxious affect and induced anxiety, where the latter reflects changes in self-reported anxiety resulting from the shock manipulation. Dissociable effects of trait anxious affect and induced anxiety were observed. Participants with high scores on a latent dimension of anxious affect showed less increase in ventromedial pFC-amygdala connectivity between periods of safety and shock anticipation. Meanwhile, lower levels of induced anxiety were linked to greater augmentation of dorsolateral pFC-anterior insula connectivity during shock anticipation. These findings suggest that ventromedial pFC-amygdala and dorsolateral pFC-insula networks might both contribute to regulation of sustained fear responses, with their recruitment varying independently across participants. The former might reflect an evolutionarily old mechanism for reducing fear or anxiety, whereas the latter might reflect a complementary mechanism by which cognitive control can be implemented to diminish fear responses generated due to anticipation of aversive stimuli or events. These two circuits might provide complementary, alternate targets for exploration in future pharmacological and cognitive intervention studies. PMID:25961638

  1. Mott physics and spin fluctuations: A functional viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayral, Thomas; Parcollet, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    We present a formalism for strongly correlated systems with fermions coupled to bosonic modes. We construct the three-particle irreducible functional K by successive Legendre transformations of the free energy of the system. We derive a closed set of equations for the fermionic and bosonic self-energies for a given K . We then introduce a local approximation for K , which extends the idea of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) approaches from two- to three-particle irreducibility. This approximation entails the locality of the three-leg electron-boson vertex Λ (i ω ,i Ω ) , which is self-consistently computed using a quantum impurity model with dynamical charge and spin interactions. This local vertex is used to construct frequency- and momentum-dependent electronic self-energies and polarizations. By construction, the method interpolates between the spin-fluctuation or G W approximations at weak coupling and the atomic limit at strong coupling. We apply it to the Hubbard model on two-dimensional square and triangular lattices. We complement the results of [T. Ayral and O. Parcollet, Phys. Rev. B 92, 115109 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.115109] by (i) showing that, at half-filling, as DMFT, the method describes the Fermi-liquid metallic state and the Mott insulator, separated by a first-order interaction-driven Mott transition at low temperatures, (ii) investigating the influence of frustration, and (iii) discussing the influence of the bosonic decoupling channel.

  2. Integrable dissipative exclusion process: Correlation functions and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crampe, N.; Ragoucy, E.; Rittenberg, V.; Vanicat, M.

    2016-09-01

    We study a one-parameter generalization of the symmetric simple exclusion process on a one-dimensional lattice. In addition to the usual dynamics (where particles can hop with equal rates to the left or to the right with an exclusion constraint), annihilation and creation of pairs can occur. The system is driven out of equilibrium by two reservoirs at the boundaries. In this setting the model is still integrable: it is related to the open XXZ spin chain through a gauge transformation. This allows us to compute the full spectrum of the Markov matrix using Bethe equations. We also show that the stationary state can be expressed in a matrix product form permitting to compute the multipoints correlation functions as well as the mean value of the lattice and the creation-annihilation currents. Finally, the variance of the lattice current is computed for a finite-size system. In the thermodynamic limit, it matches the value obtained from the associated macroscopic fluctuation theory.

  3. Physical rehabilitation of paralysed facial muscles: functional and morphological correlates.

    PubMed

    Angelov, Doychin N

    2011-01-01

    Using a combined morphofunctional approach, we recently found that polyinnervation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the critical factor for recovery of function after transection and suture of the facial nerve. Since polyinnervation is activity-dependent and can be manipulated, we tried to design a clinically feasible therapy by electrical stimulation or by soft tissue massage. First, electrical stimulation was applied to the transected facial nerve or to paralyzed facial muscles. Both procedures did not improve vibrissal motor performance (video-based motion analysis of whisking), failed to diminish polyinnervation, and even reduced the number of innervated NMJ to one-fifth of normal values. In contrast, gentle stroking of the paralyzed vibrissal muscles by hand resulted in full recovery of whisking. Manual stimulation depended on the intact sensory supply of the denervated muscle targets and was also effective after hypoglossal-facial anastomosis, after interpositional nerve grafting, when applied to the orbicularis oculi muscle and after transection and suture of the hypoglossal nerve. From these results, we conclude that manual stimulation is a noninvasive procedure with immediate potential for clinical rehabilitation following facial nerve reconstruction.

  4. Noise affects the shape of female preference functions for acoustic signals.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Michael S; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    The shape of female mate preference functions influences the speed and direction of sexual signal evolution. However, the expression of female preferences is modulated by interactions between environmental conditions and the female's sensory processing system. Noise is an especially relevant environmental condition because it interferes directly with the neural processing of signals. Although noise is therefore likely a significant force in the evolution of communication systems, little is known about its effects on preference function shape. In the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus, female preferences for male calling song characteristics are likely to be affected by noise because its auditory system is sensitive to fine temporal details of songs. We measured female preference functions for variation in male song characteristics in several levels of masking noise and found strong effects of noise on preference function shape. The overall responsiveness to signals in noise generally decreased. Preference strength increased for some signal characteristics and decreased for others, largely corresponding to expectations based on neurophysiological studies of acoustic signal processing. These results suggest that different signal characteristics will be favored under different noise conditions, and thus that signal evolution may proceed differently depending on the extent and temporal patterning of environmental noise.

  5. Light availability affects stream biofilm bacterial community composition and function, but not diversity.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karoline; Besemer, Katharina; Burns, Nancy R; Battin, Tom J; Bengtsson, Mia M

    2015-12-01

    Changes in riparian vegetation or water turbidity and browning in streams alter the local light regime with potential implications for stream biofilms and ecosystem functioning. We experimented with biofilms in microcosms grown under a gradient of light intensities (range: 5-152 μmole photons s(-1)  m(-2) ) and combined 454-pyrosequencing and enzymatic activity assays to evaluate the effects of light on biofilm structure and function. We observed a shift in bacterial community composition along the light gradient, whereas there was no apparent change in alpha diversity. Multifunctionality, based on extracellular enzymes, was highest under high light conditions and decoupled from bacterial diversity. Phenol oxidase activity, involved in the degradation of polyphenolic compounds, was twice as high on average under the lowest compared with the highest light condition. This suggests a shift in reliance of microbial heterotrophs on biofilm phototroph-derived organic matter under high light availability to more complex organic matter under low light. Furthermore, extracellular enzyme activities correlated with nutrient cycling and community respiration, supporting the link between biofilm structure-function and biogeochemical fluxes in streams. Our findings demonstrate that changes in light availability are likely to have significant impacts on biofilm structure and function, potentially affecting stream ecosystem processes.

  6. Light availability affects stream biofilm bacterial community composition and function, but not diversity.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karoline; Besemer, Katharina; Burns, Nancy R; Battin, Tom J; Bengtsson, Mia M

    2015-12-01

    Changes in riparian vegetation or water turbidity and browning in streams alter the local light regime with potential implications for stream biofilms and ecosystem functioning. We experimented with biofilms in microcosms grown under a gradient of light intensities (range: 5-152 μmole photons s(-1)  m(-2) ) and combined 454-pyrosequencing and enzymatic activity assays to evaluate the effects of light on biofilm structure and function. We observed a shift in bacterial community composition along the light gradient, whereas there was no apparent change in alpha diversity. Multifunctionality, based on extracellular enzymes, was highest under high light conditions and decoupled from bacterial diversity. Phenol oxidase activity, involved in the degradation of polyphenolic compounds, was twice as high on average under the lowest compared with the highest light condition. This suggests a shift in reliance of microbial heterotrophs on biofilm phototroph-derived organic matter under high light availability to more complex organic matter under low light. Furthermore, extracellular enzyme activities correlated with nutrient cycling and community respiration, supporting the link between biofilm structure-function and biogeochemical fluxes in streams. Our findings demonstrate that changes in light availability are likely to have significant impacts on biofilm structure and function, potentially affecting stream ecosystem processes. PMID:26013911

  7. The consequences of depressive affect on functioning in relation to Cluster B personality disorder features.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Gaughan, Eric T; Pryor, Lauren R; Kamen, Charles

    2009-05-01

    The authors examined the effects of depressed affect (DA) on functioning measured by behavioral tasks pertaining to abstract reasoning, social functioning, and delay of gratification in relation to Cluster B personality disorder features (PDs) in a clinical sample. Individuals were randomly assigned to either a DA induction or control condition. Consistent with clinical conceptualizations, the authors expected that Cluster B PD symptoms would be related to maladaptive responding (e.g., poorer delay of gratification) when experiencing DA. As hypothesized, many of the relations between the Cluster B PDs and functioning were moderated by DA (e.g., borderline PD was negatively related to abstract reasoning, but only in the DA condition). However, many of the Cluster B PDs symptom counts were related to more adaptive responses in the DA condition (e.g., less aggressive social functioning, better delay of gratification). The authors speculate that individuals with Cluster B PDs may be more likely to respond maladaptively to alternative negative mood states, such as anger and fear.

  8. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xujie; Feng, Qingling; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (sbnd NH2), carboxyl (sbnd COOH) and methyl (sbnd CH3), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (sbnd COOH and sbnd NH2) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (sbnd CH3). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the sbnd NH2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the sbnd COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the sbnd CH3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  9. Distribution of organic carbon in physical fractions of soils as affected by agricultural management

    SciTech Connect

    Sindhu, Jagadamma; Lal, Dr. Rattan

    2010-08-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed heterogeneously among different-sized primary particles and aggregates. Further, the SOC associated with different physical fractions respond differently to managements. Therefore, this study was conducted with the objective to quantify the SOC associated with all the three structural levels of SOC (particulate organic matter, soil separates and aggregate-size fractions) as influenced by long-term change in management. The study also aims at reevaluating the concept that the SOC sink capacity of individual size-fractions is limited. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on distribution of SOC among fractions were compared with soil from adjacent undisturbed area under native vegetation for the mixed, mesic, Typic Fragiudalf of Wooster, OH. Forty five years of no-till (NT) management resulted in more SOC accumulation in soil surface (0 7.5 cm) than in chisel tillage and plow tillage (PT) treatments. However, PT at this site resulted in a redistribution of SOC from surface to deeper soil layers. The soils under continuous corn accumulated significantly more SOC than those under corn soybean rotation at 7.5 45 cm depth. Although soil texture was dominated by the silt-sized particles, most of the SOC pool was associated with the clay fraction. Compared to PT, the NT treatment resulted in (i) significantly higher proportion of large macroaggregates (>2,000 m) and (ii) 1.5 2.8 times higher SOC concentrations in all aggregate-size classes. A comparative evaluation using radar graphs indicated that among the physical fractions, the SOC associated with sand and silt fractions quickly changed with a land use conversion from native vegetation to agricultural crops. A key finding of this study is the assessment of SOC sink capacity of individual fractions, which revealed that the clay fraction of agricultural soils continues to accumulate more SOC, albeit at a slower rate, with progressive increase in total SOC concentration

  10. Physical and Chemical Processes Affecting Permeability during Geologic Carbon Sequestration in Arkose and Dolostone: Experimental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, A. J.; Kong, X.; Tutolo, B. M.; Saar, M. O.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration in saline sedimentary basins provides a promising option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We are conducting experiments using a novel flow system at elevated temperatures and pressures to better understand the physical and chemical processes that result from CO2 injection into these basins and the effects of these processes on system permeability. Here we present experimental results on arkose (primarily K-feldspar and quartz) and dolostone, focusing on CO2 exsolution and fluid-mineral reactions. Following heating-induced CO2 exsolution in an arkose sediment (90-125 μm) core, XRCT scans revealed abundant pores several times larger than the average grain size. The pores likely grew as exsolved CO2 accumulated in the pores and exerted outspread forces on the surrounding grains. These trapped CO2 accumulations blocked flow pathways, reducing measured permeability by 10,000 times. Another reported experiment on a solid arkose core and water with aqueous CO2 concentrations at 80% saturation dissolved K-feldspar, as evidenced by 3 to 1 ratios of Si to K in sampled fluids, and precipitated an Al-rich mineral, likely gibbsite. SEM images revealed extensive clay precipitation on K-feldspar mineral surfaces. Alteration reduced permeability from 5 × 10-14 m2 to 3 × 10-14 m2 during this 52-day experiment. The third reported experiment on a dolostone core and 1 molal NaCl brine with an aqueous CO2 concentration at 75% saturation caused extensive dissolution and a large increase in permeability. This three-day experiment produced a wormhole of 2 mm in diameter that penetrated the entire 2.6 cm long core with a diameter of 1.3 cm. High, initial Ca and Mg fluid concentrations that quickly receded imply early formation of the wormhole that grew in diameter with time. Our experimental results show that formation permeability can change dramatically from both physical and chemical processes, and these changes should be accounted for during

  11. Climate change induced rainfall patterns affect wheat productivity and agroecosystem functioning dependent on soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabi Tataw, James; Baier, Fabian; Krottenthaler, Florian; Pachler, Bernadette; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Whylidal, Stefan; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G.

    2014-05-01

    Wheat is a crop of global importance supplying more than half of the world's population with carbohydrates. We examined, whether climate change induced rainfall patterns towards less frequent but heavier events alter wheat agroecosystem productivity and functioning under three different soil types. Therefore, in a full-factorial experiment Triticum aestivum L. was cultivated in 3 m2 lysimeter plots containing the soil types sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem or calcic chernozem. Prognosticated rainfall patterns based on regionalised climate change model calculations were compared with current long-term rainfall patterns; each treatment combination was replicated three times. Future rainfall patterns significantly reduced wheat growth and yield, reduced the leaf area index, accelerated crop development, reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation of roots, increased weed density and the stable carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of both old and young wheat leaves. Different soil types affected wheat growth and yield, ecosystem root production as well as weed abundance and biomass. The interaction between climate and soil type was significant only for the harvest index. Our results suggest that even slight changes in rainfall patterns can significantly affect the functioning of wheat agroecosystems. These rainfall effects seemed to be little influenced by soil types suggesting more general impacts of climate change across different soil types. Wheat production under future conditions will likely become more challenging as further concurrent climate change factors become prevalent.

  12. Attachment style predicts affect, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning in daily life.

    PubMed

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants' momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  13. Family Functioning and Child Behavioral Problems in Households Affected by HIV and AIDS in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Tonya R; Kidman, Rachel; Nice, Johanna; Ikamari, Lawrence

    2015-08-01

    HIV places acute stressors on affected children and families; especially in resource limited contexts like sub-Saharan Africa. Despite their importance, the epidemic's potential consequences for family dynamics and children's psychological health are understudied. Using a population-based sample of 2,487 caregivers and 3,423 children aged 8-14 years from the Central Province of Kenya, analyses were conducted to examine whether parental illness and loss were associated with family functioning and children's externalizing behaviors. After controlling for demographics, a significant relationship between parental illness and externalizing behaviors was found among children of both genders. Orphan status was associated with behavioral problems among only girls. Regardless of gender, children experiencing both parental loss and illness fared the worst. Family functioning measured from the perspective of both caregivers and children also had an independent and important relationship with behavioral problems. Findings suggest that psychological and behavioral health needs may be elevated in households coping with serious illness and reiterate the importance of a family-centered approach for HIV-affected children.

  14. Arabidopsis AtADF1 is functionally affected by mutations on actin binding sites.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Hai; Tang, Wei-Ping; Liu, Jia-Yao

    2013-03-01

    The plant actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) binds to both monomeric and filamentous actin, and is directly involved in the depolymerization of actin filaments. To better understand the actin binding sites of the Arabidopsis thaliana L. AtADF1, we generated mutants of AtADF1 and investigated their functions in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of mutants harboring amino acid substitutions revealed that charged residues (Arg98 and Lys100) located at the α-helix 3 and forming an actin binding site together with the N-terminus are essential for both G- and F-actin binding. The basic residues on the β-strand 5 (K82/A) and the α-helix 4 (R135/A, R137/A) form another actin binding site that is important for F-actin binding. Using transient expression of CFP-tagged AtADF1 mutant proteins in onion (Allium cepa) peel epidermal cells and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants overexpressing these mutants, we analyzed how these mutant proteins regulate actin organization and affect seedling growth. Our results show that the ADF mutants with a lower affinity for actin filament binding can still be functional, unless the affinity for actin monomers is also affected. The G-actin binding activity of the ADF plays an essential role in actin binding, depolymerization of actin polymers, and therefore in the control of actin organization. PMID:23190411

  15. Changing self-reported physical activity using different types of affectively and cognitively framed health messages, in a student population.

    PubMed

    Morris, Benjamin; Lawton, Rebecca; McEachan, Rosemary; Hurling, Robert; Conner, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The present research focused upon the power of different messages to increase self-reported physical activity (PA). Five hundered and ninety six participants were randomised to one of five conditions that varied in the content of message: short-term affective, short-term cognitive, long-term affective, long-term cognitive and a no message control. PA was measured at baseline and follow-up (seven days later) was done using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire over the subsequent seven day period. The affective short-term message (ASM) was shown to be equally effective at increasing self-reported PA as a cognitive long-term message. Furthermore, when controlling for baseline activity levels, the ASM emerged as being the message that produced the highest levels of self-reported PA at follow-up. The findings point to the value of distinguishing between health messages in terms of the focus on affective and cognitive outcomes and the temporal nature of the outcomes (short-term or long-term).

  16. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-01-01

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. PMID:21170334

  17. 4-Quinolone drugs affect cell cycle progression and function of human lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Forsgren, A; Schlossman, S F; Tedder, T F

    1987-01-01

    Most antibacterial agents do not affect human lymphocyte function, but a few are inhibitory. In contrast, a pronounced increase in the incorporation of [3H]thymidine in the presence of 4-quinolones was observed in these studies. The uptake of [3H]thymidine into DNA (trichloroacetic acid precipitable) was significantly increased in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes when they were exposed to eight new 4-quinolone derivatives, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, A-56619, A-56620, amifloxacin, enoxacin, and pefloxacin, at 1.6 to 6.25 micrograms/ml for 5 days. Four less antibacterially active 4-quinolones (nalidixic acid, cinoxacin, flumequine, and pipemidic acid) stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation only at higher concentrations or not at all. Kinetic studies showed that incorporation of [3H]thymidine was not affected or slightly inhibited by ciprofloxacin 2 days after phytohemagglutinin stimulation but was increased on days 3 to 6. The total incorporation of [3H]thymidine from day 1 to day 6 after phytohemagglutinin stimulation was increased by 42 to 45% at 5 to 20 micrograms of ciprofloxacin per ml. Increased [3H]thymidine incorporation was also seen when human lymphocytes were stimulated with mitogens other than phytohemagglutinin. Ciprofloxacin added at the start of the culture had a more pronounced effect on [3H]thymidine incorporation than when added later. In spite of the apparent increase in DNA synthesis, lymphocyte growth was inhibited by 20 micrograms of ciprofloxacin per ml, and cell cycle analysis showed that ciprofloxacin inhibited progression through the cell cycle. In addition, immunoglobulin secretion by human lymphocytes stimulated by pokeweed mitogen for Epstein-Barr virus was inhibited by approximately 50% at 5 micrograms of ciprofloxacin per ml. These results suggest that the 4-quinolone drugs may also affect eucaryotic cell function in vitro, but additional studies are needed to establish an in vivo relevance. PMID:3606076

  18. Relationship of mercury to cognitive, affective and perceptual motor functioning in a normal sample in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Sine, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Although the effects of toxic levels of mercury have been well documented, the effects of subclinical levels of mercury on normal populations have generally not been studied. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the impact of mercury risk factors on cognition, affect, psychopathology, and known mercury-related symptoms in a normal sample in Hawaii exposed to subclinical although elevated levels of elemental mercury through inhalation associated with volcanic activity and of methylmercury mostly through ingestion of large ocean species fish. The following summarizes the findings and conclusions of the study: 1) a four week test-retest reliability using 41 of the subjects showed that the 41 measures used in the study exhibited an average correlation of .78. Using all 413 subjects, the average internal consistency measured by Cronbach's ..cap alpha.. was .82 for the 17 affect, psychopathology, and symptom measures; 2) nine mercury source variables were used to predict the amount of total mercury in hair. Interestingly, none of the source variables predicted hair total mercury; 3) the source variables in addition to hair total mercury and statistical control variables were used to predict the twenty-two functioning variables in the four domains cited above with a relative absence of relationships noted. This finding indicates that the normal population in Hawaii appears not to be at risk; and 4) one historical mercury source variable, reported fish intake when young, related to six functioning variables - the psychopathology measures of Somatization, Obsessive-Compulsive and Anxiety as well as the Sensory, Affect and Mental symptoms - with Beta weights in the .15 to .20 range. The implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions offered for future research especially with respect to specific high risk subgroups.

  19. STN1 OB Fold Mutation Alters DNA Binding and Affects Selective Aspects of CST Function

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Anukana; Stewart, Jason; Chaiken, Mary; Price, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) participates in multiple aspects of telomere replication and genome-wide recovery from replication stress. CST resembles Replication Protein A (RPA) in that it binds ssDNA and STN1 and TEN1 are structurally similar to RPA2 and RPA3. Conservation between CTC1 and RPA1 is less apparent. Currently the mechanism underlying CST action is largely unknown. Here we address CST mechanism by using a DNA-binding mutant, (STN1 OB-fold mutant, STN1-OBM) to examine the relationship between DNA binding and CST function. In vivo, STN1-OBM affects resolution of endogenous replication stress and telomere duplex replication but telomeric C-strand fill-in and new origin firing after exogenous replication stress are unaffected. These selective effects indicate mechanistic differences in CST action during resolution of different replication problems. In vitro binding studies show that STN1 directly engages both short and long ssDNA oligonucleotides, however STN1-OBM preferentially destabilizes binding to short substrates. The finding that STN1-OBM affects binding to only certain substrates starts to explain the in vivo separation of function observed in STN1-OBM expressing cells. CST is expected to engage DNA substrates of varied length and structure as it acts to resolve different replication problems. Since STN1-OBM will alter CST binding to only some of these substrates, the mutant should affect resolution of only a subset of replication problems, as was observed in the STN1-OBM cells. The in vitro studies also provide insight into CST binding mechanism. Like RPA, CST likely contacts DNA via multiple OB folds. However, the importance of STN1 for binding short substrates indicates differences in the architecture of CST and RPA DNA-protein complexes. Based on our results, we propose a dynamic DNA binding model that provides a general mechanism for CST action at diverse forms of replication stress. PMID:27690379

  20. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons.

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, N; Chin A Paw, M J; de Groot, L C; Hiddink, G J; van Staveren, W A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. METHODS: A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design--(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither--was performed in 143 frail elderly persons (aged 78.6 +/- 5.6 years). Foods were enriched with multiple micronutrients; exercises focused on skill training, including strength, endurance, coordination, and flexibility. Main outcome parameters were bone and body composition. RESULTS: Exercise preserved lean mass (mean difference between exercisers and non-exercisers: 0.5 kg +/- 1.2 kg; P < .02). Groups receiving enriched food had slightly increased bone mineral density (+0.4%), bone mass (+0.6%), and bone calcium (+0.6%) compared with groups receiving non-enriched foods, in whom small decreases of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, were found. These groups differed in bone mineral density (0.006 +/- 0.020 g/cm2; P = .08), total bone mass (19 +/- g; P = .04), and bone calcium (8 +/- 21 g; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Foods containing a physiologic dose of micronutrients slightly increased bone density, mass, and calcium, whereas moderately intense exercise preserved lean body mass in frail elderly persons. PMID:10846514

  1. Realistic changes in seaweed biodiversity affect multiple ecosystem functions on a rocky shore.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Matthew E S; Williams, Susan L

    2013-09-01

    Given current threats to biodiversity, understanding the effects of diversity changes on the functions and services associated with intact ecosystems is of paramount importance. However, limited realism in most biodiversity studies makes it difficult to link the large and growing body of evidence for important functional consequences of biodiversity change to real-world losses of biodiversity. Here, we explored two methods of incorporating realism into biodiversity research: (1) the use of two-, five-, and eight-species assemblages that mimicked those that we observed in surveys of seaweed biodiversity patterns on a northern California (USA) rocky shore and the explicit comparison of those assemblages to random assemblages compiled from the same local species pool; and (2) the measurement of two fundamental ecosystem functions, nitrate uptake and photosynthesis, both of which contribute to growth of primary producers. Specifically, we measured nitrate uptake rates of seaweed assemblages as a function of initial nitrate concentrations and photosynthetic rates as a function of irradiance levels for both realistic and random assemblages of seaweeds. We only observed changes in ecosystem functioning along a richness gradient for realistic assemblages, and both maximum nitrate uptake rates (V(max)) and photosynthetic light use efficiency values (alpha(p) = P(max)/I(K)) were higher in realistic assemblages than in random assemblages. Furthermore, the parameter affected by changes in richness depended on the function being measured. Both V(max) and alpha(p) declined with increasing richness in nonrandom assemblages due to a combination of species identity effects (for V(max) and overyielding effects (for both V(max) and alpha(p)). In contrast, neither nitrate uptake efficiency values (alpha(N) = V(max)/K(s)), nor maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) changed along the gradient in seaweed species richness. Furthermore, overyielding was only evident in realistic assemblages

  2. Physical-Mechanical Properties of Nitrodopes Affected by Ultra-Violet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Cakić, Suzana; Raskovic, Ljiljana; Lačnjevac, Časlav; Rajkovic, Milos; Barać, Miroljub; Stojanovic, Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    The FTIR spectroscopy has been employed in this research work to monitor the process of nitrodope photodegradation, by measuring surfaces of bands typical of a nitro group. Nitric esters are subject to degradation, which is reflected on a quantitative ratio of the surfaces of the IR bands that originate from the nitric ester. The obtained results show that the length of the UV rays' activity on the samples over the time periods of 240, 480 and 960 minutes directly affects the spectrum appearance of the same sample before and after the irradiation. The longer the action time of the UV rays and the higher a mass percentage of nitrocellulose in the nitrodope is, the smaller the bands' surfaces become, i.e. the level of degradation is higher. In order to confirm the degradation of nitrodope, the degree of crosslinking has also been examined by determining the König hardness and also the mean viscosity molar mass has been defined repeatedly applying the capillary viscosimetry method.

  3. Physical exercise affects the epigenetic programming of rat brain and modulates the adaptive response evoked by repeated restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Kashimoto, R K; Toffoli, L V; Manfredo, M H F; Volpini, V L; Martins-Pinge, M C; Pelosi, G G; Gomes, M V

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics has recently been linked to molecular adaptive responses evoked by physical exercise and stress. Herein we evaluated the effects of physical exercise on global DNA methylation and expression of the Dnmt1 gene in the rat brain and also verified its potential to modulate responses evoked by repeated restraint stress (RRS). Wistar rats were classified into the following experimental groups: (1) physically active (EX): animals submitted to swimming during postnatal days 53-78 (PND); (2) stress (ST): animals submitted to RRS during 75-79PND; (3) exercise-stress (EX-ST): animals submitted to swimming during 53-78PND and to RRS during 75-79PND, and (4) control (CTL): animals that were not submitted to intervention. Samples from the hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus were obtained at 79PND. The global DNA methylation profile was assessed using an ELISA-based method and the expression of Dnmt1 was evaluated by real-time PCR. Significantly increased methylation was observed in the hypothalamus of animals from the EX group in comparison to CTL. Comparative analysis involving the EX-ST and ST groups revealed increased global DNA methylation in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus of EX-ST, indicating the potential of physical exercise in modulating the responses evoked by RRS. Furthermore, decreased expression of the Dnmt1 gene was observed in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of animals from the EX-ST group. In summary, our data indicate that physical exercise affects DNA methylation of the hypothalamus and might modulate epigenetic responses evoked by RRS in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus.

  4. Evaluation of some physical hazards which may affect health in primary schools

    PubMed Central

    Bakır, Bilal; Babayiğit, Mustafa Alparslan; Tekbaş, Ömer Faruk; Oğur, Recai; Kılıç, Abdullah; Ulus, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was performed with the objective to determine the levels of some physical hazards in primary schools. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional field survey. In this study which was conducted in 31 primary schools selected by appropriate sampling from the district of Keçiören of the province of Ankara, measurements related with temperature, light, electromagnetic field (EMF) and noise levels were done at hundreds of points. Approval was obtained from Gülhane Military Medical Faculty Ethics Committee (2007/97). Results: Only 47.1% of the classes had a temperature value within the recommended limits (20–21°C). It was found that the illumination levels in 96.8% of the schools were above the standard values. However, the levels of illumination were found to be statistically significantly decreased towards the door and the back line (p<0.05). It was found that electromagnetic field levels were significantly higher in the schools who had a source of electromagnetic field nearby compared to the schools who did not have such a source nearby (p<0.001). It was found that the electromagnetic field levels in computer classes were statistically significantly higher compared to the other classes (p<0.001). Noise levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in classes which had 35 and more students (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found in schools near intensive vehicle traffic in terms of noise levels (62.8±5.0 (n=72), 62.0±6.4 (n=79), respectively, p>0.05). Conclusions: It was found that primary schools in the region of Keçiören had aspects which had to be improved in terms of building age, building location, brightness, electromagnetic field and noise levels. School health programs directed to improve negative enviromental factors should be developed. PMID:26078666

  5. Climate change and Southern Ocean ecosystems I: how changes in physical habitats directly affect marine biota.

    PubMed

    Constable, Andrew J; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Corney, Stuart P; Arrigo, Kevin R; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnes, David K A; Bindoff, Nathaniel L; Boyd, Philip W; Brandt, Angelika; Costa, Daniel P; Davidson, Andrew T; Ducklow, Hugh W; Emmerson, Louise; Fukuchi, Mitsuo; Gutt, Julian; Hindell, Mark A; Hofmann, Eileen E; Hosie, Graham W; Iida, Takahiro; Jacob, Sarah; Johnston, Nadine M; Kawaguchi, So; Kokubun, Nobuo; Koubbi, Philippe; Lea, Mary-Anne; Makhado, Azwianewi; Massom, Rob A; Meiners, Klaus; Meredith, Michael P; Murphy, Eugene J; Nicol, Stephen; Reid, Keith; Richerson, Kate; Riddle, Martin J; Rintoul, Stephen R; Smith, Walker O; Southwell, Colin; Stark, Jonathon S; Sumner, Michael; Swadling, Kerrie M; Takahashi, Kunio T; Trathan, Phil N; Welsford, Dirk C; Weimerskirch, Henri; Westwood, Karen J; Wienecke, Barbara C; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Wright, Simon W; Xavier, Jose C; Ziegler, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Antarctic and Southern Ocean (ASO) marine ecosystems have been changing for at least the last 30 years, including in response to increasing ocean temperatures and changes in the extent and seasonality of sea ice; the magnitude and direction of these changes differ between regions around Antarctica that could see populations of the same species changing differently in different regions. This article reviews current and expected changes in ASO physical habitats in response to climate change. It then reviews how these changes may impact the autecology of marine biota of this polar region: microbes, zooplankton, salps, Antarctic krill, fish, cephalopods, marine mammals, seabirds, and benthos. The general prognosis for ASO marine habitats is for an overall warming and freshening, strengthening of westerly winds, with a potential pole-ward movement of those winds and the frontal systems, and an increase in ocean eddy activity. Many habitat parameters will have regionally specific changes, particularly relating to sea ice characteristics and seasonal dynamics. Lower trophic levels are expected to move south as the ocean conditions in which they are currently found move pole-ward. For Antarctic krill and finfish, the latitudinal breadth of their range will depend on their tolerance of warming oceans and changes to productivity. Ocean acidification is a concern not only for calcifying organisms but also for crustaceans such as Antarctic krill; it is also likely to be the most important change in benthic habitats over the coming century. For marine mammals and birds, the expected changes primarily relate to their flexibility in moving to alternative locations for food and the energetic cost of longer or more complex foraging trips for those that are bound to breeding colonies. Few species are sufficiently well studied to make comprehensive species-specific vulnerability assessments possible. Priorities for future work are discussed.

  6. Earthworm-Mycorrhiza Interactions Can Affect the Diversity, Structure and Functioning of Establishing Model Grassland Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Grabmaier, Andrea; Lichtenegger, Claudia; Piller, Katja; Allabashi, Roza; Frank, Thomas; Drapela, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing anecics vs. horizontally burrowing endogeics) and a mix of four AMF taxa on the establishment, diversity and productivity of plant communities after a simulated seed rain of 18 grassland species comprising grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Moreover, effects of earthworms and/or AMF on water infiltration and leaching of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate were determined after a simulated extreme rainfall event (40 l m−2). AMF colonisation of all three plant functional groups was altered by earthworms. Seedling emergence and diversity was reduced by anecic earthworms, however only when AMF were present. Plant density was decreased in AMF-free mesocosms when both anecic and endogeic earthworms were active; with AMF also anecics reduced plant density. Plant shoot and root biomass was only affected by earthworms in AMF-free mesocosms: shoot biomass increased due to the activity of either anecics or endogeics; root biomass increased only when anecics were active. Water infiltration increased when earthworms were present in the mesocosms but remained unaffected by AMF. Ammonium leaching was increased only when anecics or a mixed earthworm community was active but was unaffected by AMF; nitrate and phosphate leaching was neither affected by earthworms nor AMF. Ammonium leaching decreased with increasing plant density, nitrate leaching decreased with increasing plant diversity and density. In order to understand the underlying processes of these interactions further investigations possibly under field conditions using more diverse belowground communities are required. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that

  7. Proteomic Profiling in the Brain of CLN1 Disease Model Reveals Affected Functional Modules.

    PubMed

    Tikka, Saara; Monogioudi, Evanthia; Gotsopoulos, Athanasios; Soliymani, Rabah; Pezzini, Francesco; Scifo, Enzo; Uusi-Rauva, Kristiina; Tyynelä, Jaana; Baumann, Marc; Jalanko, Anu; Simonati, Alessandro; Lalowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are the most commonly inherited progressive encephalopathies of childhood. Pathologically, they are characterized by endolysosomal storage with different ultrastructural features and biochemical compositions. The molecular mechanisms causing progressive neurodegeneration and common molecular pathways linking expression of different NCL genes are largely unknown. We analyzed proteome alterations in the brains of a mouse model of human infantile CLN1 disease-palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (Ppt1) gene knockout and its wild-type age-matched counterpart at different stages: pre-symptomatic, symptomatic and advanced. For this purpose, we utilized a combination of laser capture microdissection-based quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS imaging to quantify/visualize the changes in protein expression in disease-affected brain thalamus and cerebral cortex tissue slices, respectively. Proteomic profiling of the pre-symptomatic stage thalamus revealed alterations mostly in metabolic processes and inhibition of various neuronal functions, i.e., neuritogenesis. Down-regulation in dynamics associated with growth of plasma projections and cellular protrusions was further corroborated by findings from RNA sequencing of CLN1 patients' fibroblasts. Changes detected at the symptomatic stage included: mitochondrial functions, synaptic vesicle transport, myelin proteome and signaling cascades, such as RhoA signaling. Considerable dysregulation of processes related to mitochondrial cell death, RhoA/Huntington's disease signaling and myelin sheath breakdown were observed at the advanced stage of the disease. The identified changes in protein levels were further substantiated by bioinformatics and network approaches, immunohistochemistry on brain tissues and literature knowledge, thus identifying various functional modules affected in the CLN1 childhood

  8. Subgroups of physically abusive parents based on cluster analysis of parenting behavior and affect.

    PubMed

    Haskett, Mary E; Scott, Susan Smith; Ward, Caryn Sabourin

    2004-10-01

    Cluster analysis of observed parenting and self-reported discipline was used to categorize 83 abusive parents into subgroups. A 2-cluster solution received support for validity. Cluster 1 parents were relatively warm, positive, sensitive, and engaged during interactions with their children, whereas Cluster 2 parents were relatively negative, disengaged or intrusive, and insensitive. Further, clusters differed in emotional health, parenting stress, perceptions of children, and problem solving. Children of parents in the 2 clusters differed on several indexes of social adjustment. Cluster 1 parents were similar to nonabusive parents (n = 66) on parenting and related constructs, but Cluster 2 parents differed from nonabusive parents on all clustering variables and many validation variables. Results highlight clinically relevant diversity in parenting practices and functioning among abusive parents.

  9. More than just body weight: the role of body image in psychological and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rebecca E; Latner, Janet D; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2013-09-01

    The current study examined BMI and body image dissatisfaction as predictors of physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQL) and psychosocial functioning in a sample of 414 undergraduate students (mean age=21.5, SD=4.9; mean BMI=23.6, SD=5.2). In men and women, higher BMI was correlated with body image dissatisfaction and physical HRQL, but not with any measures of psychosocial functioning, whereas higher body image dissatisfaction was associated with poorer physical HRQL and psychosocial functioning. Furthermore, body image dissatisfaction was observed to mediate the relationship between BMI and physical HRQL in men and women. Interestingly, in this model, higher BMI predicted increased self-esteem. These findings suggest that body image dissatisfaction may be an important target for health interventions. PMID:23726517

  10. Effects of aerobic exercise during hemodialysis on physical functional performance and depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yueh-Min; Chung, Yu-Chu; Chang, Jung-San; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have concluded that exercise training is beneficial to patients on hemodialysis (HD). Results, however, have shown that differences in the type, intensity, and frequency of physical exercise lead to variability in its effects on physical functional performance and depression. Further research is thus warranted. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on physical functional performance and depression during HD. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, we recruited HD patients and nonrandomly assigned them to an exercise group (n = 13) that completed a 12-week aerobic exercise program during HD or a control group (n = 11) that did no exercise during HD. The primary outcome measures were physical functional performance, as evaluated by the 6-min walk test and the sit-to-stand test, and depression, as evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory II. The secondary outcome measures were albumin and triglyceride levels and hematocrit. Results revealed significant between-group differences in physical functional performance and depression but not in albumin level, hematocrit, or triglyceride level. Findings suggest that exercise may play a critical role in physical functional performance and may decrease depression. Exercise should be encouraged and performed during HD in HD centers.

  11. The CHUVA Project Contributions to the Understanding of Anthropogenic Interactions Affecting the Atmospheric Physics over Amazonas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroon, E.; Frierson, D. M.; Kang, S. M.; Scheff, J.; Battisti, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Greater precipitation falls in the northern hemisphere (NH) tropics than in the southern hemisphere (SH) tropics over the course of the year. Here, we examine how Andes topography, ocean heat fluxes, and the presence of land affect the location of tropical precipitation in an idealized aquaplanet version of GFDL's AM2.1 GCM. We find that all three of these features influence which hemisphere has greater precipitation, though to different extents. The addition of Andes topography leads to a small regional northward shift of rainfall, but realistic ocean heat transport leads to a much larger and more global northward shift of precipitation. In simulations with an idealized NH subtropical continent, the location of tropical precipitation depends on the land albedo and continent width. To demonstrate this, we place a single Sahara-like rectangular continent with a width of 60-degrees and an albedo of 0.3 into the NH. This simulation has greater SH tropical precipitation, despite the NH continent's hot surface: the high land albedo increases the NH deficit of energy, creating an anomalous Hadley circulation that imports energy to the NH and moisture to the SH. As a result, the hemisphere with greater temperature is not the hemisphere with greater precipitation. However, simulations with wider continents and the same fixed albedo shift precipitation into the NH as the continent widens. While northward ocean heat transport is likely the reason for the observed annual NH peak in tropical precipitation, these experiments show that continents and topography also play an important role in modifying its location.

  12. Empathic responsiveness and affective reactivity to infant stimuli in high- and low-risk for physical child abuse mothers.

    PubMed

    Milner, J S; Halsey, L B; Fultz, J

    1995-06-01

    Empathic responsiveness and affective reactivity to infant stimuli were examined in matched groups of high- and low-risk for physical child abuse mothers. Hypotheses were generated based on models of aggression and the child abuse literature. Although no between-group differences were found in empathy, within-group differences were observed. Compared to baseline, high-risk mothers reported no change (p > .05) in empathy across infant conditions (baseline, smiling, quiet, and crying), while low-risk mothers reported an increase (p < .0005) in empathy following presentation of the crying infant. Although there was no change in empathy, high-risk mothers reported more sadness, distress, hostility, unhappiness, and less quietness following presentation of the crying infant. Low-risk mothers reported no changes in sadness, distress, and hostility. The data for high-risk mothers are congruent with reports that physical child abusers are less empathic and more hostile in response to a crying child. The findings support aggression models which suggest the lack of empathy and the presence of negative affectivity precede abusive behavior. Post-hoc analyses also provide support for an emotional contagion perspective, where high-risk parents, compared to low-risk parents, are thought to more frequently reflect the emotional state of the infant.

  13. Plant species richness and functional traits affect community stability after a flood event.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Felícia M; Wright, Alexandra J; Eisenhauer, Nico; Ebeling, Anne; Roscher, Christiane; Wagg, Cameron; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Pillar, Valério D

    2016-05-19

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events. It is therefore of major importance to identify the community attributes that confer stability in ecological communities during such events. In June 2013, a flood event affected a plant diversity experiment in Central Europe (Jena, Germany). We assessed the effects of plant species richness, functional diversity, flooding intensity and community means of functional traits on different measures of stability (resistance, resilience and raw biomass changes from pre-flood conditions). Surprisingly, plant species richness reduced community resistance in response to the flood. This was mostly because more diverse communities grew more immediately following the flood. Raw biomass increased over the previous year; this resulted in decreased absolute value measures of resistance. There was no clear response pattern for resilience. We found that functional traits drove these changes in raw biomass: communities with a high proportion of late-season, short-statured plants with dense, shallow roots and small leaves grew more following the flood. Late-growing species probably avoided the flood, whereas greater root length density might have allowed species to better access soil resources brought from the flood, thus growing more in the aftermath. We conclude that resource inputs following mild floods may favour the importance of traits related to resource acquisition and be less associated with flooding tolerance.

  14. Aesthetic and Functional Rehabilitation of the Primary Dentition Affected by Amelogenesis Imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Marquezin, Maria Carolina Salomé; Zancopé, Bruna Raquel; Pacheco, Larissa Ferreira; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Pascon, Fernanda Miori

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case report was to describe the oral rehabilitation of a five-year-old boy patient diagnosed with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) in the primary dentition. AI is a group of hereditary disorders that affects the enamel structure. The patient was brought to the dental clinic complaining of tooth hypersensitivity during meals. The medical history and clinical examination were used to arrive at the diagnosis of AI. The treatment was oral rehabilitation of the primary molars with stainless steel crowns and resin-filled celluloid forms. The main objectives of the selected treatment were to enhance the esthetics, restore masticatory function, and eliminate the teeth sensitivity. The child was monitored in the pediatric dentistry clinic at four-month intervals until the mixed dentition stage. Treatment not only restored function and esthetic, but also showed a positive psychological impact and thereby improved perceived quality of life. The preventive, psychological, and curative measures of a young child with AI were successful. This result can encourage the clinicians to seek a cost-effective technique such as stainless steel crowns, and resin-filled celluloid forms to reestablish the oral functions and improve the child's psychosocial development. PMID:25705526

  15. Aesthetic and functional rehabilitation of the primary dentition affected by amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Marquezin, Maria Carolina Salomé; Zancopé, Bruna Raquel; Pacheco, Larissa Ferreira; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Pascon, Fernanda Miori

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case report was to describe the oral rehabilitation of a five-year-old boy patient diagnosed with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) in the primary dentition. AI is a group of hereditary disorders that affects the enamel structure. The patient was brought to the dental clinic complaining of tooth hypersensitivity during meals. The medical history and clinical examination were used to arrive at the diagnosis of AI. The treatment was oral rehabilitation of the primary molars with stainless steel crowns and resin-filled celluloid forms. The main objectives of the selected treatment were to enhance the esthetics, restore masticatory function, and eliminate the teeth sensitivity. The child was monitored in the pediatric dentistry clinic at four-month intervals until the mixed dentition stage. Treatment not only restored function and esthetic, but also showed a positive psychological impact and thereby improved perceived quality of life. The preventive, psychological, and curative measures of a young child with AI were successful. This result can encourage the clinicians to seek a cost-effective technique such as stainless steel crowns, and resin-filled celluloid forms to reestablish the oral functions and improve the child's psychosocial development. PMID:25705526

  16. Prospective Memory Function in Late Adulthood: Affect at Encoding and Resource Allocation Costs

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Julie D.; Joeffry, Sebastian; Terrett, Gill; Ballhausen, Nicola; Kliegel, Matthias; Rendell, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies have found that prospective memory (PM) cues which are emotionally valenced influence age effects in prospective remembering, but it remains unclear whether this effect reflects the operation of processes implemented at encoding or retrieval. In addition, none of the prior ageing studies of valence on PM function have examined potential costs of engaging in different valence conditions, or resource allocation trade-offs between the PM and the ongoing task. In the present study, younger, young-old and old-old adults completed a PM task in which the valence of the cues varied systematically (positive, negative or neutral) at encoding, but was kept constant (neutral) at retrieval. The results indicated that PM accuracy did not vary as a function of affect at encoding, and that this effect did not interact with age group. There was also no main or interaction effect of valence on PM reaction time in PM cue trials, indicating that valence costs across the three encoding conditions were equivalent. Old-old adults’ PM accuracy was reduced relative to both young-old and younger adults. Prospective remembering incurred dual-task costs for all three groups. Analyses of reaction time data suggested that for both young-old and old-old, these costs were greater, implying differential resource allocation cost trade-offs. However, when reaction time data were expressed as a proportional change that adjusted for the general slowing of the older adults, costs did not differ as a function of group. PMID:25893540

  17. Human CalDAG-GEFI gene (RASGRP2) mutation affects platelet function and causes severe bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Canault, Matthias; Ghalloussi, Dorsaf; Grosdidier, Charlotte; Guinier, Marie; Perret, Claire; Chelghoum, Nadjim; Germain, Marine; Raslova, Hana; Peiretti, Franck; Morange, Pierre E.; Saut, Noemie; Pillois, Xavier; Nurden, Alan T.; Cambien, François; Pierres, Anne; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Tregouet, David-Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The nature of an inherited platelet disorder was investigated in three siblings affected by severe bleeding. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified the culprit mutation (cG742T) in the RAS guanyl-releasing protein-2 (RASGRP2) gene coding for calcium- and DAG-regulated guanine exchange factor-1 (CalDAG-GEFI). Platelets from individuals carrying the mutation present a reduced ability to activate Rap1 and to perform proper αIIbβ3 integrin inside-out signaling. Expression of CalDAG-GEFI mutant in HEK293T cells abolished Rap1 activation upon stimulation. Nevertheless, the PKC- and ADP-dependent pathways allow residual platelet activation in the absence of functional CalDAG-GEFI. The mutation impairs the platelet’s ability to form thrombi under flow and spread normally as a consequence of reduced Rac1 GTP-binding. Functional deficiencies were confined to platelets and megakaryocytes with no leukocyte alteration. This contrasts with the phenotype seen in type III leukocyte adhesion deficiency caused by the absence of kindlin-3. Heterozygous did not suffer from bleeding and have normal platelet aggregation; however, their platelets mimicked homozygous ones by failing to undergo normal adhesion under flow and spreading. Rescue experiments on cultured patient megakaryocytes corrected the functional deficiency after transfection with wild-type RASGRP2. Remarkably, the presence of a single normal allele is sufficient to prevent bleeding, making CalDAG-GEFI a novel and potentially safe therapeutic target to prevent thrombosis. PMID:24958846

  18. Proliferation of Purple Sulphur Bacteria at the Sediment Surface Affects Intertidal Mat Diversity and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Hubas, Cédric; Jesus, Bruno; Ruivo, Mickael; Meziane, Tarik; Thiney, Najet; Davoult, Dominique; Spilmont, Nicolas; Paterson, David M.; Jeanthon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative absence of studies dealing with mats of purple sulphur bacteria in the intertidal zone. These bacteria display an array of metabolic pathways that allow them to disperse and develop under a wide variety of conditions, making these mats important in terms of ecosystem processes and functions. Mass blooms of purple sulphur bacteria develop during summer on sediments in the intertidal zone especially on macroalgal deposits. The microbial composition of different types of mats differentially affected by the development of purple sulphur bacteria was examined, at low tide, using a set of biochemical markers (fatty acids, pigments) and composition was assessed against their influence on ecosystem functions (sediment cohesiveness, CO2 fixation). We demonstrated that proliferation of purple sulphur bacteria has a major impact on intertidal mats diversity and functions. Indeed, assemblages dominated by purple sulphur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were efficient exopolymer producers and their biostabilisation potential was significant. In addition, the massive growth of purple sulphur bacteria resulted in a net CO2 degassing whereas diatom dominated biofilms represented a net CO2 sink. PMID:24340018

  19. Plant species richness and functional traits affect community stability after a flood event.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Felícia M; Wright, Alexandra J; Eisenhauer, Nico; Ebeling, Anne; Roscher, Christiane; Wagg, Cameron; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Pillar, Valério D

    2016-05-19

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events. It is therefore of major importance to identify the community attributes that confer stability in ecological communities during such events. In June 2013, a flood event affected a plant diversity experiment in Central Europe (Jena, Germany). We assessed the effects of plant species richness, functional diversity, flooding intensity and community means of functional traits on different measures of stability (resistance, resilience and raw biomass changes from pre-flood conditions). Surprisingly, plant species richness reduced community resistance in response to the flood. This was mostly because more diverse communities grew more immediately following the flood. Raw biomass increased over the previous year; this resulted in decreased absolute value measures of resistance. There was no clear response pattern for resilience. We found that functional traits drove these changes in raw biomass: communities with a high proportion of late-season, short-statured plants with dense, shallow roots and small leaves grew more following the flood. Late-growing species probably avoided the flood, whereas greater root length density might have allowed species to better access soil resources brought from the flood, thus growing more in the aftermath. We conclude that resource inputs following mild floods may favour the importance of traits related to resource acquisition and be less associated with flooding tolerance. PMID:27114578

  20. Herbivore species richness and feeding complementarity affect community structure and function on a coral reef

    PubMed Central

    Burkepile, Deron E.; Hay, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Consumer effects on prey are well known for cascading through food webs and producing dramatic top-down effects on community structure and ecosystem function. Bottom-up effects of prey (primary producer) biodiversity are also well known. However, the role of consumer diversity in affecting community structure or ecosystem function is not well understood. Here, we show that herbivore species richness can be critical for maintaining the structure and function of coral reefs. In two experiments over 2 years, we constructed large cages enclosing single herbivore species, equal densities of mixed species of herbivores, or excluding herbivores and assessed effects on both seaweeds and corals. When compared with single-herbivore treatments, mixed-herbivore treatments lowered macroalgal abundance by 54–76%, enhanced cover of crustose coralline algae (preferred recruitment sites for corals) by 52–64%, increased coral cover by 22%, and prevented coral mortality. Complementary feeding by herbivorous fishes drove the herbivore richness effects, because macroalgae were unable to effectively deter fishes with different feeding strategies. Maintaining herbivore species richness appears critical for preserving coral reefs, because complementary feeding by diverse herbivores produces positive, but indirect, effects on corals, the foundation species for the ecosystem. PMID:18845686

  1. Fructose decreases physical activity and increases body fat without affecting hippocampal neurogenesis and learning relative to an isocaloric glucose diet.

    PubMed

    Rendeiro, Catarina; Masnik, Ashley M; Mun, Jonathan G; Du, Kristy; Clark, Diana; Dilger, Ryan N; Dilger, Anna C; Rhodes, Justin S

    2015-04-20

    Recent evidence suggests that fructose consumption is associated with weight gain, fat deposition and impaired cognitive function. However it is unclear whether the detrimental effects are caused by fructose itself or by the concurrent increase in overall energy intake. In the present study we examine the impact of a fructose diet relative to an isocaloric glucose diet in the absence of overfeeding, using a mouse model that mimics fructose intake in the top percentile of the USA population (18% energy). Following 77 days of supplementation, changes in body weight (BW), body fat, physical activity, cognitive performance and adult hippocampal neurogenesis were assessed. Despite the fact that no differences in calorie intake were observed between groups, the fructose animals displayed significantly increased BW, liver mass and fat mass in comparison to the glucose group. This was further accompanied by a significant reduction in physical activity in the fructose animals. Conversely, no differences were detected in hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive/motor performance as measured by object recognition, fear conditioning and rotorod tasks. The present study suggests that fructose per se, in the absence of excess energy intake, increases fat deposition and BW potentially by reducing physical activity, without impacting hippocampal neurogenesis or cognitive function.

  2. A Physical Activity Program Improves Behavior and Cognitive Functions in Children with ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verret, Claudia; Guay, Marie-Claude; Berthiaume, Claude; Gardiner, Phillip; Beliveau, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the effects of a moderate- to high-intensity physical activity program on fitness, cognitive functions, and ADHD-related behavior in children with ADHD. Method: Fitness level, motor skills, behaviors, and cognitive functions are assessed by standardized tests before and after a 10-week training…

  3. Benefits of Physical Exercise on Executive Functions in Older People with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Katia; de Quadros, Antonio Carlos, Jr.; Santos, Ruth Ferreira; Stella, Florindo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Gobbi, Sebastiao

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature, but the potential benefits to slow the eventual decline in executive functioning (EF) caused by neurodegeneration from Parkinson's Disease (PD) have rarely been studied. Thus the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal…

  4. Older Adults in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A New Strategy for Enhancing Physical Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Foy, Capri Gabrielle; Brawley, Lawrence R.; Brubaker, Peter H.; Focht, Brian C.; Norris, James L., III; Smith, Marci L.

    2002-01-01

    Contrasted the effect of a group-mediated cognitive- behavioral intervention (GMCB) versus traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CRP) upon changes in objective and self-reported physical function of older adults after 3 months of exercise therapy. Both groups improved significantly. Adults with lower function at the outset of the intervention…

  5. Can common functional gene variants affect visual discrimination in metacontrast masking?

    PubMed

    Maksimov, Margus; Vaht, Mariliis; Harro, Jaanus; Bachmann, Talis

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms of visual perception should be robustly fast and provide veridical information about environmental objects in order to facilitate survival and successful coping. Because species-specific brain mechanisms for fast vision must have evolved under heavy pressure for efficiency, it has been held that different human individuals see the physical world in the same way and produce psychophysical functions of visual discrimination that are qualitatively the same. For many years, this assumption has been implicitly accepted in vision research studying extremely fast, basic visual processes, including studies of visual masking. However, in recent studies of metacontrast masking surprisingly robust individual differences in the qualitative aspects of subjects' performance have been found. As the basic species-specific visual functions very likely are based on universal brain mechanisms of vision, these differences probably are the outcome of variability in ontogenetic development (i.e., formation of idiosyncrasic skills of perception). Such developmental differences can be brought about by variants of genes that are differentially expressed in the course of CNS development. The objective of this study was to assess whether visual discrimination in metacontrast masking is related to three widely studied genetic polymorphisms implicated in brain function and used here as independent variables. The findings suggest no main effects of BDNF Val66Met, NRG1/rs6994992, or 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms on metacontrast performance, but several notable interactions of genetic variables with gender, stage of the sequence of experimental trials, perceptual strategies, and target/mask shape congruence were found. Thus, basic behavioral functions of fast vision may be influenced by common genetic variability. Also, when left uncontrolled, genetic factors may seriously confound variables in vision research using masking, obscure clear theoretical interpretation, lead to unexplicable inter

  6. Physical and functional interactions between Werner syndrome helicase and mismatch-repair initiation factors

    PubMed Central

    Saydam, Nurten; Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Dietschy, Tobias; Garcia, Patrick L.; Peña-Diaz, Javier; Shevelev, Igor; Stagljar, Igor; Janscak, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a severe recessive disorder characterized by premature aging, cancer predisposition and genomic instability. The gene mutated in WS encodes a bi-functional enzyme called WRN that acts as a RecQ-type DNA helicase and a 3′-5′ exonuclease, but its exact role in DNA metabolism is poorly understood. Here we show that WRN physically interacts with the MSH2/MSH6 (MutSα), MSH2/MSH3 (MutSβ) and MLH1/PMS2 (MutLα) heterodimers that are involved in the initiation of mismatch repair (MMR) and the rejection of homeologous recombination. MutSα and MutSβ can strongly stimulate the helicase activity of WRN specifically on forked DNA structures with a 3′-single-stranded arm. The stimulatory effect of MutSα on WRN-mediated unwinding is enhanced by a G/T mismatch in the DNA duplex ahead of the fork. The MutLα protein known to bind to the MutS α–heteroduplex complexes has no effect on WRN-mediated DNA unwinding stimulated by MutSα, nor does it affect DNA unwinding by WRN alone. Our data are consistent with results of genetic experiments in yeast suggesting that MMR factors act in conjunction with a RecQ-type helicase to reject recombination between divergent sequences. PMID:17715146

  7. Continuum kinetic methods for analyzing wave physics and distribution function dynamics in the turbulence dissipation challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juno, J.; Hakim, A.; TenBarge, J.; Dorland, W.

    2015-12-01

    We present for the first time results for the turbulence dissipation challenge, with specific focus on the linear wave portion of the challenge, using a variety of continuum kinetic models: hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell, gyrokinetic, and full Vlasov-Maxwell. As one of the goals of the wave problem as it is outlined is to identify how well various models capture linear physics, we compare our results to linear Vlasov and gyrokinetic theory. Preliminary gyrokinetic results match linear theory extremely well due to the geometry of the problem, which eliminates the dominant nonlinearity. With the non-reduced models, we explore how the subdominant nonlinearities manifest and affect the evolution of the turbulence and the energy budget. We also take advantage of employing continuum methods to study the dynamics of the distribution function, with particular emphasis on the full Vlasov results where a basic collision operator has been implemented. As the community prepares for the next stage of the turbulence dissipation challenge, where we hope to do large 3D simulations to inform the next generation of observational missions such as THOR (Turbulence Heating ObserveR), we argue for the consideration of hybrid Vlasov and full Vlasov as candidate models for these critical simulations. With the use of modern numerical algorithms, we demonstrate the competitiveness of our code with traditional particle-in-cell algorithms, with a clear plan for continued improvements and optimizations to further strengthen the code's viability as an option for the next stage of the challenge.

  8. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Camilla M; Henderson, Heather A; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical development than participants with ASD. In the hierarchical linear modeling analysis, there were no differences in face processing accuracy between participants with and without ASD, but participants with ASD were more confident in their decisions. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have metacognitive impairments and are overconfident in face processing. Additionally, greater metacognitive awareness was predictive of better face processing accuracy, suggesting that metacognition may be a pivotal skill to teach in interventions.

  9. Stable complex formation between HIV Rev and the nucleosome assembly protein, NAP1, affects Rev function

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, Alan; Murley, Laura Lea; Gao Mian; Wong, Raymond; Clayton, Kiera; Brufatto, Nicole; Canadien, Veronica; Mamelak, Daniel; Chen, Tricia; Richards, Dawn; Zeghouf, Mahel; Greenblatt, Jack; Burks, Christian; Frappier, Lori

    2009-05-25

    The Rev protein of HIV-1 is essential for HIV-1 proliferation due to its role in exporting viral RNA from the nucleus. We used a modified version of tandem affinity purification (TAP) tagging to identify proteins interacting with HIV-1 Rev in human cells and discovered a prominent interaction between Rev and nucleosome assembly protein 1 (Nap1). This interaction was also observed by specific retention of Nap1 from human cell lysates on a Rev affinity column. Nap1 was found to bind Rev through the Rev arginine-rich domain and altered the oligomerization state of Rev in vitro. Overexpression of Nap1 stimulated the ability of Rev to export RNA, reduced the nucleolar localization of Rev, and affected Rev nuclear import rates. The results suggest that Nap-1 may influence Rev function by increasing the availability of Rev.

  10. Effects of a Cognitively Demanding Aerobic Intervention During Recess on Children's Physical Fitness and Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    van der Niet, Anneke G; Smith, Joanne; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scherder, Erik J A; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a physical activity program including both aerobic exercise and cognitively engaging physical activities on children's physical fitness and executive functions. Children from 3 primary schools (aged 8-12 years) were recruited. A quasi-experimental design was used. Children in the intervention group (n = 53; 19 boys, 34 girls) participated in a 22-week physical activity program for 30 min during lunch recess, twice a week. Children in the control group (n = 52; 32 boys, 20 girls) followed their normal lunch routine. Aerobic fitness, speed and agility, and muscle strength were assessed using the Eurofit test battery. Executive functions were assessed using tasks measuring inhibition (Stroop test), working memory (Visual Memory Span test, Digit Span test), cognitive flexibility (Trailmaking test), and planning (Tower of London). Children in the intervention group showed significantly greater improvement than children in the control group on the Stroop test and Digit Span test, reflecting enhanced inhibition and verbal working memory skills, respectively. No differences were found on any of the physical fitness variables. A physical activity program including aerobic exercise and cognitively engaging physical activities can enhance aspects of executive functioning in primary school children.

  11. Macrofauna assemblage composition and soil moisture interact to affect soil ecosystem functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collison, E. J.; Riutta, T.; Slade, E. M.

    2013-02-01

    Changing climatic conditions and habitat fragmentation are predicted to alter the soil moisture conditions of temperate forests. It is not well understood how the soil macrofauna community will respond to changes in soil moisture, and how changes to species diversity and community composition may affect ecosystem functions, such as litter decomposition and soil fluxes. Moreover, few studies have considered the interactions between the abiotic and biotic factors that regulate soil processes. Here we attempt to disentangle the interactive effects of two of the main factors that regulate soil processes at small scales - moisture and macrofauna assemblage composition. The response of assemblages of three common temperate soil invertebrates (Glomeris marginata Villers, Porcellio scaber Latreille and Philoscia muscorum Scopoli) to two contrasting soil moisture levels was examined in a series of laboratory mesocosm experiments. The contribution of the invertebrates to the leaf litter mass loss of two common temperate tree species of contrasting litter quality (easily decomposing Fraxinus excelsior L. and recalcitrant Quercus robur L.) and to soil CO2 fluxes were measured. Both moisture conditions and litter type influenced the functioning of the invertebrate assemblages, which was greater in high moisture conditions compared with low moisture conditions and on good quality vs. recalcitrant litter. In high moisture conditions, all macrofauna assemblages functioned at equal rates, whereas in low moisture conditions there were pronounced differences in litter mass loss among the assemblages. This indicates that species identity and assemblage composition are more important when moisture is limited. We suggest that complementarity between macrofauna species may mitigate the reduced functioning of some species, highlighting the importance of maintaining macrofauna species richness.

  12. Oral health conditions affect functional and social activities of terminally-ill cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ≥50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; p<.001, p=.042 and p<.001, respectively. Orofacial pain also had a significant social impact (p<.001). Patients with oral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (p<.001). Conclusions Oral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310

  13. How measurement artifacts affect cerebral autoregulation outcomes: A technical note on transfer function analysis.

    PubMed

    Meel-van den Abeelen, Aisha S S; de Jong, Daan L K; Lagro, Joep; Panerai, Ronney B; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is the mechanism that aims to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion during changes in blood pressure (BP). Transfer function analysis (TFA), the most reported method in literature to quantify CA, shows large between-study variability in outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of measurement artifacts in this variation. Specifically, the role of distortion in the BP and/or CBFV measurementon TFA outcomes was investigated. The influence of three types of artifacts on TFA outcomes was studied: loss of signal, motion artifacts, and baseline drifts. TFA metrics of signals without the simulated artifacts were compared with those of signals with artifacts. TFA outcomes scattered highly when more than 10% of BP signal or over 8% of the CBFV signal was lost, or when measurements contained one or more artifacts resulting from head movement. Furthermore, baseline drift affected interpretation of TFA outcomes when the power in the BP signal was 5 times the power in the LF band. In conclusion, loss of signal in BP and loss in CBFV, affects interpretation of TFA outcomes. Therefore, it is vital to validate signal quality to the defined standards before interpreting TFA outcomes. PMID:26935320

  14. Low-dose irradiation affects the functional behavior of oral microbiota in the context of mucositis

    PubMed Central

    De Ryck, Tine RG; De boel, Kevin; Wiles, Siouxsie; Boterberg, Tom; Van de Wiele, Tom; Swift, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The role of host–microbe interactions in the pathobiology of oral mucositis is still unclear; therefore, this study aimed to unravel the effect of irradiation on behavioral characteristics of oral microbial species in the context of mucositis. Using various experimental in vitro setups, the effects of irradiation on growth and biofilm formation of two Candida spp., Streptococcus salivarius and Klebsiella oxytoca in different culture conditions were evaluated. Irradiation did not affect growth of planktonic cells, but reduced the number of K. oxytoca cells in newly formed biofilms cultured in static conditions. Biofilm formation of K. oxytoca and Candida glabrata was affected by irradiation and depended on the culturing conditions. In the presence of mucins, these effects were lost, indicating the protective nature of mucins. Furthermore, the Galleria melonella model was used to study effects on microbial virulence. Irradiated K. oxytoca microbes were more virulent in G. melonella larvae compared to the nonirradiated ones. Our data indicate that low-dose irradiation can have an impact on functional characteristics of microbial species. Screening for pathogens like K. oxytoca in the context of mucosits could be useful to allow early detection and immediate intervention. PMID:26202372

  15. Behavioral Functions of the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System: an Affective Neuroethological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Alcaro, Antonio; Huber, Robert; Panksepp, Jaak

    2008-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopaminergic (ML-DA) system has been recognized for its central role in motivated behaviors, various types of reward, and, more recently, in cognitive processes. Functional theories have emphasized DA's involvement in the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors, and in the promotion and reinforcement of learning. The affective neuroethological perspective presented here, views the ML-DA system in terms of its ability to activate an instinctual emotional appetitive state (SEEKING) evolved to induce organisms to search for all varieties of life-supporting stimuli and to avoid harms. A description of the anatomical framework in which the ML system is embedded is followed by the argument that the SEEKING disposition emerges through functional integration of ventral basal ganglia (BG) into thalamocortical activities. Filtering cortical and limbic input that spread into BG, DA transmission promotes the “release” of neural activity patterns that induce active SEEKING behaviors when expressed at the motor level. Reverberation of these patterns constitutes a neurodynamic process for the inclusion of cognitive and perceptual representations within the extended networks of the SEEKING urge. In this way, the SEEKING disposition influences attention, incentive salience, associative learning, and anticipatory predictions. In our view, the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse are, in part, caused by the activation of the SEEKING disposition, ranging from appetitive drive to persistent craving depending on the intensity of the affect. The implications of such a view for understanding addiction are considered, with particular emphasis on factors predisposing individuals to develop compulsive drug seeking behaviors. PMID:17905440

  16. Physical Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Adults: The Mediating Effect of Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vance, David E; Marson, Daniel C; Triebel, Kristen L; Ball, Karlene K; Wadley, Virginia G; Cody, Shameka L

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms and social networks may influence the relationship between physical activity and cognition. Using structural equation modeling, depressive symptoms and social networks were examined as mediators between physical activity and cognition in community-dwelling older adults (N = 122), with a range of cognitive abilities (e.g., normal, mild cognitive impairment). The model included age, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleeping, social networks, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function. A path was observed between physical activity, depressive symptoms, and cognition; specifically, those who were more physically active experienced less depression and better cognitive functioning. No relationship between social networks and cognition was found. This model fits the data well (goodness-of-fit index = .93, adjusted goodness-of-fit index = .90, root mean square error of approximation = .06). Results suggest that physical activity may mitigate depressive symptoms, with beneficial effects on cognitive functioning in both those with and without mild cognitive impairment. Suggestions for managing depression and improving cognitive functioning are provided. PMID:27224681

  17. Factors that influence physical function and emotional well-being among Medicare-Medicaid enrollees.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kathy D; Pepper, Ginette A; Caserta, Michael; Wong, Bob; Brunker, Cherie P; Morris, Diana L; Burant, Christopher J; Hazelett, Susan; Kropp, Denise; Allen, Kyle R

    2015-01-01

    Dually enrolled Medicare-Medicaid older adults are a vulnerable population. We tested House's Conceptual Framework for Understanding Social Inequalities in Health and Aging in Medicare-Medicaid enrollees by examining the extent to which disparities indicators, which included race, age, gender, neighborhood poverty, education, income, exercise (e.g., walking), and physical activity (e.g., housework) influence physical function and emotional well-being. This secondary analysis included 337 Black (31%) and White (69%) older Medicare-Medicaid enrollees. Using path analysis, we determined that race, neighborhood poverty, education, and income did not influence physical function or emotional well-being. However, physical activity (e.g., housework) was associated with an increased self-report of physical function and emotional well-being of β = .23, p < .001; β = .17, p < .01, respectively. Future studies of factors that influence physical function and emotional well-being in this population should take into account health status indicators such as allostatic load, comorbidity, and perceived racism/discrimination.

  18. Physical Functioning and Mortality among Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: Insights from TRIAD

    PubMed Central

    Ylitalo, Kelly R.; McEwen, Laura N.; Karter, Andrew; Lee, Pearl; Herman, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a risk factor for mortality. Subjective health status, including self-reported physical functioning, may also be a marker for mortality. This study examined the association between self-reported physical functioning and mortality in people with diabetes, and determined if this association differed by race/ethnicity. We studied 7,894 type 2 diabetic patients who participated in Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD), a prospective study of diabetes care in managed care. At baseline in 2000, participants completed a questionnaire and had a medical record review. Physical functioning was assessed with the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). The National Death Index was searched annually for deaths over 10 years of follow-up (2000-2009). At baseline, mean age was 61.7 years, 50% were non-Hispanic white, 22% were black, and 16% of participants reported “good physical functioning” (better than norms for U.S. adults). Over 10 years, 28% of participants died (2,111/7,894); 39% (856/2,111) due to cardiovascular disease. Relative to those reporting good functioning, those reporting poor physical functioning had a 37% higher all-cause death rate, after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, body mass index, smoking, and comorbidities (Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.37; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.15, 1.63). Similarly, those reporting poor physical functioning had a 42% higher adjusted cardiovascular death rate compared to those reporting good functioning (HR= 1.42; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.90). Although blacks were less likely than whites to report good functioning (p<0.01), the association between functioning and mortality was consistent across race/ethnicity. In this managed care population with diabetes, self-reported physical functioning was a robust predictor of mortality, in addition to traditional biological risk factors, for all race/ethnic groups. Physical functioning assessments are easy to perform and may be useful benchmarks for

  19. [Changes in ingestive behavior during growth affects the functional maturation of temporomandibular joint nociceptive neurons of rats].

    PubMed

    Maya, Hiranuma

    2013-03-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) loading during development promotes its growth and maintains normal structure/function. Continuous change in diet consistency is related to development and maturation of the peripheral nervous system, including the nociceptive system. However, the functional modulation of TMJ-nociceptive neurons under different ingestive behavior is unclear. We fed growing rats a liquid diet to investigate the effects of low TMJ loading on the response properties of neurons in the trigeminal spinal tract subnucleus caudalis (Sp5C). Forty 2-week-old male rats were used. They were fed chow pellets (n = 20, C group) or a liquid diet (n = 20, LD group) soon after weaning. Firing activities of single sensory units in response to TMJ pressure stimuli were recorded at 4, 5, 7 and 9 weeks. In TMJ-nociceptive neurons, the firing threshold (FT) in the LD group was significantly lower than that in the C group at each recording age. The FT in the C group remained unchanged throughout the recording period, whereas that in the LD group was the highest at 4 weeks, and gradually decreased. On the other hand, the initial firing frequency (IFF) was significantly higher in the LD group than in the C group at each recording age. The IFF in the C group remained unchanged throughout the experimental period, whereas that in the LD group was at its lowest at 4 weeks, and gradually increased. Based on these findings, ingestive behavior that results from continuous changes in the physical consistency of the diet during growth may affect the functional maturation of TMJ-nociceptive neurons. PMID:23659164

  20. [Changes in ingestive behavior during growth affects the functional maturation of temporomandibular joint nociceptive neurons of rats].

    PubMed

    Maya, Hiranuma

    2013-03-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) loading during development promotes its growth and maintains normal structure/function. Continuous change in diet consistency is related to development and maturation of the peripheral nervous system, including the nociceptive system. However, the functional modulation of TMJ-nociceptive neurons under different ingestive behavior is unclear. We fed growing rats a liquid diet to investigate the effects of low TMJ loading on the response properties of neurons in the trigeminal spinal tract subnucleus caudalis (Sp5C). Forty 2-week-old male rats were used. They were fed chow pellets (n = 20, C group) or a liquid diet (n = 20, LD group) soon after weaning. Firing activities of single sensory units in response to TMJ pressure stimuli were recorded at 4, 5, 7 and 9 weeks. In TMJ-nociceptive neurons, the firing threshold (FT) in the LD group was significantly lower than that in the C group at each recording age. The FT in the C group remained unchanged throughout the recording period, whereas that in the LD group was the highest at 4 weeks, and gradually decreased. On the other hand, the initial firing frequency (IFF) was significantly higher in the LD group than in the C group at each recording age. The IFF in the C group remained unchanged throughout the experimental period, whereas that in the LD group was at its lowest at 4 weeks, and gradually increased. Based on these findings, ingestive behavior that results from continuous changes in the physical consistency of the diet during growth may affect the functional maturation of TMJ-nociceptive neurons.

  1. Effects of a DVD-Delivered Exercise Intervention on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Given the rapidly increasing demographic of older adults, it is vital to implement effective behavioral strategies to improve physical function to maintain activities of daily living. However, changing physical activity in older adults remains extremely difficult. The current trial tested the efficacy of a novel, 6-month, home-based, DVD-delivered exercise program focusing on flexibility, balance, and toning on the physical function of older adults. Methods. Older adults (N = 307) were recruited from 83 towns and cities throughout central Illinois. The trial consisted of 4 waves of recruitment and randomization from May 2010 through January 2012. Inclusion criteria included being inactive, at least 65 years of age, English speaking, providing physician’s consent, and willingness to be randomized. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment conditions: the exercise intervention or a healthy aging, attentional control. Functional assessments were completed at baseline and following the 6-month DVD intervention. Measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery, assessments of flexibility and strength, and self-reported functional limitations. Results. Participants in the DVD intervention condition demonstrated significant improvements in the Short Physical Performance Battery (p = .005), lower extremity flexibility (p = .04), and upper body strength (p = .003). There were no effects of the intervention on self-reported functional limitations. Conclusions. The exercise intervention produced a clinically significant improvement in the Short Physical Performance Battery and improvements in flexibility and strength, demonstrating the effectiveness of a low-cost DVD exercise program in improving physical function in older adults. PMID:23401566

  2. An interdisciplinary approach to study individuality in biological and physical systems functioning

    PubMed Central

    Mygal, V. P.; But, A. V.; Mygal, G. V.; Klimenko, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Signals of system functioning of different nature are presented in the parameter space (state-velocity-acceleration) as a trajectory of dynamic events. Such signals geometrization allows to reveal the hidden spatio-temporal correlation in dynamics of systems functioning. It is shown that the nature of relationship between the dynamic parameters of signal determines the natural cycle of sensor functioning. Its restructuring displays the inherited features of systems functioning in signature package. The universal differential-geometry parameters and new integrative indexes of system functioning are used to analyze the signatures of biological and physical signals. PMID:27412253

  3. An interdisciplinary approach to study individuality in biological and physical systems functioning.

    PubMed

    Mygal, V P; But, A V; Mygal, G V; Klimenko, I A

    2016-01-01

    Signals of system functioning of different nature are presented in the parameter space (state-velocity-acceleration) as a trajectory of dynamic events. Such signals geometrization allows to reveal the hidden spatio-temporal correlation in dynamics of systems functioning. It is shown that the nature of relationship between the dynamic parameters of signal determines the natural cycle of sensor functioning. Its restructuring displays the inherited features of systems functioning in signature package. The universal differential-geometry parameters and new integrative indexes of system functioning are used to analyze the signatures of biological and physical signals. PMID:27412253

  4. Screened hybrid density functionals for solid-state chemistry and physics.

    PubMed

    Janesko, Benjamin G; Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2009-01-21

    Density functional theory incorporating hybrid exchange-correlation functionals has been extraordinarily successful in providing accurate, computationally tractable treatments of molecular properties. However, conventional hybrid functionals can be problematic for solids. Their nonlocal, Hartree-Fock-like exchange term decays slowly and incorporates unphysical features in metals and narrow-bandgap semiconductors. This article provides an overview of our group's work on designing hybrid functionals for solids. We focus on the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof screened hybrid functional [J. Chem. Phys. 2003, 118, 8207], its applications to the chemistry and physics of solids and surfaces, and our efforts to build upon its successes.

  5. The Dynamic Relationship Between Physical Function and Cognition in Longitudinal Aging Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, Sean A. P.; Brewster, Paul; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Rubin, Marcie S.; Hofer, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    On average, older people remember less and walk more slowly than do younger persons. Some researchers argue that this is due in part to a common biologic process underlying age-related declines in both physical and cognitive functioning. Only recently have longitudinal data become available for analyzing this claim. We conducted a systematic review of English-language research published between 2000 and 2011 to evaluate the relations between rates of change in physical and cognitive functioning in older cohorts. Physical functioning was assessed using objective measures: walking speed, grip strength, chair rise time, flamingo stand time, and summary measures of physical functioning. Cognition was measured using mental state examinations, fluid cognition, and diagnosis of impairment. Results depended on measurement type: Change in grip strength was more strongly correlated with mental state, while change in walking speed was more strongly correlated with change in fluid cognition. Examining physical and cognitive functioning can help clinicians and researchers to better identify individuals and groups that are aging differently and at different rates. In future research, investigators should consider the importance of identifying different patterns and rates of decline, examine relations between more diverse types of measures, and analyze the order in which age-related declines occur. PMID:23349427

  6. TRIO loss of function is associated with mild intellectual disability and affects dendritic branching and synapse function.

    PubMed

    Ba, Wei; Yan, Yan; Reijnders, Margot R F; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke H M; Feenstra, Ilse; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Bosch, Daniëlle G M; De Leeuw, Nicole; Pfundt, Rolph; Gilissen, Christian; De Vries, Petra F; Veltman, Joris A; Hoischen, Alexander; Mefford, Heather C; Eichler, Evan E; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Nadif Kasri, Nael; De Vries, Bert B A

    2016-03-01

    Recently, we marked TRIO for the first time as a candidate gene for intellectual disability (ID). Across diverse vertebrate species, TRIO is a well-conserved Rho GTPase regulator that is highly expressed in the developing brain. However, little is known about the specific events regulated by TRIO during brain development and its clinical impact in humans when mutated. Routine clinical diagnostic testing identified an intragenic de novo deletion of TRIO in a boy with ID. Targeted sequencing of this gene in over 2300 individuals with ID, identified three additional truncating mutations. All index cases had mild to borderline ID combined with behavioral problems consisting of autistic, hyperactive and/or aggressive behavior. Studies in dissociated rat hippocampal neurons demonstrated the enhancement of dendritic formation by suppressing endogenous TRIO, and similarly decreasing endogenous TRIO in organotypic hippocampal brain slices significantly increased synaptic strength by increasing functional synapses. Together, our findings provide new mechanistic insight into how genetic deficits in TRIO can lead to early neuronal network formation by directly affecting both neurite outgrowth and synapse development. PMID:26721934

  7. Copper sulfate affects Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cardiomyocytes structure and contractile function.

    PubMed

    de Andrade Waldemarin, Kátia Cristina; Alves, Rosiane Nascimento; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; Kalinin, Ana Lúcia

    2012-04-01

    Copper sulfate (CuSO(4))is an inorganic chemical product worldwide used as an algaecide and a fungicide in aquaculture and agriculture and being discharged into freshwater environments where it can affect the freshwater fauna, especially fishes. The impact of copper on fish cardiac function was analyzed in two groups of Nile tilapias, Oreochromis niloticus (control group and group exposed to 1 mg l(-1) of CuSO(4) for 96 h). Structural and ultra-structural changes were studied and related to perturbations of the inotropic and chronotropic responses of ventricle strips. Fish of Cu exposed group did not show significant alterations in the medium diameter and in the percentage of collagen in the cardiac myocytes when evaluated through the light microscope. However, the ultrastructural analysis revealed cellular swelling followed by mitochondrial swelling. The myofibrils did not show significant variations among groups. Force contraction was significantly decreased, and rates of time to tension increase (contraction) and decrease (relaxation) were significantly augmented after copper exposure. The results suggest that the copper sulfate impairs the oxidative mitochondrial function and consequently alters the cardiac performance of this species.

  8. Histopathology of growth anomaly affecting the coral, Montipora capitata: implications on biological functions and population viability.

    PubMed

    Burns, John H R; Takabayashi, Misaki

    2011-01-01

    Growth anomalies (GAs) affect the coral, Montipora capitata, at Wai'ōpae, southeast Hawai'i Island. Our histopathological analysis of this disease revealed that the GA tissue undergoes changes which compromise anatomical machinery for biological functions such as defense, feeding, digestion, and reproduction. GA tissue exhibited significant reductions in density of ova (66.1-93.7%), symbiotic dinoflagellates (38.8-67.5%), mesenterial filaments (11.2-29.0%), and nematocytes (28.8-46.0%). Hyperplasia of the basal body wall but no abnormal levels of necrosis and algal or fungal invasion was found in GA tissue. Skeletal density along the basal body wall was significantly reduced in GAs compared to healthy or unaffected sections. The reductions in density of the above histological features in GA tissue were collated with disease severity data to quantify the impact of this disease at the colony and population level. Resulting calculations showed this disease reduces the fecundity of M. capitata colonies at Wai'ōpae by 0.7-49.6%, depending on GA severity, and the overall population fecundity by 2.41±0.29%. In sum, GA in this M. capitata population reduces the coral's critical biological functions and increases susceptibility to erosion, clearly defining itself as a disease and an ecological threat. PMID:22205976

  9. Repeated superovulation may affect mitochondrial functions of cumulus cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Juan-Ke; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Yin, Shen; Zhang, Cui-Lian; Ge, Zhao-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation by exogenous gonadotrophins is a key procedure during the in vitro fertilization cycle to obtain a sufficient number of oocytes in humans. Previous studies demonstrated that repeated superovulation had deleterious effects on the ovaries. However, whether repeated superovulation adversely affects the mitochondrial functions of cumulus cells remains unclear. In this study, mice were divided into three groups: superovulation once (R1); superovulation three times (R3), and superovulation five times (R5). We evaluated the effects of repeated superovulation on mitochondrial DNA copies (mtDNA) and observed decreased mtDNA copies per cell with increasing number of superovulation cycles. Further, we investigated the DNA methylation status in exon 2 and the mRNA expression level of nuclear-encoded DNA polymerase gamma A (PolgA). The results showed that the DNA methylation levels of PolgA in R1 and R5 were slightly lower than in R3. Additionally, the altered DNA methylation in PolgA coincided with the changes in PolgA expression in cumulus cells. We also found that the mRNA expression of COX1, CYTB, ND2, and ND4 was altered by repeated superovulation in cumulus cells. Thus, repeated superovulation had adverse effects on mitochondrial function. PMID:27698360

  10. α7nAchR/NMDAR coupling affects NMDAR function and object recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Shupeng; Nai, Qiang; Lipina, Tatiana V; Roder, John C; Liu, Fang

    2013-12-20

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) and NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) are both ligand-gated ion channels permeable to Ca2+ and Na+. Previous studies have demonstrated functional modulation of NMDARs by nAchRs, although the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. We have previously reported that α7nAchR forms a protein complex with the NMDAR through a protein-protein interaction. We also developed an interfering peptide that is able to disrupt the α7nAchR-NMDAR complex and blocks cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking in rat models of relapse. In the present study, we investigated whether the α7nAchR-NMDAR interaction is responsible for the functional modulation of NMDAR by α7nAchR using both electrophysiological and behavioral tests. We have found that activation of α7nAchR upregulates NMDAR-mediated whole cell currents and LTP of mEPSC in cultured hippocampal neurons, which can be abolished by the interfering peptide that disrupts the α7nAchR-NMDAR interaction. Moreover, administration of the interfering peptide in mice impairs novel object recognition but not Morris water maze performance. Our results suggest that α7nAchR/NMDAR coupling may selectively affect some aspects of learning and memory.

  11. Systematic Functional Dissection of Common Genetic Variation Affecting Red Blood Cell Traits.

    PubMed

    Ulirsch, Jacob C; Nandakumar, Satish K; Wang, Li; Giani, Felix C; Zhang, Xiaolan; Rogov, Peter; Melnikov, Alexandre; McDonel, Patrick; Do, Ron; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of associations between common genetic variants and human disease phenotypes, but the majority of these variants are non-coding, often requiring genetic fine-mapping, epigenomic profiling, and individual reporter assays to delineate potential causal variants. We employ a massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) to simultaneously screen 2,756 variants in strong linkage disequilibrium with 75 sentinel variants associated with red blood cell traits. We show that this assay identifies elements with endogenous erythroid regulatory activity. Across 23 sentinel variants, we conservatively identified 32 MPRA functional variants (MFVs). We used targeted genome editing to demonstrate endogenous enhancer activity across 3 MFVs that predominantly affect the transcription of SMIM1, RBM38, and CD164. Functional follow-up of RBM38 delineates a key role for this gene in the alternative splicing program occurring during terminal erythropoiesis. Finally, we provide evidence for how common GWAS-nominated variants can disrupt cell-type-specific transcriptional regulatory pathways. PMID:27259154

  12. Dietary n-3 PUFA affect lipid metabolism and tissue function-related genes in bovine muscle.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Beate; Hocquette, Jean-Francois; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Nuernberg, Gerd; Nuernberg, Karin

    2012-09-01

    Gene expression profiles of bovine longissimus muscle as affected by dietary n-3 v. n-6 fatty acid (FA) intervention were analysed by microarray pre-screening of >3000 muscle biology/meat quality-related genes as well as subsequent quantitative RT-PCR gene expression validation of genes encoding lipogenesis-related transcription factors (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1), key-lipogenic enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)), lipid storage-associated proteins (adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP)) and muscle biology-related proteins (cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, α1, farnesyl diphosphate farnesyl transferase 1, sema domain 3C (SEMA3C)). Down-regulation of ACACA (P = 0·00), FASN (P = 0·09) and SCD (P = 0·02) gene expression upon an n-3 FA intervention directly corresponded to reduced SFA, MUFA and total FA concentrations in longissimus muscle, whereas changes in ADFP (P = 0·00) and SEMA3C (P = 0·05) gene expression indicated improved muscle function via enhanced energy metabolism, vasculogenesis, innervation and mediator synthesis. The present study highlights the significance of dietary n-3 FA intervention on muscle development, maintenance and function, which are relevant for meat quality tailoring of bovine tissues and modulating animal production-relevant physiological processes.

  13. Partition functions of mini-F affect plasmid DNA topology in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Biek, D P; Strings, J

    1995-02-24

    Efficient segregation of the low copy number plasmid mini-F is dependent on partition functions encoded by the plasmid sopABC genes. The sop region encodes proteins SopA and SopB and a cis-acting element, sopC, which may function as a centromere analog. The SopC segment contains 12 imperfect 43 bp repeats to which the SopB protein binds. We have found that mutations in the sop genes affect superhelicity of isolated plasmid DNA. Plasmids with mutations in sopB or a deletion of the sopC segment were more highly negatively supercoiled than normal. In contrast, a mutation in the autoregulatory SopA protein resulted in plasmid DNA that was more relaxed. The SopAB proteins provided in trans to a pBR322 plasmid carrying sopC resulted in the relaxation of negative supercoils. We suggest that binding of SopB protein to the cis-acting sopC segment in vivo, alone or in conjunction with other proteins, produced a change in DNA topology in which positive superhelical turns were introduced locally. This higher-order nucleoprotein structure may allow interaction of plasmid mini-F with the partition apparatus.

  14. Phenotype, donor age and gender affect function of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are attractive for cell-based therapies ranging from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering to immunomodulation. However, clinical efficacy is variable and it is unclear how the phenotypes defining bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs as well as donor characteristics affect their functional properties. Methods BM-MSCs were isolated from 53 (25 female, 28 male; age: 13 to 80 years) donors and analyzed by: (1) phenotype using flow cytometry and cell size measurement; (2) in vitro growth kinetics using population doubling time; (3) colony formation capacity and telomerase activity; and (4) function by in vitro differentiation capacity, suppression of T cell proliferation, cytokines and trophic factors secretion, and hormone and growth factor receptor expression. Additionally, expression of Oct4, Nanog, Prdm14 and SOX2 mRNA was compared to pluripotent stem cells. Results BM-MSCs from younger donors showed increased expression of MCAM, VCAM-1, ALCAM, PDGFRβ, PDL-1, Thy1 and CD71, and led to lower IL-6 production when co-cultured with activated T cells. Female BM-MSCs showed increased expression of IFN-γR1 and IL-6β, and were more potent in T cell proliferation suppression. High-clonogenic BM-MSCs were smaller, divided more rapidly and were more frequent in BM-MSC preparations from younger female donors. CD10, β1integrin, HCAM, CD71, VCAM-1, IFN-γR1, MCAM, ALCAM, LNGFR and HLA ABC were correlated to BM-MSC preparations with high clonogenic potential and expression of IFN-γR1, MCAM and HLA ABC was associated with rapid growth of BM-MSCs. The mesodermal differentiation capacity of BM-MSCs was unaffected by donor age or gender but was affected by phenotype (CD10, IFN-γR1, GD2). BM-MSCs from female and male donors expressed androgen receptor and FGFR3, and secreted VEGF-A, HGF, LIF, Angiopoietin-1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and NGFB. HGF secretion correlated negatively to the expression of CD71, CD140b and

  15. An Experience Sampling Study of Physical Activity and Positive Affect: Investigating the Role of Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity Across Time.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S; Sweet, Shane N

    2013-04-18

    The nature of the association between physical activity and positive affect is complex, prompting experts to recommend continued examination of moderating variables. The main purpose of this 2-week field study was to examine the influence of situational motivational regulations from self-determination theory (SDT) on changes in positive affect from pre- to post- to 3-hours post-physical activity. Another purpose was to clarify the relationship between physical activity intensity [i.e., Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE)] and positive affect at the stated time points. This study employed an experience sampling design using electronic questionnaires. Sixty-six healthy and active, multiple-role women provided recurrent assessments of their physical activity, situational motivation, and positive affect in their everyday lives over a 14-day period. Specifically, measures were obtained at the three time points of interest (i.e., pre-, post-, 3-hours post-physical activity). The data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that intrinsic motivation was related to post-physical activity positive affect while the influence of identified regulation appeared 3-hours post-physical activity. In addition, RPE, which was significantly predicted by levels of introjection, was more strongly associated with an increase in positive affect post-physical activity than three hours later. The theoretical implications of these findings vis-à vis SDT, namely in regards to a viable motivational sequence predicting the influence of physical activity on affective states, are discussed. The findings regarding the differential influences of RPE and motivational regulations carries applications for facilitating women's well-being.

  16. Maternal age and in vitro culture affect mitochondrial number and function in equine oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, W Karin; Colleoni, Silvia; Galli, Cesare; Paris, Damien B B P; Colenbrander, Ben; Roelen, Bernard A J; Stout, Tom A E

    2015-07-01

    Advanced maternal age and in vitro embryo production (IVP) predispose to pregnancy loss in horses. We investigated whether mare age and IVP were associated with alterations in mitochondrial (mt) DNA copy number or function that could compromise oocyte and embryo development. Effects of mare age (<12 vs ≥12 years) on mtDNA copy number, ATP content and expression of genes involved in mitochondrial replication (mitochondrial transcription factor (TFAM), mtDNA polymerase γ subunit B (mtPOLB) and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB)), energy production (ATP synthase-coupling factor 6, mitochondrial-like (ATP-synth_F6)) and oxygen free radical scavenging (glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3)) were investigated in oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM), and in early embryos. Expression of TFAM, mtPOLB and ATP-synth-F6 declined after IVM (P<0.05). However, maternal age did not affect oocyte ATP content or expression of genes involved in mitochondrial replication or function. Day 7 embryos from mares ≥12 years had fewer mtDNA copies (P=0.01) and lower mtDNA:total DNA ratios (P<0.01) than embryos from younger mares, indicating an effect not simply due to lower cell number. Day 8 IVP embryos had similar mtDNA copy numbers to Day 7 in vivo embryos, but higher mtPOLB (P=0.013) and a tendency to reduced GPX3 expression (P=0.09). The lower mtDNA number in embryos from older mares may compromise development, but could be an effect rather than cause of developmental retardation. The general down-regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial replication and function after IVM may compromise resulting embryos. PMID:25881326

  17. Key soil functional properties affected by soil organic matter - evidence from published literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Brian

    2015-07-01

    The effect of varying the amount of soil organic matter on a range of individual soil properties was investigated using a literature search of published information largely from Australia, but also included relevant information from overseas. Based on published pedotransfer functions, soil organic matter was shown to increase plant available water by 2 to 3 mm per 10 cm for each 1% increase in soil organic carbon, with the largest increases being associated with sandy soils. Aggregate stability increased with increasing soil organic carbon, with aggregate stability decreasing rapidly when soil organic carbon fell below 1.2 to 1.5 5%. Soil compactibility, friability and soil erodibility were favourably improved by increasing the levels of soil organic carbon. Nutrient cycling was a major function of soil organic matter. Substantial amounts of N, P and S become available to plants when the soil organic matter is mineralised. Soil organic matter also provides a food source for the microorganisms involved in the nutrient cycling of N, P, S and K. In soils with lower clay contents, and less active clays such as kaolinites, soil organic matter can supply a significant amount of the cation exchange capacity and buffering capacity against acidification. Soil organic matter can have a cation exchange capacity of 172 to 297 cmol(+)/kg. As the cation exchange capacity of soil organic matter varies with pH, the effectiveness of soil organic matter to contribute to cation exchange capacity below pH 5.5 is often minimal. Overall soil organic matter has the potential to affect a range of functional soil properties.

  18. Executive cognitive function as a correlate and predictor of child food intake and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Nathaniel; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Investigated were relations among executive cognitive function (ECF), food intake, and physical activity in 184, fourth grade children. It was hypothesized that self-reported ECF proficiency would predict greater self-reported fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, but less "snack food" intake. Structural models demonstrated that ECF was significantly correlated with less concurrent snack food intake and greater concurrent fruit/vegetable intake, but not physical activity. Baseline ECF also significantly predicted greater fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity four months later, but not snack food intake. One implication is to promote ECF as a correlate and predictor of food intake and physical activity in children by providing opportunities for youth to practice newly developing ECF capacities.

  19. Do sedentary motives adversely affect physical activity? Adding cross-behavioural cognitions to the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether sedentary behavior cognitions explain physical activity (PA) intention and behavior when integrated within the theory of planned behavior framework (TPB). A random community sample of 206 adults and a sample of 174 undergraduate students completed measures of the TPB pertaining to PA and four popular leisure-time behaviors (TV viewing, computer use, sedentary hobbies, and sedentary socializing) and an adapted Godin Leisure-Time Exercize Questionnaire (community sample = cross-sectional, undergraduate sample = 2-week prospective). Results using ordinary least squares regression provided evidence that TV viewing intention explains additional variance in PA behavior, and affective attitude (community sample) and perceived behavioral control (undergraduate sample) towards TV viewing explains additional variance in PA intention even after controlling for PA-related TPB constructs. These results underscore the potential value of adding sedentary control interventions in concert with PA promotion.

  20. Determinants of physical and global functioning in adult HIV-positive heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; McMahon, James M; Trabold, Nicole; Aidala, Angela A; Chen, Michael; Pouget, Enrique R; Simmons, Janie; Klostermann, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial factors that might impact the functioning ability of heterosexual men living with HIV. We examined positive and negative coping, social support, and HIV stigma as predictors of physical and global functioning in a cross-sectional sample of 317 HIV-infected adult heterosexual male patients recruited from clinical and social service agencies in New York City. Study participants were primarily minority and low income. Sixty-four percent were African-American, 55% were single, and 90% were 40 years of age or older. The majority had long-term HIV (LTHIV), with an average duration of 15 years since diagnosis. After controlling for participant characteristics, structural equation modeling analyses revealed that positive coping and social support had a significant positive direct effect on global functioning, while stigma had a significant negative direct effect on global functioning. The physical functioning model revealed that negative coping and HIV stigma had significant negative direct effects, whereas social support had a significant positive indirect effect. Age and duration of HIV diagnosis were not associated with physical and global functioning. In conclusion, we found that heterosexual men living with LTHIV who have ineffective coping, less social support, and greater stigma have reduced functioning ability. Study findings have implications for developing interventions aimed at increasing and retaining functioning ability with the end goal of improving successful aging in this population.

  1. The effect of glutamine supplementation and physical exercise on neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, C J; Levada-Pires, A C; Sellitti, D F; Procopio, J; Curi, R; Pithon-Curi, T C

    2008-04-01

    Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body. Its primary source is skeletal muscle, from where it is released into the bloodstream and transported to a variety of tissues. Several studies have shown that glutamine is important for rat and human neutrophil function and that these cells utilize glutamine at high rates. Physical exercise has also been shown to induce considerable changes in neutrophil metabolism and function. As neutrophils represent 50-60% of the total circulating leukocyte pool and play a key role in inflammation, both physical exercise and glutamine might be expected to regulate the inflammatory process. In this review, the changes in neutrophil function induced by physical exercise and glutamine supplementation are compared. PMID:17928941

  2. The relation of childhood physical activity and aerobic fitness to brain function and cognition: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity has been shown to increase the risk for several chronic diseases across the lifespan. However, the impact of physical activity and aerobic fitness on childhood cognitive and brain health has only recently gained attention. The purposes of this article are to: 1) highlight the recent emphasis for increasing physical activity and aerobic fitness in children's lives for cognitive and brain health; 2) present aspects of brain development and cognitive function that are susceptible to physical activity intervention; 3) review neuroimaging studies examining the cross-sectional and experimental relationships between aerobic fitness and executive control function; and 4) make recommendations for future research. Given that the human brain is not fully developed until the third decade of life, preadolescence is characterized by changes in brain structure and function underlying aspects of cognition including executive control and relational memory. Achieving adequate physical activity and maintaining aerobic fitness in childhood may be a critical guideline to follow for physical as well as cognitive and brain health.

  3. Physical activity and cognitive function in individuals over 60 years of age: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ashley; Rea, Irene Maeve; Parimon, Tanyalak; Cusack, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition. Methods Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age. Results Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation. Conclusion The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine which types of exercise have the greatest benefit on specific cognitive domains. Despite these caveats, the current evidence suggests that physical activity may help to improve cognitive function and, consequently, delay the progression of cognitive impairment in the elderly. PMID:24748784

  4. Association between physical activity in daily life and pulmonary function in adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Miriane Lilian; Barbosa, Alan Carlos Brisola; Spina, Giovanna Domingues; Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Gagliardi, Antonio Ricardo de Toledo; Romiti, Marcello; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values